INSTRUCTION MANUAL
0345 200
PYRGEOMETER
IMPORTANT USER INFORMATION
IMPORTANT USER INFORMATION
Reading this entire manual is recommended for full understanding of
the use of this product.
The exclamation mark within an equilateral triangle is intended to alert the user
to the presence of important operating and maintenance instructions in the
literature accompanying the instrument.
Should you have any comments on this manual we will be pleased to receive
them at:
Kipp & Zonen B.V.
Röntgenweg 1
2624 BD Delft Holland
P.O. Box 507
2600 AM Delft Holland
Phone
+31 (0)15 2698000
Fax
+31 (0)15 2620351
Email
info.holland@kippzonen.com
Kipp & Zonen reserve the right to make changes to the specifications without
prior notice.
WARRANTY AND LIABILITY
Kipp & Zonen guarantees that the product delivered has been thoroughly tested
to ensure that it meets its published specifications. The warranty included in the
conditions of delivery is valid only if the product has been installed and used
according to the instructions supplied by Kipp & Zonen.
Kipp & Zonen shall in no event be liable for incidental or consequential
damages, including without limitation, lost profits, loss of income, loss of
business opportunities, loss of use and other related exposures, however
caused, arising from the faulty and incorrect use of the product.
User made modifications can affect the validity of the CE declaration.
COPYRIGHT© 2001 KIPP & ZONEN
All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a
retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means, without permission
in written form from the company.
Manual version: 0304
1
IMPORTANT USER INFORMATION
DECLARATION OF CONFORMITY
According to EC guideline 89/336/EEC 73/23/EEC
We
Kipp & Zonen B.V.
Röntgenweg 1
2624 BD Delft
Declare under our sole responsibility that the product
Type:
Name:
CG 4
Pyrgeometer
To which this declaration relates is in conformity with the following standards
Imissions
EN 50082-1
Group standard
Emissions
EN 50081-1
EN 55022
Group standard
Safety standard
IEC 1010-1
Following the provisions of the directive
R.E. Ringoir
Product management
KIPP & ZONEN B.V.
2
TABLE OF CONTENTS
TABLE OF CONTENTS
IMPORTANT USER INFORMATION ...................................................1
DECLARATION OF CONFORMITY ....................................................2
TABLE OF CONTENTS ........................................................................................3
1
1.1
1.2
1.2.1
1.3
1.4
1.4.1
1.4.2
1.5
2
2.1
2.2
3
3.1
3.2
3.2.1
3.2.2
3.2.3
3.2.4
3.3
4
4.1
4.1.1
4.1.2
4.1.3
4.1.4
4.2
4.3
GENERAL INFORMATION........................................................5
INTRODUCTION...................................................................................5
PHYSICAL PRINCIPLES OF THE PYRGEOMETER..........................6
Properties of the Silicon window ...........................................................7
DOWNWARD ATMOSPHERIC LONG WAVE RADIATION ...............8
WINDOW HEATING EFFECT ........................................................... 11
How to perform the check? ................................................................ 13
Example.............................................................................................. 13
LOW TEMPERATURE DEPENDENCY OF SENSITIVITY .............. 14
TECHNICAL DATA..................................................................17
SPECIFICATIONS OF THE CG 4 PYRGEOMETER ....................... 17
ACCURACY ....................................................................................... 20
INSTALLATION .......................................................................23
DELIVERY.......................................................................................... 23
MECHANICAL INSTALLATION......................................................... 24
Location .............................................................................................. 24
Mounting............................................................................................. 24
Levelling ............................................................................................. 26
Mounting of two CG 4’s as net pyrgeometer ..................................... 26
ELECTRICAL CONNECTION ........................................................... 28
OPERATION ............................................................................33
CALCULATING THE DOWNWARD RADIATION............................. 33
Example.............................................................................................. 34
Cloudy overcast sky ........................................................................... 34
Clear sky conditions ........................................................................... 35
Measurements during a sunny day.................................................... 35
MEASURING NET RADIATION WITH TWO PYRGEOMETERS .... 37
THERMAL STRESS STUDIES.......................................................... 37
5
MAINTENANCE .......................................................................39
6
CALIBRATION .........................................................................41
6.1
THE CALIBRATION FACTOR........................................................... 41
3
TABLE OF CONTENTS
6.2
6.2.1
6.2.2
6.3
CALIBRATION PROCEDURE AT KIPP & ZONEN .......................... 41
The outdoor procedure....................................................................... 41
Traceability to the World Radiometric reference ............................... 42
RECALIBRATION .............................................................................. 42
7
FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS (FAQ’S)......................43
8
TROUBLE SHOOTING ............................................................45
9
PART NUMBERS / SPARE PARTS / OPTIONS.....................47
APPENDIX I
WORLD RADIATION CENTRE ................................49
INFORMATION...................................................................................49
APPENDIX II
THERMISTOR SPECIFICATIONS........................51
APPENDIX III
PT-100 SPECIFICATIONS....................................53
APPENDIX IV
RECALIBRATION SERVICE ................................55
4
GENERAL INFORMATION
1
GENERAL INFORMATION
1.1
INTRODUCTION
Pyrgeometers are recommended by the BSRN (Baseline Surface
Radiation Network) as the best means of measuring the upward and
downward components of long wave atmospheric radiation.
CG 4 has been designed for meteorological measurements of
downward atmospheric long wave radiation with extreme high
reliability and accuracy. A second CG 4 can be used to measure the
upward component of the radiation.
Outdoors CG 4 provides a voltage that is proportional to the net
radiation in the far infrared (FIR). By calculation, downward
atmospheric long wave radiation is derived. For this reason CG 4
embodies a thermistor to measure the body temperature.
CG 4 uses a specially designed silicon window. Although the window
is not hemispherical, CG 4 has a 180° field of view with good cosine
response. A diamond-like coating protects the outer surface of the
window. On the inside a solar blind filter blocks all solar radiation.
The solar radiation absorbed by the window is conducted away very
effectively by a unique construction. Even in full sunlight the window
heating effect is very low compared to that of other pyrgeometers on
the market. This allows accurate daytime measurements without the
need for a tracking shading disc. It also eliminates the need for
window heating compensation by using the correction formula.
CG 4 features are:
• Sensitive to infrared radiation in a wavelength range from 4.5 to
approx. 40 µm.
• Low window heating offset.
• 180 ° field of view with good cosine response.
• Diamond like coating for optimal protection against
environmental influences.
• Low temperature dependence of sensitivity
5
GENERAL INFORMATION
1.2
PHYSICAL PRINCIPLES OF THE PYRGEOMETER
The CG 4 pyrgeometer is provided with a thermal detector. The
thermal detector is a 64-thermocouple thermopile. The body
temperature sensor, either a thermistor (YSI44031) or Pt-100
(optional), is built-in at the edge of the thermal detector, at the cold
junctions.
The radiant energy is absorbed by a black painted disk. The heat
generated flows through a thermal resistance to the heatsink (the
pyrgeometer body). The temperature difference across the thermal
resistance of the detector is converted into a voltage. The thermopile
output can be easily affected by wind and rain. Therefore a Silicon
window shields the detector.
On both sides of the Silicon window a coating is deposited. The outer
side of the window is protected with a diamond-like layer against
environmental influences such as wind and rain. On the inner side an
interference filter is deposited for passing the long wave radiation only.
The Silicon window allows equal transmittance of the atmospheric
long wave radiation in a range from 4.5 (cut-on) to approx. 40 µm. A
construction drawing of the CG 4 pyrgeometer is shown in figure 1.1
Figure 1.1
6
Schematic construction of the CG 4 pyrgeometer.
GENERAL INFORMATION
1.2.1 Properties of the Silicon window
CG 4 uses a specially designed pure silicon window. Although the
window isn’t hemispherical, CG 4 has a 180° field of view with good
cosine response.
A big advantage of the meniscus shaped window over the typical
spherical window is the ability of the coating manufacturer to deposit a
more uniform coating on the window surface. Deposition of a uniform
filter coating on a strongly curved surface is a rather difficult, possibly
impossible process.
With that knowledge Kipp & Zonen developed a window with a good
optical quality due to an optimal shape and coating uniformity.
In this way a CG 4 window allows equal dome transmittance over the
whole window surface.
The diamond-like coating also called “ Hardcarbon coating “ is a
carbon layer of a few microns thickness, with the main purpose of
providing optimal protection against environmental influences.
An additional advantage is that the hardcarbon acts as an
anti-reflection coating, which leads to a transmittance increase.
The solar blind filter is opaque for radiation under the 4.5 µm known
as the cut-on wavelength. The low-pass filter deposited at the inside of
the window is an interference filter. Currently most pyrgeometers have
their cut-on at a lower wavelength. Problems may occur in case of
clear sunny days with low humidity. In the solar spectrum between 2.5
and 4.5 µm, there can be still an amount of infrared solar radiation up
to 10 W/m2. This unwanted fraction would increase the amount of
downward radiation unavoidable. In the CG 4 this signal is blocked by
the filter coating.
The CG 4 window transmittance curve is given in figure 1.2
The transmittance is given at normal incidence.
7
GENERAL INFORMATION
Transmittance [%]
CG 4 WINDOW TRANSMITTANCE
100
50
0
1
10
100
Wavelength [µm]
Figure 1.2
1.3
Typical transmittance of a CG 4 window.
DOWNWARD ATMOSPHERIC LONG WAVE RADIATION
The atmosphere is a gaseous envelope surrounding the earth, held by
gravity, having its maximum density just above the solid surface and
becoming gradually thinner with distance from the ground, until it
finally becomes indistinguishable from the interplanetary gas.
There is, therefore, no defined upper limit or “top” of the atmosphere.
As we go away from the surface of the earth, different regions can be
defined, with widely different properties, being the seats of a great
variety of physical and chemical phenomena. One of these fascinating
phenomena is the thermal or long wave radiation.
An important, but rather difficult to measure, component of the
radiation budget is the atmospheric long wave radiation balance.
The atmosphere is transparent to long wave radiation emitted by the
Earth’s surface in certain wavelength intervals, particular within a
spectral range of approximately 8 to 14 µm, which is called the
atmospheric window (see figure 1.3).
8
GENERAL INFORMATION
Within this spectral range the earth is able to maintain an equilibrium
temperature by losing a certain quantity of heat gained each day from
the sun.
The sun radiates approximately as a blackbody at an equivalent
temperature of nearly 5770K. Almost 99% of its emitted energy are
contained in wavelengths less than 4µm and are called short-wave
radiation. The equivalent radiant temperature of the Earth’s surface is
about 275K. More than 99% of this energy is emitted at wavelengths
more than 3 µm and is called long-wave, thermal, or infrared radiation.
Downward long wave radiation is a result of atmospheric re-emission.
Re-emission is the reversible effect of absorption of earthly emitted
long wave radiation by chemical elements like water (H2O), Oxygen
(O2), Ozone (O3), Carbon dioxide (CO2) etc. These elements are the
main emitters of long wave radiation in the atmosphere.
The remaining unabsorbed portion of the earth’s radiation escapes
into the outer space. Under clear skies an object can be cooled below
ambient air temperature by radiative heat loss to the sky. Observing
the earth from outer space, a blackbody is seen in a range of 8 to 14
µm with a temperature of 14 °C and outside this wavelength range a
blackbody of -60 °C. Under clear sky conditions in a reverse direction,
outer space can be observed in the same spectral range. The long
wave radiation exchange mainly occurs in the spectral range of 8 to
14µm. In this range the pyrgeometer also loses its thermal energy
upward.
9
GENERAL INFORMATION
Figure 1.3
Atmospheric radiation (atmospheric window 8 to 14 µm)
Where as a pyranometer only receives solar radiation, pyrgeometers
can emit their own radiation by losing energy to a relatively cold sky.
The pyrgeometer signal therefore is the difference between the
downward long wave radiation emitted from the atmosphere and the
upward emitted radiation from the pyrgeometer.
The downward atmospheric long wave radiation can be calculated
with formula 1 by measuring the thermopile output voltage Uemf [µV],
the body temperature Tb [K], and taking the calibration factor S
[µV/W/m2] into account.
Ld=
Uemf
+ 5 . 67 ⋅10
S
−8
T
⋅
4
(formula 1)
b
This formula is given by the WMO, 1996
Ld
Uemf
S
10
= Downward atmospheric long wave radiation
[W/m2]
= Net - radiation (Difference between the downward
long wave radiation emitted from the atmosphere
and the upward irradiance of the CG 4 sensor )
[W/m ]
2
GENERAL INFORMATION
4
5 .67 ⋅ 10 −8 ⋅T b
= Upward irradiance of the CG 4 sensor
[W/m2]
Note that the net radiation term (Uemf / S) is mostly negative, so the
calculated downward atmospheric long wave radiation is smaller than
the sensor’s upward irradiance ( 5 . 67 ⋅ 10 − 8 ⋅T 4 ).
b
1.4
WINDOW HEATING EFFECT
Currently the major source of error concerning common pyrgeometer
measurements is caused by window heating. When a pyrgeometer is
exposed to the sun, window heating occurs due to absorption of solar
radiation in the window material. As a consequence the windows of
certain types of pyrgeometers will heat up proportional to the amount
of solar radiation.
The resulting temperature difference between window and thermopile
will cause heat transfer by radiation and convection to the sensor. This
affects the net thermal radiation as measured by the thermopile. This
error is commonly referred to as the “Window heating offset”, and
results in the measurement of a too high value for downward long
wave radiation.
This offset is not easily reduced by (for example) ventilation;
ventilation only cools off 50 W/m2/°C at maximum while solar radiation
can be absorbed at a rate of about 500 W/m2 on a sunny day.
Currently, certain types of pyrgeometers are equipped with one or
more window thermistors to measure the windows absolute
temperature that represents the appearing offset. During window
temperature measurements a complex calculation must be performed
to eliminate the offset.
Arguments against a thermistor to measure window temperature are:
11
GENERAL INFORMATION
•
The thermistor contacts a part of the window, it is a
blackbody radiator and heat source itself and its material
and adhesive increases the mean emission coefficient of
the inner window surface. Its presence increases the
window-heating offset.
•
The window thermistor should be carefully matched with
the body thermistor because calculations must be done
using the temperature difference of the two thermistors.
•
The customer needs at least one extra data logger
channel for thermistor input.
Because of the possible problems caused by window thermistors Kipp
& Zonen developed the revolutionary CG 4 pyrgeometer.
In the CG 4, window heating is strongly suppressed by a unique
construction that is conducting away the absorbed heat very
effectively. In this way, CG 4 temperature variations between window
and sensor are less than 0.3 degrees Celsius, compared to 2.0 or
even 3.0 degrees Celsius for other types of pyrgeometers.
Temperature variations in this small range represent a window
heating offset less than 4 W/m2. This allows accurate daytime
measurements, even in full sunlight, without the need for a tracking
shading disc.
Window heating can be checked by doing the following experiment.
The experiment is illustrated with an example.
12
GENERAL INFORMATION
1.4.1 How to perform the check?
The check must be performed under clear sky conditions. The CG 4
pyrgeometer is operated with thermopile and thermistor readout for
measuring the downward radiation.
To perform the outdoor check, follow next steps:
1.
2.
3.
4.
Stand in line with the sun and the pyrgeometer under the
condition that the pyrgeometer is still illuminated by solar
radiation.
Wait for at least 1 minute until the pyrgeometer thermopile output
is stabilised (your body contributes to the pyrgeometer signal)
record the reading.
Raise your hand in line with the sun and pyrgeometer so that the
pyrgeometer is shaded completely.Wait for at least 1 minute until
the pyrgeometer thermopile output is stabilised, record the
reading.
Check performed, data can be interpreted. The difference in
readings found after steps 2 and 4 gives the amount of window
heating.
1.4.2 Example
Experiment to show the window heating offset of the CG 4
pyrgeometer.
On a sunny day (irradiance ≈ 750 W/m2) the instrument was shaded
for about 3 minutes (shown in figure 1.4).
During shading and unshading the CG 4 shows a dynamic change in
the amount of calculated downward radiation. One minute after
shading the calculated downward radiation settles. The window
heating offset of
13
GENERAL INFORMATION
CG 4 stabilises at < 3 W/m2. The experiment shows that for most
practical purposes, CG 4 does not need compensation for window
heating offset.
CG 4 DOWNWARD RADIATION
2
2
Ld [W/m ]
(SOLAR IRRADIANCE ≈ 750 W/m )
Measuring time [minutes]
Unshaded
Figure 1.4
1.5
Shaded
Unshaded
CG 4 calculated downward radiation (Ld)
LOW TEMPERATURE DEPENDENCY OF SENSITIVITY
The sensitivity is correlated to the temperature as a consequence of
typical physical material properties of the thermopile. For a given heat
flow the sensitivity of the pyrgeometer is a function of the thermal
conductivity of the sensor materials and of the thermo-electric power
of the sensor material. Both physical parameters show temperature
dependency.
14
GENERAL INFORMATION
Due to the thermopile construction and applied thermistor
compensation circuit the temperature response is suppressed to
below 1%, between -20 °C and +50 °C.
During manufacturing each CG 4 pyrgeometer is checked for its
temperature dependency specifications.
15
GENERAL INFORMATION
16
TECHNICAL DATA
2
TECHNICAL DATA
2.1
SPECIFICATIONS OF THE CG 4 PYRGEOMETER
Performance
Spectral range:
4.5 to 42 µm, 50% points.
Sensitivity:
2
10 µV/W/m (nominal).
Impedance:
40 to 200 Ω (nominal).
Response time:
25 s
<8s
Non-linearity:
<± 1% (at -250 to +250 W/m2
irradiance).
Temperature dependence
of sensitivity:
Tilt error:
(95% response).
(63% response).
Max. ±1 % (-20 °C to +50 °C).
Max. 1% deviation when facing
downwards.
Zero offset due to
temperature changes:
< 2 W/m2 offset at 5 K/h temp. change.
Operating temperature:
-40 °C to +80 °C.
Field of view:
180 ° (2 π sr).
Irradiance:
2
-250 to +250 W/m .
Non-stability:
<±1% sensitivity change per year.
Spectral selectivity within
the range 8 to 14 µm:
Max. approx. ±5 %.
Window heating offset:
Max. 4 W/m2 (1000 W/m2 normal
incidence solar radiation).
Accuracy
3% for daily totals
17
TECHNICAL DATA
Estimated inaccuracy of
measurement:
2
< 7.5 W/m .
Thermistor specifications
(only for thermistor version):
Type YSI 44031. See Appendix II.
Pt-100 specifications
(only for Pt-100 version):
Type Heraeus M-GX 1013, DIN
IEC 751. Class A. See appendix III.
Construction
Receiver paint:
Carbon Black.
Window:
Silicon with solar blind filter and
diamond-like coating.
Desiccant:
Silica gel.
Spirit level:
Sensitivity of 0.5 ° (bubble half out of the
ring) Coincide with base of the instrument.
Materials:
Anodised aluminium case.
Stainless steel screws etc.
White plastic screen of ASA.
Drying cartridge PMMA.
Shock/vibration
IEC 721-3-2-2-m2
Weight:
1050 g.
Cable length:
10 m.
Dimensions in mm:
W x H 150 x 76.5
18
See figure 2.1
TECHNICAL DATA
Figure 2.1
CG 4 pyrgeometer outline dimensions
19
TECHNICAL DATA
2.2
ACCURACY
As listed in paragraph 2.1 the sensitivity is cross-correlated to a
number of parameters such as temperature and level of irradiance.
Normally, the supplied sensitivity figure is used to calculate the
irradiances. If the conditions differ from the calibration conditions,
errors in the calculated irradiances must be expected.
These remaining errors can be reduced if the actual sensitivity of the
pyrgeometer is used by the conversion of voltage to irradiance. The
actual sensitivity can be calculated when it is a well-known function of
simply measured parameters (sometimes called transfer function or
sensitivity function). This is especially convenient in connection with a
programmable data acquisition system.
For the CG 4 the effect of each parameter on the sensitivity can be
shown separately, because the parameters exhibit less interaction.
The non-linearity error, the sensitivity variation with irradiance, is
similar for any CG 4. See figure 2.2
Sensitivity variation
[%]
Non- linearity
1
0.5
0
Horizontal
-0.5
90 Degrees Tilt
-1
-250
0
250
Irradiance [W/m2]
Figure 2.2
20
Non linear sensitivity variation with irradiance of the CG 4
pyrgeometer.
TECHNICAL DATA
The temperature dependence of the sensitivity is an individual
function. For any given CG 4 the curve lies in the region between the
(1 %) limit lines in figure 2.3
Relative dependency [%]
Sensitivity temperature dependency
(Typical curves)
2
1.5
1
0.5
0
-0.5
-1
-1.5
-2
-20
-10
0
10
20
30
40
50
Temperature [Degrees Celsius]
Figure 2.3
The curve of relative sensitivity variation with instrument
temperature of a CG 4 pyrgeometer lies in the ±1 %
region. Typical curves are shown.
21
TECHNICAL DATA
22
INSTALLATION
3
INSTALLATION
Reading these instructions before installation is recommended.
3.1
DELIVERY
Check the contents of the shipment for completeness (see below) and
note whether any damage has occurred during transport.
If there is damage, a claim should be filed with the carrier immediately.
In this case, or if the contents are not complete, your dealer should be
notified in order to facilitate the repair or replacement of the
instrument.
The CG 4 pyrgeometer delivery will include the following items:
1
2
3
4
5
6
CG 4 pyrgeometer
White sun screen
2 x Mounting bolts
2 x Nylon insulators
Calibration certificate
This manual
Unpacking
Keep the original packaging for later shipments (e.g. recalibration) !
Although all sensors are weatherproof and suitable for harsh ambient
conditions, they do partially consist of delicate mechanical parts. It is
recommended to use the original shipment packaging to safely
transport the equipment to the measurement site.
23
INSTALLATION
3.2
MECHANICAL INSTALLATION
The mechanical installation of the pyrgeometer must be carried out
depending on the application. Different measuring methods will be
explained in chapter 4.
Generally for measuring downward atmospheric long wave radiation
the following steps must be carefully considered for optimal
performance of the instrument:
3.2.1 Location
Ideally the site for the pyrgeometer should be free from any
obstructions above the plane of the sensing element, and at the same
time the pyrgeometer should be readily accessible to clean the
window and inspect the dessicator.
Obstructions on the horizon with angular height less than 10° are
mostly no problem, unless they are hot (exhaust vents etc.)
In principle no special orientation of the instrument is required.
The World Meteorological Organisation recommends that the
emerging leads are pointed to the north, to minimise heating of the
electrical connections.
3.2.2 Mounting
The CG 4 pyrgeometer is provided with two holes for 5 mm bolts.
Two stainless steel bolts and two nylon rings are provided. The
pyrgeometer should first be secured lightly with the bolts to a
mounting stand or platform ( Shown in figure 3.1). The nylon insulators
must be placed under the bolt heads to avoid electrolytic corrosion
between bolt and body.
24
INSTALLATION
Note:
After recalibration and/or reinstallation the nylon insulators
must be replaced with new ones to maintain durability.
The mounting stand temperature can vary over a wider range than the
air temperature. Temperature fluctuations of the pyrgeometer body
can produce offset signals. It is recommended to isolate the
pyrgeometer thermally from the mounting stand,
e.g. by placing it on its levelling screws. But keep an electric contact
with earth to lead off currents in the cable induced by lightning.
Figure 3.1
Mounting the CG 4 pyrgeometer
25
INSTALLATION
3.2.3 Levelling
Accurate measurement of the downward atmospheric long wave
radiation requires the proper levelling of the thermopile surface. Level
the instrument by turning the levelling screws to bring the bubble of
the spirit level within the marked ring (For easy levelling first use the
screw nearest to the spirit level).
When the CG 4 is placed horizontally with the spirit level, or when it is
mounted with its base parallel to a horizontal plane, the thermopile is
horizontal within 0.5 °.
The pyrgeometer should be secured tightly with the two stainless steel
bolts. Ensure that the pyrgeometer maintains the proper levelled
position!
3.2.4 Mounting of two CG 4’s as net pyrgeometer
As with all net radiation measurements, a location that is
representative for the whole area of study should be found.
For the two, possible ventilated, CG 4’s a mounting plate with a
500 mm rod is available (see chapter 9).
Typical is a height of 2 m above short homogeneous vegetation. The
mast on which the rod is clamped can block the down welling or
upward radiation with a fraction of max. (D / 2⋅π⋅S), in which D is the
diameter of the mast and S the distance of sensor to mast. The mast
itself also emits infrared radiation, so keep the mast and CG 4
temperatures close to each other or the emissivity low (reflecting
mast).
26
INSTALLATION
The pyrgeometer must
always be mounted with
the cable gland pointing
North.
Figure 3.2
Mounting of two pyrgeometers.
27
INSTALLATION
3.3
ELECTRICAL CONNECTION
The CG 4 is provided with a 10 m, 6 wire shielded cable (8 wire for the
Pt-100 version). The following colour code is used:
Red
Blue
White
Black
: Plus thermopile
: Minus thermopile
: Case
: Shield
Thermistor
Yellow
Green
Pt-100 (optional)
Yellow
: Pt 100
Brown
: Pt 100
Green
: Pt 100
Grey
: Pt 100
(combined with brown)
(combined with yellow)
(combined with grey)
(combined with green)
A surge arrester is installed to lead off induced lightning currents to
the case. It is recommended to ground the case for this reason. The
surge arrester is noble gas filled, has infinite impedance and recovers
after breakdown. Breakdown voltage is 90 V. Peak pulse current is 10
kA.
The shield is isolated from the case, so no shield-current can exist.
Shield and white lead may be connected to the same ground at the
readout equipment. The cable must be firmly secured to minimise
spurious response during stormy weather (deforming standard cable
produces voltage spikes, a tribo electric effect and capacitance effect).
Kipp & Zonen pyrgeometer cables are of low noise type, however take
care that the terminals '+' and '-' at a connection box have the same
temperature, to prevent thermal EMF's.
A junction box or connector with a metal outer case is advised.
28
INSTALLATION
Looking at the circuit diagram of figure 3.3, it is clear that the
impedance of the readout equipment is loading the thermistor circuit
and the thermopile.
The sensitivity is affected more than 0.1% when the load resistance is
under 100 kΩ. For this reason we recommend the use of readout
equipment with input impedance’s of 1 MΩ or more such as
potentiometric recorders, digital voltmeters, etc.
Figure 3.3
Circuit diagram of the CG 4 pyrgeometer and the connection to
the readout equipment.
The data loggers and chart recorders manufactured by Kipp & Zonen
meet these requirements. Longer cables may be applied, but the
cable resistance must be less than 0.1% of the impedance of the
readout equipment.
29
INSTALLATION
Kipp & Zonen supplies shielded low-noise extension cables up to
lengths of 200 m which are coupled by waterproof connectors to the
CG 4 cable. The lead resistance is 8 Ohm/100 m.
A considerable input bias current of the readout equipment can
produce a voltage of several micro Volts across the impedance of the
pyrgeometer. The correct measured zero signal can be verified with a
resistance replacing the pyrgeometer impedance at the input
terminals.
The pyrgeometer can also be connected to a computer or data
acquisition system. A low voltage analogue input module with A to D
converter must be available for thermopile readout. The span and
resolution of the A to D converter in the module must allow a system
sensitivity of about 1 bit per W/m2. For calculation of the downward
radiation, temperature data has to be converted to absolute body
temperatures in Kelvin units. A thermistor connection to the Campbell
data logger is shown in figure 3.4
The connection of the Pt-100 is shown in figure 3.5
Figure 3.4
30
Example of a CG 4 with a thermistor connected to a Campbell
data logger
INSTALLATION
Figure 3.5
Example of a CG 4 with a Pt-100 connected to a Campbell data
logger
For amplification of the pyrgeometer signal, Kipp & Zonen
recommends the CT 24 amplifier, available from Kipp & Zonen.
This amplifier will convert the output voltage from the pyrgeometer into
a standard 4 – 20 mA output current. Voltage output and/or
amplification adjustment to the pyrgeometers calibration factor are
also possible.
In order to allow negative values for the CG 4, the zero of the CT 24
(normally 4 mA) will be shifted to 8 mA.
31
INSTALLATION
32
OPERATION
4
OPERATION
After completing the installation the pyrgeometer will be ready for
operation. At the end of the paragraph an example is given to illustrate
a downward atmospheric long wave radiation measurement under two
different atmospheric conditions.
4.1
CALCULATING THE DOWNWARD RADIATION
The downward atmospheric long wave radiation can be calculated
with formula 1 by measuring the thermopile output voltage Uemf [µV],
the body temperature Tb [K], and taking the calibration factor S
[µV/W/m2] into account.
Ld=
Ld
Uemf
+ 5 . 67 ⋅10
S
−8
T
⋅
4
(formula 1)
b
= Downward atmospheric long wave radiation
Uemf
= Net - radiation (Difference between the downward long
S
wave radiation emitted from the atmosphere and the
upward irradiance of the CG 4 sensor )
4
5 .67 ⋅ 10 −8 ⋅T b
= Upward irradiance of the CG 4 sensor
[W/m2]
[W/m2]
[W/m2]
Mind that the net radiation term (Uemf / S) is mostly negative, so the
calculated downward atmospheric long wave radiation is smaller than
the sensor’s upward irradiance ( 5 . 67 ⋅ 10 − 8 ⋅T 4 ).
b
In the BSRN manual (WMO/TD-No.897) an extended formula is
described. This formula corrects for window heating and so called
“solar radiation leakage”. Due to the low window heating offset and
proper cut-on frequency, these corrections are not necessary for the
CG 4.
33
OPERATION
4.1.1 Example
During field measurements the pyrgeometer is exposed to varying
atmospheric conditions with typical radiating properties. Therefore we
define the two most common conditions known as, cloudy overcast
sky and clear sky.
4.1.2 Cloudy overcast sky
Typical for a cloudy overcast sky is that radiation emitted by the earth
is absorbed 100%. Therefore the overcast sky will re-emit the
radiation (Ld) 100%.
In theory the net radiation (Uemf / S) will be zero, so the pyrgeometer
thermopile output voltage (Uemf) will be zero. Practically the
thermopile output shows a little negative voltage (a few Watts per
meter square), due to a small heat exchange between a relatively
warm pyrgeometer and a colder sky.
In this case the calculated atmospheric long wave radiation (Ld) shows
a relatively large positive value. In the case of rain, the thermopile
output will read zero, because water deposited at the pyrgeometer
window is a perfect infrared absorber. A cloudy overcast sky condition
is illustrated in figure 4.1A
Atmosphere Tatm
Downwelling radiation
(Relative large value)
Upward radiation
2
Net radiation (from 0 to -5 W/m )
Earth surface Tearth > Tatm
Figure 4.1A
34
Cloudy overcast sky condition
OPERATION
4.1.3 Clear sky conditions
Clear sky conditions differ in the way that there is a relative large heat
loss caused by the atmospheric window. In this way the amount of reemitted radiation by a clear sky is smaller compared to the cloud
overcast sky condition. Because of the heat-lost in upward direction,
the sensors hot junctions will cool-down and show a relative large
negative net radiation value (from -90 to -130 W/m2). In this case the
calculated atmospheric long wave radiation (Ld) shows a relative small
positive value. A clear sky condition is illustrated in figure 4.1B
Atmosphere Tatm
Downwelling radiation
(Relative small value)
Upward radiation
2
Net radiation (from -90 to -130 W/m )
Earth surface Tearth >> Tatm
Figure 4.1B
Clear sky condition
4.1.4 Measurements during a sunny day
CG 4 allows accurate daytime measurements on sunny days without
the need for a moving shading device. Despite solar radiation up to
1000 W/m2 the window heating will be less than 4 W/m2 in the overall
calculated downward radiation.
Formula 1 can be applied without any problems with the following
exception: One must take note of the amount of Infrared radiation in
the solar spectrum. The amount of solar infrared radiation depends
35
OPERATION
on many parameters, for example the water vapour content in the
atmosphere (Humidity), location of the CG 4 at a certain altitude and
the suns declination angle. The following curve indicates the possible
infrared radiation in the solar spectrum in the case of low water
content in the atmosphere.
The amount of solar infrared at the CG 4 sensor is expected to be
very low (0 to 3 W/m2) because of the filter cut-on at 4.5 µm. Other
types of pyrgeometers could be affected more (0 – 10 W/m2).
Figure 4.2
36
Direct solar irradiance in Davos at solar noon,
mid of September.
OPERATION
4.2 MEASURING NET RADIATION WITH TWO PYRGEOMETERS
With two CG 4’s as a net-pyrgeometer, the long wave radiation
balance (also called net long wave radiation) can also be measured.
This balance, combined with the information from an albedometer,
gives the net total radiation. A mounting plate with 500 mm rod for 4
possibly ventilated sensors is available (see chapter 9).
When determining the net-long wave radiation, it is not strictly
necessary to measure sensor temperatures.
Assuming that the temperatures of upper and lower sensor are equal,
it can be cancelled from the equation for net-radiation.
The combination of a net pyrgeometer (two CG 4’s) and a CM 7B or
CM 14 albedometer for measuring net total radiation has many
advantages over conventional net total radiation sensors with plastic
(polyethylene) windows. Robustness and maintainability are better,
separate information on solar and long wave radiation is offered.
Problems with dew deposition are minimised with the Kipp & Zonen
CV 2 ventilation unit by ventilating and optional heating of the
pyrgeometer.
4.3
THERMAL STRESS STUDIES
The CG 4 pyrgeometer is suitable for use in building research for
thermal stress studies. It may be necessary to keep the CG 4 body at
a known temperature, e.g. the human skin temperature, to get
reproducible results.
37
OPERATION
38
MAINTENANCE
5
MAINTENANCE
Once installed the pyrgeometer needs little maintenance.
The Silicon window must be inspected at regular intervals and cleaned
regularly, e.g. every morning. On clear windless nights the window
temperature of horizontally placed pyrgeometers will decrease, even
to the dew point temperature of the air, due to IR radiation exchange
with the cold sky (The effective sky temperature can be 30 °C lower
than the ground temperature).
In this case dew, glazed frost or hoar frost can be precipitated on the
top of the window and can stay there for several hours in the morning.
An ice cap on the window is a strong infrared absorber and increases
the pyrgeometer signal drastically up to 0 µV in the first hours after
sunrise. Hoar frost disappears due to solar radiation during the
morning, but should be wiped off manually as soon as possible.
Another periodic check should ensure that the instrument is level and
that the silica gel is still coloured blue. When the blue silica gel in the
drying cartridge is turned completely pink (normally after several
months), it must be replaced by active material. Pink silica gel can be
activated again by heating in an oven at 130oC for several hours.
In some networks, the exposed window of the pyrgeometer is
ventilated continuously by a blower to keep the window above the dew
point temperature. Preheating of the air is not necessary in principle.
The Kipp & Zonen CV 2 ventilation unit is specially designed to
maintain accurate unattended operation under most weather
conditions. CV 2 is able to prevent dew deposition and will remove
water droplets much quicker.
Note:
During maintenance or operation be aware that everything
emits thermal radiation, so hot gasses, persons, birds can
affect the signal if they subtend a considerable angle in the
field of view.
39
MAINTENANCE
It is normal in humid areas to replace the desiccant twice a year.
The exchange interval is affected by humidity, change in air pressure
and the frequency of temperature changes.
Apart from that it is good to visit the site regularly to check the
condition of the pyrgeometer (desiccant, dirt on window, levelling of
instrument and condition of the cabling).
Water transport through the cable is possible when the open end of
the cable and the connected device are in a humid environment.
Some tips when changing the desiccant:
A
Make sure the surfaces of the pyrgeometer and the cartridge,
that touch the rubber ring, are clean (corrosion can do a lot of
harm here, and dirt in combination with water can cause this).
B
The rubber ring is normally coated with a silicon grease (Vaseline
will also do) to make the seal even better. If the rubber ring looks
dry apply some grease to it.
C
Check that the metal spring that retains the drying cartridge
applies enough force. It is normal that you have to use two hands
to open and close it.
It is very difficult to make the pyrgeometers hermetically sealed. The
only way to do this properly is to put the inside of the instrument under
pressure (> 1.0 Bar), but this has to be checked at yearly intervals.
So, due to pressure differences inside and outside the instrument
there will always be some exchange of (humid) air.
40
CALIBRATION
6
CALIBRATION
6.1
THE CALIBRATION FACTOR
The ideal pyrgeometer should always have a constant ratio of voltage
output to irradiance level (outside the instrument in the plane of the
sensing element). This ratio is called sensitivity (S) or responsivity.
The sensitivity figure of a particular pyrgeometer is unique.
6.2
CALIBRATION PROCEDURE AT KIPP & ZONEN
The CG 4 is calibrated outdoors in a side-by-side comparison against
a reference CG 4 pyrgeometer. This method of outdoor calibration is
preferable above any conventional indoor side-by-side calibration
method.
6.2.1 The outdoor procedure
The CG 4’s are calibrated outdoors at Kipp & Zonen under a mainly
clear sky during nighttime. The instruments are installed side by side
next to the reference pyrgeometer. Both the pyrgeometers thermopile
outputs (Uemf) and body temperatures (Tb) are measured each
second and compressed to one minute averages. Afterwards the
downward radiation (Ld) on the reference pyrgeometer is calculated
using the formula:
Ld=
Uemf
+ 5 . 67 ⋅10
S
−8
T
⋅
4
b
For the other “test” CG 4’s a one minute average sensitivity is
calculated using the formula:
S t =U
t
/(
4
L d − 5 . 67 ⋅10 − 8 ⋅T b )
41
CALIBRATION
A final St is determined only from one minute St’s determined in
periods with net IR-exchange = Ld – 5 . 67 ⋅ 10 − 8 ⋅T 4 > 40 W/m² (Clear
b
sky).
The sum of all periods must be at least 6 hours.
6.2.2 Traceability to the World Radiometric reference
The reference CG 4 pyrgeometer is calibrated in principle the year
before during the summer by an outdoor comparison on the roof
platform of the PMOD/WRC to the reference pyrgeometers of the
World Radiation Center. (See www.pmodwrc.ch).
6.3
RECALIBRATION
Pyrgeometer sensitivity changes with time and with exposure to
radiation. Periodic calibration (at least every two years) is advised.
Accurate calibrations can be done outdoors under clear sky conditions
by comparison to a reference pyrgeometer.
42
FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS (FAQ’S)
7
FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS (FAQ’s)
The most frequently asked questions are listed below.
For an update, please refer to the Kipp & Zonen website:
http://www.kippzonen.com
1.
What are typical values for downwelling atmospheric long wave
radiation?
Ambient
temperature
Clouded sky
(Lnet = 0 W/m2)
Clear sky
(Lnet = -150 W/m2)
Ld in W/m2
-20 °C
230
80
0 °C
315
165
+30 °C
480
330
2.
The values calculated with the formula, given in chapter 4, show
a very strange value. What could be the reason?
-
Check whether the (instrument) temperature (Tb) is given in
Kelvin.
Check that the net radiation (Uemf / S) is a negative value, if not,
the wires are possibly interchanged.
-
3.
What is the primary entry point for humidity?
The desiccant cartridge and cable gland have equal chances to
transport some moisture, but also the silicon glue of the window is not
fully watertight. However,
43
FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS (FAQ’S)
normally the cable gland is never touched while the cartridge is
removed frequently. So when no care is taken, one can easily make
the desiccant cartridge the primary entry point.
Note:
44
Water transport through the cable is also possible when the
open end of the cable and the connected device are in a
humid environment.
TROUBLE SHOOTING
8
TROUBLE SHOOTING
Any visible damage or malfunction should be reported to your dealer,
who will suggest appropriate action.
The following contains a procedure for checking the instrument in
case it does not function as it should.
If water or ice is deposited to the outside, clean the outside. Probably
water droplets will evaporate in less than one hour.
Malfunction
Possible cause
Check
Broken leads
Cover sensor,
Impedance over red
and blue wire should be
within specs.
Window is wet or dusty
Clean window using
soft lens cleaner
Unwanted IR sources near
the instrument
Check the site for
exhaust vents and/or
heat reflecting objects
Malfunction readout
equipment
Check device
Broken leads inside
sensor
Signal at sensor print.
No repair possible
No temperature
signal
Broken leads
Impedance
Stained window
Persistent dirt
Clean window using
alcohol with a soft cloth
or tissue
None or disturbed
signal
45
TROUBLE SHOOTING
46
PART NUMBERS / SPARE PARTS / OPTIONS
9
PART NUMBERS / SPARE PARTS / OPTIONS
Description
Part no.
Upper sunscreen (plastic)
Lower sunscreen (metal)
Levelling screw (2 required per pyrgeometer)
Fixed foot
0305-166
0012-053
0012-117
0012-116
Complete drying cartridge consisting of:
Clamp-Spring
Drying cartridge (without cover)
Cover for cartridge
Rubber ring
Silica gel container (1kg)
0305-165
9012-106
9012-107
2132-153
2643 943
Manual CG 4 pyrgeometer
CV 2 ventilation unit
CV 2 ventilation unit with heater
0345 200
0349 900
0349 901
CT 24 solar sensor 4 – 20 mA amplifier
0305 710
Mounting plates with a 500 mm rod to install radiometers for net
radiation measurements:
Mounting plate for 4 sensors, all 4 can be ventilated
(2 upper and 2 lower)
0012 067
Mounting plate for 2 possibly ventilated sensors
(1 upper and 1 lower)
0012 069
47
PART NUMBERS / SPARE PARTS / OPTIONS
Description
Part no.
Mounting plate for 4 unventilated sensors
(2 upper and 2 lower)
0012 092
10 meters cable extension and connectors
0305 666
15 meters cable extension and connectors
0305 631
20 meters cable extension and connectors
0305 632
25 meters cable extension and connectors
0305 633
30 meters cable extension and connectors
0305 634
50 meters cable extension and connectors
0305 635
75 meters cable extension and connectors
0305 636
100 meters cable extension and connectors
0305 637
200 meters cable extension and connectors
0305 638
48
APPENDIX I
APPENDIX I WORLD RADIATION CENTRE INFORMATION
The World Radiation Centre capable of Pyrgeometer calibration is:
Physikalisch-Meterologisches Observatorium
Dorfstrasse 33 CH-7260
Davos Dorf
Switzerland.
Website:
www.pmodwrc.ch
49
APPENDIX I
50
APPENDIX II
APPENDIX II
THERMISTOR SPECIFICATIONS
YSI thermistor 44031 Resistance versus Temperature in °C
Temperatur
e
[ °C ]
Resistance
[Ω]
Temperatur
e
[ °C ]
Resistance
[Ω]
Temperatur
e
[ °C ]
Resistance
[Ω]
-30
-29
-28
-27
-26
-25
-24
-23
-22
-21
-20
-19
-18
-17
-16
-15
-14
-13
-12
-11
-10
-9
-8
-7
-6
-5
-4
-3
-2
-1
135200
127900
121100
114600
108600
102900
97490
92430
87660
83160
78910
74910
71130
67570
64200
61020
58010
55170
52480
49940
47540
45270
43110
41070
39140
37310
35570
33930
32370
30890
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
29490
28150
26890
25690
24550
23460
22430
21450
20520
19630
18790
17980
17220
16490
15790
15130
14500
13900
13330
12790
12260
11770
11290
10840
10410
10000
9605
9227
8867
8523
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
8194
7880
7579
7291
7016
6752
6500
6258
6026
5805
5592
5389
5193
5006
4827
4655
4489
4331
4179
4033
3893
3758
3629
3504
3385
3270
3160
3054
2952
2854
51
APPENDIX II
52
APPENDIX III
APPENDIX III
Pt-100 SPECIFICATIONS
Pt-100 Resistance versus Temperature in °C
Temperatur
e
[ °C ]
Resistance
[Ω]
Temperatur
e
[ °C ]
Resistance
[Ω]
Temperatur
e
[ °C ]
Resistance
[Ω]
-30
-29
-28
-27
-26
-25
-24
-23
-22
-21
-20
-19
-18
-17
-16
-15
-14
-13
-12
-11
-10
-9
-8
-7
-6
-5
-4
-3
-2
-1
88.22
88.62
89.01
89.40
89.80
90.19
90.59
90.98
91.37
91.77
92.16
92.55
92.95
93.34
93.73
94.12
94.52
94.91
95.30
95.69
96.09
96.48
96.87
97.26
97.65
98.04
98.44
98.83
99.22
99.61
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
100.00
100.39
100.78
101.17
101.56
101.95
102.34
102.73
103.12
103.51
103.90
104.29
104.68
105.07
105.46
105.85
106.24
106.63
107.02
107.40
107.79
108.18
108.57
108.96
109.35
109.73
110.12
110.51
110.90
110.28
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
111.67
112.06
112.45
112.83
113.22
113.61
113.99
114.38
114.77
115.15
115.54
115.93
116.31
116.70
117.08
117.47
117.85
118.24
118.62
119.01
119.40
119.78
120.16
120.55
120.93
121.32
121.70
122.09
122.47
122.86
53
APPENDIX III
54
APPENDIX VI
APPENDIX IV RECALIBRATION SERVICE
Pyranometers, UV-meters, Pyrgeometers &
Sunshine duration sensors
Kipp & Zonen solar radiation measurement instruments comply with
the most demanding international standards. In order to maintain the
specified performance of these instruments, Kipp & Zonen
recommends calibration of their instruments at least every two years.
This can be done at the Kipp & Zonen factory. Here, recalibration to
the highest standards can be performed at low cost. Recalibration can
usually be performed within four weeks. If required, urgent
recalibration can be accomplished in three weeks or less (subject to
scheduling restrictions). Kipp & Zonen will confirm the duration of
recalibration at all times. Please note that special quantity recalibration
discounts are available.
For your convenience we added three fax forms to schedule the
recalibration of your instrument(s) at Kipp & Zonen.
55
APPENDIX VI
56
APPENDIX VI
NAME
COMPANY/INSTITUTE
ADDRESS
POSTCODE +CITY
COUNTRY
PHONE
FAX
†
†
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
I would like to receive a price list for recalibration
I would like to submit my instruments for recalibration
Type/Model:
Qty:
Requested delivery time
I intend to send the instruments to
Kipp & Zonen on:
. . . . . ./. . . . . ./. . . . . .
I would like to receive the instrument(s)
back on:
. . . . . ./. . . . . ./. . . . . .
Conformation by Kipp & Zonen
□ Yes, the dates are acceptable to us
□
No, unfortunately the dates do not fit into our calibration
schedule. We suggest the following dates:
. . . . . ./. . . . . ./. . . . . .
. . . . . ./. . . . . ./. . . . . .
Fax +31-15-2620351
or mail to:
Kipp & Zonen P.O. Box 507 2600AM
Delft The Netherlands
57
APPENDIX VI
58
APPENDIX VI
NAME
COMPANY/INSTITUTE
ADDRESS
POSTCODE +CITY
COUNTRY
PHONE
FAX
†
†
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
I would like to receive a price list for recalibration
I would like to submit my instruments for recalibration
Type/Model:
Qty:
Requested delivery time
I intend to send the instruments to
Kipp & Zonen on:
. . . . . ./. . . . . ./. . . . . .
I would like to receive the instrument(s)
back on:
. . . . . ./. . . . . ./. . . . . .
Conformation by Kipp & Zonen
□ Yes, the dates are acceptable to us
□
No, unfortunately the dates do not fit into our calibration
schedule. We suggest the following dates:
. . . . . ./. . . . . ./. . . . . .
. . . . . ./. . . . . ./. . . . . .
Fax +31-15-2620351
or mail to:
Kipp & Zonen P.O. Box 507 2600AM
Delft The Netherlands
59
APPENDIX VI
60
APPENDIX VI
NAME
COMPANY/INSTITUTE
ADDRESS
POSTCODE +CITY
COUNTRY
PHONE
FAX
†
†
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
I would like to receive a price list for recalibration
I would like to submit my instruments for recalibration
Type/Model:
Qty:
Requested delivery time
I intend to send the instruments to
Kipp & Zonen on:
. . . . . ./. . . . . ./. . . . . .
I would like to receive the instrument(s)
back on:
. . . . . ./. . . . . ./. . . . . .
Conformation by Kipp & Zonen
□ Yes, the dates are acceptable to us
□
No, unfortunately the dates do not fit into our calibration
schedule. We suggest the following dates:
. . . . . ./. . . . . ./. . . . . .
. . . . . ./. . . . . ./. . . . . .
Fax +31-15-2620351
or mail to:
Kipp & Zonen P.O. Box 507 2600AM
Delft The Netherlands
61
APPENDIX VI
62
Customer Support
Our customer support
remains at your disposal
for any maintenance or
repair, calibration,
supplies and spares.
The address is as
follows:
Für Servicearbeiten und
Kalibrierung, Verbrauchsmaterial und Ersatzteile
steht Ihnen unsere
Customer Support
Abteilung unter folgender
Adresse zur Verfügung:
Notre service 'Support Clientèle'
reste à votre entière disposition
pour tout problème de
maintenance, réparation ou
d'étalonnage ainsi que pour les
accessoires et pièces de
rechange. Leur adresse est la
suivante :
Holland
Kipp & Zonen B.V.
Röntgenweg 1
2624 BD DELFT
T +31 15 269 8000
F +31 15 262 0351
E kipp.holland@kippzonen.com
USA
UK
Kipp & Zonen Ltd.
P.O. Box 819,
LINCOLN, Lincolnshire LN6 0WY
T +44 1522 695 403
F +44 1522 696 598
E kipp.uk@kippzonen.com
France Kipp & Zonen S.A.R.L.
7, avenue Clément Ader
ZA Ponroy - Bât. M
F-94420 LE PLESSIS TREVISE
T +33 1 49 62 4104
F +33 1 49 62 4102
E kipp.france@kippzonen.com
Germany Gengenbach Messtechnik
Heinrich-Otto-Strasse 3
D-73262 REICHENBACH/FILS
T +49 7153 9258 0
F +49 7153 9258 160
E info@rg-messtechnik.de
Kipp & Zonen USA Inc.
125, Wilbur Place
BOHEMIA/NY 11716
T +1 631 589 2065
F +1 631 589 2068
E kipp.usa@kippzonen.com
Kipp &
Zonen
www.kippzonen.com