Automatic Weather Station
MAWS201
USER'S GUIDE
M210630EN-B
June 2005
PUBLISHED BY
Vaisala Oyj
Phone (int.):
+358 9 8949 1
P.O. Box 26
Fax:
+358 9 8949 2227
FIN-00421 Helsinki
Finland
Visit our Internet pages at http://www.vaisala.com/
© Vaisala 2005
No part of this manual may be reproduced in any form or by any means,
electronic or mechanical (including photocopying), nor may its contents
be communicated to a third party without prior written permission of the
copyright holder.
The contents are subject to change without prior notice.
Please observe that this manual does not create any legally binding
obligations for Vaisala towards the customer or end user. All legally
binding commitments and agreements are included exclusively in the
applicable supply contract or Conditions of Sale.
________________________________________________________________________________
Table of Contents
CHAPTER 1
GENERAL INFORMATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
About This Manual . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
Contents of This Manual . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
General Safety Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
Feedback . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
Product Related Safety Precautions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
ESD Protection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
Recycling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
Trademarks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
License Agreement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
Warranty . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
CHAPTER 2
PRODUCT OVERVIEW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
Vaisala HydroMet™ Automatic Weather Station
MAWS201 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
Product Nomenclature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
AWS Logger . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
Internal Battery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
Additional Internal Battery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
Wall Adapter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
MAWS Software . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
Operating Software . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
MAWS Terminal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
MAWS Lizard Setup Software . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
Accessories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
Sensor Arm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
Carry Case Sets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
QMM110 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
QMM120 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
Mains Power Supply . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
Solar/Mains Power Supply . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
Battery Regulator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
Mains Power Supply . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
AC Power Cable . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
Solar Panel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
SOLAR6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
RS-232 Module . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
VAISALA ________________________________________________________________________ 1
________________________________________________________________________________
RS-485 Modules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .31
Introduction to DSI485A . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .31
Introduction to DSI486 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .32
Modem Module . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .33
UHF Radio Modem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .34
Repeater Function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .34
Weather Transmitter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .35
Combined Wind Sensor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .36
Air Temperature and Relative Humidity Sensor . . . . . . . . .37
Pressure Sensor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .37
Rain Gauges . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .38
Pyranometers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .39
Net Solar Radiation Sensor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .40
Soil/Water Temperature Sensors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .41
Soil Temperature Sensor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .42
Soil Moisture Sensor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .43
Soil Moisture Sensor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .44
Submersible Water Level Sensor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .45
Leaf Wetness Sensor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .46
Fuel Moisture/Fuel Temperature Sensor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .46
CHAPTER 3
SELECTING LOCATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .49
Siting the Station . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .49
Combined Wind Sensor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .49
Air Temperature and Relative Humidity Sensor . . . . . . . . .51
Rain Gauges . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .51
Pyranometers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .51
Net Solar Radiation Sensor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .52
Soil Temperature Sensor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .52
Soil Moisture Sensor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .52
Soil Moisture Sensor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .53
Submersible Water Level Sensor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .53
Leaf Wetness Sensor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .54
Fuel Moisture/Fuel Temperature Sensor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .55
CHAPTER 4
INSTALLATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .57
Preparing Installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .57
Unpacking Instructions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .58
Installing Software . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .58
Installing Embedded Software . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .58
Installing MAWS Terminal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .58
Installing MAWS Lizard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .58
2 _______________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
Installing MAWS Basic Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
Installing MAWS201 Tripod . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64
Installing Power Supply . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66
Installing Solar Panel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66
Installing a QMP Power Supply . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69
Mains Power Supply QMP213 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69
Solar/Mains Power Supply QMP201C . . . . . . . . . . . . 70
Connecting Cables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72
Installing Communication Devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74
Communication Modules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74
UHF Radio Modem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75
Weather Transmitter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76
Unpacking Instructions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76
Assembling WXT510 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76
Air Temperature and Relative Humidity Sensor . . . . . . . . . 77
Pressure Sensor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78
Rain Gauges . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79
Installation Procedure of QMR101 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79
Installation Procedure of QMR102 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79
Installing on the Stand RG35003 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80
Installing on the Base Plate RGB1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81
Installing on a Pedestal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82
Finalizing the Installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83
Pyranometers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84
Net Solar Radiation Sensor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85
Soil/Water Temperature Sensors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86
Installation Procedure for QMT103/QMT110 . . . . . . . . . . . 86
Installation Procedure for QMT107 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86
Drilling a Hole for the Sensor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87
Inserting the Sensor into a Hole . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88
Extraction Procedure for QMT107 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90
Soil Moisture Sensor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91
Soil Moisture Sensor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93
Submersible Water Level Sensor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94
Leaf Wetness Sensor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95
Installation Procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95
Initial Check . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95
Mounting to a Wooden Surface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95
Mounting to a Pole Mast . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96
Mounting to a Sensor Support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96
CHAPTER 5
OPERATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97
Operation Principle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97
Taking MAWS into Use . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98
Setting Up Tripod . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98
Aligning Weather Transmitter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105
VAISALA ________________________________________________________________________ 3
________________________________________________________________________________
Aligning Wind Vane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .107
Using winddircal0 Command . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107
Using Compass and Reference Point . . . . . . . . . . . . 108
Setting Up Solar Panel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .109
Quick Start Instructions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .111
Establishing Terminal Connection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .112
Using MAWS Terminal Software . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .113
Selecting the Language . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .113
MAWS Terminal Main Window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .114
Defining MAWS Terminal Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .117
Preferences Window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117
Address Book Window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119
Opening MAWS Service Connection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .120
Giving Commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .122
Closing MAWS Service Connection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .123
Managing User Levels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .123
Modifying Station Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .125
Setting Static Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .126
Calibrating Sensors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .129
Sensor Status List . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132
Entering Values Manually . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .133
Creating Manual Sensor in MAWS Lizard . . . . . . . . . 133
Manual Entry in MAWS Terminal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134
MAWS Setup File . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .135
Selecting Setup File . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .135
Uploading Setup File . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .136
Data Logging . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .137
Log Data Format . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .138
Controlling Logging . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .139
Measurement Enable or Disable . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .140
Freeing Up Logging Space . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .142
Working with Data Log Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .142
Selecting Files for Downloading. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 143
Downloading Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 144
Autodownloading Log Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145
Browsing Downloaded Files. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149
Converting One Data Log File to CSV Format. . . . . . 151
Converting Several Data Log Files to CSV Format . . 152
Using External Memory Card . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .153
Automatic Erase from External Memory Card . . . . . . . . .154
Resetting MAWS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .155
Command Reference for Terminal Connection . . . . . . . .156
Disassembly of MAWS201 for Transportation . . . . . . . . .159
Packing Instructions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .159
CHAPTER 6
MAINTENANCE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .161
Routine Maintenance and Calibration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .161
Overall Checking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .163
4 _______________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
Cable Maintenance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 163
Updating Software to the Logger . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 163
Copying a New MAWS Software with Loader Program . . 164
Copying a New MAWS Software from Compact Flash
Memory Card . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 165
Spare Parts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 167
Available Spare Parts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 167
Ordering Spare Parts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 167
Solar Panel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 167
Periodic Maintenance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 167
Weather Transmitter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 168
Cleaning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 168
Replacing the PTU Module . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 168
Combined Wind Sensor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 169
Periodic Maintenance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 169
Testing Proper Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 169
Replacing Consumables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 169
Air Temperature and Relative Humidity Sensor . . . . . . . . 172
Periodic Maintenance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 172
Changing the HUMICAP®180 Humidity Sensor . . . . 173
Humidity Calibration. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 173
Pressure Sensor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 174
Periodic Maintenance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 174
Calibration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 174
Rain Gauges . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 175
Periodic Maintenance of QMR101 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 175
Periodic Maintenance of QMR102 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 176
Pyranometers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 177
Periodoc Maintenance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 177
Net Solar Radiation Sensor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 177
Periodic Maintenance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 177
Soil/Water Temperature Sensors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 178
Periodic Maintenance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 178
Soil Moisture Sensor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 178
Periodic Maintenance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 178
Soil Moisture Sensor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 179
Periodic Maintenance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 179
Submersible Water Level Sensor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 179
Periodic Maintenance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 179
Leaf Wetness Sensor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 179
Periodic Maintenance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 179
Fuel Moisture/Fuel Temperature Sensor . . . . . . . . . . . . . 180
Periodic Maintenance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 180
CHAPTER 7
TROUBLESHOOTING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 181
Troubleshooting Procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 181
VAISALA ________________________________________________________________________ 5
________________________________________________________________________________
Visual Check . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .186
Determining MAWS Operation Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .188
Establishing Terminal Connection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .188
Recording Terminal Connection Text . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .189
Opening Service Connection Through MAWS . . . . . . . . .190
Connection Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .191
Error Messages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .191
Resetting MAWS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .192
Determining Sensor Status . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .192
Using External Memory Card . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .196
Automatic Erase from External Memory Card . . . . . . . . .197
Commands for Troubleshooting Purposes . . . . . . . . . . .197
LASTVAL Command . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .198
Warnings and Errors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .199
System Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .201
Battery Status . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .202
Measurement Enable or Disable . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .203
Battery Regulator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .204
Solar Panel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .204
Combined Wind Sensor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .205
Air Temperature and Relative Humidity Sensor . . . . . . . .205
Soil Temperature Sensor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .205
Technical Support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .206
CHAPTER 8
TECHNICAL DATA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .207
Connector Block Descriptions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .207
Wiring Instructions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .210
DSU232 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .213
DSI485A . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .213
DSI486 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .214
DMX501 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .217
UHF Radio Modem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .218
Connector Adapters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .219
Soil Moisture Sensor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .220
Fuel Moisture/Fuel Temperature Sensor . . . . . . . . . . . . .221
Charging of Internal Battery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .222
Power Supply and Battery Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .222
Battery Sensing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 222
External Power Supply. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 223
Solar Cell . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 223
Lead Batteries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 224
Primary Cells . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 224
Lead Battery Charger Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .225
Normal Charging . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 225
Quick Charging . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 226
Float Charging . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 226
Temperature Protection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 227
6 _______________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
Specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 228
AWS Logger QML201 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 228
Internal Battery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 229
Power Supplies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 230
Solar Panel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 233
Specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 233
RS-232 Module . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 233
Specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 233
RS-485 Modules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 234
Specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 234
Modem Module . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 235
Specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 235
UHF Radio Modem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 236
Specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 236
Weather Transmitter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 237
Performance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 237
Operating Conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 240
Inputs and Outputs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 240
Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 241
General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 241
Dimensions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 241
Combined Wind Sensor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 242
Specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 242
Dimensions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 243
Air Temperature and Relative Humidity Sensor . . . . . . . . 244
Specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 244
Dimensions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 245
Pressure Sensor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 246
Specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 246
Rain Gauges . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 246
Specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 246
Pyranometers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 247
Specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 247
Net Solar Radiation Sensor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 249
Specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 249
Soil/Water Temperature Sensors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 249
Specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 249
Emissions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 250
Immunity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 250
Block Diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 251
Soil Moisture Sensor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 252
Specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 252
Dimensions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 253
Soil Moisture Sensor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 253
Specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 253
Submersible Water Level Sensor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 254
Specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 254
VAISALA ________________________________________________________________________ 7
________________________________________________________________________________
Leaf Wetness Sensor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .255
Specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .255
Fuel Moisture/Fuel Temperature Sensor . . . . . . . . . . . . . .256
Specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .256
APPENDIX A
GLOSSARY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .257
8 _______________________________________________________________________________
Chapter 1 ________________________________________________________ General Information
CHAPTER 1
GENERAL INFORMATION
This chapter provides general notes for the product and this manual.
About This Manual
This manual provides information for Vaisala HydroMet™ Automatic
Weather Station MAWS201 equipped with meteorological and/or
hydrological sensors.
Contents of This Manual
This manual consists of the following chapters:
-
Chapter 1, General Information: This chapter provides general
notes for the product and this manual.
-
Chapter 2, Product Overview: This chapter introduces the features,
accessories, sensors, and the product nomenclature.
-
Chapter 3, Selecting Location: This chapter provides information
on siting the station and the sensors correctly.
-
Chapter 4, Installation: This chapter describes how to install
MAWS and the accessories and sensors connected to it.
-
Chapter 5, Operation: This chapter provides the instructions for
taking MAWS into use when all the equipment has been assembled
and installed, as well as operating instructions for the MAWS
Terminal software.
VAISALA ________________________________________________________________________ 9
User's Guide ______________________________________________________________________
-
Chapter 6, Maintenance: This chapter provides information that is
needed in the basic maintenance of MAWS, sensors, and
accessories.
-
Chapter 7, Troubleshooting: This section consists of some
common MAWS problems, their probable causes, and remedies.
-
Chapter 8, Technical Data: This chapter provides the technical data
of MAWS and its sensors.
-
Appendix A, Glossary: This appendix contains glossary with
explanations of some general meteorological and technical terms
and terms used in specifications.
General Safety Considerations
Throughout the manual, important safety considerations are highlighted
as follows:
WARNING
Warning alerts you to a serious hazard. If you do not read and follow
instructions very carefully at this point, there is a risk of injury or even
death.
CAUTION
Caution warns you of a potential hazard. If you do not read and follow
instructions carefully at this point, the product could be damaged or
important data could be lost.
NOTE
Note highlights important information on using the product.
Feedback
Vaisala Customer Documentation Team welcomes your comments and
suggestions on the quality and usefulness of this publication. If you find
errors or have other suggestions for improvement, please indicate the
chapter, section, and page number. You can send comments to us by email: manuals@vaisala.com.
10 ___________________________________________________________________M210630EN-B
Chapter 1 ________________________________________________________ General Information
Product Related Safety Precautions
MAWS has been tested for safety and approved as shipped from the
factory. The following safety precautions are not related to any specific
procedures and therefore do not appear elsewhere in this manual. They
are recommended precautions that personnel must understand and
apply during different phases of operation and maintenance.
WARNING
Keep away from live circuits. Operating personnel must observe safety
regulations at all times. Component replacement or internal
adjustments must be made by qualified maintenance personnel. Do not
replace components with the power cable connected. Under certain
conditions, dangerous voltages may exist for some time even with the
power cable disconnected. To avoid injuries, disconnect power and
discharge circuits before touching them.
WARNING
Do not service alone. Under no circumstances should any person reach
into parts and assemblies that are mains powered and alive, for the
purpose of servicing, except in the presence of someone who is
capable of rendering aid.
WARNING
Personnel working with or near high voltages should be familiar with
modern methods of resuscitation.
WARNING
Do not service a live system outdoors. Do not open units outdoors
when the enclosure contains line voltage levels.
WARNING
Do not operate in an explosive atmosphere, for example, when
flammable gases or fumes are present. Operation of any electrical
instrument in such an environment constitutes a definite safety hazard.
WARNING
Do not substitute parts or modify the instrument. Because of the
danger of introducing additional hazards, do not install unsuitable
parts in the instrument. Contact Vaisala or its authorized representative
for repairs to ensure that safety features are maintained.
VAISALA _______________________________________________________________________ 11
User's Guide ______________________________________________________________________
WARNING
Be careful when erecting the mast. See that there are no power lines or
other obstacles above the mast.
WARNING
Secure the mast properly to prevent it from falling. Tighten all the
adjustment screws securely.
CAUTION
Do not make changes to the wiring. Incorrect wiring can damage the
device and prevent it from operating correctly.
CAUTION
Be careful when moving the mast. To prevent damage to the sensors,
remove them (and the sensor arms) before moving the station.
NOTE
When disposing of old batteries, be sure to do so in accordance with
all regulations applicable in your area.
ESD Protection
Electrostatic Discharge (ESD) can cause immediate or latent damage to
electronic circuits. Vaisala products are adequately protected against
ESD for their intended use. However, it is possible to damage the
product by delivering electrostatic discharges when touching,
removing, or inserting any objects inside the equipment housing.
To make sure you are not delivering high static voltages yourself:
-
Handle ESD sensitive components on a properly grounded and
protected ESD workbench. When this is not possible, ground
yourself with a wrist strap and a resistive connection cord to the
equipment chassis before touching the boards. When neither of the
above is possible, at least touch a conductive part of the equipment
chassis with your other hand before touching the boards.
-
Always hold the boards by the edges and avoid touching the
component contacts.
12 ___________________________________________________________________M210630EN-B
Chapter 1 ________________________________________________________ General Information
Recycling
Recycle all applicable material.
Dispose of batteries and the unit according to statutory regulations.
Do not dispose of with regular household refuse.
Trademarks
Microsoft®, Windows®, Windows NT®, and Windows® 2000 are
registered trademarks of Microsoft Corporation in the United States
and/or other countries.
License Agreement
All rights to any software are held by Vaisala or third parties. The
customer is allowed to use the software only to the extent that is
provided by the applicable supply contract or Software License
Agreement.
Warranty
For certain products Vaisala normally gives a limited one-year
warranty. Please observe that any such warranty may not be valid in
case of damage due to normal wear and tear, exceptional operating
conditions, negligent handling or installation, or unauthorized
modifications. Please see the applicable supply contract or Conditions
of Sale for details of the warranty for each product.
VAISALA _______________________________________________________________________ 13
User's Guide ______________________________________________________________________
14 ___________________________________________________________________M210630EN-B
Chapter 2 __________________________________________________________ Product Overview
CHAPTER 2
PRODUCT OVERVIEW
This chapter introduces the features, accessories, sensors, and the
product nomenclature.
Vaisala HydroMet™ Systems include compact stations that can be used
either with a portable tripod or with pole masts of different heights in
fixed installations. The station comes with a set of sensors that measure
certain meteorological and/or hydrological quantities and that have
been especially selected for use with Vaisala HydroMet™ Systems.
Vaisala HydroMet™ Automatic Weather Station
MAWS201
Vaisala HydroMet™ Automatic Weather Station MAWS201, a
portable (mobile) AWS for temporary installations, features a
lightweight aluminum tripod and easy-to-use connectors that make it
fast to set up. Each leg is adjustable for use on uneven terrain. With 5
basic sensors, a solar panel, and an internal battery, MAWS201 weighs
only approximately 15 kg.
When you have purchased a portable MAWS201 with a basic sensor
set, your station typically consists of the components presented in
Figure 1 on page 16.
When your portable MAWS201 includes Vaisala Weather Transmitter
WXT510, your station typically consists of the components presented
in Figure 2 on page 17.
VAISALA _______________________________________________________________________ 15
User's Guide ______________________________________________________________________
Figure 1
0406-045
Components of the MAWS201 Station
The following numbers refer to Figure 1 on page 16:
1
=
Wind Sensor
2
=
Wind Mast
3
=
Rain Gauge
4
=
Air Temperature and Relative Humidity Sensor with radiation
shield
5
=
Sensor Arm
6
=
Solar Radiation Sensor
7
=
Tube that includes the logger, rechargeable internal battery,
and optionally Pressure Sensor
8
=
Solar panel for generating current for recharging the internal
battery
16 ___________________________________________________________________M210630EN-B
Chapter 2 __________________________________________________________ Product Overview
Figure 2
0505-241
Components of the MAWS201 Station with Weather
Transmitter
The following numbers refer to Figure 2 on page 17:
1
=
Weather Transmitter
2
=
Wind Mast
3
=
Sensor Arm
4
=
Solar Radiation Sensor
5
=
Tube that includes the logger, rechargeable internal battery,
and optionally Pressure Sensor
6
=
Solar panel for generating current for recharging the internal
battery
In addition to the numbered items, the delivery contains a portable mast
assembly consisting of a tripod with adjustable extension legs attached
to the logger housing. The tripod can easily be collapsed to fit in a
transit case.
VAISALA _______________________________________________________________________ 17
User's Guide ______________________________________________________________________
NOTE
The appearance of the solar panel in your MAWS may differ from the
one in the figures.
Product Nomenclature
The following tables provide the equipment nomenclature.
Table 1
MAWS201 Basic Set
Code
Common Name
MAWS Lizard
MAWS Terminal
MAWS YourVIEW
QMA101
QMB101
QML201
Tripod
Table 2
Tools, ground pegs, and sand bag
Setup software
MAWS Terminal software
Graphical Display Software (Basic version)
Sensor arm
Battery (internal rechargeable)
AWS Logger
3 m (10 ft.) portable mast with the enclosure,
accessories, and a sensor support arm for
MAWS201
Optional Accessories
Code
Common Name
QMB102
QMD170
QMM110
Additional Internal Battery
Handheld Display
Carry case set (canvas bag for tripod, hard case for
sensors)
Carry case set (hard case for tripod, hard case for
sensors
Solar/Mains power supply
Mains power supply
6 W solar panel
QMM120
QMP201C
QMP213
SOLAR6
Table 3
Communication Options
Code
Common Name
DMX501
DSI485A
DSI486
DSU232
SATEL3ASET-M2
Modem module (fixed line)
RS-485 module (isolated)
RS-485/RS-232/SDI-12 module (dual-isolated)
RS-232 module (dual)
Radio modem SATELLINE 3AS with accessories
18 ___________________________________________________________________M210630EN-B
Chapter 2 __________________________________________________________ Product Overview
Table 4
Sensor Options
Code
Common Name
DTR502
ECH2O-M3
HMP45D
Radiation shield for HMP45D
Soil moisture sensor
Air temperature and relative humidity sensor
(referred to as QMH101 when connected to MAWS)
Soil moisture sensor
Pressure sensor
Water level sensor
Fuel moisture sensor
Leaf wetness sensor
See HMP45D
Net solar radiation sensor
Rain gauge (on sensor arm)
Rain gauge (stand-alone)
Global solar radiation sensor (photo diode)
Global solar radiation sensor (thermopile)
Soil/water temperature sensor
Soil temperature sensor
Soil/water temperature sensor with 10-meter cable
See WMS302 (equipped with MAWS compatible
1 m cable)
See WMS302 (equipped with MAWS compatible
10 m cable)
Combined wind direction and speed sensor
(referred to as QMW101 or QMW110 depending on
the cable length)
Weather transmitter
ML2x
PMT16A
PR36W
QFM101
QLW101
QMH101
QMN101
QMR101
QMR102
QMS101
QMS102
QMT103
QMT107
QMT110
QMW101
QMW110
WMS302
WXT510
VAISALA _______________________________________________________________________ 19
User's Guide ______________________________________________________________________
AWS Logger
Figure 3
0312-024
AWS Logger QML201
QML201 is a complete AWS logger designed on one printed board
only. This board contains a 32-bit Motorola CPU for data processing
and 10 differential (20 single ended) analog sensor inputs (these can
also be used as digital inputs). Moreover, there are two frequency sensor
interfaces, a 16 bit A/D converter, 1.6 Mb of secure Flash memory for
data logging, as well as excitation power supply for sensors and charger
for the internal backup battery.
The board uses the latest SMD (Surface Mount Device) technology and
is conformal coated for improved protection also in high humidity. Each
sensor input has a varistor (VDR) protection against induced transients.
The serial line connections, that is, RS-232 labeled as COM0 and RS485 labeled as COM1, have two level ESD protection circuits with
VDRs directly at input pins.
The logger is located in the tube and is further encased to protect the
circuit board and the battery.
The cover of the logger can be removed for installing the battery and for
resetting MAWS. In Figure 4 on page 21, the logger is shown without
the cover and the optional communication modules.
20 ___________________________________________________________________M210630EN-B
Chapter 2 __________________________________________________________ Product Overview
Figure 4
0401-246
AWS Logger QML201 without Cover
The following numbers refer to Figure 4 on page 21:
1
=
Place for the internal battery
2
=
Reset button (under the bracket)
3
=
Lithium battery for RTC
4
=
Communication module places MOD1 and MOD2
5
=
Status LED
6
=
SPI connector
7
=
Pressure sensor connector
8
=
CF Card connector
The logger is equipped with CF card slot for logging a large amount of
data. The data is logged into daily files making it easy to locate any
particular data set for further analysis. Currently there are cards
available from 32 MB up to hundreds of MBs. These cards can be read
directly in the PC. Several different types of readers are commercially
available: internal PCMCIA reader as well as external readers to be
connected to USB or parallel port of a PC. Vaisala recommends the
VAISALA _______________________________________________________________________ 21
User's Guide ______________________________________________________________________
usage of industrial grade CF cards from Sandisk, which have been
tested to function in harsh environments.
Figure 5
0105-004
Compact Flash Memory Card Readers
Optional modules include, for example, various communication
modules, and built-in pressure transducer.
MAWS is a low-power system. The logger consumes less than 10 mA
from a 6 V battery (5 mA from a 12 V battery). MAWS can be powered
using a solar panel or optionally using a 110/230 AC power supply.
External DC supply (8 to 14 VDC recommended, 30 VDC max) can
also be used as the main power source for MAWS.
The power consumption of the complete MAWS system depends on the
connected sensors, communication devices, and other options included
in the delivery. For example, MAWS with the basic set of 5 sensors,
each having 10-minute measuring interval, has an average power
consumption of 10 mA / 6 VDC (5 mA / 12 VDC).
Internal Battery
Normally, the internal battery QMB101 is used as the primary power
supply. The battery is recharged by the integral charger in the logger,
accepting input from a solar panel, mains adapter, or an outdoors mains
power supply. The internal battery QMB101 is placed on top of the
circuit board, under the logger cover.
22 ___________________________________________________________________M210630EN-B
Chapter 2 __________________________________________________________ Product Overview
Backup capacity with average power consumption of 10 mA (basic set
of 5 sensors, 10 min measuring interval) is 130 hours. The battery can
be charged with the logger.
NOTE
When a 12 V backup battery is used, it is recommended that QMB101
is disconnected by removing the red battery connector from the CPU.
This way the current consumption will be reduced when the charging
circuits of QMB101 are not in use.
Additional Internal Battery
The additional internal battery QMB102 is easily installed to the
existing DIN-rail inside the tubular enclosure. The in-built battery
charger on the MAWS logger will charge the additional battery as well.
Figure 6
0402-023
Additional Internal Battery QMB102
Wall Adapter
A usual wall adapter (110/230 VAC, output min. 12 V/500 mA) can be
used when the distance to the MAWS system is less than 100 m
(328 ft.), provided that the wall adapter can be installed indoors.
NOTE
When the power cable resistance exceeds 10 Ω, a capacitor (from 100
to 200 µF, 40 V) should be added between GND and +ExtDC pins.
Make sure that the polarity is correct.
VAISALA _______________________________________________________________________ 23
User's Guide ______________________________________________________________________
MAWS Software
Operating Software
The embedded operating software runs in the AWS logger. Access to
the operating software commands can be gained using the MAWS
Terminal.
MAWS Terminal
MAWS Terminal is the terminal software for working with the MAWS
stations. MAWS stations measure sensor data and store it in log files.
With the MAWS Terminal software, you can download these files to
your PC and view them.
When you start using MAWS, the first thing you need to do is to define
what parameters you want to measure and at what frequency. You can
do this by uploading a configuration file from your PC to the MAWS
system.
MAWS Terminal is also used for setting station-specific parameters
such as the station name, altitude, pressure sensor height, and sensorspecific calibration coefficients. In addition, the date and time can be set
with the easy-to-use MAWS Station Settings template.
After you have uploaded the setup files to MAWS, you can browse the
MAWS data files by downloading them from MAWS to your PC. You
can browse them in MAWS Terminal or in other applications. You can
define several download settings such as where you want to save the
downloaded files and what operations the program performs
automatically at each download.
MAWS Lizard Setup Software
MAWS Lizard Setup Software is used to modify the software
parameters and operation of the MAWS systems. With the MAWS
Lizard software you can create or modify a setup file that informs
MAWS how to operate.
Creating a setup with MAWS Lizard Setup Software consists of three
stages. First, you define an assembly for the MAWS system. Then you
24 ___________________________________________________________________M210630EN-B
Chapter 2 __________________________________________________________ Product Overview
define the necessary measurements and the calculations derived from
them. Finally, you define reports and log groups from the measurement
results.
The setup file on your PC is finally generated, in other words, converted
into a format that MAWS understands, and then transferred into MAWS
and taken into use.
Accessories
Sensor Arm
Figure 7
0406-046
Sensor Arm QMA101
Certain sensors can be installed on the QMA101 sensor arm. The arm
includes factory made drillings for every sensor model to be installed.
Carry Case Sets
The carry cases for MAWS201 are made of cellular polypropylene
(EPP). This lightweight but very rugged material provides excellent
cushioning during transport. The cases are equipped with handles,
hinges, and latches for which padlocks can be used. The larger case for
the tripod is also equipped with a pair of wheels. There are two sets of
carry cases to choose from.
VAISALA _______________________________________________________________________ 25
User's Guide ______________________________________________________________________
QMM110
Figure 8
0201-013
QMM110 Carry Case Set
The Basic Set QMM110 consists of one hard case for the sensors and
accessories, and one soft canvas case for the tripod, solar panel, wind
mast, as well as hammer and ground pegs.
QMM120
Figure 9
0201-014
QMM120 Carry Case Set
The Extended Set QMM120 consists of two hard cases, one for the
sensors and accessories, and the other for the tripod, solar panel, wind
mast, as well as hammer and ground pegs. The smaller case weighs only
3.6 kg (7.9 lb.) and the larger 9.2 kg (20.3 lb.).
26 ___________________________________________________________________M210630EN-B
Chapter 2 __________________________________________________________ Product Overview
Mains Power Supply
Figure 10
0201-006
Mains Power Supply QMP213
QMP213 is an outdoors power supply for installations where the AC
power is available. It has a weatherproof enclosure made of durable,
UV-resistant poly carbonate reinforced with glass fiber. The enclosure's
environmental specification is IP66.
QMP213 is equipped with protection circuits for transient overvoltage
both at the input and the output, as well as replaceable fuses at the both
input lines, hence enabling also mobile use. The output is fully
protected against short-circuits. LED provides indication of mains
voltage presence. The input may vary from 90 to 264 VAC with a
frequency of 50 or 60 Hz. The power consumption is 1 A. The output
provides 12 VDC, 2.5 A.
VAISALA _______________________________________________________________________ 27
User's Guide ______________________________________________________________________
Solar/Mains Power Supply
Figure 11
0201-007
Solar/Mains Power Supply QMP201C
QMP201C is a power supply for installations where a lot of power and
back-up capacity are needed. Additionally, QMPC201C can provide
12 V supply voltage required, for example, for the optional radio
modem set. QMP201C includes the following internal modules: 12 W
solar panel, battery regulator, mains power supply, and 7 Ah back-up
battery. The unit is easily mounted to the tripod's leg.
Battery Regulator
Battery Regulator QBR101B is a charging and supervising equipment
for 12 and 24 V lead acid and nickel-cadmium batteries. QBR101B
allows simultaneous input from solar panel and AC power.
28 ___________________________________________________________________M210630EN-B
Chapter 2 __________________________________________________________ Product Overview
Figure 12
0105-007
Battery Regulator QBR101B
The maximum charging current can be set by the internal jumper
settings from 0.5 to 2.5 A being applicable for battery capacity of 4 to
72 Ah. The self-consumption from the battery is very low, less than
0.2 mA.
The LED lamps are also included, they indicate the conditions. In order
to maximize autonomy time, the lamps are activated only while the ON
button is bushed.
Mains Power Supply
The AC power supply unit BWT15SXZ is a switching power supply,
which operates from the universal AC input of 85 to 264 VAC and 47
to 440 Hz. The output voltage is 15 VDC, which is used for powering
the system connected to it, and as an input to the QBR101B battery
regulator for charging the backup battery.
AC Power Cable
If AC power (230 or 115 VAC) is available on the installation site, and/
or solar power is not feasible, an AC power cable can be used to charge
the batteries instead of the solar panel, or the batteries can be charged in
advance at the base.
VAISALA _______________________________________________________________________ 29
User's Guide ______________________________________________________________________
Solar Panel
SOLAR6
Figure 13
0201-005
Solar Panel SOLAR6
SOLAR6 is a 6 W solar panel, see Figure 13 on page 30. The angle of
the panel is adjustable.
The SOLAR6 solar panel contains 18 high efficiency polycrystalline
silicon cells in series optimized for the specific voltage demand. The
solar panel’s cells are protected from dirt, moisture and impact by a
tough fluoropolymer front film. The solar circuit is laminated using
EVA between this film and adurable glass fibre board back which
includes integral mounting holes.
The cells are protected from dirt, moisture and mechanical impact using
a tempered, low iron glass front. The solar circuit is laminated using
EVA between tempered glass and a durable, multi-layered polymer
back sheet for superior moisture resistance.
RS-232 Module
The RS-232 Communication Module DSU232 is an unisolated RS-232
module that will provide either a double serial channel without
handshaking or a single RS-232 with handshaking. It has an ability to
feed 12 V (45 mA) for the serial sensors. The power consumption is less
than 15 mA when communicating, less than 5 mA at standby.
30 ___________________________________________________________________M210630EN-B
Chapter 2 __________________________________________________________ Product Overview
Figure 14
0403-106
Communication Module DSU232
RS-485 Modules
Introduction to DSI485A
Figure 15
0403-107
Isolated Communication Module DSI485A
DSI485A is an isolated communication module for providing the 2-wire
or 4-wire RS-485-communication link between two devices with a
similar interface. The DSI485A module is used, for example, for
connecting displays and terminals to the data logger when the distance
is longer than 15 meters. The maximum distance for DSI485A is
approximately 1500 meters at full speed. The DSI485A module must be
configured before using it in order to work as desired.
VAISALA _______________________________________________________________________ 31
User's Guide ______________________________________________________________________
Introduction to DSI486
Figure 16
0403-108
Dual-Isolated Communication Module DSI486
DSI486 is a dual-isolated communication module, which can be used in
the RS-232, RS-485, or SDI-12 mode. The communication mode is
selected by the correct wiring of the I/O pins and with the correct
jumper settings on the board. The DSI486 module is used, for example,
for connecting displays, terminals, and the data logger together when
the distance is longer than 15 meters. The maximum distance for
DSI486 is approximately 1500 meters at full speed. The DSI486
module must be configured before using it in order to work as desired.
The RS-485/422 channels A and B are galvanically isolated from the
host board's electronics. The +5 VDC power supplies of channels A and
B are also isolated from each other with capacitors. Thus, it is possible
to wire these two channels to separate locations.
The RS-232 mode utilizes channel B. When channel B is used in the
RS-232 mode, it is possible to use channel A as a galvanically isolated
two-wire RS-485 channel. The RS-232 channel is galvanically
connected to the host board's GND potential.
The SDI-12 channel has its own connecting point on the board. It does
not use channel A or B for the communication. SDI-12 is galvanically
connected to the host board's GND potential.
32 ___________________________________________________________________M210630EN-B
Chapter 2 __________________________________________________________ Product Overview
Modem Module
The DMX501 modem module is used for providing long distance fixed
line connection between two Vaisala devices with a similar interface. It
is used when the distance is up to 10 km, for example, between MAWS
and Digital Display, or between Ceilometer CT25K and MAWS.
Through this I/O port, a remote location can send reports and data or the
host can poll them. The DMX501 modem module must be configured
before using it so that it works as desired.
Figure 17
0306-013
Modem Module DMX501
The DMX501 modem module supports the following communication
standards:
-
V.21, 300 bps FSK
-
V.23, 1200 / 75 bps FSK
-
V.22, 1200 bps DPSK
VAISALA _______________________________________________________________________ 33
User's Guide ______________________________________________________________________
UHF Radio Modem
Figure 18
0201-011
UHF Radio Modem SATELLINE 3AS
The SATELLINE 3AS UHF radio modem is a half-duplex radio
modem suitable for high-speed data applications. This radio modem
offers high speed data transmission up to 40 km Line-Of-Sight (LOS).
As a UHF radio modem, it provides the data speeds 19200 bps at 25 kHz
and 9600 bps at 12.5 kHz in the air. RS interface data speed is user
selectable from 300 to 38400 bps. The connection between data logger
and the radio modem is established by using RS-232.
Repeater Function
Message Routing is a built-in feature in the SATELLINE-3AS
modems, which makes it easier to build up a large radio modem
network. Message Routing features a versatile radio protocol, which
takes care of routing messages across a radio modem network. Only one
radio channel is required even in large networks. Any radio modem in
the network can act as a repeater and have a weather station interfaced
as well. The repeater can also be chained allowing message
transmission through several repeaters/weather stations.
34 ___________________________________________________________________M210630EN-B
Chapter 2 __________________________________________________________ Product Overview
Using the in-built functions in the Satelline 3AS radio modems, two
different types of repeater operations can be built:
1.
The weather station having the radio modem will function as a
repeater for a group of other stations
2.
The radio modem alone installed in an enclosure with proper
powering can function as independent repeater for a group of
weather stations.
Weather Transmitter
Figure 19
0504-066
Weather Transmitter WXT510
Weather Transmitter WXT510 is a small and lightweight transmitter
that offers six weather parameters in one compact package. WXT510
measures wind speed and direction, precipitation, atmospheric pressure,
temperature and relative humidity.
WXT510 powers up with 5...30 VDC and outputs serial data with a
selectable communication protocol: SDI-12, ASCII automatic & polled
and NMEA 0183 with query option. Four alternative serial interfaces
are selectable: RS-232, RS-485, RS-422 and SDI-12.
VAISALA _______________________________________________________________________ 35
User's Guide ______________________________________________________________________
Combined Wind Sensor
Figure 20
0401-255
Combined Wind Sensor
The following numbers refer to Figure 20 on page 36:
1
=
Cup wheel assembly
2
=
Vane assembly
3
=
Sensor compartment
Combined Wind Sensor is the compact sized instrument with the wind
speed and direction sensors integrated into one unit. A single compact
sensor is ideal for low-power applications. The sensor electronics is
located inside a watertight compartment providing full protection
against water, dust, pollutants, and electromagnetic interference.
The cup wheel shape, dimensions, and material have been carefully
designed to achieve maximum measurement quality. The conical cups
have been tested to give linear response between wind speed and
angular velocity of the cup wheel. The polyamide plastic reinforced
with carbon fiber guarantees a rigid structure even at the highest wind
speeds.
The balanced wind vane is integrated in the housing, underneath the cup
wheel. The circular tail is located far enough from the body and the cup
wheel to avoid turbulence due to these structures. The vane assembly is
made of PA reinforced with glass fiber providing durable and
lightweight structure with fast response and low inertia.
36 ___________________________________________________________________M210630EN-B
Chapter 2 __________________________________________________________ Product Overview
WMS302 has a two-wiper type potentiometer to overcome the wind
direction discontinuity. However, a more complex voltage-to-direction
conversion process is needed.
Air Temperature and Relative Humidity Sensor
Figure 21
0401-188
Air Temperature and Relative Humidity Sensor
The Air Temperature and Relative Humidity Sensor is based on
Vaisala’s field-proven HMP45D probe and comes with a special cable
and connector. Humidity measurement is based on the highly accurate
capacitive thin film polymer sensor HUMICAP®180 and it offers
excellent long-term stability in a wide range of environments.
Temperature measurement is based on resistive platinum Pt-100
IEC751, 1/3 Class B sensor. Both the humidity and temperature probes
are located at the tip of the sensor and are protected by a membrane
filter.
Pressure Sensor
Figure 22
9901-020
Pressure Sensor PMT16A
VAISALA _______________________________________________________________________ 37
User's Guide ______________________________________________________________________
The silicon capacitive pressure sensor PMT16A has excellent accuracy,
repeatability and long-term stability over a wide range of operating
temperatures. Therefore, it maintains its accuracy and calibration for
long periods of time, thus reducing the need for field calibrations.
The fine adjustment and calibration of the sensor at the factory are
handled according to the electronic working standards, which are based
on international standards.
Rain Gauges
Figure 23
0201-009
Rain Gauge QMR101
Rain gauge QMR101 is economical and accurate rain gauge of plastic
material which is highly resistant to UV-radiation and even frost proof.
QMR101 has a self-emptying tipping spoon of 0.2 mm (0.008 in.)
capacity. Due to its small size, lightweight, and rugged design, it is
especially suitable for portable applications and temporary installations.
QMR101 is installed on the sensor arm, and has a ready-made cable
with the connector.
38 ___________________________________________________________________M210630EN-B
Chapter 2 __________________________________________________________ Product Overview
Figure 24
0105-016
Rain Gauge QMR102
An aerodynamically shaped rain gauge, Precipitation Sensor QMR102
is designed to minimize the wind-originated airflow reducing the catch.
Manufactured from UV radiation resistant plastic, that makes it a very
rugged instrument.
The collected rain is measured in a well-proven tipping bucket
mechanism of 0.2 millimeters. QMR102 is installed on a stand or on a
pedestal and it is delivered with a 10-meter shielded cable with a
connector.
Pyranometers
Figure 25
0105-020
QMS101 Pyranometer
The QMS101 pyranometer is used for measuring global solar radiation.
QMS101 uses a photodiode detector for creating a voltage output
proportional to the incoming radiation. Due to the unique design of the
VAISALA _______________________________________________________________________ 39
User's Guide ______________________________________________________________________
diffuser, its sensitivity is proportional to the cosine of the angle of
incidence of the radiation, thus allowing accurate and consistent
measurements. QMS101 has a ready-made cable with a connector, and
it is easily installed on the sensor support arm.
Figure 26
0105-021
QMS102 Pyranometer
QMS102 Pyranometer is an ISO/WMO-classified second class
pyranometer. The precision optical glass dome acts as a filter, with a
spectral band-pass that permits the full solar spectrum to pass through
to the sensor. The sensor is a high-quality blackened thermopile with a
flat spectral response. Heating of the sensor by incoming solar radiation
produces a signal in the microvolt range.
Net Solar Radiation Sensor
Figure 27
0105-024
Net Solar Radiation Sensor QMN101
Net Solar Radiation Sensor QMN101 is designed for routine
measurements of net radiation. Net radiation is the balance between
40 ___________________________________________________________________M210630EN-B
Chapter 2 __________________________________________________________ Product Overview
incoming and outgoing radiation in outdoor conditions. The sensor
measures solar and far infra-red radiation balance.
The sensor is based on a thermopile and it consists of two Tefloncoated, weather-resistant black conical absorbers. The voltage output is
proportional to the net radiation. Contrary to common instruments,
QMN101 is virtually maintenance-free as it does not require fragile
plastic domes.
Soil/Water Temperature Sensors
Figure 28
9901-012
Soil/Water Temperature Sensor
Soil/Water Temperature Sensor is particularly intended for precision
measurement of ground and soil temperatures. All the materials have
been carefully selected to withstand various environmental stress and
wide temperature range. The measurement accuracy and stability of the
temperature sensor are based on a Pt-100 type sensor element specified
to 1/4 DIN 43760B preciseness level.
The QMT103 sensor includes a 5-meter cable with a black, weatherresistant polyurethane (PUR) sheath, which can tolerate both abrasive
wear and extreme temperatures. Molded to the other end of the cable
there is a 5-pin watertight connector, providing for instant assembly and
replacement.
The QMT110 sensor includes a 10-meter cable with a black, weatherresistant polyurethane (PUR) sheath, which can tolerate both abrasive
wear and extreme temperatures. Molded to the other end of the cable
there is a 5-pin watertight connector, providing for instant assembly and
replacement.
VAISALA _______________________________________________________________________ 41
User's Guide ______________________________________________________________________
Soil Temperature Sensor
Figure 29
0106-041
Soil Temperature Sensor QMT107
Soil Temperature Sensor QMT107 is designed for the measurement of
soil temperature and temperature profiles as a function of depth.
Temperature measurement is based on resistive platinum sensors (Pt100). There are seven temperature probes located inside the sensor. The
sensors are positioned to +5 cm, ±0 cm, -5 cm, -10 cm, -20 cm, -50 cm,
and -100 cm levels, where ±0 cm corresponds to the ground level mark
of the sensor.
The sensor is constructed of glass fiber tube filled with epoxy, which
makes the design watertight and provides low thermal conductivity.
This ensures maximum accuracy as the sensor itself consumes very
little power, thus causing almost no self-heating. The sensor has a 1meter cable, which can be extended with the extension cables of
different lengths.
42 ___________________________________________________________________M210630EN-B
Chapter 2 __________________________________________________________ Product Overview
Soil Moisture Sensor
Figure 30
0105-026
Soil Moisture Sensor ML2x
Soil Moisture Sensor ML2x features a new technique with the accuracy
of ±2 % soil moisture. The ML2x sensors offer high accuracy and
extended lifetime in permanent or temporary measurements of soil
moisture.
Traditional low cost sensors made of gypsum block dissolve even in a
short period of time when exposed to high moisture. The ML2x sensors
are very durable. The rods are 60 mm long, made of resilient, solid
stainless steel, and can be unscrewed and replaced if necessary. All
exposed materials are either stainless steel or durable plastic, and the
probes are fully sealed. This way they can also safely be buried into the
ground.
VAISALA _______________________________________________________________________ 43
User's Guide ______________________________________________________________________
Soil Moisture Sensor
Figure 31
0406-050
Soil Moisture Sensor ECH2O-M3
The ECH2O-M3 probe is a low-cost sensor for measuring volumetric
water content of soil and other porous materials. It uses capacitance to
measure the dielectric permittivity of the surrounding medium. The
volume of water in the total volume of soil most heavily influences the
dielectric permittivity of the soil because the dielectric of water (80) is
much greater than the other constituents of the soil (mineral soil, 4;
organic matter, 4; air, 1). Thus, when the amount of water changes in
the soil, the ECH2O-M3 probe will measure a change in capacitance
(from the change in dielectric permittivity) that can be directly
correlated with a change in water content. Circuitry inside the ECH2OM3 probe changes the capacitance measurement into a proportional
millivolt output. The ECH20-M3 probe has a low sensitivity to salt and
temperature, and very low power consumption.
44 ___________________________________________________________________M210630EN-B
Chapter 2 __________________________________________________________ Product Overview
Submersible Water Level Sensor
Figure 32
0406-051
Submersible Water Level Sensor PR-36W
Submersible Water Level Sensor PR-36W determines the water level
by measuring the water pressure above the submerged sensor in
reservoirs, lakes and rivers. The PR-36W pressure sensor is a high
stability piezoresistive device designed for use in transmitters, where
accuracy and stability are essential. The sensor is selected after severe
testing under pressure and temperature. The sensing component is a
micro-machined silicon chip of high sensitivity mounted in a floating
arrangement. An independent temperature sensor is integrated on the
surface of the silicon chip. The pressure signal compensation uses a
mathematical model based on polynomial approximation, which
provides almost perfect compensation over the operating temperature
range.
The user can, via RS-485 interface and using a special adapter cable, set
the zero and gain of the transmitter by simple software programming.
This means that the sensor can be configured by the user for different
ranges at any time.
VAISALA _______________________________________________________________________ 45
User's Guide ______________________________________________________________________
Leaf Wetness Sensor
Figure 33
0401-176
Leaf Wetness Sensor QLW101
Leaf Wetness Sensor QLW101 enables data logger to detect the
presence of surface moisture on foliage and calculate the duration of
wetness. When moisture is present, the sensor detects an electrical
resistance change between the gold-plated elements of the grid.
Fuel Moisture/Fuel Temperature Sensor
Figure 34
0201-010
Fuel Moisture/Fuel Temperature Sensor
Fuel Moisture/Fuel Temperature Sensor measures the moisture content
of the material on the forest floor or other natural area to help forest
managers assess the fire danger. It uses a carefully selected and
prepared pine dowel to exchange moisture with the environment. The
46 ___________________________________________________________________M210630EN-B
Chapter 2 __________________________________________________________ Product Overview
sensor measures the moisture content of the dowel by its electrical
capacitance.
A thermistor, located in the dowel where it fastens to the base, measures
the temperature of the dowel giving the estimated temperature on the
forest floor.
VAISALA _______________________________________________________________________ 47
User's Guide ______________________________________________________________________
48 ___________________________________________________________________M210630EN-B
Chapter 3 _________________________________________________________ Selecting Location
CHAPTER 3
SELECTING LOCATION
This chapter provides information on siting the station and the sensors
correctly.
Siting the Station
Finding a suitable site for the weather station is important for getting
representative ambient measurements. Normally, the suitable site
should represent the general area of interest. When locating the weather
station, consider the items presented in the sections for each sensor. The
descriptions are not exhaustive, for further information refer to local
and WMO recommendations.
Combined Wind Sensor
Allow sufficient clearance for the wind sensor. Install the wind sensor
away from buildings or any other objects that might affect the airflow.
In general, any object of height (h) will not remarkably disturb the wind
measurement at a minimum distance of 10 × h. There should be at least
150 m (500 ft.) open area to all directions from the mast. Refer to Figure
35 on page 50.
VAISALA _______________________________________________________________________ 49
User's Guide ______________________________________________________________________
Figure 35
0212-221
Recommended Mast Location in Open Area
The recommended minimum length (h in Figure 36 on page 50) for the
mast that is installed on the top of a building is 1.5 times the height of
the building (H). When the diagonal (W) is less than the height (H) the
minimum length of the mast is 1.5 × W.
Figure 36
0212-222
Recommended Mast Length on the Top of a Building
50 ___________________________________________________________________M210630EN-B
Chapter 3 _________________________________________________________ Selecting Location
Air Temperature and Relative Humidity Sensor
Finding a suitable site for the Air Temperature and Relative Humidity
Sensor is important for getting representative ambient measurements.
The site should represent the general area of interest.
NOTE
The radiation shield is important in protecting the sensor from direct
sunlight and must always be used.
The recommended height for the sensor is from 1.5 to 2 meters (from 5
to 6.5 ft.) from ground or the height defined with the applicable mast
construction. Install the sensor so that direct sunlight to the sensor is
avoided.
Avoid the following installation sites to ensure correct measurements:
shaded areas, rooftops, steep slopes, heat sources, swamps, high
vegetation, and places that might hold water after rains.
Rain Gauges
The opening of the gauge must be in a horizontal plane, open to the sky,
and above the level of in-splashing and snow accumulation. In general,
objects should not be closer to the gauge than a distance twice their
height above the gauge opening.
In areas of homogeneous dense vegetation, the height of the vegetation
should be kept below the gauge opening level by regular clipping. Sites
on a slope or on the roof of a building should be avoided. Also hard flat
surfaces such as concrete should be avoided to prevent splashing.
Pyranometers
Finding a suitable site for the solar radiation sensor is important for
getting representative ambient measurements. The site should represent
the general area of interest.
Make sure that no building or object will shadow the solar radiation
sensor, during the day.
On the Northern Hemisphere, the solar radiation sensor should be
installed on the southern side of the mast (on the Southern Hemisphere,
VAISALA _______________________________________________________________________ 51
User's Guide ______________________________________________________________________
vice versa) to avoid other objects shading the sensor. To facilitate
leveling/cleaning, installing at a height of 3 m (10 ft.) or less is
recommended.
Net Solar Radiation Sensor
Finding a suitable site for the product is important for getting
representative ambient measurements. The site should represent the
general area of interest.
On the Northern Hemisphere, the Net Solar Radiation Sensor should be
installed on the southern side of the mast (on the Southern Hemisphere,
vice versa) to avoid other objects shading the sensor. It is recommended
to install the sensor at least 1.5 meters (5 ft.) above the surface in order
to avoid shading effects and to promote spatial averaging. To facilitate
leveling/cleaning, installing at a height of 3 m (10 ft.) or less is
recommended.
Soil Temperature Sensor
Finding a suitable site for Soil Temperature Sensor is important for
getting representative soil temperature measurements. Measurement
site should be 1 m² and typical of the surface of interest. The ground
surface should be level with respect to the immediate (10 m radius) area.
Always examine the soil properties to make sure that there are no sharp
stones or other objects in the ground that could damage the fiberglass
tube of the sensor.
Soil Moisture Sensor
Finding a suitable site for the product is important for getting
representative ambient measurements. The site should represent the
general area of interest.
The soil water content measured by the ML2x sensor within one small
locality can be affected by:
-
Variations in soil density and composition
-
Stones close to the rods
-
Roots (either nearby or pierced by the rods)
52 ___________________________________________________________________M210630EN-B
Chapter 3 _________________________________________________________ Selecting Location
-
Earth worm holes or mole holes
-
Subsoil drainage
-
Small scale variability in transpiration and evaporation losses.
It is important to take the degree of variability of these parameters into
account when deciding on the number of probes to be used at any
particular location. If the soil is known to be very heterogeneous, it will
be necessary to take measurements from at least three closely-spaced
locations.
Soil Moisture Sensor
Finding a suitable site for the product is important for getting
representative ambient measurements. The site should represent the
general area of interest.
When selecting a site for ECH2O-M3 installation, it is important to
remember that the soil adjacent to the probe surface has the strongest
influence on the probe reading and that the probe measures the
volumetric water content. Therefore any air gaps or excessive soil
compaction around the probe can profoundly influence the readings.
Also, do not install the probes adjacent to large metal objects such as
metal poles or stakes. This can attenuate the probe’s electromagnetic
field and adversely affect output readings.
Submersible Water Level Sensor
Finding a suitable site for the product is important for getting
representative ambient measurements. The sensor should always be
protected against the flow and impurities in the river. Typically, the
water level sensor is installed in a stilling well or inside a pipe for
protecting the sensor against debris and vandalism.
Place the sensor according to the following examples. Refer to Figure
37 on page 54.
Example 1: Average water level is 25 meters (82 ft.) and maximum
annual change is 50 cm (19.7 in.). Suitable sensor is with range of 75
cm (29.5 in.) and installation place is 24,6 meter (80.7 ft.) from ground
level.
VAISALA _______________________________________________________________________ 53
User's Guide ______________________________________________________________________
Example 2: In dry season the riverbed is dry and in rain season the
ultimate water level is 7 meters (23 ft.). Suitable sensor would be with
10-meter (32.8 ft.) range. If interested values start after water level is
greater than 3 meters (9.8 ft.), it is possible to use 5-meter (16.4 ft.)
version and install it to 3 meters (9.8 ft.) from ground.
Figure 37
0406-014
Water Level Sensor in Water
The following numbers refer to Figure 37 on page 54:
1
=
Cable to a logger
2
=
Water level
3
=
Sensor level
4
=
Local reference
5
=
Common level
Leaf Wetness Sensor
Finding a suitable site for Leaf Wetness Sensor QLW101 is important
for getting representative ambient measurements. The site should
represent the general area of interest.
54 ___________________________________________________________________M210630EN-B
Chapter 3 _________________________________________________________ Selecting Location
Fuel Moisture/Fuel Temperature Sensor
Finding a suitable site for the fuel moisture sensor is important for
getting representative ambient measurements. The site should represent
the general area of interest.
You should install the fuel moisture sensor 0.3 m (1 ft.) above the forest
floor and orient the sensor parallel to the ground.
Fuel Moisture Sensor can monitor the moisture conditions on the forest
floor only if it can absorb and give up moisture near a fair sample of the
material that is naturally present. It must exchange moisture with the air
the same way that the forest floor materials do.
Mount the sensor on the south side of the tower (or the north side in the
southern hemisphere) so that it is not shadowed by the tower. If
possible, arrange that the sensor is exposed to sunlight for at least six
hours in the middle of the day. Make sure that no grass or other
vegetation touches the sensor; these can transfer moisture directly. The
sensor must be installed approximately one week before it can give
accurate fuel moisture readings.
VAISALA _______________________________________________________________________ 55
User's Guide ______________________________________________________________________
56 ___________________________________________________________________M210630EN-B
Chapter 4 _______________________________________________________________ Installation
CHAPTER 4
INSTALLATION
This chapter describes how to install MAWS and the accessories and
sensors connected to it.
For the installation instructions of the MAWS Terminal software and
the setup software MAWS Lizard, see the MAWS Lizard User's Guide.
Preparing Installation
Make sure you have all the necessary tools at hand. The Tools Bag
supplied with the tripod mast includes a set of tools that will be needed
during installation. Tools needed:
-
Compass (not supplied), or other methods to establish the right
orientation of the station
-
Screwdrivers: 3 mm (in the Tools Bag)
-
Hex wrenches: 4 mm (in the Tools Bag)
-
Hammer for hitting the ground pegs into ground (in the Tools Bag
of the MAWS201 delivery)
-
Pegs for securing the tripod (in the Tools Bag of the MAWS201
delivery).
Additional special tools for the different sensors are provided in their
packages.
One person can complete the whole installation. Depending on the set
of sensors, the installation should not take more than 1 to 2 hours.
VAISALA _______________________________________________________________________ 57
User's Guide ______________________________________________________________________
Unpacking Instructions
When you have received the delivery, first see that you have all the
ordered components. Secondly, check the sensors. Make sure that they
have not been damaged during transportation.
User manuals and special tools included in the packages should be
stored in a safe place for later use.
The logger electronics are attached to the railing inside the tube. The
tripod is also already assembled, but it needs to be attached to the tube
structure.
Installing Software
Installing Embedded Software
The embedded software on the logger is normally installed at the
factory. For the instructions on installing a new, updated version, see
the Software Loading Technical Notice.
Installing MAWS Terminal
For the instructions on installing the MAWS Terminal software to a PC,
see the MAWS Lizard User's Guide.
Installing MAWS Lizard
For the instructions on installing the MAWS Lizard setup software to a
PC, see the MAWS Lizard User's Guide.
Installing MAWS Basic Components
The installation of the basic components is done only when taking the
MAWS weather station in use for the first time.
58 ___________________________________________________________________M210630EN-B
Chapter 4 _______________________________________________________________ Installation
NOTE
The figures in this procedure present installing MAWS201. In case
you are installing MAWS101, you do not have any of the tripod's parts
attached as shown in some of the figures.
1.
Loosen the hand screw (number 1 in Figure 38 on page 59) beneath
the tube. Slide the tube down to expose the logger.
Figure 38
0404-027
2.
Remove the logger cover screw (number 1 in Figure 39 on page 59)
to open the logger housing.
Figure 39
0404-028
3.
Tube Securing Hand Screw
Logger Cover Screw
When you have the pressure sensor (number 1 in Figure 40 on page
60) installed on the logger, attach the tube that comes from the blue
inlet (3) into the outlet (2) of the logger housing. The tube should
VAISALA _______________________________________________________________________ 59
User's Guide ______________________________________________________________________
cover at least 5 mm of the outlet. Make sure that the tube is not
blocked or bent during the transportation.
Figure 40
0201-019
4.
Pressure Sensor Tube Connection
The internal battery should always be installed when the weather
station is in operation. The battery supplies backup power to the
station and is needed for keeping the time and date information. To
insert the internal battery, you may have to bend battery terminals.
Connect the flat connectors to battery terminals (numbers 1 and 2
in Figure 41 on page 61). Connect the red wire to the positive pole
(+), and the black wire to the negative pole (-). The battery lead(s)
is disconnected during shipping. It is recommended to disconnect
the lead also if the station is not used for several weeks (no
charging). When storing the station for a few days, use SLEEP
command to reduce the power consumption and discharge of the
battery.
60 ___________________________________________________________________M210630EN-B
Chapter 4 _______________________________________________________________ Installation
Figure 41
0201-020
5.
Battery Connectors
To install the additional Internal Battery, follow the procedure
below:
a.
0402-024
b.
Bend the metal clip (number 2 in Figure 42 on page 61) at the
top to hold the battery in its compartment.
Figure 42
Additional Internal Battery Installed
Install the battery on the DIN-rail below the logger. If more
space is needed under the logger, you may move the logger
slightly upwards.
VAISALA _______________________________________________________________________ 61
User's Guide ______________________________________________________________________
CAUTION
Make sure that the pressure vent tube does not get blocked or bent
6.
c.
Connect the wires from the battery to the Power connector
(number 1 in Figure 42 on page 61): the black wire to the
GND connector and the red wire to the Batt connector.
d.
After the installation is finalized, open the MAWS Terminal
software. In the Tools menu, select Station Settings to change
the capacity of the internal battery from 1.2 to 2.4 Ah.
To keep the tube watertight, the tube should cover the two O-rings
(number 1 and 2 in Figure 43 on page 62) on the bottom of the
upper base. Rotate the tube to find the aligning pins (number 2 in
Figure 44 on page 62) position. Slide the tube up. Tighten it with
the hand screw (number 1 in Figure 44 on page 62).
Figure 43
O-rings for Sealing the Tube
Figure 44
Hand Screw and Aligning Pins
0404-029
0201-021
62 ___________________________________________________________________M210630EN-B
Chapter 4 _______________________________________________________________ Installation
7.
Normally the tripod is fully assembled at the factory, but when not,
attach the leg fasteners (number 1 in Figure 45 on page 63) to the
upper base. Lock the leg (2) to the leg fastener with a bolt (3).
Figure 45
0201-027
8.
Attach the wind sensor adapter to the top of the wind/telescope
mast (if not already attached). Tighten with the small hex screw
(number 1 in Figure 46 on page 63). Guide the wind sensor cable
through the upper tube and connect it to the sensor. The sensor is
affixed into its place by tightening the plastic collar (2).
Figure 46
0201-023
9.
Tripod's Leg Attachment
Wind Sensor Adapter Attachment
Attach the sensor arm supports (number 1 in Figure 47 on page 64)
to the upper base. Tighten the screw properly with an appropriate
tool (2).
VAISALA _______________________________________________________________________ 63
User's Guide ______________________________________________________________________
Figure 47
0406-047
Sensor Arm Support Attachment
Installing MAWS201 Tripod
MAWS201 always has a tripod for supporting the logger tube, as well
as one or more sensor arms that are connected to the tube. The legs of
the tripod are adjustable. The pegs should be used to prevent the tripod
from collapsing. For the wind sensor installation there is the wind mast
or telescope mast attached to the upper base of the logger tube. The
schematic structure of the installed MAWS201 is presented in Figure 48
on page 65.
64 ___________________________________________________________________M210630EN-B
Chapter 4 _______________________________________________________________ Installation
Figure 48
0312-002
Mechanical Structure of MAWS201
The following numbers refer to Figure 48 on page 65:
1
=
Wind sensor
2
=
Plastic collar
3
=
Mounting piece
4
=
Wind mast / Telescopic mast
5
=
Protection cover
6
=
Tube
7
=
Support tube
8
=
Radiation shield
VAISALA _______________________________________________________________________ 65
User's Guide ______________________________________________________________________
9
=
Sensor arm
10 =
Hand screw
11 =
Telescopic leg
12 =
Locking ring and hand screw
13 =
Pressure port
14 =
Support bar
15 =
Ground peg
Installing Power Supply
Installing Solar Panel
WARNING
Photovoltaic modules generate direct current (DC) when exposed to
sunlight or other sources of light. Although single modules produce
low voltage and current, shocks and burns can still result from contact
with module output wiring. PV modules do not have to be "connected"
(that is, powering a load) to generate electricity. Since modules
produce electricity whenever light is present, the module should be
completely covered by an opaque cloth or other material before
electrical connections to the modules or other system components are
handled.
WARNING
When working with modules, use properly insulated tools and wear
rubber gloves.
CAUTION
Handle with care: impact on the front or rear surface can damage the
module. Do not bend the module.
NOTE
Do not concentrate light on the module in an attempt to increase its
power output.
Usually the solar panel is installed at the factory, and you should only
adjust the tilt angle and check that the connector is attached. In case you
need to install the solar panel, follow the procedure below:
66 ___________________________________________________________________M210630EN-B
Chapter 4 _______________________________________________________________ Installation
1.
Locate the leg where the solar panel is to be installed. The correct
leg is the one having DC Power Input label on the left side. Also
note the alignment of sensor arms versus solar panel.
2.
Place the solar panel towards the leg approximately 40 cm (1.3 ft.)
down from the upper plate of the tripod. Make sure that the shelf
(number 1 in Figure 49 on page 67) fits to the leg profile (2). When
the panel is at suitable height, tighten the hand screw (3).
Figure 49
0406-049
3.
Open the bolt (number 3 in Figure 50 on page 67) of the leg
fastener (1) to release the leg (2). Fit the cable inside the leg and
guide it through the hole in the leg fastener. Put the leg back into
the leg fastener and tighten the bolt (3). Attach the cable to the DC
Power Input connector.
Figure 50
0201-027
4.
Solar Panel Fixture
Tripod's Leg Attachment
Thread the cable through the connector parts in the indicated order
1-2-3-4. Parts for a metallic connector are shown in Figure 51 on
page 68. Parts for a plastic connector are shown in Figure 52 on
page 68.
VAISALA _______________________________________________________________________ 67
User's Guide ______________________________________________________________________
Figure 51
Metallic Connector for Solar Panel
Figure 52
Plastic Connector for Solar Panel
9806-015
0201-030
5.
Insert the wires numbered 1 and 2 into the terminal 1 and the wires
numbered 3 and 4 into the terminal 3. Tighten the screws that hold
the wires.
Figure 53
0201-053
Wires' Connection to the Terminals
68 ___________________________________________________________________M210630EN-B
Chapter 4 _______________________________________________________________ Installation
NOTE
In the figures only the metallic connector is presented, although the
procedure is the same with the plastic connectors.
6.
Tighten part 3 to connect it with part 4, see Figure 54 on page 69.
Insert the sealing part 2 into part 1. Tighten part 1 to part 3.
Figure 54
0312-007
Solar Panel Connector Assembly
7.
Attach the plug to the Solar connector by tightening the lowest nut.
8.
Adjust the angle of the solar panel.
Installing a QMP Power Supply
Optionally MAWS can be powered from a QMP power supply.
Mains Power Supply QMP213
Mains Power Supply QMP213 is delivered with the U-bolts, washers,
nuts, and the connector cable for MAWS. The unit is attached to the
mast.
It is mountable to a Ø 60 mm or 100 mm pole mast as well as to one of
the tripod legs of the MAWS201 weather station.
VAISALA _______________________________________________________________________ 69
User's Guide ______________________________________________________________________
Figure 55
0201-031
QMP213 with Installation Accessories
To install the unit, follow the procedure below:
1.
Attach the unit through the holes in the upper end (number 1 in
Figure 55 on page 70) with the provided accessories (2) to the mast.
The cable inlets should face down.
2.
Lead the mains power cable through the opening (4) and connect
the wires under the screws into the locations marked with L and N.
Tighten the inlet nut properly.
3.
Connect the output power cable (3) to the power connector of
MAWS.
Solar/Mains Power Supply QMP201C
Solar/Mains Power Supply QMP201C is delivered with a connector
cable for MAWS. The unit is attached to the tripod's leg.
70 ___________________________________________________________________M210630EN-B
Chapter 4 _______________________________________________________________ Installation
Figure 56
0201-032
Parts of QMP201C
The following numbers refer to Figure 56 on page 71:
1
=
Solar panel
2
=
Backup battery box
3
=
Mains power supply and battery regulator box
4
=
Angle adjusting hand screw
5
=
Connector cable
To install the unit, follow the procedure below:
1.
Locate the leg where the solar panel is to be installed. The correct
leg is the one having DC Power Input label on the left side. Also
note the alignment of sensor arms versus solar panel.
2.
Place the solar panel towards the leg approximately 40 cm (1.3 ft.)
down from the upper plate of the tripod. Make sure that the shelf
(number 1 in Figure 57 on page 72) fits to the leg profile (2). When
the panel is at suitable height, tighten the hand screw (3).
VAISALA _______________________________________________________________________ 71
User's Guide ______________________________________________________________________
Figure 57
0406-049
3.
Open the bolt (number 3 in Figure 58 on page 72) of the leg
fastener (1) to release the leg (2). Fit the cable inside the leg and
guide it through the hole in the leg fastener. Put the leg back into
the leg fastener and tighten the bolt (3). Attach the cable to the DC
Power Input connector.
Figure 58
0201-027
4.
Solar Panel Fixture
Tripod's Leg Attachment
Adjust the angle of the solar panel.
Connecting Cables
After installing the sensors mechanically, follow the instructions in the
steps below to connect the cables. Step 1 is for the lower base of the tube
and step 2 for the upper base of the tube.
For detailed wiring instructions and diagrams, refer to Wiring
Instructions on page 210 under Chapter 8, Technical Data, on page 207.
72 ___________________________________________________________________M210630EN-B
Chapter 4 _______________________________________________________________ Installation
NOTE
Be careful when connecting cables so that the connector pins will not
bend.
NOTE
After connecting the cables, configure the sensors and auxiliary
devices with the MAWS Lizard Setup software. For more information,
refer to the MAWS Lizard User’s Guide.
1.
Connect cables to the connectors on the upper base and tighten the
screw nuts. For connector description, see Table 5 on page 73.
Table 5
Default Upper Base Connectors
Connector
Sensor/Device
(A) Temp/Humidity
(B) Wind
(C) DC Power Input
(D) Rain
(E) Sol. Rad.
(F) NET Rad.
QMH101 (HMP45) or WXT510
QMW101 or QMW110 (WMS302)
Power supply (solar panel or mains power)
QMR101 or QMR102
QMS101 or QMS102
QMN101
2.
Connect the sensor cables to the connectors on the lower base and
tighten the screw nuts. For connector description, see Table 6 on
page 73.
Table 6
Default Lower Base Connectors
Connector
Sensor/Device
(H) COM0
(I) COM1
(K) MOD1
(L) Soil Temp.
(M)
(O)
Terminal
Communications or sensors with RS-485 interface
Communications or sensors with serial interface
QMT103 or QMT107
Additional sensor
Additional sensor
3.
Finally, lower the protection cover on the upper base to shield the
connectors.
VAISALA _______________________________________________________________________ 73
User's Guide ______________________________________________________________________
Installing Communication Devices
Communication Modules
Modules can be attached on the circuit board to provide additional
communication channels for MAWS. For the placement of the modules,
see Figure 59 on page 74. The modules can simply be pushed on the
connector blocks MOD1 and/or MOD2. Module options include
DSU232, DSI485A, DSI486, and DMX501. By default, the modules
are installed as described in Table 7 on page 74.
Table 7
CAUTION
Default Configuration for Communication Modules
Module
Connector Block
Port
DSU232
DSI485A / DSI486
DMX501
MOD1
MOD2
MOD2
MOD1
MOD2
MOD2
When inserting modules, be careful not to bend the connector pins.
Figure 59
0404-031
Module Placement
74 ___________________________________________________________________M210630EN-B
Chapter 4 _______________________________________________________________ Installation
UHF Radio Modem
The radio modem SATELLINE 3AS comes with a ready-made cable
(approx. 0.5 m, 20 in.) and a special weatherproof enclosure.
Follow the procedure below to install the radio modem
SATELLINE 3AS to the sensor arm:
1.
Install either an additional sensor arm with radio modem fixture or
use an existing sensor arm that already has the radio modem
fixture.
2.
Install the radio modem to the fixture, see Figure 60 on page 75.
Figure 60
0201-042
Radio Modem and the Fixture
VAISALA _______________________________________________________________________ 75
User's Guide ______________________________________________________________________
Weather Transmitter
Unpacking Instructions
Weather Transmitter WXT510 comes in a custom shipping container.
Be careful when removing the device from the container.
CAUTION
Beware of damaging any of the wind transducers located at the top of
the three antennas. Dropping the device can break or damage the
transducers. If the antenna bends or twists the re-aligning can be
difficult or impossible.
Assembling WXT510
1.
Turn out the top of the transmitter.
2.
Remove the protective cap.
3.
Replace the top and tighten the three fixing screws that fasten the
top and the bottom.
Figure 61
0505-196
Assembling the WXT510
76 ___________________________________________________________________M210630EN-B
Chapter 4 _______________________________________________________________ Installation
Air Temperature and Relative Humidity Sensor
Install the Air Temperature and Relative Humidity Sensor in the
following way:
Figure 62
0402-097
Radiation Shield and Sensor Installation
1.
Install the radiation shield with the support on the mounting arm
using the two screws.
2.
Slide the temperature and humidity probe into the shield through
the fastening ring.
3.
Tighten the fastening ring.
4.
Guide the sensor cable through the sensor arm opening.
5.
Connect the signal cable to the data logger.
VAISALA _______________________________________________________________________ 77
User's Guide ______________________________________________________________________
Pressure Sensor
The Pressure Sensor PMT16A is located on the CPU board of the
logger, see Figure 63 on page 78. Normally, it is factory installed on the
logger board. If necessary, it can be accessed by removing the cover of
the logger. The sensor is connected directly into the connector on the
board and is fixed on it with one screw.
CAUTION
When handling the sensor, take care not to bent any components on the
transducer board.
CAUTION
Beware of electrostatic discharge when touching objects inside the
logger housing.
CAUTION
Make sure that the vent tube of the pressure sensor is not blocked or
bent during transportation.
Figure 63
0201-033
PMT16A Location on the Logger
78 ___________________________________________________________________M210630EN-B
Chapter 4 _______________________________________________________________ Installation
Rain Gauges
Installation Procedure of QMR101
Usually, rain gauge QMR101 is installed on the same sensor arm with
the temperature and humidity probe. QMR101 should be attached to a
sensor arm in the following way:
1.
Attach the mounting plates (1) to the sensor (2), if not already in
place.
Figure 64
9806-062
2.
Mounting Plates Attachment
Attach the rain gauge (1) to the arm with the screws (2) provided
with the rain gauge.
Figure 65
9901-010
Rain Gauge Attachment
Installation Procedure of QMR102
Rain gauge QMR102 can be installed on the ground, on a base plate, or
on a separate stand near the logger. Due to the low weight of the rain
gauge, it must be mounted securely. QMR102 can be installed either
using a specific stand RG35003 or on the ground when it is attached to
a properly anchored RGB1 base plate with provided studs. As well, the
VAISALA _______________________________________________________________________ 79
User's Guide ______________________________________________________________________
gauge can be mounted via the three holes in the base, for example, to a
paving slab. You should use rawl plugs and standard steel studs for this
purpose as they provide a means of leveling the rain gauge.
Installing on the Stand RG35003
To install the gauge on the stand, follow the procedure below:
1.
Attach the stand (3) to a concrete foundation with the bolts (5). See
Figure 66 on page 80.
Figure 66
0201-035
2.
Rain Gauge Installed on a Stand
Mount the gauge (1) to the upper plate of the stand using the
provided hardware. For an example, see Figure 67 on page 81.
80 ___________________________________________________________________M210630EN-B
Chapter 4 _______________________________________________________________ Installation
Figure 67
0002-010
Rain Gauge Attachment
3.
Connect the grounding cable (2).
4.
Connect the signal cable (4) to a data logger.
5.
Continue from section Finalizing the Installation on page 83.
Installing on the Base Plate RGB1
NOTE
1.
Use the base plate RGB1 as instructed in the provided data sheet.
2.
Connect the signal cable to a data logger.
3.
Continue from section Finalizing the Installation on page 83.
The base plate may be mounted to hard surfaces like concrete by
replacing the pegs with screws and rawl plugs. For temporary
mounting on hard surfaces use heavy weights on the four corners of the
base plate. The height of the weights should be kept as low as possible
to cause the minimum interference with the aerodynamics of the rain
gauge.
VAISALA _______________________________________________________________________ 81
User's Guide ______________________________________________________________________
Installing on a Pedestal
1.
Drill out three holes in the base to the 6.5 mm in diameter and clean
off burr. For details, see Figure 68 on page 82.
2.
For the pegs, drill out a hole in the each corner of the pedestal plate.
Clean off burr.
Figure 68
0002-011
3.
Rain Gauge Pedestal Plate Dimensions
Place the pedestal plate with rain gauge assembly on the ground
using the pegs supplied. If force is needed, then remove the rain
gauge first. See Figure 69 on page 82.
Figure 69
9901-011
Assembling QMR102 on the Ground with
Pedestal Plate
4.
Connect the signal cable to a data logger.
5.
Continue from section Finalizing the Installation on page 83.
82 ___________________________________________________________________M210630EN-B
Chapter 4 _______________________________________________________________ Installation
Finalizing the Installation
Finalize the installation as described in the following steps:
1.
To be able to release the rain gauge's tipping bucket mechanism,
and adjust the level, first remove the funnel from its base by
unscrewing the three plastic thumbscrews (1). See Figure 70 on
page 83.
Figure 70
0201-036
2.
Funnel Fixing Screw
Remove the piece of foam (2) from under the bucket mechanism.
This foam may be saved and used whenever the rain gauge is
moved. See Figure 71 on page 83.
Figure 71
0201-037
QMR102 Adjustment and the Foam Location
VAISALA _______________________________________________________________________ 83
User's Guide ______________________________________________________________________
3.
It is important to ensure that the rim of the rain gauge is leveled
precisely. Failure to do this will result in a systematic error. Use a
spirit level (1) and adjust with the fixing screws (3). See Figure 71
on page 83.
4.
The cable length can be shortened or lengthened as required. If the
cable is lengthened, please ensure a good quality environmental
connector, or a heatshrink joint (see Figure 72 on page 84).
Extension cables used must be of a similar specification.
Figure 72
9902-004
NOTE
Wiring Diagram of QMR102
When using QMR102, the shield must be connected to the ground.
Pyranometers
The pyranometer can be installed on the sensor arm as follows:
1.
Attach the pyranometer (2) to the sensor arm (1) using the bolts (3)
provided. For the explanation of the numbers, see Figure 73 on
page 84.
Figure 73
0201-038
Installing Pyranometer on Sensor Arm
84 ___________________________________________________________________M210630EN-B
Chapter 4 _______________________________________________________________ Installation
2.
Lead the cable (4) through the sensor arm (5). Guide the sensor
cable through the sensor arm opening (6).
3.
After you have installed the sensor, connect the signal cable to the
applicable connector of the host unit.
Net Solar Radiation Sensor
Install the sensor to the sensor arm as follows:
1.
Attach the mounting piece (1) to the sensor arm (2). Tighten with
the screws. For the numbers, see Figure 74 on page 85.
Figure 74
0506-049
Installing Net Solar Radiation Sensor
2.
Attach the Net Solar Radiation Sensor (3) to the extension arm (4).
Attach the sensor's extension arm (4) to the mounting piece (1).
Tighten with the screws.
3.
Lead the cable (5) through the sensor arm (2). Guide the sensor
cable through the sensor arm opening.
4.
After you have installed the sensor, connect the signal cable to the
applicable connector of the logger.
VAISALA _______________________________________________________________________ 85
User's Guide ______________________________________________________________________
Soil/Water Temperature Sensors
Installation Procedure for QMT103/
QMT110
The QMT103/QMT110 sensor has the cable with the connector. The
length of the cable defines the maximum distance from the logger. You
can install the sensor either in soil or in water.
1.
Choose a desired location for the sensor. Assure that the sensor is
located within cable length of the logger enclosure.
2.
To install the sensor in the soil:
3.
a.
Make a hole with a shovel to a depth a little deeper than
desired installation depth of the sensor.
b.
To get good sensor contact with the soil, position the sensor
horizontally into the hole and push the sensor into the wall of
the hole to the desired depth until set firmly.
c.
Fill the hole with the digged soil.
d.
Connect the cable to the logger enclosure.
To install the sensor in water:
a.
Make a solid base for the sensor to the desired installation
depth in water.
b.
Position the sensor firmly to the base.
c.
Connect the cable to the logger enclosure.
Installation Procedure for QMT107
During a typical installation, the QMT107 sensor is pressed into preformed holes, but it can also be placed into excavated hole that is then
filled. On hard or rocky ground, a pilot hole is pre-formed with an auger
rod.
86 ___________________________________________________________________M210630EN-B
Chapter 4 _______________________________________________________________ Installation
Drilling a Hole for the Sensor
Drill a hole according to the following procedure:
1.
Choose a desired location for the sensor. Assure that the hole is
located within cable length of the logger enclosure.
2.
Drill a hole into the ground with the auger held as straight as
possible. After you have drilled about 0.2 m (8 in.), extract the
auger from the hole.
CAUTION
The installation hole must be straight. Otherwise the sensor may bend,
and the resulting tension damages the sensor.
CAUTION
Do not use a hammer to pound the auger into ground even if the ground
is hard or especially when it is rocky.
NOTE
With fluid or loose soils there is risk of soil collapsing into the hole.
To prevent this you can use a plastic or metal tube to assist the
installation. After you have installed the sensor, remove the tube. Fill
the gap with sand, mould, or other fine-grained soil with no sharp
stones.
Figure 75
0106-039
3.
Drilling Procedure
Remove soil from the auger, for example, with a screwdriver not
with fingers. Refer to Figure 76 on page 88.
VAISALA _______________________________________________________________________ 87
User's Guide ______________________________________________________________________
WARNING
Do not use fingers to clean the auger. The edges are sharp.
Figure 76
0106-038
4.
Cleaning the Auger with a Screwdriver
Repeat steps 2 and 3 until you have reached the desired depth. The
maximum drilling depth is approximately 1.15 m (45 in.).
Inserting the Sensor into a Hole
Insert the sensor into the hole according to the following procedure:
1.
Remove the auger from the hole.
2.
Insert the sensor into the hole and press it down as deep as possible
by hand. Make sure that there are no sharp stones or other objects
in the ground that could press the sensor. Refer to Figure 77 on
page 89.
CAUTION
Do not drive or press sensors directly into soil of unknown
composition. Always make a pilot hole prior to sensor insertion, unless
the soil consists of homogenous, loose sand.
CAUTION
Never use a hammer or other instrument to hit the sensor. If too much
force is applied to the sensor, damage to the electronics inside may
result. Note that sensor warranty is void if a hammer or unapproved
tool is used to drive the probe into the soil.
88 ___________________________________________________________________M210630EN-B
Chapter 4 _______________________________________________________________ Installation
CAUTION
Make sure that there are no sharp stones or other objects in the ground
that could press the sensor. Pressing objects can damage the fiberglass
tube. Refer to Figure 77 on page 89.
Figure 77
0412-032
Sensor Installation in Rocky Soils
CAUTION
Do not bend or flex the sensor during insertion or extraction.
NOTE
Any delay in inserting the sensor into the drilled hole may allow
moisture to swell the hole sides, or fill the hole with water.
NOTE
Pack the soil around the sensor evenly, so that no vertical air slots are
left between the sensor and the surrounding soil. Use installation sand
or equivalent material for packing.
3.
Insert the sensor deep enough into the soil so that the soil/air
boundary is at the ground level line. The ground level line is
marked on the sensor, see Figure 78 on page 90.
VAISALA _______________________________________________________________________ 89
User's Guide ______________________________________________________________________
Figure 78
0106-042
4.
Soil Temperature Sensor Inserted Correctly,
Arrow Pointing to Ground Level Line
Finally, connect the signal cable to the logger.
Extraction Procedure for QMT107
Follow the procedure below to extract the sensor, refer to Figure 79 on
page 91.
CAUTION
If too much force is applied, damage to the electronics of the sensor
may result.
NOTE
Small, gentle strokes are essential for extracting the sensor.
1.
Set a piece of wood or similar close to the sensor.
2.
Pass the auger rod through the wire loop at the top of the sensor.
3.
Make the auger handle rest onto the piece of wood.
4.
Lift the sensor.
90 ___________________________________________________________________M210630EN-B
Chapter 4 _______________________________________________________________ Installation
Figure 79
0106-040
Sensor Extraction
Soil Moisture Sensor
The sensor can either be inserted or buried into the soil. To install the
ML2x sensors, follow the procedure below:
1.
Simply insert the ML2x sensor to soil as shown in Figure 80 on
page 92. Assure that the measurement rods are fully inside the soil.
VAISALA _______________________________________________________________________ 91
User's Guide ______________________________________________________________________
Figure 80
0105-087
2.
Soil Moisture Sensor ML2x
To bury the sensor in the soil, see Figure 82 on page 93:
a.
Make a hole with a shovel to a depth a little deeper than
desired installation depth of the sensor.
b.
To get good sensor contact with the soil, position the sensor
horizontally into the hole and push the sensor into the wall of
the hole (to the direction of the arrow in Figure 81 on page 92)
until the measurement rods are fully in the soil.
0404-026
Figure 81
ML2x Sensor at the Bottom of the Hole
92 ___________________________________________________________________M210630EN-B
Chapter 4 _______________________________________________________________ Installation
c.
0105-088
d.
When several sensors are buried, refer to Figure 82 on page 93
for finalized installation.
Figure 82
Buried ML2x Sensors
Fill the hole with the digged soil.
3.
Pull the sensor cable(s) close to the logger enclosure.
4.
Connect the signal cable to the applicable connector of the logger.
If you have purchased a sensor without factory made connectors,
see Wiring Instructions in the Technical Data chapter.
Soil Moisture Sensor
The probe can be oriented in any direction. However, orienting the flat
side perpendicular to the surface of the soil will minimize effects on
downward water movement. You can install the ECH2O-M3 sensor
either shallow or deep:
1.
For shallow installations:
a.
Simply cut a pilot hole in the soil using a shovel or flat blade
that is approximately the thickness of the probe.
b.
Saturate the hole with water and insert the ECH2O-M3 sensor
in the soil at the desired position, making sure the probe is
oriented such that the flat side is perpindicular to the surface
of the soil and make sure the entire length of the probe is
covered.
VAISALA _______________________________________________________________________ 93
User's Guide ______________________________________________________________________
c.
2.
Finally, insert the shovel again into the soil a few inches away
from the probe, and gently force soil toward the probe to
provide good contact between the probe and the soil.
For deeper installations:
a.
Excavate down to the level you wish to measure.
b.
In the exposed wall, cut a pilot hole as described above.
c.
Saturate the pilot hole with water.
d.
Insert the senor(s).
e.
With a shovel or blade a few inches away from the probe,
squeeze the soil onto the probe. This will improve the soil-toprobe contact.
f.
Fill the hole with the digged soil preserving the original soil
profile and compaction.
3.
Pull the sensor cable(s) close to the logger enclosure.
4.
Connect the signal cable to the applicable connector of the logger.
If you have purchased a sensor without factory made connectors,
see Wiring Instructions in the Technical Data chapter.
When removing the probe from the soil, do not pull it out of the soil by
the cable. Doing so may break internal connections and make the probe
unusable.
Submersible Water Level Sensor
Water level sensor has a ready-made cable and a connector. The length
of the cable defines the maximum distance from the logger. You have
to install the sensor on a solid fixture in water.
1.
Choose a desired location for the sensor. Assure that the sensor is
located within cable length of the logger enclosure.
2.
Make a solid base for the sensor to the desired installation depth in
water.
3.
Position the sensor firmly to the base.
4.
Connect the cable to the logger enclosure.
94 ___________________________________________________________________M210630EN-B
Chapter 4 _______________________________________________________________ Installation
Leaf Wetness Sensor
Installation Procedure
Leaf Wetness Sensor is delivered with an installation hardware kit and
a sensor cable.
Initial Check
You may test the sensor before you install it. The instructions below
provide a description of the suggested quick test procedure.
1.
Connect the signal cable to an available connector at a data logger.
2.
Configure the sensor with the particular software.
3.
Drop or spray water onto the sensor and make sure the reading
changes.
Mounting to a Wooden Surface
To mount the sensor against a wooden surface, secure the sensor to the
surface using wood screws (see Figure 83 on page 95).
Figure 83
0105-070
Mounting QLW101 to a Wooden Surface
VAISALA _______________________________________________________________________ 95
User's Guide ______________________________________________________________________
Mounting to a Pole Mast
You can mount the sensor to a mast with an outside diameter between
25 and 31 mm. Secure the sensor to the pole mast using the U-bolt, flat
washers, and hex nuts as shown in Figure 84 on page 96. Use a right size
wrench or adjustable wrench to tighten the hex nuts.
Figure 84
0105-071
Mounting QLW101 to a Pole Mast
Mounting to a Sensor Support
For installation to the sensor support, use the provided hex bolts and
lock washers. Tighten the hex nuts with a 6 mm Allen key. See Figure
85 on page 96.
Figure 85
0105-072
QLW101 Installed to the Sensor Support
96 ___________________________________________________________________M210630EN-B
Chapter 5 ________________________________________________________________ Operation
CHAPTER 5
OPERATION
This chapter provides the instructions for taking MAWS into use when
all the equipment has been assembled and installed, as well as operating
instructions for the MAWS Terminal software.
Operation Principle
MAWS works based on a so-called setup. Setup is a set of parameters
that tells MAWS what to measure, log, calculate, and report. Measured
data is stored in the daily log files that can be downloaded to a PC and
viewed using the MAWS Terminal software. Alternatively, the data
values can be viewed with the YourVIEW software, the optional
handheld terminal, or Vaisala Digital Displays. The delivery/projectspecific data reports can be configured to collect data from MAWS
stations by data collection systems.
The Basic setup has been loaded in the MAWS program memory at the
factory already. Therefore you simply need to connect the sensors,
connect communication lines, and supply power to MAWS. Then your
station will start operating, that is, making measurements, doing
calculations and sending report(s). Normally, the provided example
setups, for example, the Basic setup, need to be modified according to
delivery-specific requirements.
On the MAWS CD-ROM, delivered to you with the system, you will
find several setup examples. The delivered setups will suit typical
needs, but you may want to make changes to them. For reconfiguring
VAISALA _______________________________________________________________________ 97
User's Guide ______________________________________________________________________
the setup files or making totally new ones, refer to the MAWS Lizard
Setup Software User's Guide.
Taking MAWS into Use
Setting Up Tripod
CAUTION
Be careful not to pinch the cables during installation.
1.
Place the tripod in an upright position. Loosen the locking ring
(number 2 in Figure 86 on page 98) with the hand screw (3), spread
the legs and push the locking ring all the way down to the end of
the bar (4). Lock by tightening the hand screw (3). The support bars
should be horizontal.
Figure 86
0404-032
2.
Mechanical Structure of Tripod
Point the solar panel leg towards south on the Northern
Hemisphere (north on the Southern Hemisphere). Figure 87 on
page 99 gives a suggestion of positioning the weather station on the
Northern Hemisphere. The solar panel should face south, and the
Air Temperature and Relative Humidity Sensor should be on the
northern side of MAWS.
98 ___________________________________________________________________M210630EN-B
Chapter 5 ________________________________________________________________ Operation
Figure 87
9902-002
3.
Check with the bubble level (number 1 in Figure 88 on page 99)
that the station is leveled. The air bubble must be inside the circle.
Adjust the legs to level the station.
Figure 88
0403-009
4.
Aligning MAWS201 on the Northern
Hemisphere
Leveling the Station
To adjust the length of the legs, loosen the hand screw (number 1
in Figure 89 on page 100) at the lower end of the leg. Extend the
leg and lock by tightening the hand screw. After you have aligned
the station, insert a peg through the hole (2) to the ground to secure
VAISALA _______________________________________________________________________ 99
User's Guide ______________________________________________________________________
the leg. Use hammer to pound the ground pegs in. If the ground is
too hard for the pegs, fill the ground peg bag with sand and/or
stones. Attach the bag to the horizontal support bar with the straps.
Figure 89
0403-014
5.
After you have leveled the station, secure the legs with ground pegs
by inserting a peg through the hole as shown in Figure 90 on page
100.
Figure 90
0404-035
6.
Adjusting the Leg
Securing the Legs of the Tripod
For attachment of the wind sensor (number 1 in Figure 91 on page
101), the mounting piece has already been tightened with the small
hex screw (5) on the top of the wind mast. Guide the wind sensor
cable through the telescopic mast (if it is not already done) and
connect the cable to the sensor. To connect the sensor to the wind
mast, align the slot (3) on the bottom of the sensor with the metal
100 __________________________________________________________________M210630EN-B
Chapter 5 ________________________________________________________________ Operation
tab (4) on the mounting piece. Fix the sensor into its place by
tightening the plastic collar (2).
Figure 91
0403-015
7.
Wind Sensor Attachment
For attachment of the weather transmitter (number 1 in Figure 92
on page 102), guide the sensor cable through the wind mast (if it is
not already done) and connect the cable to the sensor. To connect
the sensor to the wind mast, remove the screw cover and insert
weather transmitter to the mast. Align the transmitter in such a way
that the arrow (2) points to north when the station is erected. Fix
the sensor into its place by tightening the hex screw with an
appropriate Allen key (3). Replace the screw cover.
VAISALA ______________________________________________________________________ 101
User's Guide ______________________________________________________________________
Figure 92
0505-245
8.
When using the optional telescopic mast, extend the mast. Open
the latch (number 1 in Figure 93 on page 102) by lifting it up. Lift
the inner mast (2) to the upper position while firmly holding the
lower part (3) of the mast. Close the latch by pushing it down.
Figure 93
0404-034
9.
Weather Transmitter Attachment
Extending the Optional Telescopic Mast
Attach the wind mast / telescopic mast to the upper base of the
tripod. First lead the cable through the opening on the mast. Loosen
the hand screw (number 3 in Figure 94 on page 103). Guide the
mast into its place with the notch (1) facing the screw (2). Press the
mast in place and tighten the hand screw (3).
102 __________________________________________________________________M210630EN-B
Chapter 5 ________________________________________________________________ Operation
Figure 94
0404-030
Attaching the Wind/Telescopic Mast
10. Lower the protection cover, see Figure 95 on page 103.
Figure 95
0404-036
Protection Cover Lowered
11. Attach the sensor arm(s). Fit the cables into the opening below the
sensor arm before tightening the hand screws (number 1 in Figure
96 on page 104).
VAISALA ______________________________________________________________________ 103
User's Guide ______________________________________________________________________
Figure 96
0201-025
Sensor Arm Assembly
12. The optional Fuel Moisture Sensor is factory assembled to the
sensor support bracket, and the sensor arm is factory assembled to
the leg of the tripod. Release the hand screw (number 1 in Figure
97 on page 104) and turn the sensor arm to an angle of 45°. Push
the sensor support bracket to the sensor arm and tighten the hand
screw (number 2 in Figure 97 on page 104). Level the sensor
horizontal 30 cm (1 ft.) above the surface by adjusting the sensor
arm angle and the angle of the sensor.
CAUTION
It is important to keep the wooden dowel part (number 3 in Figure 97
on page 104) of the sensor clean. Avoid touching the dowel with bare
hands. Any contact with grease or oil will prevent the sensor from
exchanging moisture and will make the calibration invalid.
Figure 97
0403-019
Fuel Moisture Sensor Attachment
13. Install the optional radio modem on the same arm as Rain Gauge
and the radiation shield with the Air Temperature and Relative
Humidity sensor. Press the back of the radio modem (number 3 in
104 __________________________________________________________________M210630EN-B
Chapter 5 ________________________________________________________________ Operation
Figure 98 on page 105) against the radio adapter between the two
hex screws (2). Lower the radio modem down so that it is secured.
Connect the antenna cable (1) and the data/power cable (4).
Figure 98
0311-168
Installing Radio Modem
14. Install all the other sensors as instructed in Chapter 4, Installation,
on page 57.
15. Connect all the cables.
Aligning Weather Transmitter
To help the alignment, there is an arrow and the text North on the
bottom of the transmitter. Weather transmitter should be aligned in such
a way that this arrow points to the north.
Wind direction can be referred either to true north, which uses the
earth’s geographic meridians, or to the magnetic north, which is read
with a magnetic compass. The magnetic declination is the difference in
degrees between the true north and magnetic north.
VAISALA ______________________________________________________________________ 105
User's Guide ______________________________________________________________________
Figure 99
0003-011
NOTE
Sketch of Magnetic Declination
The source for the magnetic declination must be current as the
declination changes over time.
To align Weather Transmitter, proceed as follows:
1.
If Weather Transmitter is already mounted, loosen the fixing screw
on the bottom of the transmitter so that you can rotate the device.
106 __________________________________________________________________M210630EN-B
Chapter 5 ________________________________________________________________ Operation
Figure 100
0505-245
Weather Transmitter Alignment
2.
Use a compass to determine that the transducer heads of Weather
Transmitter are exactly in line with the compass and that the arrow
on the bottom (number 2 in Figure 100 on page 107) of Weather
Transmitter (1) points to the north.
3.
When the arrow (2) is exactly aligned to north tighten the fixing
screw with an appropriate Allen key (3).
Aligning Wind Vane
Using winddircal0 Command
1.
Turn the nose (number 1 in Figure 101 on page 108) of the vane to
a known point of compass, for example, north.
2.
Open MAWS Terminal.
3.
Give command open to open the connection to MAWS. The open
command is not echoed on the screen.
4.
Give command winddircal0 with the direction reading, for
example, winddircal0 360. This will set the current direction to the
north, which equals 360 degrees.
VAISALA ______________________________________________________________________ 107
User's Guide ______________________________________________________________________
Using Compass and Reference Point
With MAWS running, monitor the instant wind direction in the reports
sent through the serial line.
Figure 101
0201-034
Aligning Wind Vane
1.
The wind sensor cable must be connected both to the sensor and to
the Wind connector.
2.
The mounting piece (2) must be placed on top of the tube and the
sensor must be attached to the mounting piece with the plastic
collar (3).
3.
Choose a known wind direction reference point on the horizon with
the help of a compass.
4.
Point the nose of the vane at the reference point.
5.
Hold the vane in position and slowly rotate the mounting piece
until the wind direction shows a proper value.
6.
Secure the mounting piece to the mast by tightening the mounting
screw (4).
108 __________________________________________________________________M210630EN-B
Chapter 5 ________________________________________________________________ Operation
Setting Up Solar Panel
NOTE
The rays of the sun should be perpendicular to the panel, which means
sunlight should hit the panel at a 90° angle.
1.
Face the panel south (true south, not magnetic) on the Northern
Hemisphere and north on the Southern Hemisphere. The panel can
be tilted towards the sun: the further you are from the equator the
more vertical the panel.
2.
To maximize the annual energy output, install the panel at an angle
recommended in Table 8 on page 110. In some installations, it may
be effective to adjust the tilt seasonally. At most latitudes,
performance can be improved during summer by using an angle
smaller than the table's recommendation. Conversely, a larger
angle can improve winter performance.
To set the correct tilting angle, slightly loosen the fixing bolts (1)
and the adjustment bolts (2). Tilt the panel to the suitable angle, see
Table 8 on page 110. Finally, tighten the bolts. Note the cable (3)
when adjusting the angle.
Figure 102
0201-029
Solar Panel Angle Adjustment
VAISALA ______________________________________________________________________ 109
User's Guide ______________________________________________________________________
Table 8
Recommended Tilt Angle for Solar Panel
Latitude of Site
Tilt Angle
0 ...10°
10 ... 50°
> 50°
20°
Add 10° to local latitude
60°
Figure 103
0011-042
Map of Latitudes
110 __________________________________________________________________M210630EN-B
Chapter 5 ________________________________________________________________ Operation
Quick Start Instructions
The quick start instructions in Table 9 on page 111 are based on the
following assumptions:
-
You will use a default setup already loaded in MAWS.
-
You have already assembled the MAWS system.
Table 9
Quick Start Instructions
Step
Action
Detailed Instruction
1.
Connect power to MAWS.
2.
Establish terminal
connection with MAWS.
Start the MAWS Terminal
software.
Set up station-dependent
settings for MAWS.
Test the setup.
You can use the AC (mains) power
supply or the solar panel.
See section Establishing Terminal
Connection on page 112.
See section Using MAWS Terminal
Software on page 113.
See section Modifying Station
Settings on page 125.
With the chosen setup loaded into
MAWS (see section MAWS Setup
File on page 135), check that you
start receiving reports and that
logging begins.
3.
4.
5.
When taking MAWS into use for the first time or after connecting the
battery, make sure that the station-dependent settings are correct, see
section Using MAWS Terminal Software on page 113. For more
information about the commands, see Table 20 on page 156.
NOTE
Make sure that the battery is fully charged, and if not, charge the
battery before taking MAWS into use.
VAISALA ______________________________________________________________________ 111
User's Guide ______________________________________________________________________
Establishing Terminal Connection
To connect your computer to a MAWS serial port, proceed as follows:
1.
Connect the provided terminal cable (QMZ101) to the COM0
connector in the bottom plate of the tube and to an available COM
port on your PC. See Figure 104 on page 112.
Figure 104
0201-044
NOTE
Connecting the Terminal Cable
2.
Start the MAWS Terminal program on your PC, as instructed in
section Using MAWS Terminal Software on page 113.
3.
Set communication parameters: 9600, N, 8, 1. For more
information, see section Opening MAWS Service Connection on
page 120.
4.
Give the command open (if the connection is not already open).
For more information, see section Giving Commands on page 122.
The command open is not echoed on the screen.
Figure 105 on page 113 shows the pin order for the terminal connector.
112 __________________________________________________________________M210630EN-B
Chapter 5 ________________________________________________________________ Operation
Figure 105
0304-025
COM0 Pins for the Terminal Connector
The following numbers refer to Figure 105 on page 113.
1
=
Not connected
2
=
RxD
3
=
GND
4
=
TxD
5
=
Not connected
Using MAWS Terminal Software
Selecting the Language
When you start MAWS Terminal for the first time, you are asked to
select the language you would like to use. The Select Language
window, presented in Figure 106 on page 114, appears. Select the
desired language and click OK.
VAISALA ______________________________________________________________________ 113
User's Guide ______________________________________________________________________
Figure 106
0112-021
Select Language Window
The Select Language window appears only when MAWS Terminal is
started for the first time. To change the language later, choose
Preferences from the Settings menu, and then select the Language tab.
In the Language tab, select the desired language from the Available
Languages box and click OK.
MAWS Terminal Main Window
After selecting the language, or when you later start the MAWS
Terminal software by clicking the MAWS Terminal icon on your
desktop, the following window appears.
114 __________________________________________________________________M210630EN-B
Chapter 5 ________________________________________________________________ Operation
Figure 107
0105-040
MAWS Terminal Main Window
When the service connection is closed, the messages and reports appear
on the main window as shown in Figure 108 on page 116. Some values
are shown as slashes, because they will be calculated from the measured
values later.
NOTE
The report type and appearance shown in Figure 108 on page 116
depend on your configuration.
When you have typed open, the service connection is open and you can
communicate with MAWS with the commands described in Table 20
on page 156.
VAISALA ______________________________________________________________________ 115
User's Guide ______________________________________________________________________
Figure 108
0105-041
MAWS Terminal Showing Report
On the top of the main window, there is the MAWS Terminal toolbar.
The toolbar is the quickest way to select functions.
Table 10
Icon
Description of the Toolbar
Function
Description
Dial
Hangup
Establish a connection to the MAWS station
you have selected or to the modem you use for
connecting to MAWS.
Close the connection to MAWS.
Copy
Copy the selected text to Windows Clipboard.
Download Log
Files
Select the data log files you want to download
and start downloading.
Upload
Select the new configuration file you want to
Configuration File upload and start uploading.
Set Station
Settings
Define default settings for the MAWS station.
Preferences
Define default settings for the download.
Address Book
Open the address book for browsing
communication settings.
116 __________________________________________________________________M210630EN-B
Chapter 5 ________________________________________________________________ Operation
You can exit MAWS Terminal by choosing the Exit option from the
Tools menu.
Defining MAWS Terminal Settings
When you start the software for the first time, you need to define the
settings to be used during download. Use the Settings menu options for
this purpose.
Preferences Window
When you choose the Preferences option from the Settings menu, the
Preferences window appears with the Directories tab.
Table 11
Description of Preference Window Tabs
Tab
Description
Directories
On the Directories tab, you can define the
directories you want to use for downloading and
storing files, see Figure 109 on page 118. If you do
not define a directory, the program stores all file
types in C:\MAWS_LOG.
On the Download tab, you can define the
operations that the program runs automatically
whenever you download data log files from MAWS,
see Figure 110 on page 119.
On the Communications tab, you can define the
communication port and related parameters. The
default values are COM1, 9600, None, 8, None, 1,
and buffer size 4 kB. Normally, you do not need to
change the communication settings.
If your system connects to MAWS via a modem,
you can select how many times the modem tries to
connect to MAWS if the first attempt is
unsuccessful.
On the CSV formatting tab, you can define
whether the date and time information is stored in
separate columns or as one character string, e.g.,
Wed Jan 02 02:03:55 1980.
When you update the MAWS configuration file and
the system is reset, MAWS spends a defined period
checking the configuration. During this time, it does
not respond to commands you send to the
maintenance line. On this tab, you can define the
length of the delay period.
Download
Communications
Dialer
CSV formatting
MAWS Station
settings
VAISALA ______________________________________________________________________ 117
User's Guide ______________________________________________________________________
Table 11
Description of Preference Window Tabs (Continued)
Tab
Description
Show Dialogs
On the Show Dialogs tab, you can select which
dialogs you want displayed during the download
process.
On the Language tab, you can select the language
that is used in the interface.
Language
Figure 109
0312-016
Directories Tab in Preferences Window
When you select Convert file to CSV format on the Download tab,
you may also enable merging of the downloaded files by selecting
Merge CSV files of same log group.
The merge feature can also be selected case by case in either of the two
windows:
a.
When downloading the files from MAWS with the MAWS
Terminal software, you may select Merge CSV files belonging to
same log group in the Set Download Preferences window.
b.
When converting the log files, you may select Merge files in the
Convert Log Files window.
118 __________________________________________________________________M210630EN-B
Chapter 5 ________________________________________________________________ Operation
Figure 110
0312-060
Download Tab in Preferences Window
Address Book Window
When you choose the Address Book option from the Settings menu,
the window shown in Figure 111 on page 119 appears.
Figure 111
0105-045
Address Book Window
VAISALA ______________________________________________________________________ 119
User's Guide ______________________________________________________________________
In the Address Book window, you can define MAWS communication
details. You can also define parameters for both directly connected
stations and for stations that establish the connection via modem. You
can add new entries and delete old ones.
Opening MAWS Service Connection
Before you can download files or upload the configuration file, you
need to open the service connection to MAWS.
MAWS Terminal supports any number of serial ports available in the
computer. The software reads from the registry of the Windows®
operating system which serial ports are installed. The Select Address
Book entry list shows the serial ports that are available for selection.
For an example, see Figure 112 on page 121. The user may select any
applicable COM port from the list.
This feature also enables the use of USB to RS-232 converter cables that
are usually installed above any other COM ports installed to a
computer. The COM port number of a converter cable depends on the
system configuration. For example, in a desktop computer with only
two physical COM ports (COM1 and COM2), a converter cable is
installed as COM3.
When reassigning the COM ports after installation, for example, when
changing COM5 to COM4 afterwards, you need to recreate the address
book entry for the modified COM port manually.
To establish a connection to MAWS, choose Dial from the Connection
menu. You can also click the Dial icon. The Select Address Book
entry to dial window appears, see Figure 112 on page 121.
120 __________________________________________________________________M210630EN-B
Chapter 5 ________________________________________________________________ Operation
Figure 112
0406-068
Select Address Book Entry to Dial Window
In the Select Address Book entry to dial window, select the port to
which MAWS is connected and click Connect.
NOTE
Before connecting, the Password Entry window opens, if you have
set the user level in your MAWS. For more information on setting the
user levels, see section Managing User Levels on page 123.
When the connection is opened, you will see the following text on your
screen.
Service connection opened
/>
NOTE
The next time you are opening a service connection, the address book
window is displayed. The program does not automatically connect you
to the port you previously selected. If you do not want the address book
window to be displayed every time you connect to MAWS, you can
clear the Show address book list before connecting check box from
the Settings - Preferences - Show Dialogs.
VAISALA ______________________________________________________________________ 121
User's Guide ______________________________________________________________________
Giving Commands
When you have established the connection, you can use the commands
described in Table 20 on page 156 to communicate with MAWS.
Commands are text strings sent from the PC or terminal to MAWS.
To open the connection, give the open command. To close the terminal
connection, give the close command. Logging is not affected unless it
is stopped using the logstop command. In the closed mode, the serial
line will be available for report sending.
NOTE
Both open and close commands have to be typed exactly correct
before they can be executed. This means, you can not use the
BACKSPACE key to correct your typing. Simply retype the command
and press ENTER to give the command again.
Most of the commands can be used both for setting a value for a
parameter and viewing the set value of a parameter.
Type help to get a list of the available commands. Each command must
be entered using the correct syntax. You do not have to memorize
complex commands since you can view a help text that shows the
correct syntax at any time. Simply type help and the command name.
Table 12
Generic
Representation
Example
Interpreting Help Texts (the Correct Syntax)
Note
Use the
warnings [clear]
parameter name.
Replace
parameter
symbols with
values.
To see the warnings, type:
Parameters shown
warnings
in [ ] can be left out.
To remove warnings, type:
warnings clear
time [HH MM SS] [YY MM DD] To see current time, type:
time
To set new time, type e.g.:
time 15 45 00
To set new time and date,
e.g.: time 15 45 00 03 06 18
loggo <group_id>
Parameters shown
in < > cannot be left
out.
122 __________________________________________________________________M210630EN-B
Chapter 5 ________________________________________________________________ Operation
NOTE
Commands have to be typed in the same case as indicated in the help
texts, usually in the lower case.
The command name and the following parameters are always separated
by a space. Pressing ENTER (return) will execute the command so that
MAWS reads the typed command.
You can use BACKSPACE to delete the last typed character.
Use CTRL+P (hold down the CTRL key and press P) to repeat the
previously typed command. Use CTRL+P (Previous) and CTRL+N
(Next) to scroll through the list of previously typed commands. When
you find the command you would like to repeat, simply press ENTER.
File commands (dir, del, copy, move, verify) can be aborted with
CTRL+C.
Closing MAWS Service Connection
If your MAWS connection works via a modem, you must remember to
close the line after you finish working with MAWS. To close the
connection, choose Hangup from the Connection menu.
If your MAWS connection is direct, it is recommended that you close
the service connection by entering the close command. The program
closes the service connection automatically after 5 minutes.
Managing User Levels
You can use the userlevel command to protect the system from
unauthorized use. The system provides three password-protected access
levels to the shell commands as well as to the visibility of system data.
By default, the user levels are not in use.
CAUTION
Improper use of the userlevel command may lead to malfunction of
the logger.
VAISALA ______________________________________________________________________ 123
User's Guide ______________________________________________________________________
You can manage user levels by the userlevel command when the
service connection is open. The command has the following syntax:
userlevel [level <set/clear>]
where
level
=
1, 3, or 5
set
=
Sets the password for a level
clear
=
Clears the password from the level
To check the current setting, give the command alone, without
parameters. When you want to change the level, give the command with
parameters. When you change the level to a higher one, a password is
required. When you change the level to a lower one, a password is not
required.
To change the password for the level, give the command with the
appropriate level and the set parameter. For this operation, the effective
user level has to be the highest, that is, 5. The change of the password
becomes effective immediately.
To remove the password for the level, give the command with the
appropriate level and the clear parameter. For this operation, the
effective user level has to be the highest, that is 5. The change of the
password becomes effective immediately.
CAUTION
Setting a new or clearing an existing user level is effective only after
resetting MAWS. When setting a new level or clearing an existing one,
be sure to reset the system before closing the service connection.
Otherwise, you may not be able to access the system without the cold
reset.
To check the allowed commands at a specific level, give the help
command. Table 13 on page 125 lists the accessible commands in the
different user levels. Level 1 provides access to the minimum set of
commands and visibility of system parameters. Level 3 provides access
to all commands needed for normal administration and commissioning.
124 __________________________________________________________________M210630EN-B
Chapter 5 ________________________________________________________________ Operation
Level 5 provides access to all commands. For the command reference,
see Table 20 on page 156.
Table 13
Accessible Commands in Different User Levels
User Level
Commands
Userlevel 1
cd, copy, dir, errors, help, logshow, logshownext,
logshowprev, logstatus, rep, warnings, and zs
EXTFS, LOGFS, altitude, battery, cd, chmod, copy, del,
dir, errors, help, logdel, loggo, logshow, logshownext,
logshowprev, logstatus, logstop, md, move, pslevel, rd,
rep, reset, serial, sname, spclear, spset, time, timezone,
verify, warnings, winddircal0, zr, and zs
All the userlevel 3 commands and the userlevel
administrator rights.
Userlevel 3
Userlevel 5
Modifying Station Settings
In MAWS Terminal, you can modify the station settings. When you
select the Set Stations Settings option from the Tools menu, the
MAWS Station Settings window appears, see Figure 113 on page 125.
Under MAWS common parameters, the separate fields are used for
setting the common parameters to a station. Table 14 on page 126 lists
the items, which are changeable.
Figure 113
0309-032
MAWS Station Settings Window
VAISALA ______________________________________________________________________ 125
User's Guide ______________________________________________________________________
Table 14
Description of MAWS Station Settings Window
Item
Description
Station name
Altitude
Pressure sensor
level
Capacity of the
internal battery
You can define a name for your station.
Enter the altitude of the MAWS station from sea level.
The height of the pressure sensor on the MAWS mast.
Enter the capacity of the MAWS internal battery
QMB101. Note that this value is set to zero when high
capacity back-up batteries are included in the delivery,
which normally is the case with the HydroMet systems.
MAWS time and After you change the MAWS battery, you need to set the
date
system clock. Type the correct time (HH:MM) and date
(YY-MM-DD) in the appropriate fields and click Save.
Static Parameters The list of the static parameters (depends on your
tab
configuration).
Sensor
The list of the connected sensors and the calibration
Calibration tab
values (depends on your configuration).
Manual Entry tab The list of the manual sensors and their values is visible
only when manual sensors are included in the setup
(depends on your configuration).
Setting Static Parameters
To be able to use static parameters in MAWS, you must first create them
in MAWS Lizard and then either use the default values given in MAWS
Lizard or change the values in MAWS Terminal.
The MAWS Lizard Setup Software provides an interface for creating
setup-specific static parameters to be used, for example, as stationdependent parameters or as calculation factors. This interface is in the
Setup Management view and it is only available on the advanced user
level.
126 __________________________________________________________________M210630EN-B
Chapter 5 ________________________________________________________________ Operation
Figure 114
0406-034
Setup Management View: Static Parameters Tab
The list under the Static Parameters tab shows all the static
parameters, including the preset ones. Refer to Figure 114 on page 127.
The user editable entries are listed in bold. The Default column shows
the default value for each parameter.
NOTE
The default value is written to the logger memory only when the static
parameter does not have an existing value. For example, if the sname
parameter already has the value MAWS1 and a new setup is generated
with sname = MAWS2, the existing sname value (MAWS1) is
preserved.
To create a new static parameter, proceed as follows:
1.
In the Static Parameters tab, click Add.
2.
Give a name for the parameter. The name may consist of characters
A...Z, a...z, 0...9, and _. No spaces are allowed.
3.
Select a type for the parameter. The possible options, Number
(float), Number (int), or Text, will appear by double-clicking the
bold text in the Type column. Selecting the type will determine
how the parameter is used. A text parameter, for example, cannot
be used as calculation input.
VAISALA ______________________________________________________________________ 127
User's Guide ______________________________________________________________________
NOTE
4.
If the parameter is numeric, it is recommended that you also select
a measure unit for it. If the parameter is used as a station-specific
calculation parameter, you should provide it with a correct unit,
because otherwise the calculation configuration may not allow you
to use the parameter as input. If there is no suitable unit available,
select unspecified. This makes the parameter applicable for all use.
5.
Enter a default value for the parameter.
All parameters are automatically created to the logger when the setup
is uploaded.
The value of a static parameter, which can be a default value given in
MAWS Lizard, can be changed in the Station Settings window of
MAWS Terminal. The Static Parameters tab shows all parameters and
their values, also those that have been set directly with the MAWS
Terminal software, see Figure 115 on page 128. To change the value of
a static parameter, proceed as follows:
1.
Start MAWS Terminal and select Station Settings from the Tools
menu.
2.
In the Static Parameters tab of the Station Settings window,
double-click the corresponding Value cell. Enter the new
parameter value.
Figure 115
0405-052
3.
MAWS Station Settings Window
Click Save to store the new parameter value to MAWS. You can
also change multiple values and save them all at once.
128 __________________________________________________________________M210630EN-B
Chapter 5 ________________________________________________________________ Operation
Calibrating Sensors
For calibrating the sensors with MAWS Terminal, the Sensor
Calibration tab is available in the MAWS Stations Settings window,
see Figure 116 on page 129. The list of the MAWS sensors is displayed
in the tab.
NOTE
You must load an appropriate setup to MAWS before you are able to
use the Sensor Calibration tab.
NOTE
The Sensor Calibration tab is not visible for setups made with
MAWS software versions prior to 3.06. With old setups, MAWS
common parameters frame only shows the calibration values for the
wind direction and solar radiation sensors, and other sensors need to
be calibrated through the terminal connection with the appropriate
calibration commands.
CAUTION
When you upgrade a previous MAWS version to 3.06 or above, the
following sensors will not operate correctly in the Sensor Calibration
tab until they are removed from the setup and then re-created: CM6B,
CM11, QMS101, QMS102, and QMN101.
Figure 116
0312-038
MAWS Station Settings Window: Sensor Calibration
Tab
VAISALA ______________________________________________________________________ 129
User's Guide ______________________________________________________________________
The list in the Sensor Calibration tab does not refresh automatically.
To read the latest measurement values, click the Refresh button. You
may enter new values to the cells in bold font. You can not change the
cells with the value N/A. Table 15 on page 130 describes the columns in
the Sensor Calibration tab.
NOTE
When Value is expressed as N/A, it indicates that the calibration factor
has been altered but not saved, the sensor has not been measured or its
measurement channel has failed, or the sensor is disabled. Further
information about the possible reason can be obtained by comparing
the value in the Status column against the values listed in Table 16 on
page 132.
Table 15
Columns in the Sensor Calibration Tab
Column
Description
Input
Sensor
The sensor name as
defined in the setup.
The measurement channel
of the sensor.
The measurement identifier
The sensor status
The last measured sensor
reading shown in physical
units.
n/a
Channel
ID
Status
Value
Cal.Factor
n/a
n/a
n/a
Overwrites the sensor reading
with the entered value, that is,
changes the offset of the
measurement.
The measurement gain for Overwrites the old gain value
the sensors, except for the with the new one. For radiation
radiation sensors (QMN10x sensors (QMN10x and
QMS10x), changes the
and QMS10x) the
sensitivity value.
sensitivity value.
Calibration is done by entering the sensor-specific Value and/or Cal.
Factor parameters.
-
The Value parameter affects the offset of the measurement.
Entering a new value changes the sensor reading to the given value,
and the new offset for the measurement is set.
-
The Cal. Factor parameter has sensor dependent use. It affects the
gain of the measurement or the sensitivity of the radiation sensors.
To calibrate radiation sensors QMN10x and QMS10x with
MAWS, enter the sensor dependent sensitivity factor [V/Wm-2],
which is given in the type sticker or calibration sheet of the
130 __________________________________________________________________M210630EN-B
Chapter 5 ________________________________________________________________ Operation
particular sensor. To calibrate other listed sensors, enter the gain of
the measurement, that is, the slope of the conversion curve.
NOTE
You can do either offset or gain calibration at a time. When you enter
a new value in the Value or Cal. Factor field, the other parameter will
be expressed as N/A until you save your changes. Note also that
entering a new value in the Value field, for example when performing
offset calibration, will reset the gain to 1.000.
After you have changed the value(s), click the Save button in the tab to
write the new values to MAWS.
NOTE
New sensor calibration values are taken into use after resetting
MAWS, for example, with the RESET command.
VAISALA ______________________________________________________________________ 131
User's Guide ______________________________________________________________________
Sensor Status List
Table 16
Sensor Status List
Value
Meaning
Notes
0
1
2
The sensor is working properly (OK).
Not measured yet
Interface is not initialized.
1
3
Communication time out has occurred.
1
4
Unknown data is received.
1
5
Communication is functioning, but the sensor reports
errors. Use sensor's own service interface to find out
cause.
Sensor communication is paused because service
connection is opened through MAWS.
Message sequence numbers are overlapping in the
Autotrac satellite transceiver interface.
Not available
Excitation failure is caused by overload in the
excitation output.
The input voltage is out of range or the A/D conversion
has failed due to an internal error.
Sensor is disconnected or the connection cables are
broken.
Sensor output exceeds the min/max limits defined in
the Measurements view.
Change in sensor output has exceeded the maximum
step defined in the Measurements view.
An internal configuration error has occurred.
1
2
28
Error in reference measurement, which is usually
caused by damaged sensor/logger or electrical
interference.
Internal voltage error occurred or the logger is
damaged.
PMT16 calibration data error.
29
Data is invalid for unspecified reason.
2
30
The measurement or the sensor has been manually
disabled.
Sensor status is not supported.
6
7
8 ... 19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
99
1
1
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
1. Value is available only for sensors with a serial interface.
2. Value is available only for sensors with a conventional, that is, analog or
counter/frequency interface.
132 __________________________________________________________________M210630EN-B
Chapter 5 ________________________________________________________________ Operation
Entering Values Manually
Before you can manually enter data to MAWS using MAWS Terminal,
you must create and configure manual sensor(s) in MAWS Lizard.
Creating Manual Sensor in MAWS Lizard
In the Equipment view, select ManualSensor and click Add.
ManualSensor is automatically connected to the Console connector, see
Figure 117 on page 133.
Figure 117
0406-042
Creating Manual Sensor in MAWS Lizard
Configure the manual sensor to use the correct Datatype, Validity
period, and so on, see Figure 118 on page 134.
VAISALA ______________________________________________________________________ 133
User's Guide ______________________________________________________________________
Figure 118
0406-043
Configuring Manual Sensor in MAWS Lizard
Manual Entry in MAWS Terminal
In MAWS Terminal, the Manual Entry tab lists all the manual sensors,
see Figure 119 on page 135. The T column shows the data type and the
St column the status.
To enter values for manual sensors, follow the instructions below:
1.
To access the Manual Entry in MAWS Terminal, select Station
settings in the Tools menu and the Manual Entry tab.
2.
In the Manual Entry tab, select a manual sensor from the list and
double-click the appropriate cell in the Value column to enter the
correct value for the manual sensor.
3.
Click Save to save the changed value to MAWS.
134 __________________________________________________________________M210630EN-B
Chapter 5 ________________________________________________________________ Operation
Figure 119
0406-044
Manual Entry Tab
MAWS Setup File
When you start using MAWS for the first time, you need to upload a
setup file from your PC to the MAWS station.
This setup file includes all details required for the system to function
properly: which sensors the system contains, which settings they use, to
which MAWS channels they are connected, and how often they
calculate weather parameters. The setup file also defines the frequency
at which MAWS logs data in a file and the number of days for which
data log files are kept in MAWS memory.
For archiving the setup files, save them as .dtg files to a folder in a
reliable backup device. For more information, refer to MAWS Lizard
Setup Software User's Guide.
Selecting Setup File
MAWS Lizard Setup Software comes with some ready-made setup files
from which you can choose the one to be used. You can select the file
that best suits your system. The main difference between the setups is
that with some of them, the system measures weather data more
frequently, logs more variables by having more sensors, and produces
more reports than with others.
VAISALA ______________________________________________________________________ 135
User's Guide ______________________________________________________________________
You can modify one of the setup files with MAWS Lizard Setup
Software to produce exactly the setup you want. However, this requires
a thorough understanding of the system. For more information, refer to
MAWS Lizard Setup Software User's Guide.
CAUTION
If you create a setup of your own by modifying the ready-made files,
store the new file under a different name. This way, you can go back
to the original setup in case the new one does not work.
CAUTION
Also notice that the settings you define in the setup file must match the
settings you make in the Preferences window and the MAWS
Stations Settings window.
Uploading Setup File
CAUTION
When you upload a new setup, the system erases all data log files from
MAWS. Make sure you download the files you want to save before
uploading the new setup. For more information on downloading data
log files, see section Selecting Files for Downloading on page 143.
You need to upload the MAWS setup file in two occasions:
-
When you start using MAWS for the first time.
-
When your system has been updated, for example, when new
sensors have been added.
After a system update, the setup file needs to be updated to match the
changes. Normally, you need to modify the setup file yourself with the
MAWS Lizard Setup Software. After you have finalized with MAWS
Lizard, you have to open the MAWS Terminal in order to be able to
upload the setup file as follows:
1.
On the Tools menu, select Upload Configuration.
2.
The Select the configuration file for upload window appears, see
Figure 120 on page 137. Select the appropriate setup file and click
Open.
136 __________________________________________________________________M210630EN-B
Chapter 5 ________________________________________________________________ Operation
Figure 120
0201-046
3.
Selecting an Upload Configuration File
When the file has been transferred, MAWS starts executing the
new setup according to the settings in the setup file.
Data Logging
Logging means storing of the measured and calculated data in the
MAWS internal memory, that is, to a 2 MB Flash chip with a data
storage capacity of 1.6 MB. Additionally, you may use an external
memory card. For more information, see section Using External
Memory Card on page 153. From the internal and external memory,
logged data can be retrieved later, for example, via a serial line.
Logged data is stored in the daily files, for example, L2010326.dat,
which is a binary file. The naming convention is the following:
-
All log files begin with the name of the log group. The log group
name consists of a letter followed by a number, that is, L0, L1, L2,
L3, and so on.
-
The log group name is followed by the date in the YYMMDD
format.
In its Flash memory, MAWS can log everything it measures and
calculates. The approximate log memory capacity can be checked and
also printed in the Setup information view in MAWS Lizard when a
VAISALA ______________________________________________________________________ 137
User's Guide ______________________________________________________________________
setup is created. The approximate maximum logging period for a setup
where 10 measured values are logged is shown in Table 17 on page 138.
Table 17
Log Memory Capacity
Logging Interval
Maximum Logging Period
1 second
10 seconds
1 minute
10 minutes
1 hour
5 hours
over 2 days
2 weeks
over 4 months
Almost 2 years
Log files are automatically deleted after a given period, so that there is
always a certain amount of logged data saved in the Flash memory. The
period is adjustable in the setup and can vary from 0 (= at midnight, the
previous day's file will be deleted to free up memory) to never delete
(=log memory will be filled up completely). To ensure some data
backup, for example, a value of 4 days is feasible. If the delete interval
is set negative with MAWS Lizard Setup Software, the old log files will
not be deleted automatically.
Log Data Format
A log entry is generated at the time defined in the setup file. When
entries are retrieved with the logshow command, the produced output
includes two parts: the header and the log entry information.
In Figure 121 on page 139, the example of a log query shows 10 entries
of logged items 1 and 2 starting at 6 AM on December 9, 2003.
138 __________________________________________________________________M210630EN-B
Chapter 5 ________________________________________________________________ Operation
Figure 121
0312-061
Output of the Logshow Command
The header information shows the variable name
(TAMeasQMH101_1m:Avg and RHMeasQMH101_1m:Avg).
The log entry information includes the time tag, that is, date and time of
the entry, the status, and the value of the logged measurement or
calculation.
Table 18
Log Entry Status
Status Indicator
Status
-I-----
Invalid
-I--NV-----
Description
Value may be outside the set
scale; that is, the set
climatological limits or step
change validation.
Invalid; not available No measurements done yet.
Valid (normal)
Measurement or calculated
value available normally.
Controlling Logging
Logging is automatically on if it has been defined in the setup and if it
has not been stopped. Logging is automatically stopped when the log
file is retrieved with MAWS Terminal. When download is
accomplished, logging is activated again automatically.
When a sensor is replaced, stopping is not necessary if some invalid log
items can be tolerated. Alternatively, instead of stopping logging, you
VAISALA ______________________________________________________________________ 139
User's Guide ______________________________________________________________________
may manually disable a measurement or a sensor. For detailed
information, see section Measurement Enable or Disable on page 140.
To see the logging groups, type logstatus. To see the current logging
status of a certain group, type logstatus <group_id>. To stop or start the
logging of a certain group, type logstop/loggo <group_id>. For the
output of the commands, see Figure 122 on page 140.
Figure 122
0312-068
Output of the Logstatus Command
Measurement Enable or Disable
You can manually enable or disable all measurement inputs and
sensors. You can use this feature, for example, for the following
purposes:
-
Remotely changing the readings of a faulty sensor to be flagged as
invalid.
-
Marking all sensor readings invalid during a maintenance
operation.
140 __________________________________________________________________M210630EN-B
Chapter 5 ________________________________________________________________ Operation
Use the following commands in the service connection to change the
flagging:
enable <Measurement Name>
disable <Measurement Name>
where
enable
=
Enables the measurement inputs or sensors.
disable
=
Disables the measurement inputs or sensors.
Measurement Name =
NOTE
The measurement name in the
Configuration view of MAWS Lizard.
For sensors that use more than one input channel, you need to enter
separate commands for each measurement. For example, you need to
control separately the TA and RH measurements of the QMH101
sensor.
Examples:
>\
>\
>\
>\
disable RHMeasQMH101_1
disable TAMeasQMH101_1
disable WMS302_1
enable PWD10_1
Upon successful completion of the commands MAWS returns:
Successfully disabled
or
Successfully enabled
Any other returned values indicate an error.
When the measurement input is disabled:
-
All other output values than status have undefined values.
-
Sensor status shows disabled, refer to the updated list of the
sensor statuses in Table 16 on page 132.
-
Value status shows INVALID and NOT AVAILABLE.
VAISALA ______________________________________________________________________ 141
User's Guide ______________________________________________________________________
Freeing Up Logging Space
A log file can be deleted with the logdel command:
logdel <log_group_id> <(dYYMMDD)>
where
logdel
=
The command to delete log files belonging to
certain log group.
log_group_id =
The name of the log group, that is, L0, L1, L2, or
so on.
dYYMMDD =
The date until which the log files will be deleted.
Example:
/ > logdel L2 d980910
To erase all data in the log system, type LOGFS ERASE. This
command erases the whole Flash memory and resets MAWS. The
command LOGFS ERASE is necessary to free space for new log data.
CAUTION
Erasing the log memory with LOGFS ERASE command is strongly
recommended when changing a setup. First, load a new configuration
and make sure it is operating correctly. Check that you have retrieved
all the necessary information from the log memory, and then erase the
log memory.
Working with Data Log Files
The most convenient way to view the logged data is to use MAWS
Terminal. To do this, you need to open the service connection,
download the files from MAWS to your PC and convert them to CSV
(Comma Separated Value) format. After conversion, you can view the
files directly in MAWS Terminal or, for example, in Microsoft Excel.
Before you start downloading files, you need to open the service
connection by choosing the Dial option from the Connection menu. For
more information on opening the connection, see section Opening
MAWS Service Connection on page 120.
142 __________________________________________________________________M210630EN-B
Chapter 5 ________________________________________________________________ Operation
Selecting Files for Downloading
When you have opened the service connection to MAWS you are
working with, you need to select the data log files you want to
download. Choose the Download log files option from the Tools menu.
The Select Log Files for Download window appears.
Figure 123
0312-062
Select Log Files for Download Window
In the Log files in MAWS list, you see all data log files currently
available in MAWS. The files are arranged by log group. Each log
group includes specific parameters as defined in the configuration file.
Select the files you want to download and click Select. The files
available for download appear in the Log files to Download list. If you
use an external memory card, select the External option. You can select
all files by clicking Select All.
If you decide not to download a file after all, you can remove it from the
Log files to Download list by selecting it and clicking Deselect. To
remove all files, click Deselect All.
VAISALA ______________________________________________________________________ 143
User's Guide ______________________________________________________________________
NOTE
The program closes the service connection automatically after 5
minutes. If you fail to start the download within 5 minutes of selecting
the Download log files, you need to reopen the MAWS Terminal
program and start the download again.
Downloading Files
When you have selected the files you want to download, click
Download, see Figure 123 on page 143. The Set Download
Preferences window appears (unless you have defined otherwise in the
Preferences window - Show Dialogs tab).
Figure 124
0312-063
Set Download Preferences Window
Figure 124 on page 144 shows you the settings you can define for the
download. If you want to change any of them, you can do it in this
window. Then click Start Download. When the Convert log file to
CSV format is selected, the program downloads the data log files to
your PC and converts them to CSV format automatically.
In addition, you may select Merge CSV files belonging to same log
group to merge the downloaded data files to one file. The log files are
merged by the log group. The log group is indicated by the two
characters at the beginning of the file name, for example, L0, L1, L2, or
144 __________________________________________________________________M210630EN-B
Chapter 5 ________________________________________________________________ Operation
L3. The name of the merged file will be in the following format:
L0firstfilename - L0lastfilename.csv
If you have selected that the data log files will be deleted from the
MAWS memory after download, the program asks you to confirm this.
Figure 125
0105-048
CAUTION
Confirming File Deletion after Download
If you select OK, all files up to the mentioned date will be deleted,
regardless of whether they have been downloaded or not.
Autodownloading Log Files
You can run MAWS Terminal in the AutoDownload mode. This mode
allows you to download Log files automatically according to a userdefined schedule.
Before you change the application to the AutoDownload mode, a
schedule must be defined. This is done in the window appearing when
selecting Settings - AutoDownload schedule. The AutoDownload
Schedule window is shown in Figure 126 on page 146.
In the AutoDownload Schedule window, you can define which
stations to dial, when, and which log files to download.
NOTE
To enable autodownloading you must have the MAWS Terminal
software running continuously. In addition, the COM port must be free
and assigned for MAWS Terminal.
VAISALA ______________________________________________________________________ 145
User's Guide ______________________________________________________________________
Figure 126
0406-035
AutoDownload Schedule Window
When a station is equipped with a modem, you can either use the default
modem initialization and dialing strings saved in Address Book or
override them. You can enter the Initialization and Dial prefix values
separately for each station.
Figure 127
0406-036
Address Book Entry for Modem Connection
146 __________________________________________________________________M210630EN-B
Chapter 5 ________________________________________________________________ Operation
Figure 128
0406-037
Modem Options
When a phone number is entered into the Phone number field of the
Address Book, the dial prefix entered in the Dial prefix field will be
added to it. If the command which would be given manually in a
terminal session is ATD123456, it is divided into a phone number
(123456) and a prefix (ATD), see Figure 127 on page 146 and Figure
128 on page 147.
The scheduling of downloads is defined under Polling frequency as
follows:
Daily – for scheduling a daily download from a station, at a certain time.
You can set multiple daily polling times for one station. For example,
in Figure 126 on page 146, the station called MAWS1 is polled daily at
01:00. The D character in the entry list stands for daily.
Weekly – for scheduling a weekly download from a station, at a certain
time on a certain day. The Poll every … day field will be active,
accepting values from 1 (Monday) to 7 (Sunday). You can set multiple
weekly polling times for one station. For example, in Figure 126 on
page 146, the station called MAWS2 is polled weekly on Monday (1st
day) at 01:00. The W character in the entry list stands for weekly.
Monthly - for scheduling a monthly download from a station, at a
certain time of a day of a month. The Poll every … day field will be
active, accepting values ranging from 1 to 31. You can set multiple
monthly polling times for one station. For example, in Figure 126 on
page 146, the station called MAWS3 is polled the 28th day of each
month at 01:00. The M character in the entry list stands for monthly.
CAUTION
If there is a download scheduled on the 31st day of a month that has
only 30 days, the download will not be made on that month.
Once you have set the schedule parameters, select Connection AutoDownload mode. Selecting this item will open the Operating in
AutoDownload mode window, see Figure 129 on page 148.
VAISALA ______________________________________________________________________ 147
User's Guide ______________________________________________________________________
Figure 129
0406-038
Operating in AutoDownload Mode Window
The application waits in idle mode until polling is triggered. When
polling, the application automatically opens a service connection to a
station and downloads log files as defined by the user, see Figure 130
on page 148.
Figure 130
0406-039
AutoDownload in Progress
When the log files are downloaded, the connection is closed and the
application continues to wait in idle mode until a new pre-scheduled
polling event is triggered. The Last result field displays Session
completed successfully if all the tasks are accomplished without any
problems, see Figure 131 on page 149.
148 __________________________________________________________________M210630EN-B
Chapter 5 ________________________________________________________________ Operation
Figure 131
0406-040
AutoDownload Completed
When you click the Cancel button in order to close the window, a work
report will be shown, see Figure 132 on page 149. The Info window
shows which stations were polled and the results of polling.
Figure 132
0406-041
AutoDownload Info Window
Browsing Downloaded Files
You can browse the downloaded data log files directly in MAWS
Terminal.
Choose the Offline Log Query option from the Tools menu. The
window shown in Figure 133 on page 150 appears.
The default directory for data log files is the one you have specified in
the Preferences window under the Directories tab. If the files you want
to browse are located in some other directory, click Change Directory.
From the Select Log Group list, select the log group containing the file
you want to work with. The files in that log group appear in the Select
VAISALA ______________________________________________________________________ 149
User's Guide ______________________________________________________________________
Log Files box. Select the files you want. If you want to limit the number
of data items on your screen, click Select Data Items.
0312-064
Figure 133
Offline Query Window for Browsing Data Log Files
Figure 134
Select Data Items Window
0312-065
150 __________________________________________________________________M210630EN-B
Chapter 5 ________________________________________________________________ Operation
In the Select Data Items window, you can select the data items you
want to browse. By default all data items are selected. You can deselect
any data item, or all of them. Once the data items you want are gathered
in the right box, click Close.
Click Perform Query. The data items you selected appear on your
screen in a table format.
Figure 135
0312-066
Offline Query Window with Data Items
If you want to view the table in Microsoft Excel, you must first save it
in a tab-separated format. Click Save Result as File. In the window that
appears, you can enter the filename and save the file in the directory of
your choice. The default directory is the Default download directory
you have specified in the Preferences window under the Directories
tab.
When you have finished browsing the data log file, click Close.
Converting One Data Log File to CSV Format
If you have selected the Convert file to CSV format option in the
Preferences window, in the Download tab, the program converts the
data log files into CSV format as you download them. However, if you
prefer to download the files without converting them, you can convert
VAISALA ______________________________________________________________________ 151
User's Guide ______________________________________________________________________
them afterwards by choosing the Convert Files to CSV option from the
Tools menu.
When you select the Convert Files to CSV option, the window shown
in Figure 136 on page 152 appears.
Figure 136
0105-052
Selecting a Binary Log File for CSV Conversion
Select the file you want to convert to CSV format and click Open. The
program starts the conversion. When the conversion is complete, the
CSV file is saved in the directory you have specified in the Preferences
window under the Directories tab.
Converting Several Data Log Files to CSV Format
If you prefer to download the files without converting them, you can
convert several files afterwards by choosing Convert many files to
CSV in the Tools menu.
When you select Convert many files to CSV, the window listing the
available log files appears, see Figure 137 on page 153.
152 __________________________________________________________________M210630EN-B
Chapter 5 ________________________________________________________________ Operation
Figure 137
0312-067
Converting Several Log Files to CSV Format
In the Convert log files window, you can select the log files you want
to convert one by one, or select them all. Additionally, you can merge
the files by selecting the Merge files option. Once the log files you want
to convert are in the Log files to convert list, click Start Converting.
When the conversion is complete, the Info window appears. It shows
which CSV files are created and where they are saved.
Using External Memory Card
The external memory card is used to store log files that have been
copied or moved from the internal log directory. The data can be
retrieved from the external memory card via terminal connection or by
switching the memory card with an empty one.
Note that the memory card must be formatted with command EXTFS
ERASE before use.
The external memory card can be removed from MAWS for data
retrieval without interruptions to MAWS operations. MAWS copies
data from the internal log directory to the memory card daily at
midnight, the default time is 00:00:30. Data is being written when the
VAISALA ______________________________________________________________________ 153
User's Guide ______________________________________________________________________
LED on the logger cover to the left of the external memory card is
constantly on.
CAUTION
The memory card must not be removed from MAWS while data is
being written, or the data may be lost. By default, data is transmitted
to the memory card each day at 00:00:30.
When a new memory card is inserted into MAWS, the software checks
that the card is ready for use. The status of the memory card is indicated
by a LED. Table 19 on page 154 describes the different blinking
sequences and the card conditions they indicate.
Table 19
LED Blinking Sequences and Card Status Options
Blinking Sequence
Card Status
Long-long
Constantly on
Short-short-short for 5 seconds
The card is OK.
Data is being written.
The card is unformatted or corrupted.
Automatic Erase from External
Memory Card
The log group specific setting Number of days to preserve log files
affects also the files stored to the external memory card. The
functionality is the same as for internal log memory:
-
Files older than the selected value [days] will be deleted
automatically
-
Files are not erased, that is, the automatic clean up is disabled
When files are stored to the external memory card, the internal memory
is used as the working memory for storing the log files of the current
day. These working files are moved to the external card each day just
after midnight when the new files have been created for writing.
154 __________________________________________________________________M210630EN-B
Chapter 5 ________________________________________________________________ Operation
Resetting MAWS
To reset MAWS, give the command reset (recommended) or press the
reset button, see number 1 in Figure 138 on page 155.
Figure 138
0406-060
Reset Button on Logger
A short reset (pressing the reset button quickly) performs the same reset
as giving the command and starts the program again. A long reset
(pressing the reset button and keeping it down for a few seconds)
restarts the program with a so-called blank setup. A blank setup does not
run a configuration file.
Blank setup may be useful if the configuration is somehow defective
and does not allow the user to open a terminal connection. When blank
setup is run, the MAWS communication parameters are restored to their
defaults: COM0, 9600, N, 8, N, 1.
VAISALA ______________________________________________________________________ 155
User's Guide ______________________________________________________________________
Command Reference for Terminal Connection
Table 20
Command Set
Command
Description
altitude
altitude [meters]. To see the current station altitude, type altitude. To
change the altitude, type altitude and the new station altitude in meters
from sea level.
battery [capacity] sets the capacity of the internal battery, needed for MAWS
internal control. Accepted capacity values are 1.2 ... 24 Ah. To see the
battery status, type battery. Note that the battery command applies only to
the internal battery.
cd [directory path] changes the current directory. cd / gets you back to the
root directory. NOTE! cd .. Cannot be used.
chmod <filename> <r/w/x> changes the file access attributes: read (r), write
(w) or execute (x). The setup file "Basic/Advanced/Lowpower" needs to
have attributes rwx.
Closes terminal connection.
copy <source file> <destination file> copies a file to another location.
del <filename> deletes a specified file. Only files that have (w)rite access
attribute can be deleted (see command chmod).
dir [file/path] displays a list of a directory's files and subdirectories, used and
free disk space. The file information includes name, access_attributes, time,
date and size.
disable [Measurement Name] disables the measurement input or sensor.
enable [Measurement Name] enables the measurement input or sensor.
errors [clear]. To see active errors, type errors. To clear active errors, type
errors clear. Errors indicate that there is something wrong in the software.
EXTFS <INFO|ERASE>. To format Compact Flash card, type EXTFS
ERASE. To show card info, type EXTFS INFO. NOTE! The command must
be written in upper case.
help [command] displays a command syntax. To list all the available
commands, type help.
LASTVAL [Measurement] [raw | Signal name] shows the measured value
before any validation and the status produced during validation. The
validated value is shown when you give the signal name that is defined in
MAWS Lizard.
logdel <log_group_id> <lastdate (dYYMMDD)> deletes a log file/files dated
earlier than the last given date.
LOGFS <ERASE> erases all data in the log system and resets MAWS.
NOTE! The command must be written in upper case.
loggo <log_group_id> starts logging of the defined log group.
logshow <log_group_id> [start (YYMMDDHH)] [count] [item numbers]
logshow L1shows one line of current day; logshow L1 40 shows 40 lines;
logshow L1 40 3 shows 40 lines of item 3; logshow L1 030618 10 shows
10 lines starting from 18.06.2003
logshownext <log_group_id> [count]. After the logshow command, can be
used to show the immediately following (later) log entries.
battery
cd
chmod
close
copy
del
dir
disable
enable
errors
EXTFS
help
LASTVAL
logdel
LOGFS
loggo
logshow
logshownext
156 __________________________________________________________________M210630EN-B
Chapter 5 ________________________________________________________________ Operation
Table 20
Command Set (Continued)
Command
Description
logshowprev
logshowprev <log_group_id> [count]. After the logshow command, can be
used to show the immediately preceding (earlier) log entries.
logstatus [log_group_id] shows logging state and variables of the defined
log group. The command without parameters shows statuses of all log
groups.
logstop <log_group_id> stops logging of the defined log group.
md <path> creates directory. E.g. md /Ext/logdata
move <source file> <destination file> copies a file to another location and
removes the source file.
Opens the terminal connection.
pslevel [meters]. To see the current pressure sensor level, type pslevel. To
change the pressure sensor level, type pslevel and the new pressure
sensor level in meters from the station altitude.
rd <path> removes directory
rep <report_name> shows contents of a report report_name. E.g. rep
MyRep0
reset [delay (seconds)] resets MAWS (warm boot). If the delay time is not
typed, MAWS resets immediately.
serial <port_number> [speed] [parity] [bits] [stop]. To see the settings of the
port number 0, type serial 0. To change the settings, type serial 0 and the
new parameters. E.g. serial 0 9600 N 8 1. Available ranges/options: Speed
300-19200, Parity N/O/E, Bits 7/8, Stop 0/1.
Sets MAWS in low power-state. Use the SLEEP command to reduce power
consumption when storing the station for a few days (maximum period 1
month). Tip the spoon of the rain gauge to wake up MAWS. MAWS can also
be woken up by pressing the reset button. NOTE! The SLEEP command
must be written in upper case.
sname [station_name]. To see the current station name, type sname. To
change the name, type sname and the new name. If the station name
begins with a digit or contains a space, the name must be in quotes e.g.
sname Vaisala MAWS.
spclear <parameter/ALL> clears a static parameter/all parameters.NOTE!
This command clears QMS101 and QMN101 sensitivity settings and is not
usually needed.
spset [parameter] [value] sets a value to a static parameter. To see a list of
static parameters, type spset. NOTE! This command is not usually needed.
SYSINFO gives information on the system. NOTE! The command must be
written in upper case.
time [HH MM SS YY MM DD]. To see the current time, type time. To
change the current time, type time and the new time. E.g. time 14 10 00. To
change the current date, type time and the new time and date e.g. time 14
10 00 98 12 31.
timezone [hours] sets the time difference from UTC. To see the time zone,
type timezone. To set the time zone, type e.g. timezone 2.
logstatus
logstop
md
move
open
pslevel
rd
rep
reset
serial
SLEEP
sname
spclear
spset
SYSINFO
time
timezone
VAISALA ______________________________________________________________________ 157
User's Guide ______________________________________________________________________
Table 20
Command Set (Continued)
Command
Description
userlevel
userlevel [level <set/clear>] command is used to protect system from
unauthorized use. It provides three password protected access levels to
shell commands as well as to the visibility of system data. By default, the
user levels are not in use.
verify <source file> <destination file> compares two files, if they are different
response is: Error: Files are different
warnings [clear]. To see active warnings, type warnings. To clear active
warnings, type warnings clear. Warnings indicate that there are some
problems in the software. See Chapter 7, Troubleshooting, on page 181 for
more information.
winddircal0 [direction]. Set the direction in degrees to align the wind vane.
Type for example winddircal0 360 (north).
Zmodem receive command is needed when transferring the setup file to
MAWS.
zs <file_name>. Sends a file from MAWS using Zmodem protocol (used
instead of MAWS Terminal function).
verify
warnings
winddircal0
zr
zs
NOTE
The following commands allow the use of wild cards: chmod, dir, del,
copy, move, verify, and zs.
Example:
copy /log/L2*.* /Ext/log_L2copy
NOTE
File commands (dir, del, copy, move, and verify) can be aborted by
typing CTRL+C.
158 __________________________________________________________________M210630EN-B
Chapter 5 ________________________________________________________________ Operation
Disassembly of MAWS201 for Transportation
To disassemble the MAWS201 station for transportation, follow the
procedure below:
1.
WARNING
Disconnect the power as follows:
a.
For short storage periods, set MAWS into low power
consumption mode by giving the command SLEEP in
MAWS Terminal.
b.
For long periods (over one month), disconnect the battery.
First, open the hand screws that hold the tube in its place.
Open the logger housing. Detach the red wire from the +
terminal. Attach logger housing, lift the tube up and secure it
with the hand screws.
2.
Remove the cables from the upper and lower base connectors.
3.
Detach sensor arm(s). Insert the screws back in their places for
safekeeping.
4.
Detach the telescope mast. Insert the screw back in its place for
safekeeping.
5.
Remove wind sensor by opening the plastic collar. Detach wind
cable from the sensor.
6.
Tilt the solar panel so that it is parallel to the tripod leg. Cover the
panel by an opaque cover or other material before electrical
connections to the modules or other system components are
handled.
7.
Loosen the locking screw, put the legs together and tighten the
locking screw again.
Be careful when drawing the tripod legs together. See that there are no
power lines or other obstacles above the mast and the wind sensor.
Packing Instructions
For easy packing of the MAWS201 station, carry case sets are available
as options. For an example, see Figure 139 on page 160 and Figure 140
on page 160.
VAISALA ______________________________________________________________________ 159
User's Guide ______________________________________________________________________
Pack the sensors in the smaller carry case. Pack the tripod, upper tube,
sensor arms, and accessories in the bag or bigger carry case.
0201-013
Figure 139
QMM110 Carry Case Set
Figure 140
QMM120 Carry Case Set
0201-014
160 __________________________________________________________________M210630EN-B
Chapter 6 ______________________________________________________________ Maintenance
CHAPTER 6
MAINTENANCE
This chapter provides information that is needed in the basic
maintenance of MAWS, sensors, and accessories.
Routine Maintenance and Calibration
The purpose of periodic maintenance is to keep sensors operational and
safe, measurements reliable, to define if any calibration actions are
needed, and to extend the lifetime of the system.
Under normal conditions, the MAWS system needs only a minimum
amount of maintenance. The need for maintenance depends on the
sensors that are connected to your MAWS system.
CAUTION
Do not open the MAWS logger housing under poor conditions, for
example, rain or dust in the air. In general, it is not advisable to repair
sensors in the field.
Periodic routine maintenance tasks include checking, cleaning, and
servicing all the system elements and repairing or replacing damaged or
worn-out components.
The maintenance tasks should be accomplished only by a technician
properly trained for these tasks. The technician must be familiar with
the system and know how each component of the system performs. In
addition, adequate tools and test equipment have to be at hand to
complete the maintenance tasks successfully.
VAISALA ______________________________________________________________________ 161
User's Guide ______________________________________________________________________
When using high quality sensors and system, most of the routine
maintenance tasks can be performed at the installation site. Some
instruments and advanced calibrations and refurbishments require the
sensor to be returned to the laboratory for proper calibration. When
system components need to be brought in from the field, the best
procedure is to maintain an inventory of spare components. The user
can then exchange a component with a calibrated component or sensor
during a single visit. This is the case especially with sensors that must
be returned to the manufacturer for calibration.
Before the maintenance actions, certain preparations must be made in
order to make the work successful:
-
Obtain information on how the site has been functioning before the
scheduled maintenance.
-
Obtain information on what maintenance tasks were completed
during the previous maintenance procedure.
-
Make sure that you have all the necessary tools available. The
required set of tools depends on the system configuration, however
the minimum is listed below:
-
-
A laptop PC with multiple fully charged batteries.
-
The latest operational versions of the MAWS operating
software version, MAWS Lizard Setup Software, and MAWS
Terminal software.
-
The setup file that is used at the particular station to be
maintained.
-
All the necessary system documentation.
-
MAWS Terminal cable (QMZ101).
-
Hand held tools; screw drivers, wrenches, pliers, wire cutters,
and insulation strippers.
-
Digital multimeter.
-
Clean cloth, cleaning solution, and cleaning brush.
-
Lubricant.
-
Anti-seize compound.
-
Safety harness, if tower climbing is required.
-
All the necessary parts to be changed regularly.
Make a list of all the sensors requiring replacement with
refurbished and calibrated units.
162 __________________________________________________________________M210630EN-B
Chapter 6 ______________________________________________________________ Maintenance
Overall Checking
NOTE
-
Check signal and main cables, connectors, and connections.
-
Check gaskets of the enclosures.
-
Check all grounding cables, lugs, etc.
-
Check mechanical assemblies, bolts, nuts, etc.
-
Check for corrosion. Repair if needed.
Use the correct tools, which are of good quality.
Cable Maintenance
Inspect cables for breaks, cracks in the protective coating or cable
connectors, and bent, damaged, or misaligned pins. Also wipe off or
remove excess dirt, dust, sand, or leaves.
Updating Software to the Logger
In order to be able to utilize new features published by Vaisala, you may
need to update the logger software.
CAUTION
Update the logger software only when requested by Vaisala.
NOTE
Note that there are certain incompatibilities between versions 5.01 and
4.07 or earlier but they have an effect only when upgrading the MAWS
software.
In the MAWS version 5.01, the size of the configuration memory and
the size of the internal logging memory have been changed. In earlier
versions, the size of the configuration memory is 96 kB and the size of
the internal logging memory is approximately 1.7 MB. Due to the need
for larger configurations, from version 5.01 onwards the size of the
logging memory is 224 kB and the size of the internal logging memory
is slightly less than 1.6 MB.
VAISALA ______________________________________________________________________ 163
User's Guide ______________________________________________________________________
In MAWS version 5.01, the floating point numbers use a 64-bit
floating-point number (double). In the earlier MAWS versions, floating
point numbers have been stored in the static parameters as 32-bit
floating point numbers (float). When updating the logger software you
need to restore the original values for this type of static parameters.
Copying a New MAWS Software
with Loader Program
To update the software to the logger, follow the instructions below:
NOTE
1.
Check that you have the loader program loader.exe and the
MAWS software bin.mot on your computer in the same folder.
2.
By default the loader.exe application uses the COM1 port of the
computer. When you can use the COM1 port, proceed with step a.
below, otherwise proceed as instructed in step b.
If any other COM port of the computer than COM1 is used for loading
the software to MAWS, you need to make a .bat file for software
loading. Refer to step b. below.
a.
Connect the maintenance terminal cable to the port COM0 of
the MAWS system and to the COM1 port on your computer.
b.
Connect the maintenance terminal cable to the port COM0 of
the MAWS system and to any free COM port on your
computer. For example, if the free COM port is COM3, make
the .bat file with Notepad, see Figure 141 on page 164.
In the .bat file, the parameter -s115200 indicates the bit rate
(the default is 38400) and the parameter -pCOM3 indicates the
communication port (the default is COM1).
0411-044
Figure 141
Making the .bat File in Notepad
164 __________________________________________________________________M210630EN-B
Chapter 6 ______________________________________________________________ Maintenance
3.
Close any terminal connection to MAWS so that the serial port is
free for software loading.
4.
Close all other Windows programs.
5.
To load the software, follow the instructions given in either a. or b.:
a.
When you are using the COM1 port of your computer, open
Command Prompt and change the directory to the folder
where you have loader.exe and bin.mot. Type loader and
press ENTER. The Command Prompt window shows
Waiting.
b.
When you are using some other communication port, execute
the .bat file created in step 2.b. The Command Prompt
window shows Waiting.
6.
Reset the logger by pressing the reset button.
7.
The Command Prompt window shows Erasing for some time
and then starts to show Loading. If you get a load error, try again
from step 2.
8.
After a few minutes, the display shows Loading 100 %.
9.
The program restarts with an existing setup, and MAWS is now
ready to operate. If you give the long reset to MAWS, it starts the
program with a blank setup.
If you are having problems when loading software to the logger, for
example, if loading is interrupted and you get the message Load Error
-1, try again with all other Windows programs closed, except
Command Prompt.
Loading may be interrupted due to a corrupted bin.mot file, or due to
power save features, especially when a laptop computer is used.
Copying a New MAWS Software
from Compact Flash Memory Card
As an alternative for updating MAWS software through the serial port
using loader.exe you can receive a pre-programmed Compact Flash
from Vaisala including the latest software to be copied. This requires
that the boot version is also 4.07 or higher. The boot software is
independent of the firmware software. Each time MAWS starts up, the
boot software checks if a new software is available for loading on the
CF card.
VAISALA ______________________________________________________________________ 165
User's Guide ______________________________________________________________________
In order to copy a new software into MAWS, please follow the
instructions below:
1.
Check that MAWS includes a boot code that is version 4.07 or
higher. The version can be read using the commands VER or
SYSINFO.
2.
Insert the Compact Flash card received from Vaisala into the
Compact Flash slot of MAWS.
3.
Launch copying the new software by issuing the command
SWLOAD.
4.
The MAWS software checks that the boot code is valid and the
Compact Flash includes Motorola's S-record at the specified
address. The firmware also checks that the Compact Flash is
formatted and that there is a file on it named bin.mot.
When the application has been copied, MAWS restarts
automatically.
If SWLOAD refuses to copy the new software, the reason can be
one of the following:
5.
a.
The Compact Flash card does not include a valid software.
b.
The boot code is too old.
When the new application has been restarted, take the Compact
Flash card out of MAWS and store it for future use.
NOTE
Typically, the boot code and firmware are new enough in new
installations, but for upgrades both of them can be too old to perform
this functionality. In this case, the only way to update the software is
to download the software through the serial port.
NOTE
As the Compact Flash card cannot be write-protected, take care that
the card is not used for any other purposes, for example storing log
files. Copying the firmware is successful only when there is one file on
the card and it begins at the specified address.
166 __________________________________________________________________M210630EN-B
Chapter 6 ______________________________________________________________ Maintenance
Spare Parts
Available Spare Parts
Table 21
Available Spare Parts
Spare part name
For...
Order code
Cup wheel assembly
Anemometer bearing assembly
Vane assembly
Vane bearings assembly
Humidity sensor
Temperature sensor Pt-100 IEC 751 1/
3 Class B (HMP45D)
Membrane filter (standard)
HMP45D probe head
WMS302
WMS302
WMS302
WMS302
HMP45D
HMP45D
WA45233
WA45232
WA35234
WA45247
HUMICAP®180
19159
HMP45D
HMP45D
2787HM
HMP45DSP
Ordering Spare Parts
Contact your local Vaisala representative for a complete list of spare
parts and for ordering spare parts or optional units.
Solar Panel
Periodic Maintenance
WARNING
Wear rubber gloves to protect yourself against possible electric shock.
CAUTION
Do not use a scrub brush; it can damage the module front surface.
Inspect the module at least twice a year for overall integrity. Make sure
that connections to the battery are tight and free of corrosion.
Dirt accumulation on the module's front surface can reduce the light
energy collected by the module. If the module surface is dirty, gently
clean it with a soft cloth or sponge using water and a mild detergent.
VAISALA ______________________________________________________________________ 167
User's Guide ______________________________________________________________________
Weather Transmitter
Cleaning
To ensure the accuracy of measurement results, Weather Transmitter
WXT510 should be cleaned when it gets contaminated. Leaves and
other such particles should be removed from the precipitation sensor
and the transmitter should be cleaned carefully with a soft, lint-free
cloth moistened with mild detergent.
CAUTION
Be extremely careful when cleaning the wind sensors. The sensors
should not be rubbed nor twisted.
Replacing the PTU Module
1.
Turn the power off.
2.
Loosen the three screws at the bottom of WXT510.
3.
Pull out the top of the transmitter.
4.
Release the small white flap and remove the PTU module.
5.
Connect a new PTU module (order code WXT510PTUSP), replace
the top and tighten the three bottom screws.
6.
Turn the power on.
168 __________________________________________________________________M210630EN-B
Chapter 6 ______________________________________________________________ Maintenance
Figure 142
0505-208
Replacing the PTU Module
Combined Wind Sensor
Periodic Maintenance
Testing Proper Operation
It is recommended to check the ball bearings of the anemometer and the
vane every year. If the cup wheel or the vane is not rotating smoothly or
it creates detectable noise, the bearings must be replaced.
Replacing Consumables
Only a trained technician should replace the bearings.
If your sensor includes the alignment sleeve and the factory alignment
has not been altered, you can simply remove and remount the sensor to
its place with the plastic collar without realigning.
To replace the ball bearings, do the following (the numbers refer to
Figure 143 on page 171):
VAISALA ______________________________________________________________________ 169
User's Guide ______________________________________________________________________
Anemometer bearings:
1.
Loosen the hubnut (14) with fingers or a 10 mm tool and remove
the cup wheel (13).
2.
Remove the ball bearing assembly (12) by unscrewing it
counterclockwise (with a 10 mm tool).
3.
Insert a new bearing assembly (12). Tighten gently.
4.
Fasten the cup wheel to the sensor. Tighten gently.
Vane bearings:
1.
Proceed as described in steps 1 and 2 above.
2.
Open the lock screw (11) of the tail assembly (10) and remove the
screw.
3.
Remove the Seeger-ring (9) (with narrow point pliers).
4.
Remove the bearing assembly (8).
5.
Replace the bearings inside the housing with new ones.
6.
Assemble the sensor in the reverse work order.
Note that part number 6 in Figure 143 on page 171 consists of two parts.
The lower portion has a notch that is aligned at the factory in relation to
the output of the potentiometer to point north when the sensor is
mounted.
170 __________________________________________________________________M210630EN-B
Chapter 6 ______________________________________________________________ Maintenance
Figure 143
0009-022
WMS Assembly
The following numbers refer to Figure 143 on page 171:
1
=
Casing
2a
=
Reed switch PCB
2b
=
Potentiometer PCB
3
=
Retainer
4
=
Sleeve
5
=
O-ring
6
=
Base part
7
=
Mast adapter sleeve
8
=
Bearing assembly
9
=
Seeger ring
10
=
Tail assembly
11
=
Lock screw
12
=
Bearing assembly
13
=
Cup wheel
14
=
Hubnut
VAISALA ______________________________________________________________________ 171
User's Guide ______________________________________________________________________
Air Temperature and Relative Humidity Sensor
Periodic Maintenance
Calibration and maintenance of the air temperature and relative
humidity probe should be performed at regular intervals, depending on
the conditions of use and desired accuracy. The validity of the readings
should be checked annually.
The Air Temperature and Relative Humidity probes are easy to
maintain and calibrate. The sensor consists of a probe head and a handle
with cable. All calibration electronics are in the probe head, which can
be disconnected from the handle without disconnecting the wires, as
shown in Figure 144 on page 172. If you wish to continue the
measurement immediately, you can insert a calibrated probe head in
place of the disconnected one; this way the measurement is interrupted
for less than a minute.
Figure 144
0201-047
Probe Maintenance
The following numbers refer to Figure 144 on page 172.
1
=
Adjustment trimmers: W = wet, D = dry, (T = temperature;
for factory use only)
2
=
O-ring for sealing the probe weather tight
172 __________________________________________________________________M210630EN-B
Chapter 6 ______________________________________________________________ Maintenance
Changing the HUMICAP®180 Humidity Sensor
Unscrew the filter. Remove the damaged sensor and mount a new
HUMICAP®180 humidity sensor in its place. Handle the sensor with
care. Calibrate the probe using a two-point calibration procedure.
Humidity Calibration
For a high-accuracy two-point calibration, use a Vaisala HMK15
calibrator and saturated salt solutions. Refer to the appropriate manual
for details.
Easiest way of doing the calibration is to use HMI41 Indicator with the
HMH40-MAWS Handle for the probe head. Note that this setup is only
for relative humidity and no temperature readings are displayed.
Figure 145
0406-072
HMH40-MAWS Handle
Leave the calibrator and the probe head in the same space for at least
four hours so that their temperatures have time to equalize. Unscrew the
plastic grid of the probe.
The calibration is done first for the dry end (<50 %RH) and then for the
wet end (>50 %RH) by adjusting the trimmer potentiometers marked
with D (dry) and W (wet). The potentiometers are located under a
protective plug. Use a ceramic with 2.5 mm (0.1 in.) blade for adjusting
the potentiometers.
NOTE
If zero point is calibrated in nitrogen (N2), the minimum output signal
of 0.008 V corresponds to a relative humidity of 0.8 %RH.
VAISALA ______________________________________________________________________ 173
User's Guide ______________________________________________________________________
Table 22
Greenspan’s Calibration
Temperature [°C]
15
20
25
30
35
LiCl [%RH]
1
11.3
11.3
11.3
11.3
NaCl [%RH]
K2SO4 [%RH]
75.6
97.9
75.5
97.6
75.3
97.3
75.1
97.0
74.9
96.7
1. Do not use or store the LiCl solution in temperatures below +18 °C (64 °F) as its humidity equilibrium
may change permanently.
As the D (dry) and W (wet) adjustments may affect each other, recheck
the humidity reading at the low end. If necessary, repeat the adjustments
in both the low and the high humidity points, until the reading is correct.
Pressure Sensor
Periodic Maintenance
Under normal operating conditions, PMT16A needs only a minimal
amount of maintenance.
-
Keep the pressure port clean. Check the pressure port every time
when visiting the site.
-
Annually, compare pressure values against a calibrated portable
standard.
Calibration
The MAWS software provides means for one-point field calibration of
the PMT16A sensor.
Required equipment:
-
Laptop PC with a terminal software
-
Travelling standard barometer (for example Vaisala PTB220TS)
-
Terminal cable QMZ101 (included in the MAWS delivery).
174 __________________________________________________________________M210630EN-B
Chapter 6 ______________________________________________________________ Maintenance
Calibration procedure:
NOTE
1.
Establish terminal connection to MAWS by connecting the
terminal cable to the COM0 port of MAWS and to an available I/
O port on your PC.
2.
Place both pressure sensors at the same level.
Make sure that the wind does not interfere with the reading of the
reference barometer.
3.
Read the reference barometer reading.
4.
Give this reference reading to MAWS.
Type: PMT16CAL 1003.7 (reference reading 1003.7 hPa)
5.
Check the readings given by MAWS.
Value = reference reading
Measured value = measured by MAWS
Offset = measured value - reference reading
6.
Repeat the calibration if necessary.
7.
Close the terminal connection by giving the close command.
Rain Gauges
Periodic Maintenance of QMR101
To ensure reliable and accurate measurements, we recommend that the
following checks be carried out at each visit to the rain gauge.
NOTE
If the gauge is still connected to the data logger and logger is operating,
care must be taken to avoid tipping the spoon/bucket when carrying
out the following operations.
1.
Inspect the funnel for any damage or blockage. At certain times of
year, leaves may have accumulated into the funnel. Dirt and dust
can also block the grille preventing or reducing the flow rate to a
slow drip to the buckets beneath. Remove all obstacles from the
funnel.
VAISALA ______________________________________________________________________ 175
User's Guide ______________________________________________________________________
2.
Check that the gauge is still level. It is surprisingly easy for an
apparently immovable gauge to become tilted as a result of small
ground movements, vandalism, or just an inquisitive finger.
3.
Clean the spoon from dust and dirt once or twice a year to ensure
precise measuring.
Periodic Maintenance of QMR102
To ensure reliable and accurate measurements, Vaisala recommends
that the following checks be carried out at each visit to the rain gauge.
NOTE
If the gauge is connected to the AWS logger and the logger is
operating, avoid tipping the cup assembly.
1.
Inspect the funnel and filter for any damage or blockage. At certain
times of the year leaves may have accumulated in the funnel, dirt
and dust can also block the filter preventing or reducing the flow
rate to a slow drip into the buckets beneath. The leaves can easily
be removed from the funnel and the filter can be cleaned by
removing the end cap from the filter tube. Remove the filter
material carefully, clean and replace the filter and cap.
2.
Check that the gauge is still level. It is surprisingly easy for an
apparently immovable gauge to become tilted as a result of small
ground movements, vandalism or just an inquisitive finger.
3.
Remove and clean any dirt from the bucket.
4.
There will be times when the rain gauge will not log or will be
disconnected from the logger. In such cases, it is a good idea to
check the balance arm of the bucket for stiffness. The easiest way
to do this in the field is to try to balance the bucket in its center
position. It should be very difficult, if not impossible, to achieve
this. If the bucket balances easily then examine the bucket closely
for any dirt or wear on the pivot pin and bucket tubes.
176 __________________________________________________________________M210630EN-B
Chapter 6 ______________________________________________________________ Maintenance
Pyranometers
Periodoc Maintenance
The pyranometer is an all weather instrument. Once installed the
pyranometer needs little maintenance. It is recommended that you clean
the detector as part of a regular routine, using water or alcohol.
Re-calibration is suggested every two years. This can be done in two
ways. The first is to compare with the measurement of a similar sensor
at the same site. Daily totals of at least two days should be compared.
Calibration factor should be corrected if results differ by more than six
per cent. The second way is to let a re-calibration be performed at the
factory.
If necessary, the sensitivity of the pyranometer can be adjusted. This
can be done by soldering a resistor between the + (white) and - (black)
output wires. In this way the pyranometer is shunted. For the standard
pyranometer, the internal resistance is 47 Ω, and the cable resistance is
0.12 Ω/m. The cable is 3 m long. The cable resistance has to be
multiplied by two, for the + and - wire. Total resistance is 47.7 Ω. In
order to reduce the sensitivity by a factor of 10, when the full 3 meters
of cable is used, a shunt resistor of 5.3 Ω can be made out of a 1 and a
4.3 Ω resistor. The order of magnitude for the sensitivity will be 10 µV/
Wm-2.
The general formula for establishing the proper resistor for trimming by
a factor of 10 is [47 + (0.24 × cable length)]/9. The cable length is in
meters and the resistance is in ohms.
Net Solar Radiation Sensor
Periodic Maintenance
The Net Radiation Sensor is an all weather instrument. Once installed it
needs little maintenance. It is recommended that you clean the detector
as part of a regular routine, using water or alcohol.
VAISALA ______________________________________________________________________ 177
User's Guide ______________________________________________________________________
Soil/Water Temperature Sensors
Periodic Maintenance
The QMT103/QMT110 sensor does not need any regular maintenance.
Field repairs are accomplished by replacing the complete sensor.
When the QMT107 sensor is extracted, clean the dirt accumulation on
the sensor surface with a soft cloth or sponge using water and mild
detergent. Field repairs are accomplished by replacing the complete
sensor.
Soil Moisture Sensor
Periodic Maintenance
The ML2x sensor is sealed after the factory calibration. It does not
require any routine maintenance and it is constructed of materials
selected for robust field operation. If the measurement rods become
bent in use, they can be carefully unscrewed from the body and
straightened. They have a right-handed thread. Pay careful attention to
the following points:
-
Do not remove the cross-head sealing screws. This may damage
the seal and will void the warranty. No internal maintenance or
repair shall be performed by the user.
-
Do not remove the sensor from soil by pulling on the cable.
-
Do not attempt to straighten the measurement rods while they are
still attached to the probe body. This may break the rods or damage
the case seal.
178 __________________________________________________________________M210630EN-B
Chapter 6 ______________________________________________________________ Maintenance
Soil Moisture Sensor
Periodic Maintenance
The ECH2O-M3 sensor is sealed after the factory calibration. It does not
require any routine maintenance and it is constructed of materials
selected for robust field operation.
Submersible Water Level Sensor
Periodic Maintenance
To ensure reliable and accurate measurements, we recommend that
during each visit to the Water Level Sensor the following checks be
made:
CAUTION
1.
Check the drying detergent through the window of the junction
box.
2.
If the drying detergent has turned red, change the cartridge. The
cartridge has reached its internal maximum absorption of humidity.
Replace the cartridge and adjust the interval for the next visit.
The drying detergent is very important to ensure reliable performance
of the water level sensor. Otherwise humidity enters the sensor casing
through the ventilation pipe inside the cable and causes severe damage
to the sensor.
Leaf Wetness Sensor
Periodic Maintenance
Leaf Wetness Sensor does not need any regular maintenance. Field
repairs are accomplished by replacing the complete sensor.
VAISALA ______________________________________________________________________ 179
User's Guide ______________________________________________________________________
Fuel Moisture/Fuel Temperature Sensor
Periodic Maintenance
The sensing element of the sensor is a wooden dowel that exchanges
moisture with its surroundings. In the course of a year, it undergoes
many cycles of soaking up moisture and drying. These processes
eventually cause the structure of the wood to deteriorate. Similarly, dust
and other contaminants become embedded in the surface and they
change the surface properties. When this occurs, the calibration is no
longer valid.
The only way to restore the sensor accuracy is to replace the wooden
dowel, which must be done at the factory.
Your experience will eventually determine how frequently the sensor
needs service. At the beginning, the manufacturer recommends that you
return it to the factory once per year for replacement of the dowel and
calibration.
At most sites, where the sensor is used to assess fire danger, there is a
season when the danger is low. That is usually a good time to replace or
refurbish the sensor.
180 __________________________________________________________________M210630EN-B
Chapter 7 ___________________________________________________________ Troubleshooting
CHAPTER 7
TROUBLESHOOTING
This section consists of some common MAWS problems, their probable
causes, and remedies.
Troubleshooting Procedure
When troubleshooting the MAWS system, write a failure notice
consisting of the following issues:
-
What failed (what worked / did not work)?
-
Where did it fail (location and environment)?
-
When did it fail (date, immediately / after a while / periodically /
randomly)?
-
How many failed (only one defect / other same or similar defects /
several failures in one unit)?
-
What was connected to the product and to which connectors?
-
Input power source type, voltage and list of other items (lighting,
heaters, motors etc.) that were connected to the same power output.
-
What was done when the failure was noticed?
VAISALA ______________________________________________________________________ 181
User's Guide ______________________________________________________________________
When troubleshooting the MAWS system, make sure you have the tools
listed in Table 23 on page 182 available.
Table 23
Recommended Tools for Troubleshooting
Tools List
The terminal cable (QMZ101) and a laptop computer with the applicable
versions of the setup files and the MAWS Terminal software
The keys for the enclosures
Multimeter
Flat-blade screwdrivers, especially small ones
Phillips screwdrivers, especially small ones
Set of open-end wrenches, different sizes
Set of Allen keys
Applicable spare parts, e.g., a new logger
Safety helmet when tilting the mast
Follow the procedure below to troubleshoot the MAWS system. Refer
to the applicable sections of this chapter for details when requested. The
basic procedure for troubleshooting assumes that the person has
operating experience of the MAWS system.
1.
Check the cabling and mechanical structure visually for indications
of vandalism, dirt, lightning strike damage, or other visible cause
for the problem. Also check that all the connectors are properly
attached. For visual check of the enclosure and the logger, refer to
section Visual Check on page 186.
2.
The MAWS system appears to be completely down.
a.
b.
Is the green LED on the QML201 logger blinking? Refer to
section Determining MAWS Operation Mode on page 188. If
not, check the following:
-
Is there sufficient voltage (8 ... 16 VDC) present in the
EXT-DC input of the logger?
-
Is there the internal battery present? If there is, check it's
voltage. Completely discharged or otherwise damaged
battery can prevent the logger from operating. Refer also
to section Battery Status on page 202.
The logger has power but it is not functioning.
-
Connect the terminal cable and start the MAWS Terminal
software. To establish the terminal connection, refer to
section Establishing Terminal Connection on page 188.
182 __________________________________________________________________M210630EN-B
Chapter 7 ___________________________________________________________ Troubleshooting
-
c.
d.
e.
f.
Open the logger cover and press the reset button. Refer to
section Resetting MAWS on page 192. After a few
seconds, the terminal should start to display logger
startup messages.
MAWS is not sending anything (nothing is seen on the
screen).
-
After MAWS has been without power, for example when
you start it for the first time, check the time and date.
Timed operations will not work if the correct time is not
set.
-
The setup is faulty. Press and keep down the reset button
for a few seconds. MAWS will restart and display the text
Using blank configuration.
The logger starts up normally, but sends error messages
during startup, for example, !Erroneous setup file.
-
Reload the setup.
-
Set the station parameters.
-
Restart the system.
After uploading a new setup file, MAWS Terminal displays
Unhandled exception number: 39.
-
The setup might include too many calculations; consider
removing some calculations.
-
The interval between the statistical calculations is too
short, consider executing the calculations less frequently.
You might, for example, avoid calculations which are
executed more frequently than the results are reported or
logged.
If there are communication modules present, disconnect the
power and replace the modules.
-
Replace one module at a time and try to restart the system
to find out the damaged one.
-
Restart the system.
VAISALA ______________________________________________________________________ 183
User's Guide ______________________________________________________________________
3.
MAWS does not receive commands entered in MAWS Terminal.
a.
Check the terminal cable connection and that you have the
correct terminal cable (QMZ101) in use.
b.
The terminal connection is not open.
Type open and press ENTER. Note that the command must be
typed exactly correct before it can be executed and that the
command is not echoed on the screen.
c.
The port settings are not synchronous.
Synchronize PC COM port and MAWS COM port settings.
4.
Has someone made any software or hardware changes to the
MAWS system prior to malfunction? If so, could those changes
have an effect on the operation? You can capture the content shown
in MAWS Terminal, refer to section Recording Terminal
Connection Text on page 189.
a.
b.
5.
When you have loaded a new setup:
-
Make sure you have the original setup and the new setup
saved as a .dtg file.
-
Reload the original setup and verify that the system starts
and runs with the original setup.
-
Check the new setup once again with MAWS Lizard,
reload it, and verify that the system starts and runs.
When you have installed new hardware:
-
Disconnect the new hardware.
-
Reload the original setup and verify that the system starts
and runs.
-
Check the new setup once again with MAWS Lizard.
-
Connect the new hardware.
-
Reload the new setup and verify that the system starts and
runs.
Sensor(s) are not working properly.
a.
Are there one or multiple malfunctioning sensors? Multiple
simultaneous sensor malfunctions in the same logger often
indicate a damaged logger.
184 __________________________________________________________________M210630EN-B
Chapter 7 ___________________________________________________________ Troubleshooting
b.
c.
d.
6.
Check the output of the warnings and errors commands for
indication of the probable cause.
-
Connect the terminal cable and start MAWS Terminal.
Type commands warnings and errors. For details, see
section Warnings and Errors on page 199.
-
Pay also attention to the message related to the excitation
voltages. If the damaged sensor is powered by the logger,
it may cause an overload.
If the malfunctioning sensor is measured by the logger:
-
Open the sensor calibration view in MAWS Terminal,
see section Determining Sensor Status on page 192.
-
Check the sensor status and compare the value against the
sensor status list in Table 29 on page 195.
If the malfunctioning sensor is a so-called intelligent sensor,
for example, Vaisala Ceilometer or Vaisala Present Weather
Detector, use its own diagnostic features.
-
Connect terminal cable and start MAWS Terminal.
-
Service interface for the intelligent sensors can be
accessed through MAWS as explained in section
Opening Service Connection Through MAWS on page
190.
Communication is not working properly.
a.
Whenever possible, use an external device to verify that the
communication infrastructure is working properly. For
example, use a cellular phone to verify that the signal strength
in the site is sufficient or that the SIM card in the MAWS
system has access to the network.
b.
Troubleshoot the modems as instructed in section GSM
Modems.
c.
If the communication device supports ASCII commands, for
example AT commands for modem, this command interface
can be accessed as explained in section Opening Service
Connection Through MAWS on page 190.
VAISALA ______________________________________________________________________ 185
User's Guide ______________________________________________________________________
7.
Data is not stored to a memory card.
a.
Check the status of the memory card. It is indicated by a LED.
Table 30 on page 196 describes the different blinking
sequences and the card conditions they indicate.
b.
Check that the memory card has been formatted with the
command EXTFS ERASE before use. For more information,
refer to section Using External Memory Card on page 196.
Still not functioning? Replace the logger and return the damaged one to
Vaisala for repair. For return instructions, refer to section Technical
Support on page 206.
Visual Check
Open the enclosure, and check that all the equipment is present. Check
that the logger, power supply, and communication devices are
connected properly to the connectors inside the enclosure.
Remove the cover of the logger for visually checking the CPU board
and other components located under the cover. In Figure 146 on page
187, the logger is shown without the cover and the optional
communication modules.
186 __________________________________________________________________M210630EN-B
Chapter 7 ___________________________________________________________ Troubleshooting
Figure 146
0401-246
AWS Logger QML201 without Cover
The following numbers refer to Figure 146 on page 187:
1
=
Place for the internal battery
2
=
Reset button (under the bracket)
3
=
Lithium battery for RTC
4
=
Communication module places MOD1 and MOD2
5
=
Status LED
6
=
SPI connector
7
=
Pressure sensor connector
8
=
CF Card connector
VAISALA ______________________________________________________________________ 187
User's Guide ______________________________________________________________________
Determining MAWS Operation Mode
You can watch the status LED to determine the MAWS operation
mode. The LED is located on the MAWS logger board and it is visible
through the logger cover.
Table 24
Determining Operation Mode by LED Flashing
LED Flashing Interval
Operation Mode
All the time
MAWS has been reset
but setup has not been
examined yet.
Setup is running.
Blank boot or
configuration cannot be
run.
Setup is running but
Interval determined by
there are warnings.
setup.
Setup is running but
there are errors.
None
Check the power
supply!
Once per 5 seconds
Once per 10 seconds
Quickly 2 times
Quickly 3 times
Not at all
Note
Establishing Terminal Connection
All MAWS software aided troubleshooting is performed using the
service terminal connection. Some of the operations can be executed
semiautomatically by the MAWS Terminal software, some require
entering the commands manually.
To connect your computer to a MAWS serial port, proceed as follows:
NOTE
1.
Start the MAWS Terminal program on your PC.
2.
Set the communication parameters: 9600, N, 8, 1.
3.
Give the command open (if the connection is not already open).
The command open is not echoed on the screen.
Figure 147 on page 189 shows the pin order for the terminal connector.
188 __________________________________________________________________M210630EN-B
Chapter 7 ___________________________________________________________ Troubleshooting
Figure 147
0304-025
COM0 Pins for the Terminal Connector
The following numbers refer to Figure 147 on page 189.
1
=
Not connected
2
=
RxD
3
=
GND
4
=
TxD
5
=
Not connected
Recording Terminal Connection
Text
In problem situations, you can save the commands and program
responses that you see in the MAWS Terminal window. Before you
start creating the situation you want to record, clear the terminal buffer.
From the Edit menu, select Clear window. The program removes all
text from the terminal buffer.
To capture all the text shown in the MAWS Terminal window into a
file, select Capture all from the Connection menu. The program starts
saving all text into a file called MAWS_Terminal.Log. This file is stored
in the Default capture text directory you have defined on the
Directories tab in the Preferences window.
NOTE
The Capture all selection remains on until you remove the selection
from the Connection menu. Remember to remove the selection as
soon as you have recorded enough messages, as otherwise it creates a
large file that reserves your disk space.
VAISALA ______________________________________________________________________ 189
User's Guide ______________________________________________________________________
When you no longer need the capture file, you can delete it from your
PC. The capture file is called MAWS_Terminal.Log and it is saved in the
Default capture text directory you have defined on the Directories
tab in the Preferences window.
In problem situations, give the following commands: battery, errors,
spset, SYSINFO, and warnings. When Capture all is selected, the
results are saved into a file for future use.
Opening Service Connection
Through MAWS
The command interface of the modem or an intelligent sensor can be
accessed through MAWS, for example, to send the AT commands
manually. To control the modem or sensor directly, open the service
connection to MAWS, and, for example, when the device is connected
to the DSU232’s first communication port at the module place MOD1,
type open DSU232_0_0. To terminate this operation, type close. While
the direct connection to the modem or sensor is open, any automatic
operation through the connected port is blocked. Typical parameters for
the open command are presented in Table 25 on page 190. Information
concerning the correct connector can be obtained in MAWS Lizard
under I/O Connections in the Equipment view.
Table 25
Parameters for the Open Command
Connector in MAWS Lizard
Parameter
COM0
COM1
DSU232 (MOD1/1)
COM0
COM1
DSU232 (MOD1/2)
DSU232 (MOD2/1)
DSU232 (MOD2/2)
DSI486 (MOD1/1)
DSI486 (MOD1/2)
DSI486 (MOD2/1)
DSI486 (MOD2/2)
DSU232_0_0 1
DSU232_0_1
DSU232_1_0
DSU232_1_1
DSI486_0_0
DSI486_0_1 2
DSI486_1_0
DSI486_1_1 2
1. With DSU232 and DSI486 modules, the number between the underline
characters stands for the module place, that is, MOD1 or MOD2, and the
last number for the channel on that particular module.
2. With the DSI486 module, the RS-232 connection is possible only to the
channel B on the module, and thus the last number is 1.
190 __________________________________________________________________M210630EN-B
Chapter 7 ___________________________________________________________ Troubleshooting
Connection Problems
If you can not connect to MAWS, the service connection is not opened
and you can not work with MAWS. In case of connection problems,
check the possible problems as instructed in Table 26 on page 191.
Table 26
Some Common Connection Problems and Their
Remedies
Problem
Probable Cause
Remedy
You receive the following
message:
You are trying to connect to the
wrong port.
Select the Address book option
from the Settings menu to check
the port numbers.
Check that the modem cable is
connected properly.
Cables are not connected.
You receive the following
message:
You are trying to connect to a
Check the port settings.
port that does not exist in your
computer.
The port is reserved (some other It is possible that you have
program is connected to it).
already opened the MAWS
Terminal program, minimized the
window and forgotten you have
already opened it, and then tried
to open the program again.
Cables are not connected.
Connect the cables as shown in
section Establishing Terminal
Connection on page 112.
You do not receive any
messages.
Error Messages
When typing commands, you may encounter some error messages.
Table 27 on page 191 explains the most typical error messages.
Table 27
Error Messages
Error Message
Probable Cause
Error: Executable not found
Syntax error!
Typing error.
Correct typing.
Typing error: non-acceptable
characters, e.g., +
Typing error in directory name.
A missing or an extra parameter. Check the command syntax
(help command) and give the
command again.
A missing parameter.
Error: Directory not found
Error: Wrong number of
parameters
Error: Missing parameter
Remedy
VAISALA ______________________________________________________________________ 191
User's Guide ______________________________________________________________________
Resetting MAWS
To reset MAWS, give the command reset (recommended) or press the
reset button, see number 1 in Figure 138 on page 155.
Figure 148
0406-060
Reset Button on Logger
A short reset (pressing the reset button quickly) performs the same reset
as giving the command and starts the program again. A long reset
(pressing the reset button and keeping it down for a few seconds)
restarts the program with a so-called blank setup. A blank setup does not
run a configuration file.
Blank setup may be useful if the configuration is somehow defective
and does not allow the user to open a terminal connection. When the
blank setup is run, MAWS communication parameters are restored to
their defaults: COM0, 9600, N, 8, N, 1.
Determining Sensor Status
Sensor status values give indication about the general status of the
sensor interfaces. You have two alternatives to view the status value for
a sensor:
NOTE
Sensors with their own measurement interfaces and algorithms, for
example Vaisala Ceilometer or Vaisala Present Weather Detector, do
not appear in the sensor list of the Sensor Calibration tab.
192 __________________________________________________________________M210630EN-B
Chapter 7 ___________________________________________________________ Troubleshooting
1.
For any sensor enter the following service terminal command:
LASTVAL <measurement_name> status
For example:
/ > LASTVAL TAMeasQMH101_1 status Status:1 Value:0
where
Status:1
=
The Status field in the output is the value status.
Value:0
=
The Value field shows the sensor status value.
For details on the LASTVAL command, refer to section
LASTVAL Command on page 198.
2.
For conventional sensors, open the Sensor Calibration tab in
MAWS Terminal, see Figure 116 on page 129. The list of the
MAWS sensors is displayed in the tab. The Status column shows
the sensor status. To read the latest sensor statuses and
measurement values, click the Refresh button. Table 15 on page
130 describes the other columns in the Sensor Calibration tab.
Figure 149
0312-038
CAUTION
MAWS Station Settings Window: Sensor Calibration
Tab
When you upgrade a previous MAWS version to 3.06 or above, the
following sensors will not operate correctly in the Sensor Calibration
tab until they are removed from the setup and then re-created: CM6B,
CM11, QMS101, QMS102, and QMN101.
VAISALA ______________________________________________________________________ 193
User's Guide ______________________________________________________________________
NOTE
You must load an appropriate setup to MAWS before you are able to
use the Sensor Calibration tab.
NOTE
The Sensor Calibration tab is not visible for setups made with
MAWS software versions prior to 3.06. With old setups, MAWS
common parameters frame only shows the calibration values for the
wind direction and solar radiation sensors. Other sensors need to be
calibrated through the terminal connection with the appropriate
calibration commands.
NOTE
When Value is expressed as N/A, it indicates that the calibration factor
has been altered but not saved, the sensor has not been measured or the
measurement channel of it has failed, or the sensor is disabled. Further
information about the possible reason can be obtained by comparing
the value in the Status column against the values listed in Table 16 on
page 132.
Table 28
Columns in the Sensor Calibration Tab
Column
Description
Input
Sensor
The sensor name as
defined in the setup.
The measurement channel
of the sensor.
The measurement identifier
The sensor status
The last measured sensor
reading shown in physical
units.
n/a
Channel
ID
Status
Value
Cal.Factor
n/a
n/a
n/a
Overwrites the sensor reading
with the entered value, that is,
changes the offset of the
measurement.
The measurement gain for Overwrites the old gain value
the sensors, except for the with the new one. For radiation
radiation sensors (QMN10x sensors (QMN10x and
QMS10x), changes the
and QMS10x) the
sensitivity value.
sensitivity value.
194 __________________________________________________________________M210630EN-B
Chapter 7 ___________________________________________________________ Troubleshooting
Table 29
Sensor Status List
Value
Meaning
Notes
0
1
2
The sensor is working properly (OK).
Not measured yet
Interface is not initialized.
1
3
Communication time out has occurred.
1
4
Unknown data is received.
1
5
Communication is functioning, but the sensor reports
errors. Use sensor's own service interface to find out
cause.
Sensor communication is paused because service
connection is opened through MAWS.
Message sequence numbers are overlapping in the
Autotrac satellite transceiver interface.
Not available
Excitation failure is caused by the overload in the
excitation output.
The input voltage is out of range or the A/D conversion
has failed due to an internal error.
Sensor is disconnected or the connection cables are
broken.
Sensor output exceeds the min/max limits defined in
the Measurements view.
Change in sensor output has exceeded the maximum
step defined in the Measurements view.
An internal configuration error has occurred.
1
2
28
Error in reference measurement, which is usually
caused by damaged sensor/logger or electrical
interference.
Internal voltage error occurred or the logger is
damaged.
PMT16 calibration data error.
29
Data is invalid for unspecified reason.
2
30
The measurement or the sensor has been manually
disabled.
Sensor status is not supported.
6
7
8 ... 19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
99
1
1
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
1. Value is available only for the sensors with the serial interface.
2. Value is available only for the sensors with a conventional, that is, analog
or counter/frequency interface.
VAISALA ______________________________________________________________________ 195
User's Guide ______________________________________________________________________
Using External Memory Card
The external memory card is used to store log files that have been
copied or moved from the internal log directory. The data can be
retrieved from the external memory card via terminal connection or by
switching the memory card with an empty one.
Note that the memory card must be formatted with the command
EXTFS ERASE before use.
When a new memory card is inserted into MAWS, the software checks
that the card is ready for use. The status of the memory card is indicated
by a LED. Table 19 on page 154 describes the different blinking
sequences and the card conditions they indicate.
Table 30
LED Blinking Sequences and Card Status Options
Blinking Sequence
Card Status
Long-long
Constantly on
Short-short-short for 5 seconds
The card is OK.
Data is being written.
The card is unformatted or corrupted.
The external memory card can be removed from MAWS for data
retrieval without interruptions to MAWS operations. MAWS copies
data from the internal log directory to the memory card daily at
midnight; the default time is 00:00:30. Data is being written when the
LED on the logger cover to the left of the external memory card is
constantly on.
CAUTION
The memory card must not be removed from MAWS while data is
being written or the data may be lost. By default, data is transmitted to
the memory card every day at 00:00:30.
196 __________________________________________________________________M210630EN-B
Chapter 7 ___________________________________________________________ Troubleshooting
Automatic Erase from External
Memory Card
The log group specific setting Number of days to preserve log files
affects also the files stored to the external memory card. The
functionality is the same as for internal log memory, that is, the
following:
-
Files older than the selected value [days] will be deleted
automatically
-
Files are not erased, that is, the automatic clean up is disabled
When files are stored to the external memory card, the internal memory
is used as the working memory for storing the log files of the current
day. These working files are moved to the external card each day just
after midnight when the new files have been created for writing.
Commands for Troubleshooting Purposes
For most of the sensor inputs, there are data validation parameters to
check the following measurement's quality parameters:
-
Maximum value: the maximum climatological value for the sensor
measurement.
-
Minimum value: the minimum climatological value for the sensor
measurement.
-
Step change: the maximum step change for the sensor value
between two consecutive measurements.
All of these parameters can be set by the user with MAWS Lizard Setup
Software. For more information, refer to MAWS Lizard Setup Software
User's Guide.
If the sensor value is outside the maximum or minimum values, or it has
altered more than the maximum step change allowed, then data will be
flagged as INVALID. Invalid data is typically displayed as ///// (this is
a parameter that the user can set). If a sensor displays invalid data, this
is an indication that the sensor is faulty or out of calibration, or there is
a problem in powering or measuring the sensor.
VAISALA ______________________________________________________________________ 197
User's Guide ______________________________________________________________________
LASTVAL Command
If the value in the report changes to ////, you can check the
measurement’s/sensor’s value with the LASTVAL command. Give the
command in the terminal connection. When you use the raw parameter,
the measured value before any validation and the status produced
during validation are shown. When you use the corresponding signal
name, the validated value is shown.
LASTVAL [Measurement] [raw | Signal name]
where
Measurement
=
The name of the measurement as it is defined in
the MAWS setup file.
raw
=
The parameter that gives the status and the value
of the measurement before validation.
Signal name
=
The parameter that gives the validated value of
the measurement.
Examples:
The command with the signal name parameter (in the following case
produces the following response:
TA)
/ > LASTVAL TAMeasQMH101_1 TA
Status:1 Value:20.490570
where
Status:1
=
The value is valid.
Value:20.490570
=
The validated value for the temperature
measurement is 20.49xxxx
The measurement TAMeasQMH101_1 is defined in the setup file. The
command with the raw parameter produces the following response:
/ > LASTVAL TAMeasQMH101_1 raw
Status:1 Value:20.490570
198 __________________________________________________________________M210630EN-B
Chapter 7 ___________________________________________________________ Troubleshooting
where
Status:1
=
The value is valid.
Value:20.490570
=
The raw value for the temperature
measurement is 20.49xxxx
When the value in the report changes to ////, you can check the value. In
the following case the probe is not connected:
/ > LASTVAL TAMeasQMH101_1 raw
Status:2 Value:-238.285549
where
Status:2
=
Value:-238.285549 =
The value is invalid.
The raw value for the temperature
measurement is -238.285549, which means
the probe is not connected.
When the value is invalid, check the sensor status value, and refer to
Table 16 on page 132:
/ > LASTVAL TAMeasQMH101_1 status
Status:1 Value:0
where
Status:1
=
The Status field in the output is the value status.
Value:0
=
The Value field shows the sensor status.
Warnings and Errors
There may be some problems if you see either of the following prompts:
/ E>
/ W>
/ E> means that there are errors and / W> means that there are warnings.
It is normal to have one or two warnings after the serial connection to
MAWS has been reset, for example, if you have turned your PC off you
can ignore these warnings.
VAISALA ______________________________________________________________________ 199
User's Guide ______________________________________________________________________
To see active warnings, type warnings. To clear active warnings, type
warnings clear. Warnings indicate that there are some problems in the
software.
Example:
/ W> warnings
Warning: Break
occurred 9 times first in uart.cpp[84]
during thread: 00019F60 [AbsTimerT]
object pointer: 106C [component: COM0]
Warning: Frame
occurred 14 times first in uart.cpp[83]
during thread: 00019F60 [AbsTimerT]
object pointer: 106C [component: COM0]
The Break and Frame warnings mean that most likely you have turned
your PC off and on again. This causes no trouble and you can clear the
warnings.
Warning: Device reset
occurred 1 times first in c:/libs/MAWS/adcl/kernel/
idle.cpp[52]
during thread: 00001694 [Idle]
object pointer: 163C [component: Idle]
The above warning means that you have reset MAWS. This causes no
trouble and you can clear the warning. If you have not reset MAWS and
the warning still occurs, contact Vaisala technical support (see section
Technical Support on page 206).
Warning: Data missing
occurred 2 times first in h:/MAWS/software/adcl/report/
confrep.cpp[414]
during thread: 00019C0C [AbsTimerT]
object pointer: 33A94 [component: MyRep1]
If you receive the above warning, check that sname, pslevel, and
altitude are set.
To see active errors, type errors. To clear active errors, type errors
clear. Errors indicate that there is something wrong with the sensors or
configuration. Write down the error information and contact Vaisala
technical support.
200 __________________________________________________________________M210630EN-B
Chapter 7 ___________________________________________________________ Troubleshooting
System Information
You can acquire a report that contains system information by using the
SYSINFO command in MAWS Terminal. The command lists
parameters that are useful especially when troubleshooting the system .
Example:
/ > SYSINFO
Serial #
: 59289091
Hardware
: Rev F
Software
: 3.02
Checksum : 61577576
System RAM
: 1024kB
Free memory
: 583kB
Internal temp. : 3.13'C
Active errors
: NO
Active warnings : NO
Piggyback - 0
: DSU232 rev: B serial no: 009513
Piggyback - 1
: N/A
Extension board : QMC102 rev: B serial no: V37306
System uptime : 65h 20min 27sec since Fri Jan 10 16:35:39
2003
/ >
where
Serial #
=
The serial number of the logger PCB.
Hardware
=
The hardware revision of the logger PCB.
Software
=
The software version for the operating software
and its checksum.
System RAM
=
The total amount of memory on the logger.
Free memory
=
The amount of free memory on the logger.
Internal temp.
=
The internal temperature of the logger.
Active errors
=
The existence of active errors: YES/NO
Active warnings =
The existence of active warnings: YES/NO
Piggyback - 0
=
The type and serial number of the additional
module installed in the module slot 1.
Piggyback - 1
=
The type and serial number of the additional
module installed in the module slot 2.
Extension board =
The type and serial number of the optionally
installed memory expansion board.
System uptime
The total time that the system has been running,
calculated from the last reset.
=
VAISALA ______________________________________________________________________ 201
User's Guide ______________________________________________________________________
Battery Status
You can view battery status information by giving the command
battery without parameters.
NOTE
The battery command applies only to the internal battery of the
logger.
Example:
/ > battery
Remaining=100
State=FLOAT_CHARGE
U=6.850195
I=2.685547
Type=PB_BATTERY
Capacity=1.200000
Ext.DC=8.132420
Internal temperature=23.511668
Battery voltage (U) and voltage at the +ExtDC terminal are given as
volts, charging current (I) as milliamperes and capacity as amperehours. The remaining percentage shows how much energy is left in the
battery.
If you suspect that the internal battery or the charging circuitry is
defective, try the following:
-
Check that the battery capacity is correct and change it with
battery [capacity] command, if necessary. If the capacity setting is
too low, the battery simply charges slowly. In the opposite case, the
battery may be damaged due to too high charging.
-
Check the battery voltage, ExtDC voltage and charging current.
ExtDC should be higher than battery voltage for charging. If it is
lower, battery is discharging and charging current shows negative
value. Normally, battery voltage should vary between 5.8 and 7.0
volts and it may rise as high as 7.5 volts during quick charge (for
lead batteries).
202 __________________________________________________________________M210630EN-B
Chapter 7 ___________________________________________________________ Troubleshooting
Measurement Enable or Disable
You can manually enable or disable all measurement inputs and
sensors. You can use this feature for example for the following
purposes:
-
Remotely change the readings of a faulty sensor to be flagged as
invalid.
-
Mark all sensor readings invalid during maintenance operation.
Use the following commands in the service connection to change the
flagging:
enable <Measurement Name>
disable <Measurement Name>
where
enable
=
Enables the measurement inputs or sensors.
disable
=
Disables the measurement inputs or sensors.
Measurement Name =
NOTE
The measurement name from the
Configuration view of MAWS Lizard.
For sensors that use more than one input channel, you need to enter
separate commands for each measurement. For example, you need to
control separately the TA and RH measurements of the QMH101
sensor.
Examples:
>\
>\
>\
>\
disable RHMeasQMH101_1
disable TAMeasQMH101_1
disable WMS302_1
enable PWD11_1
VAISALA ______________________________________________________________________ 203
User's Guide ______________________________________________________________________
Upon successful completion of the commands MAWS returns:
Successfully disabled
or
Successfully enabled
Any other returned values indicate an error.
When the measurement input is disabled:
-
All other output values than status have undefined values.
-
Sensor status shows disabled; refer to the updated list of the
sensor statuses in Table 16 on page 132.
-
Value status shows INVALID and NOT AVAILABLE.
Battery Regulator
Table 31
Battery LEDs
LED
Color
Explanation
Battery status LED
Green
Blank
Green
Orange
Red
Charging
Not charging
OK
Low
DC off
Charge LED
Solar Panel
Table 32
Troubleshooting the Solar Panel
Problem
Probable Cause
Remedy
The power output has
decreased.
The module surface is dirty
Gently clean it with a soft cloth or
sponge using water and mild
detergent.
204 __________________________________________________________________M210630EN-B
Chapter 7 ___________________________________________________________ Troubleshooting
Combined Wind Sensor
Table 33
Problem
Troubleshooting Combined Wind Sensor
Probable Cause
The data is not received The sensor is mechanically
from the sensor.
damaged.
The sensor is not powered properly.
Remedy
Check the cables and connectors.
Check that the supply voltage is from
3 to 15 VDC.
Air Temperature and Relative Humidity Sensor
Table 34
Troubleshooting the Air Temperature and Relative
Humidity Sensor
Problem
Probable Cause
Remedy
You receive no data.
The data seems to be
incorrect.
Cable is not connected.
The installation site is not correct.
Check the cable connection.
Select a new location according to
the installation instructions.
Calibrate the probe according to the
separate instructions.
The probe requires calibration.
Soil Temperature Sensor
Table 35
Some Common Problems of QMT107 and their
Remedies
Problem
Probable Cause
Remedy
You receive no data.
Improper cable connection.
The probe is not powered.
Check cable connection.
Check the presence and correctness
of the line voltage.
Check cable integrity.
Drill a new hole for the probe.
The data you receive
seems to be incorrect.
Cable failure.
The probe in not properly inserted.
VAISALA ______________________________________________________________________ 205
User's Guide ______________________________________________________________________
Technical Support
When contacting Vaisala technical support, please send the following
information with your technical enquiry or description of a fault:
-
Serial number of the MAWS logger.
-
The captured text of the SYSINFO command.
-
If you have modified the setup file, and the setup is possibly
defected, please send also the captured MAWS_Terminal.log file
and the setup file (.dtg). Refer to MAWS Lizard User’s Guide for
instructions on how to export a setup file.
For technical questions, contact the Vaisala technical support:
E-mail
helpdesk@vaisala.com
Fax
+358 9 8949 2790
If the product needs repair, please follow the instructions below to
speed up the process and to avoid extra costs to you.
NOTE
1.
Read the warranty information.
2.
Contact Vaisala technical support via e-mail or fax and request for
RMA (Return Material Authorization) and shipping instructions.
3.
Proceed as instructed by Vaisala technical support.
RMA must always be requested from Vaisala technical support before
returning any faulty material.
206 __________________________________________________________________M210630EN-B
Chapter 8 ____________________________________________________________ Technical Data
CHAPTER 8
TECHNICAL DATA
This chapter provides the technical data of MAWS and its sensors.
Connector Block Descriptions
The MAWS logger includes:
1.
Ten measurement channels and one internal channel for pressure
measurement.
2.
One connector block for power supplies.
3.
One connector block for communication channels.
4.
Two blocks for optional communication modules.
Single-ended (H-C or L-C) or differential (H-L) measurements can be
performed in the 10 measurement channels.
NOTE
Each sensor of the basic configuration has its own dedicated channel.
Table 36 on page 208 is to be used for reference purposes only.
VAISALA ______________________________________________________________________ 207
User's Guide ______________________________________________________________________
Table 36
Description of Analog Measurement Channels
Channels
Pin name
Description
CH0, CH1, CH2,
CH3 16-bit ADC
E
12 V / 25 mA voltage excitation ON/OFF,
voltage can be measured. OR: 100mA/
1mA current excitation.
Analog input (High)
Analog input (Low)
The pin has been connected to ground
(GND) via a 10 Ω resistor so that the
current can be measured.
100 mA / 1 mA current excitation
Analog input (High)
Analog input (Low)
Common return and reference level for
voltage measurements via the channel's
own E-, H- and L-pins. The pin has been
connected directly to ground.
Frequency input
0 ... 12 V / 20 mA adjustable excitation
voltage, can be measured.
Fast analog input (High)
Fast analog input (Low)
Common return (Analog ground)
H
L
C
CH4, CH5, CH6,
CH7 16-bit ADC
E
H
L
C
CHA, CHB Suitable F
for fast-changing
E
input signals 12-bit
ADC
H
L
C
Table 37
Description of the Power Channel
Pin name
Description
GND
+BATT
GND
+ExtDC
Ground
5 ... 14 V
Ground
8 ... 16 V
208 __________________________________________________________________M210630EN-B
Chapter 8 ____________________________________________________________ Technical Data
Figure 150
0401-247
Connector Blocks
VAISALA ______________________________________________________________________ 209
User's Guide ______________________________________________________________________
Wiring Instructions
For the basic set of sensors, wiring has been done at the factory
according to Figure 151 on page 211. The numbers next to the plug
connectors indicate poles for connection wires.
For the wiring diagram of MAWS201 equipped with Weather
Transmitter WXT510, see Figure 152 on page 212.
Do not change the wiring between the connectors and logger pins. For
special deliveries or with some sensors, a separate wiring diagram is
supplied in order to help you connect the sensor wires to correct
connectors.
210 __________________________________________________________________M210630EN-B
Chapter 8 ____________________________________________________________ Technical Data
Figure 151
0404-023
MAWS101/MAWS201 Basic Wiring Diagram
VAISALA ______________________________________________________________________ 211
User's Guide ______________________________________________________________________
Figure 152
0505-249
Basic Wiring Diagram for MAWS201 with WXT510
212 __________________________________________________________________M210630EN-B
Chapter 8 ____________________________________________________________ Technical Data
DSU232
DSU232 is an unisolated RS-232 module that will provide either a
double serial channel without handshaking or a single RS-232 with
handshaking. It can also feed 12 V (45 mA) for a serial sensor, when
used in sensor mode.
0401-253
Figure 153
DSU232 Wiring Diagram
Figure 154
Suggested T-connection in Dual Port Mode
0401-254
DSI485A
The DSI485A communication module can be configured either for a 2wire line or for a 4-wire line when the receive and transmit lines are
separated. If the module is configured for a 2-wire line, the transmitter
is enabled only during the transmission. Normally, the 2-wire
VAISALA ______________________________________________________________________ 213
User's Guide ______________________________________________________________________
connection is used to connect several devices to the same
communication line. The 4-wire mode is the default mode.
Figure 155
9812-001
NOTE
DSI485A Wiring Diagram
In 2-wire mode, only T+ and T- pins are used.
DSI486
Channel A is always used in the RS-485 mode. In 2-wire RS-485, both
transmitted and received data is sent via this channel. In 4-wire RS-485
this channel can either transmit or receive depending on the
configuration. Jumper X4 defines the line terminating resistor for the
data channel A. Remove the jumper X4 if you do not need the
terminating resistor of DSI486. Figure 156 on page 214 provides a
schematic wiring diagram for dual RS-485.
Figure 156
0201-048
DSI486 Wiring Diagram for Dual RS-485
214 __________________________________________________________________M210630EN-B
Chapter 8 ____________________________________________________________ Technical Data
Channel B can be used either in the RS-485 mode or in the RS-232
mode. In 2-wire RS-485, both transmitted and received data is sent via
this channel. In 4-wire RS-485, this channel can either transmit or
receive depending on the configuration.
Figure 156 on page 214 provides a schematic wiring diagram for the
dual RS-485 connection, the dual 2-wire connection utilizing both
channels. The correct jumper settings for the channel B are listed in
Table 38 on page 215. The jumpers are located on the module as
illustrated in Figure 157 on page 215.
Table 38
The Jumper Settings for Channel B in the RS-485
Mode
Jumper
Connected
Pins
Function
X3
1-2
3-4
1-2
1-2
Sets the RS-485 mode active for the channel
B.
X6
X5
Figure 157
0201-049
The line terminating resistor is in use with RS485.
DSI486 Default Jumper Locations
VAISALA ______________________________________________________________________ 215
User's Guide ______________________________________________________________________
Figure 158
0201-050
DSI486 Wiring Diagram for RS-485 and RS-232
Figure 158 on page 216 provides a schematic wiring diagram for the
combination of the RS-485 and RS-232 connection. The correct jumper
settings for the channel B are listed in Table 39 on page 216.
Table 39
The Jumper Settings for Channel B in the RS-232
Mode
Jumper
Connected
Pins
Function
X3
X6
2-3
1-4
2-5
None
Sets the RS-232 mode active for the channel B.
X5
The line terminating resistor is not in use at all.
The DSI486 module also provides an SDI-12 connection. The SDI-12
line uses one wire for data and is limited to a maximum length of 60
meters. Figure 159 on page 217 provides a schematic wiring diagram
for the SDI-12 connection and the 12 VDC power supply for a sensor.
The jumper settings should be as shown in Figure 157 on page 215.
Simultaneously with the SDI-12, you can connect channels A and B in
the 2-wire RS-485 mode. If you take all three channels in use, you either
need three free connectors in the flange or an optional junction box.
216 __________________________________________________________________M210630EN-B
Chapter 8 ____________________________________________________________ Technical Data
Figure 159
0202-014
DSI486 Wiring Diagram for SDI-12 and 12 VDC
Power Supply
DMX501
The DMX501 modem module can be configured for a point-to-point
line or for a multidrop modem network. If a modem is configured for
multidrop use, the outgoing carrier is valid only during transmission. If
MAWS is the master in the multidrop network, DMX501 can be
normally configured for point-to-point use.
Figure 160
9812-002
DMX501 Wiring Diagram
VAISALA ______________________________________________________________________ 217
User's Guide ______________________________________________________________________
UHF Radio Modem
When using UHF Radio Modem SATELLINE 3AS, the DSU232
Communication Module should be used to provide an additional RS232 output for the radio modem, leaving the standard COM port
(COM0) free for maintenance purposes.
For powering of the radio modem, you need a mains (AC) power supply
or a mains/solar power supply with the backup batteries. The standard
solar panel can not supply sufficient power for the radio modem. In
addition, you have to change the wiring to be able to use the MOD1 port
and the provided cable for powering the radio modem from the
External DC (+ExtDC) of the logger.
Follow the procedure below to wire the radio modem
SATELLINE 3AS with MAWS:
1.
Remove the logger's cover and install the DSU232 communication
module to the MOD1 location.
2.
Reassemble the logger's cover.
3.
Disconnect the wires Red and Brown from the MOD1 connector
(number 2 in Figure 161 on page 218). Connect the Red wire to
GND and the Brown wire to +ExtDC terminal of the Power
connector (1).
Figure 161
0201-043
4.
Wire Modifications with Radio Modem
Connect the ready-made radio modem's cable to the port MOD1 in
the lower base of the tube.
218 __________________________________________________________________M210630EN-B
Chapter 8 ____________________________________________________________ Technical Data
NOTE
It is recommended to label these modifications so that no other
equipment is connected to MOD1 by mistake. The 12 VDC voltage
may damage some equipment.
5.
Configure the radio modem with MAWS Lizard. Refer to
Configuring Modem Options Technical Reference for instructions.
Connector Adapters
Figure 162
0105-063
Connector Adapters
With some sensors, you have to install a connector adapter between the
connector on the logger and the cable connector. The sensor-specific
connector adapters are listed in Table 40 on page 219.
Table 40
Sensor Specific Connector Adapters
Connector Adapter
Sensor(s)
QLA001
QLA002
QLA003
QLA004
QLW101 Leaf Wetness Sensor
DRD11A Rain Indication Sensor
DSU12 Sunshine Duration Sensor
DCU7110 Ultrasonic Water Level Sensor
DCU7210 Ultrasonic Snow Level Sensor
QFM101 Fuel Moisture Sensor
ECH2O-M3 Soil Moisture Sensor
QLA005
QLA008
VAISALA ______________________________________________________________________ 219
User's Guide ______________________________________________________________________
Soil Moisture Sensor
Soil moisture sensor uses one analog channel of the logger. You should
connect the cutted sensor cable to the appropriate channel.
1.
Pull the sensor cable close to the logger enclosure. Cut the cable to
a proper length. Thread the cable through the connector parts in the
indicated order 1-2-3-4. See Figure 163 on page 220.
Figure 163
9806-015
2.
Assembling the Connector
Strip the sensor cable wires and connect them to connector
terminals according to Table 41 on page 220. Make sure that the
spring of the lead-in connector is in good contact with the shield.
Assemble the connector and connect it to the appropriate connector
of the logger enclosure.
Table 41
Cable Pins of Soil Moisture Sensor ML2x
Pin Number
Wire Color
Signal
1
2
3
4
Red
Yellow
Blue
Green
Supply, +
Signal HI
Supply, Signal LO
220 __________________________________________________________________M210630EN-B
Chapter 8 ____________________________________________________________ Technical Data
Fuel Moisture/Fuel Temperature
Sensor
Fuel Moisture/Fuel Temperature Sensor uses two analog channels of
the logger: one for temperature measurement and the other for moisture
measurement. Moisture is measured via one of the channels CH1 to
CH3. You should connect the sensor cable to the appropriate channel.
Temperature is measured with one of the channels CH4 to CH7 and
therefore you should modify the wiring as instructed below:
1.
Loosen and remove two hand screws beneath the tube. Slide the
tube down to expose the logger.
2.
Select one of the analog channels, CH1 ... CH3, and place the
connector to the selected input channel at the logger. The exact
channel depends on your configuration.
3.
Remove the connector from the selected temperature measurement
channel, that is, one of the channels CH4 ... CH7. The removed
cables and their connector are not needed. Insert adapter QLA005
to the channel and place the connector on top of it.
Figure 164
0201-040
Adapter Installed to Connector
VAISALA ______________________________________________________________________ 221
User's Guide ______________________________________________________________________
4.
Modify the wiring according to Table 42 on page 222.
Table 42
Modified Wiring with QFM101
Wire
Color
Standard Connection
Pin at the Logger
Modified Connection Pin at the
Logger
Red
Not connected.
Brown
E
White
H
Black
L
Blue
C
Connect the wire to the terminal C of the
selected temperature measurement
channel (CH4 ... CH7).
Leave as is. This wire is used for the
moisture measurement.
Leave as is. This wire is used for the
moisture measurement.
Move the wire to the terminal E of the
selected temperature channel (CH4 ...
CH7).
Leave as is. This wire is used for the
moisture measurement.
5.
Connect the signal cable to the modified connector.
Charging of Internal Battery
The data logger has an internal battery charger circuitry that has a
programmable charging voltage of 4.5 to 9.9 V and four selectable
current limits: 100 mA, 300 mA, 500 mA, and 700 mA. The MAWS
charger is capable of handling 6 V lead batteries from 1.2 Ah up to
2.6 Ah.
Charging voltage and charger input voltage (+ExtDC) can be measured
with 1 % accuracy and charging current can be measured with 5 %
accuracy. The charger is protected against reverse input voltage and
temperature. In addition, it has internal reverse current blocking to
facilitate using solar cells without a blocking diode.
Power Supply and Battery Types
Battery Sensing
When the logger first starts or resets, it tries to sense the battery type that
is connected to its internal battery connector (4-pin header connector at
PCB near POWER connector). This connector has two sense pins that
222 __________________________________________________________________M210630EN-B
Chapter 8 ____________________________________________________________ Technical Data
are used by charger software to automatically detect the type of the
connected battery.
External Power Supply
The external DC supply is always connected to POWER connector pins
+ExtDC and GND. The external power supply can be either regulated
or unregulated DC supply (8 ... 30 V) or a solar cell if internal battery is
present. To avoid excessive heating, 8 ... 16 V is recommended.
The required current capability depends considerably on the MAWS
configuration. If there are no optional sensors or other add-ons (radios,
modems, etc.) that require constant powering and measurement
intervals are long (1 minute or more for humidity, temperature, and
pressure), even a few dozen milliamperes are enough to keep the system
alive and slowly charge the battery. If there is no internal battery, then
at least a 200 mA capability is recommended to avoid resetting due to
possible current peaks. If the quickest possible battery charging is
required, then a 1A power supply is recommended.
NOTE
The condition when external DC supply is used without an internal
battery is automatically detected. In this case, the charger sets its
output voltage to 9.9 V to enable maximum efficiency and minimum
current consumption from supplies of 12 VDC or higher.
Solar Cell
When the solar cell is used as an external power supply, a few things
should be kept in mind:
NOTE
-
Always use solar cell in combination with lead battery.
-
To achieve the highest possible efficiency, a 6 to 8 V solar cell is
recommended.
You can use a 12 V solar cell. However, half of the delivered energy
is lost as heat in the linear charger regulator.
VAISALA ______________________________________________________________________ 223
User's Guide ______________________________________________________________________
Lead Batteries
The charger is capable of charging from 1.2 to 2.6 Ah, 6 V lead acid
batteries. There is room for one 1.2 Ah or 1.3 Ah battery in the logger
battery compartment, and with QMB102 you can add another 1.2/
1.3 Ah battery. If larger capacity is required, additional batteries must
be connected to the POWER connector terminals GND and +BATT.
Internal and external batteries can be present at the same time; they are
essentially paralleled. For protection, an automatic self-recovering fuse
is used.
CAUTION
The battery protection fuse may trip if internal and external batteries
have very different charge states when connecting them. This is due to
current flowing from one battery to the other. This condition ceases
when the battery voltages reach a balance after one or several triprecover cycles.
To be able to charge the lead battery efficiently, the charger must know
the total capacity of the connected lead batteries. This capacity setting
is done with the following command:
battery [capacity]
Where capacity is the battery capacity in Ah. This value is also saved as
a static parameter and is not lost if the logger is reset or unpowered.
CAUTION
If too large of a capacity value is used, the battery may be permanently
damaged due to excessive charge current.
Primary Cells
Primary (non-rechargeable) cells from 6 to 9 V are most suitable for use
with the logger. The standard battery alternative for MAWS is a dual
cell lithium battery that has a nominal voltage of 7.2 V, a 35 Ah capacity
and a very wide temperature range. Common alkaline cells (4 to 6 cells
in series) in a suitable battery holder can be used as well.
These batteries do not generally fit into the internal battery
compartment. Therefore they have to be connected to the POWER
connector terminals GND and +BATT.
224 __________________________________________________________________M210630EN-B
Chapter 8 ____________________________________________________________ Technical Data
NOTE
Short pins 3 and 4 in the internal battery connector with jumper or
preferably use a special pin header for correct battery type sensing.
If the primary cell setting is detected, the charger circuitry of the logger
is completely shut off to protect the battery from reverse currents.
CAUTION
Never connect voltages higher than 10 V between the terminals
+BATT and GND as this may damage the logger electronics.
Lead Battery Charger Operation
The charger has three operating modes when a lead battery is detected:
Normal Charge, Quick Charge and Float Charge. When the logger
starts, it first checks the battery type, and if lead is found, the charging
task starts and is performed once a minute.
NOTE
If the internal temperature of the logger is below -20 °C (-4 °F), the
charging current is limited to 100 mA regardless of the battery
capacity.
Normal Charging
At first, the charging task always enters Normal Charging mode. In
Normal Charge, charging voltage is set to 6.85 V corrected with
temperature coefficient. Charging current is set to 300 mA, 500 mA, or
700 mA depending on the battery capacity.
If the battery is accepting certain amount of charging current and there
is enough energy available at +ExtDC input, the charging task enters
Quick Charge mode. In the opposite case, when the charging current
drops below 0.0075 CA, even if more energy would be available, the
charging task enters Float Charge mode.
If the battery is discharging (charging current is negative), the charging
task always enters Normal Charge mode.
NOTE
After powering up or reset, it takes several minutes to calculate the
remaining capacity of the battery if the charger remains in Normal
Charge mode.
VAISALA ______________________________________________________________________ 225
User's Guide ______________________________________________________________________
Quick Charging
The purpose of the Quick Charge mode is to fill the battery as quickly
as possible using a specified quick charge voltage for lead batteries. In
Quick Charge, the charging voltage is set to 7.35 V corrected with
temperature coefficient. Charging current is typically the same or one
step higher as in Normal Charge mode.
NOTE
Quick charging is not fully possible for batteries having more than
6 Ah capacity, due to the limited maximum current of the logger’s
charger.
When the charging current drops below 0.075 A, the charger task enters
Normal Charge mode. It also sets the remaining capacity to 90 % if
current dropping was caused by battery filling up rather than missing
energy at +ExtDC terminal.
During Quick Charge, the remaining capacity can be reliably estimated
only after a certain amount of time. This is when the charging voltage
has reached the limit and the current has started to decrease. At this
point, the remaining capacity is roughly 60 %. Normally, this point
should be reached within two hours if the battery was completely
empty.
NOTE
If an empty battery (with a voltage less than 5.5 V initially) starts
charging and reaches the 60 % limit very quickly (or does not even
Quick Charge), it is probably damaged and should be replaced to
ensure reliable operation.
Float Charging
When the charger task enters the Float Charge mode, the battery is
considered to be full and the remaining capacity is set to 100 %.
Charging voltage is set to 6.85 V corrected with temperature
coefficient. Current limit is always 100 mA in Float Charge.
If the battery starts to discharge, the charger task enters the Normal
Charge mode.
226 __________________________________________________________________M210630EN-B
Chapter 8 ____________________________________________________________ Technical Data
Temperature Protection
The charger protects lead batteries from extreme temperatures by
limiting the charge current or shutting the charger completely off under
certain conditions. This helps to prolong expected battery life.
If the internal temperature of the logger rises higher than +50 °C
(122 °F), the charger shuts completely off and battery status shows
"CHARGE_OFF".
NOTE
Battery manufacturers strictly forbid charging of their lead batteries
above +50 °C (122 °F).
When the internal temperature of the logger drops below -20 °C (-4 °F),
the charging current is limited to 100 mA to avoid unnecessary gas
generation. Lead type batteries do not accept charging energy well at
low temperatures. They loose the excess energy by generating gas. This
may shorten the battery life. Normally, the 100 mA limit should not
cause any problems, as the average current consumption of the logger
is much lower.
VAISALA ______________________________________________________________________ 227
User's Guide ______________________________________________________________________
Specifications
AWS Logger QML201
Table 43
AWS Logger QML201 General Specifications
Property
Description/Value
Processor
Memory
A/D conversion
Data logging memory
33 MHz, 32 bit Motorola
1MB RAM and 2 MB program
16 bit
1.6 MB internal Flash memory
Up to 2 GB on optional Compact Flash
memory card
10 Analog inputs (20 single ended inputs)
2 counter / frequency inputs
Internal channel for PMT16A pressure
transducer
Sensor inputs
Serial communication
standard
optional
speed
parameters
Voltage (external powering)
Internal battery QMB101
Power consumption
Temperature (operating)
Temperature (storage)
Humidity
One RS-232 and one RS-485 (two wire)
Two optional plug-in slots for
communication modules to increase the
number of the serial I/O channels up to 6
pcs
Fast serial expansion bus for connecting,
e.g., QMI108 and QMD210
300 ... 38400 bps
Configurable speed, start bits, data bits,
stop bits, parity, XON/XOFF, and check
sum
8 ... 16 VDC recommended (30 V max.)
1.2 Ah / 6 V
< 10 mA / 6 V (typically with basic 5
sensors)
-40 ... +60 °C (-40 ... 140 °F)
-50 ... +70 °C (-58 ... 158 °F)
0 ... 100 % RH
228 __________________________________________________________________M210630EN-B
Chapter 8 ____________________________________________________________ Technical Data
Table 44
AWS Logger QML201 Accuracy Specifications
Property
Description/Value
Typical accuracy across
temperature range -50 ... +80
°C
Maximum error across
temperature range -35 ... +50
°C
Maximum error at 0 °C
Voltage measurement
±2.5 V range
±250 mV range
±25 mV range
±6.5 mV range
Frequency measurements
Common mode range
Real-time-clock (standard)
accuracy
back-up time
Better than ± 0.06 °C
Table 45
Less than ± 0.12 °C
Less than ± 0.06 °C
Better than 0.04% of reading ± 150 µV
Better than 0.06% of reading ± 20 µV
Better than 0.06% of reading ± 6 µV
Better than 0.12% of reading ± 6 µV
±0.003 % + resolution up to 8 kHz
+5 V / -4 V
Better than 20 s/month
5 years minimum with CR1220 Lithium cell
AWS Logger QML201 Regulatory Compliances
Property
Description/Value
Emissions
ESD immunity
RF field immunity
EFT immunity
Surge (lightning pulse)
Conducted RF immunity
CISPR 22 class B (EN55022)
IEC 61000-4-2
IEC 61000-4-3
IEC 61000-4-4
IEC 61000-4-5
IEC 61000-4-6
Internal Battery
Table 46
Internal Battery Specifications
Property
Description/Value
Type
Nominal voltage
Nominal capacity
Self discharge
Expected lifetime
Dimensions l × w × d
Installation
Weight
Sealed. Lead-acid
6V
1.2 or 1.3 Ah
< 3% / month
4 ... 6 years, temp. dependent
97 × 54.5 × 25 mm (3.8 × 2.1 × 1 in.)
DIN-rail
0.4 kg (0.9 lb.)
VAISALA ______________________________________________________________________ 229
User's Guide ______________________________________________________________________
Power Supplies
Table 47
Mains Power Supply QMP213 Specifications
Property
Description/Value
Mains power input range
90 ... 264 VAC, 0.25 A max., 50 ... 60
Hz
2 × 0.315 AT replaceable glass tube
fuse, 5 × 20 mm
Transient protection with 275V/55J VDR
across the line
No mains cable included in std. delivery.
Recommended wiring with a 2-wire
cable (L, N) with no PE-wire; lead
dimension 0.75 ... 1.5 mm2; max. cable
diameter 7 mm.
12 VDC ±5 %
2.5 A max.
Short-circuit proof; transient protection
with 14V/3J VDR across the o/p
Included is an o/p cable with black
polyurethane sheath and a female 4pole plug (12M std.).
94 × 130 × 58 mm (3.7 × 5.1 × 2.3 in.)
130 × 200 × 85 mm (5.1 × 7.9 × 3.3 in.)
Input fuses
Input protection
Input wiring
Output voltage
Output current
Output protection
Output wiring
Enclosure dimensions w × h × d
Enclosure dimensions incl.
mounting fixture w × h × d
Enclosure material
Mounting
Weight
Humidity
Operating temperature
Storage temperature
PC reinforced w. glassfiber, color gray,
environmental class, IP66
To a Ø 60 or Ø 100 mm (2.36 or 3.94 in.)
pole mast or to the tripod leg
0.5 kg (1.1 lb.)
0 ... 100 %RH
-40 ... +55 °C (-40 ... 131 F°)
-50 ... +70 °C (-58 ... 158 F°)
230 __________________________________________________________________M210630EN-B
Chapter 8 ____________________________________________________________ Technical Data
Table 48
Mains Power Supply Unit BWT15SXZ
Specifications
Property
Description/Value
Output power
Operating principle
Input voltage range
Frequency range
Input current on full load
110 VAC
220 VAC
Output voltage
Output current
Efficiency
Noise, ripple, and spikes
30 W
SMPS
85 … 264 VAC
47 … 440 Hz
Input regulation effect 85 … 264
VAC
Load regulation effect 0 … 2 A
Temperature coefficient
Output voltage rise time
Hold-up time
Over current protection
Switching frequency (110V/230V)
Electrical strength/ isolation:
Input - Output
Input - Chassis
Output - Chassis
Input - Output - Chassis
resistance
Leakage current
Operating temperature range
Weight (chassis included)
Approvals
0.6 A
0.4 A
+15 V, adjustable ± 10%
2A
80 %
±1 % + 50 mVp-p, max.
±0.8 % max.
±0.9 % max.
±0.03 %/°C
200 ms max. at +25 °C
20 ms min. at +25 °C
Fold-back, automatic recovering
50 kHz / 80 kHz
3 kV AC, 1 minute
2.5 kV AC, 1 minute
500 V AC, 1 minute
50 MΩ minimum
0.75 mA max.
-40 ... +60 °C (-40 ... 140 °F)
250 g (0.55 lb.)
UL 1950; CSA 234 (IEC 950); VDE805;
EN 60959 (IEC 950); CE - EMC 89/336
EEC - LVD 73/23 EEC
VAISALA ______________________________________________________________________ 231
User's Guide ______________________________________________________________________
Table 49
Battery Regulator QBR101B Specifications
Property
Description/Value
Maximum input voltage (SMPS and
Solar Panel inputs)
Maximum input current (SMPS)
Solar panel input
Recommended input voltage from
SMPS input
Max. load current (backup output)
Recommended battery capacity
range
Battery charge current for 4 Ah
battery
Max. battery discharge current
Battery charge voltage selection
(with external resistor)
Battery charge temp. comp.
Coefficient
Load disconnection threshold
voltage (with Lo Btry Switch)
Load reconnection threshold
voltage
Btry Low signal threshold voltage
Self consumption from battery (with
LEDs disconnected)
Ground connection
Reverse voltage protection
Dimensions w × d × h
30 VDC
Weight
Housing
Wire terminals
- battery and load wires
6A
55 W max.
16 VDC
3.5 A
4 … 72 Ah
0.5 A (selections 0.5 / 1.0 / 2.0 / 2.5 A)
3.5 A
13.7 V
-20 mV/°C typ.
10.0 V typ.
12.0 V typ.
11.5 V typ.
0.2 mA max. @ +25 °C
Negative
Battery, solar panel
90 × 80 × 25 mm
(3.5 × 3.1 × 1 in.)
0.1 kg (0.2 lb.)
Anodized aluminum, gray
Screw terminals, removable
2.5 mm2
- solar panel, DC input, and controls 1.5 mm2
MTBF (parts stress method,
> 150 000 hours
MIL.HDBK 271F ground benign Ta
+25 °C)
232 __________________________________________________________________M210630EN-B
Chapter 8 ____________________________________________________________ Technical Data
Solar Panel
Specifications
Table 50
Solar Panel SOLAR6 Specifications
Property
Description/Value
Peak power (Pp) @ 1 kW/m2 @
+25 °C
Voltage @ peak power (Vpp)
Current @ peak power (Ipp)
Short-circuit current (Isc)
Dimensions l x w x d
6W
Weight, incl. mounting accessories
Output cable
8.3 V
0.72 A
0.8 A
346 x 268 x 5 mm
(13.6 x 10.6 x 0.2 in.)
2.8 kg (6.2 lb.)
0.9 m (35 in.) connector included
RS-232 Module
Specifications
Table 51
Unisolated RS-232 Communication Module DSU232
Specifications
Property
Description/Value
Channels
DUART
Operating modes
Two RS-232
Internal
Dual RS-232
Single RS-232 mode with hardware flow
control (RTS/CTS)
Single RS-232 with power supply feed-through
Power supply feed-through 5 V ... 30 V, 1A max
Power consumption
idle
5 mA
active
15 mA max
Temperature (operating)
-40 ... +60 °C (-40 ... 140 °F)
Temperature (storage)
-50 ... +70 °C (-58 ... 158 °F)
Humidity
0 ... 100 % RH
VAISALA ______________________________________________________________________ 233
User's Guide ______________________________________________________________________
RS-485 Modules
Specifications
Table 52
Isolated Communication Module DSI485A
Specifications
Property
Description/Value
Channels
Isolation
Operating modes
One RS-485
Galvanic
2-wire RS-485
4-wire RS-485
Power consumption
idle
receiving
transmitting
Connection distance (max.)
Temperature (operating)
Temperature (storage)
Humidity
Table 53
5 mA
10 mA
20 mA
1500 m (4900 ft.)
-40 ... +60 °C (-40 ... +140 °F)
-50 ... +70 °C (-58 ... +158 °F)
0 ... 100 % RH
Dual-isolated Communication Module DSI486
Specifications
Property
Channels
channel A
channel B
SDI
Isolation
Operating modes
Power consumption
idle
operating
Connection distance (max.)
Temperature (operating)
Temperature (storage)
Humidity
Description/Value
RS-485
RS-232 or RS-485
SDI-12
Galvanic
Two 2-wire RS-485 and SDI-12
2-wire RS-485, RS-232, and SDI-12
2.8 ... 4.3 mA
10.6 ... 12.4 mA
1500 m (4900 ft.)
-40 ... +60 °C (-40 ... +140 °F)
-50 ... +70 °C (-58 ... +158 °F)
0 ... 100 % RH
234 __________________________________________________________________M210630EN-B
Chapter 8 ____________________________________________________________ Technical Data
Modem Module
Specifications
Table 54
DMX501 Specifications
Property
Description/Value
Modem chip
Modem chip crystal
frequency
USART clock frequency
Register access
Connection
73K324L
11.0592 MHz
Modem protocols
Line interface
TxControl signal
Supply voltage
Current consumption
Reset / power-down
Operation
Transmit level
Distance between modules
Operating and storage
temperature
Humidity
11.0592 MHz / 2
Operated through an 8-bit bus interface
2-wire
Point-to-point line or
Multidrop modem network
V.21, 300 bps FSK
V.23, 1200 / 75 bps FSK
V.22, 1200 bps DPSK
Matched to 600 Ω
Configurable
5 V (+4.75 ... +5.50 V)
9 mA
26 mA
-10 dBm
19 km (~12 mi.) with 26 AWG standard cable
-50 ... +70 °C (-58 ... 158 °F)
0 ... 100 %RH, non condensing
VAISALA ______________________________________________________________________ 235
User's Guide ______________________________________________________________________
UHF Radio Modem
Specifications
Table 55
Radio Modem SATELLINE 3AS Specifications
Property
Description/Value
Frequency range
Channel spacing
Number of channels
Frequency stability
Type of emission
Communication mode
Carrier power
Carrier power stability
Adjacent channel power
Spurious radiations
Sensitivity
Co-channel rejection
Adjacent channel
selectivity
Intermodulation attenuation
Spurious radiations
Interface
Interface connector
Data speed of RS interface
Data speed of radio
interface
Data formats
Operating voltage
Power consumption
380 ... 470 MHz
12.5 / 25 kHz
160 / 80
< ±1.5 kHz
F1D
Half-duplex
10 mW ... 1 W / 50 Ω
+2 dB / -3 dB
acc. to EN 300 220-1 / ETS 300 113
acc. to EN 300 220-1 / ETS 300 113
-116 ... -110 dBm (BER < 10 E-3)
> -12 dB
> 60 dB /> 70 dB
Temperature range
Antenna connector
Construction
Dimensions h x w x d
Installation plate
Weight
> 65 dB
< 2 nW
RS-232 or RS-422, RS-485
D 15, female
300 ... 38 400 bps
19 200 bps (25 kHz channel) 9600 bps (12,5
kHz channel)
Asynchronous data
+9 ... + 30 VDC
1.8 VA typical (receive)
6.0 VA typical (transmit)
0.05 VA typical (when DTR is "0")
-25 ... +55 °C (-13 ... +131 °F)
TNC, 50 Ω, female
Aluminum enclosure
137 × 67 × 29 mm (5.4 × 2.6 × 1.1 in.)
130 × 63 × 1 mm (5.1 × 2.5 × 5/128 in.)
250 g (0.55 lb.)
236 __________________________________________________________________M210630EN-B
Chapter 8 ____________________________________________________________ Technical Data
Weather Transmitter
Performance
Table 56
Barometric Pressure
Property
Description/Value
Range
Accuracy
Output resolution
Units available
600...1100 hPa
± 0.5 hPa at 0...30°C (+32...+86 °F)
± 1 hPa at -52...+60 °C (-60...+140 °F)
hPa, Pa, bar, mmHg, inHg
Table 57
Air Temperature
Property
Description/Value
Range
-52...+60 °C (-60...+140 °F)
Accuracy (for sensor element) ± 0.3 °C
at +20 °C (+68 °F)
For accuracy over temperature
range, see the following graph
Output resolution
0.1 °C (0.1 °F)
Units available
°C, °F
°C
0.7
0.6
0.5
0.4
0.3
0.2
0.1
0
°C
-0.1
-0.2
-0.3
-0.4
-0.5
-0.6
-0.7
-80
-60
Figure 165
0505-209
-40
-20
0
20
40
60
80
Accuracy Over Temperature Range
VAISALA ______________________________________________________________________ 237
User's Guide ______________________________________________________________________
Table 58
Precipitation
Property
Description/Value
Rainfall
Cumulative accumulation after the latest
auto or manual reset
60 cm2
0.01 mm (0.001 in)
Collecting area
Output resolution
Field accuracy for daily
accumulation
Units available
Rain duration
Output resolution
Rain intensity
Range
Units available
Hail
Output resolution
Units available
Hail duration
Output resolution
Hail intensity
Output resolution
Units available
Better than 5 %1, weather dependent
mm, in
Counting each 10-second increment
whenever droplet detected
10 s
Running one minute average in 10 second
steps
0 ... 200 mm/h (broader range with reduced
accuracy)
mm/h, in/h
Cumulative amount of hits against
collecting surface
0.1 hits/cm2, (1 hits/in2), hits
hits/cm2, hits/in2, hits
Counting each 10 second increment
whenever hailstone detected
10 s
One minute running average in 10 second
steps
0.1 hits/cm2h (1 hits/in2h)
htis/cm2h, hits/in2h, hits/h
1. Due to the nature of the phenomenon, deviations caused by spatial
variations may exist in precipitation readings, especially in short time
scale. The accuracy specification does not include possible wind induced
error.
238 __________________________________________________________________M210630EN-B
Chapter 8 ____________________________________________________________ Technical Data
Table 59
Relative Humidity
Property
Description/Value
Range
Accuracy
0...100 %RH
± 3 %RH at 0 ... 90 %RH
± 5 %RH at 90 ... 100 %RH
0.1 %RH
Output resolution
PTU measuring interval
Measuring interval
Table 60
Wind
Property
Wind speed
Range
Response time
Available variables
Accuracy
Output resolution
Units available
Wind direction
Azimuth
Response time
Available variables
Accuracy
Output resolution
Measurement frame
Averaging time
Update interval
1...3600 s (=60 min), at one second steps
Description/Value
0...60 m/s
0.25 s
Average, maximum, and minimum
± 0.3 m/s or ± 2 % whichever is greater
0.1 m/s (km/h, mph, knots)
m/s, km/h, mph, knots
0...360°
250 ms
Average, maximum, and minimum
± 2°
1°
1...900 s (= 15 min), at one second steps,
on the basis of samples taken at 4, 2, or 1
Hz rate (configurable)
1...3600 s (= 60 min), at one second steps
VAISALA ______________________________________________________________________ 239
User's Guide ______________________________________________________________________
Operating Conditions
Table 61
Operating Conditions
Property
Description/Value
Temperature
operation
storage
Relative humidity
Pressure
Wind
Electromagnetic compatibility
-52...+60 °C (-60...+140 °F)
-60...+70 °C (-76...+158 °F)
0...100 %RH
600...1100 hPa
0...60 m/s
EN61326: 1997 + Am 1:1998 + Am2:2001
Electrical equipment for measurement,
control and laboratory use - EMC
requirements; Generic environment
Inputs and Outputs
Table 62
Inputs and Outputs
Property
Description/Value
Operation voltage
51... 30 VDC
Average power consumption
minimum
maximum
typical
Heating voltage
recommended ranges
absolute max
Digital outputs
Communication protocols
0.07 mA @ 12 VDC (SDI-12)
13 mA @ 30 VDC (constant measurement
of all parameters)
3 mA @ 12 VDC (with default measuring
intervals)
Options: DC, AC, full-wave rectified AC
12 VDC ± 20 %, 1.1 A max
24 VDC ± 20 %, 0.6 A max
68 Vp-p ± 20 % (AC), 0.6 Arms max
34 Vp ± 20 % (f/w rect. AC), 0.6 Arms max
30 VDC
84 Vp-p (AC)
42 Vp (f/w rect. AC)
SDI-12, RS-232, RS-485, RS-422
SDI-12 v1.3, ASCII automatic & polled,
NMEA 0183 v3.0 with query option
1. Below 5.3 V the measurement performance for high wind speeds may be
degraded.
240 __________________________________________________________________M210630EN-B
Chapter 8 ____________________________________________________________ Technical Data
Materials
Table 63
Materials
Property
Description/Value
Radiation shield, top, and
bottom parts
Precipitation sensor plate
Weight
Polycarbonate + 10 % glass fibre
Stainless steel (AISI 316)
650 g (1.43 lbs)
General
Table 64
General
Property
Description/Value
Self-diagnostic
Separate supervisor message, unit/status
fields to validate measurement stability
Automatic, < 5 seconds from power on to
the first valid output
Start-up
Dimensions
Figure 166
0505-210
WXT510 Dimensions in mm [inches]
VAISALA ______________________________________________________________________ 241
User's Guide ______________________________________________________________________
Combined Wind Sensor
Specifications
Table 65
Anemometer Specifications
Property
Description/Value
Sensor/Transducer type
Measuring range
Starting threshold
Distance constant
Transducer output
Accuracy
≤ 10 m/s
> 10 m/s
Transfer function, where
U = wind speed [m/s]
F = output frequency [Hz]
Dual Reed switch
0.5 ... 60 m/s (1 ... 117 kt)
< 0.4 m/s (0.8 kt)
2 m (6.6 ft)
1 Hz ~ 0.7 m/s
Table 66
±0.3 m/s (0.6 kt)
error < 2 %
U = -0.24 + F × 0.699
Vane Specifications of WMS302
Property
Description/Value
Sensor / Transducer type
Measuring range
Starting threshold
Damping ratio
Overshoot ratio
Delay distance
Accuracy
Potentiometer
0 ... 360°
< 1.0 m/s
0.3
0.4
0.6 m
Better than ±3°
Table 67
Common Specifications
Property
Description/Value
Supply voltage
Electrical connections
Body material
Cup material
3 ... 15 VDC
5-pin male with 12 mm threads
AlMgSi, gray anodized
PA, reinforced with carbon fiber;
black
PA, reinforced with glass fiber, white
-40 ... +55 °C (-40 ... +131 °F)
-60 ... +65 °C (-76 ... +149 °F)
265 × 360 mm (10.4 × 14.2 in.)
360 g (12.7 oz)
Vane material
Operating temperature
Storage temperature
Dimensions h × w
Weight
242 __________________________________________________________________M210630EN-B
Chapter 8 ____________________________________________________________ Technical Data
Table 67
Common Specifications (Continued)
Property
Description/Value
MTBF
The calculated mean time between
failure is 4.4 × 105 h for permanent
installations. The value equals to
2.27 when expressed in a failure
frequency during 106 hours of use.
Mean time to repair is 0.2 h.
MTTR
Dimensions
Figure 167
0212-228
Dimensions (in mm) of the Combined Wind Sensor
VAISALA ______________________________________________________________________ 243
User's Guide ______________________________________________________________________
Air Temperature and Relative Humidity Sensor
Specifications
Table 68
Air Temperature and Relative Humidity Sensor’s
General Specifications
Property
Description/Value
Operating temperature range
Storage temperature range
Supply voltage
Settling time
Power consumption
Output load
Weight (including package)
Housing material
Housing classification (electronics)
Sensor protection (standard)
Dimensions in mm (inches)
Emissions
-40 ... +60 °C (-40 ... +140 °F)
-40 ... +80 °C (-40 ... +176 °F)
7 ... 35 VDC
500 ms
< 4 mA
>10 kΩ (to ground)
350 g (0.77 lb.)
ABS plastic
IP 65 (NEMA 4)
Membrane filter, part no. 2787HM
See Figure 168 on page 245
Radiated interference, test setup
according to EN55022
Radiated interference (IEC 1000-4-3) Level 3 (10 V/m)
immunity
Electrostatic discharge (IEC 801-4)
Level 4
immunity
Table 69
Air Temperature and Relative Humidity Sensor’s
Temperature Specifications
Property
Description/Value
Temperature sensor
Accuracy
Output signal
Pt-100 IEC 751 1/3 Class B
< ±0.2 °C (± 0.36 °F)
Resistive four-wire connection
244 __________________________________________________________________M210630EN-B
Chapter 8 ____________________________________________________________ Technical Data
Table 70
Air Temperature and Relative Humidity Sensor’s
Humidity Specifications
Property
Description/Value
Humidity sensor
Measurement range
Output scale
Accuracy at +20 °C (+68 °F)
including non-linearity and hysteresis
HUMICAP®180
0.8 ... 100 %
0 ... 100 %RH equals to 0 ... 1 VDC
±1 % against factory references
Typical long-term stability
Temperature dependence
RH response time (90 %) at +20 °C
±2 % (0 ... 90 %RH)
±3 % (90 ... 100 %RH)
Better than 1 %RH per year
±0.05 %RH/°C
15 s with membrane filter
Dimensions
Figure 168
0201-002
Sensor Dimensions in mm (inches)
VAISALA ______________________________________________________________________ 245
User's Guide ______________________________________________________________________
Pressure Sensor
Specifications
Table 71
Pressure Sensor PMT16A Specifications
Property
Description/Value
Sensor type
Measuring range
Resolution
Accuracy
Vaisala BAROCAP® (silicon capacitive)
600 ... 1100 hPa
0.1 hPa
±0.3 hPa including one year drift (with factory
calibration)
-40 ... +60 °C (-40 ... 140 °F)
Operating temperature
Rain Gauges
Specifications
Table 72
Rain Gauge QMR101 Specifications
Property
Description/Value
Sensor/Transducer type
Funnel diameter
Orifice (opening area)
Self-emptying tipping spoon/magnet
159.6 mm (6.28 in.)
Sensitivity
Capacity
Accuracy
< 24 mm/h (<0.9 in/h)
< 120 mm/h (<4.7 in/h)
Material
Cable
Weight
200 cm2 (31 in.2)
0.2 mm (1/128 in.)
144 mm/h (5.7 in./h)
< ±5 %
< ±10 %
UV stabilized plastic
Included
380 g (0.84 lb.)
246 __________________________________________________________________M210630EN-B
Chapter 8 ____________________________________________________________ Technical Data
Table 73
Rain Gauge QMR102 Specifications
Property
Description/Value
Sensor/transducer type
Funnel diameter
Orifice (opening area)
Tipping bucket/reed switch
254 mm (10 in.)
Sensitivity
Capacity
Accuracy
< 24 mm/h
< 120 mm/h
Material
Cable
Weight (w/o installation
plate)
500 cm2 (77.5 in.2)
0.2 mm (1/128 in.)
120 mm/h (4.7 in./h)
< ± 1 % (weather dependent)
<±5%
UV stabilized plastic
6 m (19.7 ft.)
1000 g (2.2 lb.)
Pyranometers
Specifications
Table 74
Global Solar Radiation Sensor QMS101
Specifications
Property
Description/Value
Sensitivity
100 µV/W/m2 (nominal)
Equals silicon
-30 ... +70 °C (-22 ... 158 °F)
< 1 second
Spectral response
Operating temperature
Response time
Range
Temperature dependence
Directional error
Spectral range
Cable length
2000 W/m2
+0.15 %/°C
< 10 %
0.4 ... 1.1 micron
3 m (9.8 ft.)
VAISALA ______________________________________________________________________ 247
User's Guide ______________________________________________________________________
Table 75
Global Solar Radiation Sensor QMS102
Specifications
Property
Description/Value
Maximum irradiance
2000 W/m2
305 ... 2800 nm (50% points)
Spectral range
Sensitivity
Impedance
Response time
Non-linearity
Temperature dependence
of sensitivity
Operating temperature
Zero-offset due to
temperature changes
Tilt response
Signal output (atmospheric
condition)
Field of view
ISO class
Cable length
10 ... 35 µV/W/m2
79 ... 200 Ω
18 seconds (95 %)
± 2.5 % (< 1000 W/m2)
6 % (-10 ... +40 °C, -14 ... 104 °F)
-40 ... +80 °C ( -40 ... 176 °F)
< 4 W/m2 @ 5 K/h temp. change
< ±2 %
0 ... 50 mV
180°
Second class
10 m (33 ft.)
248 __________________________________________________________________M210630EN-B
Chapter 8 ____________________________________________________________ Technical Data
Net Solar Radiation Sensor
Specifications
Table 76
Net Radiation Sensor Specifications
Property
Description/Value
Spectral response
0 ... 100 µm
Detector protection
Teflon coated (no domes)
Sensitivity (upper detector) 10 µV/W/m2 (nominal)
Recommended output
-25 ... +25 mV
range
Sensor asymmetry
20 %
Range
-2000 ... +2000 W/m2
Response time (1/e)
Directional error
Stability
Non-linearity
Operating temperature
20 s (nominal)
< 30 W/m2 (0 ... 60° @ 1000 W/m2)
< ±2 % per year
< 1 % up to 2000 W/m2
-30 ... +70 °C (-22 ... 158 °F)
Soil/Water Temperature Sensors
Specifications
Table 77
Soil/Water Temperature Sensor QMT103
Specifications
Property
Description/Value
Sensor Type
Performance (accuracy)
Pt-100 type RTD element
Better than +0.08 °C at 0 °C, conforms to 1/4
DIN 43760B
0.385 Ω/°C (DIN 43760)
- 50 ... +60 °C (-58 ... +140 °F)
100 × 7.5 mm (3.9 × 0.3 in.)
Stainless steel, AISI 316
0.1 ... 4 bar
Sensitivity
Measurement range
Dimensions l × Ø
Material
Watertight
Cable
Extension
Ingress protection
PUR black, 5 × 0.5 mm2 Cu, 5 m (16.4 ft.)
10 meter (32.8 ft.)shielded cable with malefemale connectors
IP68 (connector)
VAISALA ______________________________________________________________________ 249
User's Guide ______________________________________________________________________
Table 78
Soil Temperature Sensor QMT107 Specifications
Property
Description/Value
Measurement range
Output signal
Temperature sensor
Temperature reference
Accuracy, when zero-point
calibration has been
activated
Operating temperature
range
Storage temperature range
Supply voltage VCC
Settling time
Power consumption
Output load
Weight (gross/net)
Cable length
Housing material
Housing classification
(electronics)
Dimensions l × Ø
-40 ... +60 °C (-40 ... +140 °F)
Four-wire connection
7 × Pt-100 IEC 751 1/3 Class B
100R00 0.01% 5 ppm resistor
±0.3 °C
-40 ... +60 °C (-40 ... +140 °F)
-40 ... +80 °C (-40 ... +176 °F)
6 ... 30 VDC
<10 ms
<1.5 mA
>1 MΩ (to ground)
875/640 g (1.93/1.41 lb.)
1 m (3.3 ft.)
Glass fiber tube/epoxy fill
IP 68 (NEMA 4)
1200 × 20 mm (47.2 × 0.8 in.)
Emissions
Radiated interference test setup is according to EN55022.
Immunity
Table 79
Immunity Tests
Test
Test Setup
Performance Criteria
Static discharge ESD
Radiated interference
Fast transient EFT
Conducted interference
IEC 1000-4-2
IEC 1000-4-3 (3 V/m)
IEC 1000-4-4
IEC 1000-4-6
B
B
B
B
250 __________________________________________________________________M210630EN-B
Chapter 8 ____________________________________________________________ Technical Data
Block Diagram
Figure 169
0412-044
Soil Temperature Sensor QMT107 Block Diagram
VAISALA ______________________________________________________________________ 251
User's Guide ______________________________________________________________________
Soil Moisture Sensor
Specifications
Table 80
Soil Moisture Sensor ML2x Specifications
Property
Description/Value
Full Range
0 ... 1.0 m3.m-3
Accuracy
±0.02 m3.m-3 after calibration to a specific soil
type, or, ±0.05 m3.m-3 using the supplied soil
calibration, in all 'normal' soils, over range 0.05
to 0.6 m3.m-3 and 0 to 40 °C ambient
temperature.
Accuracy figures apply over a soil conductivity
range of 0 to 100 mS.m-1. Calibratable up to
2000 mS.m-1.
90% influence within cylinder of 2.5 cm diam.,
6 cm long, (approx 30 cm3), surrounding
central rod.
Can be buried to wide ranging soil types or
water for long periods without malfunction or
corrosion.
1 ... 5 s from power-up, depending on accuracy
required.
Less than 0.5 s to 99% of change
100 % (continuous operation possible)
5 ... 15 VDC unregulated
19 mA typical, 23 mA max.
Soil conductivity range
Soil sampling volume
Environment
Stabilization time
Response time
Duty cycle
Input requirements
Current consumption
Output signal
Approx. 0 ... 1 VDC for 0 ... 0.5 m3.m-3
Dimensions
Measuring rods 60 mm (2.4 in.), overall length
207 mm (8.1 in.) including pins (see Figure 170
on page 253).
Extension Tubes (optional) For convenient placement and removal when
burying. Choice of 0.5 m (19.7 in.) or 1 m (39.4
in.). Can be joined.
Case material
PVC
Rod material
Stainless steel
Cable length
Standard 5 m (16.4 ft.). Maximum length 100
m (328 ft.)
Weight with 5 m (16.4 ft.)
350 g (0.77 lb.)
cable
252 __________________________________________________________________M210630EN-B
Chapter 8 ____________________________________________________________ Technical Data
Dimensions
Figure 170
0105-058
Soil Moisture Sensor Dimensions in mm
Soil Moisture Sensor
Specifications
Table 81
Soil Moisture Sensor ECH2O-M3 Specifications
Property
Description/Value
Measurement parameter
Full range
Volumetric soil moisture
Accuracy
Measurement time
Resolution
Environment
Stabilization time
Current consumption
Dimensions l × w × h
Cable length
0 ... 1.0 m3/m3
±3 % typical
±1 % with soil specific calibration from 0 to
50 °C ambient temperature
10 ms
0.002 m3/m3
Can be buried to wide ranging soil types for
long periods without malfunction or
corrosion
10 ms from power-up
2 mA when measuring
254 × 32 × 1.5 mm (10 × 1.25 × 0.06 in.)
3.28 m (10 ft)
VAISALA ______________________________________________________________________ 253
User's Guide ______________________________________________________________________
Submersible Water Level Sensor
Specifications
Table 82
Water Level Sensor PR-36W Specifications
Property
Description/Value
Measuring range
Performance (accuracy)
From 0 up to 40 m
Resolution
Output signal
Operating temperature
Compensated temperature
range
Housing
Weight
Vented cable
Cable length
0.1 % of F.S. 1 2 3
< 0.01 %. F.S.
4 ... 20 mA, 2- wire
-40 ... +90 °C
0 ... +40 °C
Stainless steel
0.45 kg (15.9 oz.)
Multi-core shielded cable with venting, PE
To be specified in the order
1. Linearity + Hysteresis + Repeatability + Temperature Coefficients + Zero
+ Span Tolerance
2. Accuracy and Resolution are valid for Basic Pressure Range
3. Linearity: Best Straight Line
254 __________________________________________________________________M210630EN-B
Chapter 8 ____________________________________________________________ Technical Data
Leaf Wetness Sensor
Specifications
Table 83
Leaf Wetness Sensor QLW101 Specifications
Property
Description/Value
Sensor type
Excitation
Time constant
Current output
Artificial leaf electrical resistance
Bipolar (5V nominal) built-in
2 seconds
Variable resistance from >1 MΩ (dry)
to <130 kΩ (wet)
1mA (typical) at +5 VDC ±10%
Supply voltage
Sensor area
Attached cable length
Cable type
Recommended max. cable length 1
24 AWG Cable (3-conductor)
22 AWG 2-Twisted Pair Cable
18 AWG Cable (3-conductor)
Substrate material
Grid material
Mounting bracket
Dimensions h × w × t
Weight
28 cm2
5 m (16.4 ft.)
2-twisted pair, 24 AWG shielded
cable with UV-resistant jacket, wires
stripped and tinned
91 m (299 ft.)
194 m (636 ft.)
218 m (715 ft.)
Glass-reinforced, ceramic-filled
laminate
1 oz. copper, nickel, and 50 µin gold
plate
White powder-coated aluminum
51 × 38 × 6 mm (2 × 1.5 × 0.24 in.)
227 g (0.5 lb.)
1. Increasing the cable length above the recommended maximum cable
length causes measurement error in the form of lower moisture readings.
VAISALA ______________________________________________________________________ 255
User's Guide ______________________________________________________________________
Fuel Moisture/Fuel Temperature Sensor
Specifications
Table 84
Fuel Moisture/Fuel Temperature Sensor
Specifications
Property
Description/Value
Fuel moisture sensing element Dry ponderosa pine dowel with embedded
wire electrodes
Fuel moisture measurement
Capacitance of wood calibrated to read per
principal
cent of moisture by weight.
Fuel moisture measurement
accuracy
0 ... 12 %FM 1
12 ... 30 %FM
>30 %FM
Temperature sensor
Conversion table range
Temperature measurement
accuracy
Size Ø × l
Weight
±1.9 %FM RMSE 2(two-weeks period)
±3.6 %FM RMSE
±16 %FM RMSE
Single thermistor
-50 ... +50 °C (-58 ... +122 °F)
±0.2 °C (-20 ... +80 °C)
28.6 × 305 mm (1.13 × 12 in.)
125 g (0.28 lb.)
1. %FM = Measured fuel moisture units
2. RMSE = Root Mean Square Error
256 __________________________________________________________________M210630EN-B
Appendix A ________________________________________________________________ Glossary
APPENDIX A
GLOSSARY
This appendix contains glossary with explanations of some general
meteorological and technical terms and terms used in specifications.
Accuracy
The degree of conformity of a measured or calculated value to its
actual or specified value.
Altitude
The station altitude in meters from sea level.
Atmospheric pressure The pressure at a given point due to the gravitational force on the
column of air above it. The official unit of pressure is Pascal (Pa =
newton/m2). The unit hectopascal (hPa) has been chosen to be used in
meteorological barometric pressure measurement. 1 hPa = 100 Pa = 1
mbar
Barometer
Instrument for measuring atmospheric pressure.
Barometric pressure
See Atmospheric pressure.
Baud
The unit of signaling speed of a line, which is the number of
transitions (voltage or frequency changes) that are made per second.
The term has often been erroneously used to specify bits per second.
However, only at very low speeds is baud equal to bps; for example,
300 baud is the same as 300 bps. Beyond that, one baud can be made
to represent more than one bit. For example, a V.22bis modem
generates 1200 bps at 600 baud.
VAISALA ______________________________________________________________________ 257
User's Guide ______________________________________________________________________
Celsius scale
Temperature scale having the freezing point of pure water at 0 °C and
the boiling point at 100 °C under standard sea level pressure. All the
temperatures measured with MAWS are given in Celsius degrees.
Configuration
Set of instructions for the MAWS logger. The compiled configuration
(a script) is in fact a program that runs in MAWS.
Crosswind
The wind blowing perpendicular to the course of a moving object.
Damping ratio
Describes the response of a wind vane to a sudden change in wind
direction. It is defined as the ratio of the actual damping to the critical
damping. Critical damping is that value of damping which gives the
fastest transient response without overshoot.
Delay distance
The passage of air necessary over a wind vane to cause the vane to
respond to 50 % of a step function change in wind direction.
Dew point
(temperature)
The temperature at which the air, if cooled, would reach saturation,
and at which dew would therefore begin to condense out on a solid
surface.
Global radiation
The total of direct solar radiation and diffuse sky radiation received
by a horizontal surface. Global radiation is measured by
pyranometers.
Gust
The peak momentary wind velocity within a given interval of time,
for example, 10 minutes.
Hexadecimal
Numbering system using the base number 16 and including the ten
decimal digits (0 to 9) along with six alpha digits (A to F).
Humidity
The water vapor content of the air. Weather station sensors commonly
measure relative humidity. Relative humidity is the ratio of water
vapor pressure present in a gas to the maximum pressure of water
vapor that could be present in the gas in that temperature.
LED
Light Emitting Diode
Logger
The processing unit of the MAWS system. The electronics of the
logger take care of measuring, storing, and processing of the
measured parameters.
Logging
The process of storing the measured and calculated values in the
logger's memory.
Lull
The minimum of wind speed during a certain time interval.
Modem
A device that allows a terminal or computer at one location to
communicate with a terminal or computer at a distant location via
wire or telephone lines.
258 __________________________________________________________________M210630EN-B
Appendix A ________________________________________________________________ Glossary
Precipitation
Term that refers to all forms of water particles that fall upon the earth.
This includes rain, snow, and hail. It is the universal practice to
distinguish between rain, snow, and total precipitation. Snow is
sometimes measured as such and sometimes it is melted and
measured as water.
Pslevel
The pressure sensor level in meters from the station altitude.
Pyranometer
An instrument that measures solar energy received from the entire
hemisphere (180 degrees field of view). The output is expressed in
Watts per square meter (W/m2).
QFE
The actual atmospheric pressure at the level of station altitude or at
the height of the runway threshold. The difference of the pressure
sensor level and the station altitude (or runway threshold) is indicated
by the pressure sensor (pslevel) setting in MAWS. QFE is normally
used for aviation purposes.
QFF
The sea level pressure as QNH, but the value is corrected by the
actual air temperature (or in some cases by virtual temperature, that
is, temperature 12 hours ago). QFF is used in synoptical observations.
QNH (altimeter
setting)
The atmospheric pressure at sea level in the standard atmosphere. The
station altitude is indicated by station altitude setting in MAWS
(difference of mean sea level and station altitude). QNH is used for
aviation purposes.
Rain gauge
Measures precipitation based on depth, that is, the depth to which a
flat surface would be covered if no water were lost by run-off or
evaporation.
RS-232
Standard serial transmission protocol. A standard interface between a
computer input/output port and a peripheral device.
RS-485
Standard serial transmission protocol. This protocol permits multidrop networks (up to 32 nodes) using a single twisted pair cable.
Solar radiation
The solar energy received from the entire hemisphere. It is measured
with a pyranometer.
Synchronizing time
Ties the operation to the clock for software operations. For instance,
if an operation is always to be performed twenty minutes to the hour,
the synchronizing time should be set to 00:40:00.
WMO
The World Meteorological Organization.
ZModem
File transfer protocol that is used when transferring files between
MAWS and a terminal program.
VAISALA ______________________________________________________________________ 259
User's Guide ______________________________________________________________________
260 __________________________________________________________________M210630EN-B