Apple PowerBook 200 Series User`s guide


Macintosh PowerBook Duo
User’s Guide
Includes setup, troubleshooting, and health-related information
for Macintosh PowerBook Duo 2300 series computers
K Apple Computer, Inc.
© 1995 Apple Computer, Inc. All rights reserved.
Under the copyright laws, this manual may not be copied, in whole or in part, without the
written consent of Apple. Your rights to the software are governed by the accompanying
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Every effort has been made to ensure that the information in this manual is accurate. Apple is
not responsible for printing or clerical errors.
Apple Computer, Inc.
1 Infinite Loop
Cupertino, CA 95014-2084
(408) 996-1010
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PowerBook, PowerBook Duo, and StyleWriter are trademarks of Apple Computer, Inc.,
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Contents
Communications regulation information
Preface Welcome to PowerPC
vii
ix
Part I
1 Getting Started
1
Plugging in the computer
Opening the display
3
5
Turning your computer on
6
Problems turning the computer on?
What’s next?
8
9
Learning the basics
Reviewing the basics
10
13
Turning the computer off
15
Putting the computer to sleep
17
Restarting a computer that’s already on
Where to find answers
19
21
iii
2 Getting Help
23
Getting answers to your questions
24
Identifying objects on the screen
Learning useful shortcuts
32
33
3 Connecting Additional Equipment
35
The PowerBook Duo Dock Plus
36
The PowerBook Duo MiniDock
38
The PowerBook Duo Floppy Adapter
Connecting a printer
39
Connecting a modem
40
Connecting SCSI devices
39
43
Connecting sound input and output devices
Connecting a monitor
49
50
Connecting other devices
50
Adding memory to your computer
50
4 Installing and Using Application Programs
Using Software Highlights
51
Getting help for application programs
Installing application programs
53
53
Working with several programs at a time
Using “native” application programs
Backing up your files
Making software disks
iv
Contents
56
57
55
54
51
5 Power Management
Power sources
63
63
Monitoring the battery charge
Recharging the battery
63
66
Removing or replacing the battery
Disposing of dead batteries
71
Replacing the backup battery
Reconditioning the battery
Maximizing work time
70
72
72
75
Part II
6 Tips and Troubleshooting
When you have questions
79
79
When you run into trouble
79
Problems starting up the computer
80
Problems working with programs
Other problems while working
Problems with hardware
85
89
92
Problems with equipment connected to your Macintosh PowerBook
Problems with networks and file sharing
Problems with Apple Remote Access
7 Diagnostic Techniques
104
107
109
Checking your system software extensions
Testing your hard disk
103
109
111
Reinstalling system software
113
Contents
v
Part III
Appendix A Health, Safety, and Maintenance Tips
125
Health-related information about computer use
Important care and safety instructions
Caring for batteries
131
133
Handling floppy disks
134
Traveling with the Macintosh PowerBook
Storing the Macintosh PowerBook
Service and support
137
137
Appendix B Using Your Keyboard
139
Typing special characters and symbols
Special key combinations
Index
vi
Contents
145
135
143
141
125
Communications regulation information
FCC statement
This equipment has been tested and found to comply with the limits for a Class B digital device
in accordance with the specifications in Part 15 of FCC rules. See instructions if interference to
radio or television reception is suspected.
Radio and television interference
The equipment described in this manual generates, uses, and can radiate radio-frequency
energy. If it is not installed and used properly—that is, in strict accordance with Apple’s
instructions—it may cause interference with radio and television reception.
This equipment has been tested and found to comply with the limits for a Class B digital device
in accordance with the specifications in Part 15 of FCC rules. These specifications are designed
to provide reasonable protection against such interference in a residential installation. However,
there is no guarantee that interference will not occur in a particular installation.
You can determine whether your computer system is causing interference by turning it off. If
the interference stops, it was probably caused by the computer or one of the peripheral devices.
If your computer system does cause interference to radio or television reception, try to correct
the interference by using one or more of the following measures:
m Turn the television or radio antenna until the interference stops.
m Move the computer to one side or the other of the television or radio.
m Move the computer farther away from the television or radio.
m Plug the computer into an outlet that is on a different circuit from the television or radio.
(That is, make certain the computer and the television or radio are on circuits controlled by
different circuit breakers or fuses.)
If necessary, consult an Apple-authorized service provider or Apple. See the service and support
information that came with your Apple product. Or, consult an experienced radio/television
technician for additional suggestions. You may find the following booklet helpful: Interference
Handbook (stock number 004-000-00493-1). This booklet, prepared by the Federal
Communications Commission, is available from the U.S. Government Printing Office,
Washington, DC 20402.
IMPORTANT Changes or modifications to this product not authorized by Apple Computer, Inc.,
could void the FCC certification and negate your authority to operate the product.
This product was tested for FCC compliance under conditions that included the use of Apple
peripheral devices and Apple shielded cables and connectors between system components. It is
important that you use Apple peripheral devices and shielded cables and connectors between
system components to reduce the possibility of causing interference to radios, television sets,
and other electronic devices. You can obtain Apple peripheral devices and the proper shielded
cables and connectors through an Apple-authorized dealer. For non-Apple peripheral devices,
contact the manufacturer or dealer for assistance.
Communications Regulation Information
vii
DOC statement
DOC Class B Compliance This digital apparatus does not exceed the Class B limits for radio
noise emissions from digital apparatus as set out in the interference-causing equipment standard
entitled “Digital Apparatus,” ICES-003 of the Department of Communications.
Observation des normes—Classe B Cet appareil numérique respecte les limites de bruits
radioélectriques applicables aux appareils numériques de Classe B prescrites dans la norme
sur le matériel brouilleur: “Appareils Numériques”, NMB-003 édictée par le ministre des
Communications.
VCCI statement
viii
Communications Regulation Information
Chapter 1
Getting Started
Chapter 2
Getting Help
Chapter 3
Connecting Additional Equipment
Chapter 4
Installing and Using Application Programs
Chapter 5
Power Management
I
part
Follow the instructions in this
chapter to set up your computer
and learn the basics.
1
Getting Started
The illustration on the following page provides an overview of your
Macintosh PowerBook computer. To set up your PowerBook for the first time,
you need the power adapter and the power cord that came with your
computer.
When setting up your computer, place your computer on a sturdy, flat surface
near a grounded electrical outlet. Before following the setup instructions in
this chapter, you may want to read “Arranging Your Work Area and
Equipment” in Appendix A for tips on adjusting your work furniture and
computer so that you’re comfortable when using the computer.
1
Sleep indicator
¤ Brightness controls
Microphone
Trackpad
Speaker
P Power key
Battery
Trackpad button
Q Internal modem port
[ ⁄ W Printer/External
modem port
(if a modem is installed)
Elevation feet
I Reset button
Docking connection (behind door)
¯ Power adapter port
Plugging in the computer
Plugging in the power adapter recharges the computer’s batteries. You should
plug in the power adapter in case the battery has drained during shipping or
storage.
WARNING Use only the power adapter that came with your Macintosh
PowerBook. Adapters for other electronic devices (including other
portable computers) may look similar, but they may damage your
computer.
When you are ready to begin:
1
Plug one end of the power cord into the power adapter and the other end into a threehole grounded outlet or power strip.
WARNING This equipment is intended to be electrically grounded. Your
Macintosh PowerBook is equipped with a three-wire grounding plug—
a plug that has a third (grounding) pin. This plug will fit only a
grounded AC outlet. This is a safety feature. If you are unable to insert
the plug into the outlet, contact a licensed electrician to replace the
outlet with a properly grounded outlet. Do not defeat the purpose of the
grounding plug!
Getting Started
3
2
Plug the power adapter cable into the power adapter port (marked with the icon ¯) on
the back panel of the computer.
You can wind extra cable around the hooks that open out from the power
adapter.
Power cord
Power adapter
Wrap cable around the hooks.
Depending on where you purchased your computer, you may also have
received a wall mount plug. You can use this plug instead of the power cord to
plug the power adapter directly into an electrical outlet.
4
Chapter 1
Opening the display
1
Slide the latch to the right and lift up the display.
2
Position the display at a comfortable viewing angle.
You can adjust the angle of the display at any time by tilting it towards or
away from you.
You can adjust the keyboard angle by lowering the computer’s elevation feet.
(See “Arranging Your Work Area and Equipment” in Appendix A.)
Getting Started
5
Turning the computer on
To turn on the computer:
m Press the Power key (marked with a triangle P) above the keyboard.
Power key
You should hear a tone when you turn on the computer. It takes the computer
a moment to start up.
6
Chapter 1
After your computer starts up for the first time, a picture similar to this
appears on the screen:
(Note: Your screen should look very similar to this, but it may not look
exactly the same.)
If you don’t see this picture on your screen, go to the next section, “Problems
Turning Your Computer On?”
Getting Started
7
Problems turning your computer on?
m Nothing happened when you pressed the Power key.
The battery may be drained. Make sure you plugged in the power adapter,
and that the power adapter is firmly connected to both the computer and a
power source. If the power adapter is plugged into a power strip, make sure
the power strip is plugged in and turned on. Then try pressing the
key again.
If the computer still doesn’t turn on, see “Problems Starting Up the
Computer” in Chapter 6.
m The computer made a sound, but you can’t see anything on the screen.
Adjust the brightness controls (marked with the icon ¤) until an image
appears and the screen is easy to read.
Brightness controls
m You see a picture of a disk with a blinking question mark on the screen.
This icon usually means that the computer can’t find system software on
the hard disk or any disks attached to the computer. You may need to
reinstall system software. See “Reinstalling System Software” in Chapter 7.
8
Chapter 1
What’s next?
You’ve now finished setting up your Macintosh PowerBook. Continue with
one of the following steps:
m If you are new to the Macintosh, turn to the next section, “Learning the
Basics.”
m If you are an experienced Macintosh user, turn to Chapter 2, “Getting
Help,” to learn about Macintosh Guide, your main source of information
when you’re working with the Macintosh.
m If you have additional equipment to connect to your computer, see
Chapter 3, “Connecting Additional Equipment,” for instructions. (If you
are a new Macintosh user, you should complete “Learning the Basics”
before connecting additional equipment.)
m If you have application programs that you want to install on your computer,
see Chapter 4, “Installing and Using Application Programs,” for
instructions. This chapter also tells you how to make backup copies of the
system software if you have access to a floppy disk drive. (If you are a new
Macintosh user, you should complete “Learning the Basics” before
installing application programs.)
IMPORTANT If you need to turn off your computer at any point, read the
instructions in “Turning the Computer Off” later in this chapter to learn the
correct procedure for turning off your PowerBook.
Getting Started
9
Learning the basics
If you are new to the Macintosh, you should begin by looking at the easy-touse program called the Macintosh Tutorial. The tutorial teaches you the basic
skills you’ll need to use your computer. To start the tutorial, follow these
steps:
1
Move your finger on the trackpad to move the arrow pointer (8) on the screen.
Place your index finger on the trackpad and your thumb on the trackpad
button. Don’t press the trackpad button yet.
Move your finger across the trackpad, watching the arrow on the screen.
Notice that the arrow on the screen moves in the same direction that you
move your finger on the trackpad.
Trackpad
Trackpad button
The trackpad is sensitive not only to the direction you move your finger, but
also to how fast you move your finger. If you want the pointer to move a short
distance across the screen, you move your finger slowly across the trackpad.
The faster you move your finger, the farther the pointer moves on the screen.
10
Chapter 1
Tips for using the trackpad
For best results when using the trackpad, keep in mind these tips:
m Use your index finger (left or right hand). Use only one finger.
m Use a light touch on the trackpad. Do not press heavily.
m Use only your finger on the trackpad. Do not use a pen or any
other object.
m Extend your PowerBook’s elevation feet when it is placed on a flat
surface. This gives your fingers better access to the keyboard and
makes it easier to use the tip of your finger on the surface of
the trackpad.
m Sometimes humidity or condensation may cause moisture to gather
on the trackpad. If this happens, gently wipe the trackpad with a
clean cloth before you use it.
m Use the trackpad to click and drag items by turning on these options
in the Trackpad control panel. For instructions, see “How do I use
the trackpad to click and drag?” in the “Setting Options” topic area
of Macintosh Guide, available in the Guide (h) menu. (You can
learn about Macintosh Guide in Chapter 2 of this manual.)
2
Move your finger on the trackpad so that the tip of the arrow (8) points to the question
mark in the upper-right portion of the screen.
3
With the tip of the arrow (8) on the question mark, press and hold down the trackpad
button.
A list of choices (called a menu) appears. This is the Guide (h) menu, which
is the place to go when you have a question about how to use your computer.
Getting Started
11
4
While holding down the trackpad button, move the arrow (8) until the words “Macintosh
Tutorial” are highlighted, then release the trackpad button.
A window appears welcoming you to the tutorial.
You can set aside this book for now and follow the instructions you see on the
screen. When you have completed the tutorial, return to this book.
12
Chapter 1
Reviewing the basics
You can use the following illustrations to review the elements you use on your
screen to do work with your computer.
Icons
Menu
Window
Control Strip
Menus
The strip across the top of the screen is called the menu bar. The symbols and
words in it represent menus of commands. To open a menu, place the pointer
on the symbol or word for the menu and press the mouse button.
Guide menu
To find an answer to a question,
look in the Guide (h) menu.
Application menu
You can have several
application programs
open at once. To see
which program is active
or to switch from one
program to another,
use this menu (called
the Application menu).
Getting Started
13
Icons
Icons are small pictures that represent disks, programs, documents, and
folders. You can double-click any icon to open it and see what it contains.
This icon represents your computer’s internal hard disk.
Icons like this one represent application programs, which you use to create
documents and do other work.
Icons like this one represent documents, which you can create and edit.
Icons like this represent folders. A folder contains other icons.
To throw away an item you no longer want, drag it to the Trash icon and choose
Empty Trash from the Special menu.
Windows
Windows are boxes that display text, graphics, or icons. To change the shape
or position of a window, or to close the window, use the elements shown here.
Close box
To close a window,
click the close box.
Title bar
To move a window, drag it by the middle of the title
bar (anywhere in the bar except the small boxes).
Scroll arrow
To bring hidden portions
of a window’s contents into
view, click one of the four
scroll arrows.
To make a partially
covered window
active, click
anywhere in it.
14
Chapter 1
Size box
To change the shape or size of
a window, drag the size box.
Control Strip
The Control Strip gives you a quick and easy way to monitor and update your
PowerBook’s power management options and other useful features. For
instructions on using the Control Strip, see the ‘“Batteries & Power” and
“Control Strip” topic areas of Macintosh Guide, available in the Guide (h)
menu. (You can learn about Macintosh Guide in Chapter 2 of this manual.)
Turning the computer off
Always use one of the following methods to shut down the computer. If you
don’t, you risk losing any work you haven’t previously saved on a disk. You
also risk losing any open documents.
Turning the computer off with the Power key
To turn the computer off, press the Power key. Detailed instructions follow.
1
If the computer is in sleep, press the Power key (or any key on the keyboard except Caps
Lock) to wake it.
For information on the sleep feature of your Macintosh PowerBook, see
“Putting the Computer to Sleep,” next.
2
Press and hold the Power key for about two seconds.
The following dialog box appears on the screen:
3
Press the Return key on the keyboard (or click the Shut Down button in the dialog box).
Getting Started
15
Turning the computer off with the Shut Down command
You can also turn your computer off by using the Shut Down command in the
Special menu. Follow these steps:
1
If the computer is in sleep, press the Power key (or any key on the keyboard except Caps
Lock) to wake it.
2
Move the tip of the arrow to the word “Special” at the top center of the screen.
If the word “Special” does not appear at the top of the screen, you’re working
in the wrong program. Choose Finder from the Application menu at the
far-right end of the menu bar.
3
With the tip of the arrow on the word “Special,” press and hold down the trackpad
button.
4
While holding down the trackpad button, move the arrow until the words “Shut Down”
are highlighted, then release the button.
Trouble? If a problem with the computer prevents you from using the Power
key or choosing Shut Down—for example, if the computer “freezes” so that
the pointer does not respond to the trackpad—you can turn off the computer
by pressing the reset button (marked with a I) on the back of the computer.
Use this method only if you cannot choose Shut Down or Restart when you
press the Power key, or if you cannot choose either command from the
Special menu.
16
Chapter 1
Putting the computer to sleep
Sleep is a power conservation feature of Macintosh PowerBook computers
that reduces the amount of power the computer draws when it’s not being
used. When the computer is in sleep, it has a darkened screen and appears to
be off. A small green light flashes on the top of the display case when the
computer is in sleep. (Note: The computer must be on in order for you to put
it to sleep.)
Sleep indicator
To put the computer to sleep, do this:
1
Press and hold the Power key for about two seconds.
2
Click the Sleep button.
WARNING Once you put your computer to sleep, listen for the hard disk
to stop spinning before you transport your Macintosh PowerBook.
Transporting your Macintosh PowerBook with the hard disk spinning
can damage your computer.
Getting Started
17
Other ways of putting your computer to sleep
m You can choose the Sleep command from the Special menu to put your
computer to sleep.
m Move the pointer over the Sleep Now portion of the Control Strip. Press the
button and choose Sleep Now from the pop-up menu that appears.
m You can also put your computer to sleep by closing and latching the display.
For information on other ways of putting the computer to sleep, see the
“Batteries & Power” topic of Macintosh Guide, available in the Guide (h)
menu. (You can learn about using Macintosh Guide in Chapter 2 of
this manual.)
Automatic sleep
If you don’t use the computer for several minutes, it goes to sleep
automatically. This conserves battery power.
To wake the computer, press any key on the keyboard (except Caps Lock).
The screen will reappear as it was before the computer went to sleep.
You can control the automatic sleep feature. For more information on sleep
and automatic sleep, see the “Batteries & Power” topic of Macintosh Guide,
available in the Guide (h) menu. (You can learn about using Macintosh
Guide in Chapter 2 of this manual.)
18
Chapter 1
Restarting a computer that’s already on
You need to restart your computer—turn it off and back on again—when you
want to make certain changes to settings, use a newly installed system
software file, or start up the computer using a different disk.
You may also need to restart if you see a “system error” message on the
screen (indicating a temporary software problem). In this case, use the
trackpad to click the Restart button that appears.
Follow these instructions to restart your computer:
1
Press and hold the Power key for about two seconds.
2
Click the Restart button.
You can also do this to restart:
m Choose Restart from the Special menu.
If the Special menu does not appear in the menu bar, you’re working in the
wrong program. Choose Finder from the Application menu at the far-right
end of the menu bar.
Getting Started
19
When you choose Restart, the computer prompts you to save your work,
closes all open programs, and restarts itself.
Restarting using either of the methods outlined above does not affect your
RAM disk (if you created one) or its contents.
Trouble? If a problem with the computer prevents you from using the Power
key or choosing Restart—for example, if the computer “freezes” so that the
pointer does not respond to the trackpad—you can turn off the computer by
pressing the reset button (marked with a I) on the back of the computer. Use
this method only if you cannot choose Shut Down or Restart from the dialog
box that appears when you press the Power key, or if you cannot choose either
command from the Special menu.
20
Chapter 1
Where to find answers
When you have questions about using your Macintosh, there are several
places you can look for answers.
In this book
Mac
Userin’stoshGPouwiderBook
e
Use this book to help you set up your computer and learn about it,
or to find solutions to problems with your equipment.
In the Guide menu
The Guide menu (marked with the h icon) is your main source
of information about the Macintosh. To learn how to get different
kinds of help from the Guide menu, see Chapter 2 in this book.
In other manuals
For answers to questions about other equipment or about
application programs you have purchased, see the manuals
that came with the equipment or programs.
In Read Me files
The Read Me files on your computer’s hard disk are SimpleText
documents that contain important late-breaking information about
your PowerBook and some of the software that comes with your
PowerBook.
From Apple’s customer support hotline
If you can’t find an answer in any of the materials provided, call the
customer support hotline. (The phone number for the hotline is in
the service and support information that came with your computer.)
If you have problems with a particular application program, contact the
manufacturer of theprogram.
Getting Started
21
Use the instructions in this chapter
to learn about the help available
to you in the Guide (h) menu.
2
Getting Help
The Guide (h) menu is your main source of information when you’re
working with your computer. The menu is identified by a question
mark (h) in the upper-right corner of the screen.
23
Getting answers to your questions
When you have a question while working with your computer, you can get the
answer by choosing Macintosh Guide from the Guide (h) menu.
1
Pull down the Application menu (in the upper-right corner of the screen) and choose
Finder to make it the active application program.
A checkmark in the menu indicates that the Finder is the active program.
2
Pull down the Guide menu (marked with the h icon) and choose Macintosh Guide.
The Macintosh Guide window appears.
Whenever you use Macintosh Guide, its window remains in front of other
windows. If the window gets in your way, you can move it by dragging its
title bar (the gray bar across the top of the window).
24
Chapter 2
3
Notice the three buttons at the top of the window: Topics, Index, and Look For.
Macintosh Guide gives you three ways of finding information:
m Topics lets you choose from a list of general subjects; it is like the table of
contents in a book.
m Index lets you choose from an alphabetical list of more specific subjects; it
is like the index in a book.
m Look For lets you search for information related to a specific word or phrase
that you type.
In the following sections you will practice using each method.
If you have problems while using Macintosh Guide, see “Tips for Using
Macintosh Guide” later in this chapter.
Getting answers with the Topics button
1
In the Macintosh Guide window, click the Topics button.
A list of general topics appears on the left side of the Macintosh Guide
window. (Depending on the hardware and software you have, the list of topics
may look different.)
Getting Help
25
2
Click “Setting Options” in the list of topics.
When you click any topic area, a list of related questions appears on the right
side of the Macintosh Guide window.
To get instructions,
click a question…
…and then click OK.
3
Click the question “How do I set the time and date?” and then click OK. Or double-click
the question.
A small window appears with instructions for you to follow.
If you want to
return to the main
Macintosh Guide
window, click here.
4
Click here to see the next
step (if there is one).
Read and follow the instructions in this window.
Macintosh Guide provides step-by-step instructions to answer the question
you selected. When you have completed each step, click the right arrow in the
lower-right corner to see the next step.
5
When you have completed all the steps, click the Topics button in the lower-left corner to
return to the main Macintosh Guide window.
Now continue with the next section.
26
Chapter 2
Getting answers with the Index button
1
In the Macintosh Guide window, click the Index button.
An alphabetical list of subjects appears on the left side of the window.
Slider
Scroll bar
2
Scroll through the alphabetical list until the phrase “background pattern” is visible.
You can scroll through the list either by dragging the slider to the letter B or
by using the scroll bar at the right of the list.
3
Click the phrase “background pattern” in the alphabetical list.
When you click any index entry, a list of related questions appears on the
right side of the Macintosh Guide window.
To get instructions,
click a question…
…and then click OK.
Getting Help
27
4
Click the question “How do I change the background pattern?” and then click OK. Or
double-click the question.
A small window appears with instructions for you to follow.
If you want to
return to the main
Macintosh Guide
window, click here.
5
Click here to see the next
step (if there is one).
Read and follow the instructions in the window.
Macintosh Guide provides step-by-step instructions to answer the question
you selected. When you have completed each step, click the right arrow in the
lower-right corner to see the next step.
6
When you have completed all the steps, click the Topics button in the lower-left corner to
return to the main Macintosh Guide window.
Now continue with the next section.
28
Chapter 2
Getting answers with the Look For button
1
In the Macintosh Guide window, click the Look For button.
A small box appears on the left side of the window, where you can type text.
To activate the text
box, click here.
Type a word or phrase
in the text box…
…and then click here.
2
Click the arrow button to activate the text box.
3
Type “sound” in the text box and then click Search.
When you click Search, a list of questions related to the word or phrase you
typed appears on the right side of the Macintosh Guide window.
To get instructions,
click a question…
…and then click OK.
Getting Help
29
4
Click the question “How do I change the beep sound?” and then click OK. Or doubleclick the question.
A small window appears with instructions for you to follow.
If you want to close
Macintosh Guide,
click here.
Click here to see the next
step (if there is one).
5
Read and follow the instructions in the window.
Macintosh Guide provides step-by-step instructions to answer the question
you selected. When you have completed each step, click the right arrow in the
lower-right corner to display the next step.
6
30
Chapter 2
When you have completed all the steps, click the close box in the upper-left corner to
close Macintosh Guide.
Tips for using Macintosh Guide
Here are a few tips for using Macintosh Guide effectively:
m Macintosh Guide is available only when you are in the Finder—the
desktop area where you can see the icons of disks, folders, and files.
(Other programs may also have help available in the Guide menu,
however.) If you don’t see Macintosh Guide in the Guide menu, pull
down the Application menu (to the right of the Guide menu) and
choose Finder.
m Follow the steps when you’re instructed to; don’t skip ahead or read
ahead. That way the computer can check to make sure you’ve done a
step correctly.
m Unlike most windows, the Macintosh Guide window stays in front of
other windows on the screen so that your instructions are never
covered. If you need to move the Guide window out of the way, drag
it by the title bar at the top of the window.
You can also move the window out of the way by clicking the zoom
box. Click the box once to shrink the window; click it a second time
to expand the window to its original size.
m If you need more information about an instruction or a term, click the
button labeled “Huh?” to get further explanation. (The “Huh?” button
is dimmed when no additional information is available.)
m If you want to return to the main Macintosh Guide window, click the
Topics button in the lower-left corner of the Guide window.
m When you’re finished using Macintosh Guide, click the close box in
the upper-left corner of the window.
Close box
Title bar
Zoom box
Topics button
“Huh?” button
Right arrow
Getting Help
31
Identifying objects on the screen
Sometimes you’ll see an unfamiliar item on the screen and ask yourself,
“What’s that?” You can get an answer by using a Macintosh feature known as
Balloon Help.
Balloon Help explains the function of icons, menus, commands, and other
items on the Macintosh screen in balloons like those you see in comic strips.
Follow these steps to use Balloon Help:
1
Pull down the Guide menu (marked with the h icon) and choose Show Balloons.
2
Point to any object on the screen that you want to identify.
A balloon appears next to the object. In the following illustration, for
example, pointing to the Trash displays a balloon that explains how to use the
Trash to throw items away.
Although balloons appear next to items when you point to them, the way
you work does not change; you can still select icons, choose commands, and
so on.
3
32
Chapter 2
When you’re finished using Balloon Help, choose Hide Balloons from the Guide (h) menu.
Learning useful shortcuts
You can perform many tasks in the Finder more quickly if you use keyboard
or trackpad shortcuts. For example, instead of clicking an icon and choosing
Open from the File menu, you can simply double-click the icon to open it.
Follow these steps to learn keyboard and trackpad shortcuts:
1
Pull down the Guide menu (marked with the h icon) and choose Shortcuts.
The main Macintosh Shortcuts window appears.
2
Click one of the category buttons.
Another window appears, describing shortcuts for that category.
If you want to
close the window,
click here.
Click here to return to
the main Macintosh
Shortcuts window for
more categories.
Click here to see the next
window (if there is one).
Getting Help
33
3
Read about the shortcuts available for the category you selected.
Click the right arrow in the lower-right corner of the window to display the
next window (if there is one).
4
34
Chapter 2
When you finish reading about the shortcuts for your category, click the Topics button in
the lower-left corner to return to the main Macintosh Shortcuts window. Or click the
close box in the upper-left corner to close the window.
Read this chapter for information on
expanding your computer system
with additional hardware.
3
Connecting Additional Equipment
The illustration below shows where equipment can be connected to your
computer. Refer to the manuals that came with your equipment for
instructions on connecting it.
[ ⁄W Printer/External modem port
Q Internal modem port
(if a modem is installed)
I Reset button
¯ Power adapter port
Docking connection
35
In addition to connecting certain equipment directly to your Macintosh
PowerBook, you can also expand your system with the following accessories:
m the PowerBook Duo Dock Plus
m the PowerBook Duo MiniDock
m the PowerBook Duo Floppy Adapter
A brief overview of these accessories follows. For more information, see the
documentation that comes with them. You can purchase any of these products
from an Apple-authorized dealer.
The PowerBook Duo Dock Plus
The PowerBook Duo Dock Plus is the most versatile expansion option for
Macintosh PowerBook Duo 2300 series computers. A dock is itself not a
computer—you need a Macintosh PowerBook Duo 2300 series or a
PowerBook 200 series computer to use it. When a PowerBook is “docked,” it
has the video, storage, and input/output capabilities available on most desktop
Macintosh computers.
The drawing below shows where you can connect a variety of devices to a
Duo Dock Plus.
Q Internal modem port
- Sound output port
≈ Sound input port
W External modem port
™ Monitor port
[ Printer port
I Power button
V Apple Desktop
Bus (ADB) port
NuBus slots
G Ethernet port
Floppy disk drive
Ç Security slot
36
Chapter 3
Monitor power
socket
g SCSI port
≤ Power socket
IMPORTANT You cannot use the PowerBook Duo Dock, an earlier model of
dock, with your Macintosh PowerBook Duo 2300 series computer unless it
has the Top Cover Upgrade installed. (The upgraded top cover has a door
covering the opening at the front of the dock.) The upgrade is available from
an Apple-authorized dealer.
You can also use your Macintosh PowerBook with the Duo Dock II or a
Duo Dock (with the Top Cover Upgrade). These docks are earlier models
that have somewhat different features from the Duo Dock Plus.
The Duo Dock Plus comes with many built-in features; several optional
features are also available. These features include
m an internal 1.4 MB floppy disk drive
m an optional internal SCSI hard disk drive (any available capacity that meets
Apple’s specifications; up to 1 inch high)
m standard ports including SCSI (with an HDI-30 connector), monitor,
printer, modem, Apple Desktop Bus (ADB), sound input, sound output,
and EtherTalk
m a separate mouse and keyboard
m slots for two NuBus cards for additional video, Token Ring, or other
capabilities. When using the Macintosh PowerBook Duo 2300 in any Duo
Dock model, the NuBus cards installed cannot consume more than 15
watts of power. Check the documentation that came with your cards to
determine their power consumption. (Note that if you use two NuBus cards
in your Duo Dock Plus, the bottom of your PowerBook may feel warm
when you eject it from the dock. This is normal and will not harm your
PowerBook.)
m built-in video support for a wide variety of monitors
m 1 MB VRAM for 16-bit color on 16" or smaller color monitors, 8-bit
grayscale on the Apple 15" portrait monitor and the Macintosh Two-Page
Display, and 8-bit color on 17" or larger color monitors
m an automatic insert/eject feature to ensure reliable docking
m a key-operated lock to prevent theft of the docked PowerBook
m a slot door that protects the interior of your Duo Dock Plus when your
PowerBook is not docked
Connecting Additional Equipment
37
The PowerBook Duo MiniDock
The PowerBook Duo MiniDock allows you to connect a wide variety of
devices to the Macintosh PowerBook. Like the Duo Dock Plus, the minidock
with peripheral devices connected to it is not a computer—you need a
Macintosh PowerBook Duo 2300 series (or a PowerBook 200 series)
computer to make the system work.
™ Monitor port
Q Internal modem port
Ç
≈
-
V
Security slot
¯
Power adapter port
Apple Desktop Bus
(ADB) port
Sound input port
Sound output port
g
W External modem port
SCSI port
[
Printer port
˝
Floppy disk drive port
I
Power button
The minidock attaches to the back of the PowerBook and allows you to use
the following types of equipment with your computer:
m a variety of monitors (including Apple’s 17" monitor and other monitors up
to 16")
m up to three Apple Desktop Bus (ADB) input devices (such as a keyboard
or mouse)
m an external 1.4 MB floppy disk drive
m up to six SCSI devices, including hard disk drives, CD-ROM drives, and
scanners
m a printer
m an external modem
m LocalTalk cables, to connect to an AppleTalk network
m an external microphone, set of headphones, or speakers
38
Chapter 3
The PowerBook Duo Floppy Adapter
The PowerBook Duo Floppy Adapter allows you to connect an external 1.4
MB floppy disk drive (HDI-20) and up to three Apple Desktop Bus (ADB)
devices—such as a keyboard or mouse—to your computer.
Apple Desktop Bus (ADB) port
PowerBook Duo Floppy Adapter
External floppy disk drive port
Connecting a printer
The printer/external modem port (´) on your Macintosh PowerBook can
accept either a direct connection (to a printer such as a StyleWriter) or a
network connection (to a printer such as a LaserWriter). In addition to
connecting the printer or network cable to the port, you may have to adjust
one or more software settings to assure that the computer’s signals reach your
printer.
Adjustments for a printer connected directly to the port
If you are connecting a printer directly to the printer/external modem port, be
sure to
m select the icon for your printer in the Chooser
m turn off AppleTalk in the Chooser
Note: If an internal modem is installed, remove the X from the box labeled
“Use internal modem instead of Modem Port” in the Express Modem control
panel or click the Normal button in the PowerBook Setup control panel.
For instructions, see “How do I print?” in the “Printing & Fonts” topic area
of Macintosh Guide, available in the Guide (h) menu.
Connecting Additional Equipment
39
Adjustments for a network printer
If you are using a printer that is part of a network, be sure to
m make AppleTalk active in the Chooser
m select LocalTalk or EtherTalk in the Network control panel
m select the icon for your printer in the Chooser (upper-left side)
m select the printer’s name in the Chooser (upper-right side)
For instructions, see “How do I print?” in the “Printing & Fonts” topic area
of Macintosh Guide, available in the Guide (h) menu.
Adjustments for sharing a modem and printer
If you are using a printer alternately with an external modem (through the
printer/external modem port), you may need to cancel some modem options
before printing. Be sure to
m remove the X from the box labeled “Use internal modem instead of
Modem Port” in the Express Modem control panel. (See the next section,
“Connecting a Modem,” for details.)
m turn off automatic answer in the fax software
m turn off automatic answer in Apple Remote Access (if you have installed
that software)
For instructions, see the manuals for your modem and communications or
fax software.
Connecting a modem
Apple offers optional, low-power, internal fax/data modems for your
Macintosh PowerBook. See the modem manual for information about your
modem.
You can also connect an external modem to any of the following:
m the printer/external modem port on the PowerBook
m the external modem or printer port on a Duo MiniDock
m the external modem or printer port on a Duo Dock Plus
40
Chapter 3
To connect an external modem, follow these steps.
1
Make sure the computer is in sleep or shut down.
2
Connect the modem to a power source and to the phone line.
See the documentation that came with the modem.
3
Make sure the modem is turned off.
4
Connect the modem cable to the printer/external modem port (PowerBook) or the
external modem port (Duo Dock Plus or Duo MiniDock).
Printer/External modem port icon
External modem port icon
5
Turn on the modem.
6
Wake or restart the computer.
7
Open the Chooser and click the LaserWriter icon.
Selecting a LaserWriter assures that the printer/external modem port is not
dedicated to a printer that is connected directly to the computer.
8
If you are not using EtherTalk (on a dock), click the Inactive button for AppleTalk (in the
lower right area of the Chooser).
Making AppleTalk inactive clears the port for the modem’s use.
If your computer does not have an internal modem, the external modem is
ready to use.
If your computer does have an internal modem, continue with step 9.
9
Choose Control Panels from the Apple (K) menu and open the Express Modem
control panel.
Connecting Additional Equipment
41
10
Choose General Settings from the pop-up menu.
11
If there is an X in the box labeled “Use internal modem instead of Modem Port,” click the
box to remove the X.
Removing the X from the box assures that the printer/external modem port
will receive the computer’s signals.
12
Close the control panel.
The external modem is ready to use.
If you don’t have the Express Modem control panel: If you have another kind of
internal modem, you can activate an external modem by opening the
PowerBook Setup control panel and clicking the Normal button. (The
internal modem may also have its own control panel. See the manual that
came with the modem for complete instructions.)
42
Chapter 3
Connecting SCSI devices
A SCSI device is any product—including hard disk drives, CD-ROM drives,
scanners, and printers—that connects with your computer by means of a
standard electronic interface, called Small Computer System Interface (SCSI).
You can attach up to six SCSI devices to your computer by linking them
together in a chain that starts at your dock’s SCSI port. There is a SCSI port
on the PowerBook Duo Dock Plus and the PowerBook Duo MiniDock.
(There is no SCSI port on Macintosh PowerBook Duo 2300 series
computers.)
To connect a SCSI device to your PowerBook, you need an Apple HDI-30
SCSI System Cable or equivalent. This cable is light gray (the same color as
desktop Macintosh computers), is about 19 inches long, and has 29 pins
(one “missing pin”).
Refer to the manuals that came with your SCSI devices for instructions on
installing any necessary software, setting SCSI ID numbers, and connecting
SCSI cables and SCSI terminators. Refer to the illustrations that follow for the
proper positioning of SCSI terminators. A chain of SCSI devices must include
a terminator attached to the last device in the chain (but nowhere else in the
chain). Some devices have internal terminators. Your Macintosh PowerBook
does not have an internal terminator.
The names and the part numbers of the cables mentioned in this chapter are
the following:
Type of connection
Name of cable
Part number
From a Duo Dock Plus or Duo
MiniDock to a SCSI device
Apple HDI-30 SCSI System Cable
M2538LL/A
From SCSI device to
a SCSI device
Apple SCSI Peripheral Interface Cable
M0207
For SCSI disk mode
Apple HDI-30 SCSI Disk Adapter Cable
M2539LL/A
WARNING When connecting SCSI equipment, always turn off power to
all devices in the chain, including your computer. If you don’t, you
could lose information and damage your equipment.
Connecting Additional Equipment
43
Where to add cable terminators when connecting a single SCSI device:
HDI-30 SCSI system cable
Terminator
(If this SCSI device has an internal
terminator, omit this external terminator.)
Where to add cable terminators when connecting two or more SCSI devices:
HDI-30 SCSI
system cable
SCSI peripheral interface cables
Terminator
(If this SCSI device has an internal terminator, omit this external terminator.)
Using your PowerBook as a hard disk
If you have a PowerBook Duo MiniDock, you can purchase a cable called
the Apple HDI-30 SCSI Disk Adapter, which lets you connect your
PowerBook to another computer as a hard disk. The PowerBook appears on
the desktop of the other computer as a hard disk icon, and you can transfer
information between the computers by dragging files. This feature is called
SCSI disk mode.
The Apple HDI-30 SCSI Disk Adapter is dark gray, is much shorter than the
SCSI system cable, and has 30 pins.
The PowerBook Duo Dock Plus does not support SCSI disk mode.
WARNING Follow the steps for connecting and disconnecting SCSI
devices carefully to avoid loss of information and damage to your
equipment.
44
Chapter 3
Connecting your computer as a hard disk
Before making any connections, you need to assign a unique SCSI ID number
to the PowerBook. (The unique ID number allows the computer to
communicate with several connected devices.)
1
Turn off password protection in the Password Security control panel (if it is turned on).
For instructions, see “How do I turn password security on and off?” in the
“Setting Options” topic area of Macintosh Guide, available in the Guide (h)
menu.
2
Choose Control Panels from the Apple (K) menu of your PowerBook computer.
3
Open the PowerBook Setup control panel.
4
In the SCSI Disk Mode section of the control panel, click the ID number you want
to assign.
If you are connecting the PowerBook to an existing SCSI chain, make sure to
give it an ID number different from those of the other devices. (Many devices
include an ID number indicator on the back panel.)
(The SCSI ID number is preset to 2 at the factory.)
5
Close the PowerBook Setup control panel.
6
Press the Power (P) key on the PowerBook until you see the Shut Down dialog box, and
click Shut Down to turn the PowerBook off.
7
Shut down the computer you are connecting to, and turn off any other devices in the
SCSI chain.
Connecting Additional Equipment
45
8
Connect the small connector on the Apple HDI-30 SCSI Disk Adapter cable to the SCSI
port on your PowerBook Duo MiniDock.
If there are SCSI devices connected to the other computer, attach a SCSI
peripheral cable to the last device in the SCSI chain.
9
If you are connecting the PowerBook directly to the other computer (rather than to an
external device in the SCSI chain), attach a SCSI system cable to the other computer.
10
Connect the large connector on the Apple HDI-30 SCSI Disk Adapter cable to a SCSI
cable attached to the SCSI port on the last device in the SCSI chain, or to the SCSI
system cable on the other computer.
Connect the PowerBook and disk adapter only at the end of a SCSI chain.
WARNING Always shut down the PowerBook before connecting or
disconnecting the SCSI disk adapter cable. Connecting the adapter cable
while the computer is turned on can damage the computer.
11
Turn on the PowerBook by pressing the Power key.
After a few seconds a SCSI icon appears on the screen, showing the ID
number you assigned in step 3.
(The icon moves around on the screen while the PowerBook is operating as a
hard disk.)
46
Chapter 3
WARNING If you do not see the SCSI icon, and the computer starts
normally or displays an error message, choose Shut Down (if you can)
and then immediately disconnect your computer from the SCSI chain.
(If you can’t choose Shut Down, you should disconnect the cable
anyway, or you may lose information.) Then go back and repeat steps 6
through 10, making sure to use the proper cables.
Password protection must be turned off in the Password Security control
panel while using your PowerBook in SCSI disk mode. Turn password
protection off if you experience problems. See “How do I turn password
security on and off?” in the “Setting Options” topic area of Macintosh
Guide, available in the Guide (h) menu.
12
Turn on the other SCSI devices in the chain, if any.
13
Turn on the other computer.
The PowerBook appears as a hard disk icon on the desktop of the computer
you connected it to. You can now transfer and use files as if the PowerBook
were an external hard disk.
WARNING Always disconnect your minidock from the adapter cable
when you are not using it as a hard disk. Your PowerBook will not work
correctly if the adapter cable remains attached.
Connecting Additional Equipment
47
Drawing battery power in SCSI disk mode
Your PowerBook continues to draw battery power when you use it as a hard
disk. Low battery power is indicated by a blinking low-power warning on the
PowerBook’s screen.
If you see this warning while using your computer as a hard disk, either plug
in the power adapter or quit SCSI disk mode, as described in the next section,
so you can remove the battery for recharging.
Quitting SCSI disk mode
1
Shut down the computer your PowerBook is connected to.
2
Hold down the x (Command) key and press the Power (P) key to shut down the
PowerBook.
3
Turn off any other SCSI devices in the chain.
4
Disconnect the minidock from the adapter cable.
IMPORTANT Do not leave the adapter cable attached to the minidock. If you
do, the computer will behave as though it is still in SCSI disk mode when you
try to restart.
5
Disconnect the adapter cable from the other computer or its SCSI chain.
Your equipment is now ready for normal use. If you disconnected the adapter
cable from the other computer or SCSI chain, make sure that the SCSI chain
is properly terminated.
48
Chapter 3
Connecting sound input and output devices
Your computer has a built-in microphone. For information on using the
microphone to record sounds, see the “Sound” topic area of Macintosh Guide,
available in the Guide (h) menu.
Microphone
If you have a Duo Dock Plus or a Duo MiniDock, you can attach sound
devices, such as a tape player or headphones, to the dock’s sound input and
output ports. (You cannot use the internal microphone and an external sound
input device at the same time.) For instructions on selecting a sound device,
see the “Sound” topic area of Macintosh Guide, available in the Guide (h)
menu.
Connecting Additional Equipment
49
Connecting a monitor
You can connect a monitor to the Duo Dock Plus or the Duo MiniDock. See
the manuals for the dock and the monitor for instructions.
Connecting other devices
For instructions on connecting a device not discussed in this chapter—for
example, an external input device or networking hardware—refer to the
manuals that came with the device.
Adding memory to your computer
Your PowerBook computer comes with at least 8 MB of RAM. You can
increase your computer’s memory by adding a RAM expansion card. You can
find out how much memory your computer has by choosing About This
Macintosh from the Apple (K) menu in the Finder.
You can purchase memory upgrades from Apple-authorized dealers. For
complete instructions on installing a RAM expansion card, see the
Technical Information booklet that came with your computer.
Your PowerBook computer also supports virtual memory, a feature that
makes use of hard disk space to provide additional RAM. (When the power
adapter is not plugged in, using virtual memory will reduce your battery life,
however.) For information on using virtual memory, see the “Memory” topic
area of Macintosh Guide, available in the Guide (h) menu.
50
Chapter 3
Read this chapter for information on
installing and using application
programs on your computer.
4
Installing and Using Application Programs
Using Software Highlights
Your Macintosh PowerBook comes with some great software already installed
that includes such features as
m hard disk password protection
m file synchronization
m DOS and Windows file compatibility
m remote access to another Macintosh
m an assortment of games
You can access this software from an icon on your hard disk called Software
Highlights. Software Highlights gives you access to application programs,
product demos, quick tips, important information in Read Me files, and
service and support information.
51
To get started with your software, follow these steps:
1
Open the Macintosh HD icon.
A window similar to this appears:
Important information about your PowerBook
The files used to
start up and control
your computer
A simple wordprocessing program
An application
program that lets you
launch the preinstalled software, get
tips, and learn about
service and support
2
Folders with the preinstalled
software and related information
Double-click the Software Highlights icon.
There are six topic buttons at the top of the window. When you click a button,
the window displays items or information associated with that topic.
IMPORTANT If you delete the Software Highlights icon, you have not deleted
your preinstalled software. (Most of the software is in the Applications folder
on your computer’s hard disk.)
If you don’t see a Software Highlights icon, you can access the information in
Software Highlights by following these steps:
1
Choose Control Panels from the Apple (K) menu.
2
Open the Launcher control panel.
The same window you see when you open Software Highlights appears on
your screen.
See the “Working with Programs” topic area of Macintosh Guide, available in
the Guide (h) menu, for instructions on using the Launcher.
52
Chapter 4
Getting help for application programs
Some application programs that come on your PowerBook (File Assistant, for
instance) are documented in their own Apple Guide online help systems.
Follow these steps to see if a program has an Apple Guide help system:
1
Open the application program.
2
Open the Guide (h) menu.
If an item appears in the Guide menu for your application program, choose
it. If an item does not appear, then there is no Apple Guide online help for
that program.
Installing application programs
You’ll probably want to buy and install additional application programs. Refer
to the manuals you receive with your programs for instructions on installing
and using them.
In most cases, you install application programs onto your internal hard disk
from floppy disks that you receive as part of an application program package.
(If you don’t have a dock or Floppy Disk Adapter and external floppy disk
drive, you can connect your PowerBook to a network and install the software
from another computer on that network. For instructions on connecting to a
network and using software from another computer, see the “Networks &
Telecommunications” topic area of Macintosh Guide, available in the Guide
[h] menu.)
Installing and Using Application Programs
53
Working with several programs at a time
You can open as many application programs and desk accessories as your
computer’s memory allows.
All open programs are listed in the Application menu at the right end of the
menu bar. The name of the active program (the one you’re using right now)
has a checkmark next to it, and its icon appears in the menu bar.
The Finder icon
Commands to hide or
display open windows
A checkmark indicates
the active program
Open programs
Finding out which programs are open
If you have several programs and windows open, you can find out which
program is active and which other programs are open by pulling down the
Application menu.
Switching programs
You can switch to another open program or desk accessory by choosing its
name from the Application menu.
If a program’s icon is dimmed in the menu, that means its windows are
hidden. Choosing the program from the Application menu displays its
windows.
You can also switch to another program by clicking in a window that belongs
to an open program, or by double-clicking a program icon (or the icon of a
document that was created with the program).
54
Chapter 4
Hiding and showing windows on the desktop
You can hide all windows except those of the active program by choosing
Hide Others from the Application menu.
The other programs remain open even though their windows are hidden.
When you switch to another program, its windows become visible again.
If you want to see all the open windows, choose Show All from the
Application menu.
Using “native” application programs
Your computer is compatible with nearly all application programs intended
for use with Macintosh computers. But certain programs are designed
especially for computers with PowerPC microprocessors. (These are
sometimes called “native” applications.) You’ll find that these programs take
best advantage of your computer’s speed.
Special memory requirements
Some native programs may be slightly larger than other programs and may
take up more memory. If you find that you are running out of memory when
you use programs designed for PowerPC microprocessors, you can use space
on your computer’s hard disk as additional memory. This feature is called
virtual memory. Your computer was developed to take advantage of the virtual
memory feature, and comes with virtual memory turned on. For instructions
on how to use or increase hard disk space as memory, see the “Memory” topic
of Macintosh Guide, available in the Guide (h) menu.
You can also add more memory to your computer, as described in the Technical
Information booklet that came with your PowerBook.
Shared libraries
Native programs use special files called shared libraries. These files help the
programs to run more efficiently, and can be used by more than one native
program simultaneously. Any necessary shared libraries are installed
automatically in the System Folder when you install native programs.
Installing and Using Application Programs
55
If a native program requires a shared library and there is not enough memory
available for the shared library, you’ll see a message that the program could
not be opened because of insufficient system memory. If this happens, see the
“Memory” topic of Macintosh Guide, available in the Guide (h) menu, for
instructions on turning on virtual memory.
If a required shared library is missing, you’ll see a message that the program
could not be opened because the shared library could not be found. If this
happens, follow the directions that came with your program to reinstall the
program. If the shared library is still missing, contact the program’s
manufacturer for assistance.
Backing up your files
Making backup copies of important files is good protection against possible
damage to the originals.
m Your hard disk contains disk images of system software and the application
programs that came with your computer. If you have an external floppy
disk drive with an adapter or a dock, you can make disks from these
images using the Floppy Disk Maker application program. (Instructions for
using Floppy Disk Maker with a floppy disk drive are presented in the next
section, “Making Software Disks.”)
m You can back up an entire floppy disk by copying it to another floppy disk,
or to a hard disk.
m You can use a commercial backup program to copy new and changed files
from a hard disk to another hard disk, to a tape drive, or to a series of
floppy disks.
m If your computer is on a network, you can back up files by copying them to
a shared disk on the network.
m You can back up files by copying them from one computer to the other
using SCSI disk mode. (See “Using Your Macintosh PowerBook as a
Hard Disk” in the “Connecting SCSI Devices” section in Chapter 3 for
more information on SCSI disk mode.)
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Chapter 4
Making software disks
This section describes how to create floppy disks of the software that comes
on your computer. You can make floppy disks if you have the PowerBook
Duo Floppy Adapter or the PowerBook Duo MiniDock and an external
floppy disk drive, or the PowerBook Duo Dock Plus.
Why make software disks?
Your Macintosh PowerBook computer comes with different kinds of software
installed. System software is the set of programs and other files that your
computer uses to start itself up, keep track of your files, and run application
programs. When you turn on your computer, it looks for a disk that contains
the system software. System software is always in a folder called the
System Folder.
Other included software gives you added functionality on your computer,
such as hard disk password protection and file synchronization.
You need to make a copy of this software for safekeeping, in case you ever
need to reinstall the software on your computer. The disks you need to install
and reinstall software from are called installer disks. You use the Floppy Disk
Maker application program to create your software installer disks.
What is a disk image?
A disk image is a discrete electronic representation of an individual disk.
The Disk Images folder in the Floppy Disk Maker folder (inside the Utilities
folder) on your hard disk contains the disk images you need to create installer
disks for both your system software and the other software that comes on the
hard disk. When you use Floppy Disk Maker, it copies the disk images onto
floppy disks. When you are finished making a set of disks with Floppy Disk
Maker, you’ll have a set of installer disks and will be able to reinstall the
software that comes on your computer.
Installing and Using Application Programs
57
What you need
Just as you need paper to make copies of important documents, you need
floppy disks to make copies of the information on your hard disk. You can
probably buy the floppy disks at the same place you bought your computer.
Floppy disks come in a variety of sizes and capacities. The ones you need for
backing up your hard disk are called high-density 3.5-inch disks. You can
recognize the disks by the way they look:
High-density disks
have two holes...
...and they have
this symbol.
Even though these disks have a hard plastic casing, they are called “floppy
disks” because the disk inside the casing is floppy.
Before you start making your disks, you’ll need to decide if you want to make
a full set or a minimum set of disks. When you make a full set, you’ll make
disks for your system software and most of the other software that comes on
your computer. When you make a minimum set, you’ll make just the core
system software disks. It is best to make a full set (at least two dozen disks),
so you’ll have installer disks for your system software and most of the other
software that comes on your computer. However, making a full set requires
more disks and more time than making a minimum set (at least one dozen
disks). At the very least, make a minimum set of disks now. If you choose to
make a minimum set, you can make disks for the other software later.
If you don’t have disks on hand, you can skip these instructions for the
moment. But the sooner you make the system software disks, the better. Buy
the disks as soon as possible, then return to this section and follow these
instructions.
IMPORTANT Be sure you make at least a minimum set of disks as soon as
possible, in case you need to reinstall your system software.
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Chapter 4
Making a set of disks
To use the Floppy Disk Maker program to make your system software disks,
follow these instructions:
1
With your computer turned off, connect it to the Duo Dock Plus, or to the Duo MiniDock
or the Duo Floppy Adapter and external floppy disk drive.
If you need instructions for connecting an external floppy disk drive, see
Chapter 3, “Connecting Additional Equipment.”
2
Turn on the computer.
3
Locate the Floppy Disk Maker program (inside the Floppy Disk Maker folder, in the
Utilities folder on your hard disk) and double-click its icon to open it.
You can find Floppy Disk Maker in either the Applications/Utilities section of
Software Highlights or in the Floppy Disk Maker folder (inside the Utilities
folder) on your hard disk. (See “Using Software Highlights” earlier in this
chapter for more information.)
When the program opens, the following dialog box appears on your screen:
Installing and Using Application Programs
59
4
Click Minimum Set or Full Set, depending on the kind of disk set you want to make.
If you are making a minimum set, you can press the Return key. You can
make a minimum set first so you have a set of system software disks, and then
use Floppy Disk Maker to make the other disks later. (See “Making Individual
Disks” later in this chapter for instructions when you want to make the
additional disks.)
If you need to stop Floppy Disk Maker in the middle of making a set of disks,
click Quit. Floppy Disk Maker will remember where you were in the diskmaking process, and will resume where you left off when you restart Floppy
Disk Maker.
5
Follow the instructions on the screen until a message tells you that you’re finished.
Insert a new disk whenever the screen messages tell you to. Do not use any
disk that contains a program or information that you want to save.
Insert metal end first, label side up.
6
When you’re finished, click Quit.
As you complete each disk, make a label with the name displayed on the
screen. Then immediately put the label on the disk so that you know what its
contents are later.
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Chapter 4
7
If you quit in the middle of the disk-making process and want to resume copying, click
Resume Minimum or Resume Full (depending on the type of set you are making) when
you open the program and see the Floppy Disk Maker box.
Once you’ve made a full set of disks, you can delete the disk images to free up
space on your hard disk. However, keeping copies of at least the system
software images is a good idea. You should keep these disk images on your
hard disk, or backed up on an external hard disk. The disk images are found
in a folder called Disk Images inside the Floppy Disk Maker folder.
Making individual disks
If you made a minimum set of disks, you can go back and make disks of the
remaining software on your computer. You do this by using the custom
feature of Floppy Disk Maker. You can make an individual disk or a set of
disks for an application program. Follow these steps:
1
Open the Floppy Disk Maker application program.
You can find Floppy Disk Maker in either the Applications/Utilities section of
Software Highlights or in the Floppy Disk Maker folder (inside the Utilities
folder) on your hard disk. (See “Using Software Highlights” earlier in this
chapter for more information.)
Installing and Using Application Programs
61
2
When the Floppy Disk Maker dialog box appears, click Custom.
The following appears on the screen:
Folders containing images of software
that comes on your computer are
listed here. Click the folder you want
to copy, then click Add.
Once you add the folders
you want to copy, they
appear here.
3
Click the icon for the folder you want to copy to select it.
If you want to make one individual disk for a program (in case you lost a disk
or an individual disk got damaged), double-click the program’s folder to open
it, then click the icon of the individual disk image to select it.
The folder (or individual disk) appears in the list to the right under “Disk
images to be copied.”
4
Click Add.
Repeat steps 3 and 4 until all the software you want to copy appears in the list
to the right. The total number of disks you’ll need appears above the list in
the right of the window.
5
Click Copy.
Follow the instructions on the screen. Remember to label the disks as you
make them.
When you have finished copying software, store the disks in a safe, cool place.
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Chapter 4
Read this chapter for
information about your
Macintosh PowerBook’s battery.
5
Power Management
Power sources
Your computer can draw its operating power from two different sources.
m Main battery Your computer came with a nickel-metal-hydride (NiMH)
battery. This battery should provide power for 2–4 hours of work time (you
may get longer work time, depending on the Macintosh PowerBook model
you have and the battery conservation features you use).
m AC power You can run your computer from a grounded electrical outlet by
plugging in the power adapter.
These power sources are described in more detail in the following sections.
Monitoring the battery charge
There are three ways you can determine the charge level of your battery:
m See low-power messages on your display.
m Look in the Battery Monitor portion of the Control Strip.
For information on the Battery Monitor, see the “Batteries & Power” topic
of Macintosh Guide, available in the Guide (h) menu.
m Look at the battery level icon next to the clock in the menu bar.
63
Responding to low-power messages
When the battery runs low, the computer displays a series of low-power
messages. The work time remaining after you see the first message varies
depending on how you are using the computer. It’s a good idea to act
promptly.
What you should do
When you see a low-power message, you should do the following:
m Plug in the power adapter, or
m Save your work and put the computer to sleep, then
m Replace the empty battery with a charged one within two minutes.
IMPORTANT Always save your work when you see a low-power message.
What you should know
When the first low-power message appears, the screen dims automatically to
save power.
If you continue to work without plugging in the power adapter or changing
the battery, the computer displays a second low-power message.
The second message is followed by a third and final message indicating that
the computer is about to put itself to sleep. Within a few seconds, the
computer goes to sleep automatically to protect the contents of RAM. All
activities are interrupted. It’s a good idea to save your work when you see the
first two low-power messages to make sure you don’t lose information.
Note: When connected to a minidock with an external monitor attached or to
certain docks from manufacturers other than Apple, the computer shuts down
rather than going to sleep after the third warning message.
If you continue working until the computer goes to sleep automatically, you
can wake it again as soon as you plug in the power adapter or replace the
battery with a charged battery.
If you can’t plug in the power adapter, the contents of RAM are retained in
sleep for about a day (as long as you don’t remove the battery).
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Chapter 5
IMPORTANT Recharge a depleted battery as soon as possible. Leaving a
depleted battery in the computer for a length of time (especially in a hot
location, such as the trunk of a car) may damage the battery so that it can’t
be recharged. If this happens, you need to replace the battery.
Using the Control Strip to monitor battery charge
The Battery Monitor portion of the Control Strip shows the current power
source and the approximate amount of charge left in your battery.
This icon indicates
the current
power source.
These indicators show the
approximate amount of charge
remaining, based on current
battery conservation settings.
This clock shows the approximate amount
of work time remaining, based on current
battery conservation settings.
For more information, see the question “How do I check the battery power
level?” in the “Batteries & Power” topic area of Macintosh Guide, available in
the Guide (h) menu.
Using the battery icon
There is a battery icon in the menu bar that tells you the charge left in your
battery.
The amount of black in the icon
indicates the charge level.
When a lightning bolt appears
in the icon, the battery is charging.
Power Management
65
Recharging the battery
There are three ways to recharge a battery:
m Plug in the power adapter to recharge the battery without removing it from
the computer.
m Remove the battery and recharge it in the (optional) recharger.
m Put the Macintosh PowerBook in the Duo Dock Plus, where recharging
begins immediately.
Recharge a battery shortly before you plan to use it. The battery does not
retain its charge in long-term storage.
Recharging in the computer
Plug in the power adapter as shown.
WARNING Use only the power adapter that came with your computer.
Adapters for other electronic devices (including other portable
computers) may look similar, but they may damage your computer.
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Chapter 5
You can continue to use the computer while the battery is recharging.
Recharging takes approximately 4 hours when the computer is in use and
approximately 2 hours when the computer is in sleep or shut down.
A lightning bolt icon appears in the Battery Monitor portion of the Control
Strip when the power adapter is plugged in and a battery is recharging.
Recharging in a recharger
You can purchase a battery recharger and additional batteries from your
Apple-authorized dealer. If you have a recharger and an extra battery, you can
charge one battery while you use another, so you always have a fully charged
battery on hand.
The recharger can accommodate two batteries. It charges one battery at a
time. You can put batteries in or take them out at different times.
The recharger must be plugged into an electrical outlet to charge a battery.
You can plug it in using the power adapter that came with your computer, or
you can purchase an additional (identical) power adapter from your Appleauthorized dealer.
WARNING Use only the power adapter that came with your computer
with the recharger. Using other types of power adapters may damage the
recharger, the power adapter, or both.
To recharge a battery, follow these steps:
1
Place the recharger on a level surface.
Power Management
67
2
Connect the recharger and the power adapter as shown in the illustration.
Power adapter
Battery
Recharger
3
Place the battery in the recharger as shown.
Recharging begins immediately. You can remove a battery from the recharger
at any time. Remember, if you are charging two batteries, they charge one at a
time. It takes about two hours to charge each battery.
Be sure to put the battery in its plastic case when it is not in the recharger or
the computer.
IMPORTANT To preserve a battery’s charge, don’t leave it in the recharger if the
power adapter is not plugged into an electrical outlet.
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Chapter 5
The lights on the recharger indicate the following:
m Yellow The battery is charging.
m Green The battery is fully charged.
m Red The recharger does not recognize the type of battery you inserted. If
you are charging a replacement battery, follow the instructions that came
with it.
m No light Either the recharger is not plugged in, the other battery is being
charged (if you have two batteries in the recharger), or the battery is
defective. (If the light goes off during recharging, there is a problem with
the battery.)
Recharging in both the computer and a recharger
You can use a single power adapter to run the PowerBook and the battery
recharger at the same time.
If the PowerBook is on and contains a battery that is not fully charged, the
computer charges the internal battery first. The external battery does not
begin charging until the internal battery is fully charged. It takes a little over
2 hours for a fully depleted battery to charge.
If the PowerBook is in sleep or is shut down, internal and external batteries
charge simultaneously. If both batteries are fully depleted, it takes about
4.5 hours to charge both. If the internal battery is fully charged or absent, the
external battery takes a little over 2 hours to charge.
Power Management
69
Removing or replacing the battery
When you remove a depleted battery without first plugging in the power
adapter, the backup battery in your computer protects open programs and
documents for about 4 minutes, allowing you to remove the depleted battery
and replace it with a charged one. (The backup battery maintains other kinds
of information, including control panel settings such as the clock time, for up
to two weeks after the main battery is discharged or removed.)
If the power adapter is plugged in, you can use the computer indefinitely
without a battery.
To remove or replace the main battery, follow these steps:
1
Save your work, and then put the computer to sleep.
You can shut down if you feel more comfortable working without the
4-minute time limit.
2
Close the display.
3
Open the battery door by pressing the small battery release button and sliding the door
in the direction indicated by the arrow.
The door is physically attached to the battery.
Battery release button
4
Carefully pull the battery out of its compartment.
Put the battery in its plastic case if you won’t be recharging it.
5
If you are inserting another battery, slide it into the battery compartment.
Replacement batteries come with a door attached.
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Chapter 5
6
Close the battery door by pushing it back into place.
IMPORTANT Check to make sure the battery is properly inserted. The battery
should be aligned with the computer and the battery door completely closed.
The top and bottom seams where the battery and the Macintosh PowerBook
meet should be tight and even. If a battery is not inserted correctly, you may
have performance problems.
7
If possible, plug in the power adapter in case the battery is not fully charged.
WARNING Damaged nickel-metal-hydride batteries may leak small
amounts of sodium hydroxide. This substance can cause severe burns to
the skin and eyes. If you touch a damaged battery, immediately rinse
your hands and any other affected areas with water for at least five
minutes. Do not use soap.
Disposing of dead batteries
IMPORTANT Nickel-metal-hydride batteries contain hazardous materials It is
inappropriate, and in some cases unlawful, to throw the batteries away with
your household or business trash. Many locations have government-sponsored
collection and/or recycling programs. Please dispose of used batteries in
accordance with the mandatory or voluntary battery collection schemes in
your location.
In the United States: Return dead batteries to your Apple-authorized service
provider, who will make sure they are included in Apple’s battery recycling
program.
Elsewhere: Many countries have government or Apple-sponsored collection
and/or recycling programs for dead batteries. Dispose of dead batteries in
accordance with the mandatory or voluntary battery collection schemes in
your country. Contact your Apple-authorized service provider for information
about the recommended battery disposal procedures in your location.
Power Management
71
Replacing the backup battery
In addition to its main battery, your computer has a small backup battery that
maintains the contents of RAM while you replace the main battery.
The backup battery usually lasts for several years. You may need to have it
replaced if you notice that some of your system settings changed after you
removed or replaced the main battery. (You may notice, for example, that the
clock time is different.) By replacing the backup battery, you can preserve the
contents of RAM the next time you change the main battery.
Your computer’s backup battery must be replaced by an Apple-authorized
service provider.
Reconditioning the battery
To maximize battery life, you should recondition the battery once every
30 days, using the Battery Reconditioning program. You can find this program
in the Utilities folder on your hard disk, and also on the system software
floppy disk labeled Disk Tools. Keep the Battery Reconditioning program on
your hard disk so it is convenient to use every 30 days.
IMPORTANT It takes 2 hours to run the Battery Reconditioning program and
another 2 hours to fully charge your battery in your Macintosh PowerBook.
During the time you are reconditioning your battery (and recharging it, if you
don’t have a recharger), you cannot use your PowerBook. Plan to recondition
your battery when you won’t need your PowerBook for at least 4 hours.
To recondition a battery, follow these steps:
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Chapter 5
1
Make sure your PowerBook is connected to a power source.
2
Turn on your PowerBook.
3
Locate the Battery Reconditioning icon (in the Utilities folder on your hard disk) and
double-click to open it.
A message appears on the screen describing battery reconditioning. If you
don’t have your PowerBook plugged in, a message appears telling you to plug
it in.
4
Read the message on the screen and click OK.
The following appears:
The type of battery
in your computer
appears here.
5
The date you last reconditioned your
battery appears here. A warning
appears below the date if it has been
less than 30 days since the last time
you reconditioned the battery.
Click Recondition if it has been more than 30 days since the last time you reconditioned
the battery.
If 30 days have not passed since the last time you reconditioned, the following
appears on the screen:
Click Quit to exit the Battery Reconditioning program.
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73
If 30 days have passed since you last reconditioned, this message appears:
Remember that it takes 2 hours to recondition the battery and 2 hours to fully
charge the battery. Make sure you do not need to use your PowerBook for 4
hours.
6
Click OK.
While the reconditioning cycle is taking place, the following icon appears on
the screen:
You can quit the Battery Reconditioning program at any time by pressing the
period key and the x (Command) key at the same time. Also, if you unplug
your PowerBook during reconditioning, the reconditioning program will quit.
Your battery is not reconditioned if you quit in the middle of the
reconditioning cycle.
When the reconditioning is complete, the following appears on the screen for
one minute:
7
Click OK.
The battery is reconditioned. Allow time to recharge the battery by leaving
the PowerBook plugged in for 2 hours. Follow these steps again in 30 days to
maximize the life of the battery.
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Chapter 5
Maximizing work time
Your PowerBook’s battery can provide 2 to 4 hours of work time before you
need to recharge. The actual work time available depends on what equipment
you’re using with your computer and what steps you take to conserve power
while you work.
For battery conservation tips, see the “Batteries & Power” topic of Macintosh
Guide, available in the Guide (h) menu.
Power Management
75
Chapter 6
Tips and Troubleshooting
Chapter 7
Diagnostic Techniques
II
part
Consult this chapter and the next if
you have questions or experience
problems using your computer.
6
Tips and Troubleshooting
When you have questions
If you want to know how to do a particular task with your computer, refer
to Macintosh Guide in the Guide (h) menu. For instructions on using
Macintosh Guide, see Chapter 2 of this manual. If the suggestions in this
chapter and Macintosh Guide don’t solve the problem, go to Chapter 7
for some diagnostic techniques to help you solve system software and hard
disk problems.
When you run into trouble
While you’re using your computer, you may see a bomb icon or an error
message, or you may have a problem such as the pointer (8) “freezing” on
the screen. If you have trouble with your computer, take a few minutes to read
the information in this chapter and Chapter 7. If your problem is related to a
particular procedure, you should also look for information on that procedure
in Macintosh Guide, available in the Guide (h) menu. If you are unable to
access Macintosh Guide (for example, if your screen is “frozen”), refer to this
chapter to see if you can resolve the problem.
79
This chapter and Chapter 7 describe solutions to problems you may
experience with your computer. If the suggestions in these two chapters don’t
solve your problem, contact a local Apple-authorized service provider or call
the Apple Assistance Center. (See the service and support information that
came with your computer for the phone number.) If your problem is with
third-party software or equipment, please call the software or equipment
manufacturer for help.
Problems starting up the computer
The computer doesn’t start up or restart.
m The battery may need recharging. Plug the power cord into a working
outlet, and then plug the power adapter into the computer. Let the battery
recharge for a few minutes. (Or use the optional recharger.)
m Check that the power cord is plugged into a working outlet. If it’s plugged
into a power strip, make sure the power strip is turned on. The power
adapter should get warm after being plugged in for 10 minutes. If it is
cold, make sure the adapter is securely plugged in and attached to the
power cord.
m The screen brightness may be turned down. Adjust the brightness control
(marked with the icon ¤), located to the right of the display.
m Make sure the battery is properly seated in its compartment.
m Press the reset button (marked with the icon I) on the back panel.
Reset button
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Chapter 6
Resetting the parameter RAM—
a useful troubleshooting technique
Problems that relate to starting up the computer may result from
damage to the information stored in part of the computer’s memory
known as the parameter RAM, or PRAM. Consequently, resetting the
PRAM is a good technique to correct a number of unexplained
problems.
Resetting the PRAM erases the contents of your RAM disk, if you have
set one up. The process also restores the default settings in most control
panels. After you reset the PRAM, be sure to check any custom settings
you made for the desktop pattern, memory, network, AppleTalk,
trackpad, power conservation, and so forth. Resetting the PRAM also
resets the power manager. Resetting the PRAM does not change or
erase the contents of your hard disk.
Follow these steps to reset the PRAM:
1. Locate the keys x (Command), Option, P, and R.
2. Make sure the Caps Lock key is not down.
3. Restart your Macintosh. Immediately after hearing the startup sound,
press the x, Option, P, and R keys simultaneously.
If you don’t hold down the key combination within 5–10 seconds
after you restart, you may need to repeat steps 1–3.
4. Hold down the keys until you hear the startup sound again. Then
release the keys.
5. If the computer shuts itself off, press the reset button on the back of
the computer to turn it back on.
(You may have to press the reset button more than once. The startup
sound signals that the computer is starting up.)
6. When the computer has finished starting up, restore any custom
control panel and network settings.
Tips and Troubleshooting
81
The computer makes an unusual sound at startup.
m If you hear an unfamiliar startup sound, start up the computer with the
Disk Tools disk that came with your computer (if you have an external
floppy disk drive or a Duo Dock Plus). If the computer does not start up, or
if the hard disk icon does not appear, the hard disk may need repair.
Contact an Apple-authorized service provider or call the Apple Assistance
Center. If the hard disk icon does appear, see Chapter 7, “Diagnostic
Techniques.”
m There may be a problem with the parameter RAM. Reset the PRAM, as
explained in the previous section.
m There may be a problem with a RAM expansion card. If you installed a
RAM expansion card in your computer, check the instructions in the
Technical Information booklet that came with your computer to make sure
the card is properly installed. If you purchased an expansion card from a
third-party manufacturer, contact the manufacturer for help.
See also “The Computer Makes Unusual Sounds” in the section “Other
Problems While Working” later in this chapter.
The computer starts up, but the desktop doesn’t appear.
m The screen brightness may be turned down. Adjust the brightness control
(¤), located to the right of the display.
m The computer may be trying to start up using an external hard disk that
does not contain the correct version of system software. Disconnect the
external hard disk and restart your computer.
m Start the computer, holding down the Shift key until you see the message
“Extensions off” in the Welcome to Macintosh box. If the computer starts
up, turn to “Checking Your System Software Extensions” in Chapter 7 and
try the steps given.
m If you see the following icon on the screen, your PowerBook is in SCSI
disk mode. See “Quitting SCSI Disk Mode” in the section “Connecting
SCSI Devices” in Chapter 3 for more information.
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Chapter 6
m There may be a problem with the display of windows. Restart the
computer and hold down the Option key until the desktop icons appear.
(When the desktop appears, all windows will be closed.)
When I start up the computer, I see a message about the system software.
m The system software on the startup disk you’re using may be incomplete or
damaged, or may be the wrong version. Make sure you’re using the correct
disk as a startup disk.
m If you’re sure you’re using the correct startup disk, you may need to
reinstall system software. See “Reinstalling System Software” in Chapter 7.
The computer displays a flashing question mark icon.
m This icon usually means that the computer can’t find system software
on any disks attached to the computer. (After it displays this icon for two
minutes, the computer will shut itself off.)
If the computer is connected to any external hard disks, make sure that the
SCSI chain is terminated properly (see “Connecting SCSI Devices” in
Chapter 3) and that the external hard disks are turned on. Then restart the
computer. If the problem recurs, the hard disk or its system software may
be damaged. See Chapter 7, “Diagnostic Techniques.”
m Turn off the computer, disconnect all external devices except the power
adapter, and restart the computer. If the computer starts up, turn to
“Problems with Equipment Connected to Your Macintosh PowerBook,”
later in this chapter.
m If the computer is not connected to any external devices, you may need to
reinstall system software. See “Reinstalling System Software” in Chapter 7.
The computer freezes or displays an error message during startup.
m Turn off the computer, disconnect all external devices except the power
adapter, and restart the computer. If the computer starts up, turn to
“Problems with Equipment Connected to Your Macintosh PowerBook,”
later in this chapter.
Tips and Troubleshooting
83
m Start the computer, holding down the Shift key until you see the message
“Extensions off” in the Welcome to Macintosh box. If the computer starts
up, turn to “Checking Your System Software Extensions” in Chapter 7.
About the codes in error messages: The number codes in error messages are
used in software development. Sometimes they can help a technician narrow
down the source of a problem. However, the codes are usually too general or
technical in nature to help you diagnose a problem yourself.
When the computer starts up, a message says there is not enough memory.
m There may not be enough memory to load all the system software
extensions you’ve installed. Restart the computer, holding down the Shift
key until you see the message “Extensions off” in the Welcome to
Macintosh box. Then try the following to increase available memory:
m Reduce the size of the disk cache in the Memory control panel.
m If you use a RAM disk, reduce its size or turn it off in the Memory
control panel.
m Remove any system software extensions you don’t need from the
Extensions folder (inside the System Folder).
m Turn on virtual memory in the Memory control panel.
IMPORTANT You need to restart the computer for these changes to take effect.
m If these suggestions don’t work, you can increase memory by installing a
RAM expansion card in your computer. See the Technical Information
booklet that came with your computer for instructions.
The computer freezes during operation or it won’t restart.
m If the computer freezes, you can try to “force” the program you’re using to
quit by simultaneously pressing the keys x, Option, and Esc on your
keyboard. Then click Force Quit in the dialog box that appears. (Note:
Unsaved changes in any open documents will be lost.) Immediately save
all open documents, quit all other open programs, and restart the
computer.
m Press the reset button (marked with the icon I) on the back panel.
Note: You will lose any work you have not saved.
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m If the battery is depleted, remove it from the computer and use the power
adapter to start up.
m If you have a Duo Dock Plus, put the computer in it, then press the power
button on the dock.
m If the problem recurs, reset the PRAM (see “Resetting the Parameter
RAM,” earlier in this section). If the problem still occurs, see Chapter 7,
“Diagnostic Techniques.”
Every time the computer starts up, it rebuilds the desktop.
m There may be a folder on your hard disk that has the same name as a file
the computer uses to keep track of information on your disks. Manually
search for a folder named “Desktop” or “Desktop file.” If you find one,
rename it “Storage.” Then restart the computer. (Do not use the Find File
command to search for the desktop file. It may find it but you may not be
able to access it.)
When the computer starts up, no icons appear in the windows, and the pointer alternates
between an arrow and a wristwatch, or an empty flashing box appears.
m There is a problem with the display of windows. Restart the computer,
holding down the Option key until the desktop icons appear. (When the
desktop appears, all windows will be closed.)
When I start up the computer, the display lights up for a moment, then shuts down.
m Make sure you are using the correct power adapter for your computer
model and that the adapter is plugged into a working outlet.
Problems working with programs
The computer freezes or displays a system error message.
m There may be a temporary software problem. To reset the computer, try the
following suggestions in order until the computer starts up normally:
1. If the computer freezes, you can try to quit the program you’re using by
pressing the keys x, Option, and Esc on your keyboard. Click Force Quit
in the dialog box that appears. (You’ll lose unsaved changes in that
program’s documents.)
Immediately save all open documents and quit all open programs, then
restart the computer.
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2. If you see a message about a system error, press the reset button (on the
back of your Macintosh PowerBook) to restart the computer.
3. Reset the PRAM (see “Resetting the Parameter RAM” in the section
“Problems Starting Up the Computer” earlier in this chapter
for instructions).
m If the problem recurs, it may involve one or more of your application
programs. See “The Computer Exhibits Odd Behavior, Such as Many
Unexplained System Failures,” next.
About the codes in error messages: The number codes in error messages are
used in software development. Sometimes they can help a technician narrow
down the source of a problem. However, the codes are usually too general or
technical in nature to help you diagnose a problem yourself.
The computer exhibits odd behavior, such as many unexplained system failures.
m Check for multiple System Folders on your startup disk, using the Find File
command. Throw away extra System Folders (but do not throw away any
System Folders from your RAM Disk Backup folder). The System Folder
that your computer is using has a small computer icon on it.
m Check for viruses on all your disks, using a virus-detection program.
Eliminate any viruses the program finds.
m If a problem recurs when you are using a particular program, try the
following:
m Consult the documentation that came with the program to make sure you
are using it correctly.
m Check for multiple copies of the program on your hard disk. Use the Get
Info command to check the programs’ version numbers. Keep one copy
of the latest version and throw away all other copies.
m Reinstall the program from a known good source (such as the original
program disks or installer disks you made with Floppy Disk Maker).
m Increase the program’s memory. Quit the program, select its icon, choose
Get Info from the File menu, and type a larger number in the Preferred
Size box.
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m Contact the manufacturer or vendor of the program to find out whether
the program contains software errors or “bugs” and whether an upgrade
is available.
m Check that the program is compatible with System 7.5 (see the program’s
documentation, or contact the manufacturer or vendor).
m Make sure your control panels and system software extensions
(especially any that you recently added) are compatible with your
programs. See “Checking Your System Software Extensions” in
Chapter 7.
A program won’t open.
m The application program may already be open. Check the Application
menu to see what programs are running.
m There may not be enough memory available to open the program. Quit any
programs you’re not using and try again. If that doesn’t work, try restarting
the computer.
m If the program is on a floppy disk, make sure the disk is unlocked. (You
unlock a disk by sliding the tab at the corner of the disk so that it covers
the hole.)
m The program may be damaged. Reinstall the program from a known good
source (such as the original program disks or backup copies you made with
Floppy Disk Maker).
m Contact the manufacturer or vendor of the program to see if the program is
compatible with System 7.5.
A program suddenly quits or disappears, or a message says a program has quit.
m There may be a temporary software problem. Restart the computer, then
try opening the program again.
m The program may have run out of memory. See the suggestions in “A
Message Says There Is Not Enough Memory,” next.
m If the problem occurs when you are trying to print, there may not be
enough memory for printing.
m Contact the manufacturer or vendor of the program to see if the program
contains software errors or “bugs” and if it is compatible with the version
of system software you’re using.
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A message says there is not enough memory.
m There may be a temporary software problem. Save your work, quit all open
programs, and restart the computer. If you can’t restart, see the suggestions
in “The Computer Freezes or Displays a System Error Message,” earlier in
this section.
m If you get this message when you are trying to open or use a program,
follow these steps:
1. Choose About This Macintosh from the Apple (K) menu. Take note of
the number in the “Largest Unused Block” section. This number tells
you how much memory is available to open programs.
2. Quit the program if it’s open, select its icon, and choose Get Info from
the File menu. Take note of the numbers in the Minimum Size and
Preferred Size boxes.
3. If the number in the Minimum Size box is larger than the largest unused
block, not enough memory is available to use this program. To free
memory, quit open programs or restart the computer. You can also type
a smaller number in the Minimum Size box if you want to open the
program using less memory. (But some programs don’t work well if you
assign them less memory.)
4. If the number in the Preferred Size box is smaller than the largest
unused block, you may need to assign more memory to the program.
(A program may need more memory if you are working with complex
documents.) Type a larger number in the Preferred Size box.
m If you frequently want to open more programs than memory allows, try
the following:
m Use the Memory control panel to reduce the size of the disk cache or to
remove or reduce the size of your RAM disk.
m Turn on or increase the size of virtual memory (VM) in the Memory
control panel. (Virtual memory is turned on at the factory. Verify that
VM is on and increase the amount of virtual memory if necessary.)
m Install a RAM expansion card in your PowerBook. (See the Technical
Information booklet that came with your computer for information.)
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When I try to open a document, a message says the program can’t be found.
m The document may have been created with a program that is not on your
hard disk, or with a different version of the program.
m You can also open a document from within a program by using the Open
command in the File menu. For more information, see the documentation
that came with your programs.
m If you know the correct program is on your hard disk, there may be a
problem with the information that the computer uses to keep track of files.
Restart the computer and hold down the x and Option keys until you see a
message asking if you want to rebuild the desktop. Release the keys and
click OK.
Note: If Macintosh Easy Open is on, you must turn off all extensions
except the Macintosh Easy Open control panel before rebuilding your
desktop. (Macintosh Easy Open is turned on at the factory.)
A window has disappeared.
m Another open window may be covering the one you’re looking for. Move,
resize, close, or hide windows until you see the one you want.
m The program the window is associated with may be hidden. Choose Show
All from the Application menu, then click the window you want, or choose
the program from the Application menu.
Other problems while working
The screen went blank.
m Screen dimming may be on. Move the pointer to restore the screen’s
brightness. You can adjust the interval before screen dimming takes effect,
or you can turn screen dimming off, using the PowerBook control panel.
m The computer may have gone to sleep. Press any key on the keyboard
(except Caps Lock) to wake it.
m The battery may be drained. Install a charged battery, or plug in the power
adapter and let the battery charge for a few minutes. Then try to wake or
start up the computer. (You can also use the optional recharger.)
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Some icons look different from usual.
m There may be a problem with the information that the computer uses to
keep track of files. Restart the computer and hold down the x and Option
keys until you see a message asking if you want to rebuild the desktop.
Release the keys and click OK.
Note: If Macintosh Easy Open is on, you must turn off all extensions
except the Macintosh Easy Open control panel before rebuilding your
desktop. (Macintosh Easy Open is turned on at the factory.)
m You may be using a file-compression program to save space on your hard
disk. Some compression programs change the appearance of icons.
When trying to open or move a font file, I see an error message.
m The font file may be damaged. To remove damaged font files, follow
these steps:
1. Drag the Fonts folder out of the System Folder.
2. Restart the computer.
3. Open the Fonts folder that you dragged out, and drag undamaged fonts
to the System Folder icon. Click OK in the dialog box that appears.
4. Throw away the old Fonts folder.
5. Reinstall the damaged font from the original disk.
An icon is blinking in the menu bar.
m A program needs attention. Open the menu and choose the program whose
icon is blinking (it may have a diamond by its name). Respond to any
messages on the screen. If it’s not clear what you should do, consult the
documentation that came with the program.
A file can’t be thrown away.
m The file may be locked. Choose Get Info from the File menu and click the
Locked checkbox to remove the X. You can also delete locked files by
holding down the Option key while you choose Empty Trash from the
Special menu.
m An application program may be using the file. Close the file or quit
the program.
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m If the file is on a floppy disk, the disk may be locked. Unlock the disk by
sliding the tab so that it covers the hole at the corner of the disk.
m The file may be in a shared folder that can’t be changed. You can throw
away the file by turning off file sharing temporarily (click Stop in the
Sharing Setup control panel). Or you can select the shared folder, choose
Sharing from the File menu, and uncheck the box labeled either “Can’t be
moved, renamed, or deleted” or “Same as enclosing folder.”
The computer makes unusual sounds.
m A program may need your attention. If an icon is blinking in the menu bar,
open the menu, choose the program whose icon is blinking (it may have a
diamond by its name), and take the necessary action.
m Open the Easy Access control panel and check whether any features are
turned on.
m Select a different alert sound in the Sound control panel.
m The computer speaker periodically turns itself off to save power.
Sometimes this causes a clicking or popping noise. This sound is normal.
m If the sounds are regular or melodic, they may be caused by interference
from electrical equipment. Move the computer farther away from any such
equipment.
See also “The Computer Makes an Unusual Sound at Startup” in the section
“Problems Starting Up the Computer,” earlier in this chapter.
I can’t access some of the memory on my computer.
m All computers set aside some memory for system overhead. Macintosh
PowerBook Duo 2300 series computers set aside about 400K of RAM.
m If you want to open more programs than memory allows, you can use the
Memory control panel to decrease the size of the disk cache, or to remove
or decrease the size of the RAM disk (if you’re using one). You can also
have a RAM expansion card installed in your computer. See the Technical
Information booklet that came with your computer for instructions.
m Turn on virtual memory in the Memory control panel, or increase the
amount of virtual memory.
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Problems with hardware
Floppy disk drive (either an external drive or built into a dock)
I can’t eject a floppy disk.
m The disk may be stuck. Restart the computer, holding down the button on
your trackpad. If the disk is not ejected, you can eject it manually.
Carefully insert the end of a straightened paper clip into the small hole
near the disk drive’s opening, and push firmly until the disk is ejected.
I can’t save or copy files onto a floppy disk.
m The disk may be locked. Unlock it by sliding the tab at the corner of the
disk so that it covers the hole.
m The disk may be full. Throw away items on the disk that you no longer
need, or save the files on a different disk.
m The disk or disk drive may be damaged. Test the disk with Disk First Aid.
(You can find Disk First Aid in the Utilities folder on your hard disk, or on
the Disk Tools disk that came with your computer.)
Hard disk
The computer won’t start up from the internal hard disk, or the hard disk icon doesn’t
appear on the desktop.
m There may be a temporary software problem. Turn off the computer, wait
at least 10 seconds, and then turn it on again.
The hard disk keeps stopping and starting again.
m The hard disk may be going to sleep to conserve power. Use the
PowerBook control panel to change the power conservation settings.
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The computer is using the wrong disk as a startup disk.
m Open the Startup Disk control panel and make sure the correct disk is
selected. Then restart the computer.
m If you’re trying to start up from an external hard disk, the computer may
not be recognizing the disk. See “SCSI Equipment and SCSI Disk Mode”
later in this section. (If you want to force the computer to start up from an
external hard disk, hold down the x, Option, Shift, and Delete keys while
you restart. This procedure makes the computer bypass the internal hard
disk when looking for a startup disk.)
m There may be a problem with your startup disk or with its system software.
See “Testing Your Hard Disk” in Chapter 7.
Trackpad
The pointer won’t move.
m A program may be doing some work. Wait a few moments and then
try again.
m A temporary software problem may have caused the computer to “freeze.”
See “The Computer Freezes or Displays a System Error Message” in the
section “Problems Working With Programs,” earlier in this chapter.
The pointer sticks or jumps when I use the trackpad.
m Make sure to use only one finger on the trackpad and that your finger
is dry.
When I use the trackpad to click or double-click, it does not seem to work.
m Make sure your finger is off the trackpad at the end of the motion. If your
finger stays on the trackpad, the computer will not recognize the motion as
a click or a double-click. To click, tap the trackpad once; to double-click,
tap twice.
When I use the trackpad to drag, it seems to think I’m double-clicking.
m Make sure your finger stays down on the trackpad until the end of the
dragging motion.
m Turn on Drag Lock in the Trackpad control panel. When Drag Lock is on,
the drag will not end until you tap the trackpad.
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When I use the trackpad to drag, the item I’m dragging doesn’t always go where I want,
or the drag stops before I want it to.
m The computer automatically ends a drag after a certain amount of time has
passed. Continue the drag more quickly, or turn on Drag Lock in the
Trackpad control panel. When Drag Lock is on, the drag will not end until
you tap the trackpad.
When I use the trackpad to select text or items, dragging doesn’t seem to work as I
expect, or the drag gets “stuck.”
m To select a word and then drag it, double-click and drag; to select a line
and drag it, triple-click and drag.
m If Drag Lock is on, remember to tap the trackpad after selecting text or
other items to end the drag.
Keyboard
Typing on the keyboard produces nothing on the screen.
m Make sure the program you’re using is set to accept text input. Usually
you need to set an insertion point or select some text before typing. If
you’re using a communications program, you may need to turn on the
“local echo” setting.
m Open the Easy Access control panel and make sure Slow Keys is
turned off.
m Open Key Caps in the Apple (K) menu and check whether the computer is
recognizing keyboard input. If so, the keys in the Key Caps window will
darken when keys are pressed on the keyboard.
A key won’t stop repeating.
m Open Key Caps in the Apple (K) menu. If any keys in the window are
darkened, keys may be stuck down on your keyboard. This problem is
sometimes related to an incorrectly installed RAM expansion card. Review
the RAM card installation instructions in the Technical Information booklet
that came with your computer.
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PowerBook display
The screen went blank.
m Screen dimming may be on. Move the pointer to restore the
screen’s brightness.
m The computer may have gone to sleep. Press any key (except Caps Lock)
on the keyboard to wake it.
m The battery may need recharging. Plug in the power adapter, let the
battery charge for a few minutes, and then try to wake or start up the
computer again. (Or use the optional recharger.)
The screen flickers.
m Adjust the brightness control (¤) to the right of the display.
m Open the Monitors control panel and set the computer to display fewer
colors or grays.
m If tilting the display affects the flickering, there may be a loose cable.
Contact an Apple-authorized service provider, or call the Apple
Assistance Center.
The computer freezes when screen dimming takes effect.
m Screen dimming does not work with some programs. Open the PowerBook
control panel and turn off screen dimming.
External monitor (connected to a dock)
The monitor remains dark.
m Shut down the Macintosh PowerBook, then make sure the monitor is
connected to the dock, plugged into an active outlet, and turned on. (Most
monitors have a light on the front panel to show whether they are on.)
The monitor is on, but no image appears.
m Screen dimming may be on. Move the pointer to restore the screen’s
brightness.
m Adjust the monitor’s brightness and contrast controls.
m Open the Monitors control panel and press the Identify button. The
number on each monitor icon should appear on the corresponding screen.
If not, there may be a problem with the connection, or the monitor may
need repair.
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The external monitor does not show the menu bar.
m Open the Monitors control panel and drag the small menu bar to the icon
of the monitor that you want to display the menu bar.
The pointer won’t move from one monitor to another.
m The pointer moves between monitors in the area where the monitor icons
touch in the Monitors control panel. Open the Monitors control panel and
check that the positions of the monitor icons match the positions of the
actual monitors. If not, drag the icons until they are positioned as you
want them.
There are black bars at the top and bottom of the monitor screen. The monitor shows the
same image as the display.
m The video mirroring feature is turned on. With video mirroring, the
monitor shows the same image as the internal display. You can turn it off
using the PowerBook Display control panel, or the Video Mirroring
portion of the Control Strip.
The monitor goes dark after a few minutes.
m Screen dimming may be turned on. Move the pointer to restore the screen’s
brightness. You can change the interval before screen dimming takes effect
in the PowerBook control panel.
The computer freezes when screen dimming takes effect.
m Screen dimming does not work with some programs. Open the PowerBook
control panel and turn off screen dimming.
There is wavy or jittery interference on the external monitor.
m This interference may be generated by a magnetic field. If the monitor is
near another piece of equipment (such as a TV, speakers, or another
monitor), move the monitor away from the equipment.
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Docks
If the procedures in this section don’t solve your problem, see “Problems with
Equipment Connected to Your Macintosh PowerBook” later in this chapter.
The computer can’t be inserted into the Duo Dock.
m Make sure the docking connector door on the PowerBook’s back panel
is open.
m Make sure the dock is unlocked. The key should be in the vertical
(unlocked) position.
m Make sure the PowerBook is shut down (not in sleep).
m Make sure the PowerBook display is completely closed.
m Make sure nothing is stuck to the bottom of the PowerBook. Even a
business card is thick enough to misalign the docking mechanism.
m Unplug the dock and plug it back in again.
m Make sure the top cover of your dock is compatible with your PowerBook.
Color models require a taller cover.
The eject button on the Duo Dock doesn’t work.
m Make sure the computer is shut down. Some programs don’t respond to the
dock’s Shut Down command.
m Make sure the dock is unlocked. The key should be in the vertical
(unlocked) position.
m A very heavy object, such as a two-page monitor, on top of the dock can
prevent the computer from being ejected. The documentation that came
with your dock tells you the amount of weight that the dock can support.
m To manually eject the PowerBook, make sure the dock is unlocked, then
insert the key, a small screwdriver, or a similar object into the hole on the
left side of the dock and press gently to release the latches. Pull the
PowerBook out of the dock.
When I start up the computer after docking, the computer is ejected.
m Make sure the computer is shut down (not in sleep).
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When I start up the computer in the Duo Dock, nothing happens.
m Try the following suggestions in order:
1. Check that the connections are secure.
IMPORTANT Make sure that all equipment is turned off before connecting
or disconnecting cables.
2. Press the Power key on the external keyboard.
3. Press the power button on the back of the Duo Dock. If the computer
starts up, open Key Caps in the Apple (K) menu. If there are darkened
keys in the window, your computer may need repair. Contact an Appleauthorized service provider or call the Apple Assistance Center.
4. If a hard disk drive was installed in your dock, it may have been
assigned the wrong SCSI ID number. You can check the ID number
using the Drive Setup program in the Utilities folder on your hard disk,
or on the Disk Tools disk that came with your computer. If the ID number
of the dock’s hard disk is something other than 1, have an Appleauthorized service provider reset the ID number.
When I start up the computer in the Duo Dock, nothing happens on the monitor.
See “External Monitor (Connected to a Dock)” earlier in this section.
When I start up a computer connected to a minidock, nothing happens.
m Try the following suggestions in order:
1. Check that the connection is secure.
2. Press the Power key on any of your keyboards.
3. Press the power button on the back of the minidock.
4. Plug in the power adapter, let the battery charge for a few minutes, then
try again to start up the computer.
m Connect the computer to another minidock. If that works, then there may
be a problem with the original minidock.
If these suggestions don’t solve the problem, see “Problems With Equipment
Connected to Your Macintosh PowerBook” later in this chapter.
The battery drains too quickly when the computer is connected to a minidock.
m If you are using an external monitor, SCSI equipment, a printer, or an
external modem, you should plug in the computer’s power adapter.
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m If other equipment is connected, make sure that it’s low-power equipment
or that it has its own power source. Low-power equipment is often marked
with this icon: Á (Some devices consume little power but do not have the
low-power icon. For example, the round mouse [Apple Mouse II] is a lowpower device but does not show the icon. If you want to connect an older,
flat-surfaced mouse, check for the low-power icon.)
I can’t print on a printer connected to the dock.
m If the printer is connected to the printer port, make sure AppleTalk is
inactive. If the printer is connected to the modem port and you have an
internal modem, make sure the external or (“normal”) modem port is
selected in the control panel, then select the printer and the port in the
Chooser. (Depending on your model and system software version, you use
the PowerBook, PowerBook Setup, or Express Modem control panel to
activate the port.)
m Turn off any auto-answer options for a modem that also uses the
printer/external modem port.
m Make sure the printer is turned on.
m If the above suggestions don’t work, try the following:
1. Shut down the computer and eject or disconnect it from the dock.
2. Turn off the printer. Disconnect the printer cable and the power cord
from the dock. Wait five minutes.
3. Reconnect the power cord and reinsert or reconnect the PowerBook.
4. Reconnect the printer cable and turn on the printer.
5. Start up the computer.
6. Select the printer and port in the Chooser. Then try to print a document.
If this procedure works, the dock may need repair. Contact an Appleauthorized service provider or call the Apple Assistance Center.
Printers
The computer can’t find the printer.
m Make sure the printer is connected and turned on.
IMPORTANT Make sure that all equipment is turned off before connecting or
disconnecting cables.
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m The printer may not be selected in the Chooser. Open the Chooser and
select the printer you want to use. If the printer is connected to a port,
make sure the correct port is selected.
m Reset the PRAM. (See “Resetting the Parameter RAM” in the section
“Problems Starting Up the Computer” earlier in this chapter for
instructions.) Then select the printer in the Chooser and try printing again.
The printer does not appear in the Chooser.
m Make sure you’ve selected the correct kind of printer on the left side of the
Chooser window. For example, if you’re using a StyleWriter II, make sure
to select StyleWriter II, not StyleWriter.
m Use the scroll bars to look through all the selections in the Chooser areas.
m Check the connections between your computer and the printer, including
relevant sections of the network if appropriate. (See “Solutions to Common
Network Problems” in the section “Problems With Networks and File
Sharing” later in this chapter.)
m Make sure the correct printer software is in the Extensions folder inside
your System Folder.
m If you’re using a network printer, make sure that AppleTalk is active in the
Chooser. If you are using a printer connected directly to your computer,
make sure AppleTalk is inactive.
m If your network has zones, make sure the zone containing your printer
is selected.
Nothing happens, or an error message appears, when I try to print.
m There may not be enough memory for printing. Try the following:
m Quit the program immediately after sending the Print command.
m Increase the amount of memory that PrintMonitor uses. (Quit
PrintMonitor if it’s open, select it, choose Get Info from the File menu,
and type a larger number in the Preferred Size box.)
m Reduce the amount of memory the program uses.
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m Make sure the printer is turned on. Some printers need to warm up for a
few minutes after you turn them on.
m The printer may be out of paper or may need attention. Check the printer
status lights and any messages on your screen.
m Open the Application menu. If the PrintMonitor program is there, choose it
and check for status messages.
m Reinstall your printer software.
m Reset the PRAM. (See “Resetting the Parameter RAM” in the section
“Problems Starting Up the Computer” earlier in this chapter for
instructions.) Then select the printer in the Chooser and try printing again.
SCSI equipment and SCSI disk mode
External SCSI equipment doesn’t work, or a hard disk icon does not appear on the
desktop.
m Check that all cables are connected securely, that the devices are plugged
into working outlets, and that the devices are turned on.
IMPORTANT Make sure that all equipment is turned off before connecting or
disconnecting cables.
m Make sure that you turn on SCSI equipment before you start up the
PowerBook.
m Check that each connected SCSI device has a unique ID number
between 1 and 6.
m Make sure that SCSI cable terminators are correctly positioned. Follow the
instructions in “Connecting SCSI Devices” in Chapter 3.
I can’t turn on the computer after connecting a SCSI device.
m Turn on the SCSI equipment first, and then turn on the computer.
When I start up using SCSI disk mode, the desktop appears.
m You cannot use your PowerBook in SCSI disk mode with password
protection turned on. Turn password protection off in the Password
Security control panel.
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m When you use SCSI disk mode, the computer should display an icon with a
number in it.
If the computer starts up normally, immediately press the Power key to shut
down (if you can) or turn off the computer. If you don’t, you might damage
your information or equipment.
m Make sure you are using the correct cable for SCSI disk mode. The HDI-30
SCSI Disk Adapter is about 10 inches long, is dark gray, and has 30 pins in
the connector (no “missing” pins). Do not use the HDI-30 SCSI System
Cable, which is light gray, is about 20 inches long, and has 29 pins in the
connector (one “missing” pin). That cable is for connecting SCSI
equipment to a Duo Dock Plus or a Duo MiniDock.
m Check that all cable connections are secure.
m The PowerBook’s battery may be drained. Plug in the power adapter and
let the battery charge for a few minutes. Then press the Power key on the
PowerBook’s keyboard to restart it, and restart the other Macintosh.
m Start up the other Macintosh with the Disk Tools disk that came with it (do
not use the disk that came with your PowerBook). If the connection works,
then a system software extension on the other Macintosh may be causing
the problem.
When I start up using SCSI disk mode, I see a flashing question mark icon.
m Make sure you are using the correct cable for SCSI disk mode. The HDI-30
SCSI Disk Adapter is about 10 inches long, is dark gray, and has 30 pins in
the connector (no “missing” pins). Do not use the longer, light gray HDI-30
SCSI System Cable.
m Make sure terminators are placed correctly in the SCSI chain. See
“Connecting SCSI Devices” in Chapter 3 for more information.
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Problems with equipment connected to your Macintosh PowerBook
If a problem occurs while your Macintosh PowerBook is connected to
external equipment, such as SCSI equipment, an external monitor, a modem,
a printer, a mouse, or an external keyboard, these steps may help you
determine the source of the trouble:
1
Shut down your Macintosh PowerBook and anything that’s connected to it. Disconnect
everything connected to your Macintosh PowerBook (except the power adapter) and
restart it.
Note: If you’re connected to a network, contact your network administrator or
warn other users before disconnecting from the network, because it may
interrupt network services.
If the problem does not recur, it is likely to be related to equipment connected
to your PowerBook.
2
Shut down the Macintosh PowerBook.
3
Reconnect one device.
4
Make sure that the device is plugged into a working outlet and turned on, if applicable.
5
Start up the Macintosh PowerBook.
6
Repeat steps 2–5 until the problem recurs. The last device you connected may be
causing the problem.
Tips and Troubleshooting
103
Problems with networks and file sharing
Solutions to common network problems
If you are having problems using the network or file sharing, try the following
before attempting further solutions:
m Make sure that AppleTalk is turned on in the Chooser.
m Open the Network control panel and make sure the correct network type
is selected.
m Make sure that all the network software is installed. The Network
Extension and AppleShare files should be in the Extensions folder, and
the Network control panel should be in the Control Panels folder. If you
want to use file sharing, the Sharing Setup control panel should be in
the Control Panels folder, and the File Sharing Extension file should be
in the Extensions folder. If any of these items is missing, use the system
software disks that you made with Floppy Disk Maker to reinstall network
and file-sharing software. (If you don’t have access to a floppy disk drive,
you may be able to install the software over a network. For more
information, see the “Networks & Telecommunications” topic area of
Macintosh Guide, available in the Guide [h] menu.)
m Make sure the network is working by checking in the Chooser for the
shared disks and printers you use.
m Try connecting to the network from a different location, or try connecting
a printer or another computer directly to the Macintosh PowerBook using
network cables. If that works, the problem is likely to be in the network. If
it doesn’t work, the problem may be in the PowerBook or its network
software.
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Solutions to other network problems
The computer I want to connect to doesn’t appear in the Chooser.
m Make sure the computer you’re trying to connect to is turned on.
m Make sure file sharing is active on the computer you’re trying to connect to.
(That computer’s Sharing Setup control panel should say that file sharing
is on.)
I connected to another computer, but the shared disk I want to use is not available.
m You may already be connected to the shared disk. Check for its icon on
your desktop.
m You may not have the access privileges you need to use the shared disk.
Ask the network administrator or the owner of the shared item to give you
access. (See the “Networks & Telecommunications” topic area of
Macintosh Guide, available in the Guide [h] menu.)
I connected to another computer, but I can’t see any files.
m Make sure that files are being shared on the other computer. The File
Sharing Monitor control panel on that computer lists the items being
shared.
m Make sure you have the access privileges you need to view the files. Ask
the network administrator or the owner of the shared item to give you
access. (See the “Networks & Telecommunications” topic area of
Macintosh Guide, available in the Guide [h] menu.)
A message says that a disk can’t be ejected because it’s being shared.
m When you have file sharing turned on, you can’t eject disks (other than
floppy disks) that were connected to your computer when you started it
up. You can eject the disk by turning off file sharing in the Sharing Setup
control panel. After you’ve ejected the disk, you can turn file sharing
back on.
A message says that file sharing can’t be turned on.
m Make sure AppleTalk is turned on in the Chooser.
m Make sure you have at least 1MB of available space on your hard disk.
m Some disk-formatting programs don’t work with file sharing. If you use
such a program, contact the manufacturer or vendor for compatibility
information.
Tips and Troubleshooting
105
m There may be a problem with some of the information your computer
uses to start up file sharing. Follow these steps in order until the problem
is solved:
1. Open the Sharing Setup control panel and enter new information in the
Owner section. Then try again to turn on file sharing.
2. Remove the File Sharing folder from the Preferences folder (inside
the System Folder). Then restart the computer and try to turn on
file sharing.
3. Reset the PRAM. Afterward, make sure to turn AppleTalk back on and
select the correct network type in the Network control panel. (For
instructions, see “Resetting the Parameter RAM” in the section
“Problems Starting Up the Computer” earlier in this chapter.)
4. Remove the Users & Groups data file from the Preferences folder
(inside the System Folder). Restart the computer.
5. Reinstall system software. (See “Reinstalling System Software” in
Chapter 7.)
A message says that an item can’t be shared.
m Make sure you have at least 1 MB of space available on your hard disk.
m Some removable storage devices can’t be shared. Check with the
manufacturer or vendor for more information.
m Some disk-formatting programs don’t work with file sharing. If you use
such a program, check with the manufacturer or vendor.
The file-sharing section doesn’t appear in the Sharing Setup control panel.
m You may have turned off AppleTalk or file sharing using the Extensions
Manager control panel. Turn them back on.
m If the file-sharing and network software is not in your System Folder, use
the system software disks that you made with Floppy Disk Maker to
reinstall file-sharing and network software.
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I can’t open a shared disk or folder.
m You may not have the access privileges needed to use the disk or folder.
Ask the network administrator or the owner of the shared item to give
you access. (See the “Networks & Telecommunications” topic area of
Macintosh Guide, available in the Guide [h] menu.)
m Check with the owner of the item to make sure you are entering your
name exactly as specified by the owner (including spaces and
capitalization) and try again.
Problems with Apple Remote Access
The Remote Access Setup control panel won’t open.
m Make sure that AppleTalk is turned on in the Chooser.
m If you still can’t open the control panel, reinstall the Apple Remote Access
software.
The modem is not listed in the Remote Access Setup control panel.
m Reinstall the modem software. If that doesn’t help, then reinstall the Apple
Remote Access software.
m Contact the modem manufacturer to see whether your modem can use the
settings for another type of modem.
The modem didn’t dial the phone number.
m Check that the phone cord is plugged into the computer or modem and into
a working phone line.
m Try dialing the number again. Sometimes there is a temporary connection
problem.
m Quit the program and restart it. Sometimes this procedure solves
temporary problems with the modem.
m Another program may be using the modem. Quit all other programs that
use the modem.
m Try using another communications program. If that works, the problem
may be in the Apple Remote Access software. Reinstall the software.
Tips and Troubleshooting
107
The modem dialed the phone number, but the connection failed.
m Check that the phone cord is plugged into the computer or modem and into
a working phone line.
m Make sure your modem is plugged into an analog phone line. Do not use a
digital phone line. Digital phone lines can damage your modem.
m Check with your Apple Remote Access administrator to make sure your
version of Apple Remote Access is compatible with the version on the
computer you’re calling. If you’re using a version of Apple Remote Access
higher than 1.0, you can use the Remote Access Setup control panel to set
your software to work with version 1.0.
I’m connected via Apple Remote Access, but I can’t see any shared disks.
m Open the Chooser and click the AppleShare icon. Shared disks should
appear on the right side of the Chooser. If you still don’t see any shared
disks, and your Chooser has a box labeled Zones, choose a different zone
(some networks don’t have zones).
m If there are still no shared disks, or you can’t connect to the one you want,
contact your Apple Remote Access administrator or the owner of the
computer you want to connect to.
Whenever I try to use Apple Remote Access, a message says it’s not installed correctly.
m This message sometimes appears if AppleTalk is turned off. Make sure
AppleTalk is turned on in the Chooser.
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Chapter 6
Consult this chapter before you
call the Apple Assistance Center
to solve problems with system
software and your hard disk.
7
Diagnostic Techniques
This chapter provides a step-by-step approach to diagnosing and solving
problems involving system software and hard disks. Try the steps listed in
each section in the order they are given until your problems are fixed.
Checking your system software extensions
System software extensions are files that add features to your system software.
Some extensions are incompatible with one another or with certain programs.
To check whether an extension is causing problems, follow these steps:
1
Start up the Macintosh PowerBook while holding down the Shift key. Keep it held down
until you see the message “Extensions off” in the Welcome to Macintosh box.
This procedure turns off extensions.
If this procedure solves your problem, then continue with this section. If not,
then turn to the next section, “Testing Your Hard Disk.”
If the problem does not recur, it may involve file sharing, virtual memory, or
the disk cache. Turn these features back on one at a time (restarting the
computer each time) until the problem recurs. You may be able to fix the
problem by making the disk cache smaller or using a smaller amount of
virtual memory. If the problem involves file sharing, contact your network
administrator to make sure there are no network problems.
109
2
Turn off troublesome extensions using the Extensions Manager control panel.
Tips for locating problem extensions:
m If you recently installed a new item in the System Folder, it may be causing
the problem. If you recently installed a new application program, a new
extension may have been installed along with it. Check for new items in
the Extensions folder and Control Panels folder. Also check for items of the
kind “extension” or “control panel” in the System Folder itself.
m If two of your extensions provide similar features (such as two screen
savers or two clocks), they may be incompatible with each other. Remove
one of the extensions.
m If the computer is freezing or displaying an error message before it finishes
starting up, restart the computer and take note of the icons that appear at
the bottom of the screen. Many extensions display an icon as they start up,
and extensions start up alphabetically. The last extension that displays an
icon, or the one after it alphabetically, may be the problem extension.
3
Turn extensions back on, one extension at a time, in the Extensions Manager control
panel. Restart the computer after each turning on each extension and test to see if the
problem recurs.
When you have located the problem extension, remove it from the System
Folder and contact the developer or vendor for compatibility information.
4
Restart the computer while holding down the keys x (Command), Option, P, and R until
you hear the startup sound a second time. Then release the keys.
This procedure resets the parameter RAM (PRAM). For more information,
see “Resetting the Parameter RAM” in the section “Problems Starting Up the
Computer” in Chapter 6.
You can bypass all extensions by holding down the Shift key during startup.
(The Welcome to Macintosh box includes the phrase “Extensions off” to
confirm that extensions are not loaded.)
5
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Go to the next section if you are still having problems.
Testing your hard disk
The following steps will help you determine whether you have a problem
with your hard disk or a problem with the system software on your hard disk.
Testing your hard disk requires that you start up the computer from the Disk
Tools floppy disk. To do so, you must connect your Macintosh PowerBook
Duo 2300 series computer to a minidock and an external floppy disk drive or
insert the PowerBook into a Duo Dock.
1
Start up the Macintosh PowerBook with the Disk Tools disk that came with your
computer.
If the computer starts up normally, you may have a problem with the system
software on your hard disk. If the computer starts up but you don’t see the
hard disk icon, you may have a problem with the hard disk.
If the computer doesn’t start up normally, you may have a problem with
equipment connected to your Macintosh PowerBook. See “Problems with
Equipment Connected to Your Macintosh PowerBook” in Chapter 6.
If the computer doesn’t start up normally and nothing is connected, your
computer may need repair. Contact an Apple-authorized service provider, or
call the Apple Assistance Center.
(If you don’t have access to a floppy disk drive, you may need to contact an
Apple-authorized service provider or call the Apple Assistance Center to
determine the problem with your hard disk.)
2
Open the Drive Setup icon.
You may need to look in a folder called Utilities to find Drive Setup.
Note: You can get onscreen help using the Drive Setup application program
by choosing the Drive Setup Guide, available in the Guide (h) menu when
Drive Setup is the active program.
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111
3
In the list of drives, click the disk you want to test.
4
Pull down the Functions menu and choose Test Drive.
5
When a message tells you that testing is complete, click Quit.
If you cannot repair the disk, you may need to reinitialize the disk using the
Drive Setup program.
WARNING Reinitializing the hard disk erases all the information on it.
If you don’t have a recent backup of your information, an Appleauthorized service provider may be able to recover some of the
information before you reinitialize the hard disk.
6
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Chapter 7
If testing indicates that no repair is necessary, but you’re still having a problem with your
computer, go to the next section.
Reinstalling system software
When should you install system software?
Your computer came with all the necessary system software installed on its
internal hard disk, so you don’t need to install system software on that disk
unless you encounter software problems.
If you have a new hard disk or a newly initialized hard disk that doesn’t
contain system software, or if you want to upgrade to a more recent version of
system software on a hard disk, follow the instructions in “Doing a Normal
Installation” later in this chapter.
If you have a problem with your system software, you may see this icon in the
middle of the screen:
If this icon appears, follow the instructions in “Testing Your Hard Disk”
earlier in this chapter to test your startup hard disk and repair any damage.
If repairing the disk doesn’t help, follow the instructions in “Doing a Normal
Installation” to reinstall system software on your startup hard disk.
(If you don’t have access to a floppy disk drive to test the disk or reinstall
system software, you may need to contact an Apple-authorized service
provider or call the Apple Assistance Center to determine the problem with
your computer.)
What if you don’t have system software disks?
You should have a set of system software disks that you made with the Floppy
Disk Maker application program. If you did not make the disks, you may need
to call the Apple Assistance Center for help. (See the service and support
information that came with your computer for the telephone number.) But
before you call the Apple Assistance Center, try this:
1
If your computer has an external floppy disk drive, insert the Disk Tools disk in the drive.
2
Restart your computer.
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113
3
Look for a Read Me file on the Disk Tools disk.
If there is not a Read Me file on the disk, call the Apple Assistance Center.
4
Open the Read Me file and follow the directions for reinstalling system software.
Doing a normal installation
Follow the steps in this section to do what is commonly called a “normal”
installation of system software.
If you’re installing system software on a hard disk for the first time, make sure
that your hard disk has been initialized, a process that prepares the disk to
store information. (You initialize a disk using the Drive Setup program on
your hard disk.)
To do a normal installation, follow these steps:
1
Start up your computer from the Disk Tools disk. (Use an external floppy disk drive or
dock.)
2
Find and open the Disk First Aid icon.
After Disk First Aid starts, follow the instructions on the screen. Disk First
Aid checks your hard disk for any problems.
3
When Disk First Aid has finished checking your hard disk, choose Quit from the
File menu.
4
Open the Drive Setup program.
You use the Drive Setup program to update your hard disk.
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5
In the list of drives, click your startup disk.
6
Pull down the Functions menu and choose Update Driver.
7
When the update process is finished, quit Drive Setup.
8
Shut down your computer.
9
Start up your computer from the first system software installer disk you made with
Floppy Disk Maker.
The Installer’s Welcome screen appears. You may have to double-click the
System Software Installer icon to open the Installer program.
10
Click OK.
The Easy Install dialog box appears. (The dialog box that appears on your
screen may not look exactly like this one.)
Parts of system
software to be
installed
Disk on which
system software
will be installed
Click here to install the
software you need.
Click here to install on
a different disk.
11
Make sure that the hard disk named in the box is the one on which you want to install
system software.
If it isn’t, click Switch Disk until the correct disk name appears.
12
Click Install.
13
Follow the instructions that appear on the screen.
You’ll see messages asking you to insert different disks.
14
When you see a message reporting that the installation was successful, click Restart.
If, after reinstalling system software by doing a normal installation, you still
experience problems with your computer, follow the steps in the next section
for doing a “clean” installation of system software.
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115
IMPORTANT Certain system extensions or application programs that were
originally on your hard disk may not be installed with the Installer program.
If you notice that a certain extension or program was not installed, you may
need to install it separately. You can find these additional extensions and
programs in the disk images that come on your computer’s hard disk. (You can
make installer disks from the disk images with the Floppy Disk Maker
application program.)
Doing a clean installation
The steps in this section outline what is commonly called a “clean”
installation of system software. A clean installation allows you to discover
which item in your System Folder is causing a problem. A clean installation
creates a brand new System Folder and saves everything in your original
System Folder in a different location. You can then follow the instructions in
“Replacing Special Software,” next, to reinstall system extensions, control
panels, and other special software one at a time from the old System Folder to
the new System Folder. This procedure allows you to determine which item
in the old System Folder was the source of the problem.
Do a clean installation if you can’t determine what is damaged in your System
Folder (especially if you think any special software, such as control panels,
system extensions, or custom utilities, may be causing the problems you’re
experiencing). You should also do a clean installation if you’re still having
problems with your computer after you’ve reinstalled system software by
doing a normal installation.
To do a clean installation, follow these steps:
1
Start up your computer from the Disk Tools disk. (Use an external floppy disk drive
or dock.)
2
Find and open the Disk First Aid icon.
After Disk First Aid starts, follow the instructions on the screen. Disk First
Aid checks your hard disk for any problems.
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Chapter 7
3
When Disk First Aid has finished checking your hard disk, choose Quit from the
File menu.
4
Open the Drive Setup program.
You use the Drive Setup program to update your hard disk.
5
In the list of drives, click your startup disk.
6
Pull down the Functions menu and choose Update Driver.
7
When the update process is finished, quit Drive Setup.
8
Shut down your computer.
9
Start up your computer from the first system software installer disk that you made with
the Floppy Disk Maker application.
The Installer’s Welcome screen appears. You may have to double-click the
System Software Installer icon to open the Installer program.
10
Click OK.
The Easy Install dialog box appears. (The dialog box that appears on your
screen may look slightly different than this one.)
For a clean installation,
DO NOT click the
Install button.
Disk on which
system software
will be installed
If you need to install on a
different disk, click this button.
11
Make sure that the hard disk named in the Destination Disk box is the one on which you
want to install system software.
If it isn’t, click Switch Disk until the correct disk name appears.
Diagnostic Techniques
117
12
Hold down Shift–x–K to start the clean installation.
The following dialog box appears.
13
Click the Install New System Folder button and click OK.
The Install button in the Easy Install dialog box has changed to Clean Install,
and the contents of your old System Folder have been moved to a new folder
named Previous System Folder.
14
Click Clean Install.
Click here to install the
software you need.
15
Follow the instructions that appear on the screen.
It takes a few minutes to complete the installation.
16
When you see a message reporting that the installation was successful, you may need to
click Restart.
You need to click Restart only if you installed software onto the startup disk.
If a message reports that installation was not successful, try repeating the
clean installation procedure.
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Chapter 7
IMPORTANT Certain system extensions or application programs that were
originally on your hard disk may not be installed with the Installer program.
If you notice that a certain extension or program was not installed, you may
need to install it separately. You can find some of these additional extensions
and programs in the disk images that come on your computer’s hard disk. (You
can make installer disks from the disk images with the Floppy Disk Maker
application program.)
Replacing special software
Special software consists of items such as control panels, system extensions,
custom utilities, fonts, or Apple menu items that you may have added to your
old System Folder. To make sure that special software does not create any
conflicts with other programs on your computer, follow this procedure to
safely replace these items in your new System Folder:
1
Copy any special software items from the Previous System Folder back to your System
Folder one item at a time, restarting the computer after copying each item.
IMPORTANT Be very careful not to replace (copy over) any of the files in the
System Folder with files from the Previous System Folder.
2
Check after each restart to make sure your computer is not having any software
problems.
If any of your special software items cause software problems, contact the
software manufacturer for assistance or an upgrade.
Doing a custom installation
For most Macintosh users, the Easy Install procedure described in the
previous sections is appropriate, because it automatically installs all the items
you need. However, if you’d like to select a combination of system software
files for your specific needs, you can customize your system software
installation. You use custom installation to install or update one or more
specific files, or to save space on your hard disk by installing only the files
you want.
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119
To install customized system software, follow these steps:
1
Start up your computer from the first system software installer disk that you made with
Floppy Disk Maker (using an external floppy disk drive or dock).
2
Click OK.
The Easy Install dialog box appears.
3
Choose Custom Install from the pop-up menu.
The Custom Install dialog box appears, listing all available system
software components. (Your Custom Install dialog box should look similar but
may not be identical to this.)
4
Scroll through the list of components, clicking the checkbox next to each component
you want to install.
You can see and select individual items within each component by clicking
the arrow to the left of the component, then clicking the item you want to
install. To get additional information about each component listed, click the
box with the letter i in it to the right of the component.
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5
Click Install.
6
Follow the instructions that appear on the screen.
7
When you see a message reporting that the installation was successful, click Quit.
If a message reports that installation was not successful, try installing again.
(Follow the instructions on the screen.)
8
Restart your computer.
The system software is installed and your computer is ready to use.
Diagnostic Techniques
121
Appendix A
Health, Safety, and Maintenance Tips
Appendix B
Using Your Keyboard
III
part
Refer to this appendix for important
health-related information
and safety tips.
Appendix A
Health, Safety, and Maintenance Tips
Health-related information about computer use
Muscle soreness, eye fatigue, and other discomforts and injuries sometimes
associated with using computers can occur from performing any number of
activities. In fact, misuse of the same muscles during multiple activities can
create a problem that might not otherwise exist. For example, if you engage
in nonwork activities that involve repetitive stress on the wrist—such as
bicycling—and also use your computer’s keyboard improperly, you may
increase your likelihood of developing wrist problems. Some individuals
are at greater risk of developing these problems because of their health,
physiology, lifestyle, and general exposure to stress. Work organization and
conditions, such as workstation setup and lighting, also play a part in your
overall health and comfort. Preventing health problems is a multifaceted task
that requires careful attention to the way you use your body every hour of
every day.
The most common health effects associated with using a computer are
musculoskeletal discomfort and eye fatigue. We’ll discuss each area of
concern below.
125
Musculoskeletal discomfort
As with any activity that involves sitting for long periods of time, using a
computer can make your muscles sore and stiff. To minimize these effects, set
up your work environment carefully, using the guidelines that follow, and take
frequent breaks to rest tired muscles. To make working with your computer
more comfortable, allow enough space in your work area so that you can
change position frequently and maintain a relaxed posture.
Another type of musculoskeletal concern is repetitive stress injuries (RSIs),
also known as cumulative trauma disorders (CTDs). These problems can
occur when a certain muscle or tendon is repeatedly overused and forced into
an unnatural position. The exact causes of RSIs are not totally understood, but
in addition to awkward posture, such factors as the amount of repetition, the
force used in the activity, the individual’s physiology, workplace stress level,
and lifestyle may affect the likelihood of experiencing an RSI.
RSIs did not suddenly arise when computers were invented; tennis elbow and
writer’s cramp, for example, are two RSIs that have been with us for a long
time. Although less common than other RSIs, one serious RSI discussed more
often today is a wrist problem called carpal tunnel syndrome, which may be
aggravated by improper use of computer keyboards. This nerve disorder
results from excessive pressure on the median nerve as it passes through the
wrist to the hand.
This section offers advice on setting up your work area to enhance your
comfort while you use your computer. Since the effects of repetitive
movements associated with using a computer can be compounded by those
of other work and leisure activities to produce or aggravate physical problems,
proper use of your computer system must be considered as just one element
of a healthy lifestyle.
No one, of course, can guarantee that you won’t have problems even when you
follow the most expert advice on using computer equipment. You should
always check with a qualified health specialist if muscle, joint, or eye
problems occur.
126
Appendix A
Eye fatigue
Eye fatigue can occur whenever the eyes are focused on a nearby object for a
long time. This problem occurs because the eye muscles must work harder to
view an object that’s closer than about 20 feet (6 meters). Improper lighting
can hasten the development of eye fatigue. Although eye fatigue is annoying,
there’s no evidence that it leads to permanent damage.
Whenever you’re engaged in an activity that involves close-up work—such as
reading a magazine, doing craft work, or using a computer—be sure to have
sufficient glare-free lighting and give your eyes frequent rest breaks by
looking up and focusing on distant objects. Remember to have your eyes
examined regularly.
To prevent discomfort and eye fatigue:
m Arrange your work space so that the furniture is properly adjusted for you
and doesn’t contribute to an awkward working posture.
m Take frequent short breaks to give your muscles and eyes a chance to rest.
Arranging your work area and equipment
The suggestions in this section can help you work more comfortably with
your computer.
Chair
m An adjustable chair that provides firm, comfortable support is best. Adjust
the height of the chair so your thighs are horizontal and your feet flat on
the floor.
The back of the chair should support your lower back (lumbar region).
Follow the manufacturer’s instructions for adjusting the backrest to fit your
body properly.
Health, Safety, and Maintenance Tips
127
Keyboard and trackpad
m When you use the keyboard and trackpad, your shoulders should be
relaxed. Your upper arm and forearm should form an approximate right
angle, with your wrist and hand in roughly a straight line.
This
Not this
m You may have to raise your chair so your forearms and hands are at the
proper angle to the keyboard. If this makes it impossible to rest your feet
flat on the floor, you can use a footrest with adjustable height and tilt to
make up for any gap between the floor and your feet. Or you may lower
the desktop to eliminate the need for a footrest. Another option is to use a
desk with a keyboard tray that’s lower than the regular work surface.
m Use a light touch when typing or using the trackpad and keep your hands
and fingers relaxed. Avoid rolling your thumbs under your palms.
This
128
Appendix A
Not this
Some computer users may develop discomfort in their hands, wrists, or arms
after intensive work without breaks. If you begin to develop chronic pain or
discomfort in your hands, wrists, or arms, consult a qualified health
specialist.
m Change hand positions often to avoid fatigue.
m If you prefer, you can adjust the angle of the keyboard by lowering the
elevation feet until they snap into position.
The back of the keyboard is slightly elevated when the feet are in use.
Otherwise, the keyboard is level.
Mouse
m If you use an external mouse (connected to a dock), position the mouse at
the same height as your keyboard. Allow adequate space to use the mouse
comfortably.
Built-in display
m Adjust the angle of the display to minimize glare and reflections from
overhead lights and windows.
m You may need to adjust the screen brightness when you take the computer
from one work location to another, or if the lighting in your work area
changes.
Health, Safety, and Maintenance Tips
129
External monitor
If you use an external monitor connected to a dock, this suggestion may be
helpful.
m If possible, arrange the monitor so the top of the screen is slightly below
your eye level when you’re sitting at the keyboard. The best distance from
your eyes to the screen is up to you, although most people seem to prefer
18 to 28 inches (45 to 70 cm).
Avoiding fatigue
m Change your seated position, stand up, or stretch whenever you start to feel
tired. Frequent short breaks are helpful in reducing fatigue.
m Allow adequate work space so that you can work comfortably. Place papers
or other items so you can view them easily while using your computer. A
document stand may make reading papers more comfortable.
m Eye muscles must work harder to focus on nearby objects. Occasionally
focus your eyes on a distant object, and blink often while you work.
m Clean your screen regularly. Keeping the screen clean helps reduce
unwanted reflections.
What about electromagnetic emissions?
There has been recent public discussion of the possible health effects of
prolonged exposure to extremely low frequency (ELF) and very low
frequency (VLF) electromagnetic fields. Such fields are associated with
electromagnetic sources such as television sets, electrical wiring, and some
household appliances—as well as computer monitors.
Apple has reviewed scientific reports and sought the counsel of government
regulatory agencies and respected health organizations. Based on the
prevailing evidence and opinions, Apple believes that the electric and
magnetic fields produced by computer monitors do not pose a health risk.
In response to those customers who wish to reduce their exposure to
electromagnetic fields, Apple has lowered the emission levels of its products.
130
Appendix A
Important care and safety instructions
For your own safety and that of your equipment, read and follow all the
instructions in this section. Keep these instructions available for reference by
you and others.
Warning
m Electrical equipment may be hazardous if misused. Operation of this
product, or similar products, must always be supervised by an adult. Do not
allow children access to the interior of any electrical product and do not
permit them to handle any cables.
m Do not use the computer in or near water.
m Do not use cables that are frayed or otherwise damaged. Hold a cable by its
connector (the plug, not the cord) when connecting or disconnecting it.
m Do not drop, puncture, mutilate, or burn the computer or battery.
Caution
m If you have a problem with your computer and nothing in the computer
manual solves the problem, take the computer to your Apple-authorized
dealer or service provider. Attempting to repair the computer yourself may
void the limited warranty.
m Do not transport the computer when you can hear its hard disk spinning.
When you put the computer to sleep, wait until the screen is blank before
moving the computer.
m Never force a connector into a port. Make sure that the connector matches
the port and that it’s right side up. If the connector and port do not join
easily, they do not match.
m Do not use the computer in wet or dusty environments.
m Keep dirt and liquids away from the ports on the back panel, the keyboard,
and the trackpad. If you spill any food or liquid onto the computer, shut it
down immediately and unplug it before cleaning up the spill. Depending
on what you spilled and how much got into the computer, you may have to
bring the computer to an Apple-authorized service provider for cleaning.
m Do not touch the screen with any sharp or pointed objects.
Health, Safety, and Maintenance Tips
131
m Use only the power adapter supplied with your computer, or an identical
model. Adapters designed for other electronic devices may not work with
your equipment and may damage it.
Important
m Use the computer (alone or connected to a minidock or floppy disk
adapter) only in environments where the temperature range is between
41°F/5°C and 95°F/35°C. Use the computer in a Duo Dock Plus (or other
Duo Dock model) only in environments where the temperature range is
between 41°F/5°C and 86°F/30°C.
m Do not expose the computer to very low (less than –13°F/–25°C) or very
high (more than 140°F/60°C) temperatures.
m If the computer has been in a cold place for several hours, let it warm up to
room temperature before you use it.
m Clean the computer’s outside surfaces with a damp (not wet) cloth. Clean
the screen with soft, lint-free paper or cloth and a mild glass cleaner. Do
not spray the glass cleaner directly onto the screen. Rough paper towels
may scratch the screen.
132
Appendix A
Caring for batteries
m Always handle batteries carefully.
m Always put the battery case on the battery when the battery is out of the
Macintosh PowerBook. The battery contacts should not be exposed when
the battery is out of the computer.
m Use only the battery supplied with your computer, or an identical model.
Batteries designed for other portable computers may look similar, but they
may not work with your computer and may damage it.
m Never get batteries wet.
m Do not short-circuit the battery terminals (that is, do not touch both
terminals with a metal object). Doing so may cause an explosion or a fire.
m Do not drop, puncture, disassemble, mutilate, or incinerate the battery.
m Recharge batteries only as described in this manual and only in ventilated
areas.
m Transport batteries either inside the computer or with the protective cap
covering the battery contacts.
m Do not leave batteries in hot locations (such as the trunk of a car).
m Do not leave a battery in your computer for longer than a week without
plugging in the power adapter.
m Do not leave a battery in storage for longer than six months without
recharging it.
m Take dead batteries to an Apple-authorized service provider for recycling or
proper disposal. The batteries contain hazardous chemicals and should not
be thrown out with household or office trash.
Health, Safety, and Maintenance Tips
133
Handling floppy disks
Store disks at
temperatures
between 50° F
and 125° F.
Do not use a
pencil or an
eraser on a disk
or disk label.
Keep disks dry.
125°F (52°C)
50°F (10°C)
Do not touch the
exposed part of the
disk behind the
metal shutter.
134
Appendix A
Keep disks away
from magnets.
Avoid exposing
disks to extremely
hot temperatures.
Traveling with the Macintosh PowerBook
IMPORTANT Always take either the Disk Tools disk that came with your
computer or a set of system software disks that you made with the Floppy
Disk Maker program with you when you travel. If you experience system
software problems while traveling, you may need these disks to correct any
problem. (If you won’t have access to an external disk drive or dock, consider
carrying a pair of LocalTalk connectors and a LocalTalk cable so that you can
connect to a network or another Macintosh to share files or install software if
necessary.)
Airplanes and airports
Some airlines have reported that use of portable electronic devices may have
interfered with the aircraft’s flight navigation or communications systems.
Many airlines restrict or manage the use of electronic equipment during
flights. Please respect the regulations of the airlines.
A properly tuned X-ray machine should cause no damage to your Macintosh
PowerBook. But the motors that drive the belts on some security machines
have magnets that can damage your information. To avoid problems, place
the Macintosh PowerBook close to the entrance of the machine and remove
it as soon as possible. At most airports you can also have the computer handinspected by security personnel.
Metal detectors should not damage the Macintosh PowerBook.
Security officials may require you to turn the Macintosh PowerBook on.
Make sure you have a charged battery on hand.
Health, Safety, and Maintenance Tips
135
Handling your Macintosh PowerBook
The safety instructions earlier in this appendix also apply when you are
traveling. In addition, note these precautions:
m Do not transport your Macintosh PowerBook while it is turned on. Put
your computer to sleep or shut it down before you move it.
m Transport batteries either inside the computer or with the protective case
covering the battery contacts. Do not transport unprotected batteries.
m Do not check your computer as baggage. Carry it with you.
m Take the necessary plug adapters if you’re traveling overseas. (You may
need to use them with the power cord.) You do not need a voltage
transformer. The power adapter can handle 90 volts to 260 volts AC
(48 Hz to 62 Hz).
Check the diagrams below to determine which plug adapters you’ll need, or
ask your travel agent.
Outlet Type
Locations
United States, Canada, parts of Latin America, Japan, Korea,
the Philippines, Taiwan
Russia and the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), most of Europe,
parts of Latin America, the Middle East, parts of Africa, Hong Kong, India, most
of South Asia
Mexico, United Kingdom, Ireland, Malaysia, Singapore,
parts of Africa
China, Australia, New Zealand
136
Appendix A
International repair and service
Apple’s global limited warranty covers your Apple products for one year,
regardless of where the products were purchased. The Apple-authorized
service providers in more than 80 countries can handle most repairs (unless
the repair involves a component specific to another area of the world). Take a
copy of your proof of purchase with you.
Because of variations in environment and power supplies, Apple is not
responsible for damage to Apple products used outside the United States.
Storing the Macintosh PowerBook
1
Save your work on a hard disk or floppy disks.
2
Press the Power key and click Shut Down, or choose Shut Down from the Special menu.
3
Close the display.
4
Store the computer in a cool, dry place.
Storage temperatures should remain between –25°C and 60°C (between
–13°F and 140°F). Avoid leaving the computer where temperatures may be
extreme or unpredictable—in the trunk of a car, for example.
Service and support
If your computer is malfunctioning but does not appear to be physically
damaged, shut it down (and leave the power adapter plugged in, if possible)
until you can get help.
If you know or suspect that your computer is physically damaged, disconnect
the power adapter, remove the battery, and do not use the computer until it
can be repaired.
See the service and support information that came with your computer for
information about customer assistance.
Health, Safety, and Maintenance Tips
137
Refer to this appendix for
information on using the Macintosh
PowerBook Duo 2300 series keyboard.
Appendix B
Using Your Keyboard
The Macintosh PowerBook Duo 2300 series keyboard works in much the
same way as the keyboards on other computers and on electric typewriters.
However, there are a few special keys you should know about.
The illustration on the following page explains the function of all the special
keys on the Macintosh PowerBook Duo 2300 series keyboard.
139
Special keys on the Macintosh PowerBook Duo 2300 series keyboard
Delete key Return key
~
’
Tab key
Caps Lock indicator
Caps Lock key
!
1
2
Q
tab
caps
lock
$
4
#
3
@
W
A
E
S
Z
shift
%
5
R
D
X
&
7
6
T
F
C
Y
G
V
U
H
B
(
9
*
8
I
J
N
O
K
M
+
=
)
0
{
[
P
:
;
L
<
>
,
.
delete
}
]
"
’
?
/
\
return
shift
Control key
Option key
ctrl
option
x (Command) key
140
Appendix B
esc
Escape key
enter
Enter key
Arrow keys
Shift key
Arrow keys
Move the insertion point, as an alternative to using the pointing device.
In some programs, the arrow keys have other functions.
Caps Lock key
A locking Shift key for letters only (numbers and symbols aren’t affected).
x (Command) key
Works in combination with other keys as an alternative to choosing a menu
command.
Control key
In combination with other keys, provides shortcuts or modifies actions.
Delete key
Deletes selected material, or the character to the left of the insertion point.
Enter key
In a dialog box, pressing Enter is the same as clicking the outlined button.
In some programs, confirms information you have provided.
Escape key
The function of this key depends on the program you’re using.
Option key
In combination with other keys, produces special characters or modifies
actions.
Return key
Moves the insertion point to the beginning of the next line. In a dialog box,
pressing Return is the same as clicking the outlined button.
Shift key
Produces capital letters (or the upper character on the key).
Tab key
Moves the insertion point to the next stopping place (such as a tab stop or
data field).
Typing special characters and symbols
You can type a variety of international and other special symbols and
characters (including characters with diacritical marks, such as accents)
by pressing combinations of keys.
The Key Caps program, which is installed with your system software,
shows you the characters produced when you type certain keys and key
combinations in the fonts available on your computer. Choose Key Caps
from the Apple (K) menu, then choose the font from the Key Caps menu.
Characters appear
here when you press
keys on the keyboard
or click them in
the window.
Characters available
in the Chicago font
To have Key Caps show more options for special characters, press each of
these keys or key combinations: Option, Shift, Shift-Option, Shift-x, and
Option-x.
Characters available
in the Chicago font
when the Option key
is pressed
The highlighted key represents the
key held down on the keyboard—
in this case, the Option key.
Using Your Keyboard
141
If you press the Option key, Key Caps outlines lightly the keys that you can
use in combination with letter keys to type letters with accents or other
diacritical marks.
If you see rectangles: If you see rectangles instead of diacritical marks on
some of the pictures of keys in Key Caps, try pressing Option-x to see the
diacritical marks. However, you only need to use the Option key (not
Option-x) in combination with the other keys to type letters with diacritical
marks.
If you press the Option key at the same time as a key for a specific diacritical
mark and then release both keys, Key Caps outlines in bold the keys for
letters that can be typed with that mark. (You’ll see that most key
combinations for diacritical marks can be used with the Space bar as well
as letter keys—producing the mark without a letter.)
The most common diacritical marks and how to create them are summarized
next.
Diacritical mark
Key combination
Grave accent ( ` )
Option-`, then type the character
Acute accent ( ´ )
Option-e, then type the character
Circumflex (^)
Option-i, then type the character
Tilde (~)
Option-n, then type the character
Umlaut ( ¨ )
Option-u, then type the character
The letter “c” with a cedilla (ç)
Option-c
m To type a letter or a space with a specific diacritical mark, press the Option key and
the key for the mark simultaneously. Then type the letter that needs the mark.
If you are having trouble getting a mark and letter to appear together, try
again. Be sure to press the Option key before (or at the same time as) the key
for the mark; then, after you release both keys, type the letter to be marked.
142
Appendix B
Special key combinations
If difficulties with your trackpad or computer don’t allow you to use standard
methods of quitting a program or restarting your computer, you can try using
these special key combinations.
To do this...
…press this key combination
Force a program to quit
x-Option-Esc
Force the computer to restart
x–Control–Power key
Here are other key combinations you may find useful.
To do this...
…press this key combination
Start a “debugging” application used by software programmers*
x–Power key
Rebuild the desktop
Shift key (while starting up)
release, then hold Option-x
*If you do not have a debugging program installed, your screen displays a caret prompt (>). To return to the desktop,
type the letter “G.”
Using Your Keyboard
143
Index
x-Control-Power key, to force the
computer to restart 143
x key 140
x-Option-Esc, to force a program to quit
84, 85, 143
x-Option-P-R, to reset PRAM 81, 110
x-Option-Shift-Delete, to start up from
an external disk 93
x-Option, to rebuild the desktop 89,
90, 143
x-period, to quit Battery
Reconditioning 74
x-Power key, to start a debugging
application 143
x-Shift-K, to start a clean installation of
system software 118
A
accent marks, typing 141–142
access privileges 105, 107
AC power. See power adapter
active program, determining 13
activating a window 14
acute accent (´), typing 142
ADB port. See Apple Desktop Bus
(ADB) port
airline regulations for portable electronic
devices 135
alert sounds, selecting 91
Apple-authorized dealers/service
providers
disposing of dead batteries 71, 133
interference with radio or television
reception vii
international repair and service 137
liquid spills on computer 131
purchasing an extra battery and
recharger 67
purchasing memory upgrades 50
recovering information from a hard
disk before reinitializing 112
repair service, determining when
needed 80, 99, 111, 131
replacing the backup battery 72
screen flickers 95
upgrading earlier Duo Dock
models 37
145
Apple Desktop Bus (ADB) port
on PowerBook Duo Dock Plus 36
on PowerBook Duo Floppy
Adapter 39
on PowerBook Duo MiniDock 38
Apple Guide online help systems for
application programs 53
Apple HDI-30 SCSI Disk Adapter Cable
43, 44, 46, 102
Apple HDI-30 SCSI System Cable 43,
44, 46, 102
Apple Remote Access, troubleshooting
107–108
Apple SCSI Peripheral Interface Cable
43, 44
AppleTalk
Apple Remote Access and 107, 108
network use and 104, 105, 106
printing and 99, 100
Application menu
activating the Finder 24, 31
finding out which programs are
open 54
hiding and showing windows on the
desktop 55
switching between programs 13, 54
application programs
activating 13, 54
Apple Guide online help and 53
identifying active and open programs
13, 54
installing 53
“native” programs 55–56
needing to reinstall after reinstalling
system software 116, 119
switching between 13, 54
troubleshooting 85–89
using Software Highlights 51–52
arrow keys 140
arrow pointer. See pointer
automatic sleep 18. See also sleep
146
Index
B
backing up files and disks 56
copying included software 57–62
backup battery 70, 72
Balloon Help 32
basic skills, learning 10–14
battery
backup battery 70, 72
care and handling of 133
conservation 75
disposing of 71, 133
icon in menu bar 65
illustration 2
maximizing battery life 72
monitoring the charge level 63–65
recharging 66–69
reconditioning 72–74
removing/replacing 70–71
safety instructions for 65, 131, 133
time needed to recharge 67, 68, 69
time needed to recondition 72, 74
transporting 133, 136
troubleshooting
display goes blank 95
minidock connection 98
problems while working 89
SCSI disk mode 102
startup problems 80, 85
battery conservation settings 65, 92
battery door, opening and closing 70–71
battery life
maximizing 72
virtual memory and 50
battery power
conserving 17, 18
low-power warning 48
work time before you need to
recharge 75
battery recharger 67–69
Battery Reconditioning program 72–74
battery release button 70
blank screen 8, 89, 95
blinking question mark icon 8, 83,
102, 113
“bomb” icon/message,
troubleshooting 79
brightness controls
adjusting 8, 80, 82, 95
illustration 2, 8
on external monitors 95
C
cables
Apple HDI-30 SCSI Disk Adapter
Cable 43, 44, 46, 102
Apple HDI-30 SCSI System Cable
43, 44, 46, 102
Apple SCSI Peripheral Interface Cable
43, 44
safety instructions for 131
Caps Lock key 140
carpal tunnel syndrome 126
cedilla (ç), typing 154
chair, adjusting to prevent
discomfort 127
charge level of battery
monitoring 63–65
preserving 68
Chooser
displaying shared disks 108
selecting a printer 100
turning on AppleTalk 100, 104, 105,
107, 108
circumflex (^), typing 154
cleaning the computer 132
clean installation of system software
116–119
close box
defined 14
in Macintosh Guide window 30, 31
in Macintosh Shortcuts window
33, 34
Command (x) key 140
connecting
to another computer, troubleshooting
104–107
the computer as a hard disk 44–47
an external modem 40–42
other devices 50
a printer 39–40
sound input/output devices 49
conserving battery power 17, 18, 75
Control key 140
control panels
Easy Access 94
effects of resetting PRAM on 81
Express Modem 41–42
Extensions Manager 106, 110
File Sharing Monitor 105
Launcher 52
Memory 88, 91
Monitors 95, 96
Network 104, 106
Password Security 45, 47, 101
PowerBook 95, 96
PowerBook Display 96
PowerBook Setup 42, 45
Remote Access Setup 107, 108
Sharing Setup 104, 105, 106
Startup Disk 93
Trackpad 93
Control Panels folder 104, 110
Control Strip
Battery Monitor portion 65
illustration 13, 15
Sleep Now portion 18
using 15
Video Mirroring portion 96
copying included software using Floppy
Disk Maker 57–62
cumulative trauma disorders (CTDs) 126
customer service 21, 80, 113, 137
custom installation of system software
119–121
Index
147
D
Delete key 140
desktop doesn’t appear when computer
starts up 82–83
diacritical marks, typing 141–142
disk cache 88, 91, 109
Disk First Aid program 92, 114,
116–117
disk-formatting programs, file sharing
and 105, 106
disk image, defined 57
Disk Images folder 57
Disk Tools disk
checking SCSI ID numbers 98
clean installation of system
software 116
normal installation of system software
113–114
reconditioning the battery 72
SCSI disk mode 102
testing the hard disk 111
traveling with the computer 135
display. See also external monitor; screen
adjusting the angle of 5, 129
electromagnetic emissions from 130
opening 5
troubleshooting 95
disposing of dead batteries 71, 133
docking connection, illustration 2, 35
docking connector door 97
double-clicking with the trackpad,
troubleshooting 93
dragging with the trackpad,
troubleshooting 93–94
Drag Lock feature (trackpad) 93–94
Drive Setup program
checking SCSI ID numbers 98
reinstalling system software 114, 117
testing the hard disk 111–112
Duo Dock. See PowerBook Duo Dock
Duo Dock Plus. See PowerBook Duo
Dock Plus
148
Index
Duo Floppy Adapter. See PowerBook
Duo Floppy Adapter
Duo MiniDock. See PowerBook Duo
MiniDock
E
Easy Access control panel 94
eject button on Duo Dock,
troubleshooting 97
ejecting disks, troubleshooting 92, 105
electromagnetic emissions from computer
monitors 130
elevation feet on computer 2, 5, 11, 129
Enter key 140
equipment, arranging to prevent
discomfort 127–128
error messages. See also troubleshooting
“bomb” icon/message 79
damaged font files 90
not enough memory 56, 84, 88
number codes in 84, 86
program can’t be found 89
what to do about 79
Escape key 140
Ethernet port on PowerBook Duo Dock
Plus 36
expansion card. See RAM expansion card
Express Modem control panel 39, 41–42
extensions. See system software
extensions
Extensions folder 100, 104, 110
Extensions Manager control panel
106, 110
external equipment connections,
troubleshooting 103
external floppy disk drive port on
PowerBook Duo Floppy
Adapter 39
external modem
connecting 40–42
troubleshooting 103, 107–108
using with an internal modem 41–42
using with a printer 40
external modem port
on PowerBook Duo Dock Plus 36
on PowerBook Duo MiniDock 38
external monitor. See also display; screen
connecting 50
positioning 130
troubleshooting 95–96, 103
eye fatigue from computer use 125, 127
F
fatigue, tips for avoiding 127
finding help information in Macintosh
Guide 25
files
backing up 56
can’t throw away 90–91
locked 90
file sharing
disk-formatting programs and
105, 106
reinstalling the software 106
troubleshooting 104–107, 109
turning off 91
File Sharing folder 106
File Sharing Monitor control panel 105
Finder, activating 24, 31
floppy disk drive on PowerBook Duo
Dock Plus 36, 37
floppy disk drive port on PowerBook
Duo MiniDock 38
Floppy Disk Maker program 57, 59–62
floppy disks
backing up 56
can’t eject 92
can’t save or copy files onto 92
care and handling of 134
high-density 3.5-inch 58
inserting 60
labeling 60
making a set of software disks with
Floppy Disk Maker 57–62
making individual disks with Floppy
Disk Maker 61–62
unlocking 87, 91, 92
Fonts folder 90
full set vs. minimum set of software disks
58, 60
furniture, arranging to prevent discomfort
127–128
G
grave accent (`), typing 154
grounding the computer 3
Guide menu. See also Macintosh Guide
defined 11, 13, 21
Shortcuts command 33–34
Show/Hide Balloons commands 32
using to obtain help 23–24
H
hard disk
backing up 56
checking with Disk First Aid 114,
116–117
connecting the PowerBook as 44–47
reinitializing 112
testing with Drive Setup 111–112
troubleshooting 82, 92–93
health-related information about
computer use 125–130
help. See Apple-authorized
dealers/service providers;
Balloon Help; customer service;
Macintosh Guide;
troubleshooting
Hide Balloons command (Guide
menu) 32
Hide Others command (Application
menu) 55
high-density 3.5-inch floppy disks,
identifying 58
“Huh?” button, Macintosh Guide 31
Index
149
150
Index
I, J
K
icons
application 14
battery charge 65
blinking in menu bar 90, 91
“bomb” 79
dimmed 54
Disk First Aid 114, 116
document 14
examples 13, 14
folder 14
hard disk 14
lightning bolt 65, 67
low-power equipment 99
low-power warning 48
question mark 8, 83, 113
SCSI 46, 102
Software Highlights 52
System Folder 52
Trash 14
troubleshooting 90
identifying items on the screen 32
Index button, Macintosh Guide 25,
27–28
indicator lights on battery recharger,
interpreting 69
individual disks, making with Floppy
Disk Maker 61–62
installer disks 57, 115, 117, 120
installing. See also connecting
application programs 53
system software 113–121
interference
on an external monitor 96
with radio or television reception vii
internal modem
installing 40
using with an external modem 41–42
using with a printer 39
internal modem port
illustration 2, 35
on PowerBook Duo Dock Plus 36
on PowerBook Duo MiniDock 38
international characters and symbols,
typing 141–142
keyboard
angle, adjusting 5, 128–129
special keys 140, 143
troubleshooting 94, 103
keyboard shortcuts 33–34
x-Control-Power key, to force the
computer to restart 143
x-Option-Esc, to force a program to
quit 84, 85, 143
x-Option-P-R, to reset PRAM
81, 110
x-Option-Shift-Delete, to start up
from an external disk 93
x-Option, to rebuild the desktop 89,
90, 143
x-period, to quit Battery
Reconditioning 74
x-Power key, to start a debugging
application 143
x-Shift-K, to start a clean installation
of system software 118
Key Caps program 94, 98, 141–142
L
Launcher control panel 52
learning the basics 10–12
liquid spills on computer equipment 131
lock, on PowerBook Duo Dock Plus 37
locked files 90
locked floppy disks 87, 91, 92
Look For button, Macintosh Guide 25,
29–30
low-power equipment 99
low-power messages 64
M
Macintosh Easy Open 89, 90
Macintosh Guide. See also Guide menu
close box 30, 31
finding information 25
going to the next step 26, 28, 30
“Huh?” button 31
moving the window 31
opening 24–25
returning to the main window 26,
28, 31
searching with an index 25, 27–28
searching by typing keywords 25,
29–30
searching using a list of topic areas
25–26
using the scroll bar 27
using the slider 27
using the zoom box 31
Macintosh Shortcuts 33–34
Macintosh Tutorial 10, 12
main battery. See battery
memory. See also RAM; virtual memory
adding 50
“native” application programs’
memory usage 55
not enough memory to print 100
not enough memory to run a program
87, 88
shared libraries and 55–56
system software extensions and 84
Memory control panel 88, 91
menu bar
blinking icon in 90, 91
defined 13
menus, opening 11, 13
metal detectors in airports 135
microphone 2, 49
minidock. See PowerBook Duo
MiniDock
minimum set vs. full set of software disks
58, 60
modem. See external modem
modem cable 41
monitor. See display; external
monitor; screen
monitor port
on PowerBook Duo Dock Plus 36
on PowerBook Duo MiniDock 38
monitor power socket on PowerBook
Duo Dock Plus 36
Monitors control panel 95, 96
mouse, positioning 129
musculoskeletal discomfort from
computer use 125, 126
N
“native” application programs 55–56
Network control panel 104, 106
network printer, connecting 39–40
networks, troubleshooting 104–107, 109
network software, reinstalling 106
network zones 100
nickel-metal-hydride (NiMH) battery.
See battery
normal installation of system software
114–116
NuBus slots on PowerBook Duo Dock
Plus 36, 37
O
online help. See AppleGuide online help
systems; Balloon Help;
Macintosh Guide
Option key 140
Key Caps program and 141–142
Index
151
P
parameter RAM (PRAM), resetting
computer freezes 85, 86
computer makes unusual sounds 82
file-sharing problems 106
printer problems 100, 101
procedures for 81
system software problems 110
password protection, turning off 45,
47, 101
Password Security control panel 45,
47, 101
plug adapters for overseas travel 136
plugging in the computer 3–4
pointer
alternates between an arrow and a
wristwatch 85
“freezes” on screen 16, 20, 79, 93
moving 10–12
moving between monitors 96
sticks or jumps 93
ports
Apple Desktop Bus (ADB) 36, 38, 39
internal modem 2, 35
on PowerBook Duo Dock Plus 36,
37, 43
on PowerBook Duo Floppy
Adapter 39
on PowerBook Duo MiniDock 38,
43, 46
power adapter 2, 35
printer/external modem 2, 35,
39–40, 99
power adapter
low-power messages and 64
overseas travel and 136
plugging in 3–4, 63
recharging the battery and 66–69
power adapter cable 4
power adapter port
illustration 2, 35
on PowerBook Duo MiniDock 38
PowerBook control panel 95, 96
PowerBook Display control panel 96
152
Index
PowerBook Duo Dock (older versions),
upgrading for use with
Macintosh PowerBook Duo
2300 series computers 37
PowerBook Duo Dock Plus
illustration and features of 36–37
safe temperature ranges for 132
troubleshooting 97–98, 99
PowerBook Duo Floppy Adapter
illustration and features 39
PowerBook Duo MiniDock
connecting your PowerBook to
another computer as a hard disk
44–47
illustration and features of 38
troubleshooting 98–99
PowerBook Setup control panel 42, 45
Power button
on PowerBook Duo Dock Plus 36
on PowerBook Duo MiniDock 38
power conservation 17, 18, 92
power conservation settings 65, 92
power cord, connecting 3–4
Power key
illustration 2, 6
troubleshooting 8
turning the computer off 15
turning the computer on 6
PowerPC microprocessor ix
power socket on PowerBook Duo Dock
Plus 36
power sources for the computer 63
PRAM. See parameter RAM
Preferences folder 106
Previous System Folder 118
printer
connecting 39–40
selecting in the Chooser 100
troubleshooting 87, 99–101, 103
using with an external modem 40
using with an internal modem 39
printer/external modem port
connecting a printer to 39–40
illustration 2, 35
sharing a modem and printer on 40
troubleshooting 99
printer port
on PowerBook Duo Dock Plus 36
on PowerBook Duo MiniDock 38
PrintMonitor program 100, 101
problems. See Apple-authorized
dealers/service providers;
customer service; error
messages; troubleshooting
programs. See application programs
putting the computer to sleep 17–18, 70,
136. See also sleep
replacing
the backup battery 72
the main battery 70–71
reset button
illustration 2, 35
restarting the computer with 80, 86
turning the computer off with 16, 20
restarting the computer 19–20, 80, 85–86
resume copying, Floppy Disk Maker
program 61
Return key 140
Q
S
question mark icon, blinking 8, 83,
102, 113
safety instructions
battery care and handling 65,
131, 133
cables 131
cleaning the computer 132
connecting/disconnecting the SCSI
disk adapter cable 46, 47
connecting SCSI equipment 43, 44
connectors and ports 131
dirt and liquid spills 131
disposing of dead batteries 71, 131
floppy disks 134
grounding the computer 3
power adapter 132
power adapter cable 66, 67
sodium hydroxide leaks from
battery 71
temperature ranges
for computer and docks 132
for floppy disks 134
for storing the computer 137
transporting the computer 17, 131
screen. See also display; external monitor
cleaning 130, 132
flickering 95
goes blank 89, 95
identifying items on 32
minimizing glare and reflections
129, 130
R
radio or television reception, interference
with vii
raising the keyboard angle 2, 5, 129
RAM. See also memory; virtual memory
preserving contents of 72
retention of contents during sleep 64
RAM disk
memory issues and 88, 91
resetting PRAM and 81
restarting the computer and 20
RAM expansion card
problems with 82, 94
uses for 50, 84, 88, 91
Read Me files 21
rebuilding the desktop 89, 90
troubleshooting 85
recharging the battery 66–69
reconditioning the battery 72–74
recycling dead batteries 71
reinitializing the hard disk 112
reinstalling system software 113–121
Remote Access Setup control panel
107, 108
repetitive stress injuries (RSIs) 126
Index
153
screen dimming
following low-power messages 64
on external monitors 95, 96
turning off 89, 96
scroll arrow 14
scroll bar, Macintosh Guide 27
SCSI chains
forming 43–48
troubleshooting 83
SCSI Disk Adapter Cable. See Apple
HDI-30 SCSI Disk
Adapter Cable
SCSI disk mode
connecting 44–47
quitting 48, 82
troubleshooting 101–102
SCSI equipment
connecting 43, 44
troubleshooting 101, 103
SCSI hard disk drive on PowerBook Duo
Dock Plus 37
SCSI ID numbers
assigning 45–46
troubleshooting 98, 101
SCSI Peripheral Interface Cable. See
Apple SCSI Peripheral
Interface Cable
SCSI port
on PowerBook Duo Dock Plus 36, 43
on PowerBook Duo MiniDock 38,
43, 46
SCSI System Cable. See Apple HDI-30
SCSI System Cable
SCSI terminators 43, 44
troubleshooting 101
security slot
on PowerBook Duo Dock Plus 36
on PowerBook Duo MiniDock 38
service and support 21, 80, 113, 137
setting up your computer 1–8
shared disks, troubleshooting
105–107, 108
shared folders, troubleshooting 91
shared libraries, “native” programs and
55–56
154
Index
Sharing Setup control panel 104,
105, 106
Shift key 140
shortcuts, Finder 33–34
Show All command (Application
menu) 55
Show Balloons command (Guide
menu) 32
shutting down the computer 16, 137
size box 14
sleep
defined 17
low-power messages and 64
putting the computer to sleep 17–18,
70, 136
removing or replacing the battery 70
transporting the computer 136
waking the computer 15, 16, 18
sleep indicator 2, 17
Sleep Now portion of Control Strip 18
slider, Macintosh Guide 27
Slow Keys 94
Small Computer System Interface.
See SCSI
sodium hydroxide leaks from battery 71
software disks, making a set of 57–62
Software Highlights 51–52
software problems, troubleshooting
85–89
sound input/output devices,
connecting 49
sound input/output ports
on PowerBook Duo Dock Plus 36
on PowerBook Duo MiniDock 38
sounds coming from computer 91
speaker, illustration 2
special characters and symbols, typing
141–142
special keys 140, 143
starting up the computer 6–7
troubleshooting 8, 80–85, 97–99
startup disk, troubleshooting 93
Startup Disk control panel 93
storing the computer 137
symbols and international characters,
typing 141–142
system errors 86
system failures 86–87
System Folder
clean installation of system software
and 116
file sharing and network software 106
problems with system extensions 110
system software and 57
throwing away extras 86
system software
making a copy of 57
reinstalling 113–121
troubleshooting 83–84
system software extensions
reinstalling system software and
116, 119
troubleshooting 82, 84, 109–110
T
Tab key 140
television or radio reception, interference
with vii
temperature ranges
for computer and docks 132
for floppy disks 134
for storing the computer 137
terminators. See SCSI terminators
tilde (~), typing 154
tips (Finder shortcuts) 33–34
title bar of a window 14
Top Cover Upgrade for earlier Duo Dock
models 37
Topics button
Macintosh Guide 25–26
Macintosh Shortcuts window 33, 34
trackpad
illustration 2, 10
learning to use 10–12
positioning 128
troubleshooting 93–94
trackpad button 2, 10
Trackpad control panel 93
trackpad shortcuts 33–34
transporting
a battery 133, 136
the computer 17, 131
traveling with the computer 135–137
troubleshooting. See also error messages
Apple Remote Access 107–108
application programs 85–89
blinking icon in menu bar 90, 91
blinking question mark icon 8,
83, 102
“bomb” icon/message 79
can’t throw away a file 90–91
computer freezes or won’t restart
84–85
computer makes unusual sounds 91
connecting to another computer
104–107
damaged font files 90
desktop is rebuilt each time computer
starts up 85
Duo Dock 97–98, 99
ejecting disks 92, 95
external equipment connections 103
external monitor 95–96
file sharing 104–107
floppy disks 92
hard disk 82, 92–93
icons look different 90
interference with radio or television
reception vii
keyboard/typing problems 94, 103
low-power messages 64
minidock 98–99
modem 103, 107–108
multiple System Folders 86
networks 104–107
not enough memory
to load all system software
extensions 84
for “native” application
programs 55
for printing 87, 100
to run a program 87, 88
for shared library 56
Index
155
156
Index
pointer “freezes” on screen 16, 20, 79
printers 87, 99–101, 103
RAM expansion card 82, 94
resetting PRAM, procedures for 81
screen is blank 89
SCSI chains 83
SCSI disk mode 101–102
SCSI equipment 101
SCSI icon doesn’t appear after
connecting a device 47
shared disks 105–107, 108
shared library is missing 56
software problems 85–89
starting up the computer 80–85,
97–99
startup disk 93
system failures 86–87
system software 83–84
system software extensions 82, 84,
109–110
testing the hard disk 111–112
trackpad 93–94
turning the computer off 16, 20
turning the computer on 8
windows display 83, 85, 89
turning the computer off 15–16. See also
sleep
to store it 137
to transport it 136
turning the computer on 6–7
troubleshooting 8, 80–85, 97–99
tutorial 10, 12
V
U
X-ray machines in airports 135
umlaut (¨), typing 154
unlocking floppy disks 87, 91, 92
Utilities folder 59, 61, 72, 98, 111
Z
video mirroring 96
video support
on PowerBook Duo Dock Plus 37
on PowerBook Duo MiniDock 38
virtual memory. See also memory; RAM
accessing more memory 91
defined 50, 55
diagnosing problems and 109
not enough memory message 84, 88
viruses, checking for 86
W
waking the computer 15, 16, 18. See
also sleep
wall mount plug 4
warranty
for international repair and
service 137
voiding 131
windows
hiding and showing on the desktop
14, 55
troubleshooting 83, 85, 89
working with 13, 14
work area, arranging to prevent
discomfort 128–129
work time, maximizing 75
X, Y
zones, network 100
zoom box, Macintosh Guide 31