Siemens BS2000/OSD User`s guide

Oracle® Database
Installation and Administration Guide
11g Release 2 (11.2) for Fujitsu BS2000/OSD
E27508-03
July 2014
Oracle Database Installation and Administration Guide, 11g Release 2 (11.2) for Fujitsu BS2000/OSD
E27508-03
Copyright © 2007, 2014, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
Primary Author: Bharathi Jayathirtha
Contributing Author: Janelle Simmons
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Contents
Preface ................................................................................................................................................................. xi
Audience....................................................................................................................................................... xi
Using Oracle Database Documentation ................................................................................................... xi
Documentation Accessibility .................................................................................................................... xii
Related Documents .................................................................................................................................... xii
Conventions Used in this Manual............................................................................................................ xii
1
Release Notes
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4
1.4.1
1.4.2
1.4.3
1.4.4
1.4.5
1.4.6
1.4.7
1.4.8
1.4.9
1.4.10
1.4.11
1.4.12
1.4.13
1.4.14
1.4.15
1.4.16
1.4.17
1.4.18
1.4.19
1.4.20
1.4.21
Oracle Database Editions for BS2000/OSD.............................................................................
Options Not Supported..............................................................................................................
Features not Supported..............................................................................................................
Known Restrictions, Problems, and Workarounds ...............................................................
General Notes .......................................................................................................................
Oracle Spatial........................................................................................................................
Oracle Real Application Testing........................................................................................
ALTER DATABASE … RESIZE.........................................................................................
IEEE Standard Floating Point Number Restrictions.......................................................
SQL*Loader ..........................................................................................................................
Oracle Scheduler ..................................................................................................................
INIT.ORA Parameters .........................................................................................................
Archiving to Tape ................................................................................................................
Import and Export ..............................................................................................................
Oracle Data Pump Import and Oracle Data Pump Export............................................
Globalization Support .........................................................................................................
Oracle Call Interface ............................................................................................................
SQL*Plus ...............................................................................................................................
ADRCI ...................................................................................................................................
Connecting from Oracle Database 10g clients.................................................................
Utilities in the POSIX environment ..................................................................................
Oracle Net Services..............................................................................................................
Oracle Net BEQ Protocol ....................................................................................................
Oracle Protocol Support for TCP/IP.................................................................................
POSIX Subsystem ................................................................................................................
1-1
1-1
1-2
1-2
1-3
1-3
1-3
1-3
1-3
1-3
1-4
1-4
1-4
1-4
1-4
1-4
1-4
1-4
1-5
1-5
1-5
1-5
1-5
1-5
1-6
iii
2
Architecture and Implementation
2.1
2.1.1
2.1.2
2.1.3
2.2
2.2.1
2.2.2
2.2.2.1
2.2.2.2
2.2.2.3
2.2.2.4
2.2.2.5
2.2.3
2.2.4
2.3
2.4
2.4.1
2.5
2.5.1
2.5.2
2.5.3
2.5.4
2.6
2.7
2.8
2.8.1
2.8.1.1
2.8.1.2
2.8.2
2.8.2.1
2.8.2.2
2.8.3
2.8.3.1
3
Operating System Environment ............................................................................................... 2-1
File Systems .......................................................................................................................... 2-1
POSIX Shell ........................................................................................................................... 2-2
Processes ............................................................................................................................... 2-2
Basic Structures ........................................................................................................................... 2-2
Database Files and Log Files .............................................................................................. 2-2
Other Oracle Database Files ............................................................................................... 2-3
Initialization File ........................................................................................................... 2-3
Server Parameter File ................................................................................................... 2-3
ORAENV File ................................................................................................................ 2-3
Control Files .................................................................................................................. 2-3
Message Files................................................................................................................. 2-3
Oracle-Managed Files ......................................................................................................... 2-4
Bigfile Tablespaces............................................................................................................... 2-5
Two-Task Mode .......................................................................................................................... 2-5
Address Space Planning ............................................................................................................ 2-5
Oracle Database Data Area Placement ............................................................................. 2-5
Oracle Database Environment Definition File........................................................................ 2-6
Generating ORAENV.......................................................................................................... 2-6
Oracle Environment Variables........................................................................................... 2-7
Running ORAENV .............................................................................................................. 2-7
POSIX Environment and ORAENV File .......................................................................... 2-7
The ORALOAD Library............................................................................................................. 2-9
The ORAMESG library............................................................................................................... 2-9
User ID Requirements ................................................................................................................ 2-9
Installation User ID (ORAUID) ......................................................................................... 2-9
Authorizations and File Access Rights...................................................................... 2-9
Default Name ............................................................................................................ 2-10
DBA User ID...................................................................................................................... 2-10
Authorizations and File Access Rights................................................................... 2-10
Default Name ............................................................................................................. 2-11
User IDs for Oracle users................................................................................................. 2-11
Authorizations and File Access Rights................................................................... 2-11
Oracle Database Installation and Deinstallation
3.1
Overview of Oracle Database Installation...............................................................................
3.2
Planning the Installation ............................................................................................................
3.3
Oracle Database Preinstallation Requirements ......................................................................
3.3.1
Checking Hardware Requirements...................................................................................
3.3.1.1
Memory Requirements ................................................................................................
3.3.1.2
System Architecture .....................................................................................................
3.3.1.3
Disk Space Requirements ............................................................................................
3.3.1.4
Display Requirements..................................................................................................
3.3.2
Checking Software Requirements .....................................................................................
3.3.2.1
Operating System and Communication System Requirements ............................
3.3.2.2
POSIX Parameters ........................................................................................................
iv
3-1
3-1
3-2
3-2
3-2
3-3
3-3
3-4
3-4
3-5
3-5
3.3.2.3
3.3.2.4
3.3.2.5
3.3.2.6
3.3.3
3.3.3.1
3.3.3.2
3.3.3.3
3.3.3.4
3.3.3.5
3.3.4
3.3.4.1
3.3.4.2
3.3.4.3
3.3.4.4
3.3.5
3.3.5.1
3.3.5.2
3.3.5.3
3.3.6
3.3.6.1
3.3.6.2
3.4
3.5
3.6
3.7
4
Package Requirements................................................................................................. 3-6
Additional BS2000 Software Components................................................................ 3-7
Compiler and CRTE Requirements for Oracle Database Applications................ 3-7
Additional Software Requirements ........................................................................... 3-8
Checking Network Setup ................................................................................................... 3-8
Checking Sockets subsystem ...................................................................................... 3-8
Checking BCAM Timer ............................................................................................... 3-8
Checking LWRESD....................................................................................................... 3-8
Checking Loopback Address ...................................................................................... 3-9
Checking the Configuration Files in the POSIX File System.................................. 3-9
Creating Required Operating System Users and Groups.............................................. 3-9
Creating the BS2000 Installation User ID.................................................................. 3-9
Creating the POSIX System Group ............................................................................ 3-9
Initializing the POSIX User ...................................................................................... 3-10
Creating Users and Groups for Oracle Databases ................................................ 3-10
Identify Required Directories in POSIX ........................................................................ 3-11
Oracle Base Directory................................................................................................ 3-11
Oracle Inventory Directory ...................................................................................... 3-12
Oracle Home Directory............................................................................................. 3-13
Identifying or Creating Oracle Base Directory in POSIX............................................ 3-13
Identifying an Existing Oracle Base Directory in POSIX ..................................... 3-13
Create or Expand a File System for the Oracle Base Directory........................... 3-14
Installing the Oracle Database Software............................................................................... 3-15
Oracle Database Postinstallation Tasks ................................................................................ 3-17
Installing Multiple Oracle Systems ....................................................................................... 3-18
Removing Oracle Database Software.................................................................................... 3-18
Creating and Upgrading a Database
4.1
Creating a Database....................................................................................................................
4.1.1
Pre-Creation Activities........................................................................................................
4.1.2
Creating a Database Automatically ..................................................................................
4.1.3
Creating a Database Manually...........................................................................................
4.1.3.1
Copying the DBA Procedures.....................................................................................
4.1.3.2
Creating the Database ..................................................................................................
4.1.3.2.1
Pre-Allocating the Files ........................................................................................
4.1.3.2.2
Modifying the Initialization File .........................................................................
4.1.3.2.3
Modifying the ORAENV File ..............................................................................
4.1.3.2.4
Using SQL*Plus to Create the Database.............................................................
4.1.3.3
Installing Data Dictionary Views ...............................................................................
4.1.3.4
Installing Data Dictionary Views for PL/SQL .........................................................
4.1.3.5
Installing Online Help Messages................................................................................
4.1.3.6
Installing the Demo Tables..........................................................................................
4.1.3.7
Installing the Sample Schemas ...................................................................................
4.1.3.8
Verifying Successful Creation of the Database ........................................................
4.1.3.9
Installing Oracle Text ...................................................................................................
4.1.3.10
Installing Java................................................................................................................
4.2
Upgrading a Database................................................................................................................
4-1
4-1
4-2
4-4
4-4
4-5
4-5
4-6
4-6
4-6
4-7
4-7
4-7
4-7
4-7
4-7
4-8
4-8
4-8
v
4.2.1
4.2.2
4.2.3
5
Administering Oracle Database
5.1
5.1.1
5.1.2
5.1.3
5.1.4
5.1.5
5.1.6
5.2
5.2.1
5.2.2
5.2.3
5.2.4
5.3
5.4
5.4.1
5.4.2
5.5
6
Backing Up an Oracle Database................................................................................................
Using BS2000 Utilities to Back Up an Oracle Database..................................................
Online Backup ......................................................................................................................
Recovering Databases.................................................................................................................
Recovery Manager ......................................................................................................................
6-1
6-1
6-2
6-2
6-3
BS2000/OSD-Specific Parameters ............................................................................................ 7-1
Task Priority ......................................................................................................................... 7-1
openUTM Product Set
8.1
8.2
8.3
8.4
8.4.1
8.4.1.1
8.4.1.2
8.4.1.3
8.4.2
8.4.2.1
8.4.2.2
vi
5-1
5-1
5-2
5-2
5-2
5-3
5-3
5-3
5-4
5-4
5-4
5-4
5-5
5-6
5-6
5-7
5-8
Tuning Oracle Database
7.1
7.1.1
8
Using the SQL*Plus Utility ........................................................................................................
Starting the SQL*Plus Utility in BS2000 ...........................................................................
Calling SQL*Plus from a Procedure..................................................................................
Using SQL*Plus in the POSIX shell...................................................................................
Running System Commands from SQL*Plus ..................................................................
Using an Editor in SQL*Plus..............................................................................................
Customizing SQL*Plus Profiles .........................................................................................
Startup and Parameter Files ......................................................................................................
The Environment Definition File ORAENV ....................................................................
The Initialization File INIT.ORA .......................................................................................
The Server Parameter File SPFILE.....................................................................................
Using the Correct Initialization File ..................................................................................
Remote Startup of a Database Instance ...................................................................................
Automatic Diagnostic Repository ............................................................................................
Automatic Diagnostic Repository Directories and Files ................................................
ADR Command Interpreter ...............................................................................................
Checking the Integrity of the Physical Data Structure ..........................................................
Backing Up and Recovering a Database
6.1
6.1.1
6.1.2
6.2
6.3
7
Upgrade from Version 9 ..................................................................................................... 4-8
Upgrade from Version 10 ................................................................................................... 4-8
Postupgrade Activities........................................................................................................ 4-9
Operation of Oracle Database Using openUTM Programs ..................................................
Distributed openUTM Files.......................................................................................................
Installing.......................................................................................................................................
Developing an Oracle Database/openUTM Application .....................................................
Defining an Open String .....................................................................................................
Required Fields .............................................................................................................
Optional Fields..............................................................................................................
Examples........................................................................................................................
Using Precompilers with openUTM .................................................................................
Using Pro*C with the Default Database....................................................................
Using Pro*C with a Named Database ......................................................................
8-1
8-1
8-2
8-2
8-4
8-5
8-5
8-6
8-7
8-7
8-7
8.5
Troubleshooting .......................................................................................................................... 8-8
8.5.1
Trace Files ............................................................................................................................. 8-8
8.5.1.1
Trace File Examples...................................................................................................... 8-8
8.5.2
Debugging ............................................................................................................................ 8-9
8.5.3
In-Doubt or Pending Transactions .................................................................................... 8-9
8.5.4
Oracle Database SYS Account Tables ............................................................................... 8-9
9
Oracle Net Services
9.1
9.1.1
9.1.1.1
9.1.1.2
9.1.2
9.1.2.1
9.1.3
9.1.4
9.1.4.1
9.2
9.3
9.4
9.4.1
9.4.2
9.4.3
9.4.4
9.4.5
9.4.6
9.5
10
Introducing Oracle Net Services...............................................................................................
IPC Protocol Support ..........................................................................................................
Overview of IPC ...........................................................................................................
Using the IPC Protocol.................................................................................................
TCP/IP Protocol Support ...................................................................................................
Overview of TCP/IP ....................................................................................................
Using the TCP/IP Protocol.................................................................................................
Bequeath Protocol ................................................................................................................
Overview of the Bequeath Protocol ..........................................................................
Shared Server Architecture........................................................................................................
Oracle Advanced Security .........................................................................................................
Configuring the Network ..........................................................................................................
Using Easy Connect Naming Method ..............................................................................
Using the Local Naming Method ......................................................................................
Using the Directory Naming Method...............................................................................
Configuration on the Server...............................................................................................
Configuration on the Client ...............................................................................................
Testing the Configuration on the Client...........................................................................
Troubleshooting Oracle Net Services.......................................................................................
9-1
9-1
9-1
9-2
9-2
9-2
9-3
9-3
9-3
9-4
9-5
9-6
9-7
9-7
9-7
9-7
9-9
9-9
9-9
Oracle Text
10.1
10.2
10.3
Installing Oracle Text .............................................................................................................. 10-1
Starting Oracle Text utilities................................................................................................... 10-1
Restrictions of Oracle Text on BS2000/OSD ........................................................................ 10-2
11 External Procedures
11.1
Loading External Procedures ................................................................................................. 11-1
12 Java in the Database
12.1
12.2
12.3
13
Installation of a Java Enabled Database................................................................................ 12-1
Database character sets and Java Encodings ....................................................................... 12-2
Java Demonstration Files ........................................................................................................ 12-2
XML
13.1
13.2
Installation of Xdk.................................................................................................................... 13-1
Features and Restrictions........................................................................................................ 13-1
vii
14 Oracle Management Agent
14.1
14.2
14.3
14.4
14.5
Preinstallation Issues ...............................................................................................................
Running the Installation Script ..............................................................................................
Running the Agent...................................................................................................................
Restrictions................................................................................................................................
Troubleshooting .......................................................................................................................
14-1
14-2
14-3
14-4
14-4
15 Oracle on SQ Server
15.1
15.2
15.3
15.4
15.5
15.6
15.7
15.8
15.9
15.10
15.11
15.12
Concepts ....................................................................................................................................
Definitions.................................................................................................................................
Product Set ................................................................................................................................
Hardware Requirements.........................................................................................................
Software Requirements ...........................................................................................................
Address Space Limit................................................................................................................
Installing Oracle Database Software .....................................................................................
Database Creation ....................................................................................................................
Upgrade and Migration ..........................................................................................................
Administration .........................................................................................................................
Oracle application programs..................................................................................................
openUTM Product Set.............................................................................................................
A
Oracle Error Messages for BS2000/OSD
B
Oracle Environment Variables
B.1
B.2
B.2.1
B.2.2
B.2.3
B.2.4
B.2.5
B.3
B.3.1
B.3.2
B.3.3
B.3.4
B.3.5
B.3.6
B.3.7
B.3.8
B.3.9
B.3.10
B.3.11
B.4
B.4.1
B.4.2
viii
ORAENV Rules ..........................................................................................................................
Built-in Variables........................................................................................................................
LOGNAME ..........................................................................................................................
ORAUID...............................................................................................................................
PGM ......................................................................................................................................
TERM ....................................................................................................................................
TSN .......................................................................................................................................
General Variables .......................................................................................................................
CLN_BASE...........................................................................................................................
CLN_MPID ..........................................................................................................................
DEFAULT_CONNECTION ..............................................................................................
EXP_CLIB_FILE_IO............................................................................................................
IMP_CLIB_FILE_IO............................................................................................................
NLS_LANG .........................................................................................................................
OPS_JID................................................................................................................................
ORASID................................................................................................................................
PRINTPAR...........................................................................................................................
SQLPATH ............................................................................................................................
SSSIDPWF ............................................................................................................................
DBA Startup Variables ..............................................................................................................
Address and Size Specification.........................................................................................
BGJPAR ................................................................................................................................
15-1
15-2
15-2
15-2
15-2
15-3
15-3
15-3
15-3
15-3
15-3
15-4
B-1
B-2
B-2
B-2
B-2
B-2
B-2
B-2
B-3
B-3
B-3
B-3
B-4
B-4
B-4
B-4
B-4
B-5
B-5
B-5
B-5
B-6
B.4.3
BGJPRC_UID / BGJPRC_SID ...........................................................................................
B.4.4
BGJ_LOG_JOBSTART ........................................................................................................
B.4.5
sid_BGJPAR .........................................................................................................................
B.4.6
sid_USER..............................................................................................................................
B.4.7
user_ACCOUNT/ user_PASSWORD .............................................................................
B.4.8
COM_MPID.........................................................................................................................
B.4.9
COM_BASE .........................................................................................................................
B.4.10
JOBID ....................................................................................................................................
B.4.11
KNL_BASE .........................................................................................................................
B.4.12
ORACLE_HOME ...............................................................................................................
B.4.13
PGA_BASE ..........................................................................................................................
B.4.14
PGA_SIZE ...........................................................................................................................
B.4.15
SF_PBLKSIZE .....................................................................................................................
B.4.16
SGA_BASE ..........................................................................................................................
B.5
Oracle Net Services Variables ..................................................................................................
B.5.1
BREAK_HANDLING.........................................................................................................
B.5.2
TNS_ADMIN ......................................................................................................................
B.5.3
TNS_BEQ_TIMEOUT ........................................................................................................
B.5.4
TNS_UPDATE_IPNODE ................................................................................................
C
Initialization Parameters and the Parameter File
C.1
Example Parameter File ............................................................................................................
C.2
Unsupported Parameters..........................................................................................................
C.3
Additional Notes on Initialization Parameters......................................................................
C.3.1
BACKGROUND_DUMP_DEST ......................................................................................
C.3.2
USER_DUMP_DEST .........................................................................................................
C.3.3
AUDIT_FILE_DEST............................................................................................................
C.3.4
DB_BLOCK_SIZE ...............................................................................................................
C.3.5
DB_FILE_MULTIBLOCK_READ_COUNT ....................................................................
C.3.6
DB_FILES .............................................................................................................................
C.3.7
LOCK_SGA..........................................................................................................................
C.3.8
SGA_MAX_SIZE.................................................................................................................
C.3.9
LOG_ARCHIVE_BUFFER_SIZE ......................................................................................
C.3.10
LOG_ARCHIVE_DEST ......................................................................................................
D
B-6
B-6
B-6
B-6
B-7
B-7
B-7
B-7
B-7
B-8
B-8
B-8
B-8
B-9
B-9
B-9
B-9
B-9
B-10
C-1
C-1
C-1
C-1
C-2
C-2
C-2
C-2
C-3
C-3
C-3
C-3
C-3
Troubleshooting
D.1
D.1.1
D.2
D.2.1
D.2.2
D.3
D.3.1
D.3.2
D.3.3
Problems Installing Oracle Database 11g ...............................................................................
Problems Creating a Database ..........................................................................................
Problems Starting a Database...................................................................................................
Problems Starting a Database ...........................................................................................
Problems with Tasks ..........................................................................................................
Problems Accessing the Database ...........................................................................................
Problems with Database and Log files ............................................................................
Oracle Database 11g Trace Files........................................................................................
Oracle Database-Level Error Information.......................................................................
D-1
D-1
D-1
D-1
D-2
D-2
D-2
D-3
D-3
ix
E File Types and Names Used by Oracle
x
Preface
This manual and Oracle Database User's Guide for Fujitsu BS2000/OSD, form a
system-specific set of manuals that provide installation, maintenance, and usage
information about Oracle Database and related products. This manual provides
information for those responsible for installing and administering Oracle Database for
BS2000/OSD and describes:
■
How Oracle Database operates under BS2000/OSD
■
How to install or upgrade Oracle Database
■
How to create an Oracle Database
Oracle Database User's Guide for Fujitsu BS2000/OSD provides information for
BS2000/OSD end-users of Oracle products. Certain topics are applicable both to users
and database administrators.
This section contains the following topics:
■
Audience
■
Using Oracle Database Documentation
■
Documentation Accessibility
■
Related Documents
■
Conventions Used in this Manual
Audience
This manual is written for people who are responsible for installing and maintaining
Oracle Database, and for assuring its smooth operation. These people are usually
system programmers who may have Database Administrator (DBA) responsibilities.
The reader is assumed to have a fundamental knowledge of BS2000/OSD. No attempt
is made to document features of BS2000/OSD, except as they affect or are affected by
Oracle Database.
Using Oracle Database Documentation
Oracle Database products that run under BS2000/OSD are identical, in the way in
which they are supported, to Oracle Database products that run under any other
operating system. However, because of the diversity of operating systems, the use of
applications may differ slightly between different operating systems. As a result of
this, Oracle provides two types of documentation:
xi
Type
Meaning/Usage
Generic
This is the primary Oracle Database documentation, which describes
how the product works and how it is used. Use this type of
documentation to learn about product functions and how to use any
Oracle Database product or utility.
System Specific
This documentation provides the information required to use the
product under a specific operating system. Use this type of
documentation to determine whether there are any system-specific
deviations from the generic documentation.
This manual is written for users of Oracle Database for BS2000/OSD, providing them
with BS2000/OSD-specific information about using Oracle Database products. It does
not describe how to use a product unless its use is different than that described in the
generic documentation. System programmers and database administrators responsible
for installing the Oracle Database, or administering the Oracle Database, or both,
should read this manual as well as Oracle Database User's Guide for Fujitsu BS2000/OSD.
There are places where the information in these manuals overlap and is presented
differently depending on the target audience.
Documentation Accessibility
For information about Oracle's commitment to accessibility, visit the Oracle
Accessibility Program website at
http://www.oracle.com/pls/topic/lookup?ctx=acc&id=docacc.
Access to Oracle Support
Oracle customers have access to electronic support through My Oracle Support. For
information, visit http://www.oracle.com/pls/topic/lookup?ctx=acc&id=info or
visit http://www.oracle.com/pls/topic/lookup?ctx=acc&id=trs if you are hearing
impaired.
Related Documents
For more information, refer to the following resources:
■
Fujitsu documentation at http://manuals.ts.fujitsu.com/index.php?id=1
■
Oracle Database User's Guide for Fujitsu BS2000/OSD
The latest documentation is available on OTN:
http://www.oracle.com/technetwork/indexes/documentation/index.html
Conventions Used in this Manual
The following conventions are observed in this manual.
Typographic Conventions
The following text conventions are used in this manual:
xii
Convention
Meaning
boldface
Boldface type indicates graphical user interface elements associated
with an action, or terms defined in text or the glossary.
Convention
Meaning
italic
Italic type indicates book titles, emphasis, or placeholder variables for
which you supply particular values.
monospace
Monospace type indicates commands within a paragraph, URLs, code
in examples, text that appears on the screen, or text that you enter.
Command Syntax
Item
Syntax
Commands
This font identifies text which must be entered exactly as shown:
set echo off
Variables
Variables appear in italics. Substitute an appropriate value, for
example:
arg1
Required Items
Required items are enclosed in braces { }. You must choose one of the
alternatives.
DEFINE { macro1 | macro2 }
Optional Items
Optional items are enclosed in square brackets [].
[options] formname [userid/password]
Repetitive Items
An ellipsis, ... represents an arbitrary number of similar items.
CHKVAL fieldname value1 value2... valueN
Punctuation
The following symbols should always be entered as they appear in the command
format:
Name
Symbol
ampersand
&
backslash
\
colon
:
comma
,
double quotation
mark
"
equal sign
=
hyphen
-
number sign
#
parentheses
()
period
.
semicolon
;
single quotation
mark
'
xiii
xiv
1
1
Release Notes
This chapter describes the features of Oracle Database on Fujitsu BS2000/OSD. The
following topics are covered in this chapter:
■
Oracle Database Editions for BS2000/OSD
■
Options Not Supported
■
Features not Supported
■
Known Restrictions, Problems, and Workarounds
1.1 Oracle Database Editions for BS2000/OSD
Oracle Database is delivered in two editions for the two BS2000/OSD hardware lines:
■
■
Oracle Database 11g Release 2 for Fujitsu BS2000/OSD (S series) is the edition for
the BS2000/OSD servers based on /390 architecture (S Server)
Oracle Database 11g Release 2 for Fujitsu BS2000/OSD (SQ series) is the edition for
the BS2000/OSD servers based on x86-64 architecture (SQ Server)
Depending on the type of hardware, you must choose between these two editions.
Oracle does not provide installation software specifically for the BS2000/OSD SX
server. Use the Oracle Database 11g Release 2 for Fujitsu BS2000/OSD (S Series)
software to install on an SX server. All information specific to the SQ series server is
located in Chapter 15, "Oracle on SQ Server". All other chapters refer to both editions
(the S and SX) server series.
1.2 Options Not Supported
This release implements the features of Oracle Database 11g Release 2 Enterprise
Edition. These features are listed and described in the generic Oracle Documentation
and in Oracle Database Licensing Information and Oracle Database New Features Guide.
The following options are not supported on Oracle Database 11g Release 2 for Fujitsu
BS2000/OSD:
■
Oracle Data Mining
■
Oracle Database Vault
■
Oracle TimesTen Application-Tier Database Cache (formerly known as Oracle
In-Memory Database Cache)
■
Oracle Label Security
■
Oracle On-Line Analytical Processing (OLAP)
Release Notes 1-1
Features not Supported
■
Oracle RAC One Node
■
Oracle Real Application Clusters (Oracle RAC)
1.3 Features not Supported
The following features are not supported on Oracle Database 11g Release 2 for Fujitsu
BS2000/OSD:
■
Oracle Universal Installer
■
Oracle Automatic Storage Management
■
Oracle Multimedia
■
Oracle Globalization Development Kit
■
Oracle XML DB
■
Oracle Secure Backup
■
Oracle Heterogeneous Services
■
OCCI
■
Oracle Instant Client
■
Oracle Messaging Gateway
■
Native Compilation of Java and PL/SQL
■
JIT in Oracle JavaVM
■
Cross Platform Transportable Tablespace
■
Oracle Java Server Pages
■
Oracle Application Express
■
Oracle JDBC OCI drivers
1.4 Known Restrictions, Problems, and Workarounds
This section provides information about known restrictions and problems. It contains
workarounds where possible and suggestions for certain common usage problems in
the following sections. In addition to this section, refer to Appendix D,
"Troubleshooting". If you encounter a problem that is not reported here, then contact
Oracle Support for further assistance.
■
General Notes
■
Oracle Spatial
■
Oracle Real Application Testing
■
ALTER DATABASE … RESIZE
■
IEEE Standard Floating Point Number Restrictions
■
SQL*Loader
■
Oracle Scheduler
■
INIT.ORA Parameters
■
Archiving to Tape
■
Import and Export
1-2 Oracle Database Installation and Administration Guide
Known Restrictions, Problems, and Workarounds
■
Oracle Data Pump Import and Oracle Data Pump Export
■
Globalization Support
■
Oracle Call Interface
■
ADRCI
■
Connecting from Oracle Database 10g clients
■
Utilities in the POSIX environment
■
Oracle Net Services
■
Oracle Net BEQ Protocol
■
Oracle Protocol Support for TCP/IP
■
POSIX Subsystem
1.4.1 General Notes
The German characters ä, ö, ü and ß, cannot be used in the names of tables, columns,
fields, synonyms, and so on. This is because these characters are converted into
bracket symbols (for example, {). The characters can, however, be stored as data.
1.4.2 Oracle Spatial
The SDO_GEORASTER feature is not supported.
1.4.3 Oracle Real Application Testing
Workload Replay is not supported in this release.
1.4.4 ALTER DATABASE … RESIZE
The operation ALTER DATABASE ... RESIZE, to make a database file smaller, is not
supported on BS2000. This operation has no effect on the corresponding BS2000 files.
However, database files can be altered to larger sizes either manually, by using ALTER
or automatically, when a tablespace is defined with AUTOEXTEND.
1.4.5 IEEE Standard Floating Point Number Restrictions
The BINARY FLOAT and BINARY DOUBLE data types are not supported for
customer-written database applications running on BS2000/OSD.
Attempts to store or fetch these types from an application program running on
BS2000/OSD produces unpredictable results with both local and remote Oracle
databases.
1.4.6 SQL*Loader
The binary data types FLOAT and DOUBLE of SQL*Loader are not supported on
BS2000/OSD. Using these data types with SQL*Loader and External Tables produces
unpredictable results.
Use the external, non-binary data type FLOAT EXTERNAL instead.
Multithreading functionality of direct path loads is not supported on BS2000.
Release Notes 1-3
Known Restrictions, Problems, and Workarounds
1.4.7 Oracle Scheduler
External Jobs are not supported.
1.4.8 INIT.ORA Parameters
A few initialization parameters in the INIT.ORA file, described in the generic
documentation are not supported by Oracle Database 11g Release 2 for BS2000/OSD.
Refer to Appendix C, "Initialization Parameters and the Parameter File" for more
information.
1.4.9 Archiving to Tape
Archiving to tape is not supported; archive log files must always be created as disk
files. You may, however, use normal BS2000 backup procedures to back up the archive
log files created by the archive process.
1.4.10 Import and Export
This section provides information about Import and Export:
■
■
Avoid ASCII/EBCDIC conversions by the operating system, FTP, or PERCON.
Import and Export utilities perform their own conversions; additional conversions
render the files unusable.
Import and export on tapes are not possible to or from more than one tape.
1.4.11 Oracle Data Pump Import and Oracle Data Pump Export
This section provides information about Oracle Data Pump Import and Oracle Data
Pump Export:
■
■
Avoid ASCII/EBCDIC conversions by the operating system, FTP, or PERCON.
Oracle Data Pump Import and Oracle Data Pump Export utilities perform their
own conversions; additional conversions render the files unusable.
Tapes are not supported with Data Pump Export and Data Pump Import.
1.4.12 Globalization Support
User-defined character sets implemented by Customizing Locale Data (as described in
Oracle Database Globalization Support Guide) are not supported in this release.
1.4.13 Oracle Call Interface
The following features are currently not supported:
■
OCI shared mode functionality
■
OCI publish-subscribe functions
■
OCI Thread package
1.4.14 SQL*Plus
The following remarks relate to SQL*Plus:
■
SQL*Plus truncates and displays a warning message if the input lines exceed 511
characters.
1-4 Oracle Database Installation and Administration Guide
Known Restrictions, Problems, and Workarounds
■
■
■
■
If you use the SQL*Plus -s option, then it must be the first option entered at the
prompt.
The internal message buffer is limited to 76 characters, therefore, certain messages
are truncated. This typically occurs if a message includes a second message. In
such cases, you usually refer to the message number part of the second message.
For further information, refer to the manual relevant to the particular message,
either Oracle Database Error Messages, or Appendix A, "Oracle Error Messages for
BS2000/OSD" of this guide.
If ECHO is set to ON, TAB is set to ON, and you specify a spool file, then the listing of
commands may be misaligned.
To define the POSIX editor edtu as your preferred text editor with SQL*Plus in the
POSIX environment, the POSIX correction level A43 or higher is required.
1.4.15 ADRCI
If your preferred POSIX text editor is edtu, then the POSIX correction level A43 or
higher is required.
1.4.16 Connecting from Oracle Database 10g clients
Oracle Database 10g clients can connect to Oracle Database 11g Release 2 instances on
Fujitsu BS2000/OSD, if the initialization parameter SEC_CASE_SENSITIVE_LOGON is set
to FALSE. Otherwise, the connection fails with the following message:
ORA-01017: invalid username/password; logon denied
1.4.17 Utilities in the POSIX environment
For utilities in the POSIX shell, such as SQL*Plus, Import or Export, the maximum
length of path names is 54 byte.This restriction applies to the names of SQL scripts or
spool files.
1.4.18 Oracle Net Services
The following remarks relate to Oracle Net Services:
■
■
When you specify a name for the listener in the LISTENER.ORA file, Oracle
recommends that the name is less than 20 characters long. If you use a listener
name with more than 20 characters, then you must specify a log directory (trace
directory) and log file (trace file).
The listener can be started only if the POSIX subsystem is running.
1.4.19 Oracle Net BEQ Protocol
The support of the handoff/direct handoff technique makes the BEQ protocol
incompatible to the BEQ protocol of releases prior to Oracle Database 10g Release 2.
For example, an 11.2 listener cannot start a server of an Oracle9i instance.
1.4.20 Oracle Protocol Support for TCP/IP
The Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) divided port numbers into three
ranges:
■
Well Known Ports from 0 through 1023
■
Registered Ports from 1024 through 49151
Release Notes 1-5
Known Restrictions, Problems, and Workarounds
■
Dynamic, or Private Ports, or both, from 49152 through 65535
Fujitsu documentation for TCP/IP on BS2000 recommends setting the privileged port
to 2050. However, using a registered Oracle port number may cause conflicts (see
http://www.iana.org/assignments/port-numbers). For example, if you set the port
number for the listener process to 1521, then any Oracle process that listens on such a
registered port number may fail with the following error:
TNS-12545: Connect failed because target host or object does not exist
TNS-12560: TNS:protocol adapter error
TNS-00515: Connect failed because target host or object does not exist
BS2000 Error: 126: Can't assign requested address
BS2000 BCAM-RC: 40010020
The workaround is to use a non-privileged port, or to set the privileged port number
to a value less than 1500, usually to 1024.
1.4.21 POSIX Subsystem
Oracle Database 11g Release 2 requires the POSIX subsystem and access to the POSIX
file system. The following exceptions may occur:
■
Ask the BS2000 administrator to increase the number of UFS devices (parameter
NOSTTY in SYSSSI.POSIX-BC.version), if you get the following message:
CCM0090: ALL UFS TERMINAL DEVICES ARE IN USE OR PERMISSION DENIED
■
The termination of the POSIX subsystem also terminates the Oracle instance.
1-6 Oracle Database Installation and Administration Guide
2
2
Architecture and Implementation
This chapter describes the Oracle Database system architecture for Fujitsu
BS2000/OSD. The chapter includes the following topics:
■
Operating System Environment
■
Basic Structures
■
Two-Task Mode
■
Address Space Planning
■
Oracle Database Environment Definition File
■
The ORALOAD Library
■
The ORAMESG library
■
User ID Requirements
2.1 Operating System Environment
Oracle Database 11g Release 2 runs on the BS2000/OSD operating system.
Oracle Database uses not only the interfaces of the native BS2000, but also the POSIX
interfaces. This section includes the following:
■
File Systems
■
POSIX Shell
■
Processes
2.1.1 File Systems
Oracle Database 11g Release 2 operates on two file systems, namely, BS2000 Data
Management System (DMS) and the POSIX file system.
The POSIX file system is hierarchically structured and consists of directories and files.
As in earlier releases, most of the database files for Oracle Database 11g reside in the
BS2000 DMS. For example, data files, control files, online and archive redo log files are
placed in the BS2000 DMS.
Automatic Diagnostic Repository (ADR), the new feature, requires a hierarchical file
system to create a file-based repository for database diagnostic data. So, the directories
and files of ADR reside in the POSIX file system.
Architecture and Implementation
2-1
Basic Structures
Therefore, Oracle Database 11g Release 2 for BS2000/OSD requires the POSIX file
system. While in Oracle Database 10g the use of the POSIX file system was optional, it
is mandatory in Oracle Database 11g Release 2.
During the installation of the Oracle Database software executables, libraries and other
files are installed both in the BS2000 DMS and in the POSIX file system.
You must provide access to the POSIX file system. Refer to Chapter 3, "Oracle
Database Installation and Deinstallation" for information about access to the POSIX
file system.
2.1.2 POSIX Shell
Starting with Oracle Database 11g Release 2, you can start a subset of Oracle Database
utilities not only in the BS2000 environment by using SDF commands, but also in the
POSIX shell by using shell commands.
The diagnostic data in ADR can be viewed with the command line utility ADRCI. Start
this utility in the POSIX shell.
Set the environment variable ORACLE_HOME, prior to starting utilities in the POSIX shell.
2.1.3 Processes
All processes of an Oracle Database instance, for example, dedicated server processes
and background processes, run as BS2000 tasks.
If you start a client utility, such as SQL*Plus, in the BS2000 environment by using SDF
commands, then the corresponding program is executed in the BS2000 login task.
If you start a client utility in the POSIX shell, then a new POSIX process is created.
Client processes running in the POSIX shell connect to an instance, such as clients in
the BS2000 environment. The server process always starts in the BS2000 environment.
For more information about processes in the BS2000 environment, refer to Chapter 9,
"Oracle Net Services".
2.2 Basic Structures
The concepts of tasks (that is, processes in Oracle terminology) and memory structures
(areas) are not BS2000 specific.
Refer to "Memory Architecture" in Oracle Database Concepts and "Process Architecture"
in Oracle Database Concepts for detailed information.
This section includes the following:
■
Database Files and Log Files
■
Other Oracle Database Files
■
Oracle-Managed Files
■
Bigfile Tablespaces
2.2.1 Database Files and Log Files
One or more database files contain the data dictionary, the user data, and indexes.
Oracle Database requires a minimum of two log files that need not be the same size,
although on BS2000/OSD, the recommended minimum is 10000 PAM blocks. The size
of a log file is set in BS2000 blocks and not Oracle Database blocks.
2-2 Oracle Database Installation and Administration Guide
Basic Structures
Note: Both the BS2000/OSD operating system and Oracle Database
perform input and output efficiently in units called blocks. A block is
the basic unit of data storage. An Oracle Database block can be in one
of the following formats:
■
2K, 4K, 6K, 8K, 16K, 32K when using BS2000 2K pubset format
■
4K, 8K, 16K, 32K when using BS2000 4K pubset format
Oracle Database and redo log files are BS2000 PAM files, and Oracle
Database uses UPAM to access them.
2.2.2 Other Oracle Database Files
The following are the additional Oracle Database files:
■
Initialization File
■
Server Parameter File
■
ORAENV File
■
Control Files
■
Message Files
2.2.2.1 Initialization File
The initialization file, INIT.ORA, contains a set of parameters that are read when an
instance is started.
Oracle Database Reference and Oracle Database
Administrator's Guide for more information about the initialization file
See Also:
2.2.2.2 Server Parameter File
The server parameter file (SPFILE) is a binary server-side initialization file, which
cannot be edited using a text editor. It is initially built from a traditional text
initialization file using the CREATE SPFILE statement.
2.2.2.3 ORAENV File
Oracle Database utilities and products running in the native BS2000 environment use
the Oracle Database environment definition file, which is referenced as ORAENV. This
file contains the Oracle Database environment variables, which are used to describe
the operating environment for each Oracle Database task. The database administrator
also uses the ORAENV file to define BS2000-specific parameters necessary for database
configuration.
2.2.2.4 Control Files
These files record the physical structure of a database and are specified in the
initialization file.
2.2.2.5 Message Files
Message texts are stored in table modules, which are dynamically loaded from the
ORAMESG library at execution time.
Architecture and Implementation
2-3
Basic Structures
2.2.3 Oracle-Managed Files
The following is a list of the INIT.ORA parameters for oracle-managed files:
■
DB_CREATE_FILE_DEST for data files, temp files, and block change tracking files
■
DB_CREATE_ONLINE_LOG_DEST_n for redo log files and control files
■
DB_RECOVERY_FILE_DEST for backups, archive log files, and flashback log files
On BS2000, these parameters are used as a prefix for file names.
Oracle tablespace names can be up to 30 characters long. To associate an OMF-created
file name with its tablespace, you must use tablespace names that are distinct in the
first eight characters. Oracle allows underscores(_) in tablespace names, and any
underscores(_) that are present are changed to hyphens(-) for use in the generated file
name.
File names for Oracle-managed files have the following format on BS2000:
File type
Format
control files
destOMC.tttttttt
log files
destOMLlll.tttttttt
permanent tablespace files, data file copies
destOMD.tsn.tttttttt
temporary tablespace files
destOMT.tsn.tttttttt
archive log files
destOMA.Tnnn.Snnnnnn.tttttttt
data file or archivelog backup piece
destOMB.Lnnn.tttttttt
rman autobackup piece
destOMX.xnnnnnnn.tttttttt
block change tracking files
destOMR.tttttttt
flashback log files
destOMF.tttttttt
where:
■
■
dest is the destination string (_DEST) in the OMF parameter
tttttttt is the encoded timestamp (which looks like a random mix of letters and
numerals)
■
lll is a three-digit log-group number
■
tsn is up to eight characters for the tablespace name
■
Tnnn is the letter "T" followed by a three-digit thread number
■
Snnnnnn is the letter "S" followed by a six-digit sequence number
■
Lnnn is the letter "L" followed by a three-digit incremental level
■
■
x is the letter P, if the database has an SPFILE, or the letter T if the database does
not have an SPFILE
nnnnnnn is a seven-byte timestamp
Given the 54 character limit on BS2000 file names, the preceding file name formats
impose a limit of 39 characters on DB_CREATE_ONLINE_LOG_DEST_n and DB_CREATE_
FILE_DEST, 29 characters on DB_RECOVERY_FILE_DEST. This file name character limit
includes the catid and userid, that may occupy up to 16 characters.
2-4 Oracle Database Installation and Administration Guide
Address Space Planning
Refer to "Using Oracle Managed Files" in Oracle Database
Administrator's Guide for more information about file name formats
See Also:
2.2.4 Bigfile Tablespaces
Oracle Database 11g Release 2 on BS2000/OSD supports bigfile tablespaces. The single
data file of a bigfile tablespace must reside on a BS2000 pubset with the following
attributes
LARGE_VOLUMES=*ALLOWED and LARGE_FILES=*ALLOWED
Refer to "Files and Volumes Larger than 32 GB" for more
information about handling large objects on BS2000/OSD at
See Also:
http://manuals.ts.fujitsu.com/file/9118/dv32.pdf
2.3 Two-Task Mode
In two-task mode, a user task connects to a server task, which runs Oracle Database
code on behalf of the user task. The user task does not have access to the SGA.
Communication between a user task and a server task is through Oracle Net Services.
2.4 Address Space Planning
Oracle Database uses a number of data and code areas, which must be at the same
virtual addresses in all server and background tasks. Typically, the default values
provided with Oracle Database are sufficient. Address space planning (explicit
placement of Oracle Database data areas) may be required in some special situations,
when you encounter address space conflicts. For example, dynamic subsystems may
occupy the default address ranges, which may require you to relocate Oracle Database
areas.
2.4.1 Oracle Database Data Area Placement
The following ORAENV variables control explicit placement of Oracle Database data
areas:
■
COM_BASE
■
KNL_BASE
■
PGA_BASE
■
SGA_BASE
The order of the areas in the address space is not significant. The xxx_BASE variable is
evaluated only during STARTUP processing.
After the database is started, users attaching to it do not need to specify the values in
the ORAENV files, as they are automatically supplied with the common values during
connection. This means that the settings in the user’s ORAENV file are ignored.
Figure 2–1 gives an example of the placement of data areas.
Architecture and Implementation
2-5
Oracle Database Environment Definition File
Figure 2–1 Placement of Data Areas in Background, Server and User Tasks
The xxx_BASE values must be compatible with the BS2000/OSD value SYSBASE
(defined by BS2000/OSD generation and delimiting the user’s address space).
Starting with Oracle Database 10g, user programs use a separate shared code pool for
common services such as Core, Globalization Support, and Net Services. The name of
this pool is Client Common Pool and its placement can be controlled by the ORAENV
parameter CLN_BASE.
In general, Oracle administrators should be aware of conflicts between Oracle pool
placements and other pool placements in the system.
2.5 Oracle Database Environment Definition File
This section describes the ORAENV file, how it is used, and how you use the
environment variables to specify the default database.
The ORAENV text file has the format of a BS2000 command procedure that runs the
/SET-FILE-LINK ORAENV command for itself. Each line contains an Oracle Database
environment variable and its assigned value. When reading this file, the Oracle
Database ignores all lines, which have a slash (/) or an asterisk (*) in column 1.
This section describes the following:
■
Generating ORAENV
■
Oracle Environment Variables
■
Running ORAENV
■
POSIX Environment and ORAENV File
2.5.1 Generating ORAENV
The INSTALL.P.DBA procedure automatically creates a copy of the ORAENV file. This file
provides a default configuration for an Oracle Database. You can edit this file to adapt
it to local needs. Users can also generate an ORAENV file specific to their own
environment. This is described in the chapter "Getting Started" in Oracle Database
User's Guide for Fujitsu BS2000/OSD.
2-6 Oracle Database Installation and Administration Guide
Oracle Database Environment Definition File
2.5.2 Oracle Environment Variables
Appendix B, "Oracle Environment Variables" contains a list of Oracle environment
variables that the database administrator can use. Most users only need to set a few of
these variables. Any DBA-specific variables that are placed in a user's ORAENV file are
ignored.
2.5.3 Running ORAENV
To set environment variables, simply run a CALL-PROCEDURE command on the ORAENV
file containing the environment variables for the database you want to use. The name
of the ORAENV file is sid.P.ORAENV (where sid is the database system identifier). For
example, to set the environment variables for database DEMO using the example
ORAENV file, run the following command:
/CALL-PROCEDURE DEMO.P.ORAENV
You can also generate an ORAENV file and run the /SET-FILE-LINK command before
calling any Oracle Database program:
/SET-FILE-LINK ORAENV, filename
where filename is the name of a file having the same format as DEMO.P.ORAENV and
which defines at least the ORASID environment variable.
Note:
■
■
The database administrator should not modify the ORAENV file
while the Oracle Database is running.
Users may modify their ORAENV file at any time.
You can run several Oracle Databases simultaneously on your BS2000 system; even
within the same Database Administrator account. A unique system identifier provides
a globally unique name for the database so that a user can select a particular database
by setting the ORASID environment variable. The user does this by activating the
ORAENV file sid.P.ORAENV.
Whenever an Oracle Database product (for example, SQL*Plus) is started, it checks if
the link name ORAENV is defined and reads the related file, storing the variable
assignments for later use. If no link name ORAENV is set (or the related file cannot be
read), then the SID remains undefined. Oracle recommends that a link name ORAENV is
always defined prior to a call to an Oracle Database program.
2.5.4 POSIX Environment and ORAENV File
Every Oracle Database utility and product running in the POSIX shell get the
environment variables from the POSIX environment. All Oracle and BS2000-specific
variables can be set in the POSIX environment. The Oracle variable ORACLE_HOME, must
be set. To run the utility for a particular database, you must also set the Oracle variable
ORACLE_SID. The operating system environment variable PATH must be extended by the
path to the Oracle binaries $ORACLE_HOME/bin. If you do not set any other Oracle
variable in the POSIX environment, then the Oracle utilities use default values.The
installation procedure creates a profile in the ORACLE_HOME directory which can be
executed to set and expand the most important variables like ORACLE_HOME, PATH or LD_
LIBRARY_PATH. You can process this profile with the command:
$ . your_oracle_home/.profile.oracle
Architecture and Implementation
2-7
Oracle Database Environment Definition File
The Oracle variable BGJPAR is not set after running the
.profile.oracle. If you do not set this variable, then the default
value, BGJPAR=START=IMME,CPU-LIMIT=NO,LOGGING=*NO, is used by
Oracle utilities.
Note:
You can change the default value of a variable by setting this variable in the POSIX
environment. For example:
$ NLS_LANG=German_Germany.WE8BS2000
$ export NLS_LANG
Oracle also provides the opportunity to use the ORAENV file which you created in the
BS2000 file system. In this case, you must create a file oraenvsid in the directory
$ORACLE_HOME/dbs that describes the location and name of the ORAENV file.
Let us assume that you want to use the ORAENV file $ORADATA.ORCL.P.ORAENV. Create
an oraenvORCL file in $ORACLE_HOME/dbs that contains the name of the BS2000 ORAENV
file as follows:
$ ORACLE_HOME=/u01/app/orac1120/db11g
$ export ORACLE_HOME
$ echo '$ORADATA.ORCL.P.ORAENV' > $ORACLE_HOME/dbs/oraenvORCL
Set the Oracle environment variable ORACLE_SID and call the utility:
$ ORACLE_SID=ORCL
$ export ORACLE_SID
$ $ORACLE_HOME/bin/sqlplus /nolog
Oracle utilities running in the POSIX shell handle the variables of the BS2000 ORAENV
file as lower-ranking variables. If a variable is set in the POSIX environment and the
same variable is defined in the ORAENV file, then the POSIX variable is not overwritten
by the ORAENV variable. For example, if the variable NLS_LANG is set to German_
Germany.WE8BS2000 in the POSIX environment and NLS_LANG is also defined as
American_America.WE8BS2000 in the BS2000 ORAENV file, then the variable keeps the
value German_Germany.WE8BS2000 in the program environment of the Oracle utility
running in the POSIX shell.
Note:
■
■
■
■
■
The variables ORACLE_HOME and ORACLE_SID must be set.
The ORAENV file in the BS2000 file system must be accessible for the
utility.
In a POSIX environment, the variables of the BS2000 ORAENV file
are handled as subordinated variables.
To access a BS2000 ORAENV file, you must create a file oraenvsid in
the ORACLE_HOME/dbs directory that contains the fully qualified
name of your BS2000 ORAENV file.
The SID in the file name oraenvsid is case sensitive and must
match the SID specified in ORACLE_SID.
2-8 Oracle Database Installation and Administration Guide
User ID Requirements
2.6 The ORALOAD Library
The ORALOAD library ($ORAC1120.ORALOAD.LIB by default) is required to run any Oracle
Database 11g Release 2 program. The Oracle Database uses this library to load
executables and subroutines dynamically when required. The link name ORALOAD must
identify the ORALOAD library before calling any Oracle Database program. If the link
name is missing, then you get a BLS (BS2000/OSD loader) error message. Usually, this
link name is set when the ORAENV procedure is called.
2.7 The ORAMESG library
The ORAMESG library ($ORAC1120.ORAMESG.LIB) is required for dynamically loading
tables, such as message files, by an Oracle task when required. The link name ORAMESG
must identify the ORAMESG library before calling any Oracle program. If the link name
is missing, then you get a BLS (BS2000/OSD loader) error message. Usually, this link
name is set when the ORAENV procedure is called.
2.8 User ID Requirements
Review the following sections to know about the user ID requirements.
■
Installation User ID (ORAUID)
■
DBA User ID
■
User IDs for Oracle users
2.8.1 Installation User ID (ORAUID)
During installation, the complete Oracle Database software is installed into this user
ID, which should be empty. This installation user ID (referred to as ORAUID) includes:
■
■
executable programs, such as SQL*Plus, the background and network programs.
load libraries, in particular, ORALOAD.LIB, from which modules are loaded during
program execution. For example, the shared KERNEL module, and the
precompiler run-time modules.
■
message files.
■
other data files, such as SQL file, for the DEMO tables.
■
■
■
the INCLUDE files, application demo files, and system configuration files specifying
default precompiler options for precompiler users.
object libraries required to link-edit precompiler applications, such as PRO.LIB.
port-specific installation utilities, such as programs, command procedures, and so
on.
■
default configuration files, such as the default ORAENV file.
■
Oracle installation in the POSIX file system.
A separate ORAUID is required for each separate Oracle Database release. However,
multiple databases using the same version can, and should, refer to the same
installation user ID.
2.8.1.1 Authorizations and File Access Rights
This user ID does not require any special BS2000 privileges.
Architecture and Implementation
2-9
User ID Requirements
■
You must not use the BS2000/OSD System Administrator user ID TSOS as an
Oracle Database installation user ID.
■
The ORAUID does not require any specific user attributes or privileges.
■
Only the installation phase requires a BS2000 LOGIN under this user ID.
■
During installation all files are created with the file attributes:
USER-ACC=ALL-USERS, ACCESS=READ
■
■
You do not need to define write access for any file after installation.
The installation in the POSIX file system requires a unique user number and group
number for the installation user ID.
2.8.1.2 Default Name
The default name for the ORAUID is $ORAC1120. If you install Oracle Database 11g
Release 2 under a different installation user ID, then the installation procedure changes
the default value to the current installation user ID in all related files.
2.8.2 DBA User ID
The DBA user ID is a BS2000 user ID that is used as the owner of one or more Oracle
databases. All the files for a specific Oracle database are owned by this user ID.
All tasks making up the running database, background tasks, and server tasks started
for two-task Oracle Database, execute under the DBA user ID. These tasks refer to the
executable programs and libraries, which are available under the installation user ID
(ORAUID). These programs and libraries need not, and should not be copied into the
DBA user ID. It is possible to use the installation user ID (ORAUID) as a DBA user ID.
However, it is recommended that you use separate user IDs. The DBA user ID can also
be used as a normal user ID.
Multiple databases can be created under the same, or under different DBA user IDs. If
installed under different BS2000 user IDs, then the databases are separated and
protected from each other, subject to the BS2000 protection mechanisms. In particular,
a Database Administrator cannot administer a database running under a different
BS2000 user ID (there is no global DBA privilege in Oracle Database for BS2000/OSD).
2.8.2.1 Authorizations and File Access Rights
The DBA user ID needs specific user attributes and privileges to run an Oracle
Database. These privileges include:
■
■
■
■
■
■
the right to start jobs immediately, preferably in a JOBCLASS reserved for Oracle
Database background jobs. Failure to do this may cause delays when starting the
database and when spawning server tasks.
the right to start jobs with no time limit (TIME=NTL). Failure to do this may cause
database tasks to terminate.
the right to set jobs to TP state. Failure to do this may reduce database
performance.
the right to set Common Memory Pools as read-only. Failure to do this may reduce
shared-code security.
the BS2000/OSD System Administrator user ID TSOS should not, under any
circumstances, be used as an Oracle Database DBA user ID.
file access rights set under the DBA user ID should be:
2-10 Oracle Database Installation and Administration Guide
User ID Requirements
USER-ACC=OWNER-ONLY, ACCESS=WRITE
■
the POSIX user for the DBA user ID must be initialized with a unique user number
and group number.
2.8.2.2 Default Name
There is no default name for the DBA user ID.
2.8.3 User IDs for Oracle users
An Oracle user accesses and uses the database through Oracle utilities, such as
SQL*Plus, and through the precompiler application programs. The user can connect to
Oracle Database through Oracle Net Services facilities.
The BS2000 user ID can also be used as Oracle Database connect user ID by the OPS$
generic facility.
2.8.3.1 Authorizations and File Access Rights
These user IDs do not require any special BS2000 privileges.
■
■
No file owned by a normal user needs any specific access attributes, as Oracle
Database programs access such files locally from within that user ID. For example,
LOGIN.SQL data files.
No specific user attributes or privileges are needed.
Architecture and Implementation 2-11
User ID Requirements
2-12 Oracle Database Installation and Administration Guide
3
3
Oracle Database Installation and Deinstallation
This chapter describes preinstallation requirements, postinstallation tasks, and the
installation and deinstallation of Oracle Database 11g Release 2 on BS2000/OSD. It
provides information about the following topics:
■
Overview of Oracle Database Installation
■
Planning the Installation
■
Oracle Database Preinstallation Requirements
■
Installing the Oracle Database Software
■
Oracle Database Postinstallation Tasks
■
Installing Multiple Oracle Systems
■
Removing Oracle Database Software
3.1 Overview of Oracle Database Installation
The Oracle Database software can be downloaded from Oracle Software Delivery
Cloud at https://edelivery.oracle.com.The installation files are included in a
Library Maintenance System (LMS) library called staging library.
Download the zip file and extract it to a temporary location on a Windows or UNIX
system. Then upload the staging library to the BS2000 system using File Transfer
Protocol (FTP). The following sections describe the installation process for Oracle on
the Fujitsu BS2000/OSD S Servers. The installation process for Oracle on the Fujitsu
BS2000/OSD SQ Servers is identical, except for the name of the staging library. The
following are the names of the staging library:
■
ora11202.s390.lib for Fujitsu BS2000/OSD (S Series)
■
ora11202.sq.lib for Fujitsu BS2000/OSD (SQ Series)
3.2 Planning the Installation
The Oracle Database installation process consists of the following steps:
1.
Read the release notes: Read Oracle Database Release Notes for Fujitsu
BS2000/OSD in Chapter 1, "Release Notes", before you begin the installation.
2.
Review the licensing information: Although the installation media in the media
pack contain many Oracle components, you are permitted to use only those
components for which you have purchased licenses. Oracle Support Services does
not provide support for components for which licenses have not been purchased.
Oracle Database Installation and Deinstallation
3-1
Oracle Database Preinstallation Requirements
See Also:
Oracle Database Licensing Information for more licensing
information
3.
Complete preinstallation tasks: "Oracle Database Preinstallation Requirements"
describes preinstallation tasks that you must complete before installing the
product.
4.
Install the software: "Installing the Oracle Database Software" describes how to
use the Oracle installation procedure for BS2000/OSD to install Oracle Database
11g Release 2.
5.
Complete postinstallation tasks: "Oracle Database Postinstallation Tasks"
describes recommended and required postinstallation tasks.
6.
Multiple software installations: "Installing Multiple Oracle Systems" provides
informations about multiple installations of Oracle software.
7.
Remove Oracle Database software: "Removing Oracle Database Software"
describes how to remove Oracle Database software from your system.
3.3 Oracle Database Preinstallation Requirements
This section describes the tasks that you must complete before you start the
installation of Oracle Database 11g Release 2 for BS2000/OSD. It includes information
about the following tasks:
■
Checking Hardware Requirements
■
Checking Software Requirements
■
Checking Network Setup
■
Creating Required Operating System Users and Groups
■
Identify Required Directories in POSIX
■
Identifying or Creating Oracle Base Directory in POSIX
3.3.1 Checking Hardware Requirements
The system must meet the following hardware requirements:
■
Memory Requirements
■
System Architecture
■
Disk Space Requirements
■
Display Requirements
3.3.1.1 Memory Requirements
Oracle Database requires at least 2 GB main memory.
The Address Space Limit for the installation user ID should be 512 MB or higher. For
the DBA user IDs, it should be at least 1024 MB.
■
To determine the memory size, enter the following command:
/SHOW-SYSTEM-INFORMATION INFORMATION=*MEMORY-SIZE
3-2 Oracle Database Installation and Administration Guide
Oracle Database Preinstallation Requirements
■
To determine the user address space limit, log in to the desired user ID and enter
the following command:
/SHOW-USER-ATTRIBUTES
If the user address space is less than the required size, then ask your BS2000 system
administrator to increase the Address Space Limit by using the command:
/MODIFY-USER-ATTRIBUTES USER-IDENTIFICATION=user-id,ADRESS-SPACE-LIMIT={512|1024}
3.3.1.2 System Architecture
Oracle Database 11g Release 2 supports all BS2000/OSD server architectures, such as S
Server, SQ Server and SX Server. To determine the architecture on your system, enter
the following command:
/SHOW-SYSTEM-INFORMATION INFORMATION=*HSI-ATTRIBUTES
The following is the TYPE output that shows the system architecture:
■
IX: HSI of a S server (/390 architecture)
■
KM: HSI of a SQ server (x86-64 architecture)
■
PM: HSI of a SX server (SPARC architecture)
■
UD: The HSI type is not defined
On S Servers, install the Oracle Database software for the platform Fujitsu
BS2000/OSD (S Series). The name of the installation staging library is
ora11202.s390.lib.
On SQ Servers, install the Oracle Database software for the platform Fujitsu
BS2000/OSD (SQ Series). This software runs in native x86-64 mode. The name of the
installation staging library is ora11202.sq.lib.
On SX Servers install the Oracle Database software for the platform Fujitsu
BS2000/OSD (S Series). This software runs in emulated mode. The name of the
installation staging library is ora11202.s390.lib.
3.3.1.3 Disk Space Requirements
Due to some new features, Oracle Database 11g Release 2 requires an installation in the
BS2000 file system (DMS) and in the POSIX file system. Oracle recommends using a
separate POSIX file system for the Oracle Database software installation.
For more information about creating an additional POSIX
file system, refer to the Fujitsu guide for BS2000/OSD mainframes,
namely POSIX Basics for Users and System Administrators at:
See Also:
http://manuals.ts.fujitsu.com/file/8521/posix_g.pdf
When the POSIX administrator or BS2000 system administrator creates a new POSIX
file system by using the START-POSIX-INSTALLATION command, a new POSIX
container file similar to a UNIX disk partition is allocated in the BS2000 file system.
The POSIX file system is created in this container file. If the desired mount point, for
example, /u01, is not yet available in the root system, then it is created and the file
system is mounted.
Oracle Database 11g Release 2 software for Fujitsu BS2000/OSD (S Series) requires the
following disk space:
Oracle Database Installation and Deinstallation
3-3
Oracle Database Preinstallation Requirements
■
BS2000 file system:
Item
Disk Space
Software
1.000.000 PAM pages
Staging library
820.000 PAM pages
Recommended
(in total)
2.000.000 PAM pages
■
POSIX file system:
Requirement
Disk Space
Minimum
400 MB
Recommended
1 GB
Note: The diagnostic data of the Automatic Diagnostic Repository
(ADR) reside in the POSIX file system. The disk space required for the
Automatic Diagnostic Repository depends on the number of Oracle
instances and the amount of diagnostic data created for incidents. So
you may need significantly more disk space in the POSIX file system
than recommended.
The extracted files occupy about 1.000.000 PAM pages in the BS2000 file system. The
files installed in the POSIX file system occupy about 200 MB.
The staging library does not have to reside in your installation user ID.
3.3.1.4 Display Requirements
Oracle Database supports 9750 compatible terminals. In addition, Oracle Database
supports X-terminals in the POSIX environment if you logged in to POSIX using
rlogin or ssh.
The minimum resolution for Java based tools with a Graphical User Interface shipped
with Oracle Database 11g Release 2 is 1024 x 768 or higher.
3.3.2 Checking Software Requirements
Before installing the Oracle Database software, it is recommended that you check if
your system meets the following software requirements.
■
Operating System and Communication System Requirements
■
POSIX Parameters
■
Package Requirements
■
Additional BS2000 Software Components
■
Compiler and CRTE Requirements for Oracle Database Applications
■
Additional Software Requirements
3-4 Oracle Database Installation and Administration Guide
Oracle Database Preinstallation Requirements
3.3.2.1 Operating System and Communication System Requirements
The following operating system and communication system versions or higher, are
required for Oracle Database 11g Release 2:
■
BS2000/OSD V7.0
■
openNet Server V3.3
This includes BCAM V20.0 and Sockets V2.4.
Oracle recommends that you regularly install the most current correction packages for
BS2000/OSD.
Check the version of your BS2000/OSD system with the following command:
/SHOW-SYSTEM-INFORMATION INFORMATION=*BS2000-ID
Note: The correction level of the POSIX subsystem must be A41 or
higher. You can check the POSIX correction level with the following
command:
/EXECUTE-POSIX-CMD CMD='uname -v'
You can check the version of your openNet Server software by checking the version of
the software component BCAM with the following command:
/SHOW-INSTALLATION-PATH INSTALLATION-UNIT=BCAM
Or you can ask your BS2000 system administrator to check the BCAM version with the
command:
/BCSHOW SHOW=BCAM
Note:
The BCAM version must be V20 or higher.
3.3.2.2 POSIX Parameters
The following POSIX parameters must be checked for the recommended values for
Oracle Database 11g Release 2:
Recommended
Value
Parameter Name
Description
HDSTNI
Number of hard disk
server tasks
4
NPBUF
Number of physical
I/O buffers
20
NPROC
Maximum number of 800
processes
NBUF
Number of I/O
buffers
MAXUP
Maximum number of 200
processes per user
NOTTY
Maximum number of 512
ttys
NOPTY
Maximum number of 512
ptys
200
Oracle Database Installation and Deinstallation
3-5
Oracle Database Preinstallation Requirements
Recommended
Value
Parameter Name
Description
NOSTTY
Maximum number of 512
sttys
DBLSTATE
Initial state of POSIX
loader
DBLPOOL
Size of pool in MB for 30
POSIX loader
1
The POSIX administrator or BS2000 system administrator can check the values in the
file $TSOS.SYSSSI.POSIX-BC.version, for example, version = 070|080|090. The values
can also be checked by using the POSIX command usp:
# usp -s nproc
You can update the value with the following command:
# usp -P parameter -v value
Note:
■
■
If you edit the parameters in the file
$TSOS.SYSSSI.POSIX-BC.version, then you must restart the
POSIX subsystem.
The parameter values depend on the overall load of the BS2000
system and must be adjusted to this load. The values listed
previously are minimal recommendations.
3.3.2.3 Package Requirements
The following POSIX packages with the specified versions or higher are required for
Oracle Database 11g Release 2:
■
POSIX-SH V7.0
■
JENV V6.0
■
APACHE V2.2, including correction package 2/2012
■
PERL V5.8, including correction package 2/2012
■
BCAM V20.0
To check the installed packages, use the following POSIX command:
$ pkginfo package name
Note:
■
■
Ensure that the packages POSIX-SH and JENV are installed before
starting the Oracle Database software installation.
The packages APACHE, Perl and BCAM are required by the
Oracle Management Agent. Although these packages are optional
for Oracle Database 11g Release 2, it is recommended that you
install these packages.
3-6 Oracle Database Installation and Administration Guide
Oracle Database Preinstallation Requirements
3.3.2.4 Additional BS2000 Software Components
The following additional software is required by Oracle Database 11g Release 2. Install
the required or higher versions:
■
CRTE-BASYS V1.7F or CRTE-BASYS V1.8E or CRTE-BASYS V1.9A
■
SDF V4.7
■
SDF-P V2.5
■
SDF-A V4.1
■
EDT V17.0A
■
LMS V3.4
■
openSM2 V7.0
■
PTHREADS V1.3
■
ORACLE-TOOLS V1.0
The Oracle Database utility ADRCI requires the zip utility in the POSIX
environment for creating ADR incident packages, that can be uploaded to Oracle
Support.
Currently, the zip utility is not part of the supply unit of POSIX of Fujitsu
BS2000/OSD. So you must download it separately from the download area of the
Fujitsu Support website:
http://support.ts.fujitsu.com/Download
Download the software package called ORACLE-TOOLS. This software package
contains the utilities zip and unzip. You can find this software package by entering
the package name ORACLE-TOOLS into the search box of the download area. Install
the software package ORACLE-TOOLS as described in the readme file.
Note:
■
■
■
The subsystem CRTEBASY must be loaded. On SQ server, the
subsystem CRTEBASK must also be loaded.
SDF-A is optional. SDF-A is only required to update the SDF user
syntax files for Oracle. If SDF-A is not available, then the update
of the SDF user syntax files for Oracle is skipped. If the SDF
syntax files for Oracle are not updated, then you can start Oracle
utilities with BS2000 SDF commands in UNIX-style, only if the
installation user ID is the default installation user ID ORAC1120.
The software components openSM2 and PTHREADS are required
by the Oracle Management Agent.
3.3.2.5 Compiler and CRTE Requirements for Oracle Database Applications
If high-level languages, such as C or COBOL, are used to interface with the Oracle
Database, then the following versions or higher are supported:
■
COBOL85 V2.3
■
COBOL2000 V1.2
■
CPP V3.0
■
CRTE V2.7F
Oracle Database Installation and Deinstallation
3-7
Oracle Database Preinstallation Requirements
■
CRTE V2.8E
■
CRTE V2.9
3.3.2.6 Additional Software Requirements
openUTM V6.0 or higher is required if you want to use Oracle Database in
configurations with the transaction monitor openUTM.
3.3.3 Checking Network Setup
Typically, the computer on which you want to install Oracle Database is connected to
the network as a member of a network domain. Besides the BCAM host name, the host
should have a full qualified name (hostname.domain) that can be resolved by a DNS.
This section describes the most important issues on a BS2000/OSD computer.
■
Checking Sockets subsystem
■
Checking BCAM Timer
■
Checking LWRESD
■
Checking Loopback Address
■
Checking the Configuration Files in the POSIX File System
3.3.3.1 Checking Sockets subsystem
On S servers, the sockets subsystem SOC6 must be created and running. On SQ
servers, the sockets subsystem SOC6-X8 must also be created and running. You can
check the sockets subsystems with the following command:
/SHOW-SUBSYSTEM-STATUS SOC6*
3.3.3.2 Checking BCAM Timer
It is recommended to check the BCAM connection and letter timer. Your BS2000
system administrator can display the timer values with the following command:
/SHOW-BCAM-TIMER
The value for the connection timer, also called CONN in the output of the ISO section,
should be set to a minimum of 600 seconds. It is recommended that the letter timer,
also known as LETT in the STD section, should be set to a large value. The value 0 in
the output indicates an infinite letter time.
3.3.3.3 Checking LWRESD
It is recommended to use the Light Weight Resolver (LWRESD) for host name
resolution operations. The tasks for checking and administrating the LWRESD require
the BS2000 system administrator privilege. Ask your BS2000 system administrator to
check if the LWRESD is running by using the following command:
/SHOW-LWRESD-PARAMETERS
For example, the following output shows the parameter file in use:
RESOLV-FILE : :PVS1:$TSOS.SYSDAT.LWRESD.011.RESOLV.CONF
This parameter file must contain valid nameserver IP-addresses and a domain or
search list of domains.
3-8 Oracle Database Installation and Administration Guide
Oracle Database Preinstallation Requirements
3.3.3.4 Checking Loopback Address
Check if the file $TSOS.SYSDAT.BCAM.ETC.HOSTS contains an entry for the loopback
address. For example:
127.0.0.1
localhost loopback
# local address
3.3.3.5 Checking the Configuration Files in the POSIX File System
Check the network configuration files /etc/hosts and /etc/resolv.conf. These files
must have the same contents as the corresponding files in the BS2000 administrator
user ID TSOS. If there are any mismatches, then ask your BS2000 system administrator
to synchronize the files.
3.3.4 Creating Required Operating System Users and Groups
If this is the first time Oracle software is installed on your system and depending on
the installation of the Oracle Management Agent, you may have to create several
BS2000 user IDs, POSIX users and groups. The BS2000 user ID for the Oracle Database
11g Release 2 software is called the installation user ID and the user ID where an
Oracle database is stored is called the DBA user ID.
■
Creating the BS2000 Installation User ID
■
Creating the POSIX System Group
■
Initializing the POSIX User
■
Creating Users and Groups for Oracle Databases
3.3.4.1 Creating the BS2000 Installation User ID
The BS2000 System Administrator must create a user ID under which you want the
Oracle Database 11g Release 2 software to reside. This user ID is called the Oracle
installation user ID or Oracle software owner. Throughout this guide, we refer to this
user ID as ORAC1120. This user ID does not require any special BS2000 privileges.
When the BS2000 system administrator creates the installation user ID with the
following command, the corresponding POSIX user is also created. The POSIX user
attributes, namely, user number, group number, login directory and program, are
assigned default values.
/ADD-USER ORAC1120,…
3.3.4.2 Creating the POSIX System Group
For installation under POSIX, the POSIX administrator or BS2000 System
Administrator must create system groups in POSIX. As distinguished from other
UNIX systems, the installation user ID (Oracle software owner) and the DBA user ID
of an Oracle database are not identical. Therefore, the POSIX installation uses only one
group, such as oracle, for Oracle software owner and Oracle database. This group is
called Oracle installation group.
■
If this is not the first Oracle Database installation under POSIX, then you can
determine the group name by using the following POSIX command:
$ more /var/opt/oracle/oraInst.loc
If the oraInst.loc file exists, then the output from this command is similar to the
following:
inventory_loc=/u01/app/oraInventory
inst_group=oracle
Oracle Database Installation and Deinstallation
3-9
Oracle Database Preinstallation Requirements
The inst_group parameter shows the group name of your former Oracle Database
installation, here oracle.
■
To determine if this group is defined with a unique group-id, enter the following
command:
$ grep 'oracle' /etc/group
If the output shows the group name and a group-id greater than 100, then the
group exists.
If the group-id is 100, then you must change the id to a distinct value greater than
100, for example, 104.
If the group cannot be found in /etc/group,then ask your POSIX administrator
or BS2000 system administrator to add the group name and a unique group
number to the file /etc/group. The administrator must use a text editor, such as
edt or vi to add a new line with the following specifications:
groupname::groupnumber:user-id[,user-id,...]
The following example shows a line in the file /etc/group for the group oracle:
oracle::104:ORAC1120,ORADB11G
Add further installation user IDs and all DBA user IDs to the line with the Oracle
group-id.
3.3.4.3 Initializing the POSIX User
Before using the installation user ID as a POSIX user, the POSIX administrator or
BS2000 system administrator must initialize the POSIX user with the following
command:
/ADD-POSIX-USER USER-NAME=user-id,USER-NUMBER=nnn,GROUP-NUMBER=oracle group
number,HOME-DIRECTORY=path[,RLOGIN-ACCOUNT=account]
Consider the following requirements:
■
The USER-NAME is the installation user ID.
■
The USER-NUMBER must be unique and greater than 100.
■
■
■
The GROUP-NUMBER must be the number of the Oracle installation group and greater
than 100.
The HOME-DIRECTORY must be a valid path. Do not use a path which resides in the
root or var file system. It is strictly recommended to create a separate file system
for the POSIX users. An example for a valid HOME-DIRECTORY is /home/orac1120
where /home is the mount point of a POSIX file system.
The RLOGIN-ACCOUNT can be specified if you allow the remote access by using
rlogin or ssh.
3.3.4.4 Creating Users and Groups for Oracle Databases
Typically Oracle databases in BS2000/OSD reside in BS2000 user IDs not equal to the
Oracle database installation user ID. If you create a new DBA user ID for a new Oracle
database, then you must also initialize the POSIX user in the same way as described in
"Initializing the POSIX User". If you want to upgrade an existing Oracle database, then
you must check if the POSIX user is initialized for the DBA user ID with the following
BS2000 command:
3-10 Oracle Database Installation and Administration Guide
Oracle Database Preinstallation Requirements
/SHOW-POSIX-USER-ATTRIBUTES
If the output shows default values and the directory is /home/gast, then initialize the
POSIX user with the following BS2000 command:
/ADD-POSIX-USER
The POSIX user attributes of an initialized POSIX user can be modified with the
following BS2000 command:
/MODIFY-POSIX-USER-ATTRIBUTES
Finally, add the user to the Oracle installation group in the file /etc/group.
Note:
■
■
■
Ensure that the home directory does not reside in the root or var
file system.
The USER-NUMBER must be unique and greater than 100.
The GROUP-NUMBER must be the number of the Oracle installation
group.
3.3.5 Identify Required Directories in POSIX
You must identify or create the following directories in the POSIX file system for the
Oracle software:
■
Oracle Base Directory
■
Oracle Inventory Directory
■
Oracle Home Directory
3.3.5.1 Oracle Base Directory
Oracle base directory is a top-level directory for Oracle software installations. Oracle
recommends using a path similar to the following for the Oracle base directory:
/mount_point/app/software_owner
In this example:
■
■
mount_point is the mount point directory for the file system that contains the
Oracle software. The examples in this guide use /u01 for the mount point
directory.
software_owner is the operating system user name of the software owner
installing the Oracle software.
The components /mount_point/app represent the operating system part of the path.
Before you start the installation of Oracle Database 11g Release 2, you must create the
operating system part of the path.
Oracle Database Installation and Deinstallation
3-11
Oracle Database Preinstallation Requirements
Note:
■
■
The installation user ID and the installation group must have
read, write and execute permissions to the subdirectory app.
During Oracle Database software installation, you are prompted
for a valid Oracle base directory. You can accept the default value
or enter a new path. The installation procedure creates the Oracle
base directory if possible.
You can use the same Oracle base directory for the installation of the Oracle
Management Agent. Multiple Oracle installations require separate installation user IDs
in BS2000/OSD with the consequence of creating separate Oracle base directories in
the POSIX file system. The following are examples of Oracle base directories that can
exist on the same system:
/u01/app/orac1120
/u01/app/ora10205
See "Create or Expand a File System for the Oracle Base Directory" for more
information about the POSIX file system.
3.3.5.2 Oracle Inventory Directory
The Oracle Inventory directory (oraInventory) stores the inventory of all software
installed on the system. It is required and shared by all Oracle software installations on
a single system. If you have an existing Oracle Inventory path, then the Oracle
installation procedure uses that Oracle Inventory.
The Oracle installation procedure derives the path for the Oracle Inventory directory
from the file /var/opt/oracle/oraInst.loc. If this file does not exist, then it derives
the inventory path from ORACLE_BASE and creates the Oracle Inventory directory in the
following path: ORACLE_BASE/../oraInventory. For example, if ORACLE_BASE is set to
/u01/app/orac1120, then the Oracle Inventory directory is created in the path
/u01/app/oraInventory.
The Oracle installation procedure creates the Oracle subdirectories that you specify
and sets the correct owner, group, and permissions for it. The operating system part of
the path, for example, /u01/app must exist and you must have read, write and execute
permissions in the directory app.
Note:
■
■
■
All Oracle software installations rely on the Oracle Inventory
directory. Ensure that you back it up regularly.
Do not delete this directory unless you have completely removed
all Oracle software from the system.
By default, the Oracle Inventory directory is not installed under
the Oracle base directory. This is because all Oracle software
installations share a common Oracle Inventory, so there is only
one Oracle Inventory for all software owners. Whereas, there is a
separate Oracle base directory for each user.
3-12 Oracle Database Installation and Administration Guide
Oracle Database Preinstallation Requirements
3.3.5.3 Oracle Home Directory
The Oracle home directory is the directory where you install the software for a
particular Oracle product. When you run the Oracle installation procedure, it prompts
you to specify the path of this directory. You can accept the recommended path or
enter a new path. The directory that you specify must be a subdirectory of the Oracle
base directory. Oracle recommends that you specify a path similar to the following for
the Oracle home directory:
oracle_base_path/product/dbhome
The Oracle installation procedure creates the directory path that you specify. It also
sets the correct owner, group, and permissions on it. You do not have to create this
directory manually.
Note: During the installation, you must not specify an existing
directory that has predefined permissions applied to it as the Oracle
home directory. If you do, then you may experience installation failure
due to file and group ownership permission errors.
3.3.6 Identifying or Creating Oracle Base Directory in POSIX
Before starting the installation, you must either identify the operating system part of
an existing Oracle base directory or if required, create one. This section contains
information about the following topics:
■
Identifying an Existing Oracle Base Directory in POSIX
■
Create or Expand a File System for the Oracle Base Directory
Note: You can create an Oracle base directory, even if other Oracle
base directories exist on the system.
3.3.6.1 Identifying an Existing Oracle Base Directory in POSIX
Existing Oracle base directories can be identified as follows:
■
Identifying an existing Oracle Inventory directory.
Search for the string 'inventory_loc' in the file /var/opt/oracle/oraInst.loc.
$ grep 'inventory_loc' /var/opt/oracle/oraInst.loc
If oraInst.loc exists, then the output is similar to the following:
inventory_loc=/u01/app/oraInventory
■
Deriving an Oracle base directory from an existing Oracle home directory.
Enter the following command to display the contents of the
/var/opt/oracle/oratab file:
$ more /var/opt/oratab
If the oratab file exists, then it may contain lines similar to the following:
*:/u01/app/orac1020/product/10g:N
*:/oracl920/9.2.0:N
Oracle Database Installation and Deinstallation
3-13
Oracle Database Preinstallation Requirements
The directory paths specified on each line identify Oracle home directories.
Directory paths that end with the user name of the Oracle software owner are
existing Oracle base directories. For the installation of Oracle Database 11g Release
2, you can choose the subdirectory /u01/app as root for your Oracle base
directory. If you intend to use the orac1120 user to install the software, then you
can choose the following directory:
/u01/app/orac1120
Ensure that the Oracle base directory for this installation meets the following
conditions:
■
It is not on the same file system as the operating system (root or var).
■
It has sufficient free disk space.
To determine the free disk space on the file system where the Oracle base directory is
located, enter the following command:
$ df -k oracle_base_path
Note: The installation procedure looks for an Oracle base directory
and prompts you to accept the suggested path or to enter a new path.
3.3.6.2 Create or Expand a File System for the Oracle Base Directory
If you want to install the Oracle software into an existing file system with Oracle base
directories but the POSIX file system has insufficient space, then the POSIX
administrator or BS2000 system administrator can expand the file system with the
Oracle base directory using the POSIX installer. Complete the following steps to
expand the file system using the POSIX installer:
1.
Start the POSIX Installer using the following command:
/START-POSIX-INSTALLATION
2.
Choose Administrate POSIX filesystems.
3.
Mark the desired file system and choose expand.
4.
Enter the number of PAM pages by which the file system should be expanded.
If you want the Oracle base directory to reside in a new POSIX files system, then the
POSIX administrator or BS2000 system administrator must create a POSIX file system
using the POSIX installer. Complete the following steps to create a POSIX file system
using the POSIX installer:
1.
Start the POSIX installer using the following command:
/START-POSIX-INSTALLATION
2.
Choose Administrate POSIX filesystems and then, choose append.
The POSIX installer allocates a new POSIX container file in the BS2000 file system and
creates the POSIX file system inside the container. The POSIX installer also asks for a
mount point for the new file system. If the mount point does not exist, then it is
created in the root system and the new file system is mounted. By default, the owner
of the new file system is SYSROOT. The administrator must now create the Oracle base
directory and specify the correct owner, group, and permissions for it with the
following specifications:
# mkdir -p /mount_point/app/oracle_sw_owner
3-14 Oracle Database Installation and Administration Guide
Installing the Oracle Database Software
# chown -R oracle_sw_owner:oracle_installation_group /mount_point/app/oracle_sw_
owner
# chmod -R 775 /mount_point/app/oracle_sw_owner
For example:
# mkdir -p /u01/app/orac1120
# chown -R orac1120:oracle /u01/app/orac1120
# chmod -R 775 /u01/app/orac1120
3.4 Installing the Oracle Database Software
The Oracle Database 11g Release 2 software is available in a zipped LMS library.
Complete the following steps to install the Oracle Database software:
1.
The software must be copied to a temporary location on a Windows or UNIX
system that has FTP access to the BS2000 system where you are to install the
software.
Download the installation files from Oracle Software Delivery Cloud
(https://edelivery.oracle.com/) and move the zip file to this Windows or
UNIX system.
2.
Unzip the zip file with a zip utility, such as WinZip, into a temporary location on
this system. The following files should be created:
welcome.htm: Starting point for accessing the documentation.
doc/: Contains the platform specific documentation for Oracle Database on
BS2000/OSD.
And the installation files for one of the following platforms:
3.
–
ora11202.s390.lib: Staging library for Fujitsu BS2000/OSD (S Series)
–
ora11202.sq.lib: Staging library for Fujitsu BS2000/OSD (SQ Series)
Transfer the staging library with FTP binary into a user ID on the BS2000 system.
This can either be the Oracle installation user ID, for example, ORAC1120, or any
other user ID. Before the transfer, if you are using BS2000 FTP, preallocate the file
by using the following FTP file command:
file ora11202.s390.lib,fcbtype=pam,blkctrl=no,blksize=(std,2),space=820000
Use the following command if you are using FTP on the platform where you had
unzipped the file:
quote file
ora11202.s390.lib,fcbtype=pam,blkctrl=no,blksize=(std,2),space=820000
4.
If you have transferred the staging library to a user ID not equal to the Oracle
installation user ID, then you must grant access to the staging library for all users,
with the following command:
/MODIFY-FILE-ATTRIBUTES ORA11202.S390.LIB,USER-ACCESS=*ALL-USERS
5.
Log in to the installation user ID, for example, ORAC1120.
6.
If the staging library resides in the installation user ID, then call the Oracle
installation procedure as follows:
/CALL-PROCEDURE (ORA11202.S390.LIB,ORAINST.PRC)
Oracle Database Installation and Deinstallation
3-15
Installing the Oracle Database Software
If you have stored the staging library in a different BS2000 user ID, then call the
Oracle installation procedure as follows:
/CALL-PROCEDURE (staging_
userid.ORA11202.S390.LIB,ORAINST.PRC),(INSTUID=staging_userid)
For example:
/CALL-PROCEDURE ($FOO.ORA11202.S390.LIB,ORAINST.PRC),(INSTUID=$FOO)
The Oracle installation procedure performs the following actions:
■
Checks hardware and software requirements
■
Checks the available disk space for the BS2000 files and POSIX files
■
Extracts the files from the staging library
■
Installs Oracle software in the installation user ID
■
Updates the SDF syntax files if SDF-A is available
■
Installs Oracle Database software in the POSIX file system
■
Registers the software in the Oracle Inventory file
The following is the complete syntax of the installation procedure:
/CALL-PROCEDURE ([staging_userid.]ORA11202.{S390|SQ}.LIB,ORAINST.PRC)[,
( [ CMD={INSTALL|UNINSTALL}]
[,INSTUID=staging_userid]
[,OLDUID=old_userid]
[,ORACLE-BASE={*DIALOG|oracle_base}]
[,ORACLE-HOME={*DIALOG|oracle_home}]
[,DEBUG={Y|N}]
[,PROCLOG={Y|N}] )]
Parameter
Value
Description
CMD
INSTALL|UNINSTALL
action: install or uninstall
Oracle Database software
default: INSTALL
INSTUID
user ID of staging library
default: ''
OLDUID
old user ID used in scripts
default:$ORAC1120
ORACLE-BASE
*DIALOG|oracle_base
default: *DIALOG
3-16 Oracle Database Installation and Administration Guide
BS2000 user ID where the
staging library is located.
User ID stored in several
scripts when the software is
released. Is updated to the
current user ID during
installation.
The Oracle base directory is
required for the installation
of Oracle Database 11g
Release 2 in the POSIX file
system. The default value
*DIALOG, indicates the
prompting for an Oracle base
directory.
Oracle Database Postinstallation Tasks
Parameter
Value
Description
ORACLE-HOME
*DIALOG|oracle_home
The Oracle home directory is
required for the installation
of Oracle Database 11g
Release 2 in the POSIX file
system. The default value
*DIALOG indicates the
prompting for an Oracle
home directory.
default: *DIALOG
DEBUG
Debug the installation
procedures.
Y|N
default: N
PROCLOG
Use the logging feature of the
BS2000 command
CALL-PROCEDURE
Y|N
default: N
The installation procedure also provides the opportunity to run the installation in a
background task. In this case, you must specify the parameters ORACLE-BASE and
ORACLE-HOME, otherwise the installation is aborted. Since the installation takes about
250 CPU seconds, Oracle recommends that you set the CPU-LIMIT to at least 300. You
can start the Installation as follows:
/ENTER-PROCEDURE
(ORA11202.S390.LIB,ORAINST.PRC),(ORACLE-BASE='/u01/app/orac1120',ORACLE-HOME='/u01
/app/orac1120/product/dbhome'),CPU-LIMIT=300
The installation is logged to the file INSTALL.ORAINST.LST.
The installation of the Oracle Database software in the POSIX file system requires an
ORACLE_BASE and ORACLE_HOME path. During installation you are prompted for these
paths, if the installation runs in the dialog mode and if you have not specified the
parameters in the procedure call. You can accept the suggested paths or enter new
paths.
3.5 Oracle Database Postinstallation Tasks
To complete the installation, the POSIX administrator or BS2000 system administrator
has to run the oracle_home_path/root.sh scripts as follows:
■
In the BS2000 environment use the following command
/EXECUTE-POSIX-CMD CMD='oracle_home_path/root.sh'
For example,
/EXECUTE-POSIX-CMD CMD='/u01/app/orac1120/product/dbhome/root.sh'
■
In the POSIX environment (shell) use the following command
# sh oracle_home_path/root.sh
For example:
# sh /u01/app/orac1120/product/dbhome/root.sh
If this is the first Oracle Database installation on the BS2000 server, then the root script
completes the following actions:
■
Creates the path /var/opt/oracle
Oracle Database Installation and Deinstallation
3-17
Installing Multiple Oracle Systems
■
Creates the file /var/opt/oracle/oraInst.loc
■
Creates an empty file /var/opt/ortacle/oratab
■
If the product APACHE is installed, then it creates a link in the lib directory of the
APACHE installation to the Oracle Client shared library in the Oracle home lib
directory.
3.6 Installing Multiple Oracle Systems
You can also install multiple Oracle systems, based on the same or different versions of
Oracle software. In this case, different versions of the software must be installed under
different installation user IDs.
3.7 Removing Oracle Database Software
If you want to remove Oracle Database software from your system, then log in to the
Oracle installation user ID and use the installation procedure as follows:
/CALL-PROCEDURE INSTALL.P.ORAINST,(CMD=UNINSTALL)
In this case, the Oracle installation procedure completes the following actions:
■
Removes the Oracle Database software from the POSIX file system
■
Updates the Oracle inventory
■
Removes the Oracle Database software from the BS2000 file system
Note: Only the files installed by the Oracle installation procedure,
namely, ORAINST.PRC, are removed from the system. Files created by a
user or by an Oracle instance are left in the Oracle home directory and
installation user ID.
3-18 Oracle Database Installation and Administration Guide
4
4
Creating and Upgrading a Database
This chapter describes how to create a new 11.2 database or upgrade an existing
database to release 11.2. It contains the following topics:
■
Creating a Database
■
Upgrading a Database
Creating a Java enabled database is not part of this chapter.
For more information about creating a Java enabled database, refer to
Chapter 12, "Java in the Database".
Note:
4.1 Creating a Database
You can create a database either automatically or manually. Oracle recommends that
you use the automatic creation procedure outlined in "Creating a Database
Automatically" on page 4-2. Instructions on how to create a database manually are
given in "Creating a Database Manually" on page 4-4.
This section describes the following:
■
Pre-Creation Activities
■
Creating a Database Automatically
■
Creating a Database Manually
4.1.1 Pre-Creation Activities
Before creating a database, you first need to carry out the following pre-creation
activities:
1.
Install Oracle Database 11g Release 2 software under the installation user ID. For
details on how to do this, refer to Chapter 3, "Oracle Database Installation and
Deinstallation".
2.
The BS2000 System Administrator must create a JOIN entry for the account, which
holds Oracle Database (the DBA user ID).
The required privileges for this account are as follows:
NTL=YES
EXPRESS=YES
TTYPL=TP
CSTMP-MACRO=YES
Creating and Upgrading a Database
4-1
Creating a Database
Note:
3.
The value of ADDRSPACE must be at least 512 MB.
Oracle recommends that the BS2000 System Administrator should define a
separate job class for the background tasks. This job class should have the
following characteristics:
TP-ALLOWED=YES
NO-CPU-LIMIT=YES
JOB-TYPE=BATCH
4.1.2 Creating a Database Automatically
Complete the following steps to create a database automatically:
1.
Log in using the DBA user ID.
2.
To start the automatic creation procedure, INSTALL.P.SUPER, enter the following
command:
/CALL-PROCEDURE $ORAC1120.INSTALL.P.SUPER
When running INSTALL.P.SUPER procedure, you can specify the value of the
following keyword parameters (the default values are used if you choose not to
modify the values):
Parameter
Value
BATCH
Enter YES to run the procedure in batch mode. The default is set to
YES, so by default the procedure is run in batch mode.
CPULIMIT
Sets the time limit for batch jobs. The default is NO.
PLSQL
Enter NO to suppress automatic installation of the basic PL/SQL
package. The default is YES.
VIEWS
Enter NO to suppress automatic installation of the basic views
(catalog, import/export, and so on). The default is YES.
3.
Answer the prompts for the following information (if you enter nothing, the
default shown on the screen are used):
Parameter
Value
DBASID
Enter the 1 - 4 character system-id of the database you are installing.
This is a mandatory parameter.
JOBCLASS
Enter the jobclass to be used for Oracle Database 11g Release 2
background jobs. This is mandatory.
UPDATE
Enter YES if you have existing files for this SID and you want to
update them.
SYSPW
Enter the desired password for the Oracle Database user SYS.
Note: By default the SYS user has the password CHANGE_ON_INSTALL.
For security reasons, Oracle recommends that you change this
password immediately after installation.
SYSTEMPW
Enter the desired password for the Oracle Database user SYSTEM.
Note: By default the SYSTEM user has the password MANAGER. For
security reasons, Oracle recommends that you change this password
immediately after installation.
4-2 Oracle Database Installation and Administration Guide
Creating a Database
Parameter
Value
JAVA
Enter NO if you do not need a Java enabled database (thus saving
memory, CPU and disk space resources). For more information refer
to Chapter 12, "Java in the Database".
DBSIZE
Enter the size of the system tablespace files in bytes, kilobytes or
megabytes. The value you enter can have one of the following forms:
■
44M for 44 megabytes
■
44000K for 44000 kilobytes
■
10000000 for 10000000 bytes
The default is 250M.
AUXSIZE
Enter the size of the sysaux tablespace file(s) in bytes, kilobytes, or
megabytes. The value you enter can have one of the following forms:
■
44M for 44megabytes
■
44000K for 44000 kilobytes
■
10000000 for 10000000 bytes
The default is 200M.
LOGSIZE
Enter the size of the log files in bytes, kilobytes, or megabytes. The
value you enter can have one of the following forms:
■
1M for 1 megabytes
■
1000K for 1000 kilobytes
■
100000 for 100000 bytes
The default is 20000K.
UNDOSIZE
Enter the size of the undo tablespace file in bytes, kilobytes, or
megabytes. The value you enter can have one of the following forms:
■
44M for 44 megabytes
■
44000K for 44000 kilobytes
■
10000000 for 10000000 bytes
The default is 100M.
LOCAL
Enter NO if you do not require a locally managed system tablespace.
The default is YES. If you choose a locally managed system
tablespace, then Oracle automatically creates a default temporary
tablespace.
DEFTS
Enter NO if you don't want to create a default permanent tablespace.
The default is YES.
TEMPTS
This prompt only appears if you don't want a locally managed
system tablespace. Enter NO if you don't want a default temporary
tablespace. The default is YES.
CHARSET
Enter the character set with which you want the database to be
created (the default is WE8BS2000).
For more information refer to the chapter about Globalization
Support in Oracle Database User's Guide for Fujitsu BS2000/OSD.
NCHARSET
Enter the national character set used to store data in columns
specifically defined as NCHAR, NCLOB, or NVARCHAR2. Valid values are
AL16UTF16 and UTF8. The default is AL16UTF16.
Unless specified otherwise, $ORAC1120.INSTALL.P.SUPER generates and enter a batch
job which:
■
Calls INSTALL.P.DBA
Creating and Upgrading a Database 4-3
Creating a Database
■
■
Creates the system and sysaux tablespace
Creates the default permanent tablespace, temporary tablespace, and undo
tablespace
■
Creates the log files
■
Initializes the database
■
Runs CATALOG.SQL
■
Runs CATPROC.SQL
■
Installs the SQL Help tables
■
Installs the DEMO tables
■
Changes the system passwords if necessary
■
Calls the verification procedure
When $ORAC1120.INSTALL.P.SUPER has completed, you should have an initialized,
ready-to-use database, and a running Oracle Database system. The results of the job
are listed in the file, L.sid.INSSUP.SYSOUT, where SID is the system ID of the database
you have just installed.
4.1.3 Creating a Database Manually
Oracle recommends that you use the automatic creation procedure outlined in
"Creating a Database Automatically" on page 4-2. The following manual creation
procedure performs the same steps as the automatic creation procedure. However,
because you enter the individual steps manually, you can perform the installation at
your own pace, and determine which of the optional of the following steps you want
to perform and which you want to expand, omit, or save for another time.
■
Copying the DBA Procedures
■
Creating the Database
■
Installing Data Dictionary Views
■
Installing Data Dictionary Views for PL/SQL
■
Installing Online Help Messages
■
Installing the Demo Tables
■
Installing the Sample Schemas
■
Verifying Successful Creation of the Database
■
Installing Oracle Text
■
Installing Java
4.1.3.1 Copying the DBA Procedures
Copy the DBA files from $ORAC1120 as shown below:
1.
Log in using the DBA User ID.
2.
Call Oracle Database install procedure. This procedure copies the DBA files from
$ORAC1120 to the DBA User ID account. When the procedure begins you are
prompted to supply a 1 to 4 character Oracle Database ID for the database you are
installing.
To install the DBA files, enter the following command:
4-4 Oracle Database Installation and Administration Guide
Creating a Database
/CALL-PROCEDURE $ORAC1120.INSTALL.P.DBA
This procedure prompts you for the following information:
Parameter
Value
DBASID
Enter the 1 - 4 character system ID of the database you are
installing.
JOBCLASS
Enter the BS2000 jobclass to be used for background and server
tasks.
You can also modify the following keyword parameters when invoking this
procedure:
Parameter
Value
LOG
Enter WRITE-TEXT (the BS2000 command name) if you want to
have install actions listed.
UPDATE
Enter YES/NO to indicate whether existing files are to be
updated. The default is NO.
The $ORAC1120.INSTALL.P.DBA procedure copies the following files into the DBA
User ID account:
■
sid.P.ORAENV: Oracle Database environment definition file
■
sid.DBS.INIT.ORA: Oracle Database initialization file
where sid is the database ID for the database being installed.
4.1.3.2 Creating the Database
After installing the DBA procedures, you must create the database. This section
describes the procedure for creating the database, and for allocating the database file
and the log files.
4.1.3.2.1 Pre-Allocating the Files You can place the database file and the log files on the
default volume set for the DBA account, another Public Volume Set (PVS), or a specific
private volume.
To create a database file or a log file on a private disk, you must first allocate the file
using the BS2000 /FILE command as shown:
/FILE sid.DBS.DATABASE1.DBF,SPACE=filesize /[,DEVICE=device,VOLUME=volser]
/FILE sid.DBS.SYSAUX.DBF,SPACE=filesize //[,DEVICE=device,VOLUME=volser]
/FILE sid.DBS.LOG1.DBF,SPACE=filesize /[,DEVICE=device, VOLUME=volser]
/FILE sid.DBS.LOG2.DBF,SPACE=filesize /[,DEVICE=device, VOLUME=volser]
where:
sid identifies the database that you are installing.
filesize is the size of the file in PAM blocks. The file size specified in the /FILE
command must match the size specified to SQL*Plus in the CREATE DATABASE
statement when creating the database, plus 1 extra Oracle Database block used as an
extra header. The size of this block is 1 to 16 PAM pages depending on the Oracle
Creating and Upgrading a Database
4-5
Creating a Database
Database block size given in the init.ora parameter DB_BLOCK_SIZE, refer to
Appendix C, "Initialization Parameters and the Parameter File".
For example, if you want to create a 2 MB database file, then you must specify 1024
plus 1 PAM pages extra Oracle Database block as the value of file size in the FILE
command.
device specifies the device to be used to store the file.
volser specifies the volume to be used to store the file.
The names used in the preceding examples are the default database and log file names.
If you want to use other names, then remember to use these names in the SQL CREATE
DATABASE statement, when creating the database.
4.1.3.2.2 Modifying the Initialization File Determine what changes, if any, you want to
make to parameters in the distributed initialization file, sid.DBS.INIT.ORA (where sid
is the database ID for the database). The SGA parameters may need to be adjusted to
reflect memory limitations and the maximum number of users who can access the
Oracle Database system at one time. Make the modifications using a BS2000 editor.
Refer to Oracle Database Reference for an explanation of
initialization parameters
See Also:
4.1.3.2.3 Modifying the ORAENV File Modify the environment definition file,
sid.P.ORAENV, according to the specific requirements. Remember that a number of
variables are evaluated during startup only. If you modify the ORAENV file later on, then
you may have to wait for the next startup for the changes to become effective.
The character set in the ORAENV variable NLS_LANG, however, must not be changed
when you run some delivered SQL scripts.
4.1.3.2.4 Using SQL*Plus to Create the Database Remember that you must call the
applicable sid.P.ORAENV procedure before calling SQL*Plus. To execute SQL*Plus,
enter the following command:
/START-PROGRAM $ORAC1120.SQLPLUS
* /NOLOG
SQL> CONNECT / AS SYSDBA
SQL> STARTUP NOMOUNT [PFILE=filename]
/NOLOG omits being prompted for user name/password. CONNECT gives you a
connection to an idle instance. The last statement starts the Oracle Database instance. If
you want to use your own copy of the initialization file (sid.DBS.INIT.ORA), then use
the PFILE=filename option, as illustrated in the previous command.
SQL> CREATE DATABASE...;
This statement creates database and log files.
Note: If you get an error before the first SQL> prompt, then it may be
caused by either a missing ORAENV file (or ORASID not set in the
ORAENV), or sometimes by an address space conflict. For example, the
address range you assigned to the kernel memory pool (KNL_BASE)
could be occupied by a subsystem.
4-6 Oracle Database Installation and Administration Guide
Creating a Database
4.1.3.3 Installing Data Dictionary Views
Data dictionary views provide easy access to dictionary information. If you want to
use dictionary views, then you must install them by running SQL*Plus, by issuing the
CONNECT / AS SYSDBA command, and entering the following commands:
SQL> SPOOL filename
SQL> SET TERMOUT OFF
SQL> @$ORAC1120.RDBMS.ADMIN.CATALOG.SQL
Data dictionary views required for Export or Import are also installed in this sequence.
4.1.3.4 Installing Data Dictionary Views for PL/SQL
If you chose not to install the basic PL/SQL package automatically while running
INSTALL.P.SUPER, then you must perform the following task after the first STARTUP, in
order to make PL/SQL available.
Run SQL*Plus, issue the CONNECT / AS SYSDBA command, and run the SQL script
RDBMS.ADMIN.CATPROC.SQL to install the PL/SQL dictionary tables:
SQL>@$ORAC1120.RDBMS.ADMIN.CATPROC.SQL
4.1.3.5 Installing Online Help Messages
To install the online Help facility, enter the following command:
/CALL-PROCEDURE $ORAC1120.INSTALL.P.HELP,(sid [,SYSTEMPW=systempw])
4.1.3.6 Installing the Demo Tables
To install the demo tables, enter the following:
/CALL-PROCEDURE $ORAC1120.INSTALL.P.DEMO,(sid [,SYSTEMPW=systempw])
4.1.3.7 Installing the Sample Schemas
To install the Sample Schemas, enter the following:
/CALL-PROCEDURE $ORAC1120.INSTALL.P.SAMPLES,(sid /[,SYSTEMPW=systempw] [,SYSPW=syspw])
The procedure INSTALL.P.SAMPLES installs the sample schemas human resources (HR),
order entry (OE), info exchange (IX) and sales history (SH) with the default passwords.
product media (PM) is not supported.
Note: By default, the password for the SYSTEM user is MANAGER and
the password for the SYS user is CHANGE_ON_INSTALL. For security
reasons, Oracle recommends that you change these passwords and the
sample schema passwords immediately after installation.
4.1.3.8 Verifying Successful Creation of the Database
To verify that the demonstration database was correctly created, enter the following:
/CALL-PROCEDURE $ORAC1120.INSTALL.P.VERIFY,(sid [,SYSTEMPW=systempw])
If the demonstration database was correctly created, then you see messages like the
following one displayed on the screen:
*SCOTT'S TABLE EMP IS INSTALLED
Creating and Upgrading a Database
4-7
Upgrading a Database
4.1.3.9 Installing Oracle Text
Usage and installation of Oracle Text is summarized in the "Oracle Text" chapter of this
book.
4.1.3.10 Installing Java
Using and installing of Java is summarized in the chapter "Java in the Database" in this
book.
4.2 Upgrading a Database
This section contains information about upgrading your Oracle database that are
described in the following:
■
Upgrade from Version 9
■
Upgrade from Version 10
■
Postupgrade Activities
4.2.1 Upgrade from Version 9
For upgrading from version 9 refer to "Upgrading to the New Release of Oracle
Database" in Oracle Database Upgrade Guide.
4.2.2 Upgrade from Version 10
This section explains the BS2000 specific steps of the upgrade path. We assume the
reader to be familiar with Oracle Database 11g Release 2 upgrade documentation
about upgrade preparation, space and backup requirements, release differences, and
so on. Refer to Oracle Database Upgrade Guide for further information regarding
database upgrades. Oracle recommends reading the appropriate section in the generic
documentation, especially when you are using TIMESTAMP WITH TIME ZONE data type.
We further assume your Oracle Database 10g is set up and the Oracle Database 11g
Release 2 software is properly installed as explained in Chapter 3, "Oracle Database
Installation and Deinstallation". Thereafter, complete the following steps:
1.
Run the Pre-Upgrade Information Tool utlu112i.sql from Oracle Database 11g
installation id with SQL*Plus in your Oracle Database 10g environment to analyze
required parameters as follows (assuming the database is running):
/START-PROGRAM $ORACL1020.sqlplus
* /nolog
SQL> connect / as sysdba
SQL> SPOOL info.log
SQL> @$ORAC1120.rdbms.admin.utlu112i.sql;
SQL> SPOOL off
2.
Check the sections in the spoolfile for Logfiles, Tablespaces, and Rollback
Segments, and change the appropriate values of your database.
3.
Shutdown the database and exit SQL*Plus
SQL> SHUTDOWN IMMEDIATE
SQL> exit
4-8 Oracle Database Installation and Administration Guide
Upgrading a Database
4.
Enter the following command to create an Oracle Database 11g Release 2 init.ora
and an Oracle Database 11g Release 2 ORAENV file and save the original files under
the suffix .OLD.
/CALL-PROCEDURE $ORAC1120.INSTALL.P.DBA, (sid, jobclass, UPDATE=YES)
5.
Modify the newly created files according to your special requirements (for
instance PROCESSES, DB_CACHE_SIZE, and so on) and set the parameters in the
INIT.ORA file as recommended in the spoolfile. Ensure that the COMPATIBLE
initialization parameter is properly set for Oracle Database 10g Release 2 (10.2 or
higher).
6.
Set the Oracle environment variables using the ORAENV file:
/CALL-PROCEDURE sid.p.oraenv
To avoid being prompted for many overflow acknowledgements on your screen,
set the overflow to No:
/tchng oflow=no
7.
Start the instance in upgrade mode:
/START-PROGRAM $ORAC1120.sqlplus
* /nolog
SQL> connect / as sysdba
SQL> STARTUP UPGRADE
8.
Start the upgrade script:
SQL> SPOOL upgrade.log;
SQL> @$ORAC1120.rdbms.admin.catupgrd.sql;
SQL> SPOOL off
9.
Shut down and restart the instance to re-initialize the system parameters for
normal operation:
SQL> SHUTDOWN IMMEDIATE
SQL> STARTUP
10. Run the postupgrade script utlu112s.sql to display the results of the upgrade
and run catuppst.sql to finish the upgrade. Finally run utlrp.sql to recompile
any remaining stored PL/SQL and Java code and verify that all expected packages
and classes are valid:
SQL>
SQL>
SQL>
SQL>
SQL>
SQL>
SQL>
SPOOL postupgrade.log;
@$ORAC1120.rdbms.admin.UTLU112S.SQL;
SPOOL off
@$ORA11202.RDBMS.ADMIN.CATUPPST.SQL
@$ORAC1120.rdbms.admin.utlrp.sql;
SELECT count(*) FROM dba_objects WHERE status='INVALID';
SELECT distinct object_name FROM dba_objects WHERE status='INVALID';
Now you should have an upgraded Oracle Database 11g Release 2 database. For
troubleshooting, refer to "Upgrading to the New Oracle Database 10g Release" in
Oracle Database Upgrade Guide.
4.2.3 Postupgrade Activities
This section describes the tasks you must complete after upgrading your database to
Oracle Database 11g Release 2.
Creating and Upgrading a Database 4-9
Upgrading a Database
Re-compilation of C and COBOL Programmatic Interface Programs
All C and COBOL programs developed prior to release 11.2 must be precompiled
using the new version of the precompilers and recompiled.
Re-Linking Programmatic Interface Programs
All user-written precompiler or Oracle Call Interface applications must be re-linked
using the new Oracle Database libraries.
Rebuilding Oracle Database (openUTM) Applications
openUTM applications must be rebuilt. Refer to the chapters on openUTM in this
manual and in Oracle Database User's Guide for Fujitsu BS2000/OSD for more
information.
Updating ORAENV Files
Your ORAUID environment variable must reference the correct Oracle Database
installation user ID. Check your ORAENV files, and if necessary, amend the values of the
ORAUID and NLS_LANG environment variables.
4-10 Oracle Database Installation and Administration Guide
5
5
Administering Oracle Database
This chapter describes how to administer Oracle Database 11g Release 2 for
BS2000/OSD.
Common administration tasks are described in the following sections:
■
Using the SQL*Plus Utility
■
Startup and Parameter Files
■
Remote Startup of a Database Instance
■
Automatic Diagnostic Repository
■
Checking the Integrity of the Physical Data Structure
5.1 Using the SQL*Plus Utility
The following topics are described in this section:
■
Starting the SQL*Plus Utility in BS2000
■
Calling SQL*Plus from a Procedure
■
Using SQL*Plus in the POSIX shell
■
Running System Commands from SQL*Plus
■
Using an Editor in SQL*Plus
■
Customizing SQL*Plus Profiles
5.1.1 Starting the SQL*Plus Utility in BS2000
To start SQL*Plus, enter the following:
/START-PROGRAM $ORAC1120.SQLPLUS
When you are prompted for parameters, enter /NOLOG:
* /NOLOG
This prevents SQL*Plus from prompting you for user name and password. Later you
can explicitly connect to the database. For example:
SQL> CONNECT / AS SYSDBA
For more ways to start SQL*Plus, refer to "Running SQL*Plus" in Oracle Database User's
Guide for Fujitsu BS2000/OSD.
Administering Oracle Database 5-1
Using the SQL*Plus Utility
5.1.2 Calling SQL*Plus from a Procedure
Set Task Switch 1 to on (/MODIFY-JOB-SWITCHES ON=1). This forces SQL*Plus to read in
data from the procedure, rather than prompt you at the terminal.
5.1.3 Using SQL*Plus in the POSIX shell
Before starting SQL*Plus in the POSIX shell, you must set the environment variable
ORACLE_HOME and extend the POSIX variable PATH by the path to the Oracle bin
directory $ORACLE_HOME/bin. For example:
$
$
$
$
ORACLE_HOME=/u01/app/orac1120/product/dbhome_1
export ORACLE_HOME
PATH=$ORACLE_HOME/bin:$PATH
export PATH
Alternatively, you can process the profile oracle_home_path/.profile.oracle, which
is created during the installation of the Oracle software under POSIX. This profile sets
and expands the most important variables like ORACLE_HOME and PATH. Process the
profile as follows:
$ . /u01/app/orac1120/product/dbhome_1/.profile.oracle
If you want to start SQL*Plus for a specific Oracle instance, then you must also set the
variable ORACLE_SID. For starting an Oracle server process, the BS2000 variable BGJPAR
is required. This variable is not set by running .profile.oracle.
If you want to start a background job with special job parameters, for example, a job
should be assigned to a special JOB-CLASS, then ensure that the variable BGJPAR is set
in your environment.
$
$
$
$
ORACLE_SID=orcl
export ORACLE_SID
BGJPAR=’START=SOON,CPU-LIMIT=NO,J-C=JCBORA,LOGGING=*NO’
export BGJPAR
You can start SQL*Plus in the same way as on other UNIX systems with the following
command:
$ sqlplus /nolog
$ SQL> connect / as sysdba
5.1.4 Running System Commands from SQL*Plus
The SQL*Plus HOST command enables you to enter a BS2000 command, while you are
logged on to SQL*Plus.
Keep the following points in mind when using the HOST command:
■
■
If you enter the HOST command without any BS2000 command, then it takes you to
the command level. To return to SQL*Plus, you must use the RESUME command in
BS2000 or the exit command in the POSIX subshell.
If you enter the HOST command with a system command in the BS2000
environment, then you can only run BS2000 commands. In the POSIX shell, you
can run shell commands and BS2000 commands by using the shell command
bs2cmd.
5-2 Oracle Database Installation and Administration Guide
Startup and Parameter Files
5.1.5 Using an Editor in SQL*Plus
Start a text editor in SQL*Plus with the EDIT command, if you want to edit an SQL
statement.
If you run SQL*Plus in the native BS2000 environment, then the only editor supported
is BS2000 EDT.
If you run SQL*Plus in a POSIX shell, then the default editor depends on the terminal
connected with your POSIX session. If the POSIX shell is started on a blockmode
terminal, then the default editor in SQL*Plus is set to edtu. If the POSIX shell is started
by a remote X-client through rlogin or ssh using a xterm terminal, then the default
editor in SQL*Plus is set to vi.
SQL*Plus provides the opportunity to define a preferred text editor with the DEFINE _
EDITOR command. In the BS2000 environment, SQL*Plus accepts any editor you
specify in the DEFINE _EDITOR command, but the called editor is always the EDT. In the
POSIX environment you can define a preferred editor. For example, if you want to
define the editor, used by the EDIT command, to be the POSIX editor edtu, then enter
the following command in SQL*Plus:
DEFINE _EDITOR = edtu
Note:
■
The editor in the BS2000 environment is always the EDT.
■
The editor vi does not work on blockmode terminals.
■
The editor edtu does not work on xterm terminals.
5.1.6 Customizing SQL*Plus Profiles
The DBA can update the global SQL*Plus profile file,
$ORAC1120.SQLPLUS.ADMIN.GLOGIN.SQL, which is run when a user logs in to SQL*Plus.
This file is run before the user's local LOGIN.SQL and is provided to enable sites to set
up several defaults useful to all users. You can place any SQL and SQL*Plus statement
in GLOGIN.SQL.
SQL*Plus User's Guide and Reference for more information
about customizing SQL*PLUS profiles
See Also:
5.2 Startup and Parameter Files
Oracle uses two parameter files when starting the database:
1.
The ORAENV file, the environment definition file, which contains BS2000-specific
information. In the ORAENV file you identify the database to be started, or shut
down. You can use this file to set configuration variables, which adapt the Oracle
Database to the local operating system and application environment.
2.
The initialization file INIT.ORA or the server parameter file SPFILE, which exists in
all Oracle Database implementations and contains database-specific parameters.
This section describes the following:
■
The Environment Definition File ORAENV
■
The Initialization File INIT.ORA
Administering Oracle Database 5-3
Startup and Parameter Files
■
The Server Parameter File SPFILE
■
Using the Correct Initialization File
5.2.1 The Environment Definition File ORAENV
The ORAENV file is identified by sid.P.ORAENV, where SID is the database identifier. The
same ORAENV file must be used by SQL*Plus in BS2000 and by all background jobs. This
is ensured by the installation procedures, which create the basic ORAENV file. Refer to
Appendix B, "Oracle Environment Variables", for details of required and optional
ORAENV variables.
If you use SQL*Plus in the POSIX shell, then the requested BS2000 parameters set in
the ORAENV file must be specified. You can set the variables in the POSIX environment
or use the facility to access the BS2000 ORAENV file. When specifying the SID in the
POSIX ORAENV filename, ensure that the SID in the filename and the ORACLE_SID
variable use exactly the same case. For example, if you create a POSIX ORAENV file with
the SID in the filename in uppercase, then you must set the ORACLE_SID using exactly
the same SID.
$
$
$
$
$
echo '$ORADATA.ORCL.P.ORAENV' > $ORACLE_HOME/dbs/oraenvORCL
ORACLE_SID=ORCL
export ORACLE_SID
sqlplus /nolog
SQL> connect / as sysdba
Refer to "Starting Oracle Utilities in the POSIX environment" in Oracle Database User's
Guide for Fujitsu BS2000/OSD, for more information about how to set POSIX
environment variables.
5.2.2 The Initialization File INIT.ORA
Startup requires the INIT.ORA parameter file, which contains a list of specifications for
the Oracle database. These generic, that is, platform independent parameters, are used
to setup the instance. Refer to Oracle Database Administrator's Guide and Oracle Database
Reference for full descriptions of these parameters.
5.2.3 The Server Parameter File SPFILE
You can choose to maintain initialization parameters in a binary server parameter file.
A server parameter file is initially built from a traditional text initialization parameter
file using the CREATE SPFILE command. If you enter the following command:
CREATE SPFILE FROM PFILE;
where neither SPFILE name nor PFILE name is specified, then Oracle looks for a text
initialization file sid.DBS.INIT.ORA and creates a server parameter file
sid.DBS.SPFILE.ORA.
5.2.4 Using the Correct Initialization File
A default initialization file, called $ORAC1120.DEMO.DBS.INIT.ORA, is distributed with
Oracle Database. During the database creation procedure, this file is copied to the DBA
User ID and renamed, sid.DBS.INIT.ORA, where sid is the 1 to 4 character database
ID you specified at the beginning of the database creation procedure.
Oracle determines the value of SID by retrieving the ORASID environment variable
defined in the ORAENV file for the database. When you issue the STARTUP command
5-4 Oracle Database Installation and Administration Guide
Remote Startup of a Database Instance
with no PFILE clause, Oracle locates the initialization parameter file by examining file
names in the following order:
1.
sid.DBS.SPFILE.ORA
2.
DBS.SPFILE.ORA
3.
sid.DBS.INIT.ORA
If you want to use some other initialization file, then use the argument PFILE. For
example, to bring up a previously created database using an initialization file called
TEST.INIT.ORA, enter the following:
/START-PROGRAM $ORAC1120.SQLPLUS
* /NOLOG
At the SQL*Plus prompt, enter:
SQL> CONNECT / AS SYSDBA
SQL> STARTUP PFILE=TEST.INIT.ORA
5.3 Remote Startup of a Database Instance
This section describes the preparations for a remote startup using SQL*Plus:
1.
Usually, Oracle Database 11g Release 2 listener parameter file (LISTENER.ORA) does
not contain a static service registration section (SID_LIST) for a database service. In
case of a remote startup you must define this section for the desired database. For
example:
SID_LIST_LISTENER = (SID_LIST =
(SID_DESC =
(SID_NAME = ORCL)))
The listener must be running on the computer where the instance is to be started.
The listener must statically register the instance. If the listener does not run under
the same user ID as the instance you want to start, then you must define the
admissions to start a job under the user ID of the instance in the listener's ORAENV
file or you must use SECOS, Fujitsu's Security Control System for BS2000/OSD.
For more information refer to the Configuring the Network chapter in the Oracle
Net Services section of this guide.
2.
Create a password file with the Oracle utility ORAPWD under the user ID of the
instance you want to administrate. For more information of how to use ORAPWD,
refer to Oracle Database Administrator's Guide. To run the ORAPWD utility on BS2000,
use the following command:
/START-PROGRAM $ORAC1120.ORAPWD
*file=password_file password=my_password entries=10
3.
The name of the password file is taken from the parameter SSSIDPWF. So you must
add this parameter to the ORAENV file of the instance you want to start:
SSSIDPWF = password_file
4.
The parameter REMOTE_LOGIN_PASSWORDFILE must be set to EXCLUSIVE in the
initialization file of the instance.
REMOTE_LOGIN_PASSWORDFILE = EXCLUSIVE
Administering Oracle Database 5-5
Automatic Diagnostic Repository
5.
Execute SQL*Plus on the remote computer and connect as user sys to a server of
the instance you want to startup. In the following example, which shows the
commands for SQL*Plus on a UNIX client, we use the net service name orcl_on_
bs2000 to address the remote instance on the BS2000 computer:
sqlplus /nolog
SQL> connect sys@orcl_on_bs2000 as sysdba
Enter password:
password
Connected
SQL> startup
...
5.4 Automatic Diagnostic Repository
Automatic Diagnostic Repository (ADR) is a file-based hierarchical data store for
depositing diagnostic information produced by diagnostic framework clients. The
repository contains data describing incidents, traces, dumps, alert logs, health check
records, SQL Trace information, and other information essential for problem diagnosis.
"Managing Diagnostic Data" in Oracle Database
Administrators Guide for more information about Automatic Diagnostic
Repository
See Also:
This section describes the following:
■
Automatic Diagnostic Repository Directories and Files
■
ADR Command Interpreter
5.4.1 Automatic Diagnostic Repository Directories and Files
Automatic Diagnostic Repository (ADR) is a directory structure that is stored outside
of the database. It is therefore available for problem diagnosis when the database is
down.
The directories and files of the Automatic Diagnostic Repository are stored in the
POSIX file system.
Oracle Database Administrator's Guide for information
about the directory structure
See Also:
The ADR root directory is known as ADR base. Its location is set by the DIAGNOSTIC_
DEST initialization parameter. For example:
DIAGNOSTIC_DEST=/u01/app/orac1120/oradata/adr
If this parameter is omitted or left null, then the database sets DIAGNOSTIC_DEST upon
startup as follows:
■
■
If environment variable ORACLE_BASE is set, then DIAGNOSTIC_DEST is set to the
directory designated by ORACLE_BASE.
If environment variable ORACLE_BASE is not set, then DIAGNOSTIC_DEST is set to
ORACLE_HOME/log.
5-6 Oracle Database Installation and Administration Guide
Automatic Diagnostic Repository
Within ADR base, there can be multiple ADR homes, where each ADR home is the
root directory for all diagnostic data, such as traces, dumps, the alert log, and so on,
for a particular instance of a particular Oracle product or component.
Oracle Net Services also store diagnostic data in the ADR. The location for diagnostic
information for Oracle Net Services is set by the parameters ADR_BASE and ADR_BASE_
listener_name. These are set in the Oracle Net Services parameter files sqlnet.ora
and listener.ora.
"Troubleshooting Oracle Net Services" in Oracle Net
Services Administrator's Guide for more information about diagnostic
information for Oracle Net Services
See Also:
You can read the text files of the Automatic Diagnostic Repository with text editors
such as vi, edtu, or with POSIX shell commands such as cat, more.
You can investigate the ADR with the utility ADRCI.
5.4.2 ADR Command Interpreter
ADR Command Interpreter (ADRCI) is a utility that enables you to investigate
problems, view health check reports, and package first-failure diagnostic data within a
command-line environment. You can then upload the package to Oracle Support.
ADRCI also enables you to view the names of the trace files in the ADR, and to view
the alert log with XML tags stripped, with and without content filtering.
"ADRCI: ADR Command Interpreter" in Oracle Database
Utilities for more information about ADRCI
See Also:
Start the command-line utility ADRCI in the POSIX shell. Before starting ADRCI, set
the environment variable ORACLE_HOME and extend the environment variable PATH by
the path name of the Oracle directory oracle_home_path/bin. Additional environment
variables, such as ORACLE_SID, are not required. Refer to "Starting Oracle Utilities in
the POSIX environment" in Oracle Database User's Guide for Fujitsu BS2000/OSD for
more information about Oracle Database utilities.
After setting these environment variables, start ADRCI in the POSIX shell by entering
adrci after the POSIX shell command prompt.
Note: ADRCI cannot be started in the normal BS2000 environment.
ADRCI must be started in the POSIX shell.
Display the current ADR base with the ADRCI show base command. The current ADR
home can be displayed with the show homes command.
Set ADR base with the set base command. ADR home can be set with the set home
command.
The command show alert shows the contents of the alert log in a text editor.
If you use a blockmode terminal, then the default editor for ADRCI on Fujitsu
BS2000/OSD is edtu. If you use an xterm terminal after having logged in to POSIX
through rlogin or ssh, then the default editor for ADRCI is vi.
Administering Oracle Database 5-7
Checking the Integrity of the Physical Data Structure
You can either select the preferred text editor by setting the environment variable
EDITOR before starting ADRCI or specify your preferred text editor within ADRCI with
the ADRCI set editor command.
Note: The editor vi does not work on blockmode terminals and the
editor edtu does not work on xterm terminals.
With ADRCI you can invoke Incident Packaging Service (IPS) to create packages for
incidents with the commands ips create package and ips generate package. The
resulting zip file can be uploaded to Oracle Support.
5.5 Checking the Integrity of the Physical Data Structure
To check the data-structure integrity of offline databases, use the DBVERIFY
command-line utility. To start DBVERIFY enter the following command:
/START-PROGRAM $ORAC1120.DBV
You can now enter the command, for example:
file=ora11.dbs.database1.dbf blocksize=4096 feedback=100
Oracle Database Administrator's Guide and Oracle Database
Utilities for more information about the DBVERIFY program
See Also:
5-8 Oracle Database Installation and Administration Guide
6
6
Backing Up and Recovering a Database
This chapter supplements the generic Oracle Database documentation set with
information about backup and recovery.
Refer to the following Oracle manuals for detailed information about database backup
and recovery:
■
Oracle Database Concepts
■
Oracle Database Administrator's Guide
■
Oracle Database Backup and Recovery User's Guide
You can choose among many methods and Oracle tools for backup and recovery. You
may use the Import and Export Utilities for logical backup and recovery. For physical
backup and recovery you may use Recovery Manager (RMAN) or operating system
utilities.
This chapter describes some BS2000 specific issues if you apply user-managed backup
and recovery with SQL*Plus and BS2000 utilities.
Refer to Section 6.1.2, "Online Backup" for information about RMAN on BS2000.
6.1 Backing Up an Oracle Database
You can use one of the following methods to back up an Oracle Database.
■
Using BS2000 Utilities to Back Up an Oracle Database
■
Online Backup
6.1.1 Using BS2000 Utilities to Back Up an Oracle Database
You can back up an Oracle database using BS2000 operating system utilities (for
example, ARCHIVE or the /COPY-FILE command).
Use the following steps to back up an Oracle database:
1.
While the database is running, collect the names of all files, which make up Oracle
database. You can determine the names of the log and database files by entering
the following commands:
/START-PROGRAM $ORAC1120.SQLPLUS
* /NOLOG
SQL> CONNECT / AS SYSDBA
SQL> SELECT * FROM V$DATAFILE;
SQL> SELECT * FROM V$LOGFILE;
Backing Up and Recovering a Database 6-1
Recovering Databases
2.
To ensure that all Oracle database files are synchronized at the time of the backup,
shut down Oracle database using SQL*Plus.
3.
Back up all database files and log files using the BS2000 ARCHIVE utility or the
BS2000 /COPY-FILE command. You should always back up all files at the same
time.
4.
Restart Oracle Database using SQL*Plus.
6.1.2 Online Backup
You can perform an online backup of the database or individual tablespaces by using
either:
■
■
the BS2000 ARCHIVE utility together with Oracle Database INSTALL.C.OPNBACK
utility
the BS2000 PERCON utility
The ARCHIVE method is faster, and is described in this section.
Before you can perform an online (hot) backup of individual tablespaces, you must
ensure that the ARCHIVE utility can back up open files.
The following BS2000 command ensures that ARCHIVE can back up all open files:
/START-PROGRAM
*filename
$ORAC1120.INSTALL.C.OPNBACK
The INSTALL.C.OPNBACK utility calls the BS2000 macro CATAL, which sets the OPNBACK
file attribute to YES. For the CATAL macro to work the database must be shut down or
the tablespace in question must be offline. You enter this command once for each file.
For example, before adding it to a tablespace, not on the occasion of each backup.
You must never back up database files online without first setting the tablespace to
backup mode. If you do not follow this step, then the resulting backup files are
inconsistent. To perform an online backup of individual tablespaces or data files, use
the following procedure:
1.
Enter the following command:
SQL> ALTER TABLESPACE name BEGIN BACKUP;
2.
Back up the files of the tablespace using the BS2000 utility ARCHIVE utility.
Ensure that the OLS parameter of ARCHIVE is set to YES.
3.
Enter the following command:
SQL> ALTER TABLESPACE name END BACKUP;
Note: The preceding SQL*Plus commands operate on tablespaces,
while the ARCHIVE utility operates on data files.
6.2 Recovering Databases
An Oracle Database can be restored offline from backups, using the following steps:
1.
Copy all the database files and the log files from the backup. You may use the
BS2000 ARCHIVE utility or the BS2000 /COPY-FILE command. Files must be restored
with their original name.
6-2 Oracle Database Installation and Administration Guide
Recovery Manager
While Oracle database is running, the names of all files which it comprises can be
determined by querying the table V$DATAFILE. Enter the following command
when the SQL prompt is displayed:
SQL> select file#,name FROM V$DATAFILE;
The following is an example of the result that is displayed:
FILE#NAME
------------------------------1
:pvs:$dbauserid.sid.DBS.DATABASE1.DBF
2
:pvs:$dbauserid.sid.DBS.DATABASE2.DBF
2 ROWS SELECTED.
You can determine the name of the log files in a similar way:
SQL> SELECT GROUP#,MEMBER FROM V$LOGFILE;
The following is an example of the result that is displayed:
GROUP#MEMBER
------------------------------1
:pvs:$dbauserid.sid.DBS.LOG1.DBF
2
:pvs:$dbauserid.sid.DBS.LOG2.DBF
2 ROWS SELECTED.
2.
Under the DBA user ID, ensure that the ORASID environment variable identifies the
Oracle Database, which is to be restored.
3.
Use the SQL*Plus STARTUP command to start the Oracle database.
6.3 Recovery Manager
On BS2000/OSD, Recovery Manager does not support tapes. Disks are the only
backup media.
As a workaround, you could use the Recovery Manager output as a first level storage
to be 'migrated' by BS2000 subsystem HSMS (Hierarchical Storage Management
System) to tapes. However, it is the administrator's responsibility to care for
cooperation of the two systems.
Recovery Manager must use an Oracle Net Services connection. For this purpose you
can:
■
use a Bequeath Server (refer to Chapter 9, "Oracle Net Services")
■
create a password file, start a listener, and connect through Oracle Net Services
The following is an example of a Recovery Manager command:
/START-PROG $ORAC1120.RMAN
*target "dba1/dba1@i1" catalog "dba2/dba2@i2" cmdfile "b.dat" log "b.log"
Backing Up and Recovering a Database 6-3
Recovery Manager
6-4 Oracle Database Installation and Administration Guide
7
7
Tuning Oracle Database
Careful tuning can dramatically increase the speed of an Oracle database. This chapter
describes how you can monitor and tune the system for optimal performance of Oracle
database. For a general discussion of performance and tuning issues, refer to Oracle
Database Administrator's Guide and Oracle Database Performance Tuning Guide.
This chapter covers BS2000 specific tuning parameters.
You should always tune Oracle database. In addition, you may need to fine tune or
reconfigure the BS2000/OSD operating system to achieve optimal performance, or to
support more users than the basic configuration enables.
7.1 BS2000/OSD-Specific Parameters
This section describes ORAENV environment variables for BS2000/OSD-specific Oracle
Database performance tuning.
7.1.1 Task Priority
Apart from generic or BS2000/OSD-specific Oracle Database tuning options, the
BS2000/OSD priority of Oracle Database tasks at run-time, and their run-time priority
balance, can have a lot of influence on the overall throughput and the time delays
experienced.
Initially, all foreground (network server) and background tasks have the same
run-time priority, as specified by the ORAENV environment variable, BGJPAR. Server
tasks automatically become TP tasks, and the background tasks also switches to TP
mode, if the JOIN entry permits this.
Both before and while changing run-time priorities, you should use SM2 to investigate
task behavior and possible bottlenecks. There is no simple rule that says that certain
tasks always have a high priority.
Tuning Oracle Database 7-1
BS2000/OSD-Specific Parameters
7-2 Oracle Database Installation and Administration Guide
8
8
openUTM Product Set
This chapter describes how to use the BS2000/OSD transaction monitor openUTM for
coordinated interoperation with Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2). The following
areas are covered:
■
Operation of Oracle Database Using openUTM Programs
■
Distributed openUTM Files
■
Installing
■
Developing an Oracle Database/openUTM Application
■
Troubleshooting
8.1 Operation of Oracle Database Using openUTM Programs
Universal Transaction Monitor (openUTM) controls the execution of user programs
that can be used from a large number of terminals at the same time.
An openUTM application consists of a structured sequence of processing stages that
are supplied with access rights for the specific user. These stages, in turn, consist of
openUTM transactions that are carried out either in their entirety, or not at all.
If several users are working under openUTM at the same time, then simultaneous
access to the shared database is also usually required. The database/data
communications system (DB/DC system), Oracle Database/openUTM, synchronizes
access by openUTM applications to Oracle Database, and ensures that the database
remains in a consistent state. In the event of system failure, the DB/DC system
performs an automatic recovery, which ensures that the database remains in a
consistent state.
Synchronization of Oracle and openUTM is done through the XA interface. The XA
interface is an X/Open interface for the coordination between database systems and
transaction monitors. Refer to Developing Applications with Oracle XA chapter in
Oracle Database Advanced Application Developer's Guide for a description of the concepts
of the XA interface.
8.2 Distributed openUTM Files
When you install Oracle Database, as described in Chapter 3, "Oracle Database
Installation and Deinstallation", the openUTM related software of the Oracle Database
software is installed. The distributed openUTM files comprise of:
■
XAO.LIB
This file contains the connection module for the XA interface.
openUTM Product Set
8-1
Installing
■
The following files provide examples of procedures and programs:
UTM.DEMO.P.COMPILE.C
UTM.DEMO.P.COMPILE.COBOL
UTM.DEMO.P.KDCDEF
UTM.DEMO.P.KDCROOT
UTM.DEMO.P.PROBIND
UTM.DEMO.P.PROSTRT
UTM.DEMO.CSELEMP.PC
UTM.DEMO.SELDEP.PCO
UTM.DEMO.SELEMP.PCO
UTM.DEMO.UPDEMP.PCO
UTM.DEMO.ERRSQL.C
UTM.DEMO.ERRTXT.C
8.3 Installing
Perform the following step to install after studying the Oracle Database Advanced
Application Developer's Guide:
■
Grant the SELECT privilege to the DBA_PENDING_TRANSACTIONS table for all
openUTM users connecting to the Oracle Database. Use the following example to
grant the SELECT privilege to user scott:
grant select on DBA_PENDING_TRANSACTIONS to scott;
The openUTM users are identified in the Open String with the Item Acc. Refer to
Defining an Open String section on page 8-4 in this chapter.
8.4 Developing an Oracle Database/openUTM Application
Oracle Database 11g on BS2000 supports openUTM V6.0 or higher. openUTM supports
the XA interface. Oracle Database 11g on BS2000 coordinates with openUTM through
this XA interface.
The steps involved in developing an Oracle Database application for coordinated
inter-operation with openUTM are described in this section. The main steps are as
follows:
1.
Building the openUTM program units
2.
Defining the configuration
3.
Translating the KDCROOT table module and openUTM program units
4.
Linking the openUTM application program
5.
Starting the openUTM application
In addition, this section also describes how you define open strings and how you use
precompilers with the Oracle XA library.
1.
Building the openUTM program units:
(refer to the openUTM manual Programming Applications with KDCS for COBOL, C,
and C++, and the Oracle Database User's Guide for Fujitsu BS2000/OSD)
2.
Defining the configuration:
(refer to the openUTM manuals Generating Applications and Administering
Applications)
8-2 Oracle Database Installation and Administration Guide
Developing an Oracle Database/openUTM Application
An Oracle Database/openUTM application requires the following information for
execution:
■
Information about the application
■
Username/password with access protection
■
Information about the terminal and communication partners
■
Information about the transaction codes
These properties collectively form the configuration, which is stored in the
KDCFILE file. The configuration definition is carried out by the KDCDEF utility.
This section gives the descriptions for three commands that are important for
connecting to the Oracle database. They are:
■
DATABASE
When the Oracle Database/openUTM application is generated, you must
specify that openUTM communicates with the Oracle Database. Enter the
following command to specify openUTM communication with the database:
DATABASE TYPE=XA,ENTRY=XAOSWD
where TYPE=XA specifies the use of the XA interface and ENTRY=XAOSWD
specifies the name of the XA switch for the Oracle database (for dynamic
registration).
■
OPTION
If you specify the corresponding GEN operand in the OPTION command, then
the KDCDEF utility also produces the source-code for the KDCROOT table module.
The syntax of OPTION is as follows:
OPTION [DATA=filename][,GEN={KDCFILE|ROOTSRC|NO|ALL}]
[,ROOTSRC=filename][,SHARETAB=filename]
[,TEST={N[o]|Y[ES]}]
■
MAX
Another important operand is APPLIMODE, which is specified in the MAX
command. This determines restart behavior after a system failure. The syntax
of MAX is as follows:
MAX APPLINAME=name[,APPLIMODE={S[ECURE]|F[AST]}]
[,ASYNTASKS=number][...]
APPLIMODE=SECURE means that openUTM continues after an application
malfunction with a coordinated warm-start of the openUTM application and
the Oracle database.
If you specify APPLIMODE=FAST, then no openUTM application restart is
executed, as openUTM stores no restart information. In the event of an error,
the application starts from scratch. Transactions that are still open after an
openUTM-application malfunction are rolled back automatically.
See the UTM.DEMO.P.KDCDEF file for an example procedure for building the KDCFILE
and the KDCROOT table module.
3.
Translating the KDCROOT table module and openUTM program units:
The source of the KDCROOT table module should be compiled with the BS2000
Assembler and the openUTM program units should be compiled with the
openUTM Product Set
8-3
Developing an Oracle Database/openUTM Application
corresponding programming language compilers. See the example procedure
UTM.DEMO.P.KDCROOT for the compilation of the KDCROOT table module.
4.
Linking the openUTM application program:
The openUTM application program is produced by linking the KDCROOT table
module with the openUTM program units.
You must include the stub module XAOSTUB:
INC-MOD LIB=ORAUID.XAO.LIB,ELEM=XAOSTUB
Note: Instead of writing the binding procedure, you should use the
example procedure UTM.DEMO.P.PROBIND and apply modifications
when needed.
If you must write your own binding procedure, then study the
example carefully before writing one.
5.
Starting the openUTM application:
An example procedure for starting the openUTM application can be found in the
file UTM.DEMO.P.PROSTRT.
When starting the openUTM application, you must specify the start parameters
for openUTM, as well as for the Oracle Database.
The openUTM start parameters are described in the openUTM manual Using
openUTM Applications under BS2000/OSD.
The start parameter for using the XA interface for coordinated inter-operation with
Oracle Database 10g is:
.RMXA RM="Oracle_XA",OS="<ORACLE open string>"
8.4.1 Defining an Open String
This section describes how to construct an open string. The transaction monitor uses
this string to open the database. The maximum number of characters in an open string
is 256, and the maximum number of open strings is 8. Construct the string as follows:
Oracle_XA{+required_fields...}[+optional_fields...]
where the required_fields are:
■
Acc=P/user/access_info
■
SesTm=session_time_limit
and the optional_fields are:
■
DB=db_name
■
MaxCur=maximum_no_of_open_cursors
■
SqlNet=connect_string
■
DbgFl=value_from_1_to_15
8-4 Oracle Database Installation and Administration Guide
Developing an Oracle Database/openUTM Application
Notes:
Remember the following:
■
■
■
You can enter the required fields and optional fields in any order
when constructing the open string.
All field names are case-insensitive, although their values may or
may not be case-sensitive depending on the system.
You may not use the "+" character as part of the actual open string.
8.4.1.1 Required Fields
The required fields for the open string are:
Item
Meaning
Acc
Specifies user access information.
P
Indicates that explicit user and password information is provided.
user
A valid Oracle Database username.
access_info
The corresponding current password.
For example, Acc=P/scott/tiger indicates that user and password information is
provided. In this case, the user is scott and the password is tiger.
For the correct process, ensure that scott has the SELECT privilege on the DBA_
PENDING_TRANSACTIONS table.
Item
Meaning
SesTm
Specifies the maximum amount of time a transaction can be inactive
before it is automatically deleted by the system.
session_time_limit
This value should correspond to what you require as a maximum
time from initiation of a global transaction and the completed
commit or rollback of that transaction.
8.4.1.2 Optional Fields
Optional fields for the open string are described in the following table:
Item
Meaning
DB
Specifies the database name.
db_name
Indicates the name used in Oracle Database precompilers to identify
the database.
Application programs that use only the default database for the Oracle
Database precompiler, that is, do not use the AT clause in their SQL
statements, should omit the DB=db_name clause in the open string.
Note: This default database is represented in the ORAENV file by ORASID.
Applications that use explicitly–named databases should indicate that
database name in their DB=db_name field.
For example, DB=payroll indicates that the database name is payroll
and that the application server program uses that name in AT clauses.
openUTM Product Set
8-5
Developing an Oracle Database/openUTM Application
For more information about precompilers, specifically Pro*C, refer to the section Using
Precompilers with openUTM later in this chapter.
Item
Meaning
MaxCur
Specifies the number of cursors to be allocated when the
database is opened. It serves the same purpose as the
precompiler option maxopencursors.
maximum_no_of_open_cursors
Indicates the number of open cursors. The default is 10.
For example, MaxCur=5 indicates that the process should try to keep five open cursors
cached.
For more information about maxopencursors, refer to the Oracle Database Programmer's
Guide to the Oracle Precompilers.
Item
Meaning
SqlNet
Specifies the SQL*Net connection string.
connect_string
Indicates the string to be used to log onto the system. This can be any
supported Oracle Net Services connect string.
For example:
SqlNet=MADRID_FINANCE indicates an entry in TNSNAMES.ORA referencing a protocol, a
host, and a portnumber. For more information, refer to Chapter 9, "Oracle Net
Services" in this book.
Item
Meaning
DbgFl
Specifies if debugging should be enabled (debug flag). For more
information refer to Debugging in the subsequent section in this
chapter.
8.4.1.3 Examples
This section contains examples of open strings using the preceding information.
Note: If the string is longer than one line, then refer to the openUTM
documentation for information about how to split up the string
information.
For bequeath protocol:
Oracle_XA+Acc=P/scott/tiger+SesTm=0+DbgFl=15
For other protocols:
Oracle_XA+SqlNet=MADRID_FINANCE+Acc=P/scott/tiger+SesTm=0
Oracle_XA+DB=finance+SqlNet=MADRID_FINANCE+Acc=P/scott/tiger
+SesTM=0
The optional fields LogDir, Loose_Coupling, SesWT, and Threads are not supported.
For more information about the fields in the open string refer to the Developing
Applications with Oracle XA section in Oracle Database Advanced Application Developer's
Guide.
8-6 Oracle Database Installation and Administration Guide
Developing an Oracle Database/openUTM Application
8.4.2 Using Precompilers with openUTM
You can choose from two options when interfacing with precompilers:
■
Using precompilers with the default database
■
Using precompilers with a named database
You should run all precompiler programs with the option release_cursor set to no.
Precompiler programs may be written in C or COBOL. In the following examples, the
precompiler Pro*C is used.
8.4.2.1 Using Pro*C with the Default Database
To interface to Pro*C with the default database, ensure that the DB=db_name field used
in the open string is not present. The absence of this field indicates the default
connection as defined in the ORAENV file, and only one default connection is allowed for
each process.
The following is an example of an open string identifying a default Pro*C connection:
Oracle_XA+SqlNet=MADRID_FINANCE+Acc=P/scott/tiger+SesTm=0
Here, DB=db_name is absent, indicating an empty database identifier string.
The following is the syntax of a select statement:
EXEC SQL SELECT ENAME FROM EMP;
8.4.2.2 Using Pro*C with a Named Database
To interface to Pro*C with a named database, include the DB=db_name field in the open
string. Any database you refer to must reference the same db_name specified in the
corresponding open string.
An application may include the default database, as well as one or more named
databases, as shown in the following examples.
For example, suppose you want to update an employee's salary in one database, the
department number deptno in another, and the manager information in a third
database. You would configure the following open strings in the transaction manager:
Oracle_XA+SqlNet=MADRID_FINANCE1+Acc=P/scott/tiger+SesTm=0
Oracle_XA+DB=MANAGERS+SqlNet=MADRID_FINANCE2+
Acc=P/scott/tiger+SesTm=0
Oracle_XA+DB=PAYROLL+SqlNet=MADRID_FINANCE3+
Acc=P/scott/tiger+SesTm=0
There is no DB=db_name field in the first open string.
In the application program, you would enter declarations such as:
EXEC SQL DECLARE PAYROLL DATABASE;
EXEC SQL DECLARE MANAGERS DATABASE;
Again, the default connection corresponding to the first open string that does not
contain the db_name field, does not require a declaration.
When doing the update, enter statements similar to the following:
EXEC SQL AT PAYROLL update emp set sal=4500 where empno=7788;
EXEC SQL AT MANAGERS update emp set mgr=7566 where empno=7788;
EXEC SQL update emp set deptno=30 where empno=7788;
There is no AT clause in the last statement because it refers to the default database.
openUTM Product Set
8-7
Troubleshooting
You can use a character host variable in the AT clause, as the following example
shows:
EXEC SQL BEGIN DECLARE SECTION;
db_name1 CHARACTER(10);
db_name2 CHARACTER(10)
EXEC SQL END DECLARE SECTION;
.
.
set db_name1 = 'PAYROLL'
set db_name2 = 'MANAGERS'
.
.
EXEC SQL AT :db_name1 UPDATE...
EXEC SQL AT :db_name2 UPDATE...
For more information, refer to the respective sections in the Pro*COBOL Programmer's
Guide and Pro*C/C++ Programmer's Guide that discusses concurrent logons.
Note:
■
■
Application servers must not create Oracle database connections
of their own. Therefore, an openUTM user is not allowed to issue
CONNECT statements within an openUTM program. Any work
performed by them would be outside the global transaction, and
may confuse the connection information given by openUTM.
SQL calls must not occur in the openUTM start exit routine,
however may occur in the conversation exit routine
(Vorgangs-Exit)
8.5 Troubleshooting
This section discusses how to recover data if there are problems or a system failure.
Both trace files and recovering pending transactions are discussed in the following
sections.
8.5.1 Trace Files
The Oracle XA library logs any error and tracing information to its trace file. This
information is useful in supplementing the XA error codes. For example, it can
indicate whether an open failure is caused by an incorrect open string, failure to find
the Oracle Database instance, or a login authorization failure. The name of the trace
file is:
ORAXALOG.pid-db_name-date.TRC
where
pid is the process identifier (TSN)
db_name is the database name you specified in the open string field DB=db_name
date is the date when the trace file is created
8.5.1.1 Trace File Examples
Examples of two types of trace files are discussed in this section.
8-8 Oracle Database Installation and Administration Guide
Troubleshooting
The following example shows a trace file for an application's task '1234' that was
opened on April 2nd 1999. The DB field for this application was not specified in the
open string when the resource manager was opened
ORAXALOG.1234-NULL-990402.TRC
The following example shows a trace file that was created on December 15th 1998 by
task 5678. The DB field was specified as FINANCE in the open string when the resource
manager was opened.
ORAXALOG.5678-FINANCE-981215.TRC
Each entry in the trace file contains information that looks like this:
1032.2: xa_switch rtn ORA-22
where 1032 is the time when the information is logged, 2 is the resource manager
identifier, xa_switch is the module name, and ORA-22 is the returned Oracle database
information.
8.5.2 Debugging
You can specify the DbgFl (debug flag) in the open string. For more information, refer
to the Oracle XA chapter in Oracle Database Advanced Application Developer's Guide.
Depending on the debugging level (low:DbgFl=1,high:DbgFl=15) you can get more or
less debug entries in the trace file ORAXALOG.pid-db_name-date.TRC (refer to the
preceding section).
8.5.3 In-Doubt or Pending Transactions
In-doubt or pending transactions are transactions that have been prepared but not yet
committed to the database. Generally, openUTM resolves any failure and recovery of
any in-doubt or pending transaction. However, the Database Administrator may have
to override an in-doubt transaction in working with UTM-F, that is, APPLIMODE=FAST,
for example when the in-doubt transaction is:
■
Locking data that is required by other transactions
■
Not resolved in a reasonable amount of time
Note: Overriding in-doubt transactions can cause inconsistency
between openUTM and the database. For example, if the DB
transaction is committed by the Database Administrator and the
openUTM application rolls back the transaction in the warm-start
phase, then the Oracle Database cannot roll this committed transaction
back, therefore, causing an inconsistency.
8.5.4 Oracle Database SYS Account Tables
There are four tables under the Oracle Database SYS account that contain transactions
generated by regular Oracle Database applications and Oracle Database/openUTM
applications. These are as follows:
■
DBA_2PC_PENDING
■
DBA_2PC_NEIGHBORS
■
DBA_PENDING_TRANSACTIONS
openUTM Product Set
8-9
Troubleshooting
■
V$GLOBAL_TRANSACTION
Note: For detailed information about how to use these tables, refer to
the sections in the Oracle Database Administrator's Guide that discuss
failures during two-phase commit and manually overriding in-doubt
transactions.
For transactions generated by Oracle Database/openUTM applications, the following
column information applies specifically to the DBA_2PC_NEIGHBORS table:
■
The DBID column is always xa_orcl.
■
The DBUSER_OWNER column is always db_namexa.oracle.com.
Remember that the db_name is always specified as DB=db_name in the open string. If
you do not specify this field in the open string, then the value of this column is
NULLxa.oracle.com for transactions that are generated by Oracle Database/openUTM
applications.
For example, you could use the following sample SQL statement to find out more
information about in-doubt transactions that are generated by Oracle
Database/openUTM applications.
SELECT * FROM DBA_2PC_PENDING p, DBA_2PC_NEIGHBORS n
WHERE p.LOCAL_TRAN_ID = n.LOCAL_TRAN_ID AND n.DBID = 'xa_orcl';
8-10 Oracle Database Installation and Administration Guide
9
9
Oracle Net Services
This chapter describes Oracle Net Services and it’s implementation in the BS2000/OSD
environment. It supplements the Oracle Database Net Services Administrator's Guide with
BS2000/OSD-specific information about the following topics:
■
Introducing Oracle Net Services
■
Shared Server Architecture
■
Oracle Advanced Security
■
Configuring the Network
■
Troubleshooting Oracle Net Services
9.1 Introducing Oracle Net Services
Oracle Net Services supports network communication between a client application
and a remote or local database running on a variety of operating systems.
Oracle Net Services allows the database servers and the client applications, or servers
acting as clients, to run on separate systems, and provides a means for moving data
between the nodes on a network. For example, a UNIX or Windows user can run
applications that access and manipulate data in a remote Oracle database running on a
BS2000 system
Oracle Net Services is also used for Inter Process Communication if clients and
database are running on the same system.
9.1.1 IPC Protocol Support
This section introduces Oracle’s Interprocess Communication (IPC) protocol support
for inter-process calls. It is used to map the functionality of IPC to Oracle's Net
Foundation Layer. The IPC protocol is supported for native BS2000 only. Oracle
Utilities and products running in the POSIX shell cannot use the IPC protocol.
9.1.1.1 Overview of IPC
On BS2000 systems, the IPC protocol is used for local inter-process communication.
The Oracle Protocol Support for IPC uses the ISO functionality of the BS2000 sockets.
The client process initiates its IPC connection with the remote process by specifying a
KEY that describes the listening process. Once the connection is established, the two
communicating processes send and receive data through a continuous byte stream.
Oracle Net Services
9-1
Introducing Oracle Net Services
9.1.1.2 Using the IPC Protocol
The IPC protocol allows applications to integrate with the Inter Process
Communication method on a local host. The following is the syntax for using IPC
protocol:
(ADDRESS=
(PROTOCOL=IPC)
(KEY=alphanumeric)
)
where
PROTOCOL specifies the supported protocol. For IPC, the value is "IPC".
KEY specifies the listen endpoint. A string of at most 32 characters: [a...z], [A...Z], [0...9],
'.', '-', '_', '$'
The following is an example of an IPC ADDRESS that specifies a server on a local host:
(ADDRESS=
(PROTOCOL=IPC)
(KEY=ORCL)
)
Note: The IPC protocol is not supported in the POSIX shell. If the
IPC protocol is specified by a utility or user application running in the
POSIX shell, then Oracle Net Services avoids using the IPC protocol
with the following error message:
TNS-12557: TNS:protocol adapter not loadable
9.1.2 TCP/IP Protocol Support
This section introduces Oracle’s TCP/IP protocol support, which is used to map the
functionality within TCP/IP to Oracle's Net Foundation Layer.
9.1.2.1 Overview of TCP/IP
TCP/IP is a family of related protocols that derives its name from two main
components: the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and the Internet Protocol (IP).
The IP component dispatches information around the network, and the TCP
component assures reliable transfer of data from one point to another.
Application software sitting on top of the TCP/IP protocol views the network as a
reliable two-way data transmission medium. This medium provides inter-process
communication in a connection-oriented manner between pairs of processes in host
computers attached to inter-connected computer networks.
The application or client process initiates its TCP/IP connection with the remote host
process by specifying an address pair:
■
A host IP address
■
A TCP port (or entry point) on the host
Once the connection is established, the pair of communicating processes sends and
receives data through a continuous byte stream. The TCP/IP protocol is supported in
BS2000 and the POSIX shell.
9-2 Oracle Database Installation and Administration Guide
Introducing Oracle Net Services
9.1.3 Using the TCP/IP Protocol
The TCP/IP protocol support implements a standard interface that is used to resolve
the equivalent communication functions between the TCP/IP protocol and Oracle's
Net Foundation Layer.
After the TCP/IP protocol is installed for the particular system, you can use the
TCP/IP–specific parameters with the TNS connect descriptors to identify nodes within
a TCP/IP-based community.
The specific TCP/IP connection parameters are part of the ADDRESS keyword-value
pair. The three TCP/IP–specific parameters can be entered in any order within the
ADDRESS construct. The syntax used by Oracle's TCP/IP protocol support is:
(ADDRESS=
(PROTOCOL=TCP)
(HOST=hostname)
(PORT=port#)
)
where
PROTOCOL specifies the supported protocol. For TCP/IP, the value is TCP.
HOST specifies the host name or the host's IP address.
PORT specifies the TCP/IP port number.
The following is an example of the TCP/IP ADDRESS specifying a client on the
sales-server host:
(ADDRESS=
(PROTOCOL=TCP)
(HOST=sales-server)
(PORT=1521)
)
9.1.4 Bequeath Protocol
The Bequeath technique enables clients to connect to a database without using the
network listener. Oracle's Bequeath protocol internally spawns a server process for
each client application. It does the same operation that a remote network listener does
for the connection locally.
Note: Starting with Oracle Database 10g the BEQ protocol uses the
handoff technique which makes this protocol incompatible with the
BEQ protocol of prior versions. As a consequence of this
enhancement, Oracle Database 11g applications cannot directly spawn
a process of a version prior to Oracle Database 10g and connect to it
through the BEQ protocol.
9.1.4.1 Overview of the Bequeath Protocol
The Bequeath protocol
■
Does not use a network listener (therefore, no listener configuration is required).
■
Automatically spawns a dedicated server
Oracle Net Services
9-3
Shared Server Architecture
■
■
Is used for local connections where an Oracle Database client application, such as
SQL*Plus, communicates with an Oracle Database instance running on the same
computer.
Only works in Dedicated Server mode. It cannot be used in a Shared Server mode.
Note: If clients are running under a user ID different from the DBA
user ID, then Oracle recommends using a net service name to connect
through a listener to the destination database.
9.2 Shared Server Architecture
The initialization parameters that control the shared server architecture are as follows:
■
LOCAL_LISTENER
■
DISPATCHERS
■
MAX_DISPATCHERS
■
SHARED_SERVERS
■
MAX_SHARED_SERVERS
■
SHARED_SERVER_SESSIONS
■
CIRCUITS
For detailed information about the shared server architecture, refer to the Oracle
Database Net Services Administrator's Guide.
The shared server architecture and the dedicated server architecture can work
concurrently in an instance. Provide information in the connect descriptor to indicate
whether a connecting application should use the shared server or the dedicated server
architecture. By default, the listener process uses the shared server architecture and if
you want the application to use the dedicated server architecture instead, you must set
USE_DEDICATED_SERVER=ON in the SQLNET.ORA file or specify a net_service_name with
the parameter SERVER in the used naming method. The SQLNET.ORA parameter USE_
DEDICATED_SERVER=ON overwrites the parameter SERVER.
The following example shows how to reference a dedicated server in a shared server
configuration by using a specially defined net service name:
FINANCE_DED=(DESCRIPTION=
(ADDRESS=
(PROTOCOL=TCP)
(HOST=sales-server)
(PORT=1521))
(CONNECT_DATA=
(SERVICE_NAME=sales.us.acme.com)
(SERVER=dedicated)))
For more information, refer to the Oracle Database Net Services Reference guide.
In choosing whether to use the shared server or the dedicated server architecture, you
must consider the CPU overhead versus resource allocation, such as tasks, memory
and so on. In a situation where many clients need to work only occasionally with the
Oracle Database, it would be best to use the shared server architecture, whereas, in a
situation where just a few clients need to work with the Oracle Database regularly, it
would be best to use the dedicated server architecture. Your decision may not always
be as clear-cut as that in these examples. If this is the case, then you can use the
9-4 Oracle Database Installation and Administration Guide
Oracle Advanced Security
information in the following shared server dynamic tables to help you arrive at your
decision:
■
V$DISPATCHER
■
V$QUEUE
■
V$SHARED_SERVERS
■
V$SHARED_SERVER_MONITOR
For more information about these tables, refer to the Oracle Database Administrator's
Guide.
9.3 Oracle Advanced Security
With this release the data integrity and the cryptographic services of Oracle Advanced
Security are supported. The Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) protocol is also supported. SSL
provides authentication, encryption, and data integrity using public key infrastructure
(PKI). SSL stores authentication data, such as certificates and private keys, in an Oracle
Wallet.
For using either the data integrity, or the cryptographic services, or both, you must
specify the appropriate parameters in the SQLNET.ORA file.
Use the following parameters to specify whether a service (example:
crypto-checksumming or encryption) should be active:
SQLNET.CRYPTO_CHECKSUM_CLIENT
SQLNET.CRYPTO_CHECKSUM_SERVER
SQLNET.ENCRYPTION_CLIENT
SQLNET.ENCRYPTION_SERVER
Each of the preceding parameters defaults to REJECTED.
Each of the preceding parameters can have one of the following values:
Value
Meaning
ACCEPTED
The service is active if the other side of the connection
specifies REQUESTED or REQUIRED and there is a compatible
algorithm available on the other side. It is inactive
otherwise.
REJECTED
The service must not be active, and the connection fails if
the other side specifies REQUIRED.
REQUESTED
The service is active if the other side specifies ACCEPTED,
REQUESTED, or REQUIRED and there is a compatible algorithm
available on the other side. It is inactive otherwise.
REQUIRED
The service must be active, and the connection fails if the
other side specifies REJECTED or if there is no compatible
algorithm on the other side.
Use the following parameters to control which algorithms are made available for each
service on each end of a connection:
SQLNET.CRYPTO_CHECKSUM_TYPES_CLIENT
SQLNET.CRYPTO_CHECKSUM_TYPES_SERVER
SQLNET.ENCRYPTION_TYPES_CLIENT
SQLNET.ENCRYPTION_TYPES_SERVER
Oracle Net Services
9-5
Configuring the Network
The value of each of these parameters can be either a list of algorithm names in
parenthesis separated by commas or a single algorithm name.
The default crypto checksum type is MD5, while the encryption defaults to all the
algorithms.
Type
Values
Crypto checksum types
SHA1, MD5
Encryption types
AES256, RC4_256, AES192, 3DES168, AES128, RC4_128,
3DES112, RC4_56, DES, RC4_40, DES40
Use the parameter SQLNET.CRYPTO_SEED to specify the characters used when
generating cryptographic keys. The more random the characters are, the stronger the
keys are. The string should be 10-70 random characters. This is required when
encryption or checksumming is turned on.
SQLNET.CRYPTO_SEED="qwertyuiopasdfghjkl;zxcvbnm,.s1"
For more information, refer to Oracle Database Net Services Administrator's Guide, Oracle
Database Net Services Reference, and Oracle Database Advanced Security Administrator's
Guide.
Example:
SQLNET.CRYPTO_CHECKSUM_CLIENT=required
SQLNET.CRYPTO_CHECKSUM_TYPES_CLIENT=(md5)
SQLNET.ENCRYPTION_CLIENT=accepted
SQLNET.ENCRYPTION_TYPES_CLIENT=(aes192,3des168,rc4_128)
SQLNET.CRYPTO_SEED="qwertyuiopasdfghjkl;zxcvbnm,.s1"
9.4 Configuring the Network
Although, you can use the Easy Connect Naming Method to connect to the database, it
is recommended to configure clients for the use of service names that are easy to
remember aliases for database addresses and match the address preconfigured in each
system's LISTENER.ORA file. The client uses these addresses to connect to the network
listener, which routes the connection request to the required service. During a
connection, a client passes the service name to which it wants to connect.
LISTENER.ORA file identifies and controls the behavior of the network listener that
listens for services on the system. This file includes network listener descriptors and
addresses, services the listener is listening for, and various control parameters.
Client configuration is accomplished by creating a list of net service names with
addresses of network destinations through the local naming parameter file
TNSNAMES.ORA or an LDAP compliant directory server. Clients and database servers
(that are clients of other database servers) use the net service name when making a
connection.
■
Using Easy Connect Naming Method
■
Using the Local Naming Method
■
Using the Directory Naming Method
■
Configuration on the Server
■
Configuration on the Client
9-6 Oracle Database Installation and Administration Guide
Configuring the Network
■
Testing the Configuration on the Client
9.4.1 Using Easy Connect Naming Method
The Easy Connect naming method, can be used to connect to a database without the
need to configure service names in the TNSNAMES.ORA configuration file. For using the
Easy Connect naming method, ensure that EZCONNECT is listed in the client's
configuration file parameter for naming adaptors names.directory_path.
Easy Connect naming is only suitable in small and simple environments. Refer to
"Using the Easy Connect Naming Method" in Oracle Database Net Services
Administrator's Guide for more information about the Easy Connect naming method.
9.4.2 Using the Local Naming Method
Local naming refers to the method of resolving a service name to a network address by
using information configured on each individual client in a TNSNAMES.ORA
configuration file. For using the local naming ensure that TNSNAMES is listed in the
client's configuration file parameter for naming adaptors names.directory_path.
Local naming is most appropriate for simple distributed networks with a small
number of services that change infrequently.
9.4.3 Using the Directory Naming Method
Directory Naming refers to the method of resolving a service name to a network
address by using a Directory Server. For using a directory server ensure that LDAP is
listed in the client's configuration file parameter for naming adaptors
names.directory_path and that the target address of the directory server is
configured in the parameter file LDAP.ORA, for example:
# LDAP.ORA Network Configuration File: network.admin.ldap.ora
DEFAULT_ADMIN_CONTEXT = ""
DIRECTORY_SERVERS= (oid_server:389:636)
DIRECTORY_SERVER_TYPE = Your Internet Directory
For more information, refer to the Oracle Database Net Services Administrator's Guide.
9.4.4 Configuration on the Server
Follow these steps to configure the Oracle Names Method:
1.
Before starting the listener, you must set up the listener's configuration file
LISTENER.ORA. This file includes the addresses of the listeners and various control
parameters used by the listener. For more information refer to the Oracle Database
Net Services Administrator's Guide
On BS2000 systems you have the chance to define additional job parameters for
the Oracle Database tasks particularly a PROCESSING-ADMISSION to start a job
under a user ID different from the user ID of the running job. This technique
provides the benefits of using only one listener for all Oracle instances on the
system. The instances need not run under the same user IDs. If you want to run
only one listener on the database computer, then you must specify the following
parameters in the listener's environment file sid.P.ORAENV:
Parameter
Meaning
BGJPAR
parameters for ENTER jobs
Oracle Net Services
9-7
Configuring the Network
Parameter
Meaning
sid_BGJPAR
parameters for ENTER jobs identified by SID
sid_USER
the user ID under which the job should run
user_ACCOUNT
Account of the target user ID
user_PASSWORD
Password of the target user ID
The following example of an ORAENV file configured for a central listener process
shows how the parameters work. The listener can share this ORAENV file with an
instance, which runs under the same user ID. For a better understanding, we
assume that the listener and the instances DEMO and DEM1 are running under the
user ID ORACDEM1 while the instance DEM2 is running under the user ID ORACDEM2.
We define the following parameters:
BGJPAR=J-C=JCBORA,START=IMME,CPU-LIMIT=NO,LOGGING=*NO
DEM1_BGJPAR=J-C=JCBDEM1,START=IMME,CPU-LIMIT=NO
DEM2_USER=ORACDEM2
ORACDEM2_ACCOUNT=O1234
ORACDEM2_PASSWORD=ORACLE
The listener always runs the same sequence to look up the parameters sid_BGJPAR
and sid_USER. If no value for sid_BGJPAR is found, then the listener uses the value
given by the parameter BGJPAR. If a user ID is given by sid_USER, then the listener
tries to get the processing admission from the parameters user_ACCOUNT and user_
PASSWORD. For the given ORAENV we get the following scenarios for the listener:
■
■
■
The listener should start a server for the instance DEMO. Because the parameters
DEMO_BGJPAR and DEMO_USER are not defined the listener starts the server for
the instance DEMO under the user ID ORACDEM1 with the start parameters
defined by BGJPAR.
If a server for the instance DEM1 must be started, then the listener looks for the
parameters DEM1_BGJPAR and DEM1_USER. In this case the parameter DEM1_
BGJPAR can be evaluated, whereas, the evaluation of DEM1_USER failed because
this parameter is not defined. Therefore, the listener adds the start parameters
"J-C=JCBDEM1,START=IMME,CPU-LIMIT=NO" to the ENTER-PROCEDURE command
and starts the job under the user ID ORACDEM1.
Now a server for instance DEM2 must be started. The listener looks for the
parameters DEM2_BGJPAR and DEM2_USER. The parameter DEM2_BGJPAR is not
defined so that the listener uses the start parameters defined by BGJPAR. On
the other hand the parameter DEM2_USER can be evaluated successfully and
returns the value ORACDEM2. Now the listener tries to get the processing
admission by evaluating the parameters ORACDEM2_ACCOUNT and ORACDEM2_
PASSWORD. The listener starts the server job under the user ID ORACDEM2 with
the ENTER-PROCEDURE parameters "J-C=JCBORA,
START=IMME,CPU-LIMIT=NO,LOGGING=*NO".
Start the listener using the Listener Control Utility LSNRCTL:
/CALL-PROCEDURE sid.P.ORAENV
/START-PROGRAM $ORAC1120.LSNRCTL
When the enter options prompt is displayed, press ENTER to get to the LSNRCTL
prompt. Enter the following command to start the Listener:
LSNRCTL> START listener-name
9-8 Oracle Database Installation and Administration Guide
Troubleshooting Oracle Net Services
9.4.5 Configuration on the Client
Configuration of network clients involves adding or editing parameters in the client
configuration file SQLNET.ORA and dependent on the used naming method, the
configuration file LDAP.ORA or TNSNAMES.ORA. For more information about the
configuration parameters, refer to Oracle Database Net Services Reference.
9.4.6 Testing the Configuration on the Client
After you have verified the network connections, you can verify the connections to the
desired Oracle database systems using the TNSPING utility:
/CALL-PROCEDURE sid.P.ORAENV
/START-PROGRAM $ORAC1120.TNSPING
When the enter options prompt is displayed, enter the net service name for the
database service which you have specified in the naming service. If everything works
fine, then a message similar to the following is returned:
TNS Ping Utility for BS2000/OSD S series: Version 11.2.0.2.0 Production on 12-JUN-2012 12:07:40
Used parameter files: network.admin.sqlnet.ora
Used TNSNAMES adapter to resolve the alias
Attempting to contact (DESCRIPTION = (ADDRESS_LIST =
(ADDRESS = (PROTOCOL = TCP)(HOST = sales-server)(PORT = 3055)))
(CONNECT_DATA = (SERVICE_NAME = sales.us.acme.com)))
OK (40 msec)
For more information, refer to the Oracle Database Net Services Administrator's Guide.
9.5 Troubleshooting Oracle Net Services
The following is a list of error messages and steps to fix the errors:
1.
Listener could not be started. LSNRCTL returns the following error message:
LSNRCTL> start
Starting /BS2/$ORAC1120.tnslsnr: please wait...
TNS-12547: TNS:lost contact
TNS-12560: TNS:protocol adapter error
TNS-00517: Lost contact
BS2000 Error: 145: Connection timed out
LSNRCTL>
■
■
2.
Ensure that the BCAM Leight Weight Resolver LWRESD is properly configured
and running.
Listener could not open the log file.
■
■
■
3.
Ensure that the subsystem POSIX is up and running.
Check if the listener log file, for example, NETWORK.LOG.LISTENER.LOG, is
accessible and readable.
Verify the listener log file using the BS2000 SDF command
REPAIR-DISK-FILES.
If you are not able to repair the listener log file, then delete the file.
A client reports ORA-12545
Oracle Net Services
9-9
Troubleshooting Oracle Net Services
■
■
■
4.
If you do not want to use the BCAM host name of the computer in the TCP/IP
network, then define a sockets-host-name as described in the BCAM
documentation and register this name in the name service.
Ensure that the BCAM Leight Weight Resolver LWRESD is properly configured
and running.
A client reports ORA-12535
■
5.
Check the naming service if the host name returned by the listener is well
known in the TCP/IP network.
If you use the IPC protocol, then check the Connection Timeout parameter of
BCAM (use the BCSHOW command). This parameter should be set to at least 600
seconds.
A client reports ORA-03113
■
Check if the SQLNET.EXPIRE_TIME parameter is set for the server. If the
parameter is set, then check the BCAM LETTER-TIMER using the BCSHOW
command. If the LETTER-TIME is less than the SQLNET.EXPIRE_TIME, then data
which are sent by the server to see if the client is running may not be read
during their lifetime, which is limited by the LETTER-TIME. As a result, the
client logs a broken pipe in the SQLNET.LOG file:
ns
ns
nt
nt
nt
main
(2)
main
(2)
OS
err
err
err
err
err
code:
code:
code:
code:
code:
12547
12560
517
32
0x0040002c
You can solve this problem by setting the LETTER-TIMER to infinite.
9-10 Oracle Database Installation and Administration Guide
10
10
Oracle Text
This chapter describes how to install and run Oracle Text and the restrictions of this
option on BS2000/OSD.
10.1 Installing Oracle Text
When you follow the procedures explained in chapter 4 about creating an Oracle
Database 11g Release 2 database the result is not Oracle Text enabled.
If you want to install Oracle Text, then complete the following steps:
1.
Start SQL*Plus. To avoid being prompted for many overflow acknowledgements
on the screen set oflow=no:
/tchng oflow=no
/start-program $ORAC1120.sqlplus
* /nolog
connect / as sysdba
spool catctx.log
@$ORAC1120.ctx.admin.catctx.sql CTXSYS SYSAUX TEMP NOLOCK;
where CTXSYS is the ctxsys user password, SYSAUX is the default tablespace for
ctxsys, TEMP is the temporary tablespace for ctxsys, and LOCK|NOLOCK specifies
whether the ctxsys user account is locked or not.
2.
If you are working with US english texts, then install appropriate
language-specific default preferences:
connect CTXSYS/CTXSYS
@$ORAC1120.ctx.admin.drdefus;
If you are not working with US english texts, then open the drdef*.sql script
according to the preferred language, set the attribute (refer to Restrictions of
Oracle Text on BS2000/OSD), and run the script.
3.
Type exit when finished.
10.2 Starting Oracle Text utilities
The Oracle Text loader utility, ctxldr, is available within the Oracle Text option. For
more information about its functions and parameters, refer to Oracle Text Reference.
The following is an example of how to start the Oracle Text utility:
/start-program $ORAC1120.ctxldr
*-user scott/tiger -export -name myindex -file myfile -pk 1
Oracle Text 10-1
Restrictions of Oracle Text on BS2000/OSD
10.3 Restrictions of Oracle Text on BS2000/OSD
Due to ASCII-EBCDIC and other dependencies, the following restrictions are inherent:
■
■
No index themes, that is CTX_DDL.set_attribute ('DEFAULT_LEXER','INDEX_
THEMES','NO') must be set
No INSO filters and InXight linguistx technology, which are licensed on special
platforms only
■
No ctxkbtc, which is a knowledge base utility
■
URL_DATASTORE objects are not supported
■
FILE_DATASTORE objects may reside on native BS2000 DMS as PAM files or on the
POSIX file system.
10-2 Oracle Database Installation and Administration Guide
11
External Procedures
11
This chapter describes how to create an environment on BS2000/OSD, where external
procedure calls can operate. It complements the chapter about External Routines in the
Fundamentals section of Oracle Database Advanced Application Developer's Guide.
11.1 Loading External Procedures
This section complements the corresponding part in Oracle Database Advanced
Application Developer's Guide.
Follow these steps to load external procedures:
1.
Set up the environment.
An external procedure does not run in the same process and address space as the
caller. Oracle creates separate processes for them to operate in a safe and secure
manner. For this purpose Oracle Net Services features are used and it is the
responsibility of the user to provide appropriate Oracle Net Services parameter
files. In this section, we have documented an example of how it can work. For
more information, refer to Oracle Database Advanced Application Developer's Guide,
Oracle Database Data Cartridge Developer's Guide, and Oracle Database Net Services
documentation set.
The listener.ora file should have the following entry:
(SID_DESC = (SID_NAME = ep_agt1)
(ENVS = EXTPROC_DLLS=ANY)
(ORACLE_SID = sid_of_your_database)
(PROGRAM = EXTPROC)
)
The tnsnames.ora file should have the following entry:
extproc_connection_data = (DESCRIPTION =(ADDRESS =(PROTOCOL=ipc)
(KEY = sid_of_your_database)(CONNECT_DATA =(PRESENTATION=RO)
(SID = ep_agt1)))
Then you can start a listener.
2.
Identify the 'DLL'.
A DLL in the BS2000 environment is a BS2000 LMS library containing the
functions called as external procedures. When EXTPROC is loaded these functions
are dynamically bound to the program.
Use the following command to identify your library to Oracle:
CREATE LIBRARY my_c_library AS '$myuserid.my-modlib';
External Procedures 11-1
Loading External Procedures
The external C routine has to be compiled and the generated LLM has to be stored
in the LMS library. If you set the MODULE-PROPERTIES option
LOWER-CASE-NAMES=*NO, then all lowercase letters in the entry names are converted
to uppercase.
Furthermore, if you set the MODULE-PROPERTIES option
SPECIAL-CHARACTERS=*CONVERT-TO-DOLLAR, then all underscores (_) in entry
names are converted to dollar signs ($), which must be considered when
publishing the external procedure.
3.
Publishing and running external procedures does not differ from the description
in Oracle Database Advanced Application Developer's Guide. Result messages about
the execution of the external procedure can be found in a file named
L.sid.EXTP.SYSOUT.tsn.
11-2 Oracle Database Installation and Administration Guide
12
Java in the Database
12
This chapter describes BS2000-specific features for Java in the database. This chapter
includes:
■
Installation of a Java Enabled Database
■
Database character sets and Java Encodings
■
Java Demonstration Files
For more information, refer to the Oracle Java documentation set.
12.1 Installation of a Java Enabled Database
When you call $ORAC1120.INSTALL.P.SUPER and set the JAVA parameter to YES, you'll
get a suitable ORAENV file (with ORACLE_HOME as described earlier), a database sized to
Java requirements and Java installed inside the database.
When you try to enable Java in an existing Oracle database, you can use the Java
related parts of this procedure as an example and modify it according to your needs,
that is, increase dbsize, increase shared_pool_size, create a large rollback segment,
run initjvm.sql, and so on. For more information, refer to Oracle Database Java
Developer's Guide.
Where can files related to Java reside and how should they be encoded?
It is not absolutely straightforward where files used by Java have to be stored and how
they should be encoded. In general files can reside in native BS2000 or in the POSIX
file system, but there are exceptions.
The following table gives an overview of the file types, location, default encoding, and
encoding modifications for APIs or statements
Default
encoding
Encoding
modification
Statement or API
File type
Place
CREATE JAVA CLASS
USING BFILE
.class
BS2000 PAM Binary
file or
POSIX
Not applicable
CREATE JAVA
RESOURCE USING
BFILE
.properties
BS2000 PAM ascii
file or
POSIX
None, that is,
there is no
means to
change default
encoding)
Java in the Database 12-1
Database character sets and Java Encodings
Default
encoding
Encoding
modification
Statement or API
File type
Place
CREATE JAVA SOURCE
USING BFILE
.java, .sqlj
BS2000 PAM DB charset
file or
POSIX
Execute dbms_
java. set_
compiler_
option (' ',
'encoding',
'ISO8859-1')
CREATE JAVA SOURCE
AS
.sql
Part of
statement
Session
character set
specified in
NLS_LANG
NLS_LANG
CALL DBMS_
JAVA.LOADJAVA
*, .jar, .zip
POSIX
DB charset
Option
encoding in
loadjava call
java.io-package
*
POSIX
DB charset
Depends on
the classes
used
BS2000 PAM files in ascii can be created by transferring files (FTP) from an ascii
platform to BS2000 in binary mode.
The distinction between a native BS2000 file name and a POSIX file name is made by
the preceding slash ('/'). As a consequence, no relative path names are allowed for
POSIX file names.
However, there is one exception: when used within dbms_java.loadjava, relative path
names are preceded by the value of ORACLE_HOME in ORAENV file.
12.2 Database character sets and Java Encodings
As far as I/O is concerned, the Oracle JAVAVM uses the database character set as
system property file.encoding. Therefore the following Oracle/BS2000 database
character sets have been added to the list of supported Java encodings:
WE8BS2000
WE8BS2000E
EE8BS2000
CE8BS2000
CL8BS2000
WE8BS2000L5
These encodings are not known to any other Java implementation.
The system property file.encoding, however, does not apply to Java property files.
Property files always use the encoding 8859_1 (refer to Oracle Database SQLJ
Developer's Guide). The system property file.encoding is used when compiling a
source file. You can change this default by either using the following procedure or by
setting the encoding option of the procedure dbms_java.loadjava:
dbms_java.set_compiler_option('','encoding',...)
12.3 Java Demonstration Files
A simple Java demonstration program running in the server is shipped under:
$ORAC1120.JAVAVM.DEMO.HELLO.SQL
12-2 Oracle Database Installation and Administration Guide
Java Demonstration Files
An example with database connection using the server-side internal driver is shipped
under:
$ORAC1120.JAVAVM.DEMO.EMPLOYEE*
Java in the Database 12-3
Java Demonstration Files
12-4 Oracle Database Installation and Administration Guide
13
XML
13
This chapter describes BS2000 specific topics of XML such as installation, features, and
restrictions. For more information refer to Oracle XML Developer's Kit Programmer's
Guide, Oracle XML DB Developer's Guide, Oracle Database XML C API Reference, Oracle
Database XML C++ API Reference, and Oracle Database XML Java API Reference.
13.1 Installation of Xdk
The Oracle XML Developer's Kit (Xdk) is not part of the Oracle Database Product Set.
Oracle recommends downloading the latest version of Xdk from the Oracle Technical
Network OTN (http://www.oracle.com/technetwork/topics/index.html). The Jar
files for the XML SQL utility (xsu12.jar and xdb.jar) and the XML Parser
(xmlparserv2.jar) are already loaded in the database when you have followed the
procedures explained in Chapter 4, "Creating and Upgrading a Database".
13.2 Features and Restrictions
The following table provides an overview of which XML features are available for
which languages on BS2000.
The meaning of empty fields is: not supported.
N/A means: not applicable.
Availability for
XML Feature
Java
C
C++
PL/SQL
Parser
Yes
Yes
XSLT Processor
Yes
Yes
Class Generator
N/A
XSQL
N/A
N/A
N/A
Transviewer
Beans
N/A
N/A
N/A
XML-SQL Utility Yes
N/A
N/A
Yes
Schema
Processor
Yes
N/A
N/A
When using PL/SQL instead of Java you should consider the following behavior:
■
PL/SQL File input is only possible from POSIX and with ASCII-Data Format.
XML 13-1
Features and Restrictions
■
■
PL/SQL File output is written to POSIX with ASCII-Data Format.
For INSERT/UPDATE/DELETE operations the XML document must not contain <?xml
... encoding=WE8BS2000 ...>.
When using the JAVA-interfaces you must ensure the right charset of the data. For
more information, refer to the encoding considerations listed in Chapter 12, "Java in
the Database".
If you have an ASCII platform with JDK, then you can also use XML components and
operate on the BS2000 Oracle database using a JDBC connection.
13-2 Oracle Database Installation and Administration Guide
14
Oracle Management Agent
14
This chapter describes the Oracle Management Agent for BS2000/OSD and provides
installation and configuration information. The reader is supposed to be familiar with
Oracle Enterprise Manager.
The Oracle Management Agent for BS2000/OSD is responsible for monitoring all
components on the host computer. Once installed, the Oracle Management Agent
knows how to monitor default target types, such as the Oracle Database. For more
information, refer to Oracle Enterprise Manager Concepts.
This chapter describes the following sections:
■
Preinstallation Issues
■
Running the Installation Script
■
Running the Agent
■
Restrictions
■
Troubleshooting
14.1 Preinstallation Issues
The following is a list of preinstallation issues:
■
Check if the BS2000/OSD POSIX subsystem is started
■
Check if the openNet Server tool netstat is installed under POSIX.
■
Check if jenv v6.0 is installed
■
Check if perl v5.8 is installed
If one of the required software packages is not installed, then install the software
package first before installing Oracle Management Agent.
■
Ensure that the user address space is 1 GB
■
Ensure that there is at least 1 GB disc space available on the POSIX file system
■
Ensure that the file /etc/hosts includes an entry with a loopback address for the
localhost similar to the following example:
127.0.0.1 localhost local # loopback
■
Add all Oracle databases you want to monitor the file /var/opt/oracle/oratab
with the following format:
ORACLE_SID:ORACLE_HOME:N|Y:ORACLE_DATA
Oracle Management Agent 14-1
Running the Installation Script
The following table describes the parameters in the format:
Parameter
Description
ORACLE_SID
system identifier of
the database
ORACLE_HOME
Oracle home
directory under
POSIX
ORACLE_DATA
user ID where the
database files are
stored
Each database that should be monitored needs an entry in the oratab file. An
example for a valid oratab file is:
# oratab file
# valid entries are of the following form:
# ORACLE_SID:ORACLE_HOME:N|Y:ORACLE_DATA
orcl:/ora11202/oracle/product/10g:N:$ORACLE
The DBA group should have read and write access to the
oratab file and the oracle directory in the /var/opt folder.
Note:
■
■
■
Check the Oracle Management Agent release number. Oracle Management Agent
that ships with release 11.2 can monitor releases 10.x and 11.x. Monitoring of a
Oracle9i is not supported.
Ensure that you copy the appropriate LISTENER.ORA file to the $ORACLE_
HOME/network/admin directory to monitor a LISTENER.
Ensure that you grant access to the alert file to all users, if you want to monitor a
database under a user ID different from the user ID of the Enterprise Management
Agent.
14.2 Running the Installation Script
It is recommended to install the Oracle Management Agent under a separate Oracle
Home directory. All Oracle users should belong to the same group, for example,
oracle. To start the installation enter:
/CALL-PROCEDURE $ORACLE1120.INSTALL.P.AGENT
You are prompted for the following:
Parameter
Description
EMDROOT
This is the
Management Agent’s
home directory.
EM-AGENT-PORT
The port on which
the Management
Agent should listen.
14-2 Oracle Database Installation and Administration Guide
Running the Agent
Parameter
Description
EM-OMS-HOST
The host name of the
Oracle Management
Server
EM-OMS-HTTP-PORT
The port of the
Oracle Management
Server
To finalize the EM Agent installation login as root and execute the following script:
$EMDROOT/root.sh
The installation of the Management Agent, can also be operated by a background
process. In this case, the parameters EMDROOT, EM-AGENT-PORT, EM-OMS-HOST and
EM-OMS-HTTP-PORT are mandatory parameters and must be specified with the
following procedure call:
/ENTER-PROCEDURE
$ORAC1120.INSTALL.P.AGENT,(EMDROOT='/u01/app/orac1120/product/emagent',EM-AGENT-PO
RT='1813',EM-OMS-HOST='omshost.example.com',EM-OMS-HTTP-PORT='1159'),
CPU-LIMIT=300
Note:
■
The installation is logged to the INSTALL.EMAGENT.LST file.
■
It is recommended to use a CPU-LIMIT greater than 200.
14.3 Running the Agent
■
To run the agent, start a POSIX shell and type the following command:
emctl start agent
If you start the Management Agent with the emctl utility in the POSIX shell, then
the Management Agent inherits the JOB-CLASS, CPU-LIMIT and RUN-PRIORITY of
the login process.As a consequence a defined CPU-LIMIT causes the Management
Agent to terminate when the limit is reached. If you want to start the Management
Agent without CPU-LIMIT, then use the BS2000 start procedure for the
Management Agent. Login to the BS2000 Management Agent user ID and execute
the command:
/ENTER-PROCEDURE
ST-AGENT.PRC,JOB-NAME=EMAGENT,JOB-CLASS=<ntl-j-c>,CPU-LIMIT=*NO,RUN-PRIO=210
■
To stop the agent, start a POSIX shell and type the following command:
emctl stop agent
■
To get the status of the agent, start a POSIX shell and type the following command:
emctl status agent
Use the Oracle Management Agent for BS2000/OSD as described in the Oracle
Database 11g Enterprise Manager book set.
Oracle recommends to use the start procedure in the BS2000
environment to start the Management Agent.
Note:
Oracle Management Agent 14-3
Restrictions
14.4 Restrictions
The following is a list of issues that might affect Oracle Enterprise Manager Agent
■
■
■
■
■
■
Oracle Management Agent for BS2000/OSD can monitor servers that are running
Oracle Database 10g or Oracle Database 11g.
The Oracle Management Agent for BS2000/OSD does not support the SNMP
framework. That means, the agent is not integrated within the EMANATE master
agent for BS2000/OSD. The agent does not accept any SNMP requests and does
not send any SNMP trap. Therefore, the Oracle Management Agent for
BS2000/OSD is not usable with third party SNMP management systems.
Oracle Database 10g and Oracle Database 11g for BS2000/OSD supports only a
minimal set of system statistics and these may not reflect the actual performance of
the system.
Currently, Oracle Database 11g for BS2000/OSD only ships with the Oracle
Enterprise Manager Agent. Oracle Enterprise Manager Grid Control Console is
not supported, though this release does support a remote Oracle Enterprise
Manager Grid Control Console.
Currently, the Management Agent supports only a minimal set of host metrics and
these may not reflect the actual performance and only a part of the configuration
of the system.
The dbconsol is not supported on BS2000/OSD.
14.5 Troubleshooting
Typically, the Oracle Management Agent is monitored by an internal watchdog
process and is restarted in case of an error. This method does not prevent from any
crashes where at least one task of the thread application is kept alive and might inhibit
a proper restart of the Management Agent. If the Oracle Management Agent cannot be
started or restarted, then use the following instructions to resolve the issue:
/CALL-PROCEDURE $TSOS.SYSPRC.PTHREADS.010(ITH-SHOW)
Login to the POSIX shell, set your environment and run the utility ithshow, for
example:
$ . /u01/app/orac1120/agent11g/.profile.oracle
$ ithshow
This utility produces an output similar to the following:
STARTED AT 2012-06-12-135624 BY POSIX (running)
LLM = EMAGENT (prelinked)
MAIN = IC@#MAIN
APPLL = :POR2:$ORAQAX13.ORALOAD-ASCII.LIB
RUNTL = :BUG1:$TSOS.SYSLNK.PTHREADS.013
PTHvers = 01.3A10 2011-04-14 09:19:23
FDs = 8 (8 ORIG FDs)
Threads = 10 (6 user threads, 4 system threads)
TYPE TSN PID JOB-TYPE PRI CPU-USED CPU-MAX ACCOUNT#
ORIG 1MYQ 3942 (X'0F66') 3 DIALOG *0 240 16.7989 32767 FSC
executing request
THRE 1MYW 3948 (X'0F6C') 3 DIALOG *0 240 21.7415 32767 FSC
executing user thread
14-4 Oracle Database Installation and Administration Guide
Troubleshooting
Here you find the TSNs of the tasks involved in the PTHREADS application. You can
connect to the PTHREADS application when you choose the TSN of the ORIG task as the
input for the parameter TSN of the ITH-START procedure in the following format:
/CALL-PROCEDURE $TSOS.SYSPRC.PTHREADS.013(ITH-START),(TSN=1MYQ)
When you see the double slash prompt you can type CANCEL-THREADED-PROGRAM to
cancel the PTHREADS application. If the ORIG task is already terminated, then you can
terminate all other PTHREADS tasks by using the BS2000 system command
/CANCEL_JOB JOB-IDENTIFICATION=tsn
If the Management Agent is running on a SQ system in x86-64 mode, then you must
define the proper load library in the procedure parameters as follows:
/CALL-PROCEDURE
$TSOS.SYSPRC.PTHREADS.013(ITH-START),(START-LIBRARY=$TSOS.SKULNK.PTHREADS.013,TSN=
1MYQ)
If the Management Agent terminates abnormally, then it might be possible that a
process with the name dbluuser_number stays alive. This process is a program cache
and cannot be canceled with the BS2000 CANCEL-JOB command. This process can only
be stopped using the POSIX command posdbl. For example, the following shows you
how you can identify and stop a pending program cache in the POSIX shell:
$ ps -fu emuser
UID PID PPID C STIME TTY TIME CMD
EMUSER 2178 2175 0 07:48:08 pts/0 0:01 [sh]
EMUSER 4179 2178 2 14:05:16 pts/0 0:00 [ps]
EMUSER 4168 1 0 14:05:06 ? 0:00 dblu511
In this example, the process dblu511 with the pid 4168 is still alive. To stop this
process enter the following command:
$ pdbl -uD
Oracle Management Agent 14-5
Troubleshooting
14-6 Oracle Database Installation and Administration Guide
15
Oracle on SQ Server
15
This chapter describes features, which are specific to Oracle Database for BS2000/OSD
SQ Server:
■
Concepts
■
Definitions
■
Product Set
■
Hardware Requirements
■
Software Requirements
■
Address Space Limit
■
Installing Oracle Database Software
■
Database Creation
■
Upgrade and Migration
■
Administration
■
Oracle application programs
■
openUTM Product Set
15.1 Concepts
The SQ server line is a line of BS2000/OSD business servers, which are based on
x86-64 architecture. Oracle Database 11g supports this innovative line of SQ servers,
for example, SQ200, and the BS2000 operating system OSD/XC.
Oracle Database 11g Release 2 for SQ Server runs in native x86-64 mode in the BS2000
partition of the SQ Server. Programs running in this mode provide much better
performance than programs running in /390 mode (= compatibility mode).
There are no differences in handling and administration compared to the
"conventional" Oracle for BS2000 (on /390 systems). So the migration from
conventional Oracle for BS2000 to Oracle for SQ Server is very simple.
All products you know from the /390 edition of Oracle, for example, Oracle Net
Services, SQL*Plus, Precompilers, are available in native x86-64 mode for the SQ
Server line.
Oracle on SQ Server 15-1
Definitions
15.2 Definitions
Because there are two Oracle editions for BS2000, that is, one for the /390 series and
one for the SQ series, the following definitions are introduced to avoid confusion:
Oracle edition
Meaning
Oracle for BS2000/390:
BS2000 line of Oracle, which is running on systems with /390
CPU's (S Servers).
This Oracle line can also run on SQ Server, but only in the
slower /390 mode, also called compatibility mode.
Synonyms: "/390 edition of Oracle/BS2000"
Oracle for BS2000/x86-64:
BS2000 line of Oracle, which runs in native x86-64 mode in
the BS2000 partition of the SQ Server.
This Oracle line cannot run in the Linux or Windows
partition of the SQ Server.
This Oracle line cannot run on /390 CPU's.
Synonyms:
"SQ edition of Oracle/BS2000"
"Oracle for SQ series"
"Oracle for Fujitsu BS2000/OSD (SQ series)"
"Oracle for SQ Server line"
15.3 Product Set
All products, which are available with the /390 edition of Oracle/BS2000 are also
available with the x86-64 edition. There are no differences in functionality between the
products of these two Oracle/BS2000 editions.
15.4 Hardware Requirements
■
SQ Server, for example SQ200
■
Main memory: at least 1024 MB
■
Disk Space: Total static Oracle Database non-database requirements are
approximately 2500 MB in the BS2000 file system and a minimum of 400 MB in the
POSIX file system.
The staging library for the installation requires about 2500 MB in the BS2000 file
system.
■
Database Space: No difference to /390 edition of Oracle
15.5 Software Requirements
The following table lists the software requirements:
Component
Requirement
Operating System
OSD/XC V4.1 or higher
The BS2000/OSD subsystem POSIX should have been started.
15-2 Oracle Database Installation and Administration Guide
Oracle application programs
Component
Requirement
Compilers
Though not required to run the Oracle Database, if high-level
languages, such as C or COBOL, are used to interface to the
Oracle Database, then the following compilers are supported:
COBOL85 V2.3
CCOBOL2000 V1.5 and higher
CPP as of V3.1
openUTM
openUTM V6.0 and higher
CRTE
CRTE V2.8 and higher
15.6 Address Space Limit
A user's address space should not be less than 512 MB. Oracle recommends loading
the x86-64 version of BS2000 DSSM "CRTE-BASYS" (= CRTEBASK) to reduce memory
requirements.
15.7 Installing Oracle Database Software
Refer to Chapter 3, "Oracle Database Installation and Deinstallation".
15.8 Database Creation
The creation of a database works exactly as described in Chapter 4, "Creating and
Upgrading a Database". You may create a database automatically, by BS2000 procedure
INSTALL.P.SUPER, or manually.
There are no differences to the /390 edition of Oracle for BS2000.
15.9 Upgrade and Migration
Refer to Chapter 4, "Creating and Upgrading a Database".
15.10 Administration
There are almost no differences in administration compared to the /390 edition of
Oracle Database. The only difference is that Oracle on SQ server does not support
executables ("phases"), but only LLMs. Therefore, you must start Oracle programs like
SQLPLUS as follows:
/START-PROGRAM *MODULE($ORAC1120.ORALOAD.LIB,SQLPLUS,A,A)
15.11 Oracle application programs
Oracle for SQ Server supports the same programming languages for Oracle
application programs as the /390 edition of Oracle. There are Precompilers for C/C++
and Cobol.
Oracle application programs can run on SQ Servers only in /390 mode.
Application programs have to be linked as described in the Oracle Database User's
Guide for Fujitsu BS2000/OSD.
Oracle on SQ Server 15-3
openUTM Product Set
Application programs, which have been developed on /390 systems can run on SQ
Servers without any changes.
15.12 openUTM Product Set
The openUTM product set of Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2) for SQ Server
requires openUTM V6.0 and higher.
There are no differences in developing Oracle Database/openUTM applications in
comparison with the /390 edition of Oracle (refer to chapter "Using the Oracle
Database under openUTM" in the Oracle Database User's Guide for Fujitsu BS2000/OSD).
15-4 Oracle Database Installation and Administration Guide
A
A
Oracle Error Messages for BS2000/OSD
This appendix lists Oracle Database 11g Release 2 for Fujitsu BS2000/OSD messages
with possible causes and suggested actions. The messages shown in this chapter may
be accompanied by additional text when displayed on screen. This text identifies the
function that detected the problem, and can include internal status codes, BS2000
system macro return codes, or both. These codes can be helpful to the Oracle Support
Services Representative in determining the cause of a problem.
Sometimes, for example, in the early stages of initialization when the message
components are not yet available, the Oracle Database cannot issue a regular Oracle
message. If this occurs, then Oracle Database calls the ILCS task termination routine,
or it issues a TERM macro directly, giving the message number as the user termination
code. You can use this message number to find the explanation in this appendix.
ORA-05000: ORACLE termination routine called
Cause: The termination routine of the Oracle Database run-time system has been
called due to a fatal error.
Action: If you do not know why the Oracle Database program terminated, or how
to resolve this problem, then contact the Oracle Support Services Representative.
ORA-05001: Unsupported BS2000 Version
Cause: The active version of the BS2000/OSD operating system is not supported
by Oracle Database 11g Release 2.
Action: Upgrade to a more recent BS2000/OSD version.
ORA-05002: Fatal error: called from non-ILCS program
Cause: In a precompiler or OCI application, the Oracle Database is called from a
program that does not run in an ILCS environment. The Oracle Database does not
support non-ILCS programs
Action: Ensure that the application program runs in ILCS mode. Some
programming languages, for example, FOR1, PL/I, require specific options for
ILCS. Refer to the Fujitsu documentation for further information.
ORA-05003: Fatal error: ILCS PCD cannot be verified
Cause: In a precompiler or OCI application, Oracle Database is called with a save
area that is marked as an ILCS save area but does not point to a proper PCD (ILCS
global area). The problem is either that memory has been overwritten, or that
Oracle Database is called from a program that does not run in an ILCS
environment. Oracle Database does not support non-ILCS programs.
Action: Ensure that the application program runs in ILCS mode. Some
programming languages, for example, FOR1, PL/I, require specific options for
ILCS. Refer to the Fujitsu documentation for further information.
Oracle Error Messages for BS2000/OSD A-1
ORA-05004: Fatal error: stack overflow, extension failed
Cause: A call to a function required an extension of the current call stack segment.
This extension failed and the corresponding ILCS routine returned the error.
Action: Ensure that the user address space is large enough in the JOIN entry and
that there is no temporary memory saturation. Then re-run the program. If you
need further help, then contact the Oracle Support Services Representative.
ORA-05005: Error: IT0INITS called in PROLOD
Cause: This is an internal error and should not occur.
Action: Contact the Oracle Support Services Representative.
ORA-05006: sltga already initialized
Cause: The initialization routine for the sltga is called more than one time.
Action: Check if more than one stub modules (PROSTUB, XAOSTUB) are linked to the
application.
ORA-05007: failed to load OSNTAB
Cause: This message is usually be preceded by a BS2000 BLS-nnnn message. The
most likely reason is that the ORALOAD library cannot be found.
Action: Contact the Database Administrator about the ORALOAD library. If you
cannot identify the cause of the problem, then contact the Oracle Support Services
Representative.
ORA-05008: failed to load requested network driver
Cause: This message is usually be preceded by a BS2000 BLS-nnnn message. The
most likely reason is that the ORALOAD library cannot be found.
Action: Contact the Database Administrator about the ORALOAD library. If you
cannot identify the cause of the problem, then contact the Oracle Support Services
Representative.
ORA-05009: osnsgl: user connects invalid in kernel
Cause: A database link was set up using the single-task driver (S:). This is invalid,
as the single-task driver can only be used for call connections on the user side.
Action: Select a different network driver for the database link.
ORA-05010: bad filename length
Cause: Buffer overflow while building/translating a file name. This could be
caused by specifying an excessively long file name in the ORAENV file.
Action: If you cannot identify the cause of the problem, then contact the Oracle
Support Services Representative.
ORA-05011: bad file size
Cause: This is an internal error and should not normally occur.
Action: Contact the Oracle Support Services Representative.
ORA-05012: bad block size
Cause: This is an internal error and should not normally occur.
Action: Contact the Oracle Support Services Representative.
ORA-05013: bad filename parse
Cause: A file name being analyzed is not well-formed for Oracle Database
purposes.
A-2 Oracle Database Installation and Administration Guide
Action: Correct the file name and re-run the program.
ORA-05014: sfcopy: non-matching block size
Cause: In a partial database file copy, source and target file have different block
sizes. This may indicate an internal error and should not normally occur.
Action: If you cannot identify the cause of the problem, then contact the Oracle
Support Services Representative.
ORA-05015: text file open failed
Cause: An Oracle Database text or command file cannot be opened. One of the
following could cause this error: the file name is wrong, the file has not been
properly initialized, or the file is not accessible.
Action: Correct the problem and restart the Oracle Database. If this occurs when
you issued the STARTUP command, then check the initialization file for the correct
specification of the database files.
ORA-05016: text file close failed
Cause: Attempt to close an Oracle Database file has failed. This is an internal error
and should not normally occur.
Action: Contact your Oracle Support Services Representative.
ORA-05017: file open failed
Cause: An Oracle Database database file cannot be opened. Either the file name is
wrong, the file has not been properly initialized, or the file is not accessible (for
example a file may not be accessible for a cross-user ID single-task client).
Action: Correct the problem and restart the Oracle Database. If this occurred
when you issued the STARTUP command, then check the initialization file for the
correct specification of the database files.
ORA-05018: file seek failed
Cause: This is an internal error and should not normally occur.
Action: Contact the Oracle Support Services Representative.
ORA-05019: file write failed
Cause: An I/O error occurred while writing to an Oracle Database file.
Action: If the error cannot be identified as one caused by a disk malfunction, then
either contact the System Administrator, or contact the Oracle Support Services
Representative.
ORA-05020: write block outside of file
Cause: An attempt was made to write a block of an Oracle Database file that does
not exist. For example, block number < 1 or > file size. This is an internal error and
should not normally occur.
Action: Contact the Oracle Support Services Representative.
ORA-05021: file read failed
Cause: An I/O occurred while reading an Oracle Database file.
Action: If the error cannot be identified as one caused by a disk malfunction, then
either contact the System Administrator, or contact the Oracle Support Services
Representative.
ORA-05022: read block outside of file
Oracle Error Messages for BS2000/OSD A-3
Cause: An attempt was made to read a block of an Oracle Database file that does
not exist. For example, block number < 1 or > file size. This is an internal error and
should not normally occur.
Action: Contact the Oracle Support Services Representative.
ORA-05023: file close failed
Cause: The attempt to close an Oracle Database file failed. This is an internal error
and should not normally occur.
Action: Contact the Oracle Support Services Representative.
ORA-05025: sfccf:file mismatch. Trying to reuse a file with different size
Cause: When trying to reuse a database file, the file size specified differs from the
actual size of the existing file.
Action: Specify the correct file size (remember to subtract one logical block for the
implicit header block), or leave the size unspecified, or use a different file name if
you want to create a larger or smaller database file.
ORA-05026: file does not exist
Cause: An attempt was made to access a database file, which no longer exists.
Action: Contact the Database Administrator who may know why this error has
occurred. If the Database Administrator cannot find the cause of the problem, then
contact the Oracle Support Services Representative.
ORA-05027: file does exist
Cause: When attempting to create a new file, this error occurs if the file is found
and is not empty.
Action: If the error occurred in a create database, then retry with the reuse
option. Otherwise use a different file name or check whether the file can be erased.
ORA-05028: file is not a dbfile
Cause: The database, or log, or control, file to be opened does not contain the
proper identification for such a file.
Action: Check for wrong file specification.
ORA-05029: illegal use-option
Cause: Internal error. Function sfccf was called with an illegal option.
Action: Contact the Oracle Support Services Representative.
ORA-05030: SID not defined
Cause: When the system id was required, typically, to substitute the "?" in names,
for example, in file names set by the initialization file, it was not yet defined. This
could be caused by a missing ORAENV file or a missing ORASID in that file.
Action: Ensure that the ORAENV file definition is correct and re-run the program.
ORA-05031: SID translation failure
Cause: The system id is syntactically incorrect.
Action: Ensure that the ORASID definition is correct and re-run the program.
ORA-05032: bad name parse
Cause: The translation of a file name, or other name containing variable parts,
failed. The error may be caused by a wrong specification in the ORAENV file.
A-4 Oracle Database Installation and Administration Guide
Action: Ensure that the ORAENV variable assignments are correct. If you cannot
identify the cause of the problem, then contact the Oracle Support Services
Representative.
ORA-05033: bad environment values
Cause: One or more of the values specified in the ORAENV file are invalid.
Action: Ensure that you specified legal values in the ORAENV file, refer to the
Appendix B, "Oracle Environment Variables" in this guide or Oracle Database User's
Guide for Fujitsu BS2000/OSD for further information.
ORA-05034: bad seal
Cause: Internal error. An internal file control structure is found to be corrupt.
Action: Contact the Oracle Support Services Representative.
ORA-05035: host command not executed
Cause: A BS2000 command, argument of a HOST or #HOST command, is invalid or
too long.
Action: Enter a valid HOST command.
ORA-05036: bad user id (length)
Cause: Internal buffer overflow while building a file name from variable
components.
Action: Ensure that the ORAUID value specified in the ORAENV file is correct. If you
cannot identify the cause of the problem, then contact the Oracle Support Services
Representative.
ORA-05037: /CANCEL command not executed
Cause: A background job could not be cancelled. The background task may have
already been terminated.
Action: If you cannot identify the cause of the problem, then contact the Oracle
Support Services Representative.
ORA-05038: SID has illegal length
Cause: The system identifier specified in either the ORAENV file or as part of a
connect string exceeds 4 characters in length.
Action: Specify a correct value.
ORA-05039: Recursive entry to ssodrv
Cause: Oracle Database kernel has been reentered at the top. This should not
happen.
Action: Ensure that the user program does not incorrectly call Oracle Database
functions from within an interrupt handling routine (signal routine, contingency).
If you cannot identify the cause of the problem, then contact the Oracle Support
Services Representative.
ORA-05040: no more dynamic memory
Cause: Request memory failed in file-management components. This is probably
caused by a user address space that is too small.
Action: Ensure that the user address space is large enough in the JOIN entry and
that there is no temporary memory saturation. Then re-run the program. If you
need further help, then contact the Oracle Support Services Representative.
ORA-05041: Interrupt in soarch
Oracle Error Messages for BS2000/OSD A-5
Cause: The archiver process was unexpectedly interrupted.
Action: If you cannot identify the cause of the problem, then contact the Oracle
Support Services Representative.
ORA-05042: soarch: Buffer overflow
Cause: The archiver process detected an internal buffer overflow.
Action: If you cannot identify the cause of the problem, then contact the Oracle
Support Services Representative.
ORA-05043: Archive control string too long
Cause: The archive control string is too long.
Action: Shorten this parameter and restart the database.
ORA-05044: Archive generated filename too long
Cause: The file name is generated from the values of the initialization parameters
log_archive_format and log_archive_dest. This has resulted in a file name that
is too long.
Action: Run the command ALTER SYSTEM ARCHIVE LOG START TO VALID_DEST
where VALID_DEST is a valid BS2000 file name.
ORA-05045: Archive file creation/open error
Cause: The archive file is normally allocated dynamically. Either this or the
subsequent open failed. Possible causes are either insufficient space left on disk, or
a bad archive file allocation parameter in ORAENV.
Action: Ensure that the optional ORAENV parameter is correct and that sufficient
disk space is available.
ORA-05046: Archive control string error
Cause: The archive file name or control parameters are incorrect.
Action: Correct the parameters.
ORA-05050: PGA (fixed part) could not be allocated
Cause: Probable operating system error or internal error.
Action: Contact the Oracle Support Services Representative.
ORA-05051: cannot allocate var. PGA
Cause: During creation of the PGA, required dynamic memory could not be
allocated.
Action: Verify that the user address space is large enough and that if an
application program produced the error, the program is not consuming excessive
memory. Otherwise contact the Oracle Support Services Representative.
ORA-05052: error deleting var. PGA
Cause: During deletion of the PGA, dynamic memory could not be released. This
is an internal error and should not normally occur.
Action: Contact the Oracle Support Services Representative.
ORA-05053: invalid or missing PGA_BASE
Cause: An invalid value for the PGA_BASE parameter has been specified in the DBA
ORAENV file.
Action: Use the default value for the PGA_SIZE environment variable. If this does
not solve the problem, then contact the Oracle Support Services Representative.
A-6 Oracle Database Installation and Administration Guide
ORA-05054: invalid or missing PGA_SIZE
Cause: An invalid value for the PGA_SIZE environment variable has been specified
in the DBA ORAENV file. You should never need to change the default value for the
PGA_SIZE environment variable.
Action: Use the default value for the PGA_SIZE environment variable. If this does
not solve the problem, then contact the Oracle Support Services Representative.
ORA-05055: address range for PGA (fixed part) is not free
Cause: The address range described by the PGA_BASE and PGA_SIZE ORAENV
variables is not available for allocation. This may be due to overlapping PGA, SGA,
and KERNEL areas, or to an application program, which has occupied memory in
this area. If you did not specify a value for PGA_BASE, the default may be
inappropriate for the case.
Action: Refer to the section "Address Space Planning" in Chapter 2.4, "Address
Space Planning" for further information.
ORA-05056: no more context space
Cause: During processing of a SQL request, dynamic memory could not be
allocated. This could happen when very complex requests are being processed and
there is not enough memory available.
Action: Verify that the user address space is large enough and that the application
program, if the error occurred when you were using an application program, is not
using excessive memory. Otherwise, contact the Oracle Support Services
Representative.
ORA-05058: assert failed: SGA not mapped
Cause: This is an internal error and should not normally occur.
Action: Contact the Oracle Support Services Representative.
ORA-05059: assert failed: not in kernel
Cause: This is an internal error and should not normally occur.
Action: Contact the Oracle Support Services Representative.
ORA-05060: SGA not created
Cause: After you run the STARTUP command, the SGA shared memory pool could
not be created.
Action: Verify that you are not trying to start the database while it is running and
that the database system id is not being used for two different databases.
Otherwise, contact the Oracle Support Services Representative.
ORA-05061: SGA attach failed
Cause: Connection to the SGA shared memory pool could not be established. This
may have happened if you used the wrong system id, or if the database you
expected to be running is not running.
Action: Verify that it is not one of the preceding causes (check with the Database
Administrator). Otherwise, contact the Oracle Support Services Representative.
ORA-05063: SGA base invalid
Cause: An invalid value has been specified for the SGA_BASE parameter in the
ORAENV file.
Oracle Error Messages for BS2000/OSD A-7
Action: This value is not normally needed. If specified, it must be a hexadecimal
value giving the full virtual address for the SGA memory pool. Correct the value
and run the STARTUP command.
ORA-05064: cannot allocate SGA
Cause: After creating the memory pool, the REQMP to allocate the space failed. This
might be an operating system error.
Action: If you cannot identify the cause of the problem, then contact the Oracle
Support Services Representative.
ORA-05065: SGA not deleted
Cause: When attempting to detach from the SGA, the DISMP system macro
returned an error.
Action: If you cannot identify the cause of the problem, then contact the Oracle
Support Services Representative.
ORA-05066: SGA address space conflict
Cause: The SGA cannot be placed at the requested address range, because the
range is already partly used. The SGA start address is defined by the ORAENV
variable, SGA_BASE; its size is determined by various initialization file parameters
such as processes, buffers, and so on.
Action: Refer to the section on "Address Space Planning" in Chapter 2,
"Architecture and Implementation", and adjust the relevant initialization file and
ORAENV variables. Inspect the JOIN entry for the address space limit. Contact the
System Administrator to find out about shared subsystems and their placement in
the address space. Ensure that you do not overlap with the Oracle Database
kernel.
ORA-05067: SGA: address space saturation
Cause: When the SGA is being allocated, the operating system reported that the
virtual address space is saturated.
Action: Contact the System Administrator about paging area size and current
overall system load.
ORA-05068 SGA still active, should not be
Cause: When the SGA is being created during startup, it is found that the SGA
memory pool is still in use, although the databases should be shut down. This may
be caused by a hanging single-task, user task, or a network server task.
Action: Check for such hanging tasks. Cancel these tasks, and then restart the
database.
ORA-05069: Unexpected SGA memory pool problem
Cause: The ENAMP macro returned an unexpected error code.
Action: Contact the Oracle Support Services Representative.
ORA-05070: cannot enable TPA ser.item
Cause: Probable operating system error.
Action: Contact the Oracle Support Services Representative.
ORA-05071: cannot ENQ on TPA ser.item
Cause: Probable operating system error.
Action: Contact the Oracle Support Services Representative.
A-8 Oracle Database Installation and Administration Guide
ORA-05072: cannot enable post/wait item
Cause: Probable operating system error.
Action: Contact the Oracle Support Services Representative.
ORA-05073: error in post
Cause: An inter-process communication operation failed.
Action: Check that the database and all required background tasks are running
correctly. If you cannot identify the cause of the problem, then contact the Oracle
Support Services Representative.
ORA-05074: error in wait
Cause: An inter-process communication operation failed.
Action: Check that the database and all required background tasks are running
correctly. If you cannot identify the cause of the problem, then contact the Oracle
Support Services Representative.
ORA-05075: error in task table manager
Cause: Internal error.
Action: Contact the Oracle Support Services Representative.
ORA-05076: error setting spid
Cause: Probable operating system error.
Action: Contact the Oracle Support Services Representative.
ORA-05077: cannot enable HIA event
Cause: Probable operating system error. The HIA (Here I Am) event item is used
during startup to communicate between a started background task and the
invoking SQL*DBA program.
Action: Contact the Oracle Support Services Representative.
ORA-05078: create process failure
Cause: When you issued the STARTUP command, a background job could not be
started successfully.
Action: Check for any job scheduling problems and that any BGJPAR entry in the
ORAENV file is correct. If you cannot identify the cause of the problem, then contact
the Oracle Support Services Representative.
ORA-05079: internal asynchronous IO error
Cause: This is an internal error and should not normally occur.
Action: Contact the Oracle Support Services Representative.
ORA-05101: bind-error xxxxxxxx for module/library
Cause: The Oracle Database/UTM attach module could not be loaded. One
possible reason is that the Oracle Database has been installed under a user ID
different from $ORAC1120 and that the installation procedure has not executed
correctly.
Action: Ensure that the ORAUID definition in the ORAENV file is correct. Otherwise,
contact the Oracle Support Services Representative.
ORA-05102: module verification failure: ORADBCN@
Cause: The openUTM application has probably been link-edited with an Oracle
Database version different from the Oracle Database version used at execution.
Oracle Error Messages for BS2000/OSD A-9
Action: Re-link the UTM application. If the error persists, then contact the Oracle
Support Services Representative.
ORA-05103: generated TSKM too short
Cause: The TSKM area was overwritten by the Oracle Database.
Action: Change the parameter LTHTSKM in the KDCDB / KDCDBO macro.
ORA-05104: generated TAM too short
Cause: The TAM area was overwritten by the Oracle Database.
Action: Change the parameter LTHTAM in the KDCDB / KDCDBO macro.
ORA-05107: POSIX environment variable <variablename> not defined
Cause: The specified environment variable is not defined.
Action: Define and export the requested variable in your profile.
ORA-05108: failed to process BS2000 command <bs2-command>
Cause: The BS2000 command processor cannot execute the command.
Action: Test the logged command in the POSIX shell using the POSIX command,
bs2cmd.
ORA-05109: failed to initialize environment for POSIX
Cause: An application running under the POSIX shell cannot create links to
required files in the BS2000 file system.
Action: Check if the environment Variables required for Oracle applications under
POSIX are set properly.
ORA-05110: cannot attach to memory pool
Cause: Invalid pool ID parameter xxx_MPID or operating system error.
Action: Check the ORAENV parameter xxx_MPID, at most 4 characters of the set
[A...Z],[0...9]), or contact the Oracle Support Services Representative.
ORA-05111: error attaching to memory pool
Cause: This is an internal error and should not normally occur.
Action: Contact the Oracle Support Services Representative.
ORA-05112: error creating memory pool
Cause: This is an internal error and should not normally occur.
Action: Contact the Oracle Support Services Representative.
ORA-05114: bad pool base
Cause: An invalid value for the base address parameter of the shared pool, that is,
COM_BASE, and so on. has been specified in the ORAENV file.
Action: If this value is specified, it must be a hexadecimal value giving the full
virtual address for the base address of a memory pool. Correct the value and
restart the database.
ORA-05116: cannot load shared code into pool
Cause: Shared code could not be loaded into the specified memory pool.
Generally, this message is preceded by a BLS-nnnn message from the operating
system.
A-10 Oracle Database Installation and Administration Guide
Action: Ensure that the ORALOAD link name identifies the correct ORALOAD library.
Then restart the program. If you cannot identify the cause of the problem, then
contact the Oracle Support Services Representative.
ORA-05117: cannot attach to socket subsystem
Cause: An application could not be bound to the sockets subsystem. Generally
this message is preceded by a BLS-nnnn message from the operating system.
Action: Contact the Oracle Support Services Representative.
ORA-05118: ORACLE PCD slot not accessible
Cause: The current task is trying to attach to the ORACLE PCD slot but cannot
find this slot.
This is an internal error and should not normally occur.
Action: Contact the Oracle Support Services Representative.
ORA-05119: module verification failed
Cause: The version of the shared loaded module does not match the version of the
connection module on the user side.
Action: Contact the Oracle Support Services Representative.
ORA-05120: waiting for shared module to be loaded timed out
Cause: This is an internal error and should not normally occur.
Action: Contact the Oracle Support Services Representative.
ORA-05121: waiting for initialization of shared module timed out
Cause: This is an internal error and should not normally occur.
Action: Contact the Oracle Support Services Representative.
ORA-05126: Missing IT0PCD address
Cause: The ILCS run-time link-library is probably missing.
Action: Contact the System Administrator.
ORA-05127: PARAM-LIST AT CALL ORACLE NOT OK
Cause: System error.
Action: Contact the Oracle Support Services Representative.
ORA-05128: COMMIT/ROLLBACK/CONNECT NOT ALLOWED IN
UTM-PROGRAM
Cause: Illegal SQL COMMIT/ROLLBACK/CONNECT found in UTM program.
Action: Correct the UTM program accordingly.
ORA-05131: ORADBCO-Call not allowed
Cause: System error.
Action: Contact the Oracle Support Services Representative.
ORA-05132: TA for User x is committed by the Resource-Manager
Cause: Transaction has been committed before malfunction.
Action: None.
ORA-05133: No Connect-String in Startparams found
Oracle Error Messages for BS2000/OSD A-11
Cause: In the start parameters there must be at least one open string for the Oracle
Database.
Action: Refer to Chapter 8, "openUTM Product Set" of this guide and correct the
start parameters.
ORA-05134: DBSTAT secondary opcode inconsistent
Cause: System error.
Action: Contact the Oracle Support Services Representative.
ORA-05135: Error x Recover PTC-list, Instance y
Cause: System error.
Action: Check if UTM is correctly installed and select privileges are granted to
XA-tables, refer to Chapter 8, "openUTM Product Set", or contact the Oracle
Support Services Representative.
ORA-05136: Maximum number of instances exceeded
Cause: The maximum number of open strings in the start parameters has been
exceeded.
Action: Refer to Chapter 8, "openUTM Product Set" and correct the start
parameters.
ORA-05137: Error x at Open Instance y
Cause: The connection to instance y is not possible.
Action: Start the Instance with all the required servers. If the error persists, then
contact the Oracle Support Services Representative.
ORA-05138: Error x at Close Instance y
Cause: Error occurred when disconnecting from instance y.
Action: Because the disconnection has just been done, there is no action.
ORA-05139: Error x at Start Transaction for User z, Instance y
Cause: The start of transaction in instance y is invalid.
Action: Restart the UTM transaction. If the error persists, close the UTM
application and do a restart.
ORA-05140: Error x at Continue Transaction for User z, Instance y
Cause: The continuation of transaction in instance y is invalid.
Action: Restart the UTM transaction. If the error persists, and the error is not
'XAER_PROTO'. This means that the transaction is rolled back because of longlock.
Shut down the openUTM application and restart.
ORA-05141: Error x at Break Transaction for User z, Instance y
Cause: The break of transaction in instance y is invalid.
Action: Restart the UTM transaction. If the error persists, and there are no cursor
operations in the preceded dialog step, shut down the UTM application and
restart.
ORA-05142: Error x at End Transaction for User z, Instance y
Cause: The end of a transaction in instance y is invalid.
Action: Restart the UTM transaction. If the error persists, shut down the UTM
application and do a restart.
A-12 Oracle Database Installation and Administration Guide
ORA-05143: Mismatch in TA for User(s) z
Cause: In the UTM warmstart there is a mismatch between openUTM, and the
Oracle Database instance(s), or both.
Action: Clear the Oracle Database instance(s), create a new KDCDEF for openUTM
and restart the openUTM application.
ORA-05144: Error x at Prepare Transaction for User z, Instance y
Cause: The preparation for committing a transaction in instance y is invalid.
Action: Restart the UTM transaction. If the error persists, then shutdown the
openUTM application and do a restart.
ORA-05145: Error x at Commit Transaction for User z, Instance y
Cause: Attempt to commit transaction in instance y unsuccessful.
Action: Restart the UTM transaction. If the error persists, then shutdown the
openUTM application and restart.
ORA-05146: Error x at Rollback Transaction for User z, Instance y
Cause: The rollback of transaction in instance y is invalid.
Action: No action, but if the error persists, shutdown the UTM application and
restart.
ORA-05147: TA for User z committed; Reason: Recovery
Cause: In a openUTM warmstart an interrupted transaction has been committed.
Action: None.
ORA-05148: TA for User z heuristic rolled back in Instance y
Cause: In a UTM warmstart, an interrupted transaction has just been rolled back
from the Oracle Database.
Action: Restart the UTM transaction.
ORA-05149: TA for User z rolled back; Reason: Internal Event
Cause: The end- or prepare-call was invalid. Therefore the transaction must be
rolled back.
Action: Restart the UTM transaction.
ORA-05150: KDCS-PEND before DBFITA missing
Cause: System error.
Action: Contact the Oracle Support Services Representative.
ORA-05151: KDCS-PEND before DBPETA missing
Cause: System error.
Action: Contact the Oracle Support Services Representative.
ORA-05152: Linked Resource-Manager is not CAE-compatible
Cause: System error.
Action: Contact the Oracle Support Services Representative.
ORA-05153: xa_switch definition not found for specified Resource-Manager: s
Cause: System error.
Action: Contact the Oracle Support Services Representative.
ORA-05154: Syntax error in start parameters for Resource-Manager: s
Oracle Error Messages for BS2000/OSD A-13
Cause: In the start parameters for the Oracle Database there is a syntax error.
Action: Refer to Chapter 8, "openUTM Product Set"and correct the start
parameters.
ORA-05155: Internal Error: malloc in dbstpa
Cause: This error message indicates a system error. One of the possible reasons for
this issue is that the system is out of memory.
Action: Contact the Oracle Support Services Representative.
ORA-05156: Internal Error: realloc in dbstpa
Cause: This error message indicates a system error. One of the possible reasons for
this issue is that the system does not have sufficient memory.
Action: Contact the Oracle Support Services Representative.
ORA-05157: Internal Error: malloc in up_recovery
Cause: This error message indicates a system error. One of the possible reasons for
this issue is that the system does not have sufficient memory.
Action: Contact the Oracle Support Services Representative.
ORA-05158: IUTMDB-Function not supported
Cause: openUTM system error.
Action: Contact the Oracle Support Services Representative.
ORA-05159: TA for User(s) z rolled back; Reason: Recovery
Cause: In a openUTM warmstart one or more interrupted transactions have been
rolled back.
Action: None.
ORA-05161: TCP/IP can't perform asynchronous test on break socket.
Cause: Select on break socket failed.
Action: Contact the System Administrator about TCP/IP networking problems. If
the error persists, contact the Oracle Support Services Representative.
ORA-05165: function not supported
Cause: Either Oracle Database 11g Release 2 Server or BS2000/OSD does not
support this function.
Action: None.
ORA-05167: Defect in data buffer
Cause: This is an internal error and should not normally occur.
Action: Contact the Oracle Support Services Representative.
ORA-05170: SID not defined (ORAENV file missing?)
Cause: The system identifier, data base name, is not defined when needed during
Oracle Database program initialization. A missing ORAENV file or a missing ORASID
entry in that file could cause this error.
Action: Ensure that the ORAENV file definition is correct and re-run the program.
ORA-05173: bad kernel size
Cause: An invalid value for the KNL_SIZE parameter has been specified in the
ORAENV file.
A-14 Oracle Database Installation and Administration Guide
Action: You should not normally need to specify this variable, as the default value
is correct. Contact the Oracle Support Services Representative.
ORA-05174: bad kernel base
Cause: An invalid value for the KNL_BASE parameter has been specified in the
ORAENV file.
Action: If this value is specified, then it must be a hexadecimal value giving the
full virtual address for the kernel memory pool. Correct the value and restart the
database.
ORA-05175: Kernel address space conflict
Cause: The Oracle Database kernel cannot be placed at the requested address
range, because the range is already used. The kernel start address is defined by the
ORAENV parameter, KNL_BASE.
Action: Refer to the section on "Address Space Planning" in Chapter 2,
"Architecture and Implementation", and adjust the relevant initialization file and
ORAENV parameters. Inspect the JOIN entry for the address space limit. Contact the
System Administrator to learn about shared subsystems and their placement in the
address space.
ORA-05176: Kernel: address space saturation
Cause: When the Oracle Database kernel memory pool was being allocated, the
operating system signalled that the virtual address space is currently saturated.
Action: Contact the System Administrator about paging area size and current
overall system load.
ORA-05177: Unexpected Kernel memory pool problem
Cause: The ENAMP macro returned an unexpected error code.
Action: This problem can be caused when you run a program in 24-bit mode and
try to connect single-task to a kernel, which has a value greater than the 16MB line,
because the database itself is running in 31-bit mode. If this is the cause of the
error, then you must access the database in two-task mode (through SQL*Net).
Refer to the ENAMP macro description in the BS2000 documentation for other
possible reasons. If you cannot identify the cause of the problem, then contact the
Oracle Support Services Representative.
ORA-05178: Kernel module not yet initialized
Cause: The current task is trying to attach to an Oracle Database kernel which is
not yet completely initialized. This can only happen if you try to connect to a
database, which is just being started.
Action: Retry after a while. Remember that it may take a few minutes until a
database is fully running and ready for the users. If the error persists, then check
this issue with the Database Administrator.
ORA-05180: Cannot load character set table
Cause: One of the modules containing character set tables cannot be loaded.
Action: Verify that the ORALOAD library is accessible through LINK=ORALOAD. For
further information about link names and the ORALOAD library, refer to the chapter
"Getting Started" in Oracle Database User's Guide for Fujitsu BS2000/OSD. If you
cannot identify the cause of the problem, then contact the Oracle Support Services
Representative.
ORA-05181: load/init problem with PRO/OCI interface
Oracle Error Messages for BS2000/OSD A-15
Cause: The user-side stub module could not load the PRO/OCI module. In this
case, the message is usually preceded by a BS2000 BLS-nnnn message, or the
loaded module is incompatible with the version of the stub module.
Action: Ensure that the ORALOAD link name exists and points to the current
ORALOAD library. Re-link the application with the current link libraries.
ORA-05191: symbol translation error for kernel memory pool
Cause: The logical name translation for the kernel memory pool failed. Normally,
this indicates an invalid system id, ORASID in the ORAENV file.
Action: Ensure that the ORAENV file definition is correct. Otherwise, contact the
Oracle Support Services Representative.
ORA-05192: cannot create/attach kernel memory pool
Cause: The memory pool for the Oracle Database kernel code could not be
enabled. In a user program, a possible cause is that the user program already
allocates part of the address range needed for the memory pool.
Action: Ensure that the user program does not request storage excessively, and
that any SGA_BASE and KNL_BASE parameters in the ORAENV file are consistent. If
you cannot identify the cause of the problem, then contact the Oracle Support
Services Representative.
ORA-05193: Symbol translation error for kernel module or load library
Cause: The logical-name translation for the kernel module or load library failed.
This is an internal error and should not normally occur.
Action: Contact the Oracle Support Services Representative.
ORA-05194: cannot load kernel
Cause: The kernel could not be loaded into the kernel memory pool. In most
cases, this message is preceded by a BLS-nnn message from the operating system.
Action: Ensure that the ORALOAD link name identifies the correct ORALOAD library,
and that the ORAENV variable, KNL_MODULE, names one of the possible kernels. Then
re-issue the STARTUP command. If you cannot identify the cause of the problem,
then contact the Oracle Support Services Representative.
ORA-05195: bad or missing kernel connector
Cause: The loaded kernel could not verify its user-side connector module. This
can occur if you use an incorrect kernel version.
Action: If you cannot identify the cause of the problem, then contact the Oracle
Support Services Representative.
ORA-05198: associated internal OSD error code %d
Cause: This message precedes ORA-05199, if there is more information available.
The first 4 hexadecimal digits can often identify the module, and the last 4
hexadecimal digits are usually a condensed version of an associated system macro
code. This code can be helpful in diagnosing the problem.
Action: If you cannot identify the cause of the problem, then contact the Oracle
Support Services Representative.
ORA-05199: ORACLE ABNORMAL EXIT
Cause: A fatal error occurred, which prevents continuation of execution. In many
cases, a preceding message explains the error. The system causes the program
execution to stop (TERM ABNORMAL with DUMP is displayed).
A-16 Oracle Database Installation and Administration Guide
Action: If you cannot identify the cause of the problem, then contact the Oracle
Support Services Representative.
Oracle Error Messages for BS2000/OSD A-17
A-18 Oracle Database Installation and Administration Guide
B
B
Oracle Environment Variables
This appendix describes variables that can be specified in the ORAENV file or the POSIX
shell. Oracle parameters, such as ORACLE_SID and NLS_LANG, may be specified in the
ORAENV file or POSIX shell.If you use a ORAENV file, then you must follow the ORAENV
rules for specifying environment variables as described in the following sections. In
the POSIX shell, you must follow the UNIX rules to set and export the environment
variables.
The following table describes the variables that are categorized into three classes.
Class
Description
DBA
These variables are for database administration purposes. Most DBA
variables are evaluated only during database startup.
USER
These variables can be specified by ordinary users as well as by the
DBA. When these variables are specified in a particular user's ORAENV
file, they modify that user's environment only.
NET
These variables apply to Oracle Net Services components. These
variables should be included in the ORAENV file of the DBA.
The class (or classes) to which a variable belongs is noted in the variable descriptions
in this appendix.
Any DBA or NET variables specified in an ordinary user's ORAENV file are ignored.
B.1 ORAENV Rules
You should consider the following general rules when writing ORAENV files:
■
All lines which begin with a slash or asterisk (/ or *) are ignored.
■
All variable names must be written in uppercase.
■
Spaces must not be included immediately before and after the equals sign (=).
■
■
■
Do not enclose values in quotation marks unless you want the quotation marks to
be part of the value.
Since the variable list is conceptually open ended, errors in variable names are not
recognized. This means that the value of any variable whose name is mis-typed is
not modified.
There is only limited checking of variable assignments. An incorrect value may
generate an error message, but may also be interpreted as a null value.
Oracle Environment Variables B-1
Built-in Variables
■
When variable assignments refer to other variables, BS2000 command file
substitution syntax applies. Substitution takes place when a variable is actually
used, not when it is read from the ORAENV file.
For example:
ORAUID=$ORAC1120
SQLPATH=&ORAUID..RDBMS.ADMIN
assigns the value $ORAC1120.RDBMS.ADMIN to the variable SQLPATH. If ORAUID is
changed, then SQLPATH automatically reflects the new value.
■
■
The sequence of items in the ORAENV file is not generally significant. If an item
occurs more than once, then the last occurrence is used.
If no value is given for a variable, then the default value is used, if it exists.
B.2 Built-in Variables
The following variables are always defined, and may be referenced in other variable
assignments:
B.2.1 LOGNAME
The LOGNAME variable always contains the current BS2000 user ID. You cannot alter the
value of this variable by assigning a different value to it in the ORAENV file.
B.2.2 ORAUID
This variable specifies the BS2000 user ID where the Oracle Database programs,
installation and demonstration files are installed. The initial value is derived from the
ORALOAD link name (the user ID part of the ORALOAD library name). This value is usually
correct, but if necessary, you can override it by assigning a different value to it in the
ORAENV file.
Format: ORAUID=$userid or ORAUID=/BS2/$userid
B.2.3 PGM
The PGM variable always contains the last part of the current START_PROGRAM program
name. You cannot alter the value of this variable by assigning a different value to it in
the ORAENV file.
B.2.4 TERM
The TERM variable contains the terminal type, and defaults to 'SNI9750'. This default
value is usually correct, but if necessary, you can override it by assigning a different
value to it in the ORAENV file.
B.2.5 TSN
The TSN variable contains the task sequence number of the current task. You cannot
alter the value of this variable by assigning a different value to it in the ORAENV file.
B.3 General Variables
The following variables are for general, day-to-day use by Oracle DBAs and users.
B-2 Oracle Database Installation and Administration Guide
General Variables
B.3.1 CLN_BASE
This variable specifies the address of the shared code pool of customer written
database applications for CORE, NLS, and NET.
Format:
CLN_BASE=address
Classification:
USER
Default:
CLN_BASE=37M
B.3.2 CLN_MPID
This variable specifies the identification of the shared code pool of customer written
database applications for CORE, NLS, and NET.
Format:
CLN_MPID=sid
Classification:
USER
Default:
CLN_MPID=&ORASID
B.3.3 DEFAULT_CONNECTION
This variable provides a default host string for connect requests where no host string is
specified. If you always connect to the same database, then it may be convenient to
specify this. This value should contain everything you would otherwise specify after
the "@" character.
Format: DEFAULT_CONNECTION=host-string
Classification: USER
Example:
DEFAULT_CONNECTION=TNS:
(DESCRIPTION=
(ADDRESS=
(PROTOCOL=TCP)
(HOST=MADRID)
(PORT=1521))
(CONNECT_DATA=
(SERVICE_NAME=PROD)))
B.3.4 EXP_CLIB_FILE_IO
This variable should be set to FALSE when you use the Export utility to overcome a
problem with the C library functions when an export file is written to tape.
Oracle Environment Variables
B-3
General Variables
Format: EXP_CLIB_FILE_IO=FALSE
Classification: USER
Default: EXP_CLIB_FILE_IO=TRUE
B.3.5 IMP_CLIB_FILE_IO
This variable should be set to FALSE when you use the Import utility to overcome a
problem with the C library functions when an import file is read from tape.
Format: IMP_CLIB_FILE_IO=FALSE
Classification: USER
Default: IMP_CLIB_FILE_IO=TRUE
B.3.6 NLS_LANG
This variable specifies the default language and character set. For example:
NLS_LANG=GERMAN_GERMANY.D8BS2000
Format: NLS_LANG=language_territory.character-set
Classification: USER, DBA
Default: NLS_LANG=AMERICAN_AMERICA.WE8BS2000
B.3.7 OPS_JID
This variable is used for concatenation with the OS_AUTHENT_PREFIX, refer to
initialization parameter. The default value concatenates the value of the parameter OS_
AUTHENT_PREFIX with the BS2000 user ID. Using OPS_JID, you can specify that the
BS2000 jobname, /.jobname LOGON..., is used instead. This is useful when many users
are sharing one BS2000 user ID.
Format: OPS_JID=userid/jobname
Classification: DBA
Default: userid
B.3.8 ORASID
This variable defines the database that is used if no database identification is given at
connect time.This variable is a synonym of the ORACLE_SID variable.
Format: ORASID=sid (sid is a characterstring where 1 <= length <= 4)
Classification: USER, DBA
Note:
Oracle recommends that you use the ORACLE_SID variable.
B.3.9 PRINTPAR
This variable specifies optional variables for the /PRINT command issued for SPOOL
OUT spool files. Using this variable, the user can modify the spooled job, and, for
example, route the job to a remote printer, add print options for laser printers, and so
on. The BS2000 /PRINT command for spool files is issued as follows:
/PRINT temp.spoolfile,&PRINTPAR
B-4 Oracle Database Installation and Administration Guide
DBA Startup Variables
Format: PRINTPAR=print-options
Classification: USER
B.3.10 SQLPATH
This variable specifies a path where SQL*Plus looks for command files. Elements of
the path are separated by semicolons (;). For example:
SQLPATH=PRIVATE;$ORAC1120
This assignment causes SQL*Plus to look for filename.SQL, then for
PRIVATE.filename.SQL, and finally for $ORAC1120.filename.SQL.
Format: SQLPATH=search-path
Classification: USER, DBA
B.3.11 SSSIDPWF
This variable specifies the password file for remote instance start. For further
information, refer to Chapter 5, "Administering Oracle Database".
Format: SSSIDPWF=password-file
Classification: DBA
B.4 DBA Startup Variables
The following variables are used during database and network startup. They
supplement (and in some cases provide defaults for) variables contained in the
initialization file.
Oracle recommends that database startup and shutdown, background jobs, and
network jobs should all refer to the same ORAENV file to ensure that the variables are
consistent.
Note that the default values listed in the following section are built-in defaults, most of
them are over-ridden by settings in the shipped DEMO.P.ORAENV.
B.4.1 Address and Size Specification
Several of the variables described in this section define memory addresses and sizes.
The notation used to specify these items is as follows:
■
■
■
A number with no modifiers is interpreted as a decimal number
A number followed by K or M is interpreted as a decimal number multiplied by
1024 or 1048576 (1024*1024) respectively
A number enclosed in single quotation marks and preceded by the letter X is
interpreted as a hexadecimal number
For example, the following all set the KNL_BASE variable to 8M:
KNL_BASE=8M
KNL_BASE=8388608
KNL_BASE=X'800000'
Oracle Environment Variables
B-5
DBA Startup Variables
B.4.2 BGJPAR
This variable specifies the parameters for the ENTER-PROCEDURE command used when
starting background jobs. The ENTER-PROCEDURE command is used to submit jobs as
follows:
.jobname ENTER-PROCEDURE jobfile, &BGJPAR
Format: BGJPAR=parameters
Classification: DBA
Note:
The BGJPAR variable is set up by the installation procedure.
B.4.3 BGJPRC_UID / BGJPRC_SID
These variables specify the user ID and orasid of the file for the background enter
jobs. If the use of a special enter job file is desired, then the parameters must be set to
the desired userid and orasid.
Format:
BGJPRC_UID=$userid
BGJPRC_SID=sid
Classification: DBA, NET
Default:
BGJPRC_UID=&ORAUID
BGJPRC_SID=DEMO
B.4.4 BGJ_LOG_JOBSTART
This variable specifies whether the operating system message that a new job was
accepted should be logged on SYSOUT or not.
Format: BGJ_LOG_JOBSTART=Y/N
Classification: DBA,USER, NET
Default: BGJ_LOG_JOBSTART=N
B.4.5 sid_BGJPAR
This variable specifies the parameters, which are used by the ENTER-PROCEDURE
command to start a server process for the instance specified by SID.
Format: sid_BGJPAR=parameters
Syntax: sid is a string of at the most 4 alphanumeric characters
parameters is the parameters for the ENTER-PROCEDURE command as described in the
BS2000/OSD commands
Classification: DBA,USER, NET
B.4.6 sid_USER
This variable specifies the USER-ID where the instance assigned by SID resides.
Format: sid_USER=userid
B-6 Oracle Database Installation and Administration Guide
DBA Startup Variables
Syntax: sid is a string of at the most 4 alphanumeric characters
userid is a string of at most 8 alphanumeric characters which follows the rules of a
BS2000/OSD USER-ID
Classification: DBA,USER, NET
B.4.7 user_ACCOUNT/ user_PASSWORD
user_ACCOUNT or user_PASSWORD define credentials of a USER-ID, which are used by the
ENTER-PROCEDURE command to start a process.
Format: user_ACCOUNT=account
user_PASSWORD=password
Syntax: user is a string of at the most 8 alphanumeric characters, which follows the
rules of a BS2000/OSD USER-ID and must match a USER-ID defined by the parameter
sid_USER.
account is a string of at the most 8 alphanumeric characters, which follows the rules
for a BS2000/OSD account number.
password is a string of at the most 8 alphanumeric characters, which follows the rules
for a BS2000/OSD password.
Classification: DBA, NET
B.4.8 COM_MPID
This parameter specifies the identification of the shared code pool of the Oracle
instance for CORE, NLS, and NET.
Format: COM_MPID=sid
Classification: DBA
Default: COM_MPID=&ORASID
B.4.9 COM_BASE
This parameter specifies the address of the shared code pool of the Oracle instance for
CORE and NLS.
Format: COM_BASE=address
Classification: DBA
Default: COM_BASE=37M
B.4.10 JOBID
This variable is used internally in identifying the background tasks and generating
task-specific names. You see it in some places, but you should never specify it yourself.
Classification: DBA
B.4.11 KNL_BASE
This variable gives the base address where the shared memory pool is mapped in
memory. This must be an integral number of megabytes.
Format: KNL_BASE=address
Oracle Environment Variables
B-7
DBA Startup Variables
Classification: DBA
Default: KNL_BASE=72M
B.4.12 ORACLE_HOME
The Oracle home directory is the directory in the POSIX file system which contains the
installation of the software for a particular Oracle product.
Format: ORACLE_HOME=/path-name
Classification: DBA, USER
B.4.13 PGA_BASE
This variable specifies the base address of the fixed part of the PGA. The PGA is
task-specific, but must be located at a fixed memory address so that the kernel can
access it. The base address must lie on a 64KB boundary.
Format: PGA_BASE=address
Classification: DBA
Default: PGA_BASE=189M
The value of PGA_BASE is taken from the kernel if the shared
kernel is already loaded.
Note:
B.4.14 PGA_SIZE
This variable specifies the size of the fixed part of the PGA. This variable should not be
changed from its default value.
Format: PGA_SIZE=size
Classification: DBA
Default: PGA_SIZE=64K
The value of PGA_SIZE is taken from the kernel if the shared
kernel is already loaded.
Note:
B.4.15 SF_PBLKSIZE
This variable specifies the physical blocksize of redo log files.
Format: SF_PBLKSIZE=2K|4K
Classification: DBA
Default: 2K
Note: This variable cannot be changed after database creation. Once
you specify a value different from the default, you must specify it in
all future calls.
B-8 Oracle Database Installation and Administration Guide
Oracle Net Services Variables
B.4.16 SGA_BASE
This variable gives the address where the SGA is mapped into memory, and must
represent a megabyte-boundary.
Format: SGA_BASE=address
Classification: DBA
Default: SGA_BASE=190M
The value of SGA_BASE is read from the kernel if the shared
kernel is already loaded. There is no corresponding SGA_SIZE variable;
the size of the SGA memory pool is calculated when the database is
started.
Note:
B.5 Oracle Net Services Variables
The following are the Oracle Net Services variables:
B.5.1 BREAK_HANDLING
This variable deactivates the signal routine for user interrupts, which sends a break
over the network. An interrupt can be released by pressing the [K2] key.
Format:
BREAK_HANDLING=ON|OFF
Classification:
DBA, USER, NET
Default:
BREAK_HANDLING=ON
B.5.2 TNS_ADMIN
This variable specifies the user ID of the Oracle Net Services configuration files, for
example, LISTENER.ORA, TNSNAMES.ORA and SQLNET.ORA. If TNS_ADMIN is not defined,
then the configuration files are searched under the local user ID with the prefix
NETWORK.ADMIN.
Format: TNS_ADMIN=$userid
Classification: DBA, USER, NET
B.5.3 TNS_BEQ_TIMEOUT
This variable specifies the time after which a connection between a parent and a child
process is closed if there is no communication between them.
Format: TNS_BEQ_TIMEOUT=lifetime (in seconds)
Classification: NET
Default: TNS_BEQ_TIMEOUT=180
Oracle Environment Variables B-9
Oracle Net Services Variables
B.5.4 TNS_UPDATE_IPNODE
This variable forces the Oracle Net software to change always the server's IP-Node
name to an IP-Node address.
Format: TNS_UPDATE_IPNODE=TRUE/FALSE
Classification: NET
Default: TNS_UPDATE_IPNODE=FALSE
B-10 Oracle Database Installation and Administration Guide
C
C
Initialization Parameters and the Parameter
File
Every time SQL*Plus starts an Oracle Database instance, it uses a set of parameters
which specify the characteristics of the instance's operation. These parameters are kept
in a file, typically named sid.DBS.INIT.ORA.
This appendix lists unsupported parameters, and lists other parameters that you may
need to change to customize the Oracle Database for the system.
Refer to the Oracle Database Reference manual for general descriptions of the parameters
listed in this Appendix.
C.1 Example Parameter File
The $ORAC1120.DEMO.DBS.INIT.ORA parameter file is created upon initial installation
and can be edited as a text file.
C.2 Unsupported Parameters
The following initialization file parameters, described in the generic documentation
are not supported by Oracle Database 11g for BS2000/OSD.
■
MAX_DUMP_FILE_SIZE
■
OS_ROLES
■
AUDIT_SYSLOG_LEVEL
■
MEMORY_MAX_TARGET
■
MEMORY_TARGET
Specifying these parameters in the initialization file results in an Oracle Database error
during startup. The workaround is to remove such lines from the file.
C.3 Additional Notes on Initialization Parameters
This section contains additional information about initialization parameters.
C.3.1 BACKGROUND_DUMP_DEST
This parameter specifies the path name (directory or prefix) where debugging trace
files for the background processes (LGWR, DBWn, and so on.) are written during
Oracle operations. Furthermore, it specifies the path name for the alert file. The default
Initialization Parameters and the Parameter File C-1
Additional Notes on Initialization Parameters
value for this parameter is the current BS2000 user ID of the Oracle background
processes. You can specify a prefix for the trace and alert files in the following format:
BACKGROUND_DUMP_DEST=BDD
You can also specify a POSIX directory for this parameter, if you have enabled the
POSIX subsystem.
Note: This parameter is ignored by the new diagnosability
infrastructure introduced in Oracle Database 11g, which places trace
and core files in a location controlled by the DIAGNOSTIC_DEST
initialization parameter
C.3.2 USER_DUMP_DEST
This parameter specifies the path name (directory or prefix) where the server writes
debugging trace files on behalf of a user process. The default value for this parameter
is the current BS2000 user ID of the Oracle Database processes.
You can specify a prefix for the trace files as follows:
USER_DUMP_DEST=UDD
You can also specify a POSIX directory for this parameter, if you have enabled the
POSIX subsystem.
Note: This parameter is ignored by the new diagnosability
infrastructure introduced in Oracle Database 11g, which places trace
and core files in a location controlled by the DIAGNOSTIC_DEST
initialization parameter
C.3.3 AUDIT_FILE_DEST
This parameter specifies the path name (directory or prefix) into which the audit trail
is written when the AUDIT_TRAIL initialization parameter is set to OS. Usually this
value is used as a prefix for BS2000 file names. You can also specify a POSIX directory
for this parameter, if you have enabled the POSIX subsystem. The default value for
this parameter is SID. ADUMP. The name of the audit files is tsn-seqno. AUD, where
tsn is the task sequence number of the current task and seqno is a sequence number.
Bear in mind that regardless of whether database auditing is enabled, Oracle/BS2000
always records some database-related actions into the operating system audit file:
instance startup, shutdown and connections with administrator privileges.
C.3.4 DB_BLOCK_SIZE
This parameter can have one of the following values:
■
2K, 4K, 6K, 8K, 16K, 32K, if you use BS2000 2K pubset format.
■
4K, 8K, 16K, 32K, if you use BS2000 4K pubset format.
C.3.5 DB_FILE_MULTIBLOCK_READ_COUNT
The default value of this parameter is 64K/DB_BLOCK_SIZE, which is also the
maximum value. Setting this parameter beyond this limit has no effect.
C-2 Oracle Database Installation and Administration Guide
Additional Notes on Initialization Parameters
C.3.6 DB_FILES
If you plan to create a large database, then you must set this value to the maximum of
2044 before creating the database.
C.3.7 LOCK_SGA
This parameter is ignored on Oracle Database 11g for BS2000/OSD. Buffers in the SGA
are page fixed only during I/O operations. Otherwise, the SGA on BS2000 is pageable.
C.3.8 SGA_MAX_SIZE
This parameter should not be specified on Oracle Database 11g for BS2000/OSD.
Because the SGA is not permanently pagefixed as it is on some other systems, there is
little benefit in reserving SGA expansion space with the SGA_MAX_SIZE parameter. It
defaults to the actual SGA size.
C.3.9 LOG_ARCHIVE_BUFFER_SIZE
The value of this parameter should always be set so that when multiplied by the value
of SF_PBLKSIZE the result equals 32K.
C.3.10 LOG_ARCHIVE_DEST
This parameter can indicate a pubset, such as LOG_ARCHIVE_DEST=:PUB1: to store all
archived redo logs on special media.
Initialization Parameters and the Parameter File C-3
Additional Notes on Initialization Parameters
C-4 Oracle Database Installation and Administration Guide
D
D
Troubleshooting
This section describes problems that you may encounter when using the Oracle
Database 11g Release 2 on BS2000, and provides you with information about how to
diagnose and overcome such problems.
To solve a problem, identify the type of the problem and locate the relevant
information in this appendix. Examine each of the listed points to find the cause of the
problem. Carry out the suggested solution, and try again. The event log file described
in this document may help you to diagnose the problem.
Refer to the Appendix A, "Oracle Error Messages for BS2000/OSD" in this guide and
Oracle Database Error Messages manual for information about specific messages.
D.1 Problems Installing Oracle Database 11g
The following sections describe some probable problems faced while installing Oracle
Database 11g Release 2.
D.1.1 Problems Creating a Database
You should always use INSTALL.P.SUPER or INSTALL.P.DBA to create a new database,
because this is the easiest way to get a correct instance. If you encounter problems
during this process, then study the diagnostic output, correct, and run the respective
part manually, or remove the partially-created database, and re-run the whole process.
All files belonging to a specific database are prefixed with the system identifier
(ORASID) for that database, except for log files which have an extra prefix.
Also, check the following:
■
Does the BS2000 user ID have an adequate PUBLIC-SPACE-LIMIT for the
corresponding pubset?
■
Is enough disk space available on the pubset or disks used to create the databases?
■
Is disk space fragmentation too high?
D.2 Problems Starting a Database
The following section lists some probable issues that you might face when you start a
database.
D.2.1 Problems Starting a Database
This section lists information related to problems encountered when starting a
database.
Troubleshooting D-1
Problems Accessing the Database
■
Did you get an ORA-05032 error with no extra information?
When you attempt to start a database and the startup fails, you sometimes get an
ORA-05032 message and not much other information. This indicates that a
problem occurred in a very early stage of the startup, when Oracle Database 11g
error stack and backtracking mechanism was not yet active. If this is the case, then
you should check the following:
–
Did you call the ORAENV procedure prior to calling SQL*Plus?
–
Did you specify a correct and unique ORASID value in the ORAENV file?
–
Are there potential address range conflicts?
The address ranges assigned to the kernel memory pool, the SGA, and the
PGA, in each task, could be partially occupied by shared subsystems also used
in the instance. Contact the System Administrator to find out how the
subsystems are arranged. Then change the corresponding xxx_BASE
environment variables in the ORAENV file to relocate the Oracle Database 11g
areas to suitable address ranges.
–
Is the user address space large enough?
A small address space limit may not leave enough room for Oracle Database
11g requirements.
–
Has a previous startup attempt failed, leaving invalid background, database,
or user tasks?
If the Oracle Database 11g has not been shut down properly, then old
background or database tasks may hang and still be connected to the SGA of
the old instance. This inhibits the creation of a new SGA. You may get a
message indicating shutdown in progress.
Cancel the remaining background, server, and user tasks. Exit SQL*Plus (this
is required to release shared memory pools of the old instance) and retry.
D.2.2 Problems with Tasks
If you get a time out message when starting the background tasks, then check the
following points:
■
Are the background tasks blocked in the BS2000 job queue? This may occur due to
system overload or insufficient task priority.
The background tasks should always be started with the IMMEDIATE option and
preferably in a reserved Jobclass. Check the ORAENV BGJPAR environment variable
and the user attributes of the BS2000 user ID. Cancel any background tasks that
have already started.
■
If no background task can be found using the /STATUS command, then the jobs
have probably aborted. Check the job outputs.
D.3 Problems Accessing the Database
Refer to this section if you are facing issues accessing the database.
D.3.1 Problems with Database and Log files
If you have problems opening, closing, reading, or writing a database or log file, then
check the following points:
D-2 Oracle Database Installation and Administration Guide
Problems Accessing the Database
■
Does the file exist?
■
Is the file accessible to the program which is trying to open it?
■
Is there a hardware problem?
■
Did you specify the correct block size?
If you specified the ORAENV environment variable, SF_PBLKSIZE, at database creation,
then you must continue to use the same specification whenever you run an ALTER
DATABASE statement.
D.3.2 Oracle Database 11g Trace Files
Whenever Oracle Database 11g encounters an exception, it writes a trace (or dump)
file. You may need to send the file to the Oracle Support Services Representative if any
unusual problem occurs.
These files are created at database startup with a standard header and are modified for
the last time at database shutdown. If no problems have occurred, then you may want
to remove these files after a successful shutdown.
D.3.3 Oracle Database-Level Error Information
When you get an Oracle Database message, the ORA-xxxx message may sometimes be
followed by a message like the following:
SOSD error 8xxxyyyy from mmmmmmmm : text
This indicates that the error originated in operating system code or low-level Oracle
Database code interfacing with the operating system. The SOSD error code provides
important diagnostic information, and when contacting the Oracle Support Services
Representative you should always supply this code, if present, in addition to the
Oracle Database error number.
The error code is displayed in hexadecimal, and is structured as follows:
■
■
■
xxx identifies the function reporting the error. This information is useful to the
Oracle Support Services Representative.
yyyy details the error. It is either an internal code of the function, or a compacted
return code of a BS2000 system macro (see subsequent section).
mmmmmmmm is the name of the Oracle Database internal function. Text, if
present, explains the error code. Often it says "RC FROM zzzzz MACRO".
A BS2000 system macro return code is condensed into the 2-byte value yyyy as
follows:
■
For system macros that return a code bb0000aa, yyyy is bbaa
■
For I/O calls, yyyy is the DMS error code
In all other cases, yyyy contains the right halfword of the return code of the BS2000
macro.
Troubleshooting D-3
Problems Accessing the Database
D-4 Oracle Database Installation and Administration Guide
E
File Types and Names Used by Oracle
E
The following is a list of file types and names used by Oracle.
sid.DBS.xxx.DBF
Database files such as sid.DBS.CONTROL.DBF, sid.DBS.DATABASE1.DBF, or
sid.DBS.LOG1.DBF contain the entire Oracle database including data dictionary, user
tables, log files, and so on.
sid.DBS.INIT.ORA
Parameter file used when instance is started.
sid.P.ORAENV
Environment file containing user environment. Always to be run before start of an
instance or an application: /DO sid.P.ORAENV.
S.E.tsn.YYYY-MM-DD.hh.mm.ss
Temporary ENTER-PROCEDURE file for starting background processes (using
$ORAC1120.DEMO.P.ENTER).
S.OUT.tsn.YYYY-MM-DD.hhmmss
Temporary files of background processes containing run-time information. After a task
is successfully completed, these files are removed. These files can help diagnosis.
L.sid.xxxx.SYSOUT.tsn
Run-time listing documenting the start of a background process. When process
finishes orderly listings are removed, except the SDF-P variable BJGOUT is set to KEEP in
sid.P.ORAENV for diagnosis purposes. xxxx corresponds with the identifier of Oracle
background jobs.
Oracle Net Services LOG files
All errors encountered in Oracle network products are appended to a log file. The
default directory path on BS2000/OSD is network.log. For more information about
Oracle Net Services log files, refer to Oracle Database Net Services Administrator's Guide.
T.sid.INSTALL.E.SUPER
To be removed after successful installation.
T.sid.INSTALL.E.SUPER.72
To be removed after successful installation.
File Types and Names Used by Oracle E-1
L.sid.xxx.LOG
To be removed after successful installation, for example, L.sid.CATALOG.LOG.
ORAXALOG.tsn-NULL-YYMMDD.TRC
This file is used to trace errors when openUTM is used with Oracle. This file is created
only when an error occurs. NULL can be replaced by a db_name when specified in the
open string.
E-2 Oracle Database Installation and Administration Guide
Index
A
E
Address Space, 2-5
administration utility
SQL*Plus, 5-1
Architecture
Oracle Server, 2-1
Archiving, 1-4
AUDIT_FILE_DEST, C-2
EE8BS2000, 12-2
Environment Definition File, 2-6
Environment variables
BGJPAR, 7-1, B-6
CLN_BASE, B-3
CLN_MPID, B-3
DEFAULT_CONNECTION, B-3
EXP_CLIB_FILE_IO, B-3
IMP_CLIB_FILE_IO, B-4
JOBID, B-7
KNL_BASE, B-7
LOGNAME, B-2
NLS_LANG, B-4
OPS_JID, B-4
ORAUID, B-2
PGA_BASE, B-8
PGA_SIZE, B-8
PGM, B-2
PRINTPAR, B-4
SF_PBLKSIZE, B-8
SGA_BASE, B-9
SQLPATH, B-5
SSSIDPWF, B-5
TERM, B-2
TNS_ADMIN, B-9
TSN, B-2
EXP_CLIB_FILE_IO, B-3
Export, 1-4
External procedure calls, 11-1
B
BACKGROUND_DUMP_DEST,
BCAM, 9-10
Bequeath adapter, 9-3
BGJ_LOG_JOBSTART, B-6
BGJPAR, 7-1, B-6
Bigfile Tablespaces, 2-5
C-1
C
CE8BS2000, 12-2
CIRCUITS, 9-4
CL8BS2000, 12-2
Client Common Pool, 2-6
CLN_BASE, B-3
CLN_MPID, B-3
COM_BASE, B-7
Creating a database, 4-1
D
Data dictionary views
installing, 4-7
Database
creating, 4-1
files, 2-2
recovering, 6-2
system identifier, 2-7
Database character sets
Java, 12-2
DB_BLOCK_SIZE, C-2
DB_FILE_MULTIBLOCK_READ_COUNT, C-2
DB_FILES, C-3
DEFAULT_CONNECTION, B-3
DISPATCHERS, 9-4
F
File Names, E-1
File Types, E-1
Files
database, 2-2
INIT.ORA, C-1
ORAENV, B-1
trace, 8-8
files
Java installation, 12-1
Index-1
G
MAX_SHARED_SERVERS, 9-4
Messages, A-1
Modifying INIT.ORA, 4-6
Globalization Support, 1-4
GLOGIN.SQL, 5-3
N
H
NLS_LANG,
HOST, 5-2
O
I
IMP_CLIB_FILE_IO, B-4
Import, 1-4
Initialization parameters
CIRCUITS, 9-4
DB_FILE_MULTIBLOCK_READ_COUNT, C-2
DB_FILES, C-3
DISPATCHERS, 9-4
INIT.ORA file, C-1
LOCAL_LISTENER, 9-4
MAX_DISPATCHERS, 9-4
MAX_SHARED_SERVERS, 9-4
SHARED_SERVER_SESSIONS, 9-4
SHARED_SERVERS, 9-4
INIT.ORA, 2-3, C-1
modifying, 4-6
Installation
Java Enabled Database, 12-1
Intelligent Agent, 14-1
Invoking
SQL*Plus, 5-1
J
Java, 12-1
database character sets,
JOBID, B-7
12-2
K
KNL_BASE, B-7
Known problems, restrictions and workarounds,
L
LDAP.ORA, 9-7
Loading External Procedures, 11-1
LOCAL_LISTENER, 9-4
LOCK_SGA, C-3
Log Files, 2-2
LOG_ARCHIVE_BUFFER_SIZE, C-3
LOG_ARCHIVE_DES, C-3
LOGIN.SQL, 5-3
LOGNAME, B-2
L.sid.xxx.LOG, E-2
L.sid.xxxx.SYSOUT.tsn, E-1
M
Making PL/SQL available, 4-7
MAX_DISPATCHERS, 9-4
Index-2
B-4
1-2
openNet Server
netstat, 14-1
tool, 14-1
OPS_JID, B-4
Oracle
file types, E-1
Oracle Database
administering, 5-1
architecture, 2-1
tuning, 7-1
Oracle Database Environment Definition File, 2-6
Oracle Net Services LOG files, E-1
Oracle Text, 10-1
ORACLE_HOME, B-8
ORAENV, 2-3, 2-6, 2-7, 4-6, B-1
ORAENV variables, 2-7
ORALOAD.LIB, 2-3
ORAUID, B-2
ORAXALOG.tsn-NULL-YYMMDD.TRC, E-2
P
parameter files, 5-3
Parameters
initialization, C-1
PGA, B-8
PGA_BASE, B-8
PGA_SIZE, B-8
PGM, B-2
PL/SQL
making available, 4-7
Precompilers
interfacing to the Oracle XA Library, 8-7
Preinstallation Issues, 14-1
Printers, B-4
PRINTPAR, B-4
Problems, 1-2
Protocol Adapters
TCP/IP, 9-3
R
Recovering Databases, 6-2
Remote Startup
database instance
remote startup, 5-5
Restrictions, 1-2
S
Server Parameter File,
5-4
S.E.tsn.YYYY-MM-DD.hh.mm.ss, E-1
SF_PBLKSIZE, B-8
SGA_BASE, B-9
SGA_MAX_SIZE, C-3
shared code pool, B-7
SHARED_SERVER_SESSIONS, 9-4
SHARED_SERVERS, 9-4
sid_BGJPAR, B-6
SID_LIST_LISTENER, 5-5
sid_USER, B-6
sid.DBS.INIT.ORA, E-1
sid.DBS.xxx.DBF, E-1
sid.P.ORAENV, E-1
S.OUT.tsn.YYYY-MM-DD.hhmmss, E-1
SPFILE, 2-3, 5-4
SQ130, 15-1
SQL*Net TCP/IP, 1-5
SQL*Plus, 1-4, 5-1
and INIT.ORA, 5-4
calling from procedures, 5-2
database administration utility, 5-1
invoking, 5-1
issuing BS2000 commands from, 5-2
SQLPATH, B-5
SSSIDPWF, B-5
Starting
Oracle Text, 10-1
ORAENV,
2-7
W
WE8BS2000, 12-2
WE8BS2000E, 12-2
WE8BS2000L5, 12-2
Workarounds, 1-2
X
XAO.LIB, 8-1
XDK, 13-1
XML, 13-1
XML parser, 13-1
XSLT Processor, 13-1
T
TCP/IP, 1-5
TCP/IP adapter, 9-3
TERM, B-2
timeout handling, D-2
TNS_ADMIN, B-9
TNS_UPDATE_IPNODE, B-10
Trace Files, 8-8
Troubleshooting, 8-8
T.sid.INSTALL.E.SUPER, E-1
T.sid.INSTALL.E.SUPER.72, E-1
TSN, B-2
Tuning
Oracle Database, 7-1
U
User ID
DBA, 2-10
Oracle users, 2-11
user ID
installation, 2-9
user_ACCOUNT, B-7
USER_DUMP_DEST, C-2
user_PASSWORD, B-7
Utilities
Import, 1-4
UTM, 8-1
V
variables
Index-3
Index-4