Clear TV Digimax RF Product manual

XBee™/XBee-PRO™ OEM RF Modules
XBee/XBee-PRO OEM RF Modules
RF Module Operation
RF Module Configuration
Appendices
Product Manual v1.xAx - 802.15.4 Protocol
For OEM RF Module Part Numbers: XB24-...-001, XBP24-...-001
IEEE® 802.15.4 OEM RF Modules by MaxStream
M
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355 South 520 West, Suite 180
Lindon, UT 84042
Phone: (801) 765-9885
Fax: (801) 765-9895
rf-xperts@maxstream.net
www.MaxStream.net (live chat support)
M100232
2007.05.031
XBee/XBee‐PRO™ OEM RF Modules ‐ 802.15.4 ‐ v1.xAx [2007.05.031]
© 2007 MaxStream, Inc. All rights reserved
The contents of this manual may not be transmitted or reproduced in any form or by any means without the written permission of MaxStream, Inc.
XBee™ and XBee‐PRO™ are trademarks of MaxStream, Inc.
Technical Support: Phone: (801) 765‐9885
Live Chat: www.maxstream.net
E‐mail: rf‐xperts@maxstream.net
© 2007 MaxStream, Inc.
ii
XBee/XBee‐PRO™ OEM RF Modules ‐ 802.15.4 ‐ v1.xAx [2007.05.031]
Contents
1. XBee/XBee-PRO OEM RF Modules
1.1. Key Features
4
1.2. Specifications
Appendix A: Agency Certifications
United States (FCC)
1.1.1. Worldwide Acceptance
4
FCC Notices
6
6
59
Europe (ETSI)
7
1.6. Electrical Characteristics
8
Restrictions
9
2.1.1. UART Data Flow
9
2.1.2. Transparent Operation
2.1.3. API Operation
Canada (IC)
Japan
10
2.1.4. Flow Control
2.2. ADC and Digital I/O Line Support
2.2.1. I/O Data Format
2.2.2. API Support
12
13
External Interface
2.2.5. Sample Rate (Interval)
13
RS-232 Pin Signals
Wiring Diagrams
14
2.2.7. Configuration Example
Adapters
14
2.3. XBee/XBee-PRO Networks
2.3.2. NonBeacon (w/ Coordinator)
X-CTU Software
16
2.4. XBee/XBee-PRO Addressing
69
20
70
70
Ordering Information
Contact MaxStream
22
2.5.4. Command Mode
70
71
24
25
3.1. Programming the RF Module
3.1.1. Programming Examples
3.3. Command Descriptions
25
25
3.2. Command Reference Tables
26
34
54
3.4.1. API Frame Specifications
3.4.2. API Types
69
69
1-Year Warranty
20
3. RF Module Configuration
3.4. API Operation
68
Appendix C: Additional Information
20
2.5.2. Transmit/Receive Modes
2.5.3. Sleep Mode
68
68
Serial Communications Software
19
2.5. Modes of Operation
2.5.1. Idle Mode
Installation
19
19
2.4.2. Broadcast Mode
65
67
USB Pin Signals
15
64
66
External Interface
15
2.4.1. Unicast Mode
63
64
USB Development Board
15
63
63
RS-232 Development Board
13
2.2.4. DIO Pin Change Detect
2.3.3. Association
62
Appendix B: Development Guide
Interfacing Options
2.2.6. I/O Line Passing
62
62
Development Kit Contents
12
13
2.2.3. Sleep Support
62
Labeling Requirements
11
61
62
Labeling Requirements
10
61
61
Declarations of Conformity
Approved Antennas
9
60
61
OEM Labeling Requirements
2. RF Module Operation
2.3.1. NonBeacon
59
FCC-Approved Antennas (2.4 GHz)
1.4. Mounting Considerations
2.1. Serial Communications
59
59
OEM Labeling Requirements
5
1.3. Mechanical Drawings
1.5. Pin Signals
4
54
55
© 2007 MaxStream, Inc. iii
1. XBee/XBee‐PRO OEM RF Modules
The XBee and XBee-PRO OEM RF Modules were engineered
to meet IEEE 802.15.4 standards and support the unique
needs of low-cost, low-power wireless sensor networks.
The modules require minimal power and provide reliable
delivery of data between devices.
The modules operate within the ISM 2.4 GHz frequency
band and are pin-for-pin compatible with each other.
1.1. Key Features
Long Range Data Integrity
XBee
Low Power
XBee
• Indoor/Urban: up to 100’ (30 m)
• TX Current: 45 mA (@3.3 V)
• Outdoor line-of-sight: up to 300’ (100 m)
• RX Current: 50 mA (@3.3 V)
• Transmit Power: 1 mW (0 dBm)
• Power-down Current: < 10 µA
• Receiver Sensitivity: -92 dBm
XBee-PRO
XBee-PRO
• TX Current: 215 mA (@3.3 V)
• Indoor/Urban: up to 300’ (100 m)
• RX Current: 55 mA (@3.3 V)
• Outdoor line-of-sight: up to 1 mile (1500 m)
• Power-down Current: < 10 µA
• Transmit Power: 100 mW (20 dBm) EIRP
• Receiver Sensitivity: -100 dBm
RF Data Rate: 250,000 bps
Advanced Networking & Security
Retries and Acknowledgements
ADC and I/O line support
Analog-to-digital conversion, Digital I/O
I/O Line Passing
Easy-to-Use
DSSS (Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum)
No configuration necessary for out-of box
RF communications
Each direct sequence channels has over
65,000 unique network addresses available
Free X-CTU Software
(Testing and configuration software)
Source/Destination Addressing
AT and API Command Modes for
configuring module parameters
Unicast & Broadcast Communications
Point-to-point, point-to-multipoint
and peer-to-peer topologies supported
Coordinator/End Device operations
Extensive command set
Small form factor
Free & Unlimited RF-XPert Support
1.1.1. Worldwide Acceptance
FCC Approval (USA) Refer to Appendix A [p59] for FCC Requirements.
Systems that contain XBee/XBee-PRO RF Modules inherit MaxStream Certifications.
ISM (Industrial, Scientific & Medical) 2.4 GHz frequency band
Manufactured under ISO 9001:2000 registered standards
XBee/XBee-PRO RF Modules are optimized for use in the United States, Canada, Australia,
Israel and Europe. Contact MaxStream for complete list of government agency approvals.
© 2007 MaxStream, Inc.
4
XBee/XBee‐PRO™ OEM RF Modules ‐ 802.15.4 ‐ v1.xAx [2007.05.031]
Chapter 1 ‐ XBee/XBee‐PRO OEM RF Modules
1.2. Specifications
Table 1‐01.
Specifications of the XBee/XBee‐PRO OEM RF Modules
Specification
XBee
XBee-PRO
Performance
Indoor/Urban Range
up to 100 ft. (30 m)
Up to 300’ (100 m)
Outdoor RF line-of-sight Range
up to 300 ft. (100 m)
Up to 1 mile (1500 m)
Transmit Power Output
(software selectable)
1mW (0 dBm)
60 mW (18 dBm) conducted, 100 mW (20 dBm) EIRP*
RF Data Rate
250,000 bps
250,000 bps
Serial Interface Data Rate
(software selectable)
1200 - 115200 bps
(non-standard baud rates also supported)
1200 - 115200 bps
(non-standard baud rates also supported)
Receiver Sensitivity
-92 dBm (1% packet error rate)
-100 dBm (1% packet error rate)
2.8 – 3.4 V
2.8 – 3.4 V
45mA (@ 3.3 V)
If PL=0 (10dBm): 137mA(@3.3V), 139mA(@3.0V)
PL=1 (12dBm): 155mA (@3.3V), 153mA(@3.0V)
PL=2 (14dBm): 170mA (@3.3V), 171mA(@3.0V)
PL=3 (16dBm): 188mA (@3.3V), 195mA(@3.0V)
PL=4 (18dBm): 215mA (@3.3V), 227mA(@3.0V)
Power Requirements
Supply Voltage
Transmit Current (typical)
Idle / Receive Current (typical)
50mA (@ 3.3 V)
55mA (@ 3.3 V)
Power-down Current
< 10 µA
< 10 µA
Operating Frequency
ISM 2.4 GHz
ISM 2.4 GHz
Dimensions
0.960” x 1.087” (2.438cm x 2.761cm)
0.960” x 1.297” (2.438cm x 3.294cm)
Operating Temperature
-40 to 85º C (industrial)
-40 to 85º C (industrial)
Antenna Options
Integrated Whip, Chip or U.FL Connector
Integrated Whip, Chip or U.FL Connector
General
Networking & Security
Supported Network Topologies
Point-to-point, Point-to-multipoint & Peer-to-peer
Number of Channels
(software selectable)
16 Direct Sequence Channels
12 Direct Sequence Channels
Addressing Options
PAN ID, Channel and Addresses
PAN ID, Channel and Addresses
OUR-XBEE
OUR-XBEEPRO
Agency Approvals
United States (FCC Part 15.247)
Industry Canada (IC)
4214A XBEE
4214A XBEEPRO
Europe (CE)
ETSI
ETSI (Max. 10 dBm transmit power output)*
Japan
n/a
005NYCA0378 (Max. 10 dBm transmit power output)**
* When operating in Europe: XBee‐PRO RF Modules must be configured to operate at a maximum transmit power output level of 10 dBm. The power output level is set using the PL command. The PL parameter must equal “0” (10 dBm).
Additionally, European regulations stipulate an EIRP power maximum of 12.86 dBm (19 mW) for the XBee‐PRO and 12.11 dBm for the XBee when integrating high‐gain antennas.
** When operating in Japan: Transmit power output is limited to 10 dBm. A special part number is required when ordering modules approved for use in Japan. Contact MaxStream for more information [call 1‐801‐765‐9885 or send e‐mails to sales@max‐
stream.net].
Antenna Options: The ranges specified are typical when using the integrated Whip (1.5 dBi) and Dipole (2.1 dBi) antennas. The Chip antenna option provides advantages in its form factor; however, it typically yields shorter range than the
Whip and Dipole antenna options when transmitting outdoors. For more information, refer to the “XBee Antenna” application note located on MaxStream’s web site (http://www.maxstream.net/support/knowledgebase/article.php?kb=153).
© 2007 MaxStream, Inc.
5
XBee/XBee‐PRO™ OEM RF Modules ‐ 802.15.4 ‐ v1.xAx [2007.05.031]
Chapter 1 ‐ XBee/XBee‐PRO OEM RF Modules
1.3. Mechanical Drawings
Figure 1‐01. Mechanical drawings of the XBee/XBee‐PRO OEM RF Modules (antenna options not shown)
The XBee and XBee‐PRO RF Modules are pin‐for‐pin compatible. 1.4. Mounting Considerations
The XBee/XBee-PRO RF Module was designed to mount into a receptacle (socket) and therefore
does not require any soldering when mounting it to a board. The XBee Development Kits contain
RS-232 and USB interface boards which use two 20-pin receptacles to receive modules.
Figure 1‐02. XBee Module Mounting to an RS‐232 Interface Board. The receptacles used on MaxStream development boards are manufactured by Century Interconnect. Several other manufacturers provide comparable mounting solutions; however, MaxStream
currently uses the following receptacles:
• Through-hole single-row receptacles Samtec P/N: MMS-110-01-L-SV (or equivalent)
• Surface-mount double-row receptacles Century Interconnect P/N: CPRMSL20-D-0-1 (or equivalent)
• Surface-mount single-row receptacles Samtec P/N: SMM-110-02-SM-S
MaxStream also recommends printing an outline of the module on the board to indicate the orientation the module should be mounted.
© 2007 MaxStream, Inc.
6
XBee/XBee‐PRO™ OEM RF Modules ‐ 802.15.4 ‐ v1.xAx [2007.05.031]
Chapter 1 ‐ XBee/XBee‐PRO OEM RF Modules
1.5. Pin Signals
Figure 1‐03. XBee/XBee‐PRO RF Module Pin Numbers
(top sides shown ‐ shields on bottom)
Table 1‐02.
Pin 1
Pin 20
Pin 10
Pin 11
Pin 1
Pin 20
Pin 10
Pin 11
Pin Assignments for the XBee and XBee‐PRO Modules
(Low‐asserted signals are distinguished with a horizontal line above signal name.)
Pin #
Name
Direction
Description
1
VCC
-
Power supply
2
DOUT
Output
UART Data Out
3
DIN / CONFIG
Input
UART Data In
4
DO8*
Output
Digital Output 8
5
RESET
Input
Module Reset (reset pulse must be at least 200 ns)
6
PWM0 / RSSI
Output
PWM Output 0 / RX Signal Strength Indicator
7
PWM1
Output
PWM Output 1
8
[reserved]
-
Do not connect
9
DTR / SLEEP_RQ / DI8
Input
Pin Sleep Control Line or Digital Input 8
10
GND
-
Ground
11
AD4 / DIO4
Either
Analog Input 4 or Digital I/O 4
Clear-to-Send Flow Control or Digital I/O 7
12
CTS / DIO7
Either
13
ON / SLEEP
Output
Module Status Indicator
14
VREF
Input
Voltage Reference for A/D Inputs
15
Associate / AD5 / DIO5
Either
Associated Indicator, Analog Input 5 or Digital I/O 5
16
RTS / AD6 / DIO6
Either
Request-to-Send Flow Control, Analog Input 6 or Digital I/O 6
17
AD3 / DIO3
Either
Analog Input 3 or Digital I/O 3
18
AD2 / DIO2
Either
Analog Input 2 or Digital I/O 2
19
AD1 / DIO1
Either
Analog Input 1 or Digital I/O 1
20
AD0 / DIO0
Either
Analog Input 0 or Digital I/O 0
* Function is not supported at the time of this release
Design Notes:
• Minimum connections: VCC, GND, DOUT & DIN
• Minimum connections for updating firmware: VCC, GND, DIN, DOUT, RTS & DTR
• Signal Direction is specified with respect to the module
• Module includes a 50k Ω pull-up resistor attached to RESET
• Several of the input pull-ups can be configured using the PR command
• Unused pins should be left disconnected
© 2007 MaxStream, Inc.
7
XBee/XBee‐PRO™ OEM RF Modules ‐ 802.15.4 ‐ v1.xAx [2007.05.031]
Chapter 1 ‐ XBee/XBee‐PRO OEM RF Modules
1.6. Electrical Characteristics
Table 1‐03.
DC Characteristics (VCC = 2.8 ‐ 3.4 VDC)
Symbol
VIL
VIH
VOL
VOH
IIIN
IIOZ
Characteristic
Condition
Min
Typical
Max
Unit
Input Low Voltage
Input High Voltage
Output Low Voltage
Output High Voltage
Input Leakage Current
High Impedance Leakage Current
All Digital Inputs
All Digital Inputs
IOL = 2 mA, VCC >= 2.7 V
IOH = -2 mA, VCC >= 2.7 V
VIN = VCC or GND, all inputs, per pin
VIN = VCC or GND, all I/O High-Z, per pin
0.7 * VCC
VCC - 0.5
-
0.025
0.025
0.35 * VCC
0.5
1
1
V
V
V
V
µA
µA
TX
Transmit Current
VCC = 3.3 V
-
-
mA
RX
Receive Current
VCC = 3.3 V
-
-
mA
PWR-DWN
Power-down Current
SM parameter = 1
-
< 10
-
µA
Min
Typical
Max
Unit
2.08
-
VDDAD
V
VSSAD - 0.3
200
< 0.01
-
0.02
VDDAD + 0.3
µA
µA
V
Unit
Table 1‐04.
Symbol
45
(XBee)
50
(XBee)
215
(PRO)
55
(PRO)
ADC Characteristics (Operating)
VREFH
Characteristic
VREF - Analog-to-Digital converter
reference range
IREF
VREF - Reference Supply Current
VINDC
Analog Input Voltage1
Condition
Enabled
Disabled or Sleep Mode
1. Maximum electrical operating range, not valid conversion range.
Table 1‐05.
ADC Timing/Performance Characteristics1
Symbol
Characteristic
Min
Typical
Max
RAS
Source Impedance at Input2
Condition
-
-
10
VAIN
Analog Input Voltage3
VREFL
RES
Ideal Resolution (1 LSB)4
DNL
Differential Non-linearity5
INL
EZS
Integral Non-linearity6
-
±0.5
±1.0
LSB
Zero-scale Error7
-
±0.4
±1.0
LSB
LSB
2.08V < VDDAD < 3.6V
VREFH
k
V
2.031
-
3.516
mV
-
±0.5
±1.0
LSB
FFS
Full-scale Error8
-
±0.4
±1.0
EIL
Input Leakage Error9
-
±0.05
±5.0
LSB
ETU
Total Unadjusted Error10
-
±1.1
±2.5
LSB
1. All ACCURACY numbers are based on processor and system being in WAIT state (very little activity and no IO switching) and that adequate low‐pass filtering is present on analog input pins (filter with 0.01 μF to 0.1 μF capacitor between analog input and VREFL). Failure to observe these guidelines may result in system or microcontroller noise causing accuracy errors which will vary based on board layout and the type and magnitude of the activity.
Data transmission and reception during data conversion may cause some degradation of these specifications, depending on the number and timing of packets. It is advisable to test the ADCs in your installation if best accuracy is required.
2. RAS is the real portion of the impedance of the network driving the analog input pin. Values greater than this amount may not fully charge the input circuitry of the ATD resulting in accuracy error.
3. Analog input must be between VREFL and VREFH for valid conversion. Values greater than VREFH will convert to $3FF.
4. The resolution is the ideal step size or 1LSB = (VREFH–VREFL)/1024
5. Differential non‐linearity is the difference between the current code width and the ideal code width (1LSB). The current code width is the difference in the transition voltages to and from the current code.
6. Integral non‐linearity is the difference between the transition voltage to the current code and the adjusted ideal transition voltage for the current code. The adjusted ideal transition voltage is (Current Code–1/2)*(1/((VREFH+EFS)–(VREFL+EZS))).
7. Zero‐scale error is the difference between the transition to the first valid code and the ideal transition to that code. The Ideal transition voltage to a given code is (Code–1/2)*(1/(VREFH–VREFL)).
8. Full‐scale error is the difference between the transition to the last valid code and the ideal transition to that code. The ideal transition voltage to a given code is (Code–1/2)*(1/(VREFH–VREFL)).
9. Input leakage error is error due to input leakage across the real portion of the impedance of the network driving the analog pin. Reducing the impedance of the network reduces this error.
10. Total unadjusted error is the difference between the transition voltage to the current code and the ideal straight‐line trans‐
fer function. This measure of error includes inherent quantization error (1/2LSB) and circuit error (differential, integral, zero‐
scale, and full‐scale) error. The specified value of ETU assumes zero EIL (no leakage or zero real source impedance).
© 2007 MaxStream, Inc.
8
2. RF Module Operation
2.1. Serial Communications
The XBee/XBee-PRO OEM RF Modules interface to a host device through a logic-level asynchronous serial port. Through its serial port, the module can communicate with any logic and voltage
compatible UART; or through a level translator to any serial device (For example: Through a MaxStream proprietary RS-232 or USB interface board).
2.1.1. UART Data Flow
Devices that have a UART interface can connect directly to the pins of the RF module as shown in
the figure below.
Figure 2‐01. System Data Flow Diagram in a UART‐interfaced environment
(Low‐asserted signals distinguished with horizontal line over signal name.)
Serial Data
Data enters the module UART through the DI pin (pin 3) as an asynchronous serial signal. The signal should idle high when no data is being transmitted.
Each data byte consists of a start bit (low), 8 data bits (least significant bit first) and a stop bit
(high). The following figure illustrates the serial bit pattern of data passing through the module.
Figure 2‐02. UART data packet 0x1F (decimal number ʺ31ʺ) as transmitted through the RF module
Example Data Format is 8‐N‐1 (bits ‐ parity ‐ # of stop bits)
The module UART performs tasks, such as timing and parity checking, that are needed for data
communications. Serial communications depend on the two UARTs to be configured with compatible settings (baud rate, parity, start bits, stop bits, data bits).
© 2007 MaxStream, Inc.
9
XBee/XBee‐PRO™ OEM RF Modules ‐ 802.15.4 ‐ v1.xAx [2007.05.031]
Chapter 2 ‐ RF Module Operation
2.1.2. Transparent Operation
By default, XBee/XBee-PRO RF Modules operate in Transparent Mode. When operating in this
mode, the modules act as a serial line replacement - all UART data received through the DI pin is
queued up for RF transmission. When RF data is received, the data is sent out the DO pin.
Serial-to-RF Packetization
Data is buffered in the DI buffer until one of the following causes the data to be packetized and
transmitted:
1.
No serial characters are received for the amount of time determined by the RO (Packetization Timeout) parameter. If RO = 0, packetization begins when a character is received.
2.
The maximum number of characters that will fit in an RF packet (100) is received.
3.
The Command Mode Sequence (GT + CC + GT) is received. Any character buffered in the
DI buffer before the sequence is transmitted.
If the module cannot immediately transmit (for instance, if it is already receiving RF data), the
serial data is stored in the DI Buffer. The data is packetized and sent at any RO timeout or when
100 bytes (maximum packet size) are received.
If the DI buffer becomes full, hardware or software flow control must be implemented in order to
prevent overflow (loss of data between the host and module).
2.1.3. API Operation
API (Application Programming Interface) Operation is an alternative to the default Transparent
Operation. The frame-based API extends the level to which a host application can interact with the
networking capabilities of the module.
When in API mode, all data entering and leaving the module is contained in frames that define
operations or events within the module.
Transmit Data Frames (received through the DI pin (pin 3)) include:
• RF Transmit Data Frame
• Command Frame (equivalent to AT commands)
Receive Data Frames (sent out the DO pin (pin 2)) include:
• RF-received data frame
• Command response
• Event notifications such as reset, associate, disassociate, etc.
The API provides alternative means of configuring modules and routing data at the host application layer. A host application can send data frames to the module that contain address and payload
information instead of using command mode to modify addresses. The module will send data
frames to the application containing status packets; as well as source, RSSI and payload information from received data packets.
The API operation option facilitates many operations such as the examples cited below:
-> Transmitting data to multiple destinations without entering Command Mode
-> Receive success/failure status of each transmitted RF packet
-> Identify the source address of each received packet
To implement API operations, refer to API sections [p54].
© 2007 MaxStream, Inc.
10
XBee/XBee‐PRO™ OEM RF Modules ‐ 802.15.4 ‐ v1.xAx [2007.05.031]
Chapter 2 ‐ RF Module Operation
2.1.4. Flow Control
Figure 2‐03. Internal Data Flow Diagram
DI (Data In) Buffer
When serial data enters the RF module through the DI pin (pin 3), the data is stored in the DI
Buffer until it can be processed.
Hardware Flow Control (CTS). When the DI buffer is 17 bytes away from being full; by default,
the module de-asserts CTS (high) to signal to the host device to stop sending data [refer to D7
(DIO7 Configuration) parameter]. CTS is re-asserted after the DI Buffer has 34 bytes of memory
available.
How to eliminate the need for flow control:
1.
Send messages that are smaller than the DI buffer size.
2.
Interface at a lower baud rate [BD (Interface Data Rate) parameter] than the throughput
data rate.
Case in which the DI Buffer may become full and possibly overflow:
If the module is receiving a continuous stream of RF data, any serial data that arrives on the DI
pin is placed in the DI Buffer. The data in the DI buffer will be transmitted over-the-air when the
module is no longer receiving RF data in the network.
Refer to the RO (Packetization Timeout), BD (Interface Data Rate) and D7 (DIO7 Configuration) command descriptions for more information.
DO (Data Out) Buffer
When RF data is received, the data enters the DO buffer and is sent out the serial port to a host
device. Once the DO Buffer reaches capacity, any additional incoming RF data is lost.
Hardware Flow Control (RTS). If RTS is enabled for flow control (D6 (DIO6 Configuration)
Parameter = 1), data will not be sent out the DO Buffer as long as RTS (pin 16) is de-asserted.
Two cases in which the DO Buffer may become full and possibly overflow:
1.
If the RF data rate is set higher than the interface data rate of the module, the module will
receive data from the transmitting module faster than it can send the data to the host.
2.
If the host does not allow the module to transmit data out from the DO buffer because of
being held off by hardware or software flow control.
Refer to the D6 (DIO6 Configuration) command description for more information.
© 2007 MaxStream, Inc.
11
XBee/XBee‐PRO™ OEM RF Modules ‐ 802.15.4 ‐ v1.xAx [2007.05.031]
Chapter 2 ‐ RF Module Operation
2.2. ADC and Digital I/O Line Support
The XBee/XBee-PRO RF Modules support ADC (Analog-to-digital conversion) and digital I/O line
passing. The following pins support multiple functions:
Table 2‐01.
Pin functions and their associated pin numbers and commands
AD = Analog‐to‐Digital Converter, DIO = Digital Input/Output
Pin functions not applicable to this section are denoted within (parenthesis).
Pin Function
Pin#
AT Command
AD0 / DIO0
20
D0
AD1 / DIO1
19
D1
AD2 / DIO2
18
D2
AD3 / DIO3 / (COORD_SEL)
17
D3
AD4 / DIO4
11
D4
AD5 / DIO5 / (ASSOCIATE)
15
D5
DIO6 / (RTS)
16
D6
DIO7 / (CTS)
12
D7
DI8 / (DTR) / (Sleep_RQ)
9
D8
To enable ADC and DIO pin functions:
For ADC Support:
Set ATDn = 2
For Digital Input support:
Set ATDn = 3
For Digital Output Low support:
Set ATDn = 4
For Digital Output High support:
Set ATDn = 5
2.2.1. I/O Data Format
I/O data begins with a header. The first byte of the header defines the number of samples forthcoming. A sample is comprised of input data and the inputs can contain either DIO or ADC. The
last 2 bytes of the header (Channel Indicator) define which inputs are active. Each bit represents
either a DIO line or ADC channel.
Figure 2‐04. Header
Header
Byte 1
Bytes 2 - 3 (Channel Indicator)
Total number of samples
na
A5
A4
A3
bit 15
A2
A1
A0
D8
D7
D6
D5
D4
D3
D2
D1
D0
bit 0
Bit set to ‘1’ if channel is active
Sample data follows the header and the channel indicator frame is used to determine how to read
the sample data. If any of the DIO lines are enabled, the first 2 bytes are the DIO data and the
ADC data follows. ADC channel data is stored as an unsigned 10-bit value right-justified on a 16bit boundary.
Figure 2‐05. Sample Data
Sample Data
DIO Line Data is first (if enabled)
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
8
7
© 2007 MaxStream, Inc.
6
5
4
ADC Line Data
3
2
1
0
ADCn MSB
ADCn LSB
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2.2.2. API Support
I/O data is sent out the UART using an API frame. All other data can be sent and received using
Transparent Operation [refer to p10] or API framing if API mode is enabled (AP > 0).
API Operations support two RX (Receive) frame identifiers for I/O data:
• 0x82 for RX (Receive) Packet: 64-bit address I/O
• 0x83 for RX (Receive) Packet: 16-bit address I/O
The API command header is the same as shown in the “RX (Receive) Packet: 64-bit Address” and
“RX (Receive) Packet: 64-bit Address” API types [refer to p58]. RX data follows the format
described in the I/O Data Format section [p12].
Applicable Commands: AP (API Enable)
2.2.3. Sleep Support
When an RF module wakes, it will always do a sample based on any active ADC or DIO lines. This
allows sampling based on the sleep cycle whether it be Cyclic Sleep (SM parameter = 4 or 5) or Pin
Sleep (SM = 1 or 2). To gather more samples when awake, set the IR (Sample Rate) parameter.
For Cyclic Sleep modes: If the IR parameter is set, the module will stay awake until the IT (Samples before TX) parameter is met. The module will stay awake for ST (Time before Sleep) time.
Applicable Commands: IR (Sample Rate), IT (Samples before TX), SM (Sleep Mode), IC (DIO
Change Detect)
2.2.4. DIO Pin Change Detect
When “DIO Change Detect” is enabled (using the IC command), DIO lines 0-7 are monitored.
When a change is detected on a DIO line, the following will occur:
1.
An RF packet is sent with the updated DIO pin levels. This packet will not contain any ADC
samples.
2.
Any queued samples are transmitted before the change detect data. This may result in
receiving a packet with less than IT (Samples before TX) samples.
Note: Change detect will not affect Pin Sleep wake-up. The D8 pin (DTR/Sleep_RQ/DI8) is the only
line that will wake a module from Pin Sleep. If not all samples are collected, the module will still
enter Sleep Mode after a change detect packet is sent.
Applicable Commands: IC (DIO Change Detect), IT (Samples before TX)
NOTE: Change detect is only supported when the Dx (DIOx Configuration) parameter equals 3,4 or 5.
2.2.5. Sample Rate (Interval)
The Sample Rate (Interval) feature allows enabled ADC and DIO pins to be read periodically on
modules that are not configured to operate in Sleep Mode. When one of the Sleep Modes is
enabled and the IR (Sample Rate) parameter set, the module will stay awake until IT (Samples
before TX) samples have been collected.
Once a particular pin is enabled, the appropriate sample rate must be chosen. The maximum sample rate that can be achieved while using one A/D line is 1 sample/ms or 1 KHz (Note that the
modem will not be able to keep up with transmission when IR & IT are equal to “1”).
Applicable Commands: IR (Sample Rate), IT (Samples before TX), SM (Sleep Mode)
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2.2.6. I/O Line Passing
Virtual wires can be set up between XBee/XBee-PRO Modules. When an RF data packet is received
that contains I/O data, the receiving module can be setup to update any enabled outputs (PWM
and DIO) based on the data it receives.
Note that I/O lines are mapped in pairs. For example: AD0 can only update PWM0 and DI5 can
only update DO5). The default setup is for outputs not to be updated, which results in the I/O data
being sent out the UART (refer to the IU (Enable I/O Output) command). To enable the outputs to
be updated, the IA (I/O Input Address) parameter must be setup with the address of the module
that has the appropriate inputs enabled. This effectively binds the outputs to a particular module’s
input. This does not affect the ability of the module to receive I/O line data from other modules only its ability to update enabled outputs. The IA parameter can also be setup to accept I/O data
for output changes from any module by setting the IA parameter to 0xFFFF.
When outputs are changed from their non-active state, the module can be setup to return the output level to it non-active state. The timers are set using the Tn (Dn Output Timer) and PT (PWM
Output Timeout) commands. The timers are reset every time a valid I/O packet (passed IA check)
is received. The IC (Change Detect) and IR (Sample Rate) parameters can be setup to keep the
output set to their active output if the system needs more time than the timers can handle.
Note: DI8 can not be used for I/O line passing.
Applicable Commands: IA (I/O Input Address), Tn (Dn Output Timeout), P0 (PWM0 Configuration), P1 (PWM1 Configuration), M0 (PWM0 Output Level), M1 (PWM1 Output Level), PT (PWM
Output Timeout), RP (RSSSI PWM Timer)
2.2.7. Configuration Example
As an example for a simple A/D link, a pair of RF modules could be set as follows:
Remote Configuration
DL = 0x1234
MY = 0x5678
D0 = 2
D1 = 2
IR = 0x14
IT = 5
Base Configuration
DL = 0x5678
MY = 0x1234
P0 = 2
P1 = 2
IU = 1
IA = 0x5678 (or 0xFFFF)
These settings configure the remote module to sample AD0 and AD1 once each every 20 ms. It
then buffers 5 samples each before sending them back to the base module. The base should then
receive a 32-Byte transmission (20 Bytes data and 12 Bytes framing) every 100 ms.
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2.3. XBee/XBee-PRO Networks
The following IEEE 802.15.4 network types are supported by the XBee/XBee-PRO RF modules:
• NonBeacon
• NonBeacon (w/ Coordinator)
The following terms will be used to explicate the network operations:
Table 2‐02.
Terms and definitions
Term
Definition
PAN
Personal Area Network - A data communication network that includes one or more End Devices and
optionally a Coordinator.
Coordinator
A Full-function device (FFD) that provides network synchronization by polling nodes [NonBeacon
(w/ Coordinator) networks only]
End Device
When in the same network as a Coordinator - RF modules that rely on a Coordinator for
synchronization and can be put into states of sleep for low-power applications.
Association
The establishment of membership between End Devices and a Coordinator. Association is only
applicable in NonBeacon (w/Coordinator) networks.
2.3.1. NonBeacon
By default, XBee/XBee-PRO RF Modules are configured to support NonBeacon communications.
NonBeacon systems operate within a Peer-to-Peer network topology and therefore are not dependent upon Master/Slave relationships. This means that modules remain synchronized without use
of master/server configurations and each module in the network shares both roles of master and
slave. MaxStream's peer-to-peer architecture features fast synchronization times and fast cold
start times. This default configuration accommodates a wide range of RF data applications.
Figure 2‐06. NonBeacon Peer‐to‐Peer Architecture
A peer-to-peer network can be established by
configuring each module to operate as an End Device (CE = 0), disabling End Device Association
on all modules (A1 = 0) and setting ID and CH parameters to be identical across the network.
2.3.2. NonBeacon (w/ Coordinator)
A device is configured as a Coordinator by setting the CE (Coordinator Enable) parameter to “1”.
Coordinator power-up is governed by the A2 (Coordinator Association) parameter.
In a NonBeacon (w/ Coordinator) system, the Coordinator can be configured to use direct or indirect transmissions. If the SP (Cyclic Sleep Period) parameter is set to “0”, the Coordinator will send
data immediately. Otherwise, the SP parameter determines the length of time the Coordinator will
retain the data before discarding it. Generally, SP (Cyclic Sleep Period) and ST (Time before Sleep)
parameters should be set to match the SP and ST settings of the End Devices.
Association plays a critical role in the implementation of a NonBeacon (w/ Coordinator) system. Refer
to the Association section [next page] for more information.
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2.3.3. Association
Association is the establishment of membership between End Devices and a Coordinator and is
only applicable in NonBeacon (w/ Coordinator) networks. The establishment of membership is
useful in scenarios that require a central unit (Coordinator) to relay messages to or gather data
from several remote units (End Devices), assign channels or assign PAN IDs.
An RF data network that consists of one Coordinator and one or more End Devices forms a PAN
(Personal Area Network). Each device in a PAN has a PAN Identifier [ID (PAN ID) parameter]. PAN
IDs must be unique to prevent miscommunication between PANs. The Coordinator PAN ID is set
using the ID (PAN ID) and A2 (Coordinator Association) commands.
An End Device can associate to a Coordinator without knowing the address, PAN ID or channel of
the Coordinator. The A1 (End Device Association) parameter bit fields determine the flexibility of
an End Device during association. The A1 parameter can be used for an End Device to dynamically
set its destination address, PAN ID and/or channel.
For example: If the PAN ID of a Coordinator is known, but the operating channel is not; the A1
command on the End Device should be set to enable the ‘Auto_Associate’ and
‘Reassign_Channel’ bits. Additionally, the ID parameter should be set to match the PAN ID of
the associated Coordinator.
Coordinator / End Device Setup and Operation
To configure a module to operate as a Coordinator, set the CE (Coordinator Enable) parameter to
‘1’. Set the CE parameter of End Devices to ‘0’ (default). Coordinator and End Devices should contain matching firmware versions.
NonBeacon (w/ Coordinator) Systems
In a NonBeacon (w/ Coordinator) system, the Coordinator can be configured to use direct or indirect transmissions. If the SP (Cyclic Sleep Period) parameter is set to ‘0’, the Coordinator will send
data immediately. Otherwise, the SP parameter determines the length of time the Coordinator will
retain the data before discarding it. Generally, SP (Cyclic Sleep Period) and ST (Time before Sleep)
parameters should be set to match the SP and ST settings of the End Devices.
Coordinator Power-up
Coordinator power-up is governed by the A2 (Coordinator Association) command. On power-up,
the Coordinator undergoes the following sequence of events:
1. Check A2 parameter- Reassign_PANID Flag
Set (bit 0 = 1) - The Coordinator issues an Active Scan. The Active Scan selects one channel
and transmits a BeaconRequest command to the broadcast address (0xFFFF) and broadcast
PAN ID (0xFFFF). It then listens on that channel for beacons from any Coordinator operating on
that channel. The listen time on each channel is determined by the SD (Scan Duration) parameter value.
Once the time expires on that channel, the Active Scan selects another channel and again
transmits the BeaconRequest as before. This process continues until all channels have been
scanned, or until 5 PANs have been discovered. When the Active Scan is complete, the results
include a list of PAN IDs and Channels that are being used by other PANs. This list is used to
assign an unique PAN ID to the new Coordinator. The ID parameter will be retained if it is not
found in the Active Scan results. Otherwise, the ID (PAN ID) parameter setting will be updated
to a PAN ID that was not detected.
Not Set (bit 0 = 0) - The Coordinator retains its ID setting. No Active Scan is performed.
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2. Check A2 parameter - Reassign_Channel Flag (bit 1)
Set (bit 1 = 1) - The Coordinator issues an Energy Scan. The Energy Scan selects one channel
and scans for energy on that channel. The duration of the scan is specified by the SD (Scan
Duration) parameter. Once the scan is completed on a channel, the Energy Scan selects the
next channel and begins a new scan on that channel. This process continues until all channels
have been scanned.
When the Energy Scan is complete, the results include the maximal energy values detected on
each channel. This list is used to determine a channel where the least energy was detected. If
an Active Scan was performed (Reassign_PANID Flag set), the channels used by the detected
PANs are eliminated as possible channels. Thus, the results of the Energy Scan and the Active
Scan (if performed) are used to find the best channel (channel with the least energy that is not
used by any detected PAN). Once the best channel has been selected, the CH (Channel) parameter value is updated to that channel.
Not Set (bit 1 = 0) - The Coordinator retains its CH setting. An Energy Scan is not performed.
3. Start Coordinator
The Coordinator starts on the specified channel (CH parameter) and PAN ID (ID parameter).
Note, these may be selected in steps 1 and/or 2 above. The Coordinator will only allow End
Devices to associate to it if the A2 parameter “AllowAssociation” flag is set. Once the Coordinator has successfully started, the Associate LED will blink 1 time per second. (The LED is solid if
the Coordinator has not started.)
4. Coordinator Modifications
Once a Coordinator has started:
Modifying the A2 (Reassign_Channel or Reassign_PANID bits), ID, CH or MY parameters will
cause the Coordinator’s MAC to reset (The Coordinator RF module (including volatile RAM) is
not reset). Changing the A2 AllowAssociation bit will not reset the Coordinator’s MAC. In a nonbeaconing system, End Devices that associated to the Coordinator prior to a MAC reset will have
knowledge of the new settings on the Coordinator. Thus, if the Coordinator were to change its
ID, CH or MY settings, the End Devices would no longer be able to communicate with the nonbeacon Coordinator. Once a Coordinator has started, the ID, CH, MY or A2 (Reassign_Channel
or Reassign_PANID bits) should not be changed.
End Device Power-up
End Device power-up is governed by the A1 (End Device Association) command. On power-up, the
End Device undergoes the following sequence of events:
1. Check A1 parameter - AutoAssociate Bit
Set (bit 2 = 1) - End Device will attempt to associate to a Coordinator. (refer to steps 2-3).
Not Set (bit 2 = 0) - End Device will not attempt to associate to a Coordinator. The End Device
will operate as specified by its ID, CH and MY parameters. Association is considered complete
and the Associate LED will blink quickly (5 times per second). When the AutoAssociate bit is not
set, the remaining steps (2-3) do not apply.
2. Discover Coordinator (if Auto-Associate Bit Set)
The End Device issues an Active Scan. The Active Scan selects one channel and transmits a
BeaconRequest command to the broadcast address (0xFFFF) and broadcast PAN ID (0xFFFF). It
then listens on that channel for beacons from any Coordinator operating on that channel. The
listen time on each channel is determined by the SD parameter.
Once the time expires on that channel, the Active Scan selects another channel and again
transmits the BeaconRequest command as before. This process continues until all channels
have been scanned, or until 5 PANs have been discovered. When the Active Scan is complete,
the results include a list of PAN IDs and Channels that are being used by detected PANs.
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The End Device selects a Coordinator to associate with according to the A1 parameter
“Reassign_PANID” and “Reassign_Channel” flags:
Reassign_PANID Bit Set (bit 0 = 1)- End Device can associate with a PAN with any ID value.
Reassign_PANID Bit Not Set (bit 0 = 0) - End Device will only associate with a PAN whose
ID setting matches the ID setting of the End Device.
Reassign_Channel Bit Set (bit 1 = 1) - End Device can associate with a PAN with any CH
value.
Reassign_Channel Bit Not Set (bit 1 = 0)- End Device will only associate with a PAN whose
CH setting matches the CH setting of the End Device.
After applying these filters to the discovered Coordinators, if multiple candidate PANs exist, the
End Device will select the PAN whose transmission link quality is the strongest. If no valid Coordinator is found, the End Device will either go to sleep (as dictated by its SM (Sleep Mode)
parameter) or retry Association.
Note - An End Device will also disqualify Coordinators if they are not allowing association (A2 AllowAssociation bit); or, if the Coordinator is not using the same NonBeacon scheme as the
End Device. (They must both be programmed with NonBeacon code.)
3. Associate to Valid Coordinator
Once a valid Coordinator is found (step 2), the End Device sends an AssociationRequest message to the Coordinator. It then waits for an AssociationConfirmation to be sent from the Coordinator. Once the Confirmation is received, the End Device is Associated and the Associate LED
will blink rapidly (2 times per second). The LED is solid if the End Device has not associated.
4. End Device Changes once an End Device has associated
Changing A1, ID or CH parameters will cause the End Device to disassociate and restart the
Association procedure.
If the End Device fails to associate, the AI command can give some indication of the failure.
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Chapter 2 ‐ RF Module Operation
2.4. XBee/XBee-PRO Addressing
Every RF data packet sent over-the-air contains a Source Address and Destination Address field in
its header. The RF module conforms to the 802.15.4 specification and supports both short 16-bit
addresses and long 64-bit addresses. A unique 64-bit IEEE source address is assigned at the factory and can be read with the SL (Serial Number Low) and SH (Serial Number High) commands.
Short addressing must be configured manually. A module will use its unique 64-bit address as its
Source Address if its MY (16-bit Source Address) value is “0xFFFF” or “0xFFFE”.
To send a packet to a specific module using 64-bit addressing: Set Destination Address (DL + DH)
to match the Source Address (SL + SH) of the intended destination module.
To send a packet to a specific module using 16-bit addressing: Set DL (Destination Address Low)
parameter to equal the MY parameter and set the DH (Destination Address High) parameter to ‘0’.
2.4.1. Unicast Mode
By default, the RF module operates in Unicast Mode. Unicast Mode is the only mode that supports
retries. While in this mode, receiving modules send an ACK (acknowledgement) of RF packet
reception to the transmitter. If the transmitting module does not receive the ACK, it will re-send
the packet up to three times or until the ACK is received.
Short 16-bit addresses. The module can be configured to use short 16-bit addresses as the
Source Address by setting (MY < 0xFFFE). Setting the DH parameter (DH = 0) will configure the
Destination Address to be a short 16-bit address (if DL < 0xFFFE). For two modules to communicate using short addressing, the Destination Address of the transmitter module must match the
MY parameter of the receiver.
The following table shows a sample network configuration that would enable Unicast Mode communications using short 16-bit addresses.
Table 2‐03.
Sample Unicast Network Configuration (using 16‐bit addressing)
Parameter
MY (Source Address)
DH (Destination Address High)
DL (Destination Address Low)
RF Module 1
0x01
0
0x02
RF Module 2
0x02
0
0x01
Long 64-bit addresses. The RF module’s serial number (SL parameter concatenated to the SH
parameter) can be used as a 64-bit source address when the MY (16-bit Source Address) parameter is disabled. When the MY parameter is disabled (set MY = 0xFFFF or 0xFFFE), the module’s
source address is set to the 64-bit IEEE address stored in the SH and SL parameters.
When an End Device associates to a Coordinator, its MY parameter is set to 0xFFFE to enable 64bit addressing. The 64-bit address of the module is stored as SH and SL parameters. To send a
packet to a specific module, the Destination Address (DL + DH) on one module must match the
Source Address (SL + SH) of the other.
2.4.2. Broadcast Mode
Any RF module within range will accept a packet that contains a broadcast address. When configured to operate in Broadcast Mode, receiving modules do not send ACKs (Acknowledgements) and
transmitting modules do not automatically re-send packets as is the case in Unicast Mode.
To send a broadcast packet to all modules regardless of 16-bit or 64-bit addressing, set the destination addresses of all the modules as shown below.
Sample Network Configuration (All modules in the network):
• DL (Destination Low Address) = 0x0000FFFF
• DH (Destination High Address) = 0x00000000 (default value)
NOTE: When programming the module, parameters are entered in hexadecimal notation (without the
“0x” prefix). Leading zeros may be omitted.
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2.5. Modes of Operation
XBee/XBee-PRO RF Modules operate in five modes.
Figure 2‐07. Modes of Operation
2.5.1. Idle Mode
When not receiving or transmitting data, the RF module is in Idle Mode. The module shifts into the
other modes of operation under the following conditions:
• Transmit Mode (Serial data is received in the DI Buffer)
• Receive Mode (Valid RF data is received through the antenna)
• Sleep Mode (Sleep Mode condition is met)
• Command Mode (Command Mode Sequence is issued)
2.5.2. Transmit/Receive Modes
RF Data Packets
Each transmitted data packet contains a Source Address and Destination Address field. The Source
Address matches the address of the transmitting module as specified by the MY (Source Address)
parameter (if MY >= 0xFFFE), the SH (Serial Number High) parameter or the SL (Serial Number
Low) parameter. The <Destination Address> field is created from the DH (Destination Address
High) and DL (Destination Address Low) parameter values. The Source Address and/or Destination
Address fields will either contain a 16-bit short or long 64-bit long address.
The RF data packet structure follows the 802.15.4 specification.
[Refer to the XBee/XBee-PRO Addressing section for more information]
Direct and Indirect Transmission
There are two methods to transmit data:
• Direct Transmission - data is transmitted immediately to the Destination Address
• Indirect Transmission - A packet is retained for a period of time and is only transmitted after
the destination module (Source Address = Destination Address) requests the data.
Indirect Transmissions can only occur on a Coordinator. Thus, if all nodes in a network are End
Devices, only Direct Transmissions will occur. Indirect Transmissions are useful to ensure packet
delivery to a sleeping node. The Coordinator currently is able to retain up to 2 indirect messages.
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Direct Transmission
A NonBeaconing Coordinator can be configured to use only Direct Transmission by setting the SP
(Cyclic Sleep Period) parameter to “0”. Also, a NonBeaconing Coordinator using indirect transmissions will revert to direct transmission if it knows the destination module is awake.
To enable this behavior, the ST (Time before Sleep) value of the Coordinator must be set to match
the ST value of the End Device. Once the End Device either transmits data to the Coordinator or
polls the Coordinator for data, the Coordinator will use direct transmission for all subsequent data
transmissions to that module address until ST time (or number of beacons) occurs with no activity
(at which point it will revert to using indirect transmissions for that module address). “No activity”
means no transmission or reception of messages with a specific address. Global messages will not
reset the ST timer.
Indirect Transmission
To configure Indirect Transmissions in a PAN (Personal Area Network), the SP (Cyclic Sleep Period)
parameter value on the Coordinator must be set to match the longest sleep value of any End
Device. The SP parameter represents time in NonBeacon systems and beacons in Beacon-enabled
systems. The sleep period value on the Coordinator determines how long (time or number of beacons) the Coordinator will retain an indirect message before discarding it.
In NonBeacon networks, an End Device must poll the Coordinator once it wakes from Sleep to
determine if the Coordinator has an indirect message for it. For Cyclic Sleep Modes, this is done
automatically every time the module wakes (after SP time). For Pin Sleep Modes, the A1 (End
Device Association) parameter value must be set to enable Coordinator polling on pin wake-up.
Alternatively, an End Device can use the FP (Force Poll) command to poll the Coordinator as
needed.
CCA (Clear Channel Assessment)
Prior to transmitting a packet, a CCA (Clear Channel Assessment) is performed on the channel to
determine if the channel is available for transmission. The detected energy on the channel is compared with the CA (Clear Channel Assessment) parameter value. If the detected energy exceeds
the CA parameter value, the packet is not transmitted.
Also, a delay is inserted before a transmission takes place. This delay is settable using the RN
(Backoff Exponent) parameter. If RN is set to “0”, then there is no delay before the first CCA is performed. The RN parameter value is the equivalent of the “minBE” parameter in the 802.15.4 specification. The transmit sequence follows the 802.15.4 specification.
By default, the MM (MAC Mode) parameter = 0. On a CCA failure, the module will attempt to resend the packet up to two additional times.
When in Unicast packets with RR (Retries) = 0, the module will execute two CCA retries. Broadcast
packets always get two CCA retries.
Acknowledgement
If the transmission is not a broadcast message, the module will expect to receive an acknowledgement from the destination node. If an acknowledgement is not received, the packet will be resent
up to 3 more times. If the acknowledgement is not received after all transmissions, an ACK failure
is recorded.
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2.5.3. Sleep Mode
Sleep Modes enable the RF module to enter states of low-power consumption when not in use. In
order to enter Sleep Mode, one of the following conditions must be met (in addition to the module
having a non-zero SM parameter value):
• Sleep_RQ (pin 9) is asserted.
• The module is idle (no data transmission or reception) for the amount of time defined by the
ST (Time before Sleep) parameter. [NOTE: ST is only active when SM = 4-5.]
Table 2‐04.
Sleep Mode Configurations
Sleep Mode Transition into
Setting
Sleep Mode
Transition out of
Sleep Mode (wake)
Related
Power
Commands Consumption
Pin Hibernate
(SM = 1)
Assert (high) Sleep_RQ
(pin 9)
Pin/Host-controlled /
De-assert (low) Sleep_RQ NonBeacon systems
only / Lowest Power
Pin Doze
(SM = 2)
Assert (high) Sleep_RQ
(pin 9)
Pin/Host-controlled /
De-assert (low) Sleep_RQ NonBeacon systems
(SM)
only / Fastest wake-up
< 50 µA
Cyclic Sleep
(SM = 4 - 5)
Automatic transition to
Sleep Mode as defined by
the SM (Sleep Mode) and
ST (Time before Sleep)
parameters.
Transition occurs after the
cyclic sleep time interval
elapses. The time interval
is defined by the SP
(Cyclic Sleep Period)
parameter.
< 50 µA
when sleeping
Characteristics
(SM)
RF module wakes in
pre-determined time
intervals to detect if RF
(SM), SP, ST
data is present / When
SM = 5, NonBeacon
systems only
< 10 µA (@3.0
VCC)
The SM command is central to setting Sleep Mode configurations. By default, Sleep Modes are disabled (SM = 0) and the module remains in Idle/Receive Mode. When in this state, the module is
constantly ready to respond to serial or RF activity.
Higher Voltages. Sleep Mode current consumption is highly sensitive to voltage. Voltages above
3.0V will cause much higher current consumption.
Table 2‐05.
Vcc (V)
2.8–3.0
3.1
3.2
3.3
3.4
Sample Sleep Mode Currents
SM=1
<3 µA
8uA
32uA
101uA
255uA
XBee
SM=2
<35uA
37mA
48uA
83uA
170uA
SM=4,5
<34uA
36uA
49uA
100uA
240uA
SM=1
<4uA
12uA
45uA
130uA
310uA
XBee-PRO
SM=2
<34uA
39uA
60uA
115uA
260uA
SM=4,5
<34uA
37uA
55uA
120uA
290uA
Pin/Host-controlled Sleep Modes
The transient current when waking from pin sleep (SM = 1 or 2) does not exceed the idle current
of the module. The current ramps up exponentially to its idle current.
Pin Hibernate (SM = 1)
• Pin/Host-controlled
• Typical power-down current: < 10 µA (@3.0 VCC)
• Wake-up time: 13.2 msec
Pin Hibernate Mode minimizes quiescent power (power consumed when in a state of rest or inactivity). This mode is voltage level-activated; when Sleep_RQ is asserted, the module will finish any
transmit, receive or association activities, enter Idle Mode and then enter a state of sleep. The
module will not respond to either serial or RF activity while in pin sleep.
To wake a sleeping module operating in Pin Hibernate Mode, de-assert Sleep_RQ (pin 9). The
module will wake when Sleep_RQ is de-asserted and is ready to transmit or receive when the CTS
line is low. When waking the module, the pin must be de-asserted at least two 'byte times' after
CTS goes low. This assures that there is time for the data to enter the DI buffer.
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Chapter 2 ‐ RF Module Operation
Pin Doze (SM = 2)
• Pin/Host-controlled
• Typical power-down current: < 50 µA
• Wake-up time: 2 msec
Pin Doze Mode functions as does Pin Hibernate Mode; however, Pin Doze features faster wake-up
time and higher power consumption.
To wake a sleeping module operating in Pin Doze Mode, de-assert Sleep_RQ (pin 9). The module
will wake when Sleep_RQ is de-asserted and is ready to transmit or receive when the CTS line is
low. When waking the module, the pin must be de-asserted at least two 'byte times' after CTS
goes low. This assures that there is time for the data to enter the DI buffer.
Cyclic Sleep Modes
Cyclic Sleep Remote (SM = 4)
• Typical Power-down Current: < 50 µA (when asleep)
• Wake-up time: 2 msec
The Cyclic Sleep Modes allow modules to periodically check for RF data. When the SM parameter is
set to ‘4’, the module is configured to sleep, then wakes once a cycle to check for data from a
module configured as a Cyclic Sleep Coordinator (SM = 0, CE = 1). The Cyclic Sleep Remote sends
a poll request to the coordinator at a specific interval set by the SP (Cyclic Sleep Period) parameter. The coordinator will transmit any queued data addressed to that specific remote upon receiving the poll request.
If no data is queued for the remote, the coordinator will not transmit and the remote will return to
sleep for another cycle. If queued data is transmitted back to the remote, it will stay awake to
allow for back and forth communication until the ST (Time before Sleep) timer expires.
Also note that CTS will go low each time the remote wakes, allowing for communication initiated
by the remote host if desired.
Cyclic Sleep Remote with Pin Wake-up (SM = 5)
Use this mode to wake a sleeping remote module through either the RF interface or by the deassertion of Sleep_RQ for event-driven communications. The cyclic sleep mode works as described
above (Cyclic Sleep Remote) with the addition of a pin-controlled wake-up at the remote module.
The Sleep_RQ pin is edge-triggered, not level-triggered. The module will wake when a low is
detected then set CTS low as soon as it is ready to transmit or receive.
Any activity will reset the ST (Time before Sleep) timer so the module will go back to sleep only
after there is no activity for the duration of the timer. Once the module wakes (pin-controlled),
further pin activity is ignored. The module transitions back into sleep according to the ST time
regardless of the state of the pin.
[Cyclic Sleep Coordinator (SM = 6)]
• Typical current = Receive current
• Always awake
NOTE: The SM=6 parameter value exists solely for backwards compatibility with firmware version
1.x60. If backwards compatibility with the older firmware version is not required, always use the CE
(Coordinator Enable) command to configure a module as a Coordinator.
This mode configures a module to wake cyclic sleeping remotes through RF interfacing. The Coordinator will accept a message addressed to a specific remote 16 or 64-bit address and hold it in a
buffer until the remote wakes and sends a poll request. Messages not sent directly (buffered and
requested) are called "Indirect messages". The Coordinator only queues one indirect message at a
time. The Coordinator will hold the indirect message for a period 2.5 times the sleeping period
indicated by the SP (Cyclic Sleep Period) parameter. The Coordinator's SP parameter should be set
to match the value used by the remotes.
© 2007 MaxStream, Inc.
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XBee/XBee‐PRO™ OEM RF Modules ‐ 802.15.4 ‐ v1.xAx [2007.05.031]
Chapter 2 ‐ RF Module Operation
2.5.4. Command Mode
To modify or read RF Module parameters, the module must first enter into Command Mode - a
state in which incoming characters are interpreted as commands. Two Command Mode options are
supported: AT Command Mode [refer to section below] and API Command Mode [p54].
AT Command Mode
To Enter AT Command Mode:
Send the 3-character command sequence “+++” and observe guard times before and after the
command characters. [Refer to the “Default AT Command Mode Sequence” below.]
Default AT Command Mode Sequence (for transition to Command Mode):
• No characters sent for one second [GT (Guard Times) parameter = 0x3E8]
• Input three plus characters (“+++”) within one second [CC (Command Sequence Character)
parameter = 0x2B.]
• No characters sent for one second [GT (Guard Times) parameter = 0x3E8]
All of the parameter values in the sequence can be modified to reflect user preferences.
NOTE: Failure to enter AT Command Mode is most commonly due to baud rate mismatch. Ensure the
‘Baud’ setting on the “PC Settings” tab matches the interface data rate of the RF module. By default,
the BD parameter = 3 (9600 bps).
To Send AT Commands:
Send AT commands and parameters using the syntax shown below.
Figure 2‐08. Syntax for sending AT Commands To read a parameter value stored in the RF module’s register, omit the parameter field.
The preceding example would change the RF module Destination Address (Low) to “0x1F”. To store
the new value to non-volatile (long term) memory, subsequently send the WR (Write) command.
For modified parameter values to persist in the module’s registry after a reset, changes must be
saved to non-volatile memory using the WR (Write) Command. Otherwise, parameters are
restored to previously saved values after the module is reset.
System Response. When a command is sent to the module, the module will parse and execute
the command. Upon successful execution of a command, the module returns an “OK” message. If
execution of a command results in an error, the module returns an “ERROR” message.
To Exit AT Command Mode:
1.
Send the ATCN (Exit Command Mode) command (followed by a carriage return).
2.
If no valid AT Commands are received within the time specified by CT (Command Mode
Timeout) Command, the RF module automatically returns to Idle Mode.
[OR]
For an example of programming the RF module using AT Commands and descriptions of each configurable parameter, refer to the RF Module Configuration chapter [p25].
© 2007 MaxStream, Inc.
24
3. RF Module Configuration
3.1. Programming the RF Module
Refer to the Command Mode section [p24] for more information about entering Command Mode,
sending AT commands and exiting Command Mode. For information regarding module programming using API Mode, refer to the API Operation sections [p54].
3.1.1. Programming Examples
Refer to the ‘X‐CTU’ sec‐
tion of the Develop‐
ment Guide [Appendix B] for more information regarding the X‐CTU configuration software.
Setup
The programming examples in this section require the installation of MaxStream's X-CTU Software and a serial connection to a PC. (MaxStream stocks RS-232 and USB boards to facilitate
interfacing with a PC.)
1.
Install MaxStream's X-CTU Software to a PC by double-clicking the "setup_X-CTU.exe" file.
(The file is located on the MaxStream CD and under the 'Software' section of the following
web page: www.maxstream.net/support/downloads.php)
2.
Mount the RF module to an interface board, then connect the module assembly to a PC.
3.
Launch the X-CTU Software and select the 'PC Settings' tab. Verify the baud and parity settings of the Com Port match those of the RF module.
NOTE: Failure to enter AT Command Mode is most commonly due to baud rate mismatch.
Ensure the ‘Baud’ setting on the ‘PC Settings’ tab matches the interface data rate of the RF module. By default, the BD parameter = 3 (which corresponds to 9600 bps).
Sample Configuration: Modify RF Module Destination Address
Example: Utilize the X-CTU “Terminal” tab to change the RF module's DL (Destination Address
Low) parameter and save the new address to non-volatile memory.
After establishing a serial connection between the RF module and a PC [refer to the 'Setup' section above], select the “Terminal” tab of the X-CTU Software and enter the following command
lines (‘CR’ stands for carriage return):
Method 1 (One line per command)
Send AT Command
+++
ATDL <Enter>
ATDL1A0D <Enter>
ATWR <Enter>
ATCN <Enter>
System Response
OK <CR> (Enter into Command Mode)
{current value} <CR> (Read Destination Address Low)
OK <CR> (Modify Destination Address Low)
OK <CR> (Write to non-volatile memory)
OK <CR> (Exit Command Mode)
Method 2 (Multiple commands on one line)
Send AT Command
+++
ATDL <Enter>
ATDL1A0D,WR,CN <Enter>
System Response
OK <CR> (Enter into Command Mode)
{current value} <CR> (Read Destination Address Low)
OK<CR> OK<CR> OK<CR>
Sample Configuration: Restore RF Module Defaults
Example: Utilize the X-CTU “Modem Configuration” tab to restore default parameter values.
After establishing a connection between the module and a PC [refer to the 'Setup' section
above], select the “Modem Configuration” tab of the X-CTU Software.
1.
Select the 'Read' button.
2.
Select the 'Restore' button.
© 2007 MaxStream, Inc.
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XBee/XBee‐PRO™ OEM RF Modules ‐ 802.15.4 ‐ v1.xAx [2007.05.031]
Chapter 3 ‐ RF Module Configuration
3.2. Command Reference Tables
XBee/XBee-PRO RF Modules expect numerical values in hexadecimal. Hexadecimal values are designated by a “0x” prefix. Decimal equivalents are designated by a “d” suffix. Commands are contained within the following command categories (listed in the order that their tables appear):
• Special
• Networking & Security
• RF Interfacing
• Sleep (Low Power)
• Serial Interfacing
• I/O Settings
• Diagnostics
• AT Command Options
All modules within a PAN should operate using the same firmware version.
Special
Table 3‐01.
XBee‐PRO Commands ‐ Special
AT
Command
Command
Category
Name and Description
Parameter Range
Default
WR
Special
Write. Write parameter values to non-volatile memory so that parameter modifications
persist through subsequent power-up or reset.
Note: Once WR is issued, no additional characters should be sent to the module until
after the response "OK\r" is received.
-
-
RE
Special
Restore Defaults. Restore module parameters to factory defaults.
-
-
Special
Software Reset. Responds immediately with an OK then performs a hard reset
~100ms later.
-
-
FR ( v1.x80*)
* Firmware version in which the command was first introduced (firmware versions are numbered in hexadecimal notation.)
Networking & Security
Table 3‐02.
XBee/XBee‐PRO Commands ‐ Networking & Security (Sub‐categories designated within {brackets})
AT
Command
Command
Category
Name and Description
Parameter Range
Default
CH
Networking
{Addressing}
Channel. Set/Read the channel number used for transmitting and receiving data
between RF modules (uses 802.15.4 protocol channel numbers).
0x0B - 0x1A (XBee)
0x0C - 0x17 (XBee-PRO)
0x0C (12d)
ID
Networking
{Addressing}
PAN ID. Set/Read the PAN (Personal Area Network) ID.
Use 0xFFFF to broadcast messages to all PANs.
0 - 0xFFFF
0x3332
(13106d)
DH
Networking
{Addressing}
Destination Address High. Set/Read the upper 32 bits of the 64-bit destination
address. When combined with DL, it defines the destination address used for
0 - 0xFFFFFFFF
transmission. To transmit using a 16-bit address, set DH parameter to zero and DL less
than 0xFFFF. 0x000000000000FFFF is the broadcast address for the PAN.
0
DL
Networking
{Addressing}
Destination Address Low. Set/Read the lower 32 bits of the 64-bit destination
address. When combined with DH, DL defines the destination address used for
0 - 0xFFFFFFFF
transmission. To transmit using a 16-bit address, set DH parameter to zero and DL less
than 0xFFFF. 0x000000000000FFFF is the broadcast address for the PAN.
0
MY
Networking
{Addressing}
16-bit Source Address. Set/Read the RF module 16-bit source address. Set MY =
0xFFFF to disable reception of packets with 16-bit addresses. 64-bit source address
(serial number) and broadcast address (0x000000000000FFFF) is always enabled.
0 - 0xFFFF
0
SH
Networking
{Addressing}
Serial Number High. Read high 32 bits of the RF module's unique IEEE 64-bit
address. 64-bit source address is always enabled.
0 - 0xFFFFFFFF [read-only]
Factory-set
SL
Networking
{Addressing}
Serial Number Low. Read low 32 bits of the RF module's unique IEEE 64-bit address.
0 - 0xFFFFFFFF [read-only]
64-bit source address is always enabled.
Factory-set
RR ( v1.xA0*)
Networking
{Addressing}
XBee Retries. Set/Read the maximum number of retries the module will execute in
addition to the 3 retries provided by the 802.15.4 MAC. For each XBee retry, the
802.15.4 MAC can execute up to 3 retries.
0-6
0
RN
Networking
{Addressing}
Random Delay Slots. Set/Read the minimum value of the back-off exponent in the
CSMA-CA algorithm that is used for collision avoidance. If RN = 0, collision avoidance
is disabled during the first iteration of the algorithm (802.15.4 - macMinBE).
0 - 3 [exponent]
0
MM ( v1.x80*)
Networking
{Addressing}
MAC Mode. Set/Read MAC Mode value. MAC Mode enables/disables the use of a
0-2
MaxStream header in the 802.15.4 RF packet. When Mode 0 is enabled (MM=0),
0 = MaxStream Mode
1 = 802.15.4 (no ACKs)
duplicate packet detection is enabled as well as certain AT commands. Modes 1 and 2
2 = 802.15.4 (with ACKs)
are strict 802.15.4 modes.
© 2007 MaxStream, Inc.
0
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XBee/XBee‐PRO™ OEM RF Modules ‐ 802.15.4 ‐ v1.xAx [2007.05.031]
Table 3‐02.
Chapter 3 ‐ RF Module Configuration
XBee/XBee‐PRO Commands ‐ Networking & Security (Sub‐categories designated within {brackets})
AT
Command
Command
Category
Name and Description
Parameter Range
Default
NI ( v1.x80*)
Networking
{Identification}
Node Identifier. Stores a string identifier. The register only accepts printable ASCII
data. A string can not start with a space. Carriage return ends command. Command will
automatically end when maximum bytes for the string have been entered. This string is
returned as part of the ND (Node Discover) command. This identifier is also used with
the DN (Destination Node) command.
20-character ASCII string
-
ND ( v1.x80*)
Networking
{Identification}
Node Discover. Discovers and reports all RF modules found. The following information
is reported for each module discovered (the example cites use of Transparent operation
(AT command format) - refer to the long ND command description regarding differences
between Transparent and API operation).
MY<CR>
SH<CR>
SL<CR>
optional 20-character NI value
DB<CR>
NI<CR><CR>
The amount of time the module allows for responses is determined by the NT
parameter. In Transparent operation, command completion is designated by a <CR>
(carriage return). ND also accepts a Node Identifier as a parameter. In this case, only a
module matching the supplied identifier will respond.
NT ( v1.xA0*)
Networking
{Identification}
Node Discover Time. Set/Read the amount of time a node will wait for responses from
0x01 - 0xFC
other nodes when using the ND (Node Discover) command.
0x19
DN ( v1.x80*)
Networking
{Identification}
Destination Node. Resolves an NI (Node Identifier) string to a physical address. The
following events occur upon successful command execution:
1. DL and DH are set to the address of the module with the matching Node Identifier.
2. “OK” is returned.
3. RF module automatically exits AT Command Mode
If there is no response from a module within 200 msec or a parameter is not specified
(left blank), the command is terminated and an “ERROR” message is returned.
20-character ASCII string
-
CE ( v1.x80*)
Networking
{Association}
Coordinator Enable. Set/Read the coordinator setting.
0-1
0 = End Device
1 = Coordinator
0
Networking
{Association}
Scan Channels. Set/Read list of channels to scan for all Active and Energy Scans as a
bitfield. This affects scans initiated in command mode (AS, ED) and during End Device
Association and Coordinator startup:
0 - 0xFFFF [bitfield]
bit 0 - 0x0B
bit 4 - 0x0F
bit 8 - 0x13
bit12 - 0x17
(bits 0, 14, 15 not allowed on
bit 1 - 0x0C
bit 5 - 0x10
bit 9 - 0x14
bit13 - 0x18
the XBee-PRO)
bit 2 - 0x0D
bit 6 - 0x11
bit 10 - 0x15
bit14 - 0x19
bit 3 - 0x0E
bit 7 - 0x12
bit 11 - 0x16
bit 15 - 0x1A
0x1FFE
(all XBeePRO
Channels)
Networking
{Association}
Scan Duration. Set/Read the scan duration exponent.
End Device - Duration of Active Scan during Association. On beacon system, set SD =
BE of coordinator. SD must be set at least to the highest BE parameter of any
Beaconing Coordinator with which an End Device or Coordinator wish to discover.
Coordinator - If ‘ReassignPANID’ option is set on Coordinator [refer to A2 parameter],
SD determines the length of time the Coordinator will scan channels to locate existing
PANs. If ‘ReassignChannel’ option is set, SD determines how long the Coordinator will
perform an Energy Scan to determine which channel it will operate on.
0-0x0F [exponent]
‘Scan Time’ is measured as (# of channels to scan] * (2 ^ SD) * 15.36ms). The number
of channels to scan is set by the SC command. The XBee can scan up to 16 channels
(SC = 0xFFFF). The XBee PRO can scan up to 13 channels (SC = 0x3FFE).
Example: The values below show results for a 13 channel scan:
If SD = 0, time = 0.18 sec SD = 8, time = 47.19 sec
SD = 2, time = 0.74 sec
SD = 10, time = 3.15 min
SD = 4, time = 2.95 sec
SD = 12, time = 12.58 min
SD = 6, time = 11.80 sec SD = 14, time = 50.33 min
4
Networking
{Association}
End Device Association. Set/Read End Device association options.
bit 0 - ReassignPanID
0 - Will only associate with Coordinator operating on PAN ID that matches module ID
1 - May associate with Coordinator operating on any PAN ID
bit 1 - ReassignChannel
0 - Will only associate with Coordinator operating on matching CH Channel setting
1 - May associate with Coordinator operating on any Channel
bit 2 - AutoAssociate
0 - 0x0F [bitfield]
0 - Device will not attempt Association
1 - Device attempts Association until success
Note: This bit is used only for Non-Beacon systems. End Devices in Beacon-enabled
system must always associate to a Coordinator
bit 3 - PollCoordOnPinWake
0 - Pin Wake will not poll the Coordinator for indirect (pending) data
1 - Pin Wake will send Poll Request to Coordinator to extract any pending data
bits 4 - 7 are reserved
0
SC ( v1.x80*)
SD ( v1.x80*)
A1 ( v1.x80*)
© 2007 MaxStream, Inc.
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XBee/XBee‐PRO™ OEM RF Modules ‐ 802.15.4 ‐ v1.xAx [2007.05.031]
Table 3‐02.
AT
Command
Chapter 3 ‐ RF Module Configuration
XBee/XBee‐PRO Commands ‐ Networking & Security (Sub‐categories designated within {brackets})
Command
Category
Name and Description
Networking
{Association}
Coordinator Association. Set/Read Coordinator association options.
bit 0 - ReassignPanID
0 - Coordinator will not perform Active Scan to locate available PAN ID. It will operate
on ID (PAN ID).
1 - Coordinator will perform Active Scan to determine an available ID (PAN ID). If a
PAN ID conflict is found, the ID parameter will change.
bit 1 - ReassignChannel 0 - Coordinator will not perform Energy Scan to determine free channel. It will operate 0 - 7 [bitfield]
on the channel determined by the CH parameter.
1 - Coordinator will perform Energy Scan to find a free channel, then operate on that
channel.
bit 2 - AllowAssociation 0 - Coordinator will not allow any devices to associate to it.
1 - Coordinator will allow devices to associate to it.
bits 3 - 7 are reserved
0
AI ( v1.x80*)
Networking
{Association}
Association Indication. Read errors with the last association request:
0x00 - Successful Completion - Coordinator successfully started or End Device
association complete
0x01 - Active Scan Timeout
0x02 - Active Scan found no PANs
0x03 - Active Scan found PAN, but the CoordinatorAllowAssociation bit is not set
0x04 - Active Scan found PAN, but Coordinator and End Device are not
configured to support beacons
0x05 - Active Scan found PAN, but the Coordinator ID parameter does not match
the ID parameter of the End Device
0x06 - Active Scan found PAN, but the Coordinator CH parameter does not match the
CH parameter of the End Device
0x07 - Energy Scan Timeout
0x08 - Coordinator start request failed
0x09 - Coordinator could not start due to invalid parameter
0x0A - Coordinator Realignment is in progress
0x0B - Association Request not sent
0x0C - Association Request timed out - no reply was received
0x0D - Association Request had an Invalid Parameter
0x0E - Association Request Channel Access Failure. Request was not transmitted CCA failure
0x0F - Remote Coordinator did not send an ACK after Association Request was sent
0x10 - Remote Coordinator did not reply to the Association Request, but an ACK was
received after sending the request
0x11 - [reserved]
0x12 - Sync-Loss - Lost synchronization with a Beaconing Coordinator
0x13 - Disassociated - No longer associated to Coordinator
-
DA ( v1.x80*)
Networking
{Association}
Force Disassociation. End Device will immediately disassociate from a Coordinator (if
associated) and reattempt to associate.
-
FP ( v1.x80*)
Networking
{Association}
Force Poll. Request indirect messages being held by a coordinator.
-
A2 ( v1.x80*)
© 2007 MaxStream, Inc.
Parameter Range
0 - 0x13 [read-only]
-
Default
28
XBee/XBee‐PRO™ OEM RF Modules ‐ 802.15.4 ‐ v1.xAx [2007.05.031]
Table 3‐02.
AT
Command
Chapter 3 ‐ RF Module Configuration
XBee/XBee‐PRO Commands ‐ Networking & Security (Sub‐categories designated within {brackets})
Command
Category
Name and Description
Networking
{Association}
Active Scan. Send Beacon Request to Broadcast Address (0xFFFF) and Broadcast
PAN (0xFFFF) on every channel. The parameter determines the time the radio will
listen for Beacons on each channel. A PanDescriptor is created and returned for every
Beacon received from the scan. Each PanDescriptor contains the following information:
CoordAddress (SH, SL)<CR>
CoordPanID (ID)<CR>
CoordAddrMode <CR>
0x02 = 16-bit Short Address
0x03 = 64-bit Long Address
Channel (CH parameter) <CR>
SecurityUse<CR>
ACLEntry<CR>
SecurityFailure<CR>
SuperFrameSpec<CR> (2 bytes):
bit 15 - Association Permitted (MSB)
0-6
bit 14 - PAN Coordinator
bit 13 - Reserved
bit 12 - Battery Life Extension
bits 8-11 - Final CAP Slot
bits 4-7 - Superframe Order
bits 0-3 - Beacon Order
GtsPermit<CR>
RSSI<CR> (RSSI is returned as -dBm)
TimeStamp<CR> (3 bytes)
<CR>
A carriage return <CR> is sent at the end of the AS command. The Active Scan is
capable of returning up to 5 PanDescriptors in a scan. The actual scan time on each
channel is measured as Time = [(2 ^SD PARAM) * 15.36] ms. Note the total scan time is
this time multiplied by the number of channels to be scanned (16 for the XBee and 13
for the XBee-PRO). Also refer to SD command description.
-
ED ( v1.x80*)
Networking
{Association}
Energy Scan. Send an Energy Detect Scan. This parameter determines the length of
scan on each channel. The maximal energy on each channel is returned & each value
is followed by a carriage return. An additional carriage return is sent at the end of the
command. The values returned represent the detected energy level in units of -dBm.
0-6
The actual scan time on each channel is measured as Time = [(2 ^ED) * 15.36] ms.
Note the total scan time is this time multiplied by the number of channels to be scanned
(refer to SD parameter).
-
EE ( v1.xA0*)
Networking
{Security}
AES Encryption Enable. Disable/Enable 128-bit AES encryption support. Use in
conjunction with the KY command.
0-1
0 (disabled)
KY ( v1.xA0*)
Networking
{Security}
AES Encryption Key. Set the 128-bit AES (Advanced Encryption Standard) key for
encrypting/decrypting data. The KY register cannot be read.
0 - (any 16-Byte value)
-
AS ( v1.x80*)
Parameter Range
Default
* Firmware version in which the command was first introduced (firmware versions are numbered in hexadecimal notation.)
RF Interfacing
Table 3‐03.
AT
Command
XBee/XBee‐PRO Commands ‐ RF Interfacing
Command
Category
Name and Description
PL
RF Interfacing
Power Level. Select/Read the power level at which the RF module transmits conducted 0 - 4 (XBee / XBee-PRO)
0 = -10 / 10 dBm
power.
1 = -6 / 12 dBm
NOTE: XBee-PRO RF Modules optimized for use in Japan contain firmware that limits
2 = -4 / 14 dBm
transmit power output to 10 dBm. If PL=4 (default), the maximum power output level is
3 = -2 / 16 dBm
fixed at 10 dBm.
4 = 0 / 18 dBm
4
CA (v1.x80*)
RF Interfacing
CCA Threshold. Set/read the CCA (Clear Channel Assessment) threshold. Prior to
transmitting a packet, a CCA is performed to detect energy on the channel. If the
detected energy is above the CCA Threshold, the module will not transmit the packet.
0x2C
(-44d dBm)
Parameter Range
0 - 0x50 [-dBm]
Default
* Firmware version in which the command was first introduced (firmware versions are numbered in hexadecimal notation.)
© 2007 MaxStream, Inc.
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XBee/XBee‐PRO™ OEM RF Modules ‐ 802.15.4 ‐ v1.xAx [2007.05.031]
Chapter 3 ‐ RF Module Configuration
Sleep (Low Power)
Table 3‐04.
AT
Command
SM
XBee/XBee‐PRO Commands ‐ Sleep (Low Power)
Command
Category
Sleep
(Low Power)
ST
Sleep
(Low Power)
SP
Sleep
(Low Power)
DP (1.x80*)
Sleep
(Low Power)
Name and Description
Parameter Range
Sleep Mode. <NonBeacon firmware> Set/Read Sleep Mode configurations.
0-5
0 = No Sleep
1 = Pin Hibernate
2 = Pin Doze
3 = Reserved
4 = Cyclic sleep remote
0
5 = Cyclic sleep remote
w/ pin wake-up
6 = [Sleep Coordinator] for
backwards compatibility
w/ v1.x6 only; otherwise,
use CE command.
Time before Sleep. <NonBeacon firmware> Set/Read time period of inactivity (no
serial or RF data is sent or received) before activating Sleep Mode. ST parameter is
only valid with Cyclic Sleep settings (SM = 4 - 5).
Coordinator and End Device ST values must be equal.
1 - 0xFFFF [x 1 ms]
Also note, the GT parameter value must always be less than the ST value. (If GT > ST,
the configuration will render the module unable to enter into command mode.) If the ST
parameter is modified, also modify the GT parameter accordingly.
Cyclic Sleep Period. <NonBeacon firmware> Set/Read sleep period for cyclic sleeping
remotes. Coordinator and End Device SP values should always be equal. To send
Direct Messages, set SP = 0.
End Device - SP determines the sleep period for cyclic sleeping remotes. Maximum
0 - 0x68B0 [x 10 ms]
sleep period is 268 seconds (0x68B0).
Coordinator - If non-zero, SP determines the time to hold an indirect message before
discarding it. A Coordinator will discard indirect messages after a period of (2.5 * SP).
Disassociated Cyclic Sleep Period. <NonBeacon firmware>
End Device - Set/Read time period of sleep for cyclic sleeping remotes that are
configured for Association but are not associated to a Coordinator. (i.e. If a device is
1 - 0x68B0 [x 10 ms]
configured to associate, configured as a Cyclic Sleep remote, but does not find a
Coordinator, it will sleep for DP time before reattempting association.) Maximum sleep
period is 268 seconds (0x68B0). DP should be > 0 for NonBeacon systems.
Default
0x1388
(5000d)
0
0x3E8
(1000d)
* Firmware version in which the command was first introduced (firmware versions are numbered in hexadecimal notation.)
Serial Interfacing
Table 3‐05.
AT
Command
XBee‐PRO Commands ‐ Serial Interfacing
Command
Category
BD
Serial
Interfacing
RO
Serial
Interfacing
AP (v1.x80*)
Serial
Interfacing
NB
Serial
Interfacing
Name and Description
Parameter Range
Default
Interface Data Rate. Set/Read the serial interface data rate for communications
between the RF module serial port and host.
Request non-standard baud rates with values above 0x80 using a terminal window.
Read the BD register to find actual baud rate achieved.
0 - 7 (standard baud rates)
0 = 1200 bps
1 = 2400
2 = 4800
3 = 9600
4 = 19200
5 = 38400
6 = 57600
7 = 115200
0x80 - 0x1C200
(non-standard baud rates)
3
Packetization Timeout. Set/Read number of character times of inter-character delay
required before transmission. Set to zero to transmit characters as they arrive instead of 0 - 0xFF [x character times]
buffering them into one RF packet.
0-2
0 = Disabled
1 = API enabled
API Enable. Disable/Enable API Mode.
2 = API enabled
(w/escaped control
characters)
0-4
0 = 8-bit (no parity or
7-bit (any parity)
Parity. Set/Read parity settings.
1 = 8-bit even
2 = 8-bit odd
3 = 8-bit mark
4 = 8-bit space
© 2007 MaxStream, Inc.
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0
0
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Table 3‐05.
AT
Command
PR (v1.x80*)
Chapter 3 ‐ RF Module Configuration
XBee‐PRO Commands ‐ Serial Interfacing
Command
Category
Name and Description
Parameter Range
Default
Serial
Interfacing
Pull-up Resistor Enable. Set/Read bitfield to configure internal pull-up resistor status
for I/O lines
Bitfield Map:
bit 0 - AD4/DIO4 (pin11)
bit 1 - AD3 / DIO3 (pin17)
bit 2 - AD2/DIO2 (pin18)
bit 3 - AD1/DIO1 (pin19)
bit 4 - AD0 / DIO0 (pin20)
bit 5 - RTS / AD6 / DIO6 (pin16)
bit 6 - DTR / SLEEP_RQ / DI8 (pin9)
bit 7 - DIN/CONFIG (pin3)
Bit set to “1” specifies pull-up enabled; “0” specifies no pull-up
0 - 0xFF
0xFF
* Firmware version in which the command was first introduced (firmware versions are numbered in hexadecimal notation.)
I/O Settings
Table 3‐06.
XBee‐PRO Commands ‐ I/O Settings (sub‐category designated within {brackets})
AT
Command
Command
Category
Name and Description
Parameter Range
Default
D8
I/O Settings
DI8 Configuration. Select/Read options for the DI8 line (pin 9) of the RF module.
0-1
0 = Disabled
3 = DI
(1,2,4 & 5 n/a)
0
I/O Settings
0-1
0 = Disabled
1 = CTS Flow Control
DIO7 Configuration. Select/Read settings for the DIO7 line (pin 12) of the RF module.
2 = (n/a)
Options include CTS flow control and I/O line settings.
3 = DI
4 = DO low
5 = DO high
1
I/O Settings
0-1
0 = Disabled
1 = RTS flow control
DIO6 Configuration. Select/Read settings for the DIO6 line (pin 16) of the RF module.
2 = (n/a)
Options include RTS flow control and I/O line settings.
3 = DI
4 = DO low
5 = DO high
0
D7 (v1.x80*)
D6 (v1.x80*)
0-1
0 = Disabled
1 = Associated indicator
2 = ADC
3 = DI
4 = DO low
5 = DO high
I/O Settings
DIO5 Configuration. Configure settings for the DIO5 line (pin 15) of the RF module.
Options include Associated LED indicator (blinks when associated) and I/O line
settings.
D0 - D4
(v1.xA0*)
I/O Settings
0-1
0 = Disabled
(DIO4 -DIO4) Configuration. Select/Read settings for the following lines: AD0/DIO0
1 = (n/a)
(pin 20), AD1/DIO1 (pin 19), AD2/DIO2 (pin 18), AD3/DIO3 (pin 17), AD4/DIO4 (pin 11). 2 = ADC
3 = DI
Options include: Analog-to-digital converter, Digital Input and Digital Output.
4 = DO low
5 = DO high
0
IU (v1.xA0*)
I/O Settings
I/O Output Enable. Disables/Enables I/O data received to be sent out UART. The data
is sent using an API frame regardless of the current AP parameter value.
0-1
0 = Disabled
1 = Enabled
1
IT (v1.xA0*)
I/O Settings
Samples before TX. Set/Read the number of samples to collect before transmitting
data. Maximum number of samples is dependent upon the number of enabled inputs.
1 - 0xFF
1
IS (v1.xA0*)
I/O Settings
8-bit bitmap (each bit
Force Sample. Force a read of all enabled inputs (DI or ADC). Data is returned through
represents the level of an I/O
the UART. If no inputs are defined (DI or ADC), this command will return error.
line setup as an output)
-
IO (v1.xA0*)
I/O Settings
Digital Output Level. Set digital output level to allow DIO lines that are setup as
outputs to be changed through Command Mode.
-
-
IC (v1.xA0*)
I/O Settings
DIO Change Detect. Set/Read bitfield values for change detect monitoring. Each bit
enables monitoring of DIO0 - DIO7 for changes. If detected, data is transmitted with
DIO data only. Any samples queued waiting for transmission will be sent first.
0 - 0xFF [bitfield]
0 (disabled)
IR (v1.xA0*)
I/O Settings
Sample Rate. Set/Read sample rate. When set, this parameter causes the module to
sample all enabled inputs at a specified interval.
0 - 0xFFFF [x 1 msec]
0
AV (v1.xA0*)
I/O Settings
ADC Voltage Reference. <XBee-PRO only> Set/Read ADC reference voltage switch.
0-1
0 = VREF pin
1 = Internal
0
D5 (v1.x80*)
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Table 3‐06.
Chapter 3 ‐ RF Module Configuration
XBee‐PRO Commands ‐ I/O Settings (sub‐category designated within {brackets})
AT
Command
Command
Category
Name and Description
IA (v1.xA0*)
I/O Settings {I/O
Line Passing}
I/O Input Address. Set/Read addresses of module to which outputs are bound. Setting
all bytes to 0xFF will not allow any received I/O packet to change outputs. Setting
0 - 0xFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF
address to 0xFFFF will allow any received I/O packet to change outputs.
0xFFFFFFF
FFFFFFFFF
T0 - T7
(v1.xA0*)
I/O Settings {I/O
Line Passing}
(D0 - D7) Output Timeout. Set/Read Output timeout values for lines that correspond
with the D0 - D7 parameters. When output is set (due to I/O line passing) to a non0 - 0xFF [x 100 ms]
default level, a timer is started which when expired will set the output to it default level.
The timer is reset when a valid I/O packet is received.
0xFF
P0
I/O Settings {I/O
Line Passing}
PWM0 Configuration. Select/Read function for PWM0 pin.
0-2
0 = Disabled
1 = RSSI
2 = PWM Output
1
P1 (v1.xA0*)
I/O Settings {I/O
Line Passing}
PWM1 Configuration. Select/Read function for PWM1 pin.
0-2
0 = Disabled
1 = RSSI
2 = PWM Output
0
M0 (v1.xA0*)
I/O Settings {I/O
Line Passing}
PWM0 Output Level. Set/Read the PWM0 output level.
0 - 0x03FF
-
M1 (v1.xA0*)
I/O Settings {I/O
Line Passing}
PWM1 Output Level. Set/Read the PWM0 output level.
0 - 0x03FF
-
PT (v1.xA0*)
I/O Settings {I/O
Line Passing}
PWM Output Timeout. Set/Read output timeout value for both PWM outputs. When
PWM is set to a non-zero value: Due to I/O line passing, a time is started which when
expired will set the PWM output to zero. The timer is reset when a valid I/O packet is
received.]
0 - 0xFF [x 100 ms]
0xFF
RP
I/O Settings {I/O
Line Passing}
RSSI PWM Timer. Set/Read PWM timer register. Set the duration of PWM (pulse width
modulation) signal output on the RSSI pin. The signal duty cycle is updated with each 0 - 0xFF [x 100 ms]
received packet and is shut off when the timer expires.]
Parameter Range
Default
0x28 (40d)
* Firmware version in which the command was first introduced (firmware versions are numbered in hexadecimal notation.)
Diagnostics
Table 3‐07.
XBee/XBee‐PRO Commands ‐ Diagnostics
AT
Command
Command
Category
Name and Description
Parameter Range
Default
VR
Diagnostics
Firmware Version. Read firmware version of the RF module.
0 - 0xFFFF [read-only]
Factory-set
VL (v1.x80*)
Diagnostics
Firmware Version - Verbose. Read detailed version information (including application
build date, MAC, PHY and bootloader versions).
-
HV (v1.x80*)
Diagnostics
Hardware Version. Read hardware version of the RF module.
0 - 0xFFFF [read-only]
Factory-set
DB
Diagnostics
Received Signal Strength. Read signal level [in dB] of last good packet received
(RSSI). Absolute value is reported. (For example: 0x58 = -88 dBm) Reported value is
accurate between -40 dBm and RX sensitivity.
0x17-0x5C (XBee)
0x24-0x64 (XBee-PRO)
[read-only]
-
EC (v1.x80*)
Diagnostics
CCA Failures. Reset/Read count of CCA (Clear Channel Assessment) failures. This
parameter value increments when the module does not transmit a packet because it
detected energy above the CCA threshold level set with CA command. This count
saturates at its maximum value. Set count to “0” to reset count.
0 - 0xFFFF
-
EA (v1.x80*)
Diagnostics
ACK Failures. Reset/Read count of acknowledgment failures. This parameter value
increments when the module expires its transmission retries without receiving an ACK
0 - 0xFFFF
on a packet transmission. This count saturates at its maximum value. Set the parameter
to “0” to reset count.
-
Diagnostics
Energy Scan. Send ‘Energy Detect Scan’. ED parameter determines the length of scan
on each channel. The maximal energy on each channel is returned and each value is
followed by a carriage return. Values returned represent detected energy levels in units 0 - 6
of -dBm. Actual scan time on each channel is measured as Time = [(2 ^ SD) * 15.36]
ms. Total scan time is this time multiplied by the number of channels to be scanned.
-
ED (v1.x80*)
* Firmware version in which the command was first introduced (firmware versions are numbered in hexadecimal notation.)
© 2007 MaxStream, Inc.
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Chapter 3 ‐ RF Module Configuration
AT Command Options
Table 3‐08.
XBee/XBee‐PRO Commands ‐ AT Command Options
AT
Command
Command
Category
Name and Description
Parameter Range
Default
CT
AT Command
Mode Options
Command Mode Timeout. Set/Read the period of inactivity (no valid commands
received) after which the RF module automatically exits AT Command Mode and
returns to Idle Mode.
2 - 0xFFFF [x 100 ms]
0x64 (100d)
CN
AT Command
Mode Options
Exit Command Mode. Explicitly exit the module from AT Command Mode.
--
--
AC (v1.xA0*)
AT Command
Mode Options
Apply Changes. Explicitly apply changes to queued parameter value(s) and reinitialize module.
--
--
GT
AT Command
Mode Options
Guard Times. Set required period of silence before and after the Command Sequence
Characters of the AT Command Mode Sequence (GT+ CC + GT). The period of silence 2 - 0x0CE4 [x 1 ms]
is used to prevent inadvertent entrance into AT Command Mode.
0x3E8
(1000d)
CC
AT Command
Mode Options
Command Sequence Character. Set/Read the ASCII character value to be used
between Guard Times of the AT Command Mode Sequence (GT+CC+GT). The AT
Command Mode Sequence enters the RF module into AT Command Mode.
0x2B
(‘+’ ASCII)
0 - 0xFF
* Firmware version in which the command was first introduced (firmware versions are numbered in hexadecimal notation.)
© 2007 MaxStream, Inc.
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Chapter 3 ‐ RF Module Configuration
3.3. Command Descriptions
Command descriptions in this section are listed alphabetically. Command categories are designated within "< >" symbols that follow each command title. XBee/XBee-PRO RF Modules expect
parameter values in hexadecimal (designated by the "0x" prefix).
All modules operating within the same network should contain the same firmware version.
A1 (End Device Association) Command
<Networking {Association}> The A1 command is
used to set and read association options for an
End Device.
Use the table below to determine End Device
behavior in relation to the A1 parameter.
AT Command: ATA1
Parameter Range: 0 - 0x0F [bitfield]
Default Parameter Value: 0
Related Commands: ID (PAN ID), NI (Node
Identifier), CH (Channel), CE (Coordinator
Enable), A2 (Coordinator Association)
Minimum Firmware Version Required: v1.x80
Bit number
0 - ReassignPanID
1 - ReassignChannel
End Device Association Option
0 - Will only associate with Coordinator operating on PAN ID that matches Node Identifier
1 - May associate with Coordinator operating on any PAN ID
0 - Will only associate with Coordinator operating on Channel that matches CH setting
1 - May associate with Coordinator operating on any Channel
0 - Device will not attempt Association
2 - AutoAssociate
3 - PollCoordOnPinWake
4-7
1 - Device attempts Association until success
Note: This bit is used only for Non-Beacon systems. End Devices in a Beaconing system must
always associate to a Coordinator
0 - Pin Wake will not poll the Coordinator for pending (indirect) Data
1 - Pin Wake will send Poll Request to Coordinator to extract any pending data
[reserved]
A2 (Coordinator Association) Command
<Networking {Association}> The A2 command is
used to set and read association options of the
Coordinator.
Use the table below to determine Coordinator
behavior in relation to the A2 parameter.
AT Command: ATA2
Parameter Range: 0 - 7 [bitfield]
Default Parameter Value: 0
Related Commands: ID (PAN ID), NI (Node
Identifier), CH (Channel), CE (Coordinator
Enable), A1 (End Device Association), AS
Active Scan), ED (Energy Scan)
Minimum Firmware Version Required: v1.x80
Bit number
0 - ReassignPanID
1 - ReassignChannel
End Device Association Option
0 - Coordinator will not perform Active Scan to locate available PAN ID. It will operate on ID
(PAN ID).
1 - Coordinator will perform Active Scan to determine an available ID (PAN ID). If a PAN ID
conflict is found, the ID parameter will change.
0 - Coordinator will not perform Energy Scan to determine free channel. It will operate on the
channel determined by the CH parameter.
1 - Coordinator will perform Energy Scan to find a free channel, then operate on that channel.
2 - AllowAssociate
3-7
0 - Coordinator will not allow any devices to associate to it.
1 - Coordinator will allow devices to associate to it.
[reserved]
The binary equivalent of the default value (0x06) is 00000110. ‘Bit 0’ is the last digit of the sequence.
© 2007 MaxStream, Inc.
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Chapter 3 ‐ RF Module Configuration
AC (Apply Changes) Command
<AT Command Mode Options> The AC command
AT Command: ATAC
is used to explicitly apply changes to module
Minimum Firmware Version Required: v1.xA0
parameter values. ‘Applying changes’ means that
the module is re-initialized based on changes
made to its parameter values. Once changes are applied, the module immediately operates
according to the new parameter values.
This behavior is in contrast to issuing the WR (Write) command. The WR command saves parameter values to non-volatile memory, but the module still operates according to previously saved values until the module is re-booted or the CN (Exit AT Command Mode) command is issued.
Refer to the “AT Command - Queue Parameter Value” API type for more information.
AI (Association Indication) Command
<Networking {Association}> The AI command is
used to indicate occurrences of errors during the
last association request.
Use the table below to determine meaning of the
returned values.
AT Command: ATAI
Parameter Range: 0 - 0x13 [read-only]
Related Commands: AS (Active Scan), ID (PAN
ID), CH (Channel), ED (Energy Scan), A1 (End
Device Association), A2 (Coordinator
Association), CE (Coordinator Enable)
Minimum Firmware Version Required: v1.x80
Returned Value (Hex)
0x00
0x01
0x02
0x03
0x04
0x05
0x06
0x07
0x08
0x09
0x0A
0x0B
0x0C
0x0D
0x0E
0x0F
0x10
0x11
0x12
0x13
0xFF
Association Indication
Successful Completion - Coordinator successfully started or End Device association complete
Active Scan Timeout
Active Scan found no PANs
Active Scan found PAN, but the Coordinator Allow Association bit is not set
Active Scan found PAN, but Coordinator and End Device are not configured to support beacons
Active Scan found PAN, but Coordinator ID (PAN ID) value does not match the ID of the End Device
Active Scan found PAN, but Coordinator CH (Channel) value does not match the CH of the End Device
Energy Scan Timeout
Coordinator start request failed
Coordinator could not start due to Invalid Parameter
Coordinator Realignment is in progress
Association Request not sent
Association Request timed out - no reply was received
Association Request had an Invalid Parameter
Association Request Channel Access Failure - Request was not transmitted - CCA failure
Remote Coordinator did not send an ACK after Association Request was sent
Remote Coordinator did not reply to the Association Request, but an ACK was received
after sending the request
[reserved]
Sync-Loss - Lost synchronization with a Beaconing Coordinator
Disassociated - No longer associated to Coordinator
RF Module is attempting to associate
© 2007 MaxStream, Inc.
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Chapter 3 ‐ RF Module Configuration
AP (API Enable) Command
<Serial Interfacing> The AP command is used to
enable the RF module to operate using a framebased API instead of using the default Transparent (UART) mode.
AT Command: ATAP
Parameter Range:0 - 2
Parameter
Configuration
0
Disabled
(Transparent operation)
1
API enabled
2
API enabled
(with escaped characters)
Default Parameter Value:0
Minimum Firmware Version Required: v1.x80
Refer to the API Operation section when API operation is enabled (AP = 1 or 2).
AS (Active Scan) Command
<AT Command Mode Options> The AS command
is used to send a Beacon Request to a Broadcast
(0xFFFF) and Broadcast PAN (0xFFFF) on every
channel. The parameter determines the amount
of time the RF module will listen for Beacons on
each channel. A ‘PanDescriptor’ is created and
returned for every Beacon received from the
scan. Each PanDescriptor contains the following
information:
AT Command: ATAS
Parameter Range: 0 - 6
Related Command: SD (Scan Duration), DL
(Destination Low Address), DH (Destination
High Address), ID (PAN ID), CH (Channel)
Minimum Firmware Version Required: v1.x80
CoordAddress (SH + SL parameters)<CR> (NOTE: If MY on the coordinator is set less than
0xFFFF, the MY value is displayed)
CoordPanID (ID parameter)<CR>
CoordAddrMode <CR>
0x02 = 16-bit Short Address
0x03 = 64-bit Long Address
Channel (CH parameter) <CR>
SecurityUse<CR>
ACLEntry<CR>
SecurityFailure<CR>
SuperFrameSpec<CR> (2 bytes):
bit 15 - Association Permitted (MSB)
bit 14 - PAN Coordinator
bit 13 - Reserved
bit 12 - Battery Life Extension
bits 8-11 - Final CAP Slot
bits 4-7 - Superframe Order
bits 0-3 - Beacon Order
GtsPermit<CR>
RSSI<CR> (- RSSI is returned as -dBm)
TimeStamp<CR> (3 bytes)
<CR> (A carriage return <CR> is sent at the end of the AS command.
The Active Scan is capable of returning up to 5 PanDescriptors in a scan. The actual scan time on
each channel is measured as Time = [(2 ^ (SD Parameter)) * 15.36] ms. Total scan time is this
time multiplied by the number of channels to be scanned (16 for the XBee, 12 for the XBee-PRO).
NOTE: Refer the scan table in the SD description to determine scan times. If using API Mode, no
<CR>’s are returned in the response. Refer to the API Mode Operation section.
© 2007 MaxStream, Inc.
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Chapter 3 ‐ RF Module Configuration
AV (ADC Voltage Reference) Command
<Serial Interfacing> The AV command is used to
set/read the ADC reference voltage switch. The
XBee-PRO has an ADC voltage reference switch
which allows the module to select between an onboard voltage reference or to use the VREF pin on
the connector.
This command only applies to XBee-PRO RF Modules and will return error on an XBee RF Module.
AT Command: ATAV
Parameter Range:0 - 1
Parameter
Configuration
0
VREF Pin
1
Internal (on-board
reference - VCC)
Default Parameter Value:0
Minimum Firmware Version Required: v1.xA0
BD (Interface Data Rate) Command
<Serial Interfacing> The BD command is used to
set and read the serial interface data rate used
between the RF module and host. This parameter
determines the rate at which serial data is sent to
the module from the host. Modified interface data
rates do not take effect until the CN (Exit AT Command Mode) command is issued and the system
returns the 'OK' response.
AT Command: ATBD
Parameter Range:0 - 7 (standard rates)
0x80-0x1C200 (non-stndard rates)
When parameters 0-7 are sent to the module, the
respective interface data rates are used (as
shown in the table on the right).
The RF data rate is not affected by the BD parameter. If the interface data rate is set higher than
the RF data rate, a flow control configuration may
need to be implemented.
Parameter
Configuration (bps)
0
1200
1
2400
2
4800
3
9600
4
19200
5
38400
6
57600
7
115200
Default Parameter Value:3
Non-standard Interface Data Rates:
Any value above 0x07 will be interpreted as an
actual baud rate. When a value above 0x07 is sent, the closest interface data rate represented by
the number is stored in the BD register. For example, a rate of 19200 bps can be set by sending
the following command line "ATBD4B00". NOTE: When using MaxStream’s X-CTU Software, nonstandard interface data rates can only be set and read using the X-CTU ‘Terminal’ tab. Non-standard rates are not accessible through the ‘Modem Configuration’ tab.
When the BD command is sent with a non-standard interface data rate, the UART will adjust to
accommodate the requested interface rate. In most cases, the clock resolution will cause the
stored BD parameter to vary from the parameter that was sent (refer to the table below). Reading
the BD command (send "ATBD" command without an associated parameter value) will return the
value actually stored in the module’s BD register.
Parameters Sent Versus Parameters Stored
BD Parameter Sent (HEX)
Interface Data Rate (bps)
0
1200
BD Parameter Stored (HEX)
0
4
19,200
4
7
115,200
7
12C
300
12B
1C200
115,200
1B207
CA (CCA Threshold) Command
<RF Interfacing> CA command is used to set and
read CCA (Clear Channel Assessment) thresholds.
AT Command: ATCA
Prior to transmitting a packet, a CCA is performed
to detect energy on the transmit channel. If the
detected energy is above the CCA Threshold, the
RF module will not transmit the packet.
Default Parameter Value: 0x2C
(-44 decimal dBm)
© 2007 MaxStream, Inc.
Parameter Range: 0 - 0x50 [-dBm]
Minimum Firmware Version Required: v1.x80
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Chapter 3 ‐ RF Module Configuration
CC (Command Sequence Character) Command
<AT Command Mode Options> The CC command
is used to set and read the ASCII character used
between guard times of the AT Command Mode
Sequence (GT + CC + GT). This sequence enters
the RF module into AT Command Mode so that
data entering the module from the host is recognized as commands instead of payload.
AT Command: ATCC
Parameter Range: 0 - 0xFF
Default Parameter Value: 0x2B (ASCII “+”)
Related Command: GT (Guard Times)
The AT Command Sequence is explained further in the AT Command Mode section.
CE (Coordinator Enable) Command
<Serial Interfacing> The CE command is used to
set and read the behavior (End Device vs. Coordinator) of the RF module.
AT Command: ATCE
Parameter Range:0 - 1
Parameter
Configuration
0
End Device
1
Coordinator
Default Parameter Value:0
Minimum Firmware Version Required: v1.x80
CH (Channel) Command
<Networking {Addressing}> The CH command is
used to set/read the operating channel on which
RF connections are made between RF modules.
The channel is one of three addressing options
available to the module. The other options are the
PAN ID (ID command) and destination addresses
(DL & DH commands).
AT Command: ATCH
Parameter Range: 0x0B - 0x1A (XBee)
0x0C - 0x17 (XBee-PRO)
Default Parameter Value: 0x0C (12 decimal)
Related Commands: ID (PAN ID), DL
(Destination Address Low, DH (Destination
Address High)
In order for modules to communicate with each
other, the modules must share the same channel
number. Different channels can be used to prevent modules in one network from listening to transmissions of another. Adjacent channel rejection is 23 dB.
The module uses channel numbers of the 802.15.4 standard.
Center Frequency = 2.405 + (CH - 11d) * 5 MHz
(d = decimal)
Refer to the XBee/XBee-PRO Addressing section for more information.
CN (Exit Command Mode) Command
<AT Command Mode Options> The CN command
is used to explicitly exit the RF module from AT
Command Mode.
AT Command: ATCN
CT (Command Mode Timeout) Command
<AT Command Mode Options> The CT command
is used to set and read the amount of inactive
time that elapses before the RF module automatically exits from AT Command Mode and returns to
Idle Mode.
Use the CN (Exit Command Mode) command to
exit AT Command Mode manually.
AT Command: ATCT
Parameter Range:2 - 0xFFFF
[x 100 milliseconds]
Default Parameter Value: 0x64 (100 decimal
(which equals 10 decimal seconds))
Number of bytes returned: 2
Related Command: CN (Exit Command Mode)
© 2007 MaxStream, Inc.
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Chapter 3 ‐ RF Module Configuration
D0 - D4 (DIOn Configuration) Commands
<I/O Settings> The D0, D1, D2, D3 and D4 commands are used to select/read the behavior of
their respective AD/DIO lines (pins 20, 19, 18, 17
and 11 respectively).
Options include:
• Analog-to-digital converter
• Digital input
• Digital output
AT Commands:
ATD0, ATD1, ATD2, ATD3, ATD4
Parameter Range:0 - 5
Parameter
Configuration
0
Disabled
1
n/a
2
ADC
3
DI
4
DO low
5
DO high
Default Parameter Value:0
Minimum Firmware Version Required: 1.x.A0
D5 (DIO5 Configuration) Command
<I/O Settings> The D5 command is used to
select/read the behavior of the DIO5 line (pin 15).
Options include:
AT Command: ATD5
Parameter Range:0 - 5
Parameter
Configuration
0
Disabled
• Analog-to-digital converter
1
Associated Indicator
• Digital input
2
ADC
• Digital output
3
DI
4
DO low
5
DO high
• Associated Indicator (LED blinks when the
module is associated)
Default Parameter Value:1
Parameters 2-5 supported as of firmware
version 1.xA0
D6 (DIO6 Configuration) Command
<I/O Settings> The D6 command is used to
select/read the behavior of the DIO6 line (pin 16).
Options include:
• RTS flow control
AT Command: ATD6
Parameter Range:0 - 5
Parameter
Configuration
• Analog-to-digital converter
0
Disabled
• Digital input
1
RTS Flow Control
• Digital output
2
n/a
3
DI
4
DO low
5
DO high
Default Parameter Value:0
Parameters 3-5 supported as of firmware
version 1.xA0
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Chapter 3 ‐ RF Module Configuration
D7 (DIO7 Configuration) Command
<I/O Settings> The D7 command is used to
select/read the behavior of the DIO7 line (pin 12).
Options include:
AT Command: ATD7
Parameter Range:0 - 5
Parameter
Configuration
• Analog-to-digital converter
0
Disabled
• Digital input
1
CTS Flow Control
• Digital output
2
n/a
• CTS flow control
3
DI
4
DO low
5
DO high
Default Parameter Value:1
Parameters 3-5 supported as of firmware
version 1.x.A0
D8 (DI8 Configuration) Command
<I/O Settings> The D8 command is used to
select/read the behavior of the DI8 line (pin 9).
This command enables configuring the pin to
function as a digital input. This line is also used
with Pin Sleep.
AT Command: ATD8
Parameter Range:0 - 5
(1, 2, 4 & 5 n/a)
Parameter
Configuration
0
Disabled
3
DI
Default Parameter Value:0
Minimum Firmware Version Required: 1.xA0
DA (Force Disassociation) Command
<(Special)> The DA command is used to immediately disassociate an End Device from a Coordinator and reattempt to associate.
AT Command: ATDA
Minimum Firmware Version Required: v1.x80
DB (Received Signal Strength) Command
<Diagnostics> DB parameter is used to read the
received signal strength (in dBm) of the last RF
packet received. Reported values are accurate
between -40 dBm and the RF module's receiver
sensitivity.
AT Command: ATDB
Parameter Range [read-only]:
0x17-0x5C (XBee), 0x24-0x64 (XBee-PRO)
Absolute values are reported. For example: 0x58 = -88 dBm (decimal). If no packets have been
received (since last reset, power cycle or sleep event), “0” will be reported.
DH (Destination Address High) Command
<Networking {Addressing}> The DH command is
used to set and read the upper 32 bits of the RF
module's 64-bit destination address. When combined with the DL (Destination Address Low)
parameter, it defines the destination address used
for transmission.
AT Command: ATDH
Parameter Range: 0 - 0xFFFFFFFF
Default Parameter Value: 0
Related Commands: DL (Destination Address
Low), CH (Channel), ID (PAN VID), MY (Source
Address)
An module will only communicate with other
modules having the same channel (CH parameter), PAN ID (ID parameter) and destination address
(DH + DL parameters).
To transmit using a 16-bit address, set the DH parameter to zero and the DL parameter less than
0xFFFF. 0x000000000000FFFF (DL concatenated to DH) is the broadcast address for the PAN.
Refer to the XBee/XBee-PRO Addressing section for more information.
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Chapter 3 ‐ RF Module Configuration
DL (Destination Address Low) Command
<Networking {Addressing}> The DL command is
used to set and read the lower 32 bits of the RF
module's 64-bit destination address. When combined with the DH (Destination Address High)
parameter, it defines the destination address used
for transmission.
AT Command: ATDL
Parameter Range: 0 - 0xFFFFFFFF
Default Parameter Value: 0
Related Commands: DH (Destination Address
High), CH (Channel), ID (PAN VID), MY (Source
Address)
A module will only communicate with other modules having the same channel (CH parameter),
PAN ID (ID parameter) and destination address (DH + DL parameters).
To transmit using a 16-bit address, set the DH parameter to zero and the DL parameter less than
0xFFFF. 0x000000000000FFFF (DL concatenated to DH) is the broadcast address for the PAN.
Refer to the XBee/XBee-PRO Addressing section for more information.
DN (Destination Node) Command
<Networking {Identification}> The DN command
is used to resolve a NI (Node Identifier) string to
a physical address. The following events occur
upon successful command execution:
AT Command: ATDN
Parameter Range: 20-character ASCII String
Minimum Firmware Version Required: v1.x80
1. DL and DH are set to the address of the
module with the matching NI (Node Identifier).
2. ‘OK’ is returned.
3. RF module automatically exits AT Command Mode.
If there is no response from a modem within 200 msec or a parameter is not specified (left blank),
the command is terminated and an ‘ERROR’ message is returned.
DP (Disassociation Cyclic Sleep Period) Command
<Sleep Mode (Low Power)>
NonBeacon Firmware
AT Command: ATDP
Parameter Range: 1 - 0x68B0
End Device - The DP command is used to set and
[x 10 milliseconds]
read the time period of sleep for cyclic sleeping
Default Parameter Value:0x3E8
remotes that are configured for Association but
(1000 decimal)
are not associated to a Coordinator. (i.e. If a
Related Commands: SM (Sleep Mode), SP
device is configured to associate, configured as a
(Cyclic Sleep Period), ST (Time before Sleep)
Cyclic Sleep remote, but does not find a CoordiMinimum Firmware Version Required: v1.x80
nator; it will sleep for DP time before reattempting association.) Maximum sleep period is 268
seconds (0x68B0). DP should be > 0 for NonBeacon systems.
EA (ACK Failures) Command
<Diagnostics> The EA command is used to reset
and read the count of ACK (acknowledgement)
failures. This parameter value increments when
the module expires its transmission retries without receiving an ACK on a packet transmission.
This count saturates at its maximum value.
AT Command: ATEA
Parameter Range:0 - 0xFFFF
Minimum Firmware Version Required: v1.x80
Set the parameter to “0” to reset count.
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Chapter 3 ‐ RF Module Configuration
EC (CCA Failures) Command
<Diagnostics> The EC command is used to read
and reset the count of CCA (Clear Channel
Assessment) failures. This parameter value increments when the RF module does not transmit a
packet due to the detection of energy that is
above the CCA threshold level (set with CA command). This count saturates at its maximum
value.
AT Command: ATEC
Parameter Range:0 - 0xFFFF
Related Command: CA (CCA Threshold)
Minimum Firmware Version Required: v1.x80
Set the EC parameter to “0” to reset count.
ED (Energy Scan) Command
<Networking {Association}> The ED command is
used to send an “Energy Detect Scan”. This
parameter determines the length of scan on each
channel. The maximal energy on each channel is
returned and each value is followed by a carriage
return. An additional carriage return is sent at the
end of the command.
AT Command: ATED
Parameter Range:0 - 6
Related Command: SD (Scan Duration), SC
(Scan Channel)
Minimum Firmware Version Required: v1.x80
The values returned represent the detected energy level in units of -dBm. The actual scan time on
each channel is measured as Time = [(2 ^ ED PARAM) * 15.36] ms.
Note: Total scan time is this time multiplied by the number of channels to be scanned. Also refer to
the SD (Scan Duration) table. Use the SC (Scan Channel) command to choose which channels to scan.
EE (AES Encryption Enable) Command
<Networking {Security}> The EE command is
used to set/read the parameter that disables/
enables 128-bit AES encryption.
The XBee/XBee-PRO firmware uses the 802.15.4
Default Security protocol and uses AES encryption
with a 128-bit key. AES encryption dictates that
all modules in the network use the same key and
the maximum RF packet size is 95 Bytes.
AT Command: ATEE
Parameter Range:0 - 1
Parameter
Configuration
0
Disabled
1
Enabled
Default Parameter Value:0
Related Commands: KY (Encryption Key), AP
When encryption is enabled, the module will
(API Enable), MM (MAC Mode)
always use its 64-bit long address as the source
Minimum Firmware Version Required: v1.xA0
address for RF packets. This does not affect how
the MY (Source Address), DH (Destination
Address High) and DL (Destination Address Low) parameters work
If MM (MAC Mode) > 0 and AP (API Enable) parameter > 0:
With encryption enabled and a 16-bit short address set, receiving modules will only be able to
issue RX (Receive) 64-bit indicators. This is not an issue when MM = 0.
If a module with a non-matching key detects RF data, but has an incorrect key: When encryption is
enabled, non-encrypted RF packets received will be rejected and will not be sent out the UART.
Transparent Operation --> All RF packets are sent encrypted if the key is set.
API Operation --> Receive frames use an option bit to indicate that the packet was encrypted.
FP (Force Poll) Command
<Networking (Association)> The FP command is
used to request indirect messages being held by
a Coordinator.
© 2007 MaxStream, Inc.
AT Command: ATFP
Minimum Firmware Version Required: v1.x80
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Chapter 3 ‐ RF Module Configuration
FR (Software Reset) Command
<Special> The FR command is used to force a
software reset on the RF module. The reset simulates powering off and then on again the module.
AT Command: ATFR
Minimum Firmware Version Required: v1.x80
GT (Guard Times) Command
<AT Command Mode Options> GT Command is
used to set the DI (data in from host) time-ofsilence that surrounds the AT command sequence
character (CC Command) of the AT Command
Mode sequence (GT + CC + GT).
The DI time-of-silence is used to prevent inadvertent entrance into AT Command Mode.
AT Command: ATGT
Parameter Range:2 - 0x0CE4
[x 1 millisecond]
Default Parameter Value:0x3E8
(1000 decimal)
Related Command: CC (Command Sequence
Character)
Refer to the Command Mode section for more
information regarding the AT Command Mode Sequence.
HV (Hardware Version) Command
<Diagnostics> The HV command is used to read
the hardware version of the RF module.
AT Command: ATHV
Parameter Range:0 - 0xFFFF [Read-only]
Minimum Firmware Version Required: v1.x80
IA (I/O Input Address) Command
<I/O Settings {I/O Line Passing}> The IA command is used to bind a module output to a specific address. Outputs will only change if received
from this address. The IA command can be used
to set/read both 16 and 64-bit addresses.
Setting all bytes to 0xFF will not allow the reception of any I/O packet to change outputs. Setting
the IA address to 0xFFFF will cause the module to
accept all I/O packets.
AT Command: ATIA
Parameter Range:0 - 0xFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF
Default Parameter Value:0xFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF
(will not allow any received I/O packet to
change outputs)
Minimum Firmware Version Required: v1.xA0
IC (DIO Change Detect) Command
<I/O Settings> Set/Read bitfield values for
change detect monitoring. Each bit enables monitoring of DIO0 - DIO7 for changes.
If detected, data is transmitted with DIO data
only. Any samples queued waiting for transmission will be sent first.
AT Command: ATIC
Parameter Range:0 - 0xFF [bitfield]
Default Parameter Value:0 (disabled)
Minimum Firmware Version Required: 1.xA0
Refer to the “ADC and Digital I/O Line Support” sections of the “RF Module Operations” chapter for
more information.
ID (Pan ID) Command
<Networking {Addressing}> The ID command is
used to set and read the PAN (Personal Area Network) ID of the RF module. Only modules with
matching PAN IDs can communicate with each
other. Unique PAN IDs enable control of which RF
packets are received by a module.
AT Command: ATID
Parameter Range: 0 - 0xFFFF
Default Parameter Value:0x3332
(13106 decimal)
Setting the ID parameter to 0xFFFF indicates a global transmission for all PANs. It does not indicate a global receive.
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Chapter 3 ‐ RF Module Configuration
IO (Digital Output Level) Command
<I/O Settings> The IO command is used to set
digital output levels. This allows DIO lines setup
as outputs to be changed through Command
Mode.
AT Command: ATIO
Parameter Range: 8-bit bitmap
(where each bit represents the level of an I/O
line that is setup as an output.)
Minimum Firmware Version Required: v1.xA0
IR (Sample Rate) Command
<I/O Settings> The IR command is used to set/
read the sample rate. When set, the module will
sample all enabled DIO/ADC lines at a specified
interval. This command allows periodic reads of
the ADC and DIO lines in a non-Sleep Mode
setup.
Example: When IR = 0x0A, the sample rate is 10
ms (or 100 Hz).
AT Command: ATIR
Parameter Range: 0 - 0xFFFF [x 1 msec]
(cannot guarantee 1 ms timing when IT=1)
Default Parameter Value:0
Related Command: IT (Samples before TX)
Minimum Firmware Version Required: v1.xA0
IS (Force Sample) Command
<I/O Settings> The IS command is used to force
a read of all enabled DIO/ADC lines. The data is
returned through the UART.
When operating in Transparent Mode (AP=0), the
data is retuned in the following format:
AT Command: ATIS
Parameter Range: 1 - 0xFF
Default Parameter Value:1
Minimum Firmware Version Required: v1.xA0
All bytes are converted to ASCII:
number of samples<CR>
channel mask<CR>
DIO data<CR> (If DIO lines are enabled<CR>
ADC channel Data<cr> <-This will repeat for every enabled ADC channel<CR>
<CR> (end of data noted by extra <CR>)
When operating in API mode (AP > 0), the command will immediately return an ‘OK’ response.
The data will follow in the normal API format for DIO data.
IT (Samples before TX) Command
<I/O Settings> The IT command is used to set/
read the number of DIO and ADC samples to collect before transmitting data.
AT Command: ATIT
Parameter Range: 1 - 0xFF
Default Parameter Value:1
One ADC sample is considered complete when all
Minimum Firmware Version Required: v1.xA0
enabled ADC channels have been read. The module can buffer up to 93 Bytes of sample data.
Since the module uses a 10-bit A/D converter, each sample uses two Bytes. This leads to a maximum buffer size of 46 samples or IT=0x2E.
When Sleep Modes are enabled and IR (Sample Rate) is set, the module will remain awake until IT
samples have been collected.
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Chapter 3 ‐ RF Module Configuration
IU (I/O Output Enable) Command
<I/O Settings> The IU command is used to disable/enable I/O UART output. When enabled (IU
= 1), received I/O line data packets are sent out
the UART. The data is sent using an API frame
regardless of the current AP parameter value.
AT Command: ATIU
Parameter Range:0 - 1
Parameter
Configuration
0
Disabled Received I/O line data
packets will NOT sent
out UART.
1
Enabled Received I/O line data
will be sent out UART
Default Parameter Value:1
Minimum Firmware Version Required: 1.xA0
KY (AES Encryption Key) Command
<Networking {Security}> The KY command is
used to set the 128-bit AES (Advanced Encryption
Standard) key for encrypting/decrypting data.
Once set, the key cannot be read out of the module by any means.
AT Command: ATKY
Parameter Range:0 - (any 16-Byte value)
Default Parameter Value:0
Related Command: EE (Encryption Enable)
The entire payload of the packet is encrypted
Minimum Firmware Version Required: v1.xA0
using the key and the CRC is computed across the
ciphertext. When encryption is enabled, each packet carries an additional 16 Bytes to convey the
random CBC Initialization Vector (IV) to the receiver(s). The KY value may be “0” or any 128-bit
value. Any other value, including entering KY by itself with no parameters, is invalid. All ATKY
entries (valid or not) are received with a returned 'OK'.
A module with the wrong key (or no key) will receive encrypted data, but the data driven out the
serial port will be meaningless. A module with a key and encryption enabled will receive data sent
from a module without a key and the correct unencrypted data output will be sent out the serial
port. Because CBC mode is utilized, repetitive data appears differently in different transmissions
due to the randomly-generated IV.
When queried, the system will return an ‘OK’ message and the value of the key will not be
returned.
M0 (PWM0 Output Level) Command
<I/O Settings> The M0 command is used to set/
read the output level of the PWM0 line (pin 6).
AT Command: ATM0
Before setting the line as an output:
1. Enable PWM0 output (P0 = 2)
2. Apply settings (use CN or AC)
Default Parameter Value:0
The PWM period is 64 µsec and there are 0x03FF
(1023 decimal) steps within this period. When M0
= 0 (0% PWM), 0x01FF (50% PWM), 0x03FF
(100% PWM), etc.
Parameter Range:0 - 0x03FF [steps]
Related Commands: P0 (PWM0 Enable), AC
(Apply Changes), CN (Exit Command Mode)
Minimum Firmware Version Required: v1.xA0
M1 (PWM1 Output Level) Command
<I/O Settings> The M1 command is used to set/
read the output level of the PWM1 line (pin 7).
AT Command: ATM1
Before setting the line as an output:
1. Enable PWM1 output (P1 = 2)
2. Apply settings (use CN or AC)
Default Parameter Value:0
Parameter Range:0 - 0x03FF
Related Commands: P1 (PWM1 Enable), AC
(Apply Changes), CN (Exit Command Mode)
Minimum Firmware Version Required: v1.xA0
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Chapter 3 ‐ RF Module Configuration
MM (MAC Mode) Command
<Networking {Addressing}> The MM command is
used to set and read the MAC Mode value. The
MM command disables/enables the use of a MaxStream header contained in the 802.15.4 RF
packet. By default (MM = 0), MaxStream Mode is
enabled and the module adds an extra header to
the data portion of the 802.15.4 packet. This
enables the following features:
AT Command: ATMM
Parameter Range:0 - 2
Parameter
Configuration
0
MaxStream Mode
(802.15.4 + MaxStream
header)
• ND and DN command support
• Duplicate packet detection when using ACKs
The MM command allows users to turn off the use
of the extra header. Modes 1 and 2 are strict
802.15.4 modes. If the MaxStream header is disabled, ND and DN parameters are also disabled.
1
802.15.4 (no ACKs)
2
802.15.4 (with ACKs)
Default Parameter Value:0
Related Commands: ND (Node Discover), DN
(Destination Node)
Minimum Firmware Version Required: v1.x80
Note: When MM > 0, application and CCA failure
retries are not supported.
MY (16-bit Source Address) Command
<Networking {Addressing}> The MY command is
used to set and read the 16-bit source address of
the RF module.
By setting MY to 0xFFFF, the reception of RF packets having a 16-bit address is disabled. The 64-bit
address is the module’s serial number and is
always enabled.
AT Command: ATMY
Parameter Range: 0 - 0xFFFF
Default Parameter Value: 0
Related Commands: DH (Destination Address
High), DL (Destination Address Low), CH
(Channel), ID (PAN ID)
NB (Parity) Command
<Serial Interfacing> The NB command is used to
select/read the parity settings of the RF module
for UART communications.
AT Command: ATNB
Parameter Range: 0 - 4
Parameter
Configuration
0
8-bit (no parity or
7-bit (any parity)
1
8-bit even
2
8-bit odd
3
8-bit mark
4
8-bit space
Default Parameter Value: 0
Number of bytes returned: 1
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Chapter 3 ‐ RF Module Configuration
ND (Node Discover) Command
<Networking {Identification}> The ND command
is used to discover and report all modules on its
current operating channel (CH parameter) and
PAN ID (ID parameter). ND also accepts an NI
(Node Identifier) value as a parameter. In this
case, only a module matching the supplied identifier will respond.
AT Command: ATND
Range: optional 20-character NI value
Related Commands: CH (Channel), ID (Pan ID),
MY (Source Address), SH (Serial Number High),
SL (Serial Number Low), NI (Node Identifier),
NT (Node Discover Time)
Minimum Firmware Version Required: v1.x80
ND uses a 64-bit long address when sending and
responding to an ND request. The ND command
causes a module to transmit a globally addressed ND command packet. The amount of time
allowed for responses is determined by the NT (Node Discover Time) parameter.
In AT Command mode, command completion is designated by a carriage return (0x0D). Since two
carriage returns end a command response, the application will receive three carriage returns at
the end of the command. If no responses are received, the application should only receive one
carriage return. When in API mode, the application should receive a frame (with no data) and status (set to ‘OK’) at the end of the command. When the ND command packet is received, the
remote sets up a random time delay (up to 2.2 sec) before replying as follows:
Node Discover Response (AT command mode format - Transparent operation):
MY (Source Address) value<CR>
SH (Serial Number High) value<CR>
SL (Serial Number Low) value<CR>
DB (Received Signal Strength) value<CR>
NI (Node Identifier) value<CR>
<CR> (This is part of the response and not the end of command indicator.)
Node Discover Response (API format - data is binary (except for NI)):
2 bytes for MY (Source Address) value
4 bytes for SH (Serial Number High) value
4 bytes for SL (Serial Number Low) value
1 byte for DB (Received Signal Strength) value
NULL-terminated string for NI (Node Identifier) value (max 20 bytes w/out NULL terminator)
NI (Node Identifier) Command
<Networking {Identification}> The NI command
is used to set and read a string for identifying a
particular node.
Rules:
• Register only accepts printable ASCII data.
• A string can not start with a space.
AT Command: ATNI
Parameter Range: 20-character ASCII string
Related Commands: ND (Node Discover), DN
(Destination Node)
Minimum Firmware Version Required: v1.x80
• A carriage return ends command
• Command will automatically end when maximum bytes for the string have been entered.
This string is returned as part of the ND (Node Discover) command. This identifier is also used
with the DN (Destination Node) command.
NT (Node Discover Time) Command
<Networking {Identification}> The NT command
is used to set the amount of time a base node will
wait for responses from other nodes when using
the ND (Node Discover) command. The NT value
is transmitted with the ND command.
AT Command: ATNT
Parameter Range: 0x01 - 0xFC
[x 100 msec]
Default: 0x19 (2.5 decimal seconds)
Related Commands: ND (Node Discover)
Remote nodes will set up a random hold-off time
based on this time. The remotes will adjust this
Minimum Firmware Version Required: 1.xA0
time down by 250 ms to give each node the ability to respond before the base ends the command. Once the ND command has ended, any
response received on the base would be discarded.
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Chapter 3 ‐ RF Module Configuration
P0 (PWM0 Configuration) Command
<I/O Setting {I/O Line Passing}> The P0 command is used to select/read the function for
PWM0 (Pulse Width Modulation output 0). This
command enables the option of translating
incoming data to a PWM so that the output can be
translated back into analog form.
AT Command: ATP0
The second character in the command is the
number zero (“0”), not the letter “O”.
Parameter Range: 0 - 2
Parameter
Configuration
0
Disabled
With the IA (I/O Input Address) parameter correctly set, AD0 values can automatically be
passed to PWM0.
1
RSSI
2
PWM0 Output
Default Parameter Value: 1
P1 (PWM1 Configuration) Command
<I/O Setting {I/O Line Passing}> The P1 command is used to select/read the function for
PWM1 (Pulse Width Modulation output 1). This
command enables the option of translating
incoming data to a PWM so that the output can be
translated back into analog form.
With the IA (I/O Input Address) parameter correctly set, AD1 values can automatically be
passed to PWM1.
AT Command: ATP1
Parameter Range: 0 - 2
Parameter
Configuration
0
Disabled
1
RSSI
2
PWM1 Output
Default Parameter Value: 0
Minimum Firmware Version Required: v1.xA0
PL (Power Level) Command
<RF Interfacing> The PL command is used to
select and read the power level at which the RF
module transmits conducted power.
WHEN OPERATING IN EUROPE:
XBee-PRO RF Modules must be configured to
operate at a maximum transmit power output
level of 10 dBm. The PL parameter must equal “0”
(10 dBm).
Additionally, European regulations stipulate an
EIRP power maximum of 12.86 dBm (19 mW) for
the XBee-PRO and 12.11 dBm for the XBee when
integrating high-gain antennas.
AT Command: ATPL
Parameter Range: 0 - 4
Parameter
XBee
XBee-PRO
0
-10 dBm
10 dBm
1
-6 dBm
12 dBm
2
-4 dBm
14 dBm
3
-2 dBm
16 dBm
4
0 dBm
18 dBm
Default Parameter Value: 4
WHEN OPERATING IN JAPAN:
XBee-PRO RF Modules optimized for use in Japan contain firmware that limits transmit power output to 10 dBm. If PL=4 (default), the maximum power output level is 10 dBm. For a list of module
part numbers approved for use in Japan, contact MaxStream [call 1-801-765-9885 or send e-mail
to sales@maxstream.net].
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Chapter 3 ‐ RF Module Configuration
PR (Pull-up Resistor Enable) Command
<Serial Interfacing> The PR command is used to
set and read the bit field that is used to configure
internal the pull-up resistor status for I/O lines.
“1” specifies the pull-up resistor is enabled. “0”
specifies no pull up.
bit
bit
bit
bit
bit
bit
bit
bit
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
-
AD4/DIO4 (pin 11)
AD3/DIO3 (pin 17)
AD2/DIO2 (pin 18)
AD1/DIO1 (pin 19)
AD0/DIO0 (pin 20)
AD6/DIO6 (pin 16)
DI8 (pin 9)
DIN/CONFIG (pin 3)
AT Command: ATPR
Parameter Range: 0 - 0xFF
Default Parameter Value: 0xFF
(all pull-up resistors are enabled)
Minimum Firmware Version Required: v1.x80
For example: Sending the command “ATPR 6F” will turn bits 0, 1, 2, 3, 5 and 6 ON; and bits 4 & 7
will be turned OFF. (The binary equivalent of “0x6F” is “01101111”. Note that ‘bit 0’ is the last digit
in the bitfield.
PT (PWM Output Timeout) Command
<I/O Settings {I/O Line Passing}> The PT command is used to set/read the output timeout
value for both PWM outputs.
When PWM is set to a non-zero value: Due to I/O
line passing, a time is started which when expired
will set the PWM output to zero. The timer is reset
when a valid I/O packet is received.
AT Command: ATPT
Parameter Range: 0 - 0xFF [x 100 msec]
Default Parameter Value: 0xFF
Minimum Firmware Version Required: 1.xA0
RE (Restore Defaults) Command
<(Special)> The RE command is used to restore
AT Command: ATRE
all configurable parameters to their factory
default settings. The RE command does not write
restored values to non-volatile (persistent) memory. Issue the WR (Write) command subsequent
to issuing the RE command to save restored parameter values to non-volatile memory.
RN (Random Delay Slots) Command
<Networking & Security> The RN command is
used to set and read the minimum value of the
back-off exponent in the CSMA-CA algorithm. The
CSMA-CA algorithm was engineered for collision
avoidance (random delays are inserted to prevent
data loss caused by data collisions).
AT Command: ATRN
Parameter Range: 0 - 3 [exponent]
Default Parameter Value: 0
If RN = 0, collision avoidance is disabled during the first iteration of the algorithm (802.15.4 macMinBE).
CSMA-CA stands for "Carrier Sense Multiple Access - Collision Avoidance". Unlike CSMA-CD (reacts
to network transmissions after collisions have been detected), CSMA-CA acts to prevent data collisions before they occur. As soon as a module receives a packet that is to be transmitted, it checks
if the channel is clear (no other module is transmitting). If the channel is clear, the packet is sent
over-the-air. If the channel is not clear, the module waits for a randomly selected period of time,
then checks again to see if the channel is clear. After a time, the process ends and the data is lost.
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RO (Packetization Timeout) Command
<Serial Interfacing> RO command is used to set
and read the number of character times of intercharacter delay required before transmission.
AT Command: ATRO
Parameter Range:0 - 0xFF
[x character times]
RF transmission commences when data is
Default Parameter Value: 3
detected in the DI (data in from host) buffer and
RO character times of silence are detected on the
UART receive lines (after receiving at least 1 byte).
RF transmission will also commence after 100 Bytes (maximum packet size) are received in the DI
buffer.
Set the RO parameter to '0' to transmit characters as they arrive instead of buffering them into
one RF packet.
RP (RSSI PWM Timer) Command
<I/O Settings {I/O Line Passing}> The RP comAT Command: ATRP
mand is used to enable PWM (Pulse Width ModuParameter Range:0 - 0xFF
lation) output on the RF module. The output is
[x 100 msec]
calibrated to show the level a received RF signal is
Default Parameter Value: 0x28 (40 decimal)
above the sensitivity level of the module. The
PWM pulses vary from 24 to 100%. Zero percent
means PWM output is inactive. One to 24% percent means the received RF signal is at or below the published sensitivity level of the module. The
following table shows levels above sensitivity and PWM values.
The total period of the PWM output is 64 µs. Because there are 445 steps in the PWM output, the
minimum step size is 144 ns.
PWM Percentages
dB above Sensitivity
PWM percentage
(high period / total period)
10
41%
20
58%
30
75%
A non-zero value defines the time that the PWM output will be active with the RSSI value of the
last received RF packet. After the set time when no RF packets are received, the PWM output will
be set low (0 percent PWM) until another RF packet is received. The PWM output will also be set
low at power-up until the first RF packet is received. A parameter value of 0xFF permanently
enables the PWM output and it will always reflect the value of the last received RF packet.
RR (XBee Retries) Command
<Networking {Addressing}> The RR command is
used set/read the maximum number of retries
the module will execute in addition to the 3
retries provided by the 802.15.4 MAC. For each
XBee retry, the 802.15.4 MAC can execute up to 3
retries.
AT Command: ATRR
Parameter Range: 0 - 6
Default: 0
Minimum Firmware Version Required: 1.xA0
This values does not need to be set on all modules for retries to work. If retries are enabled, the
transmitting module will set a bit in the Maxstream RF Packet header which requests the receiving
module to send an ACK (acknowledgement). If the transmitting module does not receive an ACK
within 200 msec, it will re-send the packet within a random period up to 48 msec. Each XBee retry
can potentially result in the MAC sending the packet 4 times (1 try plus 3 retries). Note that retries
are not attempted for packets that are purged when transmitting with a Cyclic Sleep Coordinator.
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Chapter 3 ‐ RF Module Configuration
SC (Scan Channels) Command
<Networking {Association}> The SC command is
used to set and read the list of channels to scan
for all Active and Energy Scans as a bit field.
This affects scans initiated in command mode [AS
(Active Scan) and ED (Energy Scan) commands]
and during End Device Association and Coordinator startup.
AT Command: ATSC
Parameter Range: 0 - 0xFFFF [Bitfield]
(bits 0, 14, 15 are not allowed when using the
XBee-PRO)
Default Parameter Value: 0x1FFE (all XBeePRO channels)
Related Commands: ED (Energy Scan), SD
(Scan Duration)
Minimum Firmware Version Required: v1.x80
bit 0 - 0x0B
bit 12 - 0x17
bit 1 - 0x0C
bit 2 - 0x0D
bit 3 - 0x0E
bit 4 - 0x0F
bit 8 - 0x13
bit 5 - 0x10
bit 6 - 0x11
bit 7 - 0x12
bit 9 - 0x14
bit 10 - 0x15
bit 11 - 0x16
bit 13 - 0x18
bit 14 - 0x19
bit 15 - 0x1A
SD (Scan Duration) Command
<Networking {Association}> The SD command is
used to set and read the exponent value that
determines the duration (in time) of a scan.
End Device (Duration of Active Scan during
Association) - In a Beacon system, set SD = BE of
the Coordinator. SD must be set at least to the
highest BE parameter of any Beaconing Coordinator with which an End Device or Coordinator wish
to discover.
AT Command: ATSD
Parameter Range: 0 - 0x0F
Default Parameter Value: 4
Related Commands: ED (Energy Scan), SC
(Scan Channel)
Minimum Firmware Version Required: v1.x80
Coordinator - If the ‘ReassignPANID’ option is set on the Coordinator [refer to A2 parameter], the
SD parameter determines the length of time the Coordinator will scan channels to locate existing
PANs. If the ‘ReassignChannel’ option is set, SD determines how long the Coordinator will perform
an Energy Scan to determine which channel it will operate on.
Scan Time is measured as ((# of Channels to Scan) * (2 ^ SD) * 15.36ms). The number of channels to scan is set by the SC command. The XBee RF Module can scan up to 16 channels (SC =
0xFFFF). The XBee PRO RF Module can scan up to 12 channels (SC = 0x1FFE).
Examples: Values below show results for a 12‐channel scan If SD = 0, time = 0.18 sec
SD = 8, time = 47.19 sec
SD = 2, time = 0.74 sec
SD = 10, time = 3.15 min
SD = 4, time = 2.95 sec
SD = 12, time = 12.58 min
SD = 6, time = 11.80 sec
SD = 14, time = 50.33 min
SH (Serial Number High) Command
<Diagnostics> The SH command is used to read
the high 32 bits of the RF module's unique IEEE
64-bit address.
The module serial number is set at the factory
and is read-only.
AT Command: ATSH
Parameter Range: 0 - 0xFFFFFFFF [read-only]
Related Commands: SL (Serial Number Low),
MY (Source Address)
SL (Serial Number Low) Command
<Diagnostics> The SL command is used to read
the low 32 bits of the RF module's unique IEEE
64-bit address.
The module serial number is set at the factory
and is read-only.
© 2007 MaxStream, Inc.
AT Command: ATSL
Parameter Range: 0 - 0xFFFFFFFF [read-only]
Related Commands: SH (Serial Number High),
MY (Source Address)
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Chapter 3 ‐ RF Module Configuration
SM (Sleep Mode) Command
<Sleep Mode (Low Power)> The SM command is
used to set and read Sleep Mode settings. By
default, Sleep Modes are disabled (SM = 0) and
the RF module remains in Idle/Receive Mode.
When in this state, the module is constantly
ready to respond to either serial or RF activity.
AT Command: ATSM
Parameter Range: 0 - 6
Parameter
Configuration
0
Disabled
1
Pin Hibernate
SM command options vary according to the networking system type. By default, the module is
configured to operate in a NonBeacon system.
* The Sleep Coordinator option (SM=6) only
exists for backwards compatibility with firmware
version 1.x06 only. In all other cases, use the CE
command to enable a Coordinator.
SP (Cyclic Sleep Period) Command
<Sleep Mode (Low Power)> The SP command is
used to set and read the duration of time in which
a remote RF module sleeps. After the cyclic sleep
period is over, the module wakes and checks for
data. If data is not present, the module goes back
to sleep. The maximum sleep period is 268 seconds (SP = 0x68B0).
The SP parameter is only valid if the module is
configured to operate in Cyclic Sleep (SM = 4-6).
Coordinator and End Device SP values should
always be equal.
2
Pin Doze
3
(reserved)
4
Cyclic Sleep Remote
5
Cyclic Sleep Remote
(with Pin Wake-up)
6
Sleep Coordinator*
Default Parameter Value: 0
Related Commands: SP (Cyclic Sleep Period),
ST (Time before Sleep)
AT Command: ATSP
Parameter
Range:
NonBeacon Firmware:
1 - 0x68B0 [x 10 milliseconds]
Default
Parameter
Value:
NonBeacon Firmware: 0
Related Commands: SM (Sleep Mode), ST
(Time before Sleep), DP (Disassociation Cyclic
Sleep Period, BE (Beacon Order)
To send Direct Messages, set SP = 0.
NonBeacon Firmware
End Device - SP determines the sleep period for cyclic sleeping remotes. Maximum sleep period is
268 seconds (0x68B0).
Coordinator - If non-zero, SP determines the time to hold an indirect message before discarding it.
A Coordinator will discard indirect messages after a period of (2.5 * SP).
ST (Time before Sleep) Command
<Sleep Mode (Low Power)> The ST command is
used to set and read the period of inactivity (no
serial or RF data is sent or received) before activating Sleep Mode.
NonBeacon Firmware
Set/Read time period of inactivity (no serial or RF
data is sent or received) before activating Sleep
Mode. ST parameter is only valid with Cyclic Sleep
settings (SM = 4 - 5).
AT Command: ATST
Parameter
Range:
NonBeacon Firmware:
1 - 0xFFFF [x 1 millisecond]
Default
Parameter
Value:
NonBeacon Firmware: 0x1388
(5000 decimal)
Related Commands: SM (Sleep Mode), ST
(Time before Sleep)
Coordinator and End Device ST values must be equal.
© 2007 MaxStream, Inc.
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Chapter 3 ‐ RF Module Configuration
T0 - T7 ((D0-D7) Output Timeout) Command
<I/O Settings {I/O Line Passing}> The T0, T1,
AT Commands: ATT0 - ATT7
T2, T3, T4, T5, T6 and T7 commands are used to
Parameter Range:0 - 0xFF [x 100 msec]
set/read output timeout values for the lines that
correspond with the D0 - D7 parameters. When
Default Parameter Value:0xFF
output is set (due to I/O line passing) to a nonMinimum Firmware Version Required: v1.xA0
default level, a timer is started which when
expired, will set the output to its default level. The timer is reset when a valid I/O packet is
received. The Tn parameter defines the permissible amount of time to stay in a non-default
(active) state. If Tn = 0, Output Timeout is disabled (output levels are held indefinitely).
VL (Firmware Version - Verbose)
<Diagnostics> The VL command is used to read
detailed version information about the RF module.
The information includes:
application build date; MAC, PHY and bootloader
versions; and build dates.
AT Command: ATVL
Parameter Range:0 - 0xFF
[x 100 milliseconds]
Default Parameter Value: 0x28 (40 decimal)
Minimum Firmware Version Required: v1.x80
VR (Firmware Version) Command
<Diagnostics> The VR command is used to read
which firmware version is stored in the module.
AT Command: ATVR
Parameter Range: 0 - 0xFFFF [read only]
XBee version numbers will have four significant
digits. The reported number will show three or
four numbers and is stated in hexadecimal notation. A version can be reported as "ABC" or
"ABCD". Digits ABC are the main release number and D is the revision number from the main
release. "D" is not required and if it is not present, a zero is assumed for D. "B" is a variant designator. The following variants exist:
• "0" = Non-Beacon Enabled 802.15.4 Code
• "1" = Beacon Enabled 802.15.4 Code
WR (Write) Command
<(Special)> The WR command is used to write
AT Command: ATWR
configurable parameters to the RF module's nonvolatile memory. Parameter values remain in the
module's memory until overwritten by subsequent use of the WR Command.
If changes are made without writing them to non-volatile memory, the module reverts back to previously saved parameters the next time the module is powered-on.
NOTE: Once the WR command is sent to the module, no additional characters should be sent until
after the “OK/r” response is received.
© 2007 MaxStream, Inc.
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Chapter 3 ‐ RF Module Configuration
3.4. API Operation
By default, XBee/XBee-PRO RF Modules act as a serial line replacement (Transparent Operation) all UART data received through the DI pin is queued up for RF transmission. When the module
receives an RF packet, the data is sent out the DO pin with no additional information.
Inherent to Transparent Operation are the following behaviors:
• If module parameter registers are to be set or queried, a special operation is required for
transitioning the module into Command Mode.
• In point-to-multipoint systems, the application must send extra information so that the
receiving module(s) can distinguish between data coming from different remotes.
As an alternative to the default Transparent Operation, API (Application Programming Interface)
Operations are available. API operation requires that communication with the module be done
through a structured interface (data is communicated in frames in a defined order). The API specifies how commands, command responses and module status messages are sent and received
from the module using a UART Data Frame.
3.4.1. API Frame Specifications
Two API modes are supported and both can be enabled using the AP (API Enable) command. Use
the following AP parameter values to configure the module to operate in a particular mode:
• AP = 0 (default): Transparent Operation (UART Serial line replacement)
API modes are disabled.
• AP = 1: API Operation
• AP = 2: API Operation (with escaped characters)
Any data received prior to the start delimiter is silently discarded. If the frame is not received correctly or if the checksum fails, the data is silently discarded.
API Operation (AP parameter = 1)
When this API mode is enabled (AP = 1), the UART data frame structure is defined as follows:
Figure 3‐01. UART Data Frame Structure:
Start Delimiter
(Byte 1)
0x7E
Length
(Bytes 2-3)
MSB
LSB
Frame Data
(Bytes 4-n)
Checksum
(Byte n + 1)
API-specific Structure
1 Byte
MSB = Most Significant Byte, LSB = Least Significant Byte
API Operation - with Escape Characters (AP parameter = 2)
When this API mode is enabled (AP = 2), the UART data frame structure is defined as follows:
Figure 3‐02. UART Data Frame Structure ‐ with escape control characters:
Start Delimiter
(Byte 1)
0x7E
Length
(Bytes 2-3)
MSB
LSB
Frame Data
(Bytes 4-n)
Checksum
(Byte n + 1)
API-specific Structure
1 Byte
Characters Escaped If Needed
MSB = Most Significant Byte, LSB = Least Significant Byte
Escape characters. When sending or receiving a UART data frame, specific data values must be
escaped (flagged) so they do not interfere with the UART or UART data frame operation. To escape
an interfering data byte, insert 0x7D and follow it with the byte to be escaped XOR’d with 0x20.
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Chapter 3 ‐ RF Module Configuration
Data bytes that need to be escaped:
• 0x7E – Frame Delimiter
• 0x7D – Escape
• 0x11 – XON
• 0x13 – XOFF
Example - Raw UART Data Frame (before escaping interfering bytes):
0x7E 0x00 0x02 0x23 0x11 0xCB
0x11 needs to be escaped which results in the following frame:
0x7E 0x00 0x02 0x23 0x7D 0x31 0xCB
Note: In the above example, the length of the raw data (excluding the checksum) is 0x0002 and
the checksum of the non-escaped data (excluding frame delimiter and length) is calculated as:
0xFF - (0x23 + 0x11) = (0xFF - 0x34) = 0xCB.
Checksum
To test data integrity, a checksum is calculated and verified on non-escaped data.
To calculate: Not including frame delimiters and length, add all bytes keeping only the lowest 8
bits of the result and subtract from 0xFF.
To verify: Add all bytes (include checksum, but not the delimiter and length). If the checksum is
correct, the sum will equal 0xFF.
3.4.2. API Types
Frame data of the UART data frame forms an API-specific structure as follows:
Figure 3‐03. UART Data Frame & API‐specific Structure:
Start Delimiter
(Byte 1)
Length
(Bytes 2-3)
0x7E
MSB
LSB
Frame Data
(Bytes 4- n)
Checksum
(Byte n + 1)
API-specific Structure
1 Byte
API Identifier
Identifier-specific Data
cmdID
cmdData
The cmdID frame (API-identifier) indicates which API messages will be contained in the cmdData
frame (Identifier-specific data). Refer to the sections that follow for more information regarding
the supported API types. Note that multi-byte values are sent big endian.
Modem Status
API Identifier: 0x8A
RF module status messages are sent from the module in response to specific conditions.
Figure 3‐04. Modem Status Frames
Start Delimiter
0x7E
Length
MSB
LSB
Frame Data
Checksum
API-specific Structure
1 Byte
API Identifier
Identifier-specific Data
0x8A
cmdData
Status (Byte 5)
0 = Hardware reset
1 = Watchdog timer reset
2 = Associated
3 = Disassociated
4 = Synchronization Lost
(Beacon-enabled only)
5 = Coordinator realignment
6 = Coordinator started
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AT Command
API Identifier Value: 0x08
The “AT Command” API type allows for module parameters to be queried or set. When using this
command ID, new parameter values are applied immediately. This includes any register set with
the “AT Command - Queue Parameter Value” (0x09) API type.
Figure 3‐05. AT Command Frames
Start Delimiter
0x7E
Length
MSB
LSB
Frame Data
Checksum
API-specific Structure
1 Byte
API Identifier
Identifier-specific Data
0x08
cmdData
Frame ID (Byte 5)
AT Command (Bytes 6-7)
Identifies the UART data frame for the host to
correlate with a subsequent ACK (acknowledgement).
If set to ‘0’, no response is sent.
Parameter Value (Byte(s) 8-n)
Command Name - Two
ASCII characters that
identify the AT Command.
If present, indicates the requested parameter
value to set the given register.
If no characters present, register is queried.
Figure 3‐06. Example: API frames when reading the DL parameter value of the module.
Byte 1
0x7E
Start Delimiter
Bytes 2-3
0x00
Byte 4
Byte 5
Bytes 6-7
Byte 8
0x08
0x52 (R)
0x44 (D) 0x4C (L)
0x15
API Identifier
Frame ID**
AT Command
Checksum
0x04
Length*
* Length [Bytes] = API Identifier + Frame ID + AT Command
** “R” value was arbitrarily selected.
Figure 3‐07. Example: API frames when modifying the DL parameter value of the module.
Byte 1
0x7E
Start Delimiter
Bytes 2-3
0x00
Byte 4
Byte 5
Bytes 6-7
Bytes 8-11
Byte 12
0x08
0x4D (M)
0x44 (D) 0x4C (L)
0x00000FFF
0x0C
API Identifier
Frame ID**
AT Command
Parameter Value
Checksum
0x08
Length*
* Length [Bytes] = API Identifier + Frame ID + AT Command + Parameter Value
** “M” value was arbitrarily selected.
AT Command - Queue Parameter Value
API Identifier Value: 0x09
This API type allows module parameters to be queried or set. In contrast to the “AT Command” API
type, new parameter values are queued and not applied until either the “AT Command” (0x08) API
type or the AC (Apply Changes) command is issued. Register queries (reading parameter values)
are returned immediately.
Figure 3‐08. AT Command Frames (Note that frames are identical to the “AT Command” API type except for the API identifier.)
Start Delimiter
0x7E
Length
MSB
LSB
Frame Data
Checksum
API-specific Structure
1 Byte
API Identifier
Identifier-specific Data
0x09
cmdData
Frame ID (Byte 5)
Identifies the UART data frame for the host to
correlate with a subsequent ACK (acknowledgement).
If set to ‘0’, no response is requested.
© 2007 MaxStream, Inc.
AT Command (Bytes 6-7)
Command Name - Two
ASCII characters that
identify the AT Command.
Parameter Value (Byte(s) 8-n)
If present, indicates the requested parameter
value to set the given register.
If no characters present, register is queried.
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Chapter 3 ‐ RF Module Configuration
AT Command Response
API Identifier Value: 0x88
Response to previous command.
In response to an AT Command message, the module will send an AT Command Response message. Some commands will send back multiple frames (for example, the ND (Node Discover) and
AS (Active Scan) commands). These commands will end by sending a frame with a status of
ATCMD_OK and no cmdData.
Figure 3‐09. AT Command Response Frames.
Start Delimiter
Length
0x7E
MSB
LSB
Frame Data
Checksum
API-specific Structure
1 Byte
API Identifier
Identifier-specific Data
0x88
cmdData
Frame ID (Byte 5 )
AT Command (Bytes 6-7)
Identifies the UART data frame being reported.
Note: If Frame ID = 0 in AT Command Mode,
no AT Command Response will be given.
Command Name - Two
ASCII characters that
identify the AT Command.
Status (Byte 8)
0 = OK
1 = ERROR
Value (Byte(s) 9-n)
The HEX (non-ASCII) value
of the requested register
TX (Transmit) Request: 64-bit address
API Identifier Value: 0x00
A TX Request message will cause the module to send RF Data as an RF Packet.
Figure 3‐10. TX Packet (64‐bit address) Frames
Start Delimiter
0x7E
Length
MSB
LSB
Frame ID (Byte 5)
Frame Data
Checksum
API-specific Structure
1 Byte
API Identifier
Identifier-specific Data
0x00
cmdData
Destination Address (Bytes 6-13)
Identifies the UART data frame for the host to
correlate with a subsequent ACK (acknowledgement).
Setting Frame ID to ‘0' will disable response frame.
MSB first, LSB last.
Broadcast =
0x000000000000FFFF
Options (Byte 14)
0x01 = Disable ACK
0x04 = Send packet with Broadcast Pan ID
All other bits must be set to 0.
RF Data (Byte(s) 15-n)
Up to 100 Bytes per packet
TX (Transmit) Request: 16-bit address
API Identifier Value: 0x01
A TX Request message will cause the module to send RF Data as an RF Packet.
Figure 3‐11. TX Packet (16‐bit address) Frames
Start Delimiter
0x7E
Length
MSB
Frame ID (Byte 5)
LSB
Frame Data
Checksum
API-specific Structure
1 Byte
API Identifier
Identifier-specific Data
0x01
cmdData
Destination Address (Bytes 6-7)
Identifies the UART data frame for the host to
correlate with a subsequent ACK (acknowledgement).
Setting Frame ID to ‘0' will disable response frame.
MSB first, LSB last.
Broadcast = 0xFFFF
© 2007 MaxStream, Inc.
Options (Byte 8)
0x01 = Disable ACK
0x04 = Send packet with Broadcast Pan ID
All other bits must be set to 0.
RF Data (Byte(s) 9-n)
Up to 100 Bytes per packet
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Chapter 3 ‐ RF Module Configuration
TX (Transmit) Status
API Identifier Value: 0x89
When a TX Request is completed, the module sends a TX Status message. This message will indicate if the packet was transmitted successfully or if there was a failure.
Figure 3‐12. TX Status Frames
Start Delimiter
Length
0x7E
MSB
LSB
Frame Data
Checksum
API-specific Structure
1 Byte
API Identifier
Identifier-specific Data
0x89
cmdData
Frame ID (Byte 5)
Status (Byte 6)
Identifies UART data frame being reported.
Note: If Frame ID = 0 in the TX Request, no
AT Command Response will be given.
0 = Success
1 = No ACK (Acknowledgement) received
2 = CCA failure
3 = Purged
NOTES:
• “STATUS = 1” occurs when all retries are expired and no ACK is received.
• If transmitter broadcasts (destination address = 0x000000000000FFFF), only
“STATUS = 0 or 2” will be returned.
• “STATUS = 3” occurs when Coordinator times out of an indirect transmission.
Timeout is defined as (2.5 x SP (Cyclic Sleep Period) parameter value).
RX (Receive) Packet: 64-bit Address
API Identifier Value: 0x80
When the module receives an RF packet, it is sent out the UART using this message type.
Figure 3‐13. RX Packet (64‐bit address) Frames
Start Delimiter
0x7E
Length
MSB
LSB
Checksum
1 Byte
API Identifier
Identifier-specific Data
0x80
cmdData
Source Address (Bytes 5-12)
MSB (most significant byte) first,
LSB (least significant) last
Frame Data
API-specific Structure
RSSI (Byte 13)
Options (Byte 14)
Received Signal Strength Indicator Hexadecimal equivalent of (-dBm) value.
(For example: If RX signal strength = -40
dBm, “0x28” (40 decimal) is returned)
bit 0 [reserved]
bit 1 = Address broadcast
bit 2 = PAN broadcast
bits 3-7 [reserved]
RF Data (Byte(s) 15-n)
Up to 100 Bytes per packet
RX (Receive) Packet: 16-bit Address
API Identifier Value: 0x81
When the module receives an RF packet, it is sent out the UART using this message type.
Figure 3‐14. RX Packet (16‐bit address) Frames
Start Delimiter
0x7E
Source Address (Bytes 5-6)
MSB (most significant byte) first,
LSB (least significant) last
Length
MSB
LSB
Frame Data
Checksum
API-specific Structure
1 Byte
API Identifier
Identifier-specific Data
0x81
cmdData
RSSI (Byte 7)
Received Signal Strength Indicator Hexadecimal equivalent of (-dBm) value.
(For example: If RX signal strength = -40
dBm, “0x28” (40 decimal) is returned)
© 2007 MaxStream, Inc.
Options (Byte 8)
bit 0 [reserved]
bit 1 = Address broadcast
bit 2 = PAN broadcast
bits 3-7 [reserved]
RF Data (Byte(s) 9-n)
Up to 100 Bytes per packet
58
Appendix A: Agency Certifications
United States (FCC)
XBee/XBee-PRO RF Modules comply with Part 15 of the FCC rules and regulations. Compliance
with the labeling requirements, FCC notices and antenna usage guidelines is required.
To fulfill FCC Certification requirements, the OEM must comply with the following regulations:
1.
The system integrator must ensure that the text on the external label provided with this
device is placed on the outside of the final product [Figure A-01].
2.
XBee/XBee-PRO RF Modules may only be used with antennas that have been tested and
approved for use with this module [refer to the antenna tables in this section].
OEM Labeling Requirements
WARNING: The Original Equipment Manufacturer (OEM) must ensure that FCC labeling
requirements are met. This includes a clearly visible label on the outside of the final
product enclosure that displays the contents shown in the figure below.
Figure A‐01. Required FCC Label for OEM products containing the XBee/XBee‐PRO RF Module Contains FCC ID: OUR-XBEE/OUR-XBEEPRO**
The enclosed device complies with Part 15 of the FCC Rules. Operation is subject to the following two
conditions: (i.) this device may not cause harmful interference and (ii.) this device must accept any interference received, including interference that may cause undesired operation.
* The FCC ID for the XBee is “OUR‐XBEE”. The FCC ID for the XBee‐PRO is “OUR‐XBEEPRO”.
FCC Notices
IMPORTANT: The XBee/XBee-PRO OEM RF Module has been certified by the FCC for use with
other products without any further certification (as per FCC section 2.1091). Modifications not
expressly approved by MaxStream could void the user's authority to operate the equipment.
IMPORTANT: OEMs must test final product to comply with unintentional radiators (FCC section
15.107 & 15.109) before declaring compliance of their final product to Part 15 of the FCC Rules.
IMPORTANT: The RF module has been certified for remote and base radio applications. If the
module will be used for portable applications, the device must undergo SAR testing.
This equipment has been tested and found to comply with the limits for a Class B digital device,
pursuant to Part 15 of the FCC Rules. These limits are designed to provide reasonable protection
against harmful interference in a residential installation. This equipment generates, uses and can
radiate radio frequency energy and, if not installed and used in accordance with the instructions,
may cause harmful interference to radio communications. However, there is no guarantee that
interference will not occur in a particular installation.
If this equipment does cause harmful interference to radio or television reception, which can be
determined by turning the equipment off and on, the user is encouraged to try to correct the interference by one or more of the following measures: Re-orient or relocate the receiving antenna,
Increase the separation between the equipment and receiver, Connect equipment and receiver to
outlets on different circuits, or Consult the dealer or an experienced radio/TV technician for help.
© 2007 MaxStream, Inc.
59
XBee/XBee‐PRO™ OEM RF Modules ‐ 802.15.4 ‐ v1.xAx [2007.05.031]
Appendix A: Agency Certifications
FCC-Approved Antennas (2.4 GHz)
XBee/XBee-PRO RF Modules can be installed using antennas and cables constructed with standard connectors (TypeN, SMA, TNC, etc.) if the installation is performed professionally and according to FCC guidelines. For installations
not performed by a professional, non-standard connectors (RPSMA, RPTNC, etc) must be used.
The modules are FCC-approved for fixed base station and mobile applications on channels 0x0B - 0x1A (XBee) and
0x0C - 0x17 (XBee-PRO). If the antenna is mounted at least 20cm (8 in.) from nearby persons, the application is
considered a mobile application. Antennas not listed in the table must be tested to comply with FCC Section 15.203
(Unique Antenna Connectors) and Section 15.247 (Emissions).
XBee OEM RF Modules (1 mW): XBee Modules have been tested and approved for use with all of the antennas
listed in the tables below (Cable-loss IS NOT required).
XBee-PRO OEM RF Modules (60 mW): XBee-PRO Modules have been tested and approved for use with the
antennas listed in the tables below (Cable-loss IS required when using antennas listed in Table A-02).
Table A‐01. Antennas approved for use with the XBee/XBee‐PRO RF Modules (Cable‐loss is not required.) Part Number
A24-HSM-450
A24-HABSM
A24-HABUF-P5I
A24-QI
Type (Description)
Dipole (Half-wave articulated RPSMA - 4.5”)
Dipole (Articulated RPSMA)
Dipole (Half-wave articulated bulkhead mount U.FL. w/ 5” pigtail)
Monopole (Integrated whip)
Gain
2.1 dBi
2.1 dBi
2.1 dBi
1.5 dBi
Application*
Fixed/Mobile
Fixed
Fixed
Fixed
Min. Separation
20 cm
20 cm
20 cm
20 cm
Table A‐02. Antennas approved for use with the XBee RF Modules (Cable‐loss is required)
Part Number Type (Description)
Omni-Directional Class Antennas
A24-Y6NF
Yagi (6-element)
A24-Y7NF
Yagi (7-element)
A24-Y9NF
Yagi (9-element)
A24-Y10NF
Yagi (10-element)
A24-Y12NF
Yagi (12-element)
A24-Y13NF
Yagi (13-element)
A24-Y15NF
Yagi (15-element)
A24-Y16NF
Yagi (16-element)
A24-Y16RM
Yagi (16-element, RPSMA connector)
A24-Y18NF
Yagi (18-element)
Omni-Directional Class Antennas
A24-C1
Surface Mount
A24-F2NF
Omni-directional (Fiberglass base station)
A24-F3NF
Omni-directional (Fiberglass base station)
A24-F5NF
Omni-directional (Fiberglass base station)
A24-F8NF
Omni-directional (Fiberglass base station)
A24-F9NF
Omni-directional (Fiberglass base station)
A24-F10NF
Omni-directional (Fiberglass base station)
A24-F12NF
Omni-directional (Fiberglass base station)
A24-F15NF
Omni-directional (Fiberglass base station)
A24-W7NF
Omni-directional (Base station)
A24-M7NF
Omni-directional (Mag-mount base station)
Panel Class Antennas
A24-P8SF
Flat Panel
A24-P8NF
Flat Panel
A24-P13NF
Flat Panel
A24-P14NF
Flat Panel
A24-P15NF
Flat Panel
A24-P16NF
Flat Panel
© 2007 MaxStream, Inc.
Gain
Application* Min. Separation Required Cable-loss
8.8 dBi
9.0 dBi
10.0 dBi
11.0 dBi
12.0 dBi
12.0 dBi
12.5 dBi
13.5 dBi
13.5 dBi
15.0 dBi
Fixed
Fixed
Fixed
Fixed
Fixed
Fixed
Fixed
Fixed
Fixed
Fixed
2m
2m
2m
2m
2m
2m
2m
2m
2m
2m
1.7 dB
1.9 dB
2.9 dB
3.9 dB
4.9 dB
4.9 dB
5.4 dB
6.4 dB
6.4 dB
7.9 dB
-1.5 dBi
2.1 dBi
3.0 dBi
5.0 dBi
8.0 dBi
9.5 dBi
10.0 dBi
12.0 dBi
15.0 dBi
7.2 dBi
7.2 dBi
Fixed/Mobile
Fixed/Mobile
Fixed/Mobile
Fixed/Mobile
Fixed
Fixed
Fixed
Fixed
Fixed
Fixed
Fixed
20 cm
20 cm
20 cm
20 cm
2m
2m
2m
2m
2m
2m
2m
-
8.5 dBi
8.5 dBi
13.0 dBi
14.0 dBi
15.0 dBi
16.0 dBi
Fixed
Fixed
Fixed
Fixed
Fixed
Fixed
2m
2m
2m
2m
2m
2m
1.5 dB
1.5 dB
6 dB
7 dB
8 dB
9 dB
0.2 dB
0.7 dB
2.7 dB
5.7 dB
60
XBee/XBee‐PRO™ OEM RF Modules ‐ 802.15.4 ‐ v1.xAx [2007.05.031]
Appendix A: Agency Certifications
Table A‐03. Antennas approved for use with the XBee/XBee‐PRO RF Modules (Cable‐loss is required)
Part Number
A24-C1
A24-Y4NF
A24-Y6NF
A24-Y7NF
A24-Y9NF
A24-Y10NF
A24-Y12NF
A24-Y13NF
A24-Y15NF
A24-Y16NF
A24-Y16RM
A24-Y18NF
A24-F2NF
A24-F3NF
A24-F5NF
A24-F8NF
A24-F9NF
A24-F10NF
A24-F12NF
A24-F15NF
A24-W7NF
A24-M7NF
A24-P8SF
A24-P8NF
A24-P13NF
A24-P14NF
A24-P15NF
A24-P16NF
A24-P19NF
Type (Description)
Surface Mount
Yagi (4-element)
Yagi (6-element)
Yagi (7-element)
Yagi (9-element)
Yagi (10-element)
Yagi (12-element)
Yagi (13-element)
Yagi (15-element)
Yagi (16-element)
Yagi (16-element, RPSMA connector)
Yagi (18-element)
Omni-directional (Fiberglass base station)
Omni-directional (Fiberglass base station)
Omni-directional (Fiberglass base station)
Omni-directional (Fiberglass base station)
Omni-directional (Fiberglass base station)
Omni-directional (Fiberglass base station)
Omni-directional (Fiberglass base station)
Omni-directional (Fiberglass base station)
Omni-directional (Base station)
Omni-directional (Mag-mount base station)
Flat Panel
Flat Panel
Flat Panel
Flat Panel
Flat Panel
Flat Panel
Flat Panel
Gain
-1.5 dBi
6.0 dBi
8.8 dBi
9.0 dBi
10.0 dBi
11.0 dBi
12.0 dBi
12.0 dBi
12.5 dBi
13.5 dBi
13.5 dBi
15.0 dBi
2.1 dBi
3.0 dBi
5.0 dBi
8.0 dBi
9.5 dBi
10.0 dBi
12.0 dBi
15.0 dBi
7.2 dBi
7.2 dBi
8.5 dBi
8.5 dBi
13.0 dBi
14.0 dBi
15.0 dBi
16.0 dBi
19.0 dBi
Application*
Fixed/Mobile
Fixed
Fixed
Fixed
Fixed
Fixed
Fixed
Fixed
Fixed
Fixed
Fixed
Fixed
Fixed/Mobile
Fixed/Mobile
Fixed/Mobile
Fixed
Fixed
Fixed
Fixed
Fixed
Fixed
Fixed
Fixed
Fixed
Fixed
Fixed
Fixed
Fixed
Fixed
Min. Separation
20 cm
2m
2m
2m
2m
2m
2m
2m
2m
2m
2m
2m
20 cm
20 cm
20 cm
2m
2m
2m
2m
2m
2m
2m
2m
2m
2m
2m
2m
2m
2m
Required Cable-loss
8.1 dB
10.9 dB
11.1 dB
12.1 dB
13.1 dB
14.1 dB
14.1 dB
14.6 dB
15.6 dB
15.6 dB
17.1 dB
4.2 dB
5.1 dB
7.1 dB
10.1 dB
11.6 dB
12.1 dB
14.1 dB
17.1 dB
9.3 dB
9.3 dB
8.6 dB
8.6 dB
13.1 dB
14.1 dB
15.1 dB
16.1 dB
19.1 dB
* If using the RF module in a portable application (For example ‐ If the module is used in a handheld device and the antenna is less than 20cm from the human body when the device is operation): The integrator is responsible for passing additional SAR (Specific Absorption Rate) testing based on FCC rules 2.1091 and FCC Guidelines for Human Exposure to Radio Frequency Electromagnetic Fields, OET Bulletin and Supplement C. The testing results will be submitted to the FCC for approval prior to selling the integrated unit. The required SAR testing measures emissions from the module and how they affect the person.
RF Exposure
WARNING: To satisfy FCC RF exposure requirements for mobile transmitting devices, a separation distance of
20 cm or more should be maintained between the antenna of this device and persons during device operation.
To ensure compliance, operations at closer than this distance is not recommended. The antenna used for this
transmitter must not be co-located in conjunction with any other antenna or transmitter.
The preceding statement must be included as a CAUTION statement in OEM product manuals in order to alert users
of FCC RF Exposure compliance.
© 2007 MaxStream, Inc.
61
XBee/XBee‐PRO™ OEM RF Modules ‐ 802.15.4 ‐ v1.xAx [2007.05.031]
Appendix A: Agency Certifications
Europe (ETSI)
The XBee/XBee-PRO RF Module has been certified for use in several European countries. For a
complete list, refer to www.maxstream.net.
If the XBee/XBee-PRO RF Modules are incorporated into a product, the manufacturer must ensure
compliance of the final product to the European harmonized EMC and low-voltage/safety standards. A Declaration of Conformity must be issued for each of these standards and kept on file as
described in Annex II of the R&TTE Directive.
Furthermore, the manufacturer must maintain a copy of the XBee/XBee-PRO user manual documentation and ensure the final product does not exceed the specified power ratings, antenna
specifications, and/or installation requirements as specified in the user manual. If any of these
specifications are exceeded in the final product, a submission must be made to a notified body for
compliance testing to all required standards.
OEM Labeling Requirements
The 'CE' marking must be affixed to a visible location on the OEM product.
Figure A‐02. CE Labeling Requirements
The CE mark shall consist of the initials "CE" taking the following form:
• If the CE marking is reduced or enlarged, the proportions given in the above graduated drawing must be respected.
• The CE marking must have a height of at least 5mm except where this is not possible on
account of the nature of the apparatus.
• The CE marking must be affixed visibly, legibly, and indelibly.
Restrictions
Power Output: The power output of the XBee-PRO RF Modules must not exceed 10 dBm. The
power level is set using the PL command and the PL parameter must equal “0” (10 dBm).
France: France imposes restrictions on the 2.4 GHz band. Go to www.art-telecom.Fr or contact
MaxStream for more information.
Norway: Norway prohibits operation near Ny-Alesund in Svalbard. More information can be found
at the Norway Posts and Telecommunications site (www.npt.no).
Declarations of Conformity
MaxStream has issued Declarations of Conformity for the XBee/XBee-PRO RF Modules concerning
emissions, EMC and safety. Files are located in the 'documentation' folder of the MaxStream CD.
Important Note
MaxStream does not list the entire set of standards that must be met for each country. MaxStream
customers assume full responsibility for learning and meeting the required guidelines for each
country in their distribution market. For more information relating to European compliance of an
OEM product incorporating the XBee/XBee-PRO RF Module, contact MaxStream, or refer to the following web sites:
CEPT ERC 70-03E - Technical Requirements, European restrictions and general requirements:
Available at www.ero.dk/.
R&TTE Directive - Equipment requirements, placement on market: Available at www.ero.dk/.
© 2007 MaxStream, Inc.
62
XBee/XBee‐PRO™ OEM RF Modules ‐ 802.15.4 ‐ v1.xAx [2007.05.031]
Appendix A: Agency Certifications
Approved Antennas
When integrating high-gain antennas, European regulations stipulate EIRP power maximums. Use
the following guidelines to determine which antennas to design into an application.
XBee OEM RF Module
The following antenna types have been tested and approved for use with the XBee Module:
Antenna Type: Yagi
RF module was tested and approved with 15 dBi antenna gain with 1 dB cable-loss (EIRP Maximum of 14 dBm). Any Yagi type antenna with 14 dBi gain or less can be used with no cable-loss.
Antenna Type: Omni-directional
RF module was tested and approved with 15 dBi antenna gain with 1 dB cable-loss (EIRP Maximum of 14 dBm). Any Omni-directional type antenna with 14 dBi gain or less can be used with no
cable-loss.
Antenna Type: Flat Panel
RF module was tested and approved with 19 dBi antenna gain with 4.8 dB cable-loss (EIRP Maximum of 14.2 dBm). Any Flat Panel type antenna with 14.2 dBi gain or less can be used with no
cable-loss.
XBee-PRO OEM RF Module (@ 10 dBm Transmit Power, PL parameter value must equal 0)
The following antennas have been tested and approved for use with the embedded XBee-PRO RF
Module:
• Dipole (2.1 dBi, Omni-directional, Articulated RPSMA, MaxStream part number A24-HABSM)
• Chip Antenna (-1.5 dBi)
• Attached Monopole Whip (1.5 dBi)
The RF modem encasement was designed to accommodate the RPSMA antenna option.
Canada (IC)
Labeling Requirements
Labeling requirements for Industry Canada are similar to those of the FCC. A clearly visible label
on the outside of the final product enclosure must display the following text:
Contains Model XBee Radio, IC: 4214A-XBEE
Contains Model XBee-PRO Radio, IC: 4214A-XBEEPRO
The integrator is responsible for its product to comply with IC ICES-003 & FCC Part 15, Sub. B Unintentional Radiators. ICES-003 is the same as FCC Part 15 Sub. B and Industry Canada accepts
FCC test report or CISPR 22 test report for compliance with ICES-003.
Japan
In order to gain approval for use in Japan, the XBee-PRO RF Module must contain firmware that
limits its transmit power output to 10 dBm.
For a list of module part numbers approved for use in Japan, contact MaxStream [call 1-801-7659885 or send e-mail to sales@maxstream.net].
Labeling Requirements
A clearly visible label on the outside of the final product enclosure must display the following text:
ID: 005NYCA0378
© 2007 MaxStream, Inc.
63
Appendix B: Development Guide
Development Kit Contents
The XBee Professional Development Kit includes the hardware and software needed to rapidly create long range wireless data links between devices (XBee and XBee-PRO Starter Kits, that contain
fewer modules and accessories, are also available).
Table B‐01. Items Included in the Development Kit (Professional)
Item
Qty. Description
Part #
XBee-PRO Module
2
(1) OEM RF Module w/ U.FL antenna connector
(1) OEM RF Module w/ attached wire antenna
XBP24-AUI-001
XBP24-AWI-001
XBee Module
3
(1) OEM RF Module w/ U.FL antenna connector
(1) OEM RF Module w/ attached whip antenna
(1) OEM RF Module w/ chip antenna
XB24-AUI-001
XB24-AWI-001
XB24-ACI-001
RS-232 Development Board
4
Board for interfacing between modules and RS-232 devices
(Converts signal levels, displays diagnostic info, & more)
XBIB-R
USB Development Board
1
Board for interfacing between modules & USB devices
(Converts signal levels, displays diagnostic info, & more)
XBIB-U
RS-232 Cable
(6’, straight-through)
1
Cable for connecting RS-232 interface board with DTE devices
(devices that have a male serial DB-9 port - such as most PCs)
JD2D3-CDS-6F
USB Cable (6’)
1
Cable for connecting USB interface board to USB devices
JU1U2-CSB-6F
Serial Loopback
Adapter
1
[Red] Adapter for configuring the module assembly (module + RS-232
interface board) to function as a repeater for range testing
JD2D3-CDL-A
NULL Modem Adapter
(male-to-male)
1
[Black] Adapter for connecting the module assembly (module + RS-232
interface board) to other DCE (female DB-9) devices
JD2D2-CDN-A
NULL Modem Adapter
(female-to-female)
1
[Gray] Adapter for connecting serial devices. It allows users to bypass
the radios to verify serial cabling is functioning properly.
JD3D3-CDN-A
JP5P2-9V11-6F
Power Adapter (9VDC, 1 A)
1
Adapter for powering the RS-232 development board
Battery Clip (9V)
1
Clip for remotely powering the RS-232 board w/ a 9V battery
JP2P3-C2C-4I
RPSMA Antenna
2
RPSMA half-wave dipole antenna (2.4 GHz, 2.1 dB)
A24-HASM-450
RF Cable Assembly
2
Adapter for connecting RPSMA antenna to U.FL connector
JF1R6-CR3-4I
CD
1
Documentation and Software
MD0030
1
Step-by-step instruction on how to create wireless links
& test range capabilities of the modules
MD0026
Quick Start Guide
Interfacing Options
The development kit includes an RS-232 and a USB interface board. Both boards provide a direct
connection to many serial devices and therefore provide access to the RF module registries.
Parameters stored in the registry allow OEMs and integrators to customize the modules to suite
the needs of their data radio systems.
The following sections illustrate how to use the interface boards for development purposes. The
MaxStream Interface board provides means for connecting the module to any node that has an
available RS-232 or USB connector. Since the module requires signals to enter at TTL voltages,
one of the main functions of the interface board is to convert signals between TTL levels and RS232 and USB levels.
Note: In the following sections, an OEM RF Module mounted to an interface board will be referred to as
a "Module Assembly".
© 2007 MaxStream, Inc.
63
XBee/XBee‐PRO™ OEM RF Modules ‐ 802.15.4 ‐ v1.xAx [2007.05.031]
Appendix B: Development Guide
RS-232 Development Board
External Interface
B-01a. Reset Switch
The Reset Switch is used to reset (re-boot) the RF module. This
switch only applies when using the configuration tabs of MaxStream’s
X-CTU Software.
Figure B‐01. Front View
B-01b. I/O & Power LEDs
LEDs indicate RF module activity as follows:
Yellow (top LED) = Serial Data Out (to host)
Green (middle) = Serial Data In (from host)
Red (bottom)
= Power/Association Indicator (Refer to the D5
(DIO5 Configuration) parameter)
B‐01c.
DB‐9 Serial Port
B‐01d
RSSI LEDs
B‐01b.
I/O & Power LEDs
B‐01e.
Power Connector
B‐01a.
Config Switch
B-01c. Serial Port
Standard female DB-9 (RS-232) connector.
B-01d. RSSI LEDs
RSSI LEDs indicate the amount of fade margin present in an active
wireless link. Fade margin is defined as the difference between the
incoming signal strength and the module's receiver sensitivity.
3
2
1
0
LEDs ON
LEDs ON
LED ON
LED ON
=
=
=
=
Very Strong Signal (> 30 dB fade margin)
Strong Signal (> 20 dB fade margin)
Moderate Signal (> 10 dB fade margin)
Weak Signal (< 10 dB fade margin)
B-01e. Power Connector
5-14 VDC power connector
B-02a. DIP Switch
DIP Switch functions are not supported in this release. Future downloadable firmware versions will support DIP Switch configurations.
Figure B‐02. Back View
B‐02a.
DIP Switch
© 2007 MaxStream, Inc. 64
XBee/XBee‐PRO™ OEM RF Modules ‐ 802.15.4 ‐ v1.xAx [2007.05.031]
Appendix B: Development Guide
RS-232 Pin Signals
Figure B‐03. Pins used on the female RS‐232 (DB‐9) Serial Connector Table B‐02. Pin Assignments and Implementations
DB-9 Pin
RS-232 Name
Description
Implementation
1
DCD
Data-Carrier-Detect
Connected to DSR (pin6)
2
RXD
Receive Data
Serial data exiting the module assembly
(to host)
3
TXD
Transmit Data
Serial data entering into the module assembly
(from host)
4
DTR
Data-Terminal-Ready
Can enable Power-down on the module assembly
5
GND
Ground Signal
Ground
6
DSR
Data-Set-Ready
Connected to DCD (pin1)
7
RTS / CMD
Request-to-Send /
Command Mode
Enables RTS flow control or
Command Mode
8
CTS
Clear-to-Send
Provides CTS flow control
9
RI
Ring Indicator
Optional power input that is connected internally to
the positive lead of the front power connector
* Functions listed in the implementation column may not be available at the time of release.
© 2007 MaxStream, Inc. 65
XBee/XBee‐PRO™ OEM RF Modules ‐ 802.15.4 ‐ v1.xAx [2007.05.031]
Appendix B: Development Guide
Wiring Diagrams
Figure B‐04. DTE Device (RS‐232, male DB‐9 connector) wired to a DCE Module Assembly (female DB‐9) Figure B‐05. DCE Module Assembly (female DB‐9 connector) wired to a DCE Device (RS‐232, male DB‐9) Sample Wireless Connection: DTE <--> DCE <--> DCE <--> DCE
Figure B‐06. Typical wireless link between DTE and DCE devices
© 2007 MaxStream, Inc. 66
XBee/XBee‐PRO™ OEM RF Modules ‐ 802.15.4 ‐ v1.xAx [2007.05.031]
Appendix B: Development Guide
Adapters
The development kit includes several adapters that support the following functions:
• Performing Range Tests
• Testing Cables
• Connecting to other RS-232 DCE and DTE devices
• Connecting to terminal blocks or RJ-45 (for RS-485/422 devices)
NULL Modem Adapter (male-to-male)
Part Number: JD2D2-CDN-A (Black, DB-9 M-M) The male-to-male NULL modem adapter is
used to connect two DCE devices. A DCE device connects with a straight-through cable to the male
serial port of a computer (DTE).
Figure B‐07. Male NULL modem adapter and pinouts
Figure B‐08. Example of a MaxStream Radio Modem (DCE Device) connecting to another DCE device)
NULL Modem Adapter (female-to-female)
Part Number: JD3D3-CDN-A (Gray, DB-9 F-F) The female-to-female NULL modem adapter is
used to verify serial cabling is functioning properly. To test cables, insert the female-to-female
NULL modem adapter in place of a pair of module assemblies (RS-232 interface board + XTend
Module) and test the connection without the modules in the connection.
Figure B‐09. Female NULL modem adapter and pinouts
Serial Loopback Adapter
Part Number: JD2D3-CDL-A (Red, DB-9 M-F) The serial loopback adapter is used for range
testing. During a range test, the serial loopback adapter configures the module to function as a
repeater by looping serial data back into the radio for retransmission.
Figure B‐10. Serial loopback adapter and pinouts
© 2007 MaxStream, Inc. 67
XBee/XBee‐PRO™ OEM RF Modules ‐ 802.15.4 ‐ v1.xAx [2007.05.031]
Appendix B: Development Guide
USB Development Board
External Interface
B-11a. I/O & Power LEDs
LEDs indicate RF module activity as follows:
Figure B‐11. Front View
Yellow (top LED) = Serial Data Out (to host)
Green (middle) = Serial Data In (from host)
Red (bottom)
= Power/Association Indicator (Refer to the D5
(DIO5 Configuration) parameter)
B‐11c.
USB Port
B‐11b.
RSSI LEDs
B-11b. RSSI LEDs
B‐11a.
I/O & Power LEDs
RSSI LEDs indicate the amount of fade margin present in an active
wireless link. Fade margin is defined as the difference between the
incoming signal strength and the module's receiver sensitivity.
3
2
1
0
LEDs ON
LEDs ON
LED ON
LED ON
=
=
=
=
Very Strong Signal (> 30 dB fade margin)
Strong Signal (> 20 dB fade margin)
Moderate Signal (> 10 dB fade margin)
Weak Signal (< 10 dB fade margin)
B-11c. USB Port
Standard Type-B OEM connector is used to communicate with OEM
host and power the RF module.
B-12a. DIP Switch
DIP Switch functions are not supported in this release. Future downloadable firmware versions will support the DIP Switch configurations.
Figure B‐12. Back View
B-12b. Reset Switch
The Reset Switch is used to reset (re-boot) the RF module.
B‐12a.
Reset Switch
B‐12a.
DIP Switch
USB Pin Signals
Table B‐03. USB signals and their implantations on the XBee/XBee‐PRO RF Module
Pin
Name
Description
Implementation
1
VBUS
Power
Power the RF module
2
D-
Transmitted & Received Data
Transmit data to and from the RF module
3
D+
Transmitted & Received Data
Transmit data to and from the RF module
4
GND
Ground Signal
Ground
© 2007 MaxStream, Inc. 68
XBee/XBee‐PRO™ OEM RF Modules ‐ 802.15.4 ‐ v1.xAx [2007.05.031]
Appendix B: Development Guide
X-CTU Software
X-CTU is a MaxStream-provided software program used to interface with and configure MaxStream RF Modules. The software application is organized into the following four tabs:
• PC Settings tab - Setup PC serial ports for interfacing with an RF module
• Range Test tab - Test the RF module's range and monitor packets sent and received
• Terminal tab - Set and read RF module parameters using AT Commands
• Modem Configuration tab - Set and read RF module parameters
Figure B‐13. X‐CTU User Interface (PC Settings, Range Test, Terminal and Modem Configuration tabs)
NOTE: PC Setting values are visible at the bottom of the Range Test, Terminal and Modem Configuration tabs. A shortcut for editing PC Setting values is available by clicking on any of the values.
Installation
Double-click the "setup_X-CTU.exe" file and follow prompts of the installation screens. This file is
located in the 'software' folder of the MaxStream CD and also under the 'Downloads' section of the
following web page: www.maxstream.net/support/downloads.php
Setup
To use the X-CTU software, a module assembly (An RF module mounted to an interface Board)
must be connected to a serial port of a PC.
NOTE: Failure to enter AT Command Mode is most commonly due to baud rate mismatch. The
interface data rate and parity settings of the serial port ("PC Settings" tab) must match those of
the module (BD (Baud Rate) and NB (Parity) parameters respectively).
Serial Communications Software
A terminal program is built into the X-CTU Software. Other terminal programs such as "HyperTerminal" can also be used to configure modules and monitor communications. When issuing AT Commands through a terminal program interface, use the following syntax:
Figure B‐14. Syntax for sending AT Commands
NOTE: To read a parameter value stored in a register, leave the parameter field blank.
The example above issues the DL (Destination Address Low) command to change destination
address of the module to "0x1F". To save the new value to the module’s non-volatile memory,
issue WR (Write) command after modifying parameters.
© 2007 MaxStream, Inc. 69
Appendix C: Additional Information
1-Year Warranty
XBee/XBee-PRO RF Modules from MaxStream, Inc. (the "Product") are warranted against defects
in materials and workmanship under normal use, for a period of 1-year from the date of purchase.
In the event of a product failure due to materials or workmanship, MaxStream will repair or
replace the defective product. For warranty service, return the defective product to MaxStream,
shipping prepaid, for prompt repair or replacement.
The foregoing sets forth the full extent of MaxStream's warranties regarding the Product. Repair or
replacement at MaxStream's option is the exclusive remedy. THIS WARRANTY IS GIVEN IN LIEU
OF ALL OTHER WARRANTIES, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, AND MAXSTREAM SPECIFICALLY DISCLAIMS
ALL WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. IN NO EVENT
SHALL MAXSTREAM, ITS SUPPLIERS OR LICENSORS BE LIABLE FOR DAMAGES IN EXCESS OF THE
PURCHASE PRICE OF THE PRODUCT, FOR ANY LOSS OF USE, LOSS OF TIME, INCONVENIENCE,
COMMERCIAL LOSS, LOST PROFITS OR SAVINGS, OR OTHER INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES ARISING OUT OF THE USE OR INABILITY TO USE THE PRODUCT, TO THE
FULL EXTENT SUCH MAY BE DISCLAIMED BY LAW. SOME STATES DO NOT ALLOW THE EXCLUSION
OR LIMITATION OF INCIDENTAL OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES. THEREFORE, THE FOREGOING
EXCLUSIONS MAY NOT APPLY IN ALL CASES. This warranty provides specific legal rights. Other
rights which vary from state to state may also apply.
Ordering Information
Figure C‐01. Divisions of the XBee/XBee‐PRO RF Module Part Numbers A
1
1
M
axS
treamP
rod
u
ct Fam
ily
XB24 = XBee2.4G
H
z
XBP24= XBee-PR
O2.4G
H
z
2
R
eservedforin
tern
al u
se
Insert theletter‘A
’
3
A
n
ten
n
aO
p
tion
C
=C
hipAntenna
U
=U
.FLR
FC
onnector
hipAntenna
W
= IntegratedW
2
3
4
5
4
R
atin
g
)
I
= Industrial (-40to85°C
5
P
rotoco
l
001 = 802.15.4
002 = ZigBee
For example:
XBP24-AWI-001 = XBee-PRO OEM RF Module, 2.4 GHz, attached whip antenna, Industrial temperature rating, IEEE 802.15.4 standard
If operating in Japan, XBee-PRO RF Modules must contain firmware that limits transmit power
output to 10 dBm. For a list of module part numbers approved for use in Japan, contact MaxStream [call 1-801-765-9885 or send e-mail to sales@maxstream.net].
© 2007 MaxStream, Inc.
70
XBee/XBee‐PRO™ OEM RF Modules ‐ 802.15.4 ‐ v1.xAx [2007.05.031]
Appendix C: Additional Information
Contact MaxStream
Free and unlimited technical support is included with every MaxStream Radio Modem sold. For the
best in wireless data solutions and support, please use the following resources:
Documentation:
www.maxstream.net/support/downloads.php
Technical Support:
Phone.
(866) 765-9885 toll-free U.S.A. & Canada
(801) 765-9885 Worldwide
Live Chat.
www.maxstream.net
E-Mail.
rf-xperts@maxstream.net
MaxStream office hours are 8:00 am - 5:00 pm [U.S. Mountain Standard Time]
© 2007 MaxStream, Inc.
71