PFC-50 & PFC-75
Charger
Owner’s Manual
Rev 2.1
©2012 Manzanita Micro LLC
The information date is: 02/10/2012
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CONTENTS
GENERAL OVERVIEW………………………………………………………5
KEY FEATURES LIST………………………………………………………. 6
DIMENSIONS AND SPECIFICATIONS…………………………………… 7
CHARGER OPERATION…………………………………………………….8
- Photo of Charger Face With Callouts…………………………………. 8
- Volts Trim ~ Adjusting the Peak Charging Voltage Limit………….. 9-10
- Reg Bus Port ~ Basic Info……………………………………………….. 11
- Descriptions of Panel LED Indicators………………………………… 11-12
- Dip Switches……………………………………………………………….. 13
WIRING YOUR MANZANITA MICRO CHARGER……………………….. 14
- Connecting the Charger to the Battery Pack………………………… 14
- Connecting the Charger to the Wall…………………………………… 17
- PFC50 Wiring………………………………………………………………. 14
- PFC75 Wiring………………………………………………………………. 16
- Running Your PFC Charger on DC instead of AC…………………... 19
- 120V Standard Adapter Drawing for PFC50 & PFC75……………….20
- Reg Bus Wiring & Pin-out Info………………………………………….. 21
- Reg Bus Cable Construction……………………………..……………...22
- New 8A Control Board Additional Features…………………………...24-25
- AC Line Power Meter Options………………………………….………...26
CONTACTING MANZANITA MICRO....………………………….………...27
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READ THIS FIRST!
ADDITIONAL NOTES AND PRODUCT MANUALS AVAILABLE AT: www.manzanitamicro.com
CAUTION: Your PFC-Charger uses High Voltage DC and AC electricity.
The chargers have been designed to be adaptable for use with many different battery types and
voltages. It is the responsibility of the end user to properly set up the charger making necessary
adjustments so that it can work with their unique system. With such flexibility, the charger is intended
to be able to be configured for use in various experimental applications and Manzanita Micro LLC and
its employees, contractors and affiliates cannot be responsible for any damages due to any Manzanita
Micro product that has been set up by the end user. There are too many variables out of Manzanita
Micro's control. It is entirely the responsibility of the end user to make sure that they are competent to
work with potentially lethal voltages and that they have a solid understanding of how to safely
integrate the Manzanita Micro product(s) into their application.
The information contained in this warning and in the product manuals is intended to be used as a
guide to better familiarize oneself with the product(s) but Manzanita Micro has no control over how the
information will be used or not used and cannot possibly foresee all possible configurations that a
user may come up with.
•Do not work on the PFC-Charger or attempt to use one if you are not qualified
•Observe the owner’s manual procedures and cautions
•Avoid working on an electric vehicle while it’s charging
•ALWAYS assume that high voltage is present
•Use electrical tape or another suitable insulator to cover all exposed high voltage connection
points and also cover metal tools to reduce the likelihood of the tool completing a current path
•DO NOT USE A CONDUCTIVE METAL SCREW DRIVER TO ADJUST THE VOLTS TRIM ON YOUR
CHARGER!
•When using a Manzanita Micro BMS with older charger models the Regbus GND return line is
NOT ISOLATED FROM MAIN BATTERY PACK NEGATIVE! Never touch or create a path from
the regbus conductors to any battery in the pack or serious shock could occur!
•Disconnect all other non-isolated chargers from the battery pack and from line current
•Make sure there is NO PATH TO GROUND or the vehicle chassis from any portion of the main
battery pack.
•Make sure the polarity is correct BEFORE you hook the battery pack to the charger cable.
•Make sure the area around and above the workplace is clean and dry
•Do not compress or set heavy objects on the charger. Deforming the case can result in shorting
the internal circuit boards to the case.
•DO NOT operate this charger unloaded! A battery pack must always be plugged in to the DC
output plug from the charger if it is turned on!
FAILURE TO HEED THESE WARNINGS AS WELL AS THE BATTERY WARNINGS ON THE BACK OF
THIS SHEET MAY RESULT IN PHYSICAL INJURY, DEATH, OR DAMAGE TO YOUR CHARGER, BMS OR
OTHER EQUIPMENT WHICH WILL NOT BE COVERED UNDER YOUR WARRANTY.
IT IS RISKY TO PLUG ANY BATTERY CHARGER INCLUDING MANZANITA MICRO CHARGERS INTO
GENERATORS. MANY GENERATORS ESPECIALLY THE LESS EXPENSIVE GENSETS DO NOT HAVE A
CLEAN, WELL REGULATED, PREDICTABLE OUTPUT AND THEY CAN CREATE HIGH VOLTAGE
SPIKES WHICH CAN DAMAGE COMPONENTS IN THE CHARGER. SOME CUSTOMERS HAVE HAD
SUCCESS WITH HIGH END PURE SINE WAVE COMPUTER GRADE GENERATORS BUT MANZANITA
MICRO CANNOT RECOMMEND A SPECIFIC MODEL AT THIS TIME AND CANNOT BE RESPONSIBLE
FOR ANY DAMAGE DUE TO GENERATORS OR OTHER POWER SOURCE PROBLEMS.
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BATTERY NOTES!
CAUTION: Your PFC-Charger can output over 400 volts DC and many thousands of watts of electrical
power! It is imperative that the end user have a clear understanding of how to safely charge their
particular battery!
Manzanita Micro sells very flexible charging systems that can be used with almost any type of battery.
Manzanita Micro chargers are used in all sorts of applications. Manzanita Micro LLC cannot be held
responsible for any problems arising from the improper use of the charger or BMS with a battery pack
or other storage device.
FAILURE TO OPERATE BATTERIES OR OTHER ENERGY STORAGE DEVICES WITHIN THEIR SAFE
DESIGN PARAMETERS CAN RESULT IN CATASTROPHIC FAILURES INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO
FIRE, EXPLOSION, TOXIC FUMES, EXCESSIVE HEAT, THE RELEASE OF CAUSTIC OR POISONOUS
MATERIALS, PHYSICAL DEFORMATION AND VARIOUS OTHER POTENTIALLY LETHAL SITUATIONS.
ALWAYS WEAR EYE PROTECTION AND OTHER PROPER PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT
WHEN WORKING AROUND BATTERIES. UNDERSTAND THE SAFE HANDLING INSTRUCTIONS AND
IMPORTANT SPECIFICATIONS OF YOUR PARTICULAR BATTERY PACK OR ENERGY STORAGE
DEVICE! IF EVER IN DOUBT, CONTACT THE BATTERY MANUFACTURER!
NEVER ALLOW MORE THAN ONE PERSON TO WORK ON THE SAME HIGH VOLTAGE SYSTEM OR
BATTERY PACK AT THE SAME TIME. IF TWO OR MORE PEOPLE ARE TOUCHING PARTS OF THE
SYSTEM IT IS EASIER TO COMPLETE A CIRCUIT AND CAUSE ELECTROCUTION. WHILE MULTIPLE
PEOPLE SHOULD NEVER WORK ON THE SAME SYSTEM, IT IS ADVISABLE TO HAVE MORE THAN
ONE PERSON NEAR BY WHENEVER ONE PERSON IS WORKING WITH HIGH VOLTAGE.
NEVER TOUCH ANYBODY WHILE THEY ARE WORKING ON A HIGH VOLTAGE SYSTEM OR BATTERY
PACK! IF SOMEONE IS GETTING SHOCKED AND CANNOT LET GO OF THE ELECTRICAL SOURCE,
THE EXTRA PERSON CAN SAFELY DISCONNECT THE ELECTRICAL SUPPLY AND/OR GET HELP. IF IT
IS NOT POSSIBLE TO DISCONNECT THE SUPPLY, AND IF PROPERLY INSULATED EQUIPMENT IS
AVAILABLE THEN THE EXTRA PERSON MAY USE A DEVICE SUCH AS AN INSULATED HUMAN HOOK
TO PULL THE PERSON BEING SHOCKED AWAY FROM THE ELECTRICITY. NEVER EVER TOUCH
SOMEONE WHO IS BEING SHOCKED!
Manzanita Micro chargers are very powerful. Do not exceed the safe charging rates as specified by
your particular battery manufacturer!
Manzanita Micro chargers are capable of outputting any charging voltage from 12 to 450 volts DC. It is
up to the end user to understand the safe voltage range for their particular battery, cell, battery pack or
other energy storage device. Do not exceed the peak charging voltage given by the battery
manufacturer. Carefully read the Manzanita Micro Owner’s Manual(s) for your particular product(s). For
chargers, it is essential to understand how to properly set the peak charging limit using the volts trim
potentiometer. For BMS (Battery Management Systems) it is imperative that the user makes sure that
the BMS is properly set to match the safe and appropriate parameters for their particular make and
model of battery.
Ask the battery manufacturer for all parameters on how to safely charge their batteries and do not use
any charger or BMS if you cannot properly tune the equipment to meet those specifications.
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PFC-50 / 75 BATTERY
CHARGER MANUAL
Rev 2.1
General Overview
The Manzanita Micro PFC chargers are a unique group of powerful, efficient battery
chargers. The chargers will run off any voltage from 100 up to 240 volts AC. The
chargers can be set to run automatically when plugged in, yet they also have far
more user adjustable functions than other electric vehicle chargers. Every model is
user adjustable to charge batteries from 12 to 450 Volts DC. The PFC-50, PFC-50B
and PFC-75 are all power factor corrected. The PFC-75 comes standard with an AC
input current display and rear panel mount Anderson Power Pole connections. With
so much flexibility and models from 20 to 75amps, your PFC charger may be the
last charger you ever need to buy.
Speed and Efficiency
The essential ingredient for fast recharge times is to deliver high power to the
battery. The key to polite opportunity charging is to be able to share outlets with
other equipment and make efficient use of limited current. The Manzanita Micro
PFC line of chargers has an adjustable current throttle knob to allow the chargers to
be turned down to operate on very limited power sources. Even the venerable PFC75 can easily run at reduced output from a 110 volt source. Efficiency and power
factor are both better than 0.9.
What does the PFC mean?
In the Manzanita Micro chargers PFC stands for Power Factor Corrected. This
means that current and voltage are drawn in unity, (ie: current is drawn with unity to
the incoming line voltage).
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PFC-50/75 SERIES
CHARGER FEATURES
•Power Factor Corrected
•Every charger easily runs on any single phase AC voltage from 100 to 240V
•Easy ‘Amps’ adjustment knob allows users to quick-tune the charger to pull
maximum amps out of whatever it is plugged into
•User adjustable peak charge voltage allows users to adapt charger to any
battery voltage from 12 to 450 volts
•Up to 18,000 watts of power from a unit that weighs less than 50 lbs (22kg)
•Reg bus port for easy integration with Manzanita Micro BMS (also compatible
with other Battery Management Systems)
•Self regulating thermal protection
•Active variable speed fan cooling
•Input line current meter option
•Rear panel mount Anderson Power Pole I/O connections on PFC-75 (this is
optional for the PFC-50 or PFC-50B)
•Adjustable absorption phase (end of charge) timer function
•Ability to enable auto restart mode
•Ability to enable timed charging mode
•Float charge option possible with new 8A control board
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Dimensions and Specifications
The PFC-50 and 75 series chargers weigh approximately 42 pounds (19 kg)
The outermost dimensions including foot flanges and front amps knob are
approximately
22” L x 12.5” W x 7” H (559mm x 318mm x 177mm)
Allow at least 25” total length (635mm) to include the power cables
Input Voltage Range : 100 to 240VAC 40-80Hz computer grade pure sine wave
Output Voltage Range : 12 to 450VDC ( +/- 1 volt )
Operating Temp Range : -20° F to +120° F ( -28.8° C to +48.8° C )
Power Consumption : Up to 12.0kW ~ PFC-50 and PFC-50B / 18.0kW ~ PFC-75
The 50 in PFC-50 is indicative of the number of amps that the charger is rated to
draw from the AC line. A PFC-75 can draw up to 75 amps. Unlike some other
chargers, this is the rated continuous load and all units are thoroughly tested to their
rated limits before leaving Manzanita Micro. The PFC-75 model includes a current
meter on the front which displays the amount of current (amps) that the charger is
drawing from the AC line. This allows the user to tune the charger precisely for the
maximum allowable amps for the outlet they are plugged into.
The charger can be mounted in any orientation as long as it has adequate airflow
and is protected from sucking in moisture and debris. All chargers are designed to
automatically cut back current when they exceed their temperature limits. If the
yellow limits light starts blinking and power is reduced, it is likely more airflow is
needed. The fans push the air out through the front of the charger therefore,
mounting the unit such that the control face is pointing upward this is probably the
most efficient since heat rises. It is important to use properly sized bolts for all four
mounting holes in order to mount the unit. Grade 5 or Grade 8 fasteners are the
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best and stainless steel or other quality plating is preferable to decrease corrosion.
Charger Operation
figure 02. Charger Layout (see final section for new 8A layout)
Turning the Charger On and Off
There is an ON/OFF Breaker to the left of the blue user control panel at the top of
the charger. This breaker is the main switch to turn the charger on or off. If ever
there is a concern while charging first shut off this breaker switch.
NOTICE! DO NOT unplug the Anderson connectors (DC line) from your charger
while it is charging! If the battery pack is disconnected while the charger is putting
out power the charger can be damaged. Failure to heed these warnings may
result in significant internal damage to the charger which is not covered under
your warranty!
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User Control Panel
The user interface panel is the long blue panel with yellow text near the top of the
PFC charger. The main things most users need to be concerned with are the LED
indicators, the VOLTS TRIM and the adjustable AMPS knob. Below are
explanations of each feature in order from left to right. Refer to figure 02 for specific
locations.
“VOLTS TRIM”
This controls the peak DC voltage ceiling that the charger will allow the batteries to
reach before limiting the current. Unless specified otherwise, the voltage limit is
specifically calibrated and set by Manzanita Micro to 191 Volts (for a 156V nominal
pack.) In the event that adjustment is desired, please follow the instructions below.
Starting in 2010, a special insulated screw driver for adjusting the volts trim is
shipped with each new Manzanita PFC charger.
NOTICE! Always use an appropriately sized insulated screw driver when adjusting
the voltage trim potentiometer. Suitable drivers are available for purchase from
Manzanita Micro or other electronics components manufacturers. (Mouser part #:
594-8T000, Vishay/Spectrol Adjust Tool, www.mouser.com)
figure 03. Adjustment Tool # 008T000
NOTE: If the battery pack is especially cold for any reason such as outdoors in a
cold season or climate, the peak charging voltage threshold may need to be raised
in order to assure a complete charge. This is especially true for lead acid batteries.
Many users turn the volts trim to the absolute maximum safe level for the batteries
during the winter and then back down to normal during the summer months. Always
consult your battery manufacturer for information on the peak “fully charged” voltage
specifications and how they change based on temperature.
NOTE: The peak voltage regulation set point on a Manzanita Micro charger is
accurate to within 5 volts or less. Follow the “Volts Trim Calibration” instructions
below and make the initial adjustment with the amps knob completely down so that
no current is flowing. Gradually turn up the amps knob and nudge the volts trim
potentiometer up accordingly. Use caution on the first charge cycle and make sure
to check that the point at which the charger volts trim limit is reached is really the
correct voltage for your specific batteries.
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VOLTS TRIM CALIBRATION:
Final tuning is best accomplished when the battery pack is fully charged. The lower
the state of charge, the more the user will need to monitor and adjust the unit during
the first charge cycle.
1.
Turn the amps knob all the way down (full counterclockwise).
2.
Make sure the charger is plugged into the battery pack and that there are no open breakers or
open fuses in the DC battery circuit.
3.
With the charger’s AC breaker switch in the OFF position, plug the charger into the AC power
outlet.
4.
Now turn ON the charger’s AC breaker switch. The fans should come on.
5.
Using an appropriate insulated screw driver, stick it into the VOLTS TRIM access hole (see
figure 04) and turn the internal adjustment potentiometer until you find the threshold where the
yellow LIMITS LED changes state. If the yellow LED is off, turn the trim pot counterclockwise
to get it to go on. If the yellow LED is on, turn the trim pot clockwise to get it to go off. Once
you find the threshold where the LED changes states, the cutoff voltage is set to the actual
battery voltage and the charger will not charge the pack above this voltage. Therefore, when
you are ready to charge you will need to turn the trim pot clockwise to raise this voltage
ceiling. Then turn the AMPS knob up until you can put the amount of amps you want into the
battery pack while not letting the batteries go over their peak voltage limit according to their
manufacturer’s data.
While charging, when the battery pack voltage hits the peak limit the yellow LIMITS
LED will come on along with the flashing blue TIMER LED.
figure 04. VOLTS TRIM Adjustment
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“REG BUS”
This is the 6 pin RJ jack where the BMS communication line plugs into the charger.
This port allows the individual battery regulators to communicate with the charger.
For more information on the specific reg bus pins refer to the “Reg Bus Wiring”
section later in this manual.
NOTICE! If your vehicle is equipped with a Battery Management System, ensure
that the reg bus data cable is fully plugged into the charger whenever the vehicle is
charging. The communication data cables are hooked to the regulators in a daisy
chain fashion. Make sure that each of the smaller data cables are all plugged in
where they should be before charging. If there is an unplugged portion of the reg
bus, the charger cannot communicate with the regs and this could lead to a
potentially damaging situation if there is an un-matched battery cell in the
pack! The RJ connectors are similar to phone cord connectors and they are
designed to snap into place and stay connected. If a cable is disconnected insure
that it is fully reconnected. An audible *click* should be heard when the RJ plug is
fully inserted and it should not be able to be pulled out without first pinching the
small plastic tab underneath the plug. For more information on reg bus cables refer
to the “Reg Bus Wiring” section later in this manual.
“POWER” - Green LED
The bright green POWER LED indicates when the charger is on. Input power is
being supplied to the unit and the main breaker is in the ON position.
“WARN” - Red LED
The red WARN LED should blink briefly when the charger is first powered up and
then remain off for the duration of the charge. If this indicator stays on, turn down
the AMPS knob immediately, turn off the charger’s breaker switch and consult
Manzanita Micro or a qualified service technician. This LED could indicate an over
voltage or over temperature condition. It could also be indicative of an open circuit
condition in the pack. Turn down the AMPS knob and check to make sure there is
no open circuit condition in the battery pack. Check the DC power connection
(Battery Pack side) to ensure that it is tightly connected and look for other
disconnected battery cables. If the charger will not work and the circuit is complete,
contact Manzanita Micro.
NOTICE! DO NOT let the charger try to put current into the battery pack if there is
an open circuit condition in the circuit. Never unplug the DC (battery pack side)
Anderson connectors from your charger while it is charging! If the battery pack is
disconnected while the charger is putting out power the charger can be damaged.
Failure to heed these warnings may result in significant internal damage to the
charger which is not covered under your warranty!
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“AMPS” Knob
The AMPS knob allows the user to adjust how much current the charger will move.
If the vehicle is always plugged in to the same circuit this shouldn’t need any
adjusting but if the user were to have it set at 35 amps and then plug into a 15 amp
120V outlet it will quickly open a circuit breaker or fuse on the AC line. The vehicle
operator may wish to adjust this knob when the charger is plugged in to a public
outlet especially if there is no easy access to the electrical panel for that circuit.
Additionally, the user might need to turn down the charger if there are other loads on
the branch circuit (example: A stereo and a computer are running on the same 15
amp circuit). If using a charger equipped with the panel mount meter, the user can
check the digital current meter on the front of the PFC unit and see exactly how
many amps the charger is drawing from the wall.
“LIMITS” - Yellow LED
The yellow LIMITS LED indicates that the charger has reached its peak voltage limit.
This should happen only at the end of the charge cycle when all the batteries are
fully charged. The LIMITS indicator should be accompanied by the blinking blue
TIMER LED which indicates that the charger is in current cutback mode and the
timer is counting down to the end of charge.
If the yellow LIMITS LED is blinking, then it is indicating that there is an over
temperature condition and the charger is in thermal cutback mode.
NOTE: When using regulators, the blue TIMER LED will often come on before the
LIMITS LED because the battery regulators let the charger know when the batteries
are getting full before the voltage limit is reached. If the LIMITS light is coming on
frequently or before most of the regs are blinking, this could be indicative of a few
batteries whose voltages are getting too high. It could also mean that someone has
improperly adjusted the VOLTS TRIM. Consult your battery regulator user’s manual
or recalibrate the VOLTS TRIM setting on the charger.
“TIMER” - Blue LED
The blue TIMER LED indicates that the charge is complete or near completion. If it
is flashing it means that charging is almost finished and the charger is backing off
the current and counting down the timeout timer. When the blue LED is steady, it
means that the timeout timer has ended and the charger has finished charging the
pack. At this point the charger should be putting out no power and drawing less than
an amp from the input line.
“TIMER ADJ”
This stands for timer adjustment. This is a small 16 position rotary switch which
allows the user to adjust the amount of time that the charger takes in constant
voltage mode, while cutting back current at the end of a charge cycle before it shuts
off completely.
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If the switch is at ‘0’ then the timer will time out instantly - do not use this setting. (‘0’
is the 3-o-clock position when viewed from the front). If the switch is at ‘1’ it will go
for 15 minutes before completely cutting back power. Each additional tick after ‘1’
adds 10 more minutes to the charge cutback time. Turning the switch clockwise all
the way around to the 2:30 position will give the maximum amount of time.
To reset the timer after it has started turn off the
power to the charger and then turn the power on
again.
“DIP SWITCHES”
The red and white dip switch module is on the upper right end of the charger. This is
a bank of 8 switches and they are numbered starting with #1 on the far right.
NOTICE! Adjusting these switches can cause the charger to perform in an
undesirable manner. Please be sure you understand these switch features before
changing them. Pull switches down to turn them on. Figure 02 shows the factory
preset positions. NEVER CHANGE DIP SWITCH #4! IT MUST REMAIN ON!
Dip Switch Guide:
1.
Engages timer at peak voltage limit set point. This switch should be ON.
If the pack drops below the peak voltage limit, the timer will turn off again.
2.
Starts timer as soon as the charger is turned on. This can be used for timed
charging. This switch should be OFF.
3.
Starts timer when the reg bus commands. This switch should be ON.
If the reg bus stops sending the signal, the timer will turn off again.
4.
Future feature switch. THIS SWITCH MUST ALWAYS BE ON!
5.
Future low battery detection feature. This switch should be OFF.
6.
AGM battery equalization. When using Mk2 series battery regulators, this will
allow the batteries to climb to a slightly higher voltage for equalization at the end
of charge. It also commands the yellow LEDs on each reg to turn on. This
switch should be OFF.
7.
When the high voltage limit is set the charger stops moving power immediately.
This should be OFF.
8.
Auto restart function. This allows the charger to restart charging when the
battery pack reaches a certain set low voltage point. This switch should be OFF
unless using the auto restart feature.
NOTE: Dip switch #6 can be useful if you have battery regulators because you can
momentarily switch it on and the yellow lights on all the regs should come on. If any
don’t, you can use this feature to narrow down which regs are not communicating
with the charger. This feature does not work with the old LT-5 single cell regulators.
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NOTE: In mid 2010, a new 4 pin RJ receptacle was added to the front of the charger
allowing for various preset voltage and current levels. For more information please
refer to the 8A Control Board section at the end of this manual.
Wiring your Manzanita Micro Charger
A PFC-50 or PFC-50B charger built before 2011 should have two main power
cables coming out of the front of the case (as shown in figure 02). The top cable is
for the incoming power (usually AC from a wall outlet) and the lower cable is the
charger’s DC output.
All PFC-75 chargers and all PFC-50 and PFC-50B models produced after 2011
should have panel mount Anderson Power Pole connections on the rear side
instead of the older style front mounted power cables.
Connecting the Charger to the Battery Pack
PFC-50 Battery Pack to Charger Wiring
For rear mount connections please refer to the PFC-75 wiring section that
follows this one. Looking at the front of a pre-2011 PFC-50 or PFC-50B charger,
you will see that the lower DC output cable has a Blue SB-175 Anderson connector
on it. This SB-175 connector is easily obtainable and we recommend that you leave
this plug on the cord. The SB-175 connector has clearly marked positive and
negative sides. Of the three DC wires coming out of the front of the charger white is
positive, black is negative and green is an optional vehicle chassis ground
connection. Measure the distance from your most positive battery terminal to your
PFC charger’s SB-175 connector. Cut a #4 AWG or thicker cable to the appropriate
length and solder or crimp the appropriate size SB-175 pin onto one end of the
cable. It is recommended that you use bright orange cable with a good insulation
and a voltage rating in excess of your fully charged pack voltage. (Bright orange
Carol brand Super Vu-Tron welding cable is an excellent solution.) Place red heat
shrink or red electrical tape around the cable near each end to clearly designate it
as the positive cable and then using a matching blue SB-175 connector, push the
SB-175 pin end of the positive cable into the positive side of the SB-175 until it
clicks and locks in place.
Next, measure the distance from your most negative battery terminal to your PFC
charger’s SB-175 connector. Cut a #4 AWG or thicker cable to the appropriate
length and solder or crimp the appropriate size SB-175 pin onto one end of this
cable. Place black heat shrink or black electrical tape around the cable near each
end to clearly designate it as the negative cable and then push the SB-175 pin end
of this negative cable into the negative side of the SB-175 until it clicks and locks in
place.
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figure 05 : Example DC Power Cables
Now you should have a blue SB-175 connector with a positive and negative wire
coming out. (See figure 05) Use the appropriate size lug or connector for your
battery terminal and crimp or solder it onto the other end of each cable. In order to
reduce the likelihood of cable damage from corrosion, it is recommended to use a
closed end tinned copper lug as opposed to an open end lug. Place the appropriate
color (red or black) adhesive lined heat shrink over the joint between the lug and the
cable insulation to finish the connection. Now connect the positive cable to the most
positive terminal of the battery pack. Connect the negative cable to the most
negative terminal of the battery pack.
Use a digital volt meter to double check that the polarity in the plug is correct and
then plug the battery pack SB-175 into the DC output SB-175 coming from the PFC
charger. Now the charger is connected to the pack and you are ready to hook up the
charger’s input power.
figure 06: PFC-50 Plugs
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PFC-75 Pack Wiring
Looking at the back of a PFC-75 charger or post 2011 PFC-50, you will see that
there are five individual Anderson Power Pole connectors. There is a black and a
red one next to each other on the top which is the DC output end of the charger. For
your convenience a red and a black Power Pole connector have been included with
your PFC-75. The red connector is for battery positive and the black connector is for
battery negative. Measure the distance from your most positive battery terminal to
your PFC charger’s red Power Pole connector. Cut a #1 AWG or thicker cable to the
appropriate length and solder or crimp the appropriate size Power Pole pin onto one
end of the cable. It is recommended that you use bright orange cable with a good
insulation and a voltage rating in excess of your fully charged pack voltage. (Bright
orange Carol brand Super Vu-Tron welding cable is an excellent solution.) Place red
heat shrink or red electrical tape around the cable near each end to clearly
designate it as the positive cable and then push the pin into the back of the red
Power Pole connector until it clicks and locks in place.
Next, measure the distance from your most negative battery terminal to your PFC
charger’s black Power Pole connector. Cut a #1 AWG or thicker cable to the
appropriate length and solder or crimp the appropriate size Power Pole pin onto one
end of the cable. It is recommended that you use bright orange cable with a good
insulation and a voltage rating in excess of your fully charged pack voltage. (Bright
orange Carol brand Super Vu-Tron welding cable is an excellent solution.) Place
black heat shrink or black electrical tape around the cable near each end to clearly
designate it as the negative cable and then push the pin into the back of the black
Power Pole connector until it clicks and locks in place. (See figure 05)
Use a digital volt meter to double check that the polarity in the plug is correct and
then plug the battery pack Power Pole connectors into their respective DC output
Power Pole mates coming from the PFC charger. Now the charger is connected to
the pack and you are ready to hook up the charger’s input power.
16
figure 07 Rear Power Pole Charger Connections
Connecting the Charger to the Wall
Looking at the front of a pre-2011 PFC-50 the charger you will see that the top cable
is labeled AC and it is the incoming power for the charger. Looking at the rear of a
PFC-75 or other late model charger you will see 3 Anderson Power Pole connectors
beneath the two DC output connectors. A great feature of the Manzanita Micro PFC
line of chargers is that they are capable of operating easily when powered from
110,120, 208, 220, 230 or 240 volts of single phase AC power.
NOTE: PFC-50, 50B, and 75 chargers must be modified to run off of DC. For more
information on running your charger from a DC input power source see the “Running
Your PFC Charger on DC instead of AC” section later in this manual.
Ohm’s law states that Volts x Amps = Watts of power and there are a certain
number of “Watt Hours” stored in your battery pack and available to power your
electric vehicle. Based on the VxA=Watts equation it is easy to see that more volts
or amps (or both) equates to more total watts which means more electrical power
moving thus faster charging.
Your Manzanita Micro PFC charger can be powered by any input voltage within the
100-240V range and there is no voltage adjustment or switches to move when
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changing between outlets of different voltages. The only thing which may need
adjustment on the charger is the big “Amps” knob on the front. Turn this knob up or
down depending on the amperage available from the outlet. With the “Amps” knob
in the most clockwise position a PFC-50 can draw up to 50 amps and a PFC-75 can
draw up to 75 amps.
EXAMPLE: A PFC-50 plugged into a standard 120V outlet at 15 amps would be
able to draw about 1,800 watts (120x15 = 1,800). The same PFC-50 plugged into a
240V outlet at 50 amps could draw about 12,000 watts, meaning a charge time that
is over six times faster than in the 120V scenario.
PFC-50 Input Wiring (For Front Input Corded Models)
For rear connection PFC-50 models refer to the PFC-75 input wiring section below.
Most PFC-50 chargers built before 2011 were shipped with a NEMA 14-50 on the
AC input cable. Please leave this attached and make adapter cords if you intend to
change what it plugs in to. The 14-50 outlet is very common at RV parks, in homes
for electric ovens and at some public charging stations.
To attach the PFC-50’s input cable to a common 110/120V three prong 5-15 or 5-20
plug purchase a 14-50 receptacle and make an adapter exactly as shown in figure
08. If you wish to make an adapter cord to connect your PFC-50’s input cable to a
220/240V three prong plug (like a NEMA 10-30, 10-40 or 6-50), use a 14-50
receptacle and simply disregard the white wire and the middle straight neutral prong.
Run the green wire to the ground prong and then the red and black wires to either of
the two hot prongs.
The front connection PFC-50 chargers come with a 4 wire AC input cable but do
not ever use the White neutral wire for anything. Even though there is a 4-wire
plug on the unit, the white wire should never be connected to anything.
PFC-75 Input Wiring
The PFC-75 is shipped with an 3 connector Anderson Power Pole array and 3 black
1 AWG cables for the AC input. The other ends of the included connector are to be
wired to an appropriate 75 amp or greater plug. Manzanita Micro recommends a 100
Amp pin and sleeve style plug. The male end is attached to these 3 input cables so
that it can plug into a female twistlock that is bringing the power from the wall.
NOTE: Extra Power Pole connectors can be purchased for making a second
“Power-Pole-to-male-NEMA-14-50” adapter. With this configuration the charger
must not be allowed to draw over 50 amps but it makes it easier to plug in at more
locations and still get a decent amount of current. The 14-50 outlet is very common
at RV parks, electric ovens and some public charging stations.
To attach the PFC-75’s input cable to a common 110/120V three prong 5-15 or 5-20
plug, Manzanita micro recommends purchasing a 14-50 receptacle and make an
adapter exactly as shown in figure 08. If you wish to make an adapter cord to
connect your PFC-50’s input cable to a 220/240V three prong plug (like a NEMA 1018
30, 10-40 or 6-50), use a 14-50 receptacle and simply disregard the middle straight
neutral prong. Run the green wire to the ground prong and then the white and black
wires to either of the two hot prongs. Since there is no neutral in the older 3 prong
220/240V plugs simply disregard the fact that your PFC charger has a 4 prong plug
on it.
Running Your PFC Charger on DC instead of AC
You may have heard that Manzanita Micro chargers can run from both AC and DC
power. This is true under the right circumstances; in fact the PFC40HM is designed
to run on both AC and DC in the Pi Prius conversion kits.
NOTICE! The Manzanita Micro chargers were really designed to run from an AC
power source. If you are planning to run one on DC power and it is damaged, repair
work will likely NOT BE COVERED UNDER WARRANTY! It should be noted that
the primary on/off circuit breaker on the charger is only AC rated. For this
reason, we recommend installing an appropriate DC rated breaker or fuse on
the input side when powering any Manzanita charger with DC.
There are two Manzanita Micro PFC charger models which can be run from DC
power without having to make any internal adjustments to the unit. These unique
models are the standard PFC-20 and the PFC-40HM. Some pre-2011 standard
PFC-50 chargers may work as well but check with Manzanita Micro to be sure.
If you are running a charger on DC power, it is advisable to keep the input voltage
between 100 and 390VDC. The lowest voltage that will get the charger to turn on is
about 60VDC. The absolute highest acceptable DC input voltage is 400V. NEVER
EVER EXCEED THE 400VDC MAXIMUM INPUT VOLTAGE!!
NOTE: The PFC-50B, PFC-75 and newer standard PFC-50 models can be modified
to run on DC. Contact Manzanita Micro for more information if you are really
determined to run a charger from a DC power source.
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figure 08. PFC-50 Adapter Wiring
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Reg Bus Wiring
The Reg Bus Interface:
The REG BUS communicates to the charger when any BMS regulators are
regulating and also if any regs are too hot. The charger uses this information to
determine when to turn down the charge current and when to turn off the charger.
The interface contains six wires connected with their respective pins as follows:
1. WHITE : Power supply (+5 volt DC)
2. BLACK : Reg over voltage condition (reg ON or reg hot) +5V will activate this
line and tell the charger to stop charging
3. RED : Under voltage condition – 0V on this line means under voltage active
4. GREEN : Power supply return (GND) – Refers to charger’s Batt Neg line
CAUTION: The GND return is NOT isolated on older charger models!
5. YELLOW : Rudman bus negative
6. BLUE : Rudman bus positive
Note: On the PFC Chargers the RJ plug is upside down so the pin count reads from
right to left as if backwards. Refer to figure 11 for a visual view. Also, when viewed
from the bottom of the printed circuit board, pin #1 is the square pin.
The optic components keep the local Batt POS and Batt NEG (battery or cell being
monitored) isolated from the charger’s Batt POS and Batt NEG. The +5 and GND
are powered from a 500 mA current limited power supply. All measurements are
made relative to the GND wire. It is important to verify all six of the wires are
continuous throughout the system and pin-to-pin.
NOTICE! On older models the Ground (GND) on the reg bus is also battery
negative on a PFC charger!
The primary functions of the REG BUS are:
9. Supply power to the charger side of regs.
10. Support analog data exchange from regs to charger and analog control of
charger by the regulators (or other BMS).
11. Support digital data transfer and control of regs via the Rudman Bus (modified
EVILbus).
Optimally, the charger will run full current until the first regulator gets hot, then cut
back to save that regulator and then watch for the last one to come up to
temperature to indicate that all the batteries are fully charged. With new sets of
batteries, it can take several hours for the pack to go from the first one to top off
until the last one tops off. As the batteries age and become synchronized, the time
is reduced to less than an hour. At the end of pack life, the time gets longer if the
batteries failure mode is self-discharge.
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How hot to run the regulators during the final absorption phase of charging is a
function of the ambient temperature and how fast the vehicle needs to get back into
service. Higher temperatures will make the absorption phase take less time but is
more risky to the regulators. When the upper thermal threshold on a regulator has
been reached, the reg will pull the hot reg line to +5 volts. This will tell the charger to
stop charging until the temperature of the heat sink drops below the thermal limit.
Adding airflow across the regulators will dramatically help cooling the regs and
speed up charge equalization.
NOTICE! Manzanita Micro strongly advises air cooling of the battery regulators for
maximum dissipation capability and longevity of the reg. For more information on
regulator cooling see the appropriate Manzanita Micro regulator manual for your
system.
Reg Bus Cable Construction;
The 6-wire RJ cable which is used to connect the regulators is a common data
transfer cable and is available at most any electronics store. The 6-pin connector
plugs are usually clear and it is easy to crimp them using an appropriate crimping
tool with a 6-pin die. These are also readily available.
NOTICE! RJ cable is quite rugged but take care not to cut or sharply bend (and
fatigue) the cable in order to avoid errors from broken internal wires. Additionally,
follow the proper cable construction techniques listed below and make sure that all
the wires are installed in the correct orientation. (See figure 09.)
Proper Reg bus cable construction is not difficult but it requires keen attention to
detail on the part of the person installing the plug ends onto the RJ cable. The
following steps tell how to correctly make a reg bus cable suitable for use with any
6-Pin Manzanita Micro product.
Step 1:
Cut the RJ cable to the desired length. It is advisable to err on the long
side because each of the cable’s ends will be pushed to the back of their respective
RJ receptacles.
Step 2:
Strip about a quarter inch of the thick “flat” outer jacket off of each end
of the cable in order to expose the 6 colored wires inside. Most RJ crimping tools will
have a special wire stripping section with a guide which will allow you to quickly strip
the correct length of cable jacket off.
Step 3:
Hold the flat RJ cable in front of you in your left hand with one end
pointing towards you and one away from you.
Step 4:
Looking down at the cable in your hand make sure that the end facing
away from your body has the blue wire to the right side.
Step 5:
Now take an un-crimped plug-end in your right hand and with the tang
oriented on the bottom side, slide the outward facing end of the flat RJ cable into the
slot in the un-crimped plug. Make sure it is not crooked and push it all the way into
the un-crimped plug. (see figure 09.)
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figure 09. Correct RJ Cable Orientation
Step 6:
Double check that the blue wire is to the right side with the tang
down and then take the RJ crimping tool in your right hand. With your left hand push
the cable with un-crimped plug into the 6-pin die on the crimping tool.
Step 7:
While using your left hand to make sure that the RJ cable is firmly held
all the way into the connector, squeeze the crimping tool all the way with your right
hand to complete the crimp.
If you have a clear plug-end, you can look in and make sure that each of the 6 metal
pins sank all the way down into their respective wires. Give the connector a slight
tug to make sure that it is adequately fastened and now you have created a proper
reg bus RJ cable end.
Follow the same steps on the other end of the cable and you are done. NOTE!
When crimping the second end of the cable, notice that you’ll have to flip it over in
order to again orient the blue wire to the right when the connector tang is
facing down. (see figure 10. )
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figure 10. Side View of Proper RJ Cable
New 8A Control Board Additional Features
Manzanita Micro improved the original charger control interface board and began
integration into production models in mid 2010. If your charger is equipped with the
new control board it will be evident by the new front faceplate which has an extra 4
pin RJ port in between the ‘POWER’ and ‘WARN’ indicators.
Behind the blue face plate panel there are now 3 additional potentiometers which
can be adjusted to allow for two extra peak voltage settings and one extra amperage
setting. Old chargers only had the one “VOLTS TRIM” potentiometer which adjusts
the main default peak charging voltage channel “A”. The new functions attached to
the new 4 pin RJ connection can be controlled as follows:
1. Pin 1 is for voltage channel “B”. If +12 volts is applied to pin 1 using pin 4 as the
ground, then the charger will accept the peak voltage setting of the RV7 pot.
2. Pin 2 is for voltage channel “C”. If +12 volts is applied to pin 2 using pin 4 as the
ground, then the charger will accept the peak voltage setting of the RV8 pot.
3. Pin 3 is for the optional amperage channel. If +12 volts is applied to pin 3 using
pin 4 as the ground, then the charger’s main “AMPS” knob will be overridden and
amperage setting of the RV9 pot will be substituted.
4. Pin 4 is the ground return line and is the leftmost pin when viewing the front of the
charger head-on. For more details, refer to figure 11 and the table below it.
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NOTE: If an attempt is made to activate more than one of the voltage channels at
the same time, the pin that was first activated will be the only channel that is active.
NOTE: Because the 4 pin RJ port is mounted to the bottom of the control board the
pin count reads from right to left as if backwards (see figure 11).
figure 11. New 8A Control Board Exposed View
VR
1
RV
4
J2
VR
6
RV
7
RV
8
J6
VR
3
RV
9
REG BUS ADJUSTMENT THRESHOLD
MAIN VOLTS TRIM CHANNEL A (PEAK CHARGING VOLTAGE)
ORIGINAL REG BUS PORT FOR MANZANITA MICRO BMS
AUTO RESTART THRESHOLD
OPTIONAL VOLTS TRIM CHANNEL B
OPTIONAL VOLTS TRIM CHANNEL C
REMOTE CONTROL PORT FOR OPTIONAL POTENTIOMETERS
PIN 1 : VOLTS TRIM B
PIN 2 : VOLTS TRIM C
PIN 3 : OPTIONAL AMPS ADJUSTMENT
PIN 4 : GROUND / RETURN LINE
MAIN AMPS ADJUSTMENT POTENTIOMETER
OPTIONAL AMPS ADJUSTMENT POTENTIOMETER
NOTE: A four pin RJ plug must be used instead of the regular six pin that is used for
the reg bus. The four conductor wire is fairly easy to find as it is used for telephone
cord. If using pre-made cords carefully observe the wiring colors to make sure that
the cable is pin-to-pin where the wires are always oriented in the same way in both
cable ends similarly to the explanation in the six pin Regbus cable instructions.
Manzanita recommends Tang Down BLACK to the Right for the 4-wire cable.
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AC Line Power Meter Options
As of January 1, 2011 Manzanita Micro includes a regular AC current meter built
into the front of all PFC-50 and PFC-75 chargers. This standard display allows the
user to see in real time exactly how many amps the Manzanita Micro charger is
drawing from the AC power source that it is plugged into. This makes it very easy to
adjust the big amps knob to safely get the maximum number of amps out of
whatever you're plugged into.
There is now also a new and improved Multifunction Meter available as an upgrade
for any PFC charger model (see figure 12 below). The new Multifunction Meter can
display input voltage, input current, total power being consumed (in kilowatts), and
the real-time Power Factor. Below the main display are 4 round LEDs which indicate
which function is being displayed. Press the blue "SEL" button momentarily to cycle
through which information is displayed. Holding the select button down will initiate a
cycling mode where the display will cycle through each display function
automatically.
This advanced meter provides very useful information for gauging power usage and
efficiency levels under various charging circumstances. It also gives users an idea of
how good the power source is that they are plugged into.
The Power Factor (PF) function provides an idea of system efficiency. Best case
would be a PF of 1.00. Manzanita Micro chargers will display a higher power factor
when they are running at full power. The PF rating also will tend to be at its best
when charging a battery pack which is greater than or equal to the AC input line
voltage.
figure 12. New AC Multifunction Meter
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For more information visit: www.manzanitamicro.com
Or for technical questions or other inquiries:
Manzanita Micro
Rich Rudman
PO Box 1774
Kingston, WA 98346
Phone: 360-297-1660
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