VDO PN 4000 TSN - Specifications

Installation and Operation Guide
For The
Tiernan Family of
Audio Broadcast Receivers
01-0961-401
Revision A
Overview
Page 1-2
Tiernan Family of Audio Broadcast Receivers
Warranty Policy
Warranty Policy
WP
Tiernan, A Radyne Company warrants that that its products will be free from defects in material and workmanship
at the time of shipment and that they will conform to applicable specifications. In no event will Tiernan, A Radyne
Company be liable for consequential misuse or damages.
The Tiernan product that you have purchased is warranted against any above-mentioned defects that appear
within two (2) years of the shipping date.
Products subject to abuse, improper installation or application, alteration, accident, or negligence in use, storage,
transportation, or handling are not covered under this warranty.
The Tiernan warranty, as stated herein, is in lieu of all other warranties, expressed, implied, or statutory.
How & Where to Ship
Packing the Unit
The original factory shipping carton and packing materials were specifically designed to protect Tiernan
equipment from excessive shock and vibrations. Please use the original shipping carton and packing materials to
ship your Tiernan equipment.
Shipping Addresses
For Domestic Shipments Within the United States:
Tiernan, A Radyne Company
Customer Service
7330 Trade Street
San Diego, CA 92121
RMA#
For International Shipments to the United States via Freight Forwarder:
Tiernan, A Radyne Company
c/o CJ& S Express
4901 W. Van Buren, Suite #2
Phoenix, AZ 85043 USA
Contact: Oliver Adam
Telephone: 01 country code +1.602.437.4732
Fax: 01 country code +1.602.437.4884
Email: Oliver.Adam@agsystems.com
RMA#
For International Shipments to the United States via
Express Courier Service (UPS, FedEx, DHL, etc.):
Tiernan, A Radyne Company
Customer Service
7330 Trade Street
San Diego, CA 92121 USA
Telephone: 01 country code +1.858.805.7000
Fax: 01 country code +1.858.805.7007
RMA #
Tiernan Family of Audio Broadcast Receivers
Page iii
Warranty Policy
Shipping Procedure
All returned units will be completely evaluated, repaired, and tested for compliance to the appropriate
specifications. All repaired units will be configured to the default settings.
Shipping Procedures
For All Shipments
• Before you ship your unit, record your configuration settings.
• Ship your unit in the original shipping carton and packaging or its equivalent. Do not include product
accessories such as manuals, rack mount brackets, power cords, or cables.
• Write the RMA number in large, dark print on the outside of the shipping container.
• Reference the RMA number on all paperwork accompanying the unit.
• Fax a copy of the Airway Bill to Tiernan, A Radyne Company.
• Observe antistatic procedures and use antistatic bags for all circuit boards. Tiernan, A Radyne Company
will provide you with antistatic bags upon request.
For International Shipments Only
• Mark the commercial invoice “Goods of US Origin - Return for Repair.”
• When declaring value of goods, use the original sale price.
• Ship the unit with freight prepaid using either:
• Freight Forwarder, under 1990 Incoterm CPT–Carriage Paid To
• Express Courier Service (UPS, FedEx, DHL, etc.) under 1990 Incoterm
• DDU – Deliver Duty Unpaid
Rejection of Shipments
Tiernan, A Radyne Company does not accept responsibility for units that are improperly packaged or damaged in
shipment and may reject such shipments. Tiernan, A Radyne
Company will reject shipments:
• Without an RMA number
• Shipped as Freight Collect
• If the original product identification markings or labels have been removed, defaced, or altered
Customer Service
24 Hours a Day, 7 Days a Week
We know problems don’t occur only during business hours. That’s why Tiernan, A Radyne Company provides a
staff of trained Customer Service Engineers who are available 24 hours a day, 7 days a week.
During Business Hours: Our Customer Service Engineers are available to immediately answer your calls
Monday through Friday, 8:00 a.m. to 5 p.m., Pacific Standard Time.
After Hour Emergencies: For after-hour emergencies, call us at 1.858.805.7000, and select option 1 on the
voicemail system. Leave a message on our 24-hour paging system. A Customer Service Engineer will return your
emergency call as soon as possible.
Leaving a Message
When you leave a message, please speak slowly and clearly and include the following information:
•
•
•
•
Your name and the name of your company
Your phone number including the area code and the country code, as appropriate
The product name, firmware version, and serial number
A short description of the problem
A Customer Service Engineer will return your call as soon as possible.
Page iv
Tiernan Family of Audio Broadcast Receivers
Warranty Policy
To Return a Unit
Contact Customer Service
Before you return a unit for repair, visit our website
www .r adn .co m /d oc/inq -rma .h tml
and fill out all of the necessary information for our records.
Obtain a RMA Number
Once you have filled out the form online, you will receive your RMA number via e-mail, along with shipping
instructions and a price quotation.
Expired Warranty
If the warranty on your product has expired, the Administrator will fax you a Product Repair Quote.
This quote must be approved and returned to the Customer Service Administrator, along with a valid purchase
order (PO), before an RMA number can be issued.
Online Assistance
E-mail Us
To contact Customer Service via e-mail, send a message to:
customerservice@radn.com
Tiernan on the Web (http://www.radn.com)
Visit us on the World Wide Web for:
•
Product and system information
•
Sales information
•
Investor information
Tiernan Family of Audio Broadcast Receivers
Page v
Warranty Policy
Page vi
Tiernan Family of Audio Broadcast Receivers
P
Preface
This manual provides installation and operation information for the Tiernan, a Radyne Company family of Audio
Broadcast Receivers. This is a technical document intended for use by engineers, technicians, and operators
responsible for the operation and maintenance of the unit.
Conventions
Whenever the information within this manual instructs the operator to press a pushbutton switch or keypad key on
the Front Panel, the pushbutton or key label will be shown enclosed in "less than" (<) and "greater than" (>)
brackets. For example, the Reset Alarms Pushbutton will be shown as <RESET ALARMS>, while a command
that calls for the entry of a ‘7’ followed by ‘ENTER’ Key will be represented as <7,ENTER>.
Notes, Cautions, and Warnings
A note icon identifies information for the proper operation of your equipment, including helpful
hints, shortcuts, or important reminders.
A caution icon indicates a hazardous situation that if not avoided, may result in minor or
moderate injury. Caution may also be used to indicate other unsafe practices or risks of
property damage.
A warning icon indicates a potentially hazardous situation that if not avoided, could result in
death or serious injury.
Trademarks
Product names mentioned in this manual may be trademarks or registered trademarks of their respective
companies and are hereby acknowledged.
Tiernan Family of Audio Broadcast Receivers
Page vii
Preface
Copyright
2006, Tiernan, a Radyne Company. This manual is proprietary to Tiernan, a Radyne Company. and is intended
for the exclusive use of Tiernan, a Radyne Company’s customers. No part of this document may in whole or in
part, be copied, reproduced, distributed, translated or reduced to any electronic or magnetic storage medium
without the express written consent of a duly authorized officer of Tiernan, a Radyne Company.
Disclaimer
This manual has been thoroughly reviewed for accuracy. All statements, technical information, and
recommendations contained herein and in any guides or related documents are believed reliable, but the
accuracy and completeness thereof are not guaranteed or warranted, and they are not intended to be, nor should
they be understood to be, representations or warranties concerning the products described. Tiernan, a Radyne
Company assumes no responsibility for use of any circuitry other than the circuitry employed in Tiernan, a
Radyne Company systems and equipment. Furthermore, since Tiernan, a Radyne Company is constantly
improving its products, reserves the right to make changes in the specifications of products, or in this manual at
any time without notice and without obligation to notify any person of such changes.
Record of Revisions
Revision
1.0
Date
03-20-2006
Reason for Change
Initial Release
Comments or Suggestions Concerning this Manual
Comments or suggestions regarding the content and design of this manual are appreciated. To submit
comments, please contact the Customer Service Department.
Updates to this Manual
The most up-to-date copy of this manual can be downloaded from our web site located at http://www.tiernan.com.
As of the present date, Technical Manuals for Tiernan products are available in PDF format at
http://www.tiernan.com/doc/techmanuals.html.
Notice
This publication and its contents are proprietary to Tiernan, a Radyne Company, and are intended solely for the
contractual use of its customers for no other purpose than to install and operate the equipment described herein.
This publication and its contents shall not be used or distributed for any other purpose and/or otherwise
communicated, disclosed, or reproduced, in any way whatsoever, without prior written consent of Tiernan, a
Radyne Company.
Only experienced personnel should install and/or operate this equipment. Prior to installing or operating any
equipment or parts thereof, personnel must carefully read and understand all of the contents of this publication.
To properly install and operate this equipment and/or all parts thereof, personnel must strictly and explicitly follow
all of the instructions in this publication.
Failure to completely read and fully understand and follow all of the contents of this publication prior to installing
and/or operating this equipment, or parts thereof, may result in injury to personnel and/or damage to the
equipment, or parts thereof.
Tiernan, a Radyne Company does not assume any liability arising out of the application or use of any products,
component parts, circuits, software, or firmware described herein. Tiernan, a Radyne Company further does not
convey any license under its patent, trademark, copyright, or common- law rights nor the similar rights of others.
Tiernan, a Radyne Company further reserves the right to make any changes in any products, or parts thereof,
described herein without notice.
Tiernan, a Radyne Company is a registered trademark. Other brand and product names mentioned herein may
be trademarks or registered trademarks of their respective owners.
Page viii
Tiernan Family of Audio Broadcast Receivers
Preface
Contents of this manual are provided as is without warranty of any kind, either expressed or implied, including, but
not limited to, the implied warranties of merchantability, fitness for a particular purpose, and non-infringement.
Content could include technical inaccuracies or typographical errors. Changes are incorporated in new editions of
this manual. Tiernan, a Radyne Company may make improvements and / or changes in the product(s) and / or
the program(s) described in this manual at any time without notice.
In no event will Tiernan, a Radyne Company be liable for direct, indirect, special, incidental, economic, cover, or
consequential damages arising out of the use or inability to use the contents even if advised of the possibility of
such damages. Some jurisdictions do not allow the exclusion or limitation of implied warranties, or the limitation of
liability for incidental or consequential damages, so the above limitation or exclusion may not apply to you. For
further information on legal and intellectual property matters, contact Tiernan, a Radyne Company.
This equipment has been tested and found to comply with the limits for a Class A digital device, pursuant to part
15 of the FCC Rules. These limits are designed to provide reasonable protection against harmful interference
when the equipment is operated in a commercial environment. This equipment generates, uses, and can radiate
radio frequency energy and, if not installed and used in accordance with the instruction manual, may cause
harmful interference to radio communications. Operation of this equipment in a residential area is likely to cause
harmful interference in which case the user will be required to correct the interference at his own expense.
Electric Shock Hazard
Do Not Open The Equipment!
Service Only by Tiernan, a Radyne Company.
Gefährliche Spannung!
Öffuen des Gerätes und Service nur dur Tiernan, a Radyne Company.
The unit contains no user-serviceable parts. Do not attempt to service this product yourself. Any
attempt to do so will invalidate any and all warranties.
Tiernan Family of Audio Broadcast Receivers
Page ix
Preface
Page x
Tiernan Family of Audio Broadcast Receivers
Safety Precautions
SP
Carefully read and follow all safety, use, and operating instructions before operating the unit. Heed all warnings
and cautions contained in this guide. Retain these instructions for future reference.
Follow Startup Procedure
Do not plug in the unit until you have connected the system and read the chapter on installation.
Provide a Safe Location
Place the unit in a rack or on a stable surface of sufficient size and strength, where it will not be jarred, hit, or
pushed off its surface. Ensure that all cables and cords are out of the way and will not be tripped over, as this
could cause personal injury or serious damage to the equipment.
Avoid Water and Moisture
If the equipment is exposed to any liquid, contact Tiernan, a Radyne Company , as serious damage could occur
to the unit or its components.
Avoid Heat, Humidity, and Dust
To avoid internal damage, the unit should be placed away from all heat sources, including radiators, heater ducts,
and so on, out of direct sunlight and away from high humidity, excessive dust, or mechanical vibrations that can
cause damage to internal parts.
Provide Adequate Ventilation
Slots and openings on the unit are provided for ventilation that is needed to ensure reliable operation. To avoid
overheating and ensure that the ventilation slots are not blocked, place the unit on a smooth, hard surface that
has at least two inches of clearance around the unit and adequate air circulation. If the equipment is placed in a
closed area, such as a rack, ensure that proper ventilation is provided and that the internal rack operating
temperature does not exceed the maximum rated temperature at the position of the unit.
Never place the unit on a soft surface that would obstruct the required airflow into the ventilation slots.
Use Correct Power Source
For units equipped with a North American power cord, the cord has an IEC-compatible female plug on one end,
and a male plug on the other end. This cord is UL and CSA approved up to 125 VAC at 10 A and is ready to use
with no user wiring required.
For units equipped with an International power cord, the cord has an IEC-compatible female plug on one end, and
three stripped and tinned bare wires on the other end. This cord is approved up to 250 VAC at 6 A and complies
with the international color codes of green/yellow (ground), blue (neutral), and brown (line).
If these color codes do not correspond to the colored markings on the terminals in the plug, use the following
standards:
•
The green/yellow wire must be connected to the plug terminal marked by the letter E or by the earth
symbol () or color-coded green and yellow.
•
The blue wire must be connected to the plug terminal marked with the letter N or color-coded black.
•
The brown wire must be connected to the plug terminal marked with the letter L or color-coded red.
An AC plug must be attached to the International power cord in accordance with government standards and
codes in effect at the installation site. If an unterminated power cord is supplied with the unit, the appropriate
Tiernan Family of Audio Broadcast Receivers
Page xi
Safety Precautions
certified termination plug must be installed. The following is a list of the required certifying agencies for various
countries.
Country
Agency
Country
Agency
Australia
SAA
Italy
IMQ
Austria
OVE
Japan
MITI
Belgium
CEBEC
Netherlands
KEMA
Canada
CSA
New Zealand
SECV, SECQ, SECWA,
EANSW, ETSA, HECT,
SANZ
Denmark
DEMKO
Norway
NEMKO
Finland
FEI
Rep. S. Africa
SABS
France
UTE
Spain
AEE
Germany
VDE
Sweden
SEMKO
India
ISI
Switzerland
SEV
Ireland
IIRS
United Kingdom (UK)
ASTA, BSI
Apparaten skall anslutas till jordat uttag när den ansluts till ett nätverk.
Route Power Cords Safely
Route power cords so they are not walked on or pinched. Pay particular attention to cords and connections at the
plugs, receptacles (such as power strips), and the point where they exit from the unit and attach to other
equipment. Do not place any items on or against power cords.
No Stacking
Do not place or stack any objects on top of the unit. Other equipment may be placed in a rack or on a shelf above
or below the unit, but never stacked directly on top of it.
Protect Against Lightning and Power Surges
When the unit is installed, have the professional installer ground the system to protect against voltage surges and
built-up static charges. For information on grounding standards for electrical and radio equipment, refer to the
electrical code in the country of installation.
Protect the unit from lightning and power-line surges during a storm by unplugging it from the wall outlet and
disconnecting the coaxial cable.
Provide Antistatic Protection
Wear a properly grounded antistatic wrist strap to prevent electrostatic damage to components when handling
circuit boards or other electronic modules.
Turn the unit Off When Changing Circuit Boards
Turn the unit off before installing or removing any circuit boards from chassis slots. Possible damage may occur
to modem, boards, or related equipment if power is left on during this procedure.
Page xii
Tiernan Family of Audio Broadcast Receivers
Safety Precautions
Lithium Battery
The lithium battery is not placed in an operator accessible area. The battery is part of an approved semiconductor
package and is only replaceable by qualified service personnel.
Keep Objects Outside
Touching internal unit parts is dangerous to both you and the unit. Never put any object, including your fingers,
through slots or openings, as this could result in touching dangerous voltage points, short-circuiting parts, electric
shock, or fire.
There are no user-serviceable parts inside the unit. If an object falls into the equipment, unplug the unit and
contact Customer Service, as serious damage could occur to the unit or its components.
Use Approved Attachments Only
Use only Tiernan, a Radyne Company-approved option cards and equipment with the unit.
Clean the Unit
Before cleaning the unit, unplug it from the wall outlet. Do not use any type of abrasive pads, scouring powders,
aerosol cleaners, or solvents such as alcohol or benzene.
Use only a clean, soft cloth lightly moistened with a mild detergent solution. Wipe all equipment with a clean, soft
cloth lightly moistened with water to remove the detergent solution.
Service the Unit
Do not attempt to service the unit yourself, as there are no user-serviceable parts. Opening or removing covers
may expose you to dangerous voltages or other hazards as well as void your warranty. Contact Customer Service
to obtain qualified service personnel.
The following conditions indicate that the equipment needs servicing:
•
The power cord or plug has been damaged.
•
An object has fallen into the unit.
•
Liquid has been spilled into the unit, or it has been exposed to rain or water.
•
The unit has been dropped or the cover has been damaged.
•
The unit does not operate normally, or it shows a marked change in performance.
Perform Safety Checks
Upon completion of any service or repairs to the unit, ask the service technician to perform safety checks to verify
that the system is in safe operating condition.
Tiernan Family of Audio Broadcast Receivers
Page xiii
Safety Precautions
Page xiv
Tiernan Family of Audio Broadcast Receivers
Table of Contents
ToC
Warranty Policy......................................................................................................................................iii
Preface ...................................................................................................................................................vii
Safety Precautions ................................................................................................................................xi
Chapter 1
Product Overview.....................................................................................................1-6
1.1 Introduction .................................................................................................................................... 1-6
1.2 Satellite Digital Audio Distribution Network Overview.................................................................... 1-6
1.3 ABR Overview ............................................................................................................................... 1-7
1.4 ABR Features ................................................................................................................................ 1-8
Chapter 2
Functional Description and Theory of Operation................................................2-10
2.1 Functional Description ................................................................................................................. 2-10
2.1.1
2.1.2
2.1.3
2.1.4
2.1.5
Outdoor Components ...................................................................................................................... 2-10
Feed Assembly and LNB Downconverter........................................................................................ 2-12
Interfacility Link (IFL) Cable ............................................................................................................. 2-12
ABR Satellite Receiver .................................................................................................................... 2-12
Using the Front Panel ...................................................................................................................... 2-12
2.2 Theory of Operation..................................................................................................................... 2-15
2.3 Transmission Channel Signal Format.......................................................................................... 2-16
2.3.1
2.3.2
2.3.3
Proper Signal Discrimination of Narrow Band RF Signals .............................................................. 2-17
Low Noise Block (LNB) Downconverter .......................................................................................... 2-18
Receiver........................................................................................................................................... 2-19
2.4 ABR Carrier Acquisition ............................................................................................................... 2-22
2.4.1
2.4.2
Installation Mode Acquisition ........................................................................................................... 2-23
Fade Acquisition .............................................................................................................................. 2-24
Chapter 3
Quick Installation .....................................................................................................3-1
3.1 Overview........................................................................................................................................ 3-1
3.2 Installing an ABR202A in an Existing ABR202 Network ............................................................... 3-1
3.3 Quick Installation Procedure.......................................................................................................... 3-1
Chapter 4
Full Installation and Startup ....................................................................................4-4
4.1 Overview........................................................................................................................................ 4-4
4.2 Installation Overview...................................................................................................................... 4-4
4.3 Planning the Site............................................................................................................................ 4-4
Tiernan Family of Audio Broadcast Receivers
Page 1-1
Theory of Operation
4.4 Installing and Aligning the Antenna ............................................................................................... 4-4
4.5 Installing the IFL Cable .................................................................................................................. 4-5
4.6 Installing the ABR .......................................................................................................................... 4-5
4.6.1
Rack-Mount........................................................................................................................................ 4-5
4.7 External Connections..................................................................................................................... 4-6
4.7.1
4.7.2
4.7.3
4.7.4
4.7.5
4.7.6
4.7.7
4.7.8
4.7.9
4.7.10
4.7.11
4.7.12
4.7.13
4.7.14
Analog Audio 1................................................................................................................................... 4-6
Analog Audio 2................................................................................................................................... 4-7
AUX (Auxiliary)................................................................................................................................... 4-7
AES/EBU Digital Audio Output .......................................................................................................... 4-8
Relay/Control 1-8............................................................................................................................... 4-8
Relay/Control 9-16............................................................................................................................. 4-9
User Data 1........................................................................................................................................ 4-9
User Data 2........................................................................................................................................ 4-9
Printer Data........................................................................................................................................ 4-9
Ethernet ............................................................................................................................................. 4-9
USB.................................................................................................................................................... 4-9
M&C ................................................................................................................................................. 4-10
RF In ................................................................................................................................................ 4-10
Power Connector ............................................................................................................................. 4-11
4.8 Starting Up the System................................................................................................................ 4-12
4.9 Startup Problems ......................................................................................................................... 4-14
4.9.1
4.9.2
The Receiver Will Not Lock Onto The Satellite Signal .................................................................... 4-14
No Audio Is Received from the Audio Out Port ............................................................................... 4-15
Chapter 5
Remote Monitor and Control Operation ...............................................................5-16
5.1 Overview...................................................................................................................................... 5-16
5.2 Command Syntax ........................................................................................................................ 5-16
5.3 Password Protection.................................................................................................................... 5-17
5.4 Command Error Codes................................................................................................................ 5-17
5.5 Command Groups ....................................................................................................................... 5-17
5.6 Command Descriptions ............................................................................................................... 5-25
Chapter 6
Maintenance and Troubleshooting .......................................................................6-56
6.1 Maintenance ................................................................................................................................ 6-56
6.2 Performance Monitoring .............................................................................................................. 6-56
6.2.1
6.2.2
6.2.3
Eb/No Minimum Receive Level (EM)............................................................................................... 6-56
Number of RF Signal Fades (NF) .................................................................................................... 6-56
Audio Sync Loss Count (SL)............................................................................................................ 6-57
6.3 Fault Condition Descriptions........................................................................................................ 6-57
6.4 Troubleshooting ........................................................................................................................... 6-59
6.4.1
6.4.2
1-2
Before Troubleshooting ................................................................................................................... 6-59
Symptoms and Actions .................................................................................................................... 6-59
Tiernan Family of Audio Broadcast Receivers
Theory of Operation
Chapter 7
Technical Specifications and Port Information .....................................................7-1
7.1 Available Audio Rates and Bandwidths ......................................................................................... 7-2
Appendix A
Interface Pinouts ..................................................................................................... A-1
Appendix B
Telephone Modem Operation ................................................................................. B-1
Appendix C
Interfacility Link Cable Characteristics ................................................................. C-1
Tiernan Family of Audio Broadcast Receivers
Page 1-3
Theory of Operation
List of Figures
Figure 1.1 Satellite Digital Audio Distribution Network ................................................................................1-7
Figure 1.2 Typical ABR Installation ..........................................................................................................1-8
Figure 2.1 Receive-Only Antenna Assembly ...........................................................................................2-11
Figure 2.2 ABR Unit ............................................................................................................................2-12
Figure 2.3 ABR Channel Format.........................................................................................................2-16
Figure 2.4 Multichannel Single Transponder System .............................................................................2-17
Figure 2.5 LNB Downconverter PLL Block Diagram.................................................................................2-19
Figure 2.6 ABR Functional Block Diagram ..............................................................................................2-20
Figure 2.7 Cue Signaling System Diagram .............................................................................................2-22
Figure 2.8 Switch Panel ......................................................................................................................2-22
Figure 2.9 Installation Acquisition Mode .............................................................................................2-24
Figure 2.10 Fade Acquisition Mode ....................................................................................................2-24
Figure 4.1 Rear Panel Connectors .......................................................................................................4-6
Figure 4.2 Relay K1 and J2 ABR Connector .............................................................................................4-8
1-4
Tiernan Family of Audio Broadcast Receivers
Theory of Operation
List of Tables
Table 2.1 Available Prodelin Antenna Sizes ............................................................................................2-11
Table 2.2 Front Panel Indicators.........................................................................................................2-13
Table 2.3 Signal Quality Defaults........................................................................................................2-14
Table 2.4 Channel Identifier & Frequency Allocation Combinations ...........................................................2-18
Table 2.5 Carrier B and E Channel Identifier and Frequency Allocation .....................................................2-18
Table 4.1 IFL Cable Loss vs. Data Rate ...................................................................................................4-5
Table 4.2 Certifying Agencies by Country ...............................................................................................4-11
Table 5.1 Error Codes/Descriptions .......................................................................................................5-17
Table 5.2 L-band Demodulator Commands ............................................................................................5-18
Table 5.3 Channel Control Commands ...................................................................................................5-18
Table 5.4 Audio Port Commands ...........................................................................................................5-18
Table 5.5 Data Port Commands ............................................................................................................5-19
Table 5.6 Relay Port Commands ...........................................................................................................5-19
Table 5.7 M&C Port Commands ............................................................................................................5-19
Table 5.8 Alarm Status Commands........................................................................................................5-19
Table 5.9 Front Panel Commands .........................................................................................................5-20
Table 5.10 Printer Port Commands ........................................................................................................5-20
Table 5.11 Miscellaneous Commands....................................................................................................5-20
Table 5.12 Terrestrial Backlink Commands ............................................................................................5-20
Table 5.13 Alphabetical Command Listing ..............................................................................................5-21
Table 5.14 Front Panel Menu Tree .....................................................................................................5-23
Table 5.15 CS4922 Programming Inputs (PRO mode) ............................................................................5-27
Table 5.16 CS4922 Programming States ...............................................................................................5-27
Table 5.17 Acquisition Type, Action, Status ............................................................................................5-28
Table 5.18 Muted Conditions for Audio ..................................................................................................5-29
Table 5.19 Audio Built-In Self-Tests .......................................................................................................5-29
Table 5.20 Audio Test Performance Specifications..................................................................................5-30
Table 5.21 Parameter Descriptions ........................................................................................................5-31
Table 5.22 Example Relay Mapping ......................................................................................................5-33
Table 5.23 Valid String Characters and Descriptions ...............................................................................5-33
Table 5.24 Authorization Bit Map ...........................................................................................................5-39
Table 5.25 UA Value and Active Ports ...................................................................................................5-39
Table 5.26 Fault Summary ....................................................................................................................5-40
Table 5.27 Valid Values for the LR Command ........................................................................................5-43
Table 5.28 Valid Values for the MU Command........................................................................................5-45
Table 5.29 Valid Parameter Values for the P1 Command.........................................................................5-46
Table 5.30 Valid Parameter Values for the P2 Command.........................................................................5-47
Table 5.31 Valid Parameter Values for the P3 Command.........................................................................5-47
Table 5.32 TTL Input Mapping ..............................................................................................................5-49
Table 5.33 Signal Strength and Sync LED Indication ...............................................................................5-50
Table 5.34 Condition and Status Relay Contacts ....................................................................................5-51
Table 5.35 Volume Control ...................................................................................................................5-54
Table 7.1 Available Audio Rates and Bandwidths ......................................................................................7-2
Tiernan Family of Audio Broadcast Receivers
Page 1-5
Theory of Operation
1
Chapter 1 Product Overview
1.1
Introduction
Satellites have proven to be a reliable method of communication for distribution of CD-quality digital audio. The
Integrated Digital Audio Distribution Network, of which the ABR is a key component, is a recognized worldwide
standard for digital audio distribution.
The ABR202A is the next generation receiver product, featuring functional backward compatibility to the ABR200
and ABR202.
The unique capabilities of the Tiernan digital audio system allow a network to start out small (offering a single
monaural or stereo channel) and grow to a larger multichannel system without replacement of receiver hardware.
Fast, easy selection of audio channels can be made either at the receiver or at the studio uplink.
The combination of Tiernan and Radyne transmission technology and the professional standard digital audio
compression technology (ISO/MPEG Layer II/IIA) achieves reliable and efficient digital audio distribution. The
Tiernan digital audio distribution system also provides asynchronous data distribution and relay contact closures
for control of external station equipment.
This chapter provides an overview of a typical satellite digital audio distribution network, as well as an overview of
the ABR202A audio broadcast receiver.
1.2
Satellite Digital Audio Distribution Network Overview
A satellite broadcast network consists of three major subsystems, as shown in Figure 1-1:
1-6
•
A satellite transmission uplink station
•
The satellite link
•
One or more remote satellite receivers
Tiernan Family of Audio Broadcast Receivers
Theory of Operation
Figure 1.1 Satellite Digital Audio Distribution Network
The hub or satellite transmission uplink station is the facility where the audio to be transmitted is collected and
uplinked to the satellite. This facility consists of an audio encoder/multiplexer, a digital modem, an earth station,
an antenna, and a network control computer. As an option, a terrestrial link can provide dial-up diagnostics and
performance monitoring of receiver sites. Alternately, a new feature available on the ABR202A allows monitor and
control functionality through Telnet via a built-in Ethernet port.
•
The satellite link consists of a commercial telecommunications satellite in geosynchronous orbit above the
earth. Two radio frequency bands that are primarily used are C-band and Ku-band.
•
The third major subsystem, the remote satellite receiver, includes three major components:
•
A satellite antenna subsystem
•
An interfacility link cable
•
A satellite audio receiver such as the ABR
The satellite antenna and its associated Low Noise Block (LNB) downconverter collect and convert the signal
from the satellite's native C- or Ku-band signal to L-band.
A phase lock loop (PLL) type LNB must be used for all satellite links using the QPSK modulation. Satellite links
using BPSK modulation may use the lower cost dielectric resonance oscillator (DRO) type LNB.
The L-Band signal is then sent through the interfacility link (IFL) cable to the satellite receiver. The ABR audio
receiver processes this signal and outputs the audio, data, and control to the user-supplied station equipment for
distribution.
1.3
ABR Overview
The ABR is a multiple transmission rate digital audio receiver. Figure 1-2 details an ABR installed in a typical
application, such as a radio station environment.
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Theory of Operation
Tiernan
ABR202A
Figure 1.2 Typical ABR Installation
The analog output audio from the ABR is used to feed both the on-air studio console as well as taping equipment
for off-hours distribution of programmed material. The relay contact closures are used to control station equipment
such as cart machines and tape recorders. The data port can be connected to a low speed dot matrix printer or a
personal computer for station traffic, air logs, etc. The alarm relay closure is used to activate an alternate program
source should the satellite channel become inoperative. The Ethernet port is used for monitor and control in
conjunction with a Telnet application.
1.4
ABR Features
The ABR:
1-8
•
Provides full 20 kHz, CD-quality audio at 128, 192, 256, or 384 kbps
•
Accommodates both Ku- or C-band in BPSK or QPSK mode
•
Uses ISO/MPEG Layer II/IIA audio compression, which is the most tested and documented audio
compression algorithm in the world
•
Uses Quick Channel Access, which provides fast, nearly transparent, audio channel changes for
receiving multiple channels
•
Provides a relay (cue) control port with eight contact closures, each independently controllable from the
uplink facility
•
Provides seven transistor transistor logic (TTL) inputs for local channel changes and auxiliary equipment
monitoring
•
Is addressable to provide complete control of receiver configuration and operation from the uplink facility
•
Allows audio channel changes either locally or from the uplink facility
Tiernan Family of Audio Broadcast Receivers
Theory of Operation
•
Is equipped with a low speed (300 to 9600 baud), asynchronous data port
•
Provides remote control capability with access via an external wireline modem (optional equipment)
•
Provides built-in audio, relay control, and data port diagnostics
•
Has a built-in performance monitoring capability that measures the lowest received Eb/No and counts RF
and audio sync losses
•
Is equipped with software that can be upgraded over the satellite link via down-line loading
•
Has a battery-backed SRAM memory and real-time clock (RTC) so that configuration and operating
parameters are not lost in the event of a power outage and event logs specify time
•
Provides a 10/100BASE-T Fast Ethernet port running a Telnet server for monitor and control from any
computer or other device containing an Ethernet port and Telnet client software
•
Provides a smart front panel interface that allows for quick monitor and control
The remaining portion of this manual describes in detail the steps necessary to install, configure, and operate the
ABR digital audio receiver within a network environment.
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Theory of Operation
Chapter 2 Functional Description and Theory of
Operation
2
This chapter provides functional descriptions and operational theory for the basic components of the ABR receiver
system. The ABR system consists of the following:
•
An outdoor receive-only antenna and feed-optional antenna sizes range from .75 to 2.4 meters
•
A low noise block (LNB) downconverter assembly that performs the initial signal downconversion
(optional frequencies)
•
A user-supplied interfacility link (IFL) cable connecting the LNB downconverter on the antenna to the ABR
•
An ABR receiver providing an L-band demodulator
2.1
Functional Description
2.1.1 Outdoor Components
The outdoor components consist of an antenna assembly, a feed assembly, and an LNB downconverter.
2.1.1.1 Antenna Assembly
The antenna assembly consists of the satellite reflector, mast, feed horn, and LNB downconverter. The antenna
assembly collects and concentrates RF transmissions that are produced by a communication satellite and
converts them to an electronic signal. A typical antenna assembly is shown in Figure 2-1.
2-10
Tiernan Family of Audio Broadcast Receivers
Theory of Operation
Figure 2.1 Receive-Only Antenna Assembly
The optional antenna supplied with the ABR system is an elliptical offset feed-type suited for receive-only
applications. The appropriate antenna size is determined by the location and transmitted satellite power (EIRP)
for each installation. Available antenna sizes are shown in Table 2-1.
Table 2.1 Available Prodelin Antenna Sizes
C-Band
1.2 m linear or cicular
Ku-Band
.60 m AZ/EL mount
.60 m wall mount
1.8 m linear or cicular
• .76 m AZ/EL mount
• .76 m wall mount
2.4 m linear or cicular
.90 m AZ/EL mount
3.0 m linear or cicular
1.0 m AZ/EL mount
3.4 m linear or cicular
1.2 m AZ/EL mount
3.7 m linear or cicular
(also polar mount)
•
•
•
•
•
1
1.8 m AZ/EL mount1
2.4 m AZ/EL mount1
3.0 m AZ/EL mount1
3.4 m AZ/EL mount1
3.7 m AZ/EL mount1
Available in both single and dual feed
The antenna subsystem receives DC power from the ABR receiver via the IFL cable, so an additional power
source is not required at the antenna site.
The reflector is mounted on a continuously adjustable azimuth/elevation positioner that supports precision aiming
to the satellite of choice. For proper signal reception, the antenna must have an unobstructed view of the satellite
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Theory of Operation
location in the sky. Prior to operation, the antenna must be aligned to maximize the receive signal reception from
the satellite used.
2.1.2 Feed Assembly and LNB Downconverter
The radio frequency signals gathered by the satellite antenna are focused on the feed horn, which collects the
signal. The output of the feed horn is then directed to the LNB downconverter, which provides the initial
amplification of the Ku or C-Band downlink signal and converts the Ku or C-band signals to L-band. The output of
the LNB downconverter is routed to the IFL cable through an F connector.
2.1.3 Interfacility Link (IFL) Cable
The IFL cable connects the antenna assembly to the ABR receiver. This cable carries L-band signals to the ABR
and supplies DC power to the LNB downconverter.
The outdoor end of the cable is attached to the LNB downconverter mounted on the antenna. The indoor end
connects to the ABR RF Input connector. The IFL cable uses F connectors on both ends.
The IFL cable is an important component of the receiver system. Proper cable selection and installation is
imperative to obtain optimal system performance. Appendix C: IFL Cable Characteristics provides detailed
information on the IFL cable, vendor sources, and connector installation.
2.1.4 ABR Satellite Receiver
The ABR is a multiple transmission rate digital audio receiver. Analog audio, data, and control commands are
output from the ABR. The receiver feeds the audio, data, and commands to the on-air studio console, as well as
the taping equipment for off-hours distribution of programmed material.
The ABR receiver chassis, shown in Figure 2-2, is a standard 19” rack-mount design with built-in handles. The
ABR chassis is designed to meet worldwide electromagnetic compatibility (EMC), safety, and power
requirements. Its lightweight aluminum construction is optimized to provide strength and EMC. The ABR contains
a universal autosensing power supply, allowing the unit to accommodate virtually any standard AC power source.
Figure 2.2 ABR Unit
2.1.5 Using the Front Panel
The front panel of the ABR, shown in Figure 2-3, displays the following:
•
LED indicators
•
Message display
•
Directional arrows to scroll through a display
•
Numeric keypad for data entry
•
CLR (Clear) button
•
ENT (Enter) button
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2.1.5.1 Front Panel Commands
Some commands can be entered from the front panel. See the “Remote Monitor and Control Operation,”
Command Description sections, for specific commands available from the ABR front panel. Each front panel
command is listed within the alphabetical command listing of remote commands. There is also a menu tree table
describing front panel commands.
2.1.5.2 Front Panel Indicators
Table 2.2 Front Panel Indicators
Indicator
Color
Description
Power
Green
Indicates the unit is powered on and changes color based on the presence of any
operating fault.
• If the Power LED is green, the unit is powered on.
• If the Power LED is off, then the power supply is not functioning properly. Refer
to the Troubleshooting section to determine whether the AC power source or the
internal power supply is faulty.
Status
Red
Indicates the state of the status relay. By default, all faults trigger the status relay.
• If the Status LED is Red, the status relay is active
• If the Status LED is off, then the status relay is inactive.
Event
Amber
Indicates the state of the event log.
• If the Event LED is Amber, one or more events have occurred since the last
acknowledgement.
• If the Event LED is off, no events have occurred since the last acknowledgement.
Ethernet
Green
Indicates the state of the Ethernet port.
• If the Ethernet LED is green, the Ethernet port is connected to another active
Ethernet device.
• If the Ethernet LED is off, then the Ethernet port is not connected to another
active Ethernet device or the port has been shut down.
Rx Sync
Green
Indicates whether the demodulator has synchronized (or “locked”) to the
modulator’s RF signal.
• If the Rx Sync LED is green, the demodulator has “locked”.
• If the Rx Sync LED is off, then the demodulator is not “locked”.
Signal Quality
Red
Indicates the current received RF signal to noise ratio (defined as Eb/No) relative to
user-specified criteria. Refer to Table 2.3 for default values.
• If the Signal Quality LED is solid Red, the Eb/No has dropped below the value set
by <Q0>.
• If the Signal Quality LED is blinking Red, the Eb/No has dropped below the value
set by <Q1>, but is above the value set by <Q0>.
• If the Signal Quality LED is off, the Eb/No is above below the value set by <Q1>.
TS Sync
Green
Indicates the state of the audio decoder.
• If the TS Sync LED is green, the audio decoder has synchronized to an incoming
audio transport stream.
• If the TS Sync LED is off, the audio decoder has not synchronized to an incoming
audio transport stream.
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Theory of Operation
Indicator
Color
Description
Test
Red
Indicates the state of test tone output.
• If the Test LED is Red, the audio decoder is outputting a test tone.
• If the Test LED is off, the audio decoder is not outputting a test tone.
Audio 1 Sync
Amber
Indicates the state of the audio decoder.
• If the Audio 1 Sync LED is amber, the audio decoder has synchronized to an
incoming audio transport stream.
• If the Audio 1 Sync LED is off, the audio decoder has not synchronized to an
incoming audio transport stream.
Table 2.3 Signal Quality Defaults
Q0 = 4.0 dB; Q1 = 7.0 dB
Signal Level (Eb/No)
Indicator
>7.0 dB
Off
>4.0 dB, <7.0 dB
Blinking Red
<4.0 dB or no RF Sync
Red
2.1.5.3 Front Panel Navigation Buttons
The following front panel buttons are used to move through menus and view status and fault information.
ENT
Use the Enter button to save the parameter or other information currently entered
in the LCD.
CLR
Use the Clear button to clear the display of any non-saved data.
→
Press the button beside the Right Arrow key to scroll forward through a menu.
←
Press the button beside the Left Arrow key to scroll back through a menu.
↑
Press the button beside the Up Arrow key to display additional information or
parameters for the current command.
↓
Press the button beside the Down Arrow key to display additional information or
parameters for the current command.
2.1.5.4 Front Panel Audible Key Press Indicator
The front panel provides and audible indication of a key press. The indicator can be disabled or enabled
through the front panel by navigating to Management > Front Panel > Buzzer.
2.1.5.5 Front Panel Screen Saver
A screensaver will appear on the front panel after five minutes have transpired. The screensaver displays
the current time, the Eb/No and the current format selected. The screensaver can be manually entered by
pressing the up-arrow key until the front panel navigates to the screensaver above the top-level menu
items.
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Theory of Operation
2.1.5.6 Front Panel Modes
The front panel can be set to two modes of operation: Basic Mode and Advanced Mode. The front panel
is set to Advanced Mode by default. Advanced Mode offers complete monitor and control capabilities of
all available front panel options. Basic Mode lets users access status information and change formats,
however, the in Basic Mode, users cannot configure any parameters. The default password is 7384.
To change modes, navigate to Management > Front Panel > Mode, if the front panel is in
Advanced Mode. Otherwise, navigate to Management > Front Panel > Enter Password,
if the front panel is in Basic Mode. Once the correct password has been entered, the front panel will
switch to Advanced Mode.
2.2
Theory of Operation
The ABR is a multiple transmission rate, QPSK/BPSK, digital audio receiver. The ABR site setup is comprised of
two elements, an outdoor unit and an indoor unit. The outdoor unit consists of an LNB downconverter that is
mounted directly onto the antenna. The L-band output signal is transmitted via coax cable to the indoor
electronics. Up to 400 feet of separation is possible before line amplifiers or switching to RG-35 cable is required.
Standardizing on an LNB configuration permits both Ku- and C-band satellite operation with a single indoor
receiver by selecting the appropriate LNB downconverter frequency range. The LNB downconverter can receive
DC power from the receiver via the single coax cable. Should the coax connection become interrupted for any
reason, an ODU alarm condition occurs.
The indoor unit consists of a compact, fully integrated, digital receiver. Internally the unit is composed of four
circuit cards:
•
•
•
•
An L-band demodulator card including:
•
An F-type L-band input connector
•
A DC power control circuit to provide a selectable DC voltage
An audio decoder card including:
•
A single DSP-based audio decoder providing two audio outputs, analog and AES/EBU
•
A 8-relay control port
•
An RS-232 serial user data output port
A central processing card including:
•
A powerful embedded Linux network processor for control of the entire unit
•
A 10/100BASE-T Fast Ethernet port
•
An RS-232/RS-485 serial monitor and control port
•
An RS-422 baseband I/O port
•
A serial printer and data output port
Front panel interface card including:
•
A 16x2 backlit character display
•
A rubber entry keypad
•
9 status LED indicators
•
An audible key press indicator
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Theory of Operation
With the built-in rack mount ears, the receiver requires only one rack unit (1.75 inches) of vertical space.
All input and output connections are made on the rear panel.
2.3
Transmission Channel Signal Format
The Tiernan digital audio satellite broadcast system uses a single RF carrier to distribute audio, data, and control
information from the uplink to all downlinks. This multiservice data stream uses time division multiplexing (TDM) to
transport the following information:
•
CD-quality digital audio (mono, dual-mono, or joint stereo pair)
•
User data
•
Relay contact closure messages and receiver commands
•
Network management commands
The TDM frame structure is provided by the ISO/MPEG Layer II/IIA audio standard, as shown in Figure 2-4. This
transport stream is commonly referred to as an MPEG elementary stream.
Frame Header
ISO/MPEG Layer II/IIA Audio Data
Ancillary
Figure 2.3 ABR Channel Format
The frame header provides all information regarding the audio rate, compression mode (mono, dual-mono, joint
stereo), sampling rate (48 kHz), ancillary data size, and checksum. The audio data is the processed data
generated by the ISO/MPEG Layer II/IIA encoder. The ancillary data stream is used to transport the following
information: network control, user data, and relay (equipment) control messages. This data is stripped out by the
ISO/MPEG Layer II/IIA decoder within the receiver and sent to the main control microprocessor for additional
processing and checksum. The checksum provides error detection of key audio data-related parameters.
Multiple (stereo) audio channels can be transmitted by uplinking an RF carrier for each stereo, dual-mono, or
mono channel service. This is known as frequency division multiplexing (FDM). The ABR is designed for
multicarrier FDM operation. By using digitally programmed local oscillators and optimized acquisition routines,
changes from one RF carrier to another occur in less than 600 msec and the signal parameters between the two
carriers can be different.
One carrier may be operating monaural audio at 64 kbps using QPSK modulation, while a second dual mono at
256 kbps using BPSK modulation. The RF frequencies may be a full 750 MHz apart. The key parameters for each
RF carrier are programmed into the ABR unit in one of five ways:
•
Locally via a computer terminal
•
Locally via a front panel keypad
•
Locally or remotely via Telnet through the Fast Ethernet port
•
Remotely via a telephone modem
•
Over the satellite link using the Audio Network Management System (ANMS), which is located at the
uplink facility
Figure 2-5 provides an illustration of various digital audio carriers on a single transponder
2-16
Tiernan Family of Audio Broadcast Receivers
Theory of Operation
Figure 2.4 Multichannel Single Transponder System
RF channel changes can be initiated from several sources:
•
Over the satellite control channel from the uplink
•
Via the monitor and control port
•
Via the Ethernet port
•
Via the front panel
•
Locally (if permitted) via three TTL control inputs
The output audio is muted just prior to initiating a channel change to prevent audio blasting. If the new RF carrier
cannot be acquired within one bin-time, a channel change fault <FL 29> is declared and the original channel is
reacquired. For information on channel acquisition and bin-time, refer to the "Installation Mode Acquisition"
section of this chapter.
2.3.1 Proper Signal Discrimination of Narrow Band RF Signals
A single satellite transponder can provide access to hundreds of individual RF carriers because of their very wide
bandwidths, typically 36, 54, or 72 MHz. The Tiernan Single Channel Per Carrier (SCPC) digital audio system
uses very narrow bandwidth RF carriers where the bandwidth can range from 64 kHz (64 kbps, QPSK) to 512
kHz (256 kbps, BPSK). The ABR receiver has the capability to acquire RF signals over the full satellite frequency
range of 500 MHz or 750 MHz.
Because local oscillators are used in translating the signal to various radio frequencies throughout the transport
cycle (uplink, satellite, and downlink), frequency uncertainties may become significant in comparison to the
bandwidth of the signal itself. This uncertainty can be as much as 2 MHz when operating with a DRO-type LNB
downconverter or as little as +15 kHz with a PLL-type LNB. To ensure that only the RF carrier of interest is
detected and processed, a further means of signal discrimination is required.
Additional discrimination is provided by embedding a unique identifier into the composite data stream of each
carrier. This unique identifier is comprised of two components: a network identification (ID) number, and a channel
ID number. The network and channel IDs are generated at the uplink by the codec/mux at regular intervals
(typically every 100 msec). For a given uplink, each codec/mux is programmed with a unique channel number,
with each carrier typically having the same network ID.
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Theory of Operation
During the receiver signal acquisition process, the proper RF signal is acquired and then the channel and network
identifiers are matched against the user's predetermined configuration within the receiver. When these match, the
Sync and Enable indicators are illuminated. However, if either of the IDs do not match, an acquisition network ID
fault <FL 31> is declared and the acquisition process continues until the correct signal is received.
If the network and channel ID information stops for a period of thirty seconds, a network ID timeout fault <FL 30>
is generated.
It is important that the channel and network ID numbers generated at the codec/mux match the
receiver configuration. For example, if a channel ID of 16 is used at the uplink, then all downlink
ABR receivers must have channel configuration #16 defined for the proper RF receiver
frequency, symbol rate, and demodulation type i.e., <CC 16,11700000,128000,1>.
If another channel configuration number is used, say “CC 1”, in any receiver, those receivers configured with “CC
1” instead of “CC 16” will not acquire the signal properly and will not operate. For multiple carriers from a single
uplink the network ID should be the same for all codec/muxes, but the channel IDs must be unique (i.e., 1, 2, 3,
etc.).
An example of several different possible combinations of channel identifiers and frequency allocations are
provided in Table 2-3 (assuming QPSK operation and 128 kbps transmission rate)
Table 2.4 Channel Identifier & Frequency Allocation Combinations
Carrier No.
Uplink Site
RF Freq MHz
NI
CI
CC/FD Format (at ABRs)
A
X
11,700.0
2
1
CC 1,...
FD 1,2,1,7
B
Y
11,700.2
1
1
CC 1,...
FC1,1,1,7
C
Z
11,701.0
1
2
CC 2,...
FC 2,1,2,7
FC 3,1,2,5
D
Z
11,701.2
1
3
CC 3,...
FD 4,1,3,7
If you add a fifth carrier, Carrier E (shown in Table 2-4), to the configuration of carrier frequencies and ID numbers
in Table 2-3, it is possible that carriers B and E would be incorrectly received, since they are within 600 kHz of
each other and do not have unique ID numbers. All other carriers would operate properly
Table 2.5 Carrier B and E Channel Identifier and Frequency Allocation
Carrier No.
Uplink Site
RF Freq MHz
NI
CI
CC/FD Format (at ABRs)
B
Y
11,700.2
1
1
CC 1,...
FD 1,1,1,7
E
Z
11,700.8
1
1
CC 1,...
FC1,1,1,7
2.3.2 Low Noise Block (LNB) Downconverter
The LNB downconverter takes the satellite signals at C- or Ku-band and block downconverts them to L-band for
processing by the satellite receiver. The performance of the LNB downconverter is critical, as it establishes the
noise figure for the entire receiver system. A block diagram of the LNB subsystem is shown in Figure 2-6
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Tiernan Family of Audio Broadcast Receivers
Theory of Operation
Figure 2.5 LNB Downconverter PLL Block Diagram
The LNB downconverter is installed at the focus of the parabolic antenna dish. The LNB downconverter consists
of:
•
A low noise amplifier (LNA)
•
A dielectric resonance oscillator (DRO) or phase lock loop (PLL) oscillator
•
A mixer
•
An image reject filter
•
An IF amplifier
The input of the LNB downconverter receives signals collected by the antenna and routes them to the LNA. The
LNA sets the LNB downconverter noise figure and provides the first stage of amplification. The amplified signal is
mixed with the local oscillator for downconversion to L-band frequencies and then passed through the image
reject filter. The IF amplifier boosts the signal to provide dynamic range, allowing for substantial cable loss. DRO
technology provides good stability and phase-noise performance and is acceptable for BPSK operation above
112 ksps. A PLL-based LNB downconverter is required for QPSK operation.
2.3.3 Receiver
The ABR broadcast receiver block diagram is shown in Figure 2-7. The major functional blocks consist of:
•
An L-band digital demodulator
•
The ISO/MPEG Layer II/IIA audio decoder DSP processor
•
The receiver control processor
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Theory of Operation
Figure 2.6 ABR Functional Block Diagram
The L-band demodulator receives the signal from the LNB downconverter. The signal is downconverted by a
digitally controlled tuner IC. The signal is then sampled, and input to the demodulator IC. In the demodulator IC,
soft decisions are made on the digitally compressed audio stream and it creates error signals for the carrier
tracking, bit timing, and AGC loops. The soft-decision bits are directed to the Sequential decoder block, which
supports differential decoding, V.35 descrambling, and sequential decoding.
The Digital Signal Processor (DSP) synchronizes to the digitally compressed audio stream and performs audio
decoding and audio/control demultiplexing. Next, the compressed digital audio is converted back into left and right
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Theory of Operation
channel 16-bit linear PCM audio. A dual channel 16-times-oversampled digital-to-analog (D/A) converter,
operating at a 48 kHz sampling rate, is used to produce the final CD-quality analog audio signal. The CD-quality
analog audio is available on a male, 9-pin DB connector. The outputs are direct coupled and actively balanced,
with the capability to drive a 600 ohm impedance load. When operating in the mono mode, there are several
options for the output audio signal mapping. For information about signal mapping, refer to the left and right toggle
(L/R) and mute (MU) commands in the chapter on Remote Monitor and Control Operation.
During any type of signal or processing failure, the output audio is immediately muted to prevent audio blasting.
Also, to provide blast-free audio channel changes, the audio is always muted prior to changing RF channels
during audio channel changes. It is then unmuted once audio decoder sync is achieved.
An AES/EBU digital output interface is also available. This interface permits direct output of the 16-bit PCM
samples. The interface operates using a 48 kHz sampling rate only. Newer studio equipment using the AES/EBU
interface will provide a direct digital interface from the ABR for maximum performance.
For diagnostic testing and installation, a test tone at approximately 1 kHz can be generated within the receiver for
output to both analog audio channels. This is accomplished through the audio test (AT) command, as described in
the chapter on Remote Monitor and Control Operation. Audio tone generation permits verification of external
equipment connection, proper channel phasing, level settings, distortion measurements, and the like.
2.3.3.1 Cue Signaling
Up to 16 cue control lines can be input into the DAC multiplexer unit located at the uplink. These 16 cue lines
independently control eight relay closures located at the ABR receiver. The cue inputs are typically connected to
studio control consoles or event sequencers.
Since only eight contact closures are available at the receiver, a mapping must be made as to which eight of the
16 possible control inputs activate the closures. This mapping is performed at the ABR receiver using the contact
mapping (CM) command or at the uplink via the ANMS control computer. The receiver defaults to have the first
eight inputs at the DAC mux control the eight closures at the ABR.
Any change in the state of an input line is sensed, and within two sample periods this change is muxed into the
continuous transmission of the control channel. The input levels are continuously transmitted over the control
channel at a rate specified by the DAC RM command every 100 msec (default setting). The relay contact closures
at the ABR receiver directly track the logic levels (active, nonactive) at the uplink mux. Given the two default
sampling rates, pulsed signals are reproduced within an accuracy of less than or equal to 50 msec.
Figure 2-8 provides a pictorial representation of the 16-to-8 mapping function that occurs for the cue signals within
the ABR receiver.
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Theory of Operation
Figure 2.7 Cue Signaling System Diagram
Seven TTL sensor inputs are provided for external control of channel selection or for ancillary equipment
monitoring. The first three inputs permit selection of up to eight different RF audio channels by connecting a rotary
(or similar) switch to the inputs. Only a simple contact closure is required to perform audio channel changes. The
actual RF channel frequencies and related operating parameters are programmed either locally or from the uplink
and are stored in eight presets. For more information about the presets, refer to the preset definition (PD)
command in the chapter on Remote Monitor and Control Operation.
The switch unit (TPN 03-0507-001), shown in Figure 2-9, allows the user to externally select one of eight preset
channel configurations with a BCD complementary rotary switch. This unit is mounted into a one unit high chassis
and has a front polycarb to allow the user to mark their presets. The unit attaches through a cable (TPN 05-0506001) to the receiving ABR.
Figure 2.8 Switch Panel
The second group of three inputs can be used to trigger a fault condition within the receiver. These fault
conditions are monitored and can be used to activate the status alarm relay. A brief summary of the possible
trigger events are: low signal strength, loss of sync (audio or carrier), IDU and ODU Faults, and external inputs.
The seventh input is reserved for future use.
2.4
ABR Carrier Acquisition
Acquisition is the process the receiver uses to adjust its frequency, phase, gain, and synchronization to match the
incoming carrier. Acquisition of the carrier signal for the ABR is a sophisticated process. Frequency errors arising
from temperature changes in the outdoor environment and the aging of components over time can make signal
acquisition difficult. The ABR has been designed to overcome these errors by the use of internal synthesizers that
correct for nearly all components of error, without operator intervention.
•
The automatic acquisition feature of the ABR operates in two distinct modes, installation and fade:
•
Installation mode acquisition is performed when the system is locking onto a new carrier.
2-22
Tiernan Family of Audio Broadcast Receivers
Theory of Operation
•
Fade acquisition is performed when the receiver loses the carrier to which it was previously locked.
Added to this process is the identification of the correct carrier via unique channel identifiers transmitted within the
control portion of the received audio stream. Each RF carrier is identified in two ways, a network identification (ID)
number and a channel ID number. These ID numbers originate within the digital audio codec at the transmitter
(uplink) site. All carriers on a single network are typically configured with the same network ID number. However,
each RF channel is given a unique channel ID number. If the receiver tries to lock to an RF carrier with the
incorrect network or channel identifier, the RF synchronization process is aborted and acquisition continues until
the carrier with the proper network and channel number is acquired. This ensures that receivers are locked to
their preassigned, authorized channel.
2.4.1 Installation Mode Acquisition
During installation, acquisition begins at the nominal carrier center frequency, which is user-defined by the
channel configuration (CC) command and the acquisition offset (AO) command. An attempt to acquire the carrier
begins by searching a range of frequencies, called a frequency bin, centered around the nominal carrier
frequency. The size of this range is determined by the symbol rate. If the ABR is unable to find the carrier within
this range, the receiver will move to the next contiguous range below the center carrier frequency and repeat the
process. If the carrier is not found there, the receiver will move to the next contiguous frequency above the center
carrier frequency and continue the search.
The receiver will continue this process, each time searching the next outside range (on either side of the starting
point) until the carrier is found, or until the user-defined acquisition range limit (B3) is reached. If the receiver
reaches this limit, it will log an acquisition range fault (FL9) and repeat the entire process, starting again at the
center carrier frequency. Figure 2-10 illustrates the installation acquisition process.
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Theory of Operation
Figure 2.9 Installation Acquisition Mode
Immediately following RF carrier acquisition, the channel and network identifiers are matched against the
configuration within the receiver. If these match, the Sync and Enable indicators both illuminate and the signal is
further processed by the ABR. However, if either of the IDs do not match, an acquisition network ID fault (FL 31)
is declared and the acquisition process continues until the correct signal is received and detected.
2.4.2 Fade Acquisition
Fade acquisition uses a different search pattern in order to concentrate the search in a narrower frequency range.
This range is centered on the point the carrier was last seen, as illustrated in Figure 2-11, while still covering the
entire user-defined search range (B3).
Figure 2.10 Fade Acquisition Mode
When the receiver loses the carrier, it starts a fade acquisition at the point it last saw the carrier. It searches the
range centered on that point (P0). The size of this range is defined by the B1 command. If no carrier is found, the
search continues in the areas above and below sequentially.
The size of the range searched outside the B1 range is defined by the B2 command. These points are indicated in
Figure 2-11 as B21 and B22.
Once the B21 and B22 ranges are searched, the receiver returns to P0 and resumes the expanding search from
the beginning. When the B1 limit is reached again, the system searches another B2 range beyond the last B2
attempts. If the carrier is still not found, the receiver starts again at P0 and searches the B1 range.
In this manner the system expands the search until the carrier is found or the user-defined acquisition range limit
(B3) is reached. If the range limit is reached without finding the carrier, an acquisition range fault (FL9) occurs and
the entire fade acquisition process begins again at P0.
Immediately following RF carrier acquisition the channel and network identifiers are matched against the
configuration within the receiver. If these match, the Sync and Enable indicators both illuminate and the signal is
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Theory of Operation
further processed by the ABR. However, if either of the IDs do not match, an acquisition network ID fault (FL 31)
occurs and the acquisition process continues until the correct signal is received and detected.
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Chapter 3 Quick Installation
3.1
3
Overview
This chapter provides quick installation and startup instructions for experienced users who are familiar with
satellite communications equipment.
It assumes that the:
•
Satellite antenna is installed and aligned to the desired satellite
•
IFL cable is properly installed and connected to the receiver and the LNB downconverter at the antenna
•
ABR is configured correctly for your network
Ensure AC power is off before connecting or disconnecting the IFL cable to the receiver.
3.2
Installing an ABR202A in an Existing ABR202 Network
If you are installing an ABR202A in an existing ABR202 network, there are no configuration changes which must
be made to the audio network.
3.3
Quick Installation Procedure
Under the above-listed conditions, the ABR is a plug-and-play component and the system startup is
straightforward. If the above conditions do not apply, or if you experience problems following the Quick Installation
procedure, refer to the chapter on Full Installation and Startup.
To perform quick installation:h
1. Make sure the ABR is properly installed in an equipment rack or on a flat surface with the following
connected:
•
AC cord
•
IFL cable
•
Audio, data, and relay port cables
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Maintenance and Troubleshooting
Ensure that the unit has at least 3 inches of side clearance and 1 inch of top and bottom
clearance for adequate ventilation.
2. If the receiver was not configured at the factory with customer-supplied satellite frequencies, then it must
be configured by the end-user.
To configure the receiver:
•
An RS-232 terminal (or software equivalent, i.e., HyperTerminal) must be connected to the
receiver Monitor and Control (M&C) port. Pin definitions on the M&C port allow for ribbon cable
connection from a DB-9 COM port.
•
The terminal must be configured to operate at the default communication values of 2400 baud,
using 7 data bits, odd parity, and 1 stop bit.
•
The following commands and associated values must be entered at the terminal to program the
minimal essential operating parameters. Items in italics are variable syntax depending on what
information is being requested. (For more information about any of the following commands, refer
to the chapter on Remote Monitor and Control Operation.)
The ABR is factory preset for a PLL LNB, unless otherwise requested. Use of a DRO LNB
requires that a master reset (MR) command be invoked first with the applicable argument shown
below:
•
MR 0
{to select a DRO LNB}
MR 1
{to select a PLL LNB}
Enable the LNB DC voltage as necessary.
LV 3 {Selects +18VDC}
•
Enter the channel configuration for each channel to be used. Command format is:
CC channel_number,RF_frequency,
symbol_rate,modulation_type, coding_rate, outer_block_code_rate
•
Enter the definition for the service (format) that is to be received. Command format is:
FD format_number,network_id_number,
channel_id_number,service_authorization
•
Select the desired audio service channel using the FS (format select) command. Command format is:
FS format_number
•
Initiate initial acquisition search mode by entering:
AQ 2
3. Observe the following about the front panel indicators:
3-2
•
The Status indicator is on and remains illuminated red signifying that there is at least one
operating fault.
•
When signal acquisition is complete, the Rx Sync indicator is illuminated green and the Status
indicator changes to green, indicating no operating faults are present.
•
The Signal Quality indicator may or may not be illuminated based on the signal-to-noise ratio.
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Maintenance and Troubleshooting
•
The TS Sync and Audio 1 Sync indicators will illuminate if the audio decoder has synchronized
properly with the digital audio feed and is outputting audio.
4. Check if audio is available at the audio output port. If the receiver configuration is correct and the receiver
is permissioned from the uplink, then audio will be heard.
You are finished installing the ABR satellite audio receiver system.
For further verification of proper operation of the ABR, or if there is a problem during quick installation, refer to the
chapter on Full Installation and Startup.
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Maintenance and Troubleshooting
4
Chapter 4 Full Installation and Startup
4.1
Overview
This chapter describes the steps necessary to install and start up a complete ABR Audio Broadcast Receiver. It
presents separate instructions for outdoor equipment, the IFL cable, and indoor equipment.
The material in this chapter may be used as a guide to overall installation of a receiver site or a startup of selected
components related to the ABR system.
4.2
Installation Overview
The overall steps for installing and starting up the ABR are as follows:
1. Plan the site.
2. Install and align the antenna.
3. Install the IFL cable.
4. Install the ABR.
5. Connect the ABR.
6. Start up the system.
7. Validate or verify the installation.
4.3
Planning the Site
The purpose of site planning is to specify where the various components of the receiver system are to be located
and to identify any special installation or operational requirements. Time spent in planning prevents unnecessary
complications during installation and allows potential problems to be resolved before work begins.
There are three main issues to be addressed:
•
Location and mounting of the antenna assembly
•
Routing of the IFL cable
•
Location of the ABR
4.4
Installing and Aligning the Antenna
The location of the receiving antenna is the first element to be considered. The antenna must be placed with an
unobstructed line-of-sight path to the transmitting satellite. The antenna will not function properly if the path to the
satellite is blocked or obstructed by buildings, trees, or other objects. If possible, placement should avoid
situations that limit the field of view, such as buildings or large metal structures.
Aside from physical considerations, the location of the antenna requires compliance with local ordinances and
building codes, particularly those pertaining to electrical conduits. This is particularly true if the outdoor portion of
the cable is to be buried. The responsibility for complying with local ordinances rests solely upon the purchaser of
4-4
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Maintenance and Troubleshooting
the antenna. It is best to be aware of the local building and construction codes as early in the planning process as
possible.
After the antenna assembly is complete, install the LNB and align the antenna. The LNB installation kit includes
mounting hardware for most standard feed horns. Some feed horns may require different hardware (bolts, nuts).
4.5
Installing the IFL Cable
To ensure that the receiver operates properly, the IFL cable must meet the specifications described in Appendix
C: Interfacility Link (IFL) Cable Characteristics and Preparation.
In most cases, the routing of the IFL cable from the antenna assembly to the ABR consists of an outdoor run, for
one part of its length, and an indoor run for the remaining length. It is always advantageous to carefully plan the
path for the run of the IFL cable since an improper installation can significantly degrade system performance.
In general, always try to minimize the length of the cable run. In addition, the specifications for the cable should
be carefully reviewed with the proposed layout and intended system data rate in mind. For example, using the
recommended RG-11 cable, a run of 400 feet is possible, assuming a 192 kbps data rate. Runs longer than 400
feet are possible using RG-35 cable or an L-band line amplifier (use L-band line amplifier LA-20 by Norsat (604)
597-6278) with a gain of 20 to 30 dB. Ensure that the line amplifier also passes the 18 VDC line voltage on to the
LNB downconverter.
Table 4-1 provides information on maximum cable losses that are acceptable before signal degradation can be
expected (assuming 5 dB Eb/No LNB output, 55 dB LNB gain, 150°K system noise temperature).
Table 4.1 IFL Cable Loss vs. Data Rate
4.6
Data Rate
Cable Loss Maximum (dB)
384 kbps
14
256 kbps
12.2
128 kbps
9.2
64 kbps
6.2
Installing the ABR
Once the antenna has been properly located and installed, attention should be directed to the location of the
receiver. The ABR functions over a wide range of power and environmental conditions. An autoranging power
supply allows the receiver to use most common utility power feeds.
For maximum availability and reliability, connect the receiver to an uninterrupted power supply (UPS) to allow
continued operation during power outages.
The low wattage requirements and small size of the unit make it adaptable to most installations. For detailed
environmental specifications, refer to the chapter on Technical Specifications and Port Information.
The physical location of the ABR is flexible and largely depends on the location of the audio processing
equipment rack. The ABR should be located close to the equipment it will serve.
4.6.1 Rack-Mount
Normally, the ABR mounts in a standard 19-inch equipment rack, using the built-in rack mount brackets, and
occupies one rack unit of height (1.75 inches).
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Maintenance and Troubleshooting
To allow for adequate ventilation of the ABR in a rack, the ABR requires a free air space beside it. Other
hardware may be installed directly above or below the ABR in the rack, but the unit must not cover the ventilation
holes on the sides. Any hardware directly touching the ABR should not conduct heat onto the ABR chassis.
The maximum ambient temperature specification for the ABR is 50º C. This temperature is measured one inch
from either side of the receiver within the rack enclosure. This temperature must not exceed 50º C to maintain the
product's warranty. Proper rack ventilation and forced air flow techniques should be used to ensure the internal
ambient temperature within the rack does not exceed the ABR specifications.
It is strongly recommended that surge suppression be used on the AC input to the ABR, or any rack that contains
an ABR. There are many surge suppression vendors that can recommend and supply products to meet your
voltage and power requirements. In addition, placement of the ABR should allow access to its rear panel.
The IDU should be rack-mounted only in enclosures that will not exceed an ambient
temperature of 50° C.
4.7
External Connections
This section describes the physical and electrical connections to the ABR receiver.
Ensure that the power to the ABR is off when connecting or disconnecting either end of the
cable that connects to RF In. Failure to do so may cause equipment damage.
All external connections to the ABR are made through the rear panel connectors. The ABR has fouteen possible
connections on the rear panel, four of which are unused. The location of these connectors is shown in Figure 4-1.
Figure 4.1 Rear Panel Connectors
The pinouts for these interfaces are detailed in Appendix A: Interface Pinouts.
To ensure compliance with EMC standards, all signal cables connected to the receiver should
be shielded. The shield must be properly terminated to the mating connector.
4.7.1 Analog Audio 1
Connector Type: DB-9, Male (Top Row)
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Maintenance and Troubleshooting
The Audio Out port provides the analog audio output for left and right audio channels. The outputs are direct
coupled and actively balanced, with the capability to a drive 600 ohm impedance. To ensure against circuit
damage resulting from short circuits, a series current-limiting resistor (510 ohm) exists between the op-amp
output and the connector.
Audio gain through the system is nominally 0 dB with a 100k load impedance and a nominal
(mid-range) audio volume setting. Using 600 ohm output load will reduce the audio output
power by 5.3 dB. The audio volume command may be used to recover this lost power, if
required. For additional information, refer to the chapter on commands and codes.
When operating in the mono mode, there are several options for the output audio signal mapping. For information
about signal mapping, refer to the left and right toggle (L/R) and mute (MU) commands in found in the chapter on
Remote Monitor and Control Operation.
A mating female DB-9 connector, with a metal shell cover, is supplied with the audio receiver for connecting to
studio equipment. The user is required to supply the interconnecting cable, which should be a shielded, twisted
pair audio cable.
4.7.2 Analog Audio 2
Connector Type: DB-9, Male (Bottom Row)
This connector is unused on the ABR202A.
4.7.3 AUX (Auxiliary)
Connector Type: DB-15, Female (Bottom Row)
The auxiliary port provides a connection to a variety of signals for optional use, including:
•
Status relay contacts
•
AGC monitor voltage
•
Composite non-MPEG data only, synchronous RS-422 receive clock/data output
•
Composite MPEG data, synchronous RS-422 clock/data input
4.7.3.1 Status Relay
The Status Relay contacts are made at this connector. The Status Relay output provides the capability for an
external indication of errors in the satellite receiver system operation. The Status Relay tracks the front panel
Fault indicator and consists of contact closures (both normally open and normally closed presentations) that
remains inactive during normal operation (Figure 4-2).
A powerful feature of the Status Relay is its ability to be programmed to trigger when specific user-selected fault
conditions are detected while ignoring others. This allows the status relay actions to be customized for the
conditions at a specific receiver installation. The status relay mask (SR) command provides this customizing
ability. (For specific details, refer to the chapter on Remote Monitor and Control Operation.)
Both normally open and normally closed presentations of the status relay are available on the Status Relay
connector. The normally open relay pins will present an open circuit when the unit power is off or when an
unmasked fault is present. Conversely, the normally closed relay output will present a short circuit when power is
off or an unmasked fault is present. The logic of the relay, i.e., open or closed, may be reversed using the SS
command as described in the chapter on commands and codes.
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Maintenance and Troubleshooting
The Status Relay output should not be used to switch currents greater than 1 amp, voltages
higher than 100 volts, or total power higher than 25 VA.
Figure 4.2 Relay K1 and J2 ABR Connector
4.7.3.2 RS-422 Composite Data Output
The undecoded audio data stream is on this connector as RS-422 data and clock signal pairs. This interface
operates synchronously with the output data being valid on the falling edge of the receive timing clock that is also
provided.
4.7.3.3 RS-422 Digital Audio Input
External RS-422 data and clock signals may be provided to the auxiliary port and passed to the internal audio
decoder from an external MPEG audio encoder or storage device.
4.7.4 AES/EBU Digital Audio Output
Connector Type: DB-15, Female (Bottom Row)
A digital pulse coded modulation (PCM) audio output is available. This interface operates per the AES/EBU
interface specification. This interface permits direct connection to studio equipment or digital audio tape recorders
that support the AES/EBU interface. Higher quality audio is thereby possible since all of the digital-analog and
analog-digital conversion noise is alleviated with digital PCM.
4.7.5 Relay/Control 1-8
Connector Type: DB-25, Male (Top Row)
The Relay/Control port provides eight separate form C (SPST) relay contacts that are controlled from the uplink.
Each contact can be programmed independently or in combination with other contacts. The polarity (normally
open or closed) is also configurable (either locally or from the uplink). The relay contacts are intended to be used
to control external equipment, either audio or other station equipment.
4-8
Tiernan Family of Audio Broadcast Receivers
Maintenance and Troubleshooting
Seven TTL sensor inputs are provided for external control of channel selection or for ancillary equipment
monitoring. Each input is internally pulled up to +5 VDC through a 4.7 K ohm resistor. These inputs can be directly
monitored via the TTL sensor input query (SI) command. The first three inputs permit selection of up to eight
different RF audio channels by connecting a rotary (or similar) switch to the inputs. A contact closure from the
input to the ground pin provided on this connector activates the input. The actual RF channel frequencies are
programmed either locally or from the uplink and are stored into eight presets.
The second group of three inputs can be used to trigger an automatic dial-out trouble reporting call into the uplink
facility when activated. (For more information, refer to the FL command section in the chapter on Remote Monitor
and Control Operation.) The seventh input is reserved for future use. Also available on this port is +15 VDC. An
internal resistor limits the output current to 50 mA. One possible use for this voltage is to support interfacing to
coupled inputs of user equipment.
4.7.6 Relay/Control 9-16
Connector Type: DB-25, Male (Bottom Row)
This connector is unused on the ABR202A.
4.7.7 User Data 1
Connector Type: DB-9, Female (Top Row)
The User Data port provides an asynchronous RS-232 data output. The data is part of the audio data stream
transmitted from the uplink. Data rates up to 9600 baud are supported. The port can be configured by the user via
the user data port configuration (P1) command described in the chapter on Remote Monitor and Control
Operation. Flow control is not implemented for this interface.
4.7.8 User Data 2
Connector Type: DB-9, Female (Bottom Row)
This connector is unused on the ABR202A.
4.7.9 Printer Data
Connector Type: DB-25, Female (Bottom Row)
The Printer Data port provides either an asynchronous RS-232 data output or a synchronous RS-422 data output.
The data is part of the audio data stream transmitted from the uplink. Data rates up to 9600 baud are supported.
The port can be configured by the user via the printer port configuration (P3) command and the interface selection
(S1) command described in the chapter on Remote Monitor and Control Operation. Flow control is not
implemented for this interface.
4.7.10 Ethernet
Connector Type: RJ-45, Female (Bottom Row)
The Ethernet port is used for monitor and control by Telnet. The speed and duplex is auto-negotiated by default. It
can operate on 10 mbps or 100 mbps as well as full-duplex or half-duplex. The IP address and subnet mask of
the port can be configured through the terminal or the front panel.
4.7.11 USB
Connector Type: Type-A, Female (Bottom Row)
This connector is unused on the ABR202A.
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Maintenance and Troubleshooting
4.7.12 M&C
Connector Type: DB-9, Female (Bottom Row)
The M&C port is used to connect an RS-232 control terminal, RS-485 multidrop bus, or telephone modem to the
ABR. During normal system operation, commands are received from the uplink via the control channel. However,
control and diagnostic commands can also be issued to the receiver through this port. During normal operation,
the front panel LED indicator displays summary failure information. The diagnostic port is used to provide detailed
information on the ABR status.
The M&C port is configurable via the M&C port configuration (P2) command described in the chapter on Remote
Monitor and Control Operation.
With the Tiernan-approved, Hayes-compatible telephone modem (TPN 30-0120-194) connected to the M&C port,
a terrestrial backlink to a network uplink can be established for remote performance monitoring. (For more
information about telephone modem operation, refer to Appendix B: Telephone Modem Operation.)
The data terminal ready (DTR) lines must be active for proper operation. The default port
configuration is 2400 baud, 7 data bits, 1 stop bit, and odd parity with packet address 31.
Since the M&C port can be reprogrammed, it may be necessary to reset the port to the default configuration. To
reset:
1. Using the front panel arrow keys, navigate to “Management > Console Port”.
2. Change the parameters as necessary.
The M&C port will also accept commands via an RS-485 party line bus. While the receiver does
not distinguish between RS-232 and RS-485 electrical levels, it is essential to invoke “packetonly” mode for multiple Tiernan products communicating over the same RS-485 bus in
Tiernan/ComStream Packet Protocol. The ABR is a “slave” on the RS-485 bus, i.e., it only
responds to commands and never initiates communication with the “master.”
4.7.13 RF In
Connector Type: F, 75 ohm, Female (Top Row)
The RF In port is the primary input to the receiver. The RF signal is brought into the receiver through this
connector.
The power of the input carrier should be in the range of -75 dBm to -20 dBm with the RF frequency in the range of
950 MHz to 1700 MHz. The total power in the 950 MHz to 1700 MHz band should be less than -10 dBm. The
input impedance is 75 ohm, with a return loss of greater than 8 dB.
The RF In connector on the back panel also supplies +18 VDC (500 mA maximum) to the LNB downconverter. By
default, the voltage is disabled. The voltage can be enabled by entering LV 3 through the M&C port. This is
supplied through the center conductor of the connector via the IFL cable. Caution should be exercised when:
•
4-10
Fabricating an IFL cable. Using connectors or cables other than those specified in Appendix C:
Interfacility Link (IFL) Cable Characteristics and Preparation may result in shorting the +18 V to connector
Tiernan Family of Audio Broadcast Receivers
Maintenance and Troubleshooting
ground, which will prevent the ABR from operating. Ensure the cable's center conductor slides into the
receptor cup of the connector's center pin prior to crimping the connector.
•
Connecting any extraneous test equipment (e.g., simulator) to the RF In port. A suitable DC blocking
capacitor must be connected between the port and external equipment to prevent a possible short from
tripping the internal short circuit protection circuit.
Ensure that the power to the ABR is off when connecting or disconnecting either end of the
cable that connects to RF In. Failure to do so may cause equipment damage.
4.7.14 Power Connector
Connector Type: IEC 320, Male socket
The ABR power supply is autoranging from 85 to 264 VAC and 47 to 63 Hz. Maximum power supply output for
the ABR is 60 watts. The typical power consumption for the ABR is less than 40 watts. There is no power on/off
switch on the receiver. Remove the AC power cable from the unit to turn the power off.
Always power down the ABR before connecting or disconnecting signal cables to the unit.
If an unterminated power cord is supplied with the unit, the appropriate certified termination plug must be
installed. The power cord wires are color-coded as follows:
•
Green and Yellow: earth/ground
•
Blue: neutral
•
Brown: live
If the color code described does not correspond to the colored markings identifying the terminals in your plug,
proceed as follows:
•
The green and yellow wire must be connected to the terminal in the plug marked by the letter E or by the
earth symbol , or colored green and yellow.
•
The blue wire must be connected to the terminal marked with the letter N, or colored black.
•
The brown wire must be connected to the terminal marked with the letter P, or colored red.
Table 4-2 lists the required certifying agencies for some countries.
Table 4.2 Certifying Agencies by Country
Country
Agency
Australia
SSA
Austria
OVE
Belgium
CEBEC
Canada
CSA
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Maintenance and Troubleshooting
Country
4.8
Agency
Denmark
DEMKI
Finland
FEI
France
UTE
Germany
VDE
India
ISI
Ireland
IIRS
Italy
IMQ
Japan
MITI
Netherlands
KEMA
New Zealand
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Norway
NEMKO
Republic of So. Africa
SABS
Spain
AEE
Sweden
SEMKO
Switzerland
SEV
United Kingdom
• ASTA
• BSI
SECV
SECQ
SECWA
EANSW
ETSA
HECT
SANZ
Starting Up the System
This section describes the activities necessary to bring an assembled ABR system online. The following steps
assume that the antenna, IFL cable, and ABR have been properly installed and connected. Do not proceed until
this setup is complete.
Ensure that the power to the ABR is off when connecting or disconnecting either end of the
cable that connects to RF In. Failure to do so may cause equipment damage.
If problems are encountered in the startup sequence, refer to the "Startup Problems" section of this chapter and
the chapter on Maintenance and Troubleshooting.
To start up the ABR:
1. Make sure the ABR is properly installed in the equipment rack or on the table top with the IFL cable and
the audio/data cables connected.
2. Turn on the unit by connecting the AC power cable to the unit and observe the front. The front panel lights
flash through a consistent sequence when the unit is first powered on. The pattern the lights follow is
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Maintenance and Troubleshooting
dependent on the signal conditions and strength at your site. When acquisition is complete, the Rx Sync
LED is illuminated. The TS Sync/Audio 1 LEDs may or may not be illuminated based on the signal
strength and the Q0 (Low Signal Quality Threshold Level) and Q1 (High Signal Quality Threshold Level)
command settings.
3. Check to see if audio is available at the Audio Out port. If the network is properly configured and the
receiver properly authorized, audio will be present.
At this point the ABR is ready for verifying proper equipment setup and operation.
Validating Installation
Once the ABR has been powered up, verify that the unit is connected properly for the audio, data, and relay ports.
This is accomplished by communicating with the receiver using an ASCII terminal and performing several
diagnostic commands. The electrical interface is RS-232 on a PC-AT style DB-9 connector, DTE presentation.
The terminal should be configured for 2400 baud, 7 data bits, 1 stop bit, and odd parity.
To establish communication with the receiver:
1. At the ASCII terminal connected to the ABR, press the ENTER key on the terminal. The receiver should
respond with an ASCII login request string.
2. Type the default password HOMEYD (must use all caps). When successful communication has been
accomplished, the terminal displays a > prompt, indicating it is ready to accept commands.
3. Once the communications link with the ABR is established, the following steps can be used to verify
proper receiver operation.
For an alphabetical listing of commands and proper command syntax, refer to the chapter on
Remote Monitor and Control Operation.
1. Validate the:
•
Audio interface. Enter AT 1 and verify that a 1000 Hz audio tone is present on both left and right
audio outputs. This can be accomplished at the receiver or at an appropriate patch panel location.
When the test is complete enter AT 0.
•
Relay port interface. Each individual relay closure contact can be activated (closed/opened) or
deactivated (opened/closed) via the terminal using the CO (contact closure) and CS (contact
sense) commands. Each line should be verified to exercise the external equipment connection to
ensure proper operation. Ensure that CO is returned to all Xs.
•
User Data port interface. Connect the data port to the data terminal equipment (DTE) device.
Ensure the data port configuration (P1 command) and the DTE configuration agree. At the M&C
terminal enter X1 1 to initiate the data port test. The string, THE QUICK BROWN FOX JUMPS
OVER THE LAZY DOG 0123456789, should be printed out continuously at the DTE. If not,
recheck all connections and configurations. When finished, enter X1 0 to stop the test.
•
Printer Data port interface. Connect the data port to the data terminal equipment (DTE) device.
Ensure the data port configuration (P3 command) and the DTE configuration agree. At the M&C
terminal enter X3 1 to initiate the data port test. The string, THE QUICK BROWN FOX JUMPS
OVER THE LAZY DOG 0123456789, should be printed out continuously at the DTE. If not,
recheck all connections and configurations. When finished, enter X3 0 to stop the test.
•
Receiver operation. Enter ST ? to verify the status of the ABR. The ST 0 response indicates
status zero or no faults.
Tiernan Family of Audio Broadcast Receivers
Page 4-13
Maintenance and Troubleshooting
- Enter CF 0 to clear the fault register.
- Enter EB ? to verify the Eb/No of the link.
2. Verify the operation of the ABR compared to the link budget for a particular installation. Enter FL 0. The
response should be FL 0 indicating no faults have been detected since the CF 0 command. Keep in mind
that other factors, such as weather, may affect this measurement. If faults are observed, refer to the
chapter on Remote Monitor and Control Operation for more information on the FL command.
At this point, the ABR installation is verified and ready for normal operation.
4.9
Startup Problems
This section describes common problems encountered during startup. In general, the ABR has been designed for
unattended operation and few problems should be encountered.
The ABR is factory preset for a PLL LNB, unless ordered otherwise. Use of a DRO LNB requires that a master
reset (MR) command be invoked with the applicable argument shown below:
MR 0 {to select a DRO LNB}
MR 1 {to select a PLL LNB}
The MR command with the applicable agreement must be entered twice to take effect. For more information, refer
to the chapter on Remote Monitor and Control Operation.
4.9.1 The Receiver Will Not Lock Onto The Satellite Signal
The most common cause of this problem is a lack of signal at the RF input. If there is a problem with the signal,
most likely it is improper pointing of the antenna or the IFL cable. An indication of a lack of signal is the AGC
value. If the AGC gain factor (AG) command indicates a value of 255, there is no signal present.
To troubleshoot this problem:
1. Ensure the antenna is properly assembled, and recheck the antenna alignment to ensure it is pointed to
the proper satellite.
2. Check the connectors on the IFL cable for proper installation. With the cable disconnected, ensure the
cable passes a continuity and no-short test.
3. Measure the DC output of the ABR at RF Out. The DC level should be approximately 18 V. If DC is
present here, the ABR power supply is OK.
4. Attach the IFL cable to the ABR and measure the DC voltage at the antenna end of the cable. If there is
no DC voltage present on the center conductor of the IFL, the cable is defective.
•
If the DC value is below 15 V, there is an excessive DC voltage drop in the cable due to improper
installation or use of the incorrect cable for the distance.
•
If the DC value is 15 V minimum, connect the cable to the LNB downconverter. If the AG value is
still 255, then the LNB downconverter is probably defective or the antenna is not pointed
correctly.
5. Ensure the correct polarization of the LNB for the network is set. If it is incorrect, you could have a strong
AG value but not be able to lock on to the carrier.
If the antenna is pointed correctly and the signal is present (AG other than 255), but the unit will not acquire, then
there could be many possible causes. Enter DP on the diagnostic terminal. Check the values of B1, B2, and B3.
If operating in QPSK mode, then spectral inversions, caused by a high-side local oscillator in the transmission
chain, may also prevent lock. Set the DI parameter to compensate for spectral inversion, if necessary.
4-14
Tiernan Family of Audio Broadcast Receivers
Maintenance and Troubleshooting
Check the values of the FS, FD, and CC commands. These are dependent on the network configuration. If these
commands do not match the values for the network hub, the receiver will not acquire the signal. Contact the
Network Administrator for assistance.
If any of the other values vary from their expected values, change it to its proper value and enter AQ 2 to restart
signal acquisition.
4.9.2 No Audio Is Received from the Audio Out Port
If the front panel TS Sync/Audio 1 Sync LEDs are on (signal is locked) but no audio is available, the most likely
cause is that the receiver is not authorized to receive audio or there is a cabling problem.
To troubleshoot this problem:
1. Double check the pinouts on the cable and run the audio test described in the previous section.
2. Execute the audio sync status (AS) command, which will indicate if the audio output is muted and why.
For more information, refer to the chapter on Remote Monitor and Control Operation.
3. Check with the Network Administrator to ensure audio is available on the output port you are checking.
For other problems or ideas, refer to the chapter on Maintenance and Troubleshooting.
Tiernan Family of Audio Broadcast Receivers
Page 4-15
Maintenance and Troubleshooting
Chapter 5 Remote Monitor and Control Operation
5.1
5
Overview
In audio distribution networks, the ABR is normally configured and controlled from the uplink via the Audio
Network Management System (ANMS). In this configuration, the user typically does not need to communicate
directly with the receiver. However, during receiver installation, troubleshooting, or performance monitoring, direct
communication may be required.
This chapter details the remote control operation of the receiver. Complete monitoring and control of the receiver
is available using an ASCII computer terminal connected to the RS-232 M&C port located on the rear of the unit.
Alternatively, a telephone modem may be connected to the M&C port permitting access from a remote terminal.
(For more information, refer to the appendix on Telephone Modem Operation.) In addition, the monitor and control
console is available by Telnet through the Ethernet connector.
Commands are input by the user to set or display ABR parameters. ABR codes are output by the receiver to
indicate errors, faults, or current status. This chapter:
•
Describes the ABR command syntax
•
Explains each functional group of commands
•
Presents errors, faults, and status codes
•
Provides an alphabetical listing of all ABR commands and codes
In addition, this chapter describes the commands available from the front panel of the unit. These commands are
included within the description of the individual remote commands, where applicable.
5.2
Command Syntax
Commands are input to the ABR by sending a sequence of ASCII characters to the receiver M&C port. Each
message consists of a two-letter mnemonic string, a single-space character, and an optional parameter followed
by a carriage return. Commands may be entered in either upper or lowercase.
Most commands are used to establish internal parameter values and interrogate their current value. The
parameter may be either a single-digit number referenced as n, a multiple-digit number referenced as nnnnn, or a
single ASCII character or string designated s or string. Syntax that appears in italics represents variable
characters; this syntax varies depending on what information is being requested.
Parameter values are interrogated by replacing the numeric parameter in the command string with a question
mark (?) character, or by simply entering a carriage return immediately following the two-character command.
Some commands do not have parameters associated with them and are terminated with a carriage return.
Example 1:
command SP ?
Example 2:
command
The first example requests the receiver display the current parameter value(s). The second example
demonstrates the syntax for a command that does not require a parameter (i.e., RE, DC, DP, etc.).
Command actions are performed if the:
•
5-16
Command is valid
Tiernan Family of Audio Broadcast Receivers
Maintenance and Troubleshooting
•
Parameter value is within the valid range
•
Parameter value or command is compatible with the present receiver configuration
•
Command or query can be executed immediately
•
Commands that do not follow these guidelines produce an error code.
5.3
Password Protection
In providing a measure of security from unauthorized access to the receiver, a login password is provided. The
factory default for the password is HOMEYD. The command and associated parameter syntax is such that the
character case is not distinguished. The user is requested to change the password, using the password change
(PC) command, if protection is desired.
5.4
Command Error Codes
Command errors occur when a command has been mistyped, is inappropriate, or cannot be immediately
executed. The normal response of the receiver is to display one of the error codes/descriptions shown in Table
5-1.
Table 5.1 Error Codes/Descriptions
Error
5.5
Description
ER 1
Command format error
ER 2
Parameter out of range
ER 3
Command not supported by configuration
ER 4
Command temporarily not supported
Command Groups
Most commands establish the operating characteristics of the receiver. These commands install permanent
values into memory that remain in place unless changed by the operator. Operators should avoid changing
configuration values unless they are certain of the result. Most of the operating parameters are established at the
uplink at the time of installation and do not change except under specific conditions.
ABR commands are grouped into nine functional areas:
•
L-band Demodulator
•
Channel Control
•
Audio Port
•
Data Ports
•
Relay Port
•
M&C Port
•
Alarm/Status
•
Front Panel
•
Miscellaneous
Table 5-2 through Table 5-13 list the commands and their description.
Tiernan Family of Audio Broadcast Receivers
Page 5-17
Maintenance and Troubleshooting
The characteristics and use of each command group, along with a summary of commands in
the group, are discussed in following sections. The detailed usage and syntax of individual
commands is presented in the alphabetical listing at the end of this chapter
Table 5.2 L-band Demodulator Commands
Command
Description
AG
AGC Gain Factor
AO
Acquisition Offset Frequency
AQ
Acquisition Mode
B1
Primary Search (Binning) Range
B2
Secondary Search (Binning) Range
B3
Overall Search (Binning) Range
CE
Channel Error Rate
DC
Display Configuration
DI
Spectral Inversion
DQ
Data Rate Query
EB
Eb/No Signal Level Query
EM
Eb/No Minimum Receive Level
EX
Maximum Eb/No
LO
Local Oscillator Offset
LT
LNB Type
LV
LNB Voltage
RB
Read Calculated Bit Error Rate
RF
Read RF Value
Table 5.3 Channel Control Commands
Command
Description
CC
Channel Configuration
FD
Format Definition
FS
Format Select
LA
Logical Address Definition
LC
Local Format Change Permission
NS
Network Status
PD
Preset Definition
Table 5.4 Audio Port Commands
Command
AP
5-18
Description
CS4922 Inputs (AES/EBU interface)
Tiernan Family of Audio Broadcast Receivers
Maintenance and Troubleshooting
Command
Description
AS
Audio Status
AT
Audio Test
LR
Left/Right Channel Toggle
M0
Eb/No Mute On
M1
Eb/No Mute Off
MU
Audio Mute
VC
Volume Control
Table 5.5 Data Port Commands
Command
Description
P1
User Data Port Configuration
X1
Exercise User Data Port
Table 5.6 Relay Port Commands
Command
Description
CM
Relay Contact Mapping
CO
Relay Contact Control
CQ
Relay Contact Query
CS
Relay Contact Sense
Table 5.7 M&C Port Commands
Command
Description
BY
Bye-Logout
EE
Echo Terminal Input
P2
M&C Port Configuration
PA
Packet Address
PC
Password Change
PO
Packet-Only
X2
Exercise M&C Port
Table 5.8 Alarm Status Commands
Command
Description
AL
Alarm Reporting
CF
Clear Fault Register
ET
Eb/No Alarm Threshold Level
FL
Fault Query
HM
Hex Mode
NF
Number of RF Signal Fades
SI
TTL Sensor Input Query
SL
Audio Sync Loss Counter
Tiernan Family of Audio Broadcast Receivers
Page 5-19
Maintenance and Troubleshooting
Command
Description
SR
Status Relay Mask
SS
Status Relay Sense
ST
Status Query
Table 5.9 Front Panel Commands
Command
Description
FP CODE
Front Panel Password
OM
ODU Fault Mask
Q0
Low Signal Quality Threshold Level
Q1
High Signal Quality Threshold Level
Table 5.10 Printer Port Commands
Command
Description
P3
Printer Port Configuration
S1
Interface Select for Auxiliary Data
X3
Exercise Printer Data Port
Table 5.11 Miscellaneous Commands
Command
Description
DATE
RTC Date
DE
Composite Data Port Enable
DM
Display Message
DP
Display Parameters of Receiver
DX
Decoder Data Source
EN
Enable Network Data
ID
Receiver ID Query
IG
Verbose Mode
IP
IP Address
MR
Master Reset
RE
System Reset
TIME
RTC Time
*Data is only available on the output if it is non-Musiciam-encoded composite data.
Table 5.12 Terrestrial Backlink Commands
Command
5-20
Description
AI
Alarm Interval
F1
Fault Mask 1
F2
Fault Mask 2
T1
Backlink Telephone Number 1
T2
Backlink Telephone Backlink 2
Tiernan Family of Audio Broadcast Receivers
Maintenance and Troubleshooting
Command
Description
TB
Terrestrial Backlink
TI
Telco Initialization
Table 5.13 Alphabetical Command Listing
Command
Description
AG
AGC Gain Factor
AI
Alarm Interval
AL
Alarm Reporting
AO
Acquisition Offset Frequency
AP
CS4922 Inputs (AES/EBU interface)
AQ
Acquisition Mode
AS
Audio Status
AT
Audio Test
B1
Primary Search (Binning) Range
B2
Secondary Search (Binning) Range
B3
Overall Search (Binning) Range
BY
Bye-Logout
CC
Channel Configuration
CCD
Channel Configuration with Data Rate
CE
Channel Error Rate
CF
Clear Fault Register
CM
Relay Contact Mapping
CO
Relay Contact Control
CQ
Relay Contact Query
CS
Relay Contact Sense
DATE
RTC Date
DC
Display Configuration
DE
Composite Data Port Enable
DI
Spectral Inversion
DM
Display Message
DP
Display Parameters of Receiver
DQ
Data Rate Query
DX
Decoder Data Source
EB
Eb/No Signal Level Query
EE
Echo Terminal Input
EM
Eb/No Minimum Receive Level
EN
Enable Network Data
ET
Eb/No Alarm Threshold Level
EX
Maximum Eb/No
Tiernan Family of Audio Broadcast Receivers
Page 5-21
Maintenance and Troubleshooting
Command
5-22
Description
F1
Fault Mask 1
F2
Fault Mask 2
FD
Format Definition
FL
Fault Query
FP CODE
Front Panel Password
FS
Format Select
HM
Hex Mode
ID
Receiver ID Query
IG
Verbose Mode
IP
IP Address
LA
Logical Address Definition
LC
Local Format Change Permission
LO
Local Oscillator Offset
LR
Left/Right Channel Toggle
LT
LNB Type
LV
LNB Voltage
M0
Eb/No Mute On
M1
Eb/No Mute Off
MR
Master Reset
MU
Audio Mute
NF
Number of RF Signal Fades
NS
Network Status
OM
ODU Fault Mask
P1
User Data Port Configuration
P2
M&C Port Configuration
P3
Printer Port Configuration
PA
Packet Address
PC
Password Change
PD
Preset Definition
PO
Packet-Only
Q0
Low Signal Quality Threshold Level
Q1
High Signal Quality Threshold Level
RB
Read Calculated Bit Error Rate
RE
System Reset
RF
Read RF Value
S1
Interface Select for Auxiliary Data
SI
TTL Sensor Input Query
SL
Audio Sync Loss Counter
SR
Status Relay Mask
Tiernan Family of Audio Broadcast Receivers
Maintenance and Troubleshooting
Command
Description
SS
Status Relay Sense
ST
Status Query
T1
Backlink Telephone Number 1
T2
Backlink Telephone Backlink 2
TB
Terrestrial Backlink
TI
Telco Initialization
TIME
RTC Time
X1
Exercise User Data Port
X2
Exercise M&C Port
X3
Exercise Printer Data Port
VC
Volume Control
Table 5.14 Front Panel Menu Tree
Menu
Sub-Menu
Commands
• Select: <enter 0 – 63>
• Presets: Enable, Disable
• Source: Demod, Demod/AUX,
AUX
Format
Channel Setup
ChannelConfig
• CC Number: <enter 0 – 31>
• RF: <enter frequency>
• Data Rate: 64K, 96K, 112K,
128K, 192K, 256K, 384K, 512K
• Modulation: BPSK, QPSK
• Code Rate: Uncoded, ½
Sequential, … 3/4 Viterbi
• Reed Sol: None, 187/204,
188/204
Format Defs
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Presets
• PD Number: <enter 0 – 7>
• Selects: <enter 0 – 63>
Relay Mapping
• CM Number: <enter 0 – 15>
Tiernan Family of Audio Broadcast Receivers
FD Number: <enter 0 – 63>
Network ID: <enter 0 – 255>
Channel: <enter 0 – 31>
Audio: Enable, Disable
User Data: Enable, Disable
Relays: Enable, Disable
Left/Right: Normal, Reversed,
Left on Both, Right on Both
• Output: Stereo, Left Only, Right
Only, Muted
Page 5-23
Maintenance and Troubleshooting
Menu
Sub-Menu
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Interfaces
5-24
Commands
Relay1 Map: <enter 1 – 8>
Relay2 Map: <enter 1 – 8>
Relay3 Map: <enter 1 – 8>
Relay4 Map: <enter 1 – 8>
Relay5 Map: <enter 1 – 8>
Relay6 Map: <enter 1 – 8>
Relay7 Map: <enter 1 – 8>
Relay8 Map: <enter 1 – 8>
Demod Control
• Spectral: Inversion, No Inversion
• LNB Voltage: 13v, 14v, 18v, 19v,
Off
• LNB Type: PLL, DRO, Auto
• Acq Mode: Acquire, Disable
• Acq Offset: <enter value>
Demod Status
• Eb/No: [Eb/No]
• Signal Level: [0 – 255]
• Acq State: [Acquired/Disabled,
Fade, Initial]
• Min Eb/No: [Eb/No Minimum
Level], Reset
• Max Eb/No: [Eb/No Maximum
Level], Reset
• Rx Offset: [Rx Offset Frequency]
• Network ID: [NetID]
• Channel ID: [ChID]
Audio
• Output: Stereo, Left Only, Right
Only, Muted
• Mute Eb/No: <enter Eb/No>
• Unmute Eb/No: <enter Eb/No>
• Left/Right: Normal, Reversed,
Left on Both, Right on Both
• Test Tone: Enable, Disable
• Volume: <enter 0 – 18>
• Sync Status: [Audio sync loss
count]
User Data
•
•
•
•
•
Baud: 1200, 2400, … 9600
Data Bits: 7, 8
Parity: Even, Odd, None
Stop Bits: 1, 2
Test Pattern: Enable, Disable
Printer Port
•
•
•
•
Baud: 1200, 2400, … 9600
Data Bits: 7, 8
Parity: Even, Odd, None
Stop Bits: 1, 2
Tiernan Family of Audio Broadcast Receivers
Maintenance and Troubleshooting
Menu
Sub-Menu
Relays
Commands
• Interface: RS232, RS422
• Test Pattern: enable, Disable
• Relay Number: <enter 1 – 8>
• Sense: Normally Open, Normally
Closed
• Relay Mode: Auto, Activate,
Deactivate
• Relay State: [Active, Inactive]
Current Events
Events
Event History
Clear History: Execute
Management
5.6
Alarm Settings
• Low Eb/No: <enter Eb/No>
• Low Signal: <enter Eb/No>
• High Signal: <enter Eb/No>
General
•
•
•
•
Front Panel Access:
• Mode: Basic, Advanced
• Password: <enter password>
Console Port
•
•
•
•
•
•
Ethernet Port
• IP Address: <enter IP address>
• Subnet Mask: <enter subnet
mask>
• Gateway: <enter gateway IP>
• Mode: Auto, 100/Full, 100/Half,
10/Full, 10/Half
• MAC Address
Date
Time
Unit ID: [Unit ID]
System Reset: Reset System
Baud: 1200, 2400, … 115200
Data Bits: 7, 8
Parity: Even, Odd, None
Stop Bits: 1, 2
Echo: Enabled, Disabled
Packet Mode: Auto Detect,
RS485 only
• Packet Addr: <enter 1 – 31>
• Test Pattern: Enable, Disable
Command Descriptions
The following is an alphabetical list of commands with a detailed description of each command. Items in italics are
variable syntax depending on what information is being requested.
Tiernan Family of Audio Broadcast Receivers
Page 5-25
Maintenance and Troubleshooting
AG
AGC Gain Factor
Syntax:
AG ?
Front Panel:
Interfaces > Demod Status > 0 - 255
The AG command displays the gain factor applied to the received RF signal. During normal operation, the gain
factor is constantly adjusted to bring the baseband signal to the same level regardless of input signal power. A
value of 255 indicates no signal is present. A value of 0 indicates receive signal is too strong.
AI
Alarm Interval
Syntax:
AI n
AI ?
The alarm interval command allows the user to specify the length of time the receiver waits between backlink
attempts, and also allows the user to disable the monitoring for faults that may cause an attempt to establish a
backlink. n specifies the length of time the receiver waits between backlink attempts when a fault is detected. The
range for n is 0 to 65535 minutes. A value of 0 for n disables the monitoring of faults, which prohibits the receiver
from attempting any backlinks.
AL
Alarm Reporting
Syntax:
AL n
AL ?
This command enables/disables the automatic reporting of alarms to the M&C port. Acceptable parameter values
are 1 to enable fault reporting and 0 to disable fault reporting. This command has no effect on the operation of
other commands, such as ST (status query) and FL (fault query). The status of the faults can still be monitored by
the FL query (?) command. The default value is 1 (enabled).
AO
Acquisition Offset Frequency
Syntax:
AO ?
Front Panel:
Interfaces > Demod Control > Acq Offset
The AO command is a query-only command that displays the value of the acquisition offset. The acquisition offset
is used to optimize the power-on acquisition process. The acquisition offset value is used by the ABR in its
calculations for the frequency at which it will begin its search for the RF carrier on a power-on acquisition. The
value of AO is automatically updated to the local offset (LO) value if the LO value is ever greater than 50 kHz. On
subsequent power cycles, the ABR uses this offset value in AO to shorten the time needed to find the RF carrier.
Upon a master reset initialization, AO will reset to a factory default based on the unit’s particular measured
frequency offset.
AP
CS4922 Inputs
Syntax:
AP n
AP ?
This command allows the user to configure the AES/EBU interface. The AES/EBU provides a digital PCM audio
output to the ABR Aux port. The interface operates according to the AES3-199X (ANSI S4.40-199X) interface
specification, which allows transmission of control information along with the digital audio data stream.
The ABR uses the CS4922 digital transmitter manufactured by Crystal semiconductor. Of the two operating
modes available to the CS4922, professional (PRO) mode operation is recommended over consumer (CON)
mode. The AP command allows users to program specific values at the input pins of the CS4922 which will
specify the control information to be transmitted.
5-26
Tiernan Family of Audio Broadcast Receivers
Maintenance and Troubleshooting
The AP command is AP n, where n is the decimal equivalent of the bit map of the CS4922 control interface,
shown in Table 5-14. The default value for AP is 15.
Table 5.15 CS4922 Programming Inputs (PRO mode)
Bit Position
CS4922 Pin Name
Function
0
C4\
Inverse of channel status bit 4
1
1
C5\
Inverse of channel status bit 5
2
2
C1\
Inverse of channel status bit 1
4
3
C6\
Inverse of channel status bit 6
8
4
C7\
Inverse of channel status bit 7
16
5
MODE1\
Inverse of channel status bit 9
32
6
CRE
Sample address counter control
64
7
PROCON
Professional or consumer mode selector
128
8
MODE2
Channel status bit 10
256
9
MODE3
Channel status bit 11
512
10
USER 0
Channel status bit 13
1024
11
USER 1
Channel status bit 14
2048
12
LOCK
Channel status bit 15
4096
13
N/A
N/A
N/A
14
N/A
N/A
N/A
15
N/A
N/A
N/A
n
The inputs to the CS4922 are encoded as shown in Table 5-15.
Table 5.16 CS4922 Programming States
Pin Name
C4\, C5\
Input State
Option Selected
1,1
Receiver defaults to no emphasis, manual override enabled
0,0
CCITT J.17 emphasis, no override
1,0
50/15 usec emphasis, override disable
0,1
No emphasis, manual override disable
C1\
0
Nonaudio mode
1*
Normal audio mode
C6\, C7\
Sampling frequency bits
hard coded
Sampling frequency not indicated, receiver defaults to 48
kHz with manual override or autosetting enabled
MODE1\
0*
Stereophonic mode, channel 1 is left, manual override is
disabled
1
Used in conjunction with MODE2\ and MODE3\ pins
CRE
N/A
N/A
PROCON
0*
Professional mode
1
Consumer mode
0,0*
Not indicated; receiver defaults to Two Channel mode,
manual override disabled
0,1
Two Channel
MODE2 and MODE3
when MODE1\=1
Tiernan Family of Audio Broadcast Receivers
Page 5-27
Maintenance and Troubleshooting
Pin Name
USER0, USER1
LOCK
Input State
Option Selected
1,0
Single Channel
1,1
Primary/Secondary
0,0*
None
1,0
192-bit block
0,1
None
1,1
User defined
0*
Lock
1
Unlock
* Default value
AQ
Acquisition Mode
Syntax:
AQ n
AQ ?
Front Panel:
Demod Control > Acq Mode: <Acquire, Disable>
This command is used to establish the acquisition type and to query the receiver for the currently active
acquisition type. The value of n specifies what type of acquisition the receiver is to perform. The query reports the
receiver acquisition status. Table 5-16 is a listing of the acquisition types and the corresponding action or status
that the types represent.
Table 5.17 Acquisition Type, Action, Status
Type
Action
Status
0
Disable acquisition
Acquisition disabled/complete
1
Initiate fade acquisition
Fade acquisition in progress
2
Initiate power-on acquisition
Power-on acquisition in progress
5
None
Channel change acquisition in progress
An acquisition mode of 0 indicates acquisition has been disabled or the previous acquisition is complete. When
the ABR achieves RF sync and audio sync, it sets the acquisition mode to 0 to indicate that the previous
acquisition was successfully completed. An AQ 0 entered by the user instructs the ABR to disable all acquisition
processes.
Entering a value of 0 for n will disable any acquisition in progress. The ABR will NOT begin a
new acquisition until an AQ 1, AQ 2, or FS n is entered. Normally, disabling acquisition is not
desirable.
A fade acquisition is automatically initiated whenever RF sync is lost while the receiver is locked onto a carrier.
During a fade acquisition the ABR concentrates its search for the RF carrier at the frequency where it last
achieved RF sync, based on the B1 and B2 values.
A power-on acquisition occurs any time the ABR is power cycled. A power-on acquisition begins its search for the
RF carrier at the start acquisition frequency. The start acquisition frequency is calculated by the ABR using the
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Tiernan Family of Audio Broadcast Receivers
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value of the RF parameter defined in the channel configuration (CC) command. The offset value specified in the
acquisition offset (AO) command is also added to the calculated start acquisition frequency.
A channel change acquisition is performed when the ABR is locked to one RF carrier or RF channel and is then
instructed to switch to another RF carrier. The ABR is instructed to switch to a new channel via the format select
(FS) command, not the AQ command. The FS command must be used since it programs the receiver with all of
the channel parameters for the new RF carrier needed by the ABR to achieve RF and audio sync on the new RF
carrier.
Since the ABR is already locked onto an RF carrier, it has knowledge of the offsets present in the system. It uses
this offset value, which is stored in the LO command, in its calculations for the frequency at which it searches for
the new RF carrier. The ABR will only search one frequency bin for the new RF carrier. If the RF carrier is not
found within this first bin, then the ABR performs a fade acquisition using the frequency where it last achieved RF
and audio sync.
A detailed description of the ABR binning and acquisition processes can be found in the chapter on Functional
Description and Theory of Operation.
AS
Audio Status
Syntax:
AS ?
This command queries the receiver for the current audio status. If the audio is enabled, a value of 0 is returned. If
the audio is disabled (muted), a nonzero value is returned. The value returned when audio is disabled is a
weighted sum of the conditions causing the audio to be disabled. The conditions causing the audio to mute are
mapped as shown in Table 5-17.
Table 5.18 Muted Conditions for Audio
Mute Condition
AT
Weight (hex)
Weight (dec)
No RF sync
0x01
1
Low Rb/No
0x02
2
Internal Mute (MU=1)
0x04
4
No audio sync
0x08
8
Not authorized to receive audio
0x10
16
System mute
0x20
32
Audio Test
Syntax:
AT n
AT ?
Front Panel:
Interfaces > Audio > Test Tone: <Enable, Disable>
The n in the syntax above is the number of the audio test to be performed.
The audio test command selects the available audio test that the digital audio signal processor can perform. Valid
number values are 0 and 1, as shown in Table 5-18.
Table 5.19 Audio Built-In Self-Tests
Number
Test
0
None, normal operating status
1
1 kHz tone, both channels
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When operating these commands from the M&C port, the selected test will run for 2 minutes or until an AT 0
command is entered.
Table 5-19 provides detailed performance specifications for the audio tests.
Table 5.20 Audio Test Performance Specifications
B1
Test
Frequency
Output Level
Termination
AT1
1.00 kHz
+4.00 dBm
100 K ohm
AT1
1.00 kHz
-1.3 dBm
600 ohm
AT1
1.00 kHz
-8.9 dBm
150 ohm
Primary Search (Binning) Range
Syntax:
B1 ?
The B1 command is a query-only command that returns the value of the frequency range that will be searched for
the primary (B1) bin. The value of this parameter is determined by the symbol rate and is given in units of kHz.
B1 and B2 are used together. When performing fade acquisition, the B1 range is searched first for the carrier
signal. If the carrier is not found in the B1 range, the range indicated by the B2 parameter is searched above and
below the B1 range. After the search of a B2 range, the B1 range is searched again.
When all B2 ranges have been searched within the user-specified acquisition range limit (B3) without finding the
carrier, the search pattern is repeated from the beginning. A detailed description of the ABR acquisition process
can be found in the chapter on Functional Description and Theory of Operation.
B2
Secondary Search (Binning) Range
Syntax:
B2 ?
The B2 command is a query-only command that returns the value of the frequency range that will be searched
upon a fade acquisition for the secondary (B2) bin.
The value of B2 is determined by the symbol rate and is given in units of kHz. It denotes the frequency range to
search for the carrier outside the B1 range. If the carrier has not been located when all the B2 ranges are
exhausted, the search begins again. A detailed description of the ABR acquisition process can be found in the
chapter on Functional Description and Theory of Operation.
B3
Overall Search (Binning) Range
Syntax:
B3 nnnn
B3 ?
The B3 command is used to specify the maximum frequency range that will be searched when the ABR is
attempting to acquire the carrier in either installation or fade acquisition mode. Valid values are between 0 and
4000 in units of kHz offset from the RF frequency plus the acquisition offset defined by AO. The ? parameter
causes the current B3 value to be displayed.
The default values are 3,000 when operating with a DRO LNB and 100 when operating with a PLL LNB.
The nnnn parameter denotes the overall frequency range to search for the carrier. When this value is reached,
the acquisition search is repeated from the beginning. A detailed description of the ABR acquisition process can
be found in the chapter on Functional Description and Theory of Operation.
BY
Bye-Logout
Syntax:
BY
This command performs a manual logout. The receiver automatically logs out after five minutes of inactivity at the
M&C port.
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CC
Channel Configuration
Syntax:
CC
Channel_n,RF_nnnn,RR_nnnn,RM_n,RC_n,RSC_n
CC Channel_n,ZAP
CC Channel_n ?
CC ?
Front Panel (See CCD below)
This command sets or displays the configuration for the specified channel. The channel number is used in
defining the required parameters for a particular channel. Access to a given channel is provided via the format
definition (FD) command and the format select (FS) commands. A channel configuration and format definition
must be successfully defined before the ABR can receive audio. Table 5-20 lists the parameters and a description
of each.
Table 5.21 Parameter Descriptions
Parameter
Description
Channel_n
Channel number to be configured. Valid channel numbers are 0 through 31. This value must
correspond to the channel identifier (CI) programmed into the encoder/mux at the uplink.
RF_nnnn
• Specifies the RF input frequency to be received by the ODU LNB. The range of valid receive
frequencies are:
• C-band 3.7 to 4.2 GHz
• Ku-band 10.95 to 11.699 GHz, 11.7 to 12.2 GHz, and 12.25 to 12.75 GHz
• All values are entered in increments of 1000 Hz (1 kHz). For:
• Ku-band: 8 digits for nnnn
• C-band: 7 digits for nnnn
RR_nnnn
Specifies the receive symbol rate (symbol/sec). Valid symbol rates are: 64000, 96000, 112000,
128000, 192000, 256000, 384000, 512000.
RM_n
Specifies the receive modulation type: 0 = BPSK, 1 = QPSK
RC_n
Optional field; specifies the inner convolutional coding rate and method. 0 = uncoded; 1 = rate ½
Sequential; 2 = rate ¾ Sequential; 3 = rate 1/2 Viterbi; 4 = rate 2/3 Viterbi; 5 = rate ¾ Viterbi
RSC_n*
Optional field; specifies the outer block code rate; 0 = no block coding; 1 = DVB compliant rate
188/204; 2 = non-DVB mode rate 187/204
* If no RC value is entered, the default value is 1 for rate ½ Sequential. If no RSC_n value is entered,
then the default value of 0 (uncoded) is used
For example, the following command configures channel 1 for a Ku-band frequency of 11,700,000 kHz, 256000
symbol rate, QPSK operation, sequential rate 1/2 coding, and no Reed-Solomon coding.
CC 1,11700000,256000,1
The ZAP parameter clears the RF, RR, RM, RC, and RSC parameters for the specified channel. If this parameter
is used, the channel is no longer defined.
To display the parameters associated with a given channel number, use the syntax CC channel_number ?.
To display the channel configuration of all defined channels, use the syntax CC ?, or just CC. After a master reset
of the ABR, there are no values assigned to any of the CC parameters.
CCD
Channel Configuration with Data Rate
Syntax:
CCD
Channel_n,RF_nnnn,RR_nnnn,RM_n,RC_n,RSC_n
CCD Channel_n,ZAP
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CCD Channel_n ?
CCD ?
Front Panel
Format Setup > Channel Config >
CC Number: <enter 0 – 31>
RF: <enter frequency>
Data Rate: 64K, 96K, 112K, 128K, 192K, 256K, 384K, 512K
Modulation: BPSK, QPSK
Code Rate: Uncoded, ½ Sequential, … 3/4 Viterbi
Reed Sol: None, 187/204, 188/204
The CCD command is identical to the CC command with the exception of the RR_nnnn parameter. For CCD, the
RR_nnnn parameter represents the data rate (bits/sec) rather than the symbol rate. This command was added to
simplify the use of the new coding rates and methods (i.e., sequential 3/4, Viterbi, and Viterbi Reed-Solomon),
which have symbol rates that are difficult to calculate.
CE
Channel Error Rate
Syntax:
CE ?
CE
This query-only command provides the current calculated channel error rate, coded so that 65 = 6x10-5. The
lowest channel error rate displayed is 09 (0x10-9).
CF
Clear Fault Register
Syntax:
CF nn
This command clears the Fault Register and permits re-reporting of active faults. Once a fault is set and reported,
no further occurrences of the fault will be reported until the fault is reset.
Parameter values for nn are integers in the range of 0 to 32, inclusive. CF 0 clears all active faults. Other values
for nn correspond to the bit number of a fault as defined in the fault register. The FL and ST command
descriptions contain a complete list of all fault code bit numbers.
CM
Relay Contact Mapping
Syntax:
CM channel_n,r1,r2,r3,r4,r5,r6,r7,r8
CM channel_n ?
Front Panel:
Format Setup > Relay Mapping >
CM Number: <enter 0 – 15>
Relay1 Map: <enter 1 – 8>
Relay2 Map: <enter 1 – 8>
Relay3 Map: <enter 1 – 8>
Relay4 Map: <enter 1 – 8>
Relay5 Map: <enter 1 – 8>
Relay6 Map: <enter 1 – 8>
Relay7 Map: <enter 1 – 8>
Relay8 Map: <enter 1 – 8>
This command allows the receiver to be configured to provide a mapping of relay contacts at the uplink to relay
contacts at the receiver. A contact map is maintained for each channel number and is recalled whenever channel
changes are made via the FS command. Values for the channel number range from 0 to 15, inclusive.
Parameters r1 through r8 correspond to the eight receiver relays. r1 corresponds to receiver relay 1 mapping, r8
corresponds to receiver relay 8 mapping. The value of r1 through r8 represents the relay input at the uplink that is
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physically assigned to operate the designated receiver relay. Acceptable values for r1 through r8 are 1 to 16,
where 1 is the first uplink relay input and 16 the most significant relay input. The default mapping for CM is
1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8 for all formats.
Example:
CM 3,3,2,1,4,5,6,10,7 will perform the relay mapping shown in Table 5-21 when channel 3 is selected via the FS
command.
Table 5.22 Example Relay Mapping
CO
Uplink Relay Input
Receiver Relay
3
1
2
2
1
3
4
4
5
5
6
6
10
7
7
8
Relay Contact Control
Syntax:
CO string
CO ?
This command allows the receiver relays to be temporarily activated/ deactivated for test purposes. The string in
the command line is an 8-byte character string that controls the state of each relay. The first character controls
relay number 1, the second controls relay number 2, and so on. Valid characters in the string are shown in Table
5-22.
Table 5.23 Valid String Characters and Descriptions
Character
Description
0
Deactivates a relay
1
Activates a relay
X
Relay action based on uplink relay input
The default setting is CO XXXXXXXX.
For example, the following command activates relay contacts 1, 4, and 5 while not changing the other contacts.
CO 1XX11XXX
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Ensure that settings are returned to X so relay closures are controlled from the uplink. If this
does not occur, the relay closures will remain in the state specified by the CO command.
CQ
Relay Contact Query
Syntax:
CQ ?
This command queries the receiver for the physical state of the relay contact closures. The value returned is an
eight-character value, each character representing the status of an individual relay. A 0 for a relay indicates the
relay is open, a 1 indicates the relay is closed. The first character corresponds to receiver relay contact 1, the last
character corresponds to relay 8.
CS
Relay Contact Sense
Syntax:
CS string
CS ?
Front Panel:
Interfaces > Relays >
Relay Number: <enter 1 – 8>
Sense: <Normally Open, Normally Closed>
This command controls the normal (deactivated) position for the control relays. The string is a character string,
with each character position controlling the normal state of a single relay. The first character position controls
relay 1, the last character controls relay 8. An individual 1 character indicates the relay is normally closed and that
the relay is activated by opening it. An individual 0 indicates the relay is normally open and that the relay is
activated by closing it.
The default value for CS is 00000000 (all normally open).
DATE Date
Syntax:
DATE month_nn,date_nn,year_nnnn
DATE ?
Front Panel:
Management > General >
Date: <enter month_nn.date_nn.year_nnn>
This command allows the user to enter the current date of the real time clock. The valid range for month_nn is 1
to 12. The valid range of date_nn is 1 to 31. The valid range of year_nnnn is 2000 to 2199.
DC
Display Configuration of Receiver
Syntax:
DC ?
DC
This command displays a summary output of the present control software and symbol rate configuration of the
receiver as follows:
Tiernan Digital Audio Broadcast Receiver ABR
Software Version: X.XXX
Variable Rate: 64, 96, 112, 128, 192, 256, 384 kbps
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The DC command is valid in ASCII-mode only.
DM
Display Message
Syntax:
DM Pn,string
This command provides a means of sending an ASCII character string to the designated output port. Valid range
for port number n is P1 (user data port), P2 (M&C port), or P3 (printer data port). The string terminates with a
carriage return, which executes the command and is not part of the string. A vertical bar character ( | ) can be
used to force the output of a carriage return to the port.
DP
Display Parameters of Receiver
Syntax:
DP ?
DP
This command requests a summary output of all command parameters that are single valued. Commands that
have multiple parameter sets, such as FD (format definition) and CM (relay contact mapping), are not displayed.
DP requires no parameter and is equivalent to issuing a query for every available command.
The DP command is valid in ASCII-mode only.
DQ
Data Rate Query
Syntax:
DQ ?
This command queries the receiver for the current channel data rate. The value returned is the data rate in bits
per second.
DX
Decoder Data Source
Syntax:
DX n
DX ?
Front Panel:
Interfaces > Audio >
Input: <AUX, Demod/AUX,Demod>
This command selects the input source for the audio decoder on the ABR. A value of 0 for n instructs the receiver
to use the output of the L-band demodulator as the input to the audio decoder. 1 or 2 instructs the receiver to use
the external data input on the auxiliary port (pins 3, 7, 10, 14) as the input to the audio decoder.
The interface operates at RS-422 electrical levels and requires the data to be valid on the falling edge of the
clock. When DX is set to 1, it will be overridden during carrier acquisition to ensure that the input to the audio
decoder is from the L-band demodulator. This allows the receiver to monitor the incoming composite data stream
for the proper network/channel ID needed to achieve RF and audio sync.
Once RF and audio sync have been achieved, the DX command returns to the state it was in prior to the start of
carrier acquisition. If DX is set to 2, the receiver disables all carrier acquisition processes and will not switch the
input to the audio decoder from the auxiliary port under any circumstance.
Refer to Figure 2-7 for a graphic illustration of this command.
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EB
Eb/No Signal Level Query
Syntax:
EB ?
EB
Front Panel:
Interfaces > Demod Status >
Eb/No: 0.0 – 21.0
This command queries the receiver for the present energy per bit with respect to noise (Eb/No) in a 1 Hz
bandwidth on the channel.
An estimate of the Eb/No is returned in the range of 3 dB to 20 dB. The Eb/No value is in 0.1 dB steps with an
accuracy of ±0.5 dB in the range between 4.0 and 10 dB. This value is valid approximately 20 seconds after ABR
acquisition and is updated every five seconds.
The maximum Eb/No value for all Viterbi rates is 11.5 dB.
The Eb/No value can be used to initiate several receiver functions, such as muting audio (see M0 and M1
commands), activating the Eb/No threshold (ET) alarm, and setting the condition of the front panel signal indicator
(Q0 and Q1).
EE
Echo Terminal Input
Syntax:
EE n
EE ?
Front Panel:
Management > Console Port >
Echo: <On,Off>
This command specifies whether characters input to the M&C port on the ABR are echoed at the M&C port
output. Echoing sends back each character received so that it appears on the display of the M&C port CRT
terminal. A value of 0 disables the echo. A value of 1, which is the default, enables the echo.
EM
Eb/No Minimum Receive Level
Syntax:
EM 0
EM ?
Front Panel:
Interfaces > Demod Status >
Min Eb/No: 0.0 – 21.0
This command queries the receiver for the minimum Eb/No value that was measured since the last time the
minimum value was reset.
EM 0 resets the minimum value of Eb/No to the highest possible Eb/No value. The minimum value is not affected
if the receiver loses lock. The default is 20.
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EN
Enable Network Data
Syntax:
EN n
EN ?
The EN command is used to select the type of data to be output on the auxiliary data pins of the printer data port
(pins 2 and 3).
A value of 0 disables the output of network ID data. The default value for EN is 0. A value of 1 for n enables the
output of the network ID information.
The network ID information is generated at the uplink multiplexer and contains network ID, channel ID, and relay
control information. This network ID information is used to support an external relay control unit (RCU). The RCU16 provides up to 16 relay contact closures. The output of the network data is also conditioned on the unit
authorization (UA command) of the receiver as specified in the FD command. If the receiver is not authorized to
receive relay information, the network ID data output is disabled regardless of the state of the EN command.
A value of 2 for n instructs the receiver to output the user data on the printer port pins instead of the user data port
pins, which provides the user the option of using the printer data port for the user data output.
A value of 3 for n enables the output of the user-defined data block. This user-defined data block is a generic
block type that is made available to the user for user-specific needs. This data block is generated by the user and
is input at the uplink multiplexer by a user-supplied DTE. This data block must follow the Tiernan ComStream
Block Transfer Protocol. The receiver outputs the entire data block to a user-supplied DTE at the remote site.
ET
Eb/No Alarm Threshold Level
Syntax:
ET n.m
ET ?
Front Panel:
Events > Alarm Settings >
Low Eb/No: <enter 0.0 – 20.9>
This command configures the receiver for a minimum Eb/No threshold. An Eb/No threshold error is generated
whenever the value of Eb/No is strictly less than the ET value. The format for the number is n.m, where 0 < n ≤ 20
and 0 ≤ m ≤ 9. The default value is 3.5.
EX
Maximum Eb/No
Syntax:
EX 0
EX ?
Front Panel:
Interfaces > Demod Status >
Max Eb/No: 0.0 – 21.0
This command queries the receiver for the maximum Eb/No value recorded since the last maximum value was
reset. The format of the command is EX 0, which resets the maximum value of Eb/No to the lowest possible
Eb/No value.
F1
Fault Mask 1
Syntax:
F1 nnn
F1 ?
The F1 command specifies the faults that will trigger a backlink attempt to the user-defined number specified in
T1.
The value of nnn is a decimal number that represents the bit map of the faults to be monitored by the terrestrial
backlink (TB).
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For example:
To select faults 6, 7, and 8, the user enters 224 (32 + 64 + 128 = 224) as the value for n.
(For a listing of the fault monitors and their decimal weightings, refer to the fault query [FL] command in this
chapter.)
The ABR compares the faults specified in this command with the value of the receiver's current fault history (FL
command). If any of the faults specified in F1 are also a member of the receiver's fault history, a backlink is
attempted using the number specified in T1. The default value for this command is 0.
F2
Fault Mask 2
Syntax:
F2 nnn
F2 ?
The fault mask 2 command specifies the faults that will trigger a backlink attempt to the user-defined number
specified in T2.
The value of nnn is a decimal number that represents the bit map of the faults to be monitored by the terrestrial
backlink.
For example:
To select faults 6, 7, and 8, the user enters 224 (32 + 64 + 128 = 224) as the value for n.
(For a listing of the fault monitors and their decimal weightings, refer to the fault query [FL] command in this
chapter.)
The ABR compares the faults specified in this command with the value of the receiver's current fault history (FL
command). If any of the faults specified in F2 are also a member of the receiver's fault history, a backlink is
attempted using the number specified in T2. The default value for this command is 0.
FD
Format Definition
Syntax:
FD format_nn,network_ID_nnn,channel_nn,unit_
authorization_n,LR_value,MU_value
FD format_nn,ZAP
FD format_nn ?
FD format_nn
FD ?
FD
Front Panel:
FD Number: <enter 0 – 63>
Network ID: <enter 0 – 255>
Channel: <enter 0 – 31>
Audio: Enable, Disable
User Data: Enable, Disable
Relays: Enable, Disable
Left/Right: Normal, Reversed, Left on Both, Right on Both
Output: Stereo, Left Only, Right Only, Muted
This command configures the specified format number for a particular network, RF channel, and unit authorization
value. Valid values for format numbers are 0 to 63. Valid network values are 0 to 255.
Note that the network ID and channel ID within the format definition must match the configuration of the uplink
audio encoder. Channel_nn corresponds to the channel number as defined by the CC command. The valid range
is 0 to 31.
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The unit authorization (UA) selects what services are output from the receiver: audio, data, and relay contact
closures. The authorization bit map is shown in Table 5-23, and the UA value and active ports are shown in Table
5-24.
Table 5.24 Authorization Bit Map
Bit Position
Authorization
Bit 0
0-audio disable, 1-audio enable
Bit 1
0-user data disable, 1-user data enable
Bit 2
0-relay port disable, 1-relay port enable
Table 5.25 UA Value and Active Ports
UA
Active Ports
0
None
1
Audio only
2
User data only
3
Audio and user data
4
Relay port only
5
Audio and relay port
6
Data and relay port
7
Audio, data, and relay port
Example:
To define format 6 to be assigned to network 1, RF channel 3, with authorization to receive audio and relay
closures (UA Value 5 of Table 5-22) the following parameters are used:
FD 6,1,3,5
The left/right channel toggle (LR) and audio mute (MU) values are optional values. If no values are entered for
these parameters when entering the FD command, then the LR (left/right toggle command) and MU (mute
command) values are not modified when this format is selected via the FS command. If these values are entered,
then the LR and MU values are modified when this format is selected using the FS command. Refer to the LR and
MU command sections in this chapter for acceptable values or more information.
To display all active format definitions, use the FD command followed by a carriage return. To delete a format
definition, the parameter value ZAP is used. Once a format is defined, the configuration is made operational via
the format select (FS) command. The RF channel that is used, along with the associated receiver parameters, are
specified by the channel number within the format definition. The default value is not defined.
FL
Fault Query
Syntax:
FL ?
FL
FL 0
This command queries the receiver for the fault history of the receiver. Fault codes (numbers) and response
values are retained in a fault register until the faults are cleared using the CF command. Each bit and associated
fault weight are assigned to a particular fault indication. The fault/status map is shown in Table 5-23. The bits in
the fault register are identical to those in the status register. (For more information, refer to the ST command
section in this chapter.) If the hex mode (HM) is enabled (1), then the output is displayed in the hexadecimal
format given in Table 5-23, with all bits displayed that are set.
If the hex mode is disabled (default), then the output value is the decimal summation of all set fault bits.
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For example, if faults 17 and 18 are active, the returned value for the FL ? command is 196608 (decimal) or
0x00030000 (hex).
If the command format FL 0 is used, then each fault number is displayed, one per display line. Thus, for the above
example, an FL 0 results in:
FL 17
FL 18
A detailed description of what each fault means is provided in the chapter on Maintenance and Troubleshooting.
Table 5.26 Fault Summary
Fault
Number
5-40
Fault Description
Hex Weight
Decimal
Weight
1
Not used
0x00000001
1
2
Not used
0x00000002
2
3
Not used
0x00000004
4
4
Not used
0x00000008
8
5
AGC Range Fault
0x00000010
16
6
Bit Time Lock Fault
0x00000020
32
7
Carrier Tracking Lock Fault
0x00000040
64
8
FEC Decoder Sync Fault
0x00000080
128
9
Acquisition Range Fault
0x00000100
256
10
Carrier Tracking Range Fault
0x00000200
512
11
Not used
0x00000400
1024
12
Bit Time Range Fault
0x00000800
2048
13
Nonvolatile Memory Fault
0x00001000
4096
14
Not used
0x00002000
8192
15
Not used
0x00004000
16384
16
Watchdog Timer Fault
0x00008000
32768
17
Audio PLL Lock Fault
0x00010000
65536
18
Audio Decoder Sync Fault
0x00020000
131072
19
DSP Watchdog Fault
0x00040000
262144
20
DSP Bit Failure
0x00080000
524288
21
Sensor Input 4-External Alarm Monitoring
0x00100000
1048576
22
Sensor Input 5-External Alarm Monitoring
0x00200000
2097152
23
Sensor Input 6-External Alarm Monitoring
0x00400000
4194304
24
Outdoor Unit Fault
0x00800000
8388608
25
Eb/No Threshold Fault
0x01000000
16777216
26
Not used
0x02000000
33554432
27
EPROM Checksum Fault
0x04000000
67108864
28
S/W Download Failure
0x08000000
134217728
29
Channel Change Fault
0x10000000
268435456
30
Network ID Timeout Fault
0x20000000
536870912
Tiernan Family of Audio Broadcast Receivers
Maintenance and Troubleshooting
Fault
Number
31
FP CODE
Syntax:
Fault Description
Acquisition Network ID Fault
Hex Weight
Decimal
Weight
0x40000000
1073741824
Front Panel Password
FP CODE password_nnnn
FP CODE
This command configures the password to allow the front panel to enter Advanced Mode while it is in Basic Mode.
The valid values for password_nnnn are 1000 to 9999. The default value for password_nnnn is 7384.
FS
Format Select
Syntax:
FS format_nn
FS ?
Front Panel:
Format Select
Select: <enter 0 - 63>
This command configures the receiver to the parameters specified in the format definition that corresponds to the
format number. Valid values for format numbers are 0 to 63. An FS ? returns the format in operation.
For example, assume the current format is 1. An FS command would return FS 1. To change to format 2, enter
FS 2. The default value is not defined. Different authorizations can be created using the same channel number
and switch between the authorizations without the momentary interruption of audio.
FM
Event Manager
Syntax:
FM CURRENT
FM HISTORY
FM CLEAR
Front Panel:
Events >
Current Events
Event History
Clear History
This command monitors and controls recorded events by the receiver. The CURRENT parameter displays events
that are currently active. The HISTORY parameter displays events that have occurred in the past and have been
logged. The CLEAR parameter will erase the events from the logged events.
HM
Hex Mode
Syntax:
HM n
HM ?
HM
This command assigns the display format for the ST and FL commands to be decimal or hexadecimal. Valid
values for n are 0, hex mode disabled (display decimal format), or 1, hex mode enabled. A query displays the
current format.
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Maintenance and Troubleshooting
ID
Receiver ID Query
Syntax:
ID ?
Front Panel:
Management > General >
Unit ID: ID#
This command displays the ABR ID serial number, which is used for individual unit addressing. The number
should be identical to the unit serial number as displayed on the label at the rear of the chassis.
IP
IP Address
Syntax:
IP address_nnn.nnn.nnn.nnn,mask_nnn.nnn.nnn.nnn,gateway_nnn.nnn.nnn.nnn
IP ?
IP
Front Panel:
Management > Ethernet Port >
IP Address: <enter 1.0.0.0 – 223.255.255.255>
Subnet Mask: <enter 0.0.0.0 – 255.255.255.255>
Gateway Address: <enter 1.0.0.0 – 223.255.255.255>
This command defines the IP address, subnet mask and default gateway of the receiver. The parameters are
required for any IP-based applications such as Telnet. The valid range for address_nnn.nnn.nnn.nnn and
gateway_nnn.nnn.nnn.nnn is 0.0.0.0 to 223.255.255.255 with the exception of 127.0.0.0 to 127.255.255.255. The
valid range of mask_nnn.nnn.nnn.nnn is 0.0.0.0 to 255.255.255.255.
Note that an IP Address of 0.0.0.0 disables the Ethernet port.
LA
Logical Address Definition
Syntax:
LA nn,address_nnnnn
LA ?
LA
This command allows the receiver to respond to logical addresses received over the network control channel. Up
to 32 logical addresses can be assigned to each receiver. The valid range for address_nnnnn is 1 to 16383. An
individual 0 for the address clears the logical address assignment. The receiver responds to all logical addresses
assigned and its unique physical address (unit ID).
The default value is No Logical Addresses Assigned.
Example:
The following command configures logical address 3 to 9312. The remote receiver will then act upon network
control messages addressed to unit 9312.
LA 3,9312
LC
Local Format Change Permission
Syntax:
LC n
LC ?
This command allows the receiver channel to be configured via the three external TTL inputs and works in
conjunction with the preset definition (PD) command.
A value of 1 enables the receiver to enact format changes via the external TTL inputs. A 0 disables this feature.
The default value is 0.
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Tiernan Family of Audio Broadcast Receivers
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LO
Local Oscillator Offset
Syntax:
LO ?
LO
Front Panel:
Interfaces >Demod Status >
Receive Offset: LO value
The LO value represents the difference between the start acquisition frequency and the frequency where the
carrier was actually located. The LO value represents the sum of the offsets that are present at the receive site.
These offsets include the offset present in the LO of the LNB and the LO of the receiver. With a knowledge of the
actual offsets present at the receive site, the ABR can optimize its acquisition process. When performing a
channel change acquisition, the receiver uses the offset specified in the LO value to calculate the frequency at
which it will start its search for the new RF carrier.
LR
Left/Right Channel Toggle
Syntax:
LR n
LR ?
Front Panel:
Interfaces > Audio >
Left/Right: <Normal,Right on Both,Left on Both, Reversed>
The LR command configures the receiver so that the receiver directs the:
•
Incoming left audio channel to both the left and right audio output channels
or
•
Incoming right audio channel to both the left and right audio output channels
The value for n determines the output of the left and right audio channels. The default value for LR is 0. Table
5-26 provides the valid values for n.
Table 5.27 Valid Values for the LR Command
Audio Output Status
n
0
Normal output. Left input goes out on the left channel, and the right input goes out on the right channel.
1
Reversed output. Left input goes out on the right channel, and the right input goes out on the left channel.
2
Left input goes out on both the right and left channels.
3
Right input goes out on both the left and right channels.
LT
LNB Type
Syntax:
LT n
LT ?
Front Panel:
Interfaces > Demod Control >
LNB Type: <Auto,DRO,PLL>
The LNB-type command allows the user to select a mode in which the receiver automatically selects the LNB
type.
The selection of the proper LNB type modifies receiver parameters that are needed to perform carrier tracking
properly. The two types of LNBs that are used at the remote site system are DRO and PLL. A value of 0 for n
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Maintenance and Troubleshooting
configures the receiver for a DRO-type LNB, whereas a value of 1 for n configures the receiver for a PLL-type
LNB.
A value of 2 for n instructs the receiver to automatically select the type of LNB. The receiver uses the current
modulation type, as specified in the CC command, to determine for which LNB type to configure. If the current
modulation type is BPSK, the receiver configures for a DRO-type LNB, whereas if the modulation type is QPSK,
the receiver configures for a PLL-type LNB. The receiver automatically selects the LNB type prior to every RF
acquisition attempted.
LV
LNB Voltage
Syntax:
LV n
LV ?
Front Panel:
Interfaces > Demod Control >
LNB Voltage: <Off,13V,14V,18V,19V>
The LNB Voltage can be disabled or adjusted to +13VDC, +14VDC, +18VDC, +19VDC. Most LNBs require
+18VDC although some only require +13VDC. If a cable run is extremely long, it may be necessary to provide an
additional volt to compensate for the voltage loss.
A value of 0 for n disables the LNB voltage output. A value of 1 for n outputs an LNB voltage of +13V. A value of 2
for n outputs an LNB voltage of +14V. A value of 3 for n outputs an LNB voltage of +18V. A value of 4 for n
outputs an LNB voltage of +19V.
The default value for LV is 0.
M0
Eb/No Mute On
Syntax:
M0 n.n
M0 ?
Front Panel:
Interfaces > Audio >
Mute Eb/No: <enter 0.1 – M1>
This command mutes the output audio based on the received signal strength (Eb/No) and is used in conjunction
with M1, which enables the output audio. The audio is muted when the Eb/No value is at or below the specified
Eb/No value.
The default value for M0 is 4.0. Valid range is 0.1 to < M1 value.
M1
Eb/No Mute Off
Syntax:
M1 n.n
M1 ?
Front Panel:
Interfaces > Audio >
Unmute Eb/No: <enter M0 – 20.0>
This command allows for unmuting the output audio based on the received signal strength, Eb/No. It is used in
conjunction with the M0, which mutes the output audio. The audio is unmuted when the Eb/No value is at or
above the specified Eb/No value. The default value for M1 is 4.5. Valid range is > M0 to 20.0.
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Tiernan Family of Audio Broadcast Receivers
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MR
Master Reset
Syntax:
MR n
MR ?
The value of n determines the type of reinitialization that will occur. A value of 0 reinitializes the receiver for a
DRO LNB, whereas a value of 1 instructs the receiver to reinitialize for a PLL LNB. As a safety feature, two
identical MR commands must be issued within 10 seconds of each other before the receiver begins to reinitialize
its parameters.
This command initializes all ABR parameters to factory default settings. All user-specific
configuration information (i.e., FD, CC) are lost. For the receiver to achieve RF and audio sync,
this user-specific information must be re-entered.
MU
Audio Mute
Syntax:
MU n
MU ?
The audio mute command now includes independent muting (disabling) of left and right audio channels.
The value for n determines the mute condition of the receiver. The default value for MU is 0. Valid values for n are
listed in Table 5-27.
Table 5.28 Valid Values for the MU Command
Mute Condition
n
NF
0
Both the left and right channels are enabled
1
Both the left and right channels are muted
2
The left channel is muted
3
The right channel is muted
Number of RF Signal Fades
Syntax:
NF ?
NF
NF 0
This command displays the number of RF signal fades since the counter was last cleared. Channel changes do
not increment this counter. NF 0 resets the counter.
NS
Network Status
Syntax:
NS ?
NS
This command displays the current network parameters received over the control channel. The network ID
number, the channel ID number, and the relay contact closure status are displayed.
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Maintenance and Troubleshooting
OM
ODU Fault Mask
Syntax:
OM n
OM ?
OM
This command controls the indication of an ODU Fault. A 1 enables the ODU Fault indicator; 0 disables the ODU
Fault indicator; the default value is 1. This command is typically used (i.e., OM 0) when the RF input is connected
to a test translator or similar equipment in which the ABR +18 V output is not used. This configuration normally
causes an ODU fault indicated in ST and FL registers since no current is drawn by the RF output of the first ABR.
P1
User Data Port Configuration
Syntax:
P1 baud,parity,data bits,stop bits
P1 ?
P1
Front Panel:
Interfaces > User Data >
Baud Rate: <0,300,1200,2400,4800,9600>
Data Bits: <7,8>
Parity: <Odd,None,Even>
Stop Bits: <1,2>
This command configures the user data port for the specified operating parameters. Valid values for these
parameters are shown in Table 5-28.
Table 5.29 Valid Parameter Values for the P1 Command
Parameter
Valid Values
Baud
0,300,1200,2400,4800,9600
Parity
O (odd), N (none), or E (even)
Data bits
7 or 8
Stop bits
1 or 2
A 0 for the baud rate parameter disables the user data port independent of the unit authorization. The default
value is 2400,O,7,1.
P2
M&C Port Configuration
Syntax:
P2 baud,parity,data bits,stop bits
P2 ?
Front Panel:
Management > Console Port >
Baud Rate: <0,300,1200,2400,4800,9600,19200,38400,57600,115200>
Data Bits: <7,8>
Parity: <Odd,None,Even>
Stop Bits: <1,2>
This command configures the diagnostic port for the specified parameters. Valid values for these parameters are
shown in Table 5-29.
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Tiernan Family of Audio Broadcast Receivers
Maintenance and Troubleshooting
Table 5.30 Valid Parameter Values for the P2 Command
Parameter
Valid Values
Baud
0,300,1200,2400,4800,9600,19200,38400,57600,115200
Parity
O (odd), N (none), or E (even)
Data bits
7 or 8
Stop bits
1 or 2
The default value is 2400,O,7,1.
This setting affects both RS-232 and RS-485 drivers and receivers.
P3
Printer Port Configuration
Syntax:
P3 baud,parity,data bits,stop bits
P3 ?
Interfaces > Printer Port >
Baud Rate: <0,300,1200,2400,4800,9600>
Data Bits: <7,8>
Parity: <Odd,None,Even>
Stop Bits: <1,2>
This command configures the printer data port for the specified parameters. This function is implemented on the
user data port. For information on the pinouts used, refer to the appendix on Interface Pinouts. Valid values for
the P3 parameters are shown in Table 5-30.
Table 5.31 Valid Parameter Values for the P3 Command
Parameter
Valid Values
Baud
0,300,1200,2400,4800,9600
Parity
O (odd), N (none), or E (even)
Data bits
7 or 8
Stop bits
1 or 2
The default value is 2400,O,7,1.
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Maintenance and Troubleshooting
This setting affects both RS-232 and RS-422 drivers and receivers.
PA
Packet Address
Syntax:
PA n
PA ?
Front Panel:
Management > Console Port >
Packet Address: <enter 1 - 31>
This command is used to set the packet address of the receiver. The packet address is the external device
address to which the receiver responds when attached to an RS-485 multidrop bus. Using a terminal program that
supports Tiernan/ComStream packet protocol, each receiver on the bus can receive commands that are
specifically addressed to that receiver, addressed to a group of receivers (of which the receiver is a member), or
addressed to all receivers.
Valid values for n are 1 to 31 and the default value is 31.
PC
Password Change
Syntax:
PC current password,new password,new password
This command allows the user to change the password of the receiver. A password must be between five and 10
alphanumeric characters.
Example:
To change the default password HOMEYD to the new password ABC123, enter the following:
PC HOMEYD, ABC123, ABC123
Do not forget that changes made to the password, upon logoff or power cycle, require the entry
of the password to access any other user commands.
PD
Preset Definition
Syntax:
PD preset_n,format_n
PD preset_n ?
PD
Front Panel:
Format Setup > Presets >
Number: <enter 0 – 7>
Selects: <enter 0 - 63>
This command allows the receiver to be configured for eight format presets. The presets are used in conjunction
with the receiver's external status inputs in selecting formats. The LC command enables or disables the ability of
the receiver to change formats via presets.
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Tiernan Family of Audio Broadcast Receivers
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The valid range for preset_n is 0 to 7, and the valid range for format_n is 0 to 63. By using the external TTL
inputs, the user can select the desired preset. SI3 through SI1 (pins 11, 10, 9 relay control port) have internal 4.7
K pull-up resistors. A dry closure to ground (pin 25) creates a logical address of 0, and a 1 represents an open
circuit (no connection).
The TTL input mappings to particular preset settings are shown in Table 5-31.
Table 5.32 TTL Input Mapping
TTL Inputs
PO
Preset Number
SI3
SI2
SI1
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
0
1
0
2
0
1
1
3
1
0
0
4
1
0
1
5
1
1
0
6
1
1
1
7
Packet-Only
Syntax:
PO n
PO ?
Front Panel:
Management > Console Port >
Packet Mode: <Auto Detect,RS-485 Only>
The packet-only command is used to place the receiver in a mode so that the receiver will only accept commands
from the M&C port that are formatted in the Tiernan/ComStream packet protocol format. Tiernan/ComStream
packet protocol contains addressing information that allows the ABR to be placed on a 485 multidrop bus. When
on a multidrop bus, it is recommended that the receiver be placed in packet-only mode to eliminate the possibility
of the receiver responding to a command that was not addressed to it.
A value of 1 for n directs the receiver to accept packet commands. A value of 0 for n instructs the receiver to
accept packet, as well as nonpacket, formatted commands. The default is 0.
Once the receiver is set to Packet Only mode (PO = 1) all further communication (including
commands to exit packet mode) must be in Tiernan/ComStream Packet Protocol. Attempts to
communicate in standard ASCII text will be ignored.
To escape from inadvertent entry into Packet Only mode, refer to the M&C port reset procedure in the chapter on
System Installation and Startup.
Q0
Low Signal Quality Threshold Level
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Maintenance and Troubleshooting
Syntax:
Q0 ?
Q0
Front Panel:
Q0 n.n
Events > Alarm Settings >
Low Signal: <enter 0.0 – Q1>
This command sets or reads the lower limit signal strength threshold. The receiver uses the values set in Q0 and
Q1 to report the current status of the signal strength via the front panel Signal indicator. The receiver compares
the present value of the measured Eb/N0 with the user values of Q0 and Q1. The receiver displays the signal
strength via the front panel Signal indicator, as shown in Table 5-32.
Table 5.33 Signal Strength and Sync LED Indication
Signal Strength
Sync LED Indication
Eb > Q1
On
Q0 < Eb < Q1
Blinking
Eb < Q0
Off
The default value for Q0 is 4.0 dB.
Q1
High Signal Quality Threshold Level
Syntax:
Q1 n.n
Q1 ?
Q1
Front Panel:
Events > Alarm Settings >
High Signal: <enter Q0 – 21.0>
This command sets or reads the upper limit signal strength threshold. The receiver uses the values set in Q0 and
Q1 to report the current status of the signal strength via the front panel Signal indicator.
The default value for Q1 is 7.0 dB.
RB
Read Calculated Bit Error Rate
Syntax:
RB ?
RB
This query displays the decoder estimated output bit error rate in the format n.n which represents the estimated
bit error rate in scientific notation. The first number represents the integer portion of the rate. The second number
represents the negative of the exponent (i.e., 26 represents 2 x 10-6, or 0.000002).
RE
System Reset
Syntax:
RE
Front Panel:
Management > General >
Reset System?: <Yes,No>
The RE command resets the unit to a known state as defined by the stored parameters in nonvolatile memory.
This command does not reset the unit to the factory default settings.
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Tiernan Family of Audio Broadcast Receivers
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RF
Read RF Value
Syntax:
RF ?
RF
The RF command queries the C- or Ku-band frequency to be received at the input of the ODU LNB. The range of
downlink frequencies received by the ABR are 3.7 to 4.2 GHz, 10.95 to 11.699 GHz, 11.7 to 12.2 GHz, and 12.25
to 12.75 GHz. The RF frequency is set via the CC command and selected via the FS command.
SI
TTL Sensor Input Query
Syntax:
SI ?
This command queries the receiver for the status of the seven TTL inputs. The reported value is a sevencharacter string, each character representing the status of an input line. The first character corresponds to the
TTL input #1, the last character corresponds to TTL input #7.
SL
Audio Sync Loss Count
Syntax:
SL 0
SL ?
This command allows the receiver to maintain a record of the number of audio sync losses since the last time the
value was reset. The sync loss count will not exceed 65535. SL 0 resets the sync loss value.
SR
Status Relay Mask
Syntax:
SR nnnn
SR ?
SR
This command sets or reads the status relay mask. The value nnnn is a decimal number that represents the bit
map of the faults to be monitored by the status relay. For example, to set faults 6, 7, and 8, you would input 224
(32+64+128) as the value of nnnn. (For a listing of fault monitors and their decimal weighting, refer to the FL
command.)
The default value is 4286578687, which enables all faults but FL 24 (ODU fault) to activate the relay and front
panel IDU Fault indicator.
SS
Status Relay Sense
Syntax:
SS n
SS ?
This command configures the remote status relay sense. A value of 0 for n configures the relay as true sense
(i.e., when there is no alarm, the relay is active). A value of 1 configures the relay to be inverted when there is no
alarm condition.
Table 5-33 shows the status relay contact states for the individual conditions.
Table 5.34 Condition and Status Relay Contacts
Condition
Normally Open Pin 2 Status Relay Contacts
(SS=0)
(SS=1)
Power Off
Open
Open
Alarm
Open
Closed
Normal
Closed
Open
Condition
Normally Open Pin 1 Status Relay Contacts
(SS=0)
Tiernan Family of Audio Broadcast Receivers
(SS=1)
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Maintenance and Troubleshooting
Power Off
Closed
Closed
Alarm
Closed
Open
Normal
Open
Closed
The default value is 0 (true sense).
ST
Status Query
Syntax:
ST ?
ST
This command causes the receiver to display the current content of the status register. The FL ? command gives
the faults that have occurred since the last time the fault register was cleared. The ST ? command gives the
current condition of those fault monitors. Bits in the status register are defined exactly as the fault register. The ST
command will display a decimal or hexadecimal encoded value of the bits in the status register depending on the
HM command value.
T1
Backlink Telephone Number 1
Syntax:
T1 string
T1 ?
The T1 command specifies the telephone number the receiver uses in a backlink attempt initiated by a fault that is
a member of fault mask 1 (F1 command).
String is a character string that contains the telephone number and any subcommands for the ComStreamapproved, Hayes-compatible telephone modem (TPN 30-0120-194). When initiating a backlink, the receiver
sends ATD followed immediately by the string entered by the user. The following is a list of valid characters that
can be entered:
0 to 9
A to Z
* (asterisk)
# (number/pound symbol)
@ (at symbol)
! (exclamation mark)
; (semicolon)
, (comma)
The following is an example of the T1 command:
T1 9,5553333
T2
Backlink Telephone Number 2
Syntax:
T2 string
T2 ?
The T2 command specifies the telephone number the receiver uses in a backlink attempt initiated by a fault that is
a member of fault mask 2 (F2 command).
String is a character string that contains the telephone number and any subcommands for the ComStreamapproved, Hayes-compatible telephone modem (TPN 30-0120-194). When initiating a backlink, the receiver
sends ATD followed immediately by the string entered by the user. The following is a list of valid characters that
can be entered:
0 to 9
A to Z
* (asterisk)
# (number/pound symbol)
@ (at symbol)
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! (exclamation mark)
; (semicolon)
, (comma)
TB
Terrestrial Backlink
Syntax:
TB n
TB ?
The TB command allows the user to manually initiate a terrestrial backlink or terminate a backlink that is in
progress. A value of 1 for n instructs the receiver to establish a link using the telephone number defined by the T1
command. Likewise, a value of 2 for n instructs the receiver to establish a backlink using the phone number
defined by the T2 command. A value of 0 for n instructs the receiver to terminate any active backlinks.
TI
Telco Initialization
Syntax:
TI string
TB ?
This command allows the user to enter a specific initialization string for the telco modem. This string is sent to the
telco modem prior to every backlink attempt. When a backlink is attempted, the ABR sends a basic initialization
string followed immediately by the user-defined initialization string. The following sequence of strings is sent prior
to every backlink attempt:
AT&D3&C1S0=1E0Q0V1&Y0
AT user-defined string
The user-defined string can be a maximum of 40 characters. The valid characters that can be sent are:
0 to 9
A to Z
&
=
The default string for TI is &Q5W0&R1&Y0.
TIME Time
Syntax:
TIME hour_nn,minutes_nn,seconds_nn
TIME ?
Front Panel:
Management > General >
Time: <enter hour_nn.minutes_nn.seconds_nn>
This command allows the user to enter the current time of the real time clock. The clock uses 24-hour time format.
The valid range for hour_nn is 1 to 23. The valid range for minutes_nn is 1 to 59. The valid range for seconds_nn
is 1 to 59.
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Maintenance and Troubleshooting
VC
Volume Control
Syntax:
VC n
VC ?
Front Panel:
Interfaces > Audio >
Volume: <enter 0 – 18>
The Volume Control command allows the user to vary the analog output gain. The audio output on the ABR has
been optimized to source a 600 ohm load when set to VC 18. This optimization ensures that the full dynamic
range of the ABR is available to the end user along with unity gain.
Table 5-34 lists the allowable VC values and the corresponding gain assuming a 100K ohm load. When selecting
a value other than the maximum value for the audio output a slight degradation in dynamic range occurs. The
table provides a sample of the dynamic range values. The default value for VC is 9, which corresponds to unity
gain for a 100K ohm load.
Table 5.35 Volume Control
5-54
n Value
DB in relation to unity gain at 100K ohm load
18
+8.5
17
+7.5
16
+6.5
15
+5.6
14
+4.5
13
+3.5
12
+2.5
11
+1.5
10
+0.5
9
+0.0
8
-0.8
7
-1.6
6
-2.5
5
-3.5
4
-5.0
3
-6.5
2
-7.6
1
-8.5
0
MUTE
Notes
Unity gain with 600 ohm load
Unity gain with 100K ohm load
Tiernan Family of Audio Broadcast Receivers
Maintenance and Troubleshooting
X1
Exercise User Data Port
Syntax:
X1 value
Front Panel:
Interfaces > User Data >
Test Pattern: <Enable,Disable>
This command allows the user data port to be exercised by providing a repeating test pattern. A value of 1
enables the user data port test. A value of 0 disables the test. The test pattern that will be issued to the port is:
THE QUICK BROWN FOX JUMPS OVER THE LAZY DOG 0123456789
The default value is 0.
X2
Exercise M&C Port
Syntax:
X2 value
Front Panel:
Management > Console Port >
Test Pattern: <Enable,Disable>
This command allows the M&C port to be exercised by providing a repeating test pattern. A value of 1 enables the
M&C port test. A value of 0 disables the test. The test pattern that will be issued to the port is:
THE QUICK BROWN FOX JUMPS OVER THE LAZY DOG 0123456789
The default value is 0.
X3
Exercise Printer Port
Syntax:
X3 value
Front Panel:
Interfaces > Printer Port >
Test Pattern: <Enable,Disable>
This command allows the printer port to be exercised by providing a repeating test pattern. A value of 1 enables
the printer port test. A value of 0 disables the test. The test pattern that will be issued to the port is:
THE QUICK BROWN FOX JUMPS OVER THE LAZY DOG 0123456789
The default value is 0.
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Maintenance and Troubleshooting
Chapter 6 Maintenance and Troubleshooting
6
This chapter provides:
•
ABR maintenance information
•
An alphabetical listing of ABR key performance monitoring commands and fault conditions, including a
detailed description of each command and fault condition
•
Troubleshooting tips
6.1
Maintenance
The ABR does not require periodic or preventive maintenance. There are no adjustments or configuration
switches or jumpers external or internal to the unit. The power input is protected with an inline fuse located within
the power supply inside the receiver. The fuse is designed to protect the unit from internal damage in the event of
a severe power line condition or internal failure. This fuse is not serviceable by the user.
A battery-backed SRAM memory is used to store the nonvolatile user configuration while power is off. The
average battery life at 25 degrees Celsius is 10 years. The battery is not serviceable by the user.
6.2
Performance Monitoring
The ABR receiver has a number of commands that provide performance monitoring of key system parameters. By
interrogating these parameters for key receiver sites on a periodic basis, the overall system performance level
can be determined and changed if necessary.
In implementing performance monitoring, key downlink sites would be selected. At these sites, telephone
modems would be connected to the ABR receiver so that the required two-way communication link is established.
For connecting a telephone modem to the receiver, refer to the appendix on Telephone Modem Operation. The
key performance monitoring commands and how they can be used in measuring symptom performance are
detailed in the following paragraphs.
6.2.1 Eb/No Minimum Receive Level (EM)
The minimum receive signal level Eb/No is measured and recorded using the EM command. This parameter
indicates how weak the receive signal has become due to local weather conditions and fades, antenna
misalignment, etc., since the last time the parameter was reset. By monitoring key receive sites across the
network, a determination of actual system availability can be made based on measured fades.
If actual numbers differ from the desired availability, corrective action can be taken. Either the satellite downlink
power can be increased or the receive antenna size can be increased for the affected locations.
6.2.2 Number of RF Signal Fades (NF)
This command records the number of RF signal fades that have occurred since the last time the counter was
reset. While the EM command records the lowest signal level, this command records the number of signal fade
events. A fade event occurs when the receiver loses RF signal lock for any reason other than channel changes. A
fade causes a disruption in audio, data, and relay cue signals. Typically, a fade occurs due to weather conditions,
6-56
Tiernan Family of Audio Broadcast Receivers
Maintenance and Troubleshooting
although any event causing the signal to be temporarily interrupted could be the cause. Examples of this would be
antenna obstruction by a large truck, IFL cable damage causing intermittent connections, and so on.
Receiver sites that record fade events should be investigated to determine the cause so that uninterrupted service
can be provided.
6.2.3 Audio Sync Loss Count (SL)
This command records the number of audio decoder sync losses since it was last reset. An audio sync loss would
normally occur when a fade condition exists. However, there could be instances where the decoder loses
synchronization with the uplink audio encoder. Very low signal levels (between 3.0 to 3.5 dB Eb/No) could cause
sufficiently high bit error rates causing the decoder to lose sync, but not an RF sync loss. Additionally, if the uplink
encoder began to operate marginally, then typically all receive sites would record decoder sync loss events,
although not all may record the same number of events.
By monitoring audio sync losses, troubleshooting system-wide or individual receive site problems is made easier.
6.3
Fault Condition Descriptions
This section provides a detailed description of each fault condition to aid in troubleshooting.
FL 5 - AGC Range Fault
This fault indicates the input signal to the demodulator is less than -75 dBm or greater than -20 dBm
(approximately).
FL 6 - Bit Time Lock Fault
An FL 6 fault means the demodulator bit time loop has lost lock. The receiver output data is disabled when this
fault occurs.
FL 7 - Carrier Tracking Lock Fault
This fault means the demodulator carrier tracking loop has lost lock. The receiver output data is disabled when
this fault occurs.
FL 8 - FEC Decoder Sync Fault
An FL 8 fault indicates the FEC decoder output BER is greater than 10-2 (approximately).
FL 9 - Acquisition Range Fault
This fault means the demodulator has completed a search of all frequencies out to the limits defined by the B3
parameter and was unable to acquire a carrier.
FL 10 - Carrier Tracking Range Fault
An FL 10 fault means the demodulator carrier tracking register has reached its maximum (or minimum) setting.
FL12 - Bit Time Range Fault
This fault indicates the demodulator bit time accumulator has reached its maximum (or minimum) setting.
FL 13 - Nonvolatile Memory Fault
An FL 13 fault means one of the parameters in the demodulator nonvolatile memory may have become corrupted.
If this indication occurs repeatedly, the nonvolatile memory is defective and the unit should be returned for
servicing.
FL 16 - Watchdog Timer Fault
This fault indication means the demodulator microprocessor fault timer has failed to reset. FL 16 normally
indicates a memory fault, meaning the unit may be operating in an unintended manner. When this fault occurs,
the system automatically resets.
Tiernan Family of Audio Broadcast Receivers
Page 6-57
Maintenance and Troubleshooting
FL 17 - Audio PLL Lock Fault
This fault occurs when the narrow band phase lock loop that operates the audio D/A converter is not locked. It is
usually caused when RF sync is not achieved. If this alarm occurs by itself and will not clear by cycling power, the
receiver should be returned for servicing.
FL 18 - Audio Decoder Sync Fault
An FL 18 fault indicates the receiver audio decoder is not in synchronization with the audio encoder at the uplink.
This condition will normally occur if RF sync is not achieved.
FL 19 - DSP Watchdog Fault
This fault means the DSP audio decoder is not functioning normally. If this fault persists, the unit should be
returned for servicing.
FL 20 - DSP BIT Failure
This fault indicates the DSP audio decoder built-in tests did not successfully pass during startup. If this fault
persists, the unit should be returned for servicing.
FL 21, FL 22, FL 23 - External Alarm Monitoring
All three of these faults are caused from monitoring an external device that asserts a TTL logic low on Sensor
Inputs 4, 5, and 6. (These signals are on the relay control port pins 22, 23, and 24.)
FL 24 - Outdoor Unit Fault
This fault occurs when the LNB is not drawing power from the receiver. If the receiver is connected to another
ABR unit, this will be a normal condition. The front panel ODU Fault light or indicator tracks this fault condition.
FL 25 - Eb/No Threshold Fault
An FL 25 fault indicates the measured RF signal level (Eb/No) has dropped below the level set by the ET
command.
FL 27 - Flash Memory Checksum Fault
This fault means the main control processor memory has been corrupted and is not functioning normally. If this
fault persists, the unit should be returned for servicing.
FL 28 - Software Download Failure
This fault indicates a software download was not successful. The control processor continues to operate from the
currently operating software while this fault is active. Once the download is successful, this fault automatically
clears.
FL 29 - Channel Change Fault
An FL 29 fault occurs when a channel change has been attempted but RF and audio synchronization on the new
RF carrier have not occurred within the first bin. Acquisition reverts to the previous signal and, once locked,
normal operation is restored. The channel change may be initiated from any one of three sources:
•
Local FS command
•
FS command from the uplink
•
Remote (external) channel change
For more information, refer to the LC command section in the chapter on Remote Monitor and Control
Information. This is an abnormal condition and indicates there may be a configuration error within the receiver, a
mismatch with the actual RF carrier parameters, or the RF carrier is not present.
FL 30 - Network ID Timeout Fault
This fault condition exists if the channel and network ID information is not received over the control channel every
30 seconds. Typically, this indicates a problem exists at the uplink concerning the audio multiplexer. However, if
other receivers in the network are not showing this alarm condition, then the unit may need servicing.
6-58
Tiernan Family of Audio Broadcast Receivers
Maintenance and Troubleshooting
FL 31 - Acquisition Network ID Fault
An FL 31 fault is declared when the receiver achieves RF sync but there is an invalid or missing network/channel
ID. This fault indicates that one or more of the following conditions is true:
•
The receiver FD and/or CC commands are not configured properly.
•
The uplink is not transmitting or is transmitting an invalid network/channel ID.
•
There is a hardware problem with the audio decoder portion of the ABR.
•
The receiver is locked onto an adjacent audio carrier that is within its frequency search range, but is not
the carrier specified in the selected format definition.
6.4
Troubleshooting
This troubleshooting section is provided to aid in isolating equipment problems and suggesting appropriate
actions toward solving problems. If a particular problem cannot be resolved after reviewing the following material,
or if a Tiernan equipment failure is suspected, then seek further assistance by contacting your Tiernan distributor
or uplink provider. If equipment is purchased directly from Tiernan, contact Tiernan customer service for
assistance.
6.4.1 Before Troubleshooting
Before troubleshooting the unit, go through the following questions:
•
Have there been any power or bad weather problems in the area? Snow-filled dishes need to be
manually swept out, even if they have a Velox coating.
•
Is the ABR mounted on a rack or is it free-standing? Is it located in a closet? If so, is there sufficient air
circulation in the closet? Is the ABR near a heat-generating source? Does it exceed the Tiernan ambient
temperature specifications? The receiver requires sufficient space for proper ventilation.
•
Is the receiver connected to an uninterruptible power source (UPS)?
•
Was anyone recently working on the equipment or has anyone been near the satellite dish? If so, visually
check the equipment to ensure the power has not been turned off, there are no loose cables, or any
damaged connectors.
•
Is the receiver located at the uplink or is it a downlink in a network? If it is a downlink, are other downlinks
experiencing any problems?
6.4.2 Symptoms and Actions
This section has been developed to help you diagnose and correct minor problems in the unlikely event that you
experience difficulties with your ABR. A quick reference troubleshooting flow chart is also provided in the
appendix on Troubleshooting Flow Charts. If you decide to use the flow chart and find that you need additional
information, refer to the information provided in this section.
Power light is not illuminated
1. Ensure the unit is plugged into an active AC outlet and the power cord is firmly plugged into the rear
panel receptacle.
2. Verify the AC power source is supplying 85 to 264 VAC, 47 to 63 Hz.
3. Ensure the power cord is not at fault by replacing it with a known working cord.
4. If the problem persists, it indicates a possible internal fuse failure-do not attempt to repair it. Contact
Tiernan for technical support.
Tiernan Family of Audio Broadcast Receivers
Page 6-59
Maintenance and Troubleshooting
Unable to communicate with the receiver
1. If a modem is being used, verify that the correct cable is being used and that the connections are correct.
Refer to the appendix on Telephone Modem Operation.
2. Ensure the correct terminal, cable, and configuration is being used:
•
Ensure an ASCII terminal or a PC with a terminal emulator program, such as PROCOMM®, is
being used.
•
Ensure the RS-232 cable is connected to the M&C port via the DB-9 to DB-25 adapter cable
(TPN 30-0120-093). If the adapter cable is too short, extend it with a straight-through cable.
•
Verify the connection between pins 2 and 3 at both ends of the cable. Ensure pin 4, Data
Terminal Ready (DTR), is an active input (high) of the M&C port.
•
Check to see if the terminal is configured properly: full-duplex ASCII communications at 2400
baud, 7 data bits, odd parity, and 1 stop bit (default).
3. Once the terminal has been connected and configured, press the Enter key to see if the login message
displays.
If the login message:
•
Does not display, using the front panel, change the console port settings as appropriate for your
terminal settings. Press the Enter key again. If the login message still does not display, contact
Tiernan Customer Service.
•
Enter commands to see if the responses are displayed. If the commands are not echoed to the
display, ensure the command echo is enabled by entering EE 1. If they do not display after
enabling the echo feature, contact Tiernan for technical support.
Power light is not illuminated
1. Verify cable connectivity between the two cable ends. Use a multimeter to ohm-out after disconnecting
the cable. Examine the connectors for improper assembly. If the problem persists, contact Tiernan for
technical support.
Rx Sync light is not illuminated
1. If there is no outdoor unit fault (FL24), ensure the configuration parameters are correct for the installed
application using the CC, FD, FS, and DI commands.
2. If the configuration parameters have been confirmed:
•
Connect the spectrum analyzer to the LNB output via a DC coupled splitter.
•
Ensure a proper L-band signal is present.
•
If required, repeak the antenna.
TS Sync/Audio 1 light is not illuminated
If the Sync light is illuminated, check with the uplink station to ensure the audio encoder unit is functioning
properly. If it is, the unit may need servicing. If not, the problem is at the uplink station.
If the Sync light is off, follow the actions for that symptom.
Signal Quality light is illuminated or is blinking
This indicates the receive signal strength is below the value set by the Q0 or Q1 commands.
6-60
Tiernan Family of Audio Broadcast Receivers
Maintenance and Troubleshooting
If the Sync light is not illuminated, the signal is too weak. Check the signal strength by entering each of the
following commands: Q0 ?, Q1 ?, EB ?.
If the value for EB is less than the default value for Q1, repeak the antenna for maximum signal strength.
Status light is blinking or illuminated red
If the light is illuminated:
1. Connect a terminal to the M&C port on the receiver.
2. Enter FL ? to determine what type of fault is occurring.
3. Follow the action descriptions associated with each fault type.
•
Faults 6, 7, 8, 9, and 10 are common faults and may indicate the following:
- CC or FD are not configured correctly for carrier acquisition
- The carrier is not present
•
If the above faults are present, verify carrier status and configuration before contacting Tiernan
for technical support.
No audio, but the Rx Sync and TS Sync/Audio 1 Sync lights are illuminated
1. Ensure the audio is not being muted by the M0, M1, and MU commands.
2. Check the audio status (AS) to ensure audio operation is permitted. If it is not, check with the uplink
operator for audio authorization.
3. Verify connector integrity and ensure the proper connections are made to the audio output (DB-9 male)
connector.
4. Use the built-in audio tests (AT command) to generate audio tones. Monitor the audio output at the
connector. If no tones are present, the unit may need servicing. If no audio is present, contact Tiernan for
technical support.
Audio is highly distorted or garbled
•
If the Signal Quality light is illuminated or is blinking, then a low signal strength may be the problem.
Follow the procedure for when the Signal Quality light is illuminated or is blinking.
•
If the Signal Quality light is illuminated, check the external connections to the audio port to ensure no
shorts or intermittent connections are present.
Audio has unusually high background noise
When operating in joint stereo mode, a high background (common mode) noise indicates there is a phase
reversal at the encoder's audio inputs.
•
Recheck the encoder wiring to ensure the input leads, (+) and (-), for both channels are properly
connected.
•
Recheck the wiring connections at the output of the receiver to ensure the correct phase for the audio
outputs has been connected.
Audio is at a low volume
Ensure the connections at the uplink and downlink are correct for both signal polarities (+ and -). When operating
with a single connection (e.g., + only), the output level is down 6 dB when compared to balanced operation.
Tiernan Family of Audio Broadcast Receivers
Page 6-61
Maintenance and Troubleshooting
Using the M&C terminal, check the audio volume command for the proper setting for the particular installation.
No data, but the Rx Sync and TS Sync/Audio 1 Sync lights are illuminated
1. Check the unit authorization setting using the FD and FS commands for the current format and ensure
data operation is permitted. If the current FD value, as selected by the FS parameter, does not have a 2,
3, 6, or 7 as the last digit, then data is not enabled. If it is not enabled, check with the uplink operator for
proper authorization.
2. Verify the interface cable and connector integrity by ensuring the proper connections are made to the
data port output connector (DB-25 female) and that the interconnecting cable is properly wired (straightthrough). The Data port pinouts are described in the appendix on Interface Pinouts.
3. Ensure the external data terminal equipment (DTE) and data port configuration P1 parameter (i.e., baud
rate, stop characters, parity) match by using the P1 command.
4. Test the user data port by entering the command X1 1. A test pattern should be output to the DTE.
•
If data output is observed, turn off the test pattern by entering X1 0 and then contact the uplink
operator to verify data transmission.
•
If data output is not observed, try connecting another type of DTE (i.e., video terminal); if data is
still not available, contact Tiernan for technical support.
No relay closure operation, but the Rx Sync and TS Sync/Audio 1 Sync lights are illuminated
1. Check the unit authorization setting using the FD command for the current format and ensure relay
closure operation is permitted. If the FD value does not have a 4, 5, 6, or 7 as the last digit, then the
relays are not enabled. If they are not enabled, check with the uplink operator.
2. Enter CO ?:
•
If a 1 or 0 appears, then the cue signal from the uplink cannot be processed properly. Enter CO
XXXXXXXX to allow the uplink to control the relays.
•
If CO is XXXXXXXX, ensure the proper connections are made to the Relay/Control port
connector (DB-25 male) and that the interconnecting cable is properly wired.
3. Use the built-in relay test (CO command) to individually activate and deactivate the relay closures.
Monitoring contact closure with a multimeter at the connector is preferred; this eliminates any
misconnections. If proper operation is still not observed, contact Tiernan.
* The modem connection to the M&C port requires a crossover connection.
** If a DB-9 to DB-9 cable is being used, the pin assignment is straight through.
*** If EB > Q1, the Signal Quality light is not illuminated
If Q0 < EB < Q1, the Signal Quality light blinks
If EB < Q0, the Signal Quality light is illuminated
The default values are 4.0 dB for Q0 and 7.0 dB for Q1.
**** If the output feeds several pieces of equipment, disconnect the external equipment and monitor the audio at
the connector.
If the problem no longer exists, then a wiring problem to the external equipment exists and you should
operate the external equipment via a distribution amplifier.
6-62
Tiernan Family of Audio Broadcast Receivers
Chapter 7 Technical Specifications and Port Information
LNB Downconverter (Outdoor
Unit - ODU)
L-band Demodulator
(Indoor Unit - IDU)
Audio Performance
7
Input frequency range:
11.7 to 12.2 GHz
12.25 to 12.75 GHz
10.95 to 11.7 GHz
3.7 to 4.2 GHz
Output frequency range:
950 to 1450 MHz
950 to 1700 MHz
Conversion gain:
55 to 70 dB
Local oscillator:
DRO (BPSK) or PLL (QPSK)
Input frequency range:
950 to 1700 MHz, F connector, 75 ohm
Output power (to LNB):
+13,14,18,19 VDC ±7%, 500 mA maximum
current – or OFF
Input signal level:
-75 to -20 dBm
Frequency step size:
1 kHz steps
Demodulation type:
BPSK or QPSK
FEC decoding:
Sequential rate ½
Optional: Viterbi rate 1/2, 2/3, or 3/4; or
concatenated Viterbi and Reed Solomon rate
187/204
BER performance:
128 kbps (BPSK) 1x10-5 at 4.0 dB Eb/No,
Sequential rate ½
128 kbps (QPSK) 1x10-5 at 4.5 dB Eb/No,
Sequential rate ½
Audio threshold:
3.8 dB Eb/No (BPSK)
4.3 dB Eb/No (QPSK)
Symbol rates:
64 - 384 ksps variable in 1 sps increments
Frequency response:
20 Hz to 20.0 kHz
Audio output channels:
One or two
Operating modes:
Mono, dual mono (stereo), joint stereo
Compression technique:
ISO/MPEG Layer II/IIA
Compression factor:
12:1, 8:1, 6:1
ISO/MPEG Layer II/IIA
data rates:
64, 96, 112, 128, 192, 256, 384 kbps
ISO/MPEG Layer II/IIA
modes:
Mono, dual mono, joint stereo
Channel change time:
< 450 msec*
Tiernan Family of Audio Broadcast Receivers
Page 7-1
Technical Specifications and Port Information
Total harmonic
distortion:**
< 0.2% at 1 kHz3 (@ +8 dBu signal level)
Dynamic range:
> 90 dB
Signal to noise:***
> 85 dB (measured from +18 dBu2)
Idle channel noise:
< -64 dBu (unweighted)
Channel mute:
< -80 dBu (unweighted)
Crosstalk (two channel)
> 80 dB (all frequencies, measured from +18
dBu2)
Analog sampling rate:
48 kHz
Stereo phase deviation:
< 1.0° for 20 Hz to 10 kHz; < 3.0° for 10 to 20
kHz
Audio Outputs:
Direct coupled, L and R differential pairs;
output impedance 510 ohms
Audio Levels:
0 dB throughput gain (encoder input to ABR
output) at nominal volume setting and 100
kohm load
Volume control may be adjusted for 0 dB
throughput gain for 600 ohm load
Maximum Audio Output:
+18 dBu
* For signal strength > 9 dB Eb/No (QPSK), > 7 dB Eb/No (BPSK).
** 0 dBu is defined to be 1 mW across a 600 ohm load (0.776 VRms).
*** Operating 256 kbps, dual mono, Eb/No > 10 dB (output terminated into
100 kohm).
7.1
Available Audio Rates and Bandwidths
The available audio rates and bandwidths for the ABR are shown in Table 7-1
Table 7.1 Available Audio Rates and Bandwidths
Audio Rate
(kbps)
7-2
Mode
64
Mono
96
Mono
112
Bandwidth
(kHz)
8.3
Audio
Quality
Recommended
User Data Rate
AM
2400
20
CD
4800
Mono
20
CD
4800
112
dual mono
10
AM
4800
112
joint stereo
20
CD
4800
128
Mono
20
CD
4800
128
dual mono
10
AM
4800
128
joint stereo
20
CD
4800
192
Mono
20
CD
9600
192
joint stereo
20
CD
9600
192
dual mono
20
CD
9600
256
Mono
20
CD
9600
Tiernan Family of Audio Broadcast Receivers
Technical Specifications and Port Information
Audio Rate
(kbps)
Mode
Bandwidth
(kHz)
Audio
Quality
Recommended
User Data Rate
256
dual mono
20
CD
9600
256
joint stereo
20
CD
9600
384
Mono
20
CD
9600
384
dual mono
20
CD
9600
384
joint stereo
20
CD
9600
The maximum user data rate is 9600 baud for all audio rates, however, you should select lower
user data rates when using audio rates below 128 K to prevent any degradation of the audio
quality.
Mechanical (IDU)
Size:
1.75" H x 17.375" W x 15.75" D
(1 RU 19" rack-mount)
Unit weight:
6 lbs
Shipping weight:
12 lbs
Power
Input voltage (AC):
90 to 264 VAC
Frequency:
47 to 63 Hz
Consumption:
< 40 W typical
Environmental
Regulatory Compliance
Control Channel
Interface Capabilities
Monitor and Control
Capabilities
Temperature:
0 to 50°C (IDU, operating)
-20 to 75°C (IDU, nonoperating)
-40 to +50°C (ODU, operating)
-50 to +60°C (ODU, nonoperating)
Humidity:
0 to 95% noncondensing (IDU, operating)
0% to 100% condensing (ODU, operating)
Safety
CE marking
Emissions
CE marking
Software network control:
PC AT, Windows-based (optional)
Addressing:
Unit or logical group
Receiver control:
Configuration, audio/data port operation,
channel selection, etc.
Operating speed:
4800 default, 9600 capable
Monitor:
Receive signal level (Eb/No) channel error
rate, AGC level, bit error rate, equipment
alarms and faults, performance monitoring
Control:
Receive channel configuration, relay
mapping, alarm reporting, etc.
Tiernan Family of Audio Broadcast Receivers
Page 7-3
Technical Specifications and Port Information
Status (Front Panel):
Rear Panel Ports
Power, RF Sync, Audio Enable, Fault
summary
Audio Out Port
Connector:
DB-9, male
Function:
Left and right channel analog audio output
For more information about audio performance, refer to the "Audio Performance"
section in this chapter.
Aux Port
Connector:
DB-15, female
Functions:
Receiver fault alarm relay (Form A)
Synchronous composite data stream
input/output with clock, RS-422 levels
Input ISO/MPEG Digital Audio
AES/EBU Port
Connector:
DB-15, female
Functions:
AES/EBU digital output (48 kHz sampling
rate)
Relay Status Port
Relay contact closures:
Eight, individually controlled from DAC
codec/mux at uplink
Relay type:
Form A; 2 wires per contact; maximum
rating is 110 VAC at 1 amp.
Connector:
DB-25, male
Operation:
< 150 msec latency w.r.t. audio, with error
protection
Status inputs:
7 TTL with reference grounds, active low,
internally pulled up 4.7 kohm resistors.
Status functions:
3 for local RF channel selection, 3 auxiliary
alarm inputs, 1 unused (reserved)
Interface biasing:
+15 V @ 50 mA max available for
powering opto-couplers in external
equipment
User Data Port
Interface type:
Asynchronous RS-232
Data rates:
300, 1200, 2400, 4800, and 9600 baud
Connector:
DB-9, female
Printer Data Port
Interface type:
Asynchronous RS-232 or RS-422
Data rates:
300, 1200, 2400, 4800, and 9600 baud
Connector:
DB-25, female
M&C Port
7-4
Tiernan Family of Audio Broadcast Receivers
Technical Specifications and Port Information
Interface type:
Asynchronous RS-232 and addressable
RS-485 multidrop using
Tiernan/ComStream's packet protocol
Connector:
DB-9, female, with DTR control
Default parameters:
2400, 7 data bits, odd parity, 1 stop bit, RS232 (programmable)
Functions:
Unit configuration, diagnostics, and status;
connects to ASCII terminal or telco
modem.
Tiernan Family of Audio Broadcast Receivers
Page 7-5
Appendix A
A
Interface Pinouts
Printer Data Port
Table A.1 DB-25 Female, Connector
Pin #
I/O
Name
Description
1
-
-
Not Used (Reserved)
2
I
TD
Transmit Data (Reserved)
3
O
RD
Receive Data
4
I
DTR
Transmit Data Terminal Ready (Reserved)
5
-
-
Not Used (Reserved)
6
O
DSR
Data Set Ready
7
O
AUXIND-
Aux Indicator RS-422 (-) (Reserved)
8
I
AUXCTL-
Aux Control RS-422 (-)
9
O
AUXRT-
Aux RT Clock RS-422 (-)
10
I
AUXTT-
Aux TT Clock RS-422 (-)
11
O
AUXRD-
Aux Rcv Data RS-422 (-) (Reserved)
12
I
AUXTD-
Aux Tsmt Data RS-422 (-) (Reserved)
13
O
SG
Signal Ground
14
-
-
Not Used (Reserved)
15
-
-
Not Used (Reserved)
16
-
-
Not Used (Reserved)
17
-
-
Not Used (Reserved)
18
-
-
Not Used (Reserved)
19
-
-
Not Used (Reserved)
20
O
AUXIND+
Aux Indicator RS-422 (+) (Reserved)
21
I
AUXCTL+
Aux Control RS-422 (+)
22
O
AUXRT+
Aux RT Clock RS-422 (+) (Reserved)
23
I
AUXTT+
Aux TT Clock RS-422 (+)
24
O
AUXRD+
Aux Rcv Data RS-422 (+) (Reserved)
25
I
AUXTD+
Aux Tsmt Data RS-422 (+)(Reserved)
Tiernan Family of Audio Broadcast Receivers
Page A-1
Interface Pinouts
Relay Control Port
Table A.2 DB-25 Male Connector
Pin #
I/O
Name
Description
1
O
RC1A
Relay Closure Contact 1A
14
O
RC1B
Relay Closure Contact 1B
2
O
RC2A
Relay Closure Contact 2A
15
O
RC2B
Relay Closure Contact 2B
3
O
RC3A
Relay Closure Contact 3A
16
O
RC3B
Relay Closure Contact 3B
4
O
RC4A
Relay Closure Contact 4A
17
O
RC4B
Relay Closure Contact 4B
5
O
RC5A
Relay Closure Contact 5A
18
O
RC5B
Relay Closure Contact 5B
6
O
RC6A
Relay Closure Contact 6A
19
O
RC6B
Relay Closure Contact 6B
7
O
RC7A
Relay Closure Contact 7A
20
O
RC7B
Relay Closure Contact 7B
8
O
RC8A
Relay Closure Contact 8A
21
O
RC8B
Relay Closure Contact 8B
9
I
SI1
Sensor Input 1, TTL
10
I
SI2
Sensor Input 2, TTL
11
I
SI3
Sensor Input 3, TTL
22
I
SI4
Sensor Input 4, TTL
23
I
SI5
Sensor Input 5, TTL
24
I
SI6
Sensor Input 6, TTL
12
I
SI7
Sensor Input 7, TTL
25
O
SG
Signal Ground
13
O
+15V
+12 V through 220 ohm (50 mA max) resistor
M&C Port
Table A.3 DB-9 Female, RS-232/RS-485 Connector
Page A-2
Pin #
I/O
Name
Description
1
O
DSR
Data Set Ready
2
O
RD
Receive Data, RS-232
3
I
TD
Transmit Data, RS-232
4
I
DTR
Data Terminal Ready
5
O
SG
Signal Ground
6
I
TD+
Transmit Data, RS-485 (+)
Tiernan Family of Audio Broadcast Receivers
Interface Pinouts
Pin #
I/O
Name
Description
7
O
RD+
Receive Data, RS-485 (+)
8
I
TD-
Transmit Data, RS-485 (-)
9
O
RD-
Receive Data, RS-485 (-)
M&C Port Adapter Cable (DB-9-to-DB-25)
The M&C Port Adapter Cable connects the ABR with an RS-232 port. This cable is VT-100 compatible and
available through Tiernan (TPN 30-0120-093).
Table A.4 M&C Port Adapter Cable
Male DB-9
Female DB-25
1
8
2
3
3
2
4
20
5
7
6
6
7
4
8
5
9
22
Analog Output Port
Table A.5 DB-9 Male Connector
Pin #
I/O
Name
Description
1
O
LO+
Left Audio Output (+)
2
O
LO-
Left Audio Output (-)
3
-
-
Not Used
4
O
RO+
Right Audio Output (+)
5
O
RO-
Right Audio Output (-)
6
O
AGND
Analog Ground
7
-
-
Not Used
8
-
-
Not Used
9
O
AGND
Analog Ground
User Data Port
Table A.6 DB-9 Female Connector
Pin #
I/O
Name
1
O
DSR
Tiernan Family of Audio Broadcast Receivers
Description
Data Set Ready Indicator
Page A-3
Interface Pinouts
Pin #
I/O
Name
Description
2
O
RD
Receive Data
3
I
DTR
Data Terminal Ready Indicator
4
I
TD
Transmit Data
5
O
SG
Signal Ground
6-9
-
-
Not Connected
Auxiliary Port
Table A.7 DB-15 Female Connector
Pin #
I/O
Name
Description
1
O
StatusNC
Status Closure Contact Closed on Fault
2
O
StatusNO
Status Closure Contact Open on Fault
3
I
BBRD-
Baseband Rec. Data RS-422 (-) [A]
4
O
RD-
Receive Data RS-422 (-) [A]
5
O
AGC
AGC Output Voltage 0-10 VDC
6
O
RT-
Receive Timing RS-422 (-) [A]
7
I
BBRT-
Baseband Rec. Timing RS-422 (-) [A]
8
O
SG
Signal Ground
9
O
StatusCOM
Status Closure Common
10
I
BBRD+
Baseband Rec. Data RS-422 (+) [B]
11
O
RD+
Receive Data RS-422 (+) [B]
12
I
M&C Reset
Monitor and Control Port Reset Input
13
O
RT+
Receive Timing RS-422 (+) [B]
14
I
BBRT+
Baseband Rec. Timing RS-422 (+) [B]
15
-
-
Not Used
[A] Denotes inverted signal for differential input/output
[B] Denotes true signal for differential input/output
AES/EBU Port
Table A.8 DB-15 Female Connector
Pin #
Page A-4
I/O
Name
Description
1
O
SG
Signal Ground
8
O
DIGOUT-
AES/EBU Digital Audio Out (-)
15
O
DIGOUT+
AES/EBU Digital Audio Out (+)
2-7
-
-
Not Used
9 - 14
-
-
Not Used
Tiernan Family of Audio Broadcast Receivers
Appendix B
Telephone Modem Operation
B
Overview
The ABR can be controlled and operated from a remote location by connecting the receiver to the public
telephone network using the Tiernan-approved, Hayes-compatible modem (TPN 30-0120-194). This appendix
provides the necessary details for configuring the telco modem and connecting it to the ABR.
Modem Configuration
To ensure proper operation of the Tiernan-approved, Hayes-compatible modem (TPN 30-0120-194), the modem
must be initialized, as shown in Table B-1, when it is connected to the ABR.
Table B.1 Hayes-Compatible Modem Configuration
Modem Command
Description of Modem Actions
AT&D0
Modem ignores DTR
ATS0=1
Modem answers on one ring
AT&C1
Carrier detect (CD) active when remote carrier detected
ATQ1
Modem does not send result codes
AT&Y0
Select profile 0 as power-up configuration
ATE0
Echo off
AT&W0
Write configuration to profile 0
AT&R1
Modem ignores RTS
Modem Connection
A Hayes-compatible modem (TPN 30-0120-194) connects to the ABR M&C port via a special adapter cable.
Table B-2 details the interconnecting cable that should be used. This cable is available through Tiernan (TPN 050505-001).
Table B.2 Modem Adapter Cable
DB-9
(Male)
ABR Function
DB-25
(Male)
Modem Function
2
Out-Receive Data
2
In-Transmit Data
3
In-Transmit Data
3
Out-Receive Data
5
Signal Ground
7
Signal Ground
4
In-Data Terminal Ready
8
Out-Carrier Detect
6
Out-Data Set Ready
20
In-Data Terminal Ready
Tiernan Family of Audio Broadcast Receivers
Page B-1
Troubleshooting
Appendix C
Interfacility Link Cable Characteristics
C
Cable Characteristics
General Characteristics
All cables should be uniform in quality and free from any burrs, die marks, chatter marks, foreign material, or other
defects that may affect life, serviceability, or appearance.
The cable must be capable of being pulled in one-inch diameter conduit with pull boxes at 90° bends and every
200 feet, without distortion or change in electrical performance or structural integrity.
The cable should have a design life of 10 years after installation in an outdoor environment and be subject to the
complete range of industrial pollutants, temperature extremes, precipitation, humidity, solar radiation, and salt
water corrosion typically encountered at the installation site.
The minimum bend radius should be five times the cable's outside diameter. The electrical specifications must be
met at the minimum bend radius.
Outer Cable Jacket
The jacket should cover the cable tightly and evenly in a manner consistent with the physical, mechanical,
environmental, and dimensional requirements. The outer jacket material should be weatherproof and suitable for
direct burial. A flooding compound must be applied to the outer braid under the jacket of the coaxial cable to block
moisture and resist corrosion.
Polyisobutylene is the recommended flooding compound. Polyvinyl- chloride, Thermoplastic rubber, or Teflon are
suitable jacket materials. The jacket must resist abrasion, scuffing, and peeling during the pulling process. The
cable must also have sufficient flexibility at 15° F to permit installation.
Maximum shrinkage tolerance of the cable jacket should be sufficient to still allow full termination capability
following any shrinkage.
Cable Specifications and Vendors
The following specifications define the required performance parameters of the IFL cable intended for use with the
ABR. The IFL cable must conform to these specifications to guarantee that the Tiernan equipment will operate
properly. Table C-1 provides the recommended vendors for the RG-11 cable. Table C-2 lists the recommended
crimp tool and F-connector vendors.
Especially important is the use of a quad-shielded coax for the RF cable. Without quadshielding, your system may be subject to outside radio frequency interference. This interference
can degrade the performance of the ABR receiver.
Table C.1 Recommended Vendors, Quad-Shielded RG-11 Coax
Manufacturer Telephone #
Manufacturer Part Number
Tiernan Family of Audio Broadcast Receivers
Preference Rank
Page C-1
Troubleshooting
Times Fiber
22821
1
(800) 688-6904
2262
2
Comscope
2287
(800) 982-1708
5950
1
1
1
2
Suitable for direct burial.
Table C.2 Recommended Vendors, F Connectors and Crimp Tool
Part
Manufacturer Telephone #
Manufacturer Part Number
F (male) connector
Gilbert Engineering
(800) 528-5567
GAF-11-AHS/480
Crimp Tool
Gilbert Engineering
(800) 528-5567
GCRT-211
Cable type is determined by the amount of maximum signal loss specified in Table C-3.
Table C.3 Signal Loss per 100 Foot Length for Common Cable Types
Cable Type
Loss Per 100 Feet
RG-11 (preferred)
5.9 dB
RG-35
3.7 dB
Generally, an IFL cable run of 0 to 420 feet (0 to 129 m) requires the following cable specifications:
Cable type:
RG-11
Impedance:
75 ohm
DC resistance:
Less than 16.1 ohm per 1000 feet
Shield:
Quad-shielding system
Shield coverage:
100%
Capacitance:
16.5 picofarads per foot
Jacket:
PVC
Maximum loss:
5.9 dB per 100 feet at 1450 MHz
IDU connector:
F male
ODU connector:
F male
IFL cable runs of 400 to 670 feet (123 to 206 m) require the following cable specifications:
Cable type:
RG-35
Impedance:
75 ohm
DC resistance:
1.15 ohm per 1000 feet
Shield:
Single shield, solid
Shield coverage:
100%
Capacitance:
15.4 picofarads per foot
Jacket:
Standard PVC
Maximum loss:
2.69 dB per 100 feet at 1500 MHz
Outside diameter:
0.63 in over jacket
Page C-2
Tiernan Family of Audio Broadcast Receivers
Troubleshooting
Weight:
0.14 lbs/ft
IDU connector:
N (male), F (male) available with adapter
ODU connector:
N (male), F (male) available with adapter
Only N and UHF-type connectors are available. An N-to-F adapter must be used. An N-to-F adapter is Tiernan
part number 31-0121-032 or Gilbert Engineering's NS-5504-1.
RG-35 cable is provided by Andrew Corporation (Andrew part number: LDF4-75A). The N plug (male) 50 ohm pin
is Andrew part number: L4NM-7550, reference L44W-75.
LNB DC voltage drop should be less than 3 V, regardless of length, cable type, LNB type, or data rate.
IFL Cable Preparation
This section assumes an RG-11 coaxial cable is being used in the installation. For any other cable type, the
procedures remain the same with only the dimensions changing. Before connecting the coaxial cable, prepare it
by attaching the F connectors as described here and as illustrated in Figure C-1:
1. Remove 3/4 inch (9.55 mm) of the cable jacket, being careful not to cut through the braid. Fold the first
layer of exposed braid back over the jacket.
2. Cut through the remaining foil, braid, and dielectric to expose 1/4 inch of center conductor. Do not score
the center conductor.
3. Remove the first foil, making sure the braid is not cut, and fold the second braid over the jacket.
4. Cut through the foil and dielectric to the center conductor an additional 3/8 inch. Do not score the center
conductor.
5. Insert the connector over the foil and dielectric until it bottoms.
6. Crimp the collar using a .470 to .475 hex crimp tool, as shown in Figure C-1.
Use the following steps to complete the connection of the coaxial cable:
1. Cut off approximately two inches of weatherproof, heat-shrink tubing (Alpha Part Number FIT-650-3/4, or
equivalent) and place it over the end of the coax cable. When installation is complete, this is used to
provide a weatherproof shroud for the outdoor IFL connector, up to the body of the LNB downconverter.
2. Connect the IFL coax cable to the coaxial cable connector.
3. Slide the heat-shrink tubing over the coaxial connector and male F connector on the LNB downconverter
so it completely envelops the threaded portion. Apply heat to the heat-shrink tubing in accordance with
the manufacturer's instructions.
4. Loop the IFL cable and tie-wrap the cable to the lower feed rod. Loop the cable in such a way that the
length of the cable between the LNB downconverter and the tie-wrap nearest it is approximately 10
inches.
5. Add additional tie-wraps along the lower feed rod at the middle and bottom, as required, to secure the IFL
cable.
Tiernan Family of Audio Broadcast Receivers
Page C-3
Troubleshooting
Figure C.1 Coax Cable and F Connector Assembly
Page C-4
Tiernan Family of Audio Broadcast Receivers