Asante IntraCore 36000 Series User`s manual

IntraCore® 36000 Series
Managed Gigabit Ethernet Switches
User’s Manual
IntraCore 36000 Series
Managed Gigabit Ethernet Switches
User’s Manual
Revision 1.0
Asanté Technologies, Inc.
821 Fox Lane
San Jose, CA 95131
USA
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408-435-8388
TECHNICAL SUPPORT
801-566-8991: Worldwide
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www.asante.com/support
support@asante.com
[Default IP Address: 192.168.0.1]
[Default username: root
[Default password: Asante
]
]
Copyright © 2004 Asanté Technologies, Inc. All rights reserved. No part of this document, or any associated artwork, product design, or design
concept may be copied or reproduced in whole or in part by any means without the express written consent of Asanté Technologies, Inc. Asanté and
IntraCore are registered trademarks and the Asanté logo, AsantéCare, Auto-Uplink, and IntraCare are trademarks of Asanté Technologies, Inc. All
other brand names or product names are trademarks or registered trademarks of their respective holders. All features and specifications are subject
to change without prior notice.
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Table of Contents
Table of Contents
3
Chapter 1: Introduction
16
1.1 Description of Software Features.................................................................................................................... 16
1.2 System Defaults.............................................................................................................................................. 19
Chapter 2: Initial Configuration
22
2.1 Connecting to the Switch ................................................................................................................................ 22
2.2 Connections.................................................................................................................................................... 23
2.3 Setting a Password ......................................................................................................................................... 24
2.4 Setting an IP Address ..................................................................................................................................... 25
2.5 Enabling SNMP Management Access ............................................................................................................ 28
2.6 Saving Configuration Settings......................................................................................................................... 29
2.7 Managing System Files................................................................................................................................... 29
2.8 Managing Firmware ........................................................................................................................................ 30
2.9 Saving or Restoring Configuration Settings .................................................................................................... 31
2.10 Basic Management ....................................................................................................................................... 33
Chapter 3: Configuring Global Settings
38
3.1 Configuring Spanning Tree ............................................................................................................................. 39
3.2 Configuring Interface Settings......................................................................................................................... 44
3.3 Configuring Multiple Spanning Trees .............................................................................................................. 46
Chapter 4: Configuring SNTP
53
4.1 SNTP Attributes .............................................................................................................................................. 53
4.2 Setting the Time Zone..................................................................................................................................... 53
Chapter 5: Simple Network Management Protocol
55
5.1 Setting Community Access Strings ................................................................................................................. 55
5.2 Specifying Trap Managers and Trap Types .................................................................................................... 56
Chapter 6: Configuring Security
57
6.1 Configuring User Accounts ............................................................................................................................. 57
6.2 Configuring Local/Remote Logon Authentication ............................................................................................ 57
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6.3 Configuring HTTPS......................................................................................................................................... 59
6.4 Configuring the Secure Shell .......................................................................................................................... 61
6. 5 Configuring Port Security ............................................................................................................................... 65
6.6 Configuring 802.1x Port Authentication........................................................................................................... 67
6.7 Configuring Access Control Lists .................................................................................................................... 74
6.8 Configuring IP Filters ...................................................................................................................................... 83
Chapter 7: Configuring Ports
85
7.1 Displaying Connection Status ......................................................................................................................... 85
7.2 Configuring Interface Connections.................................................................................................................. 87
7.3 Configuring Trunk Groups............................................................................................................................... 89
7.4 Enabling LACP on Selected Ports .................................................................................................................. 91
7.5 Setting Broadcast Storm Thresholds .............................................................................................................. 98
7.6 Configuring Port Mirroring............................................................................................................................. 100
7.7 Configuring Rate Limits................................................................................................................................. 101
7.8 Showing Port Statistics ................................................................................................................................. 101
Chapter 8: Configuring Address Table Settings
106
8.1 Setting Static Addresses............................................................................................................................... 106
8.2 Displaying the Dynamic Address Table ........................................................................................................ 107
8.3 Changing the Aging Time ............................................................................................................................. 108
Chapter 9: Configuring Spanning Tree
109
Chapter 10: Configuring VLAN
112
10.1 Assigning Ports to VLANs........................................................................................................................... 112
10.2 Configuring Private VLANs ......................................................................................................................... 121
10.3 Configuring Protocol-Based VLANs ............................................................................................................ 122
Chapter 11: Configuring Packet Priority
125
11.1 Setting the Default Priority for Interfaces .................................................................................................... 125
11.2 Mapping CoS Values to Egress Queues..................................................................................................... 126
11.3 Selecting the Queue Mode ......................................................................................................................... 127
11.4 Setting the Service Weight for Traffic Classes ............................................................................................ 128
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11.5 Selecting IP Precedence/DSCP Priority...................................................................................................... 130
11.6 Mapping CoS Values to ACLs .................................................................................................................... 134
11.7 Changing Priorities Based on ACL Rules ................................................................................................... 135
Chapter 12: Layer 2 IGMP (Snooping and Query)
138
12.1 IGMP Multicast Filtering.............................................................................................................................. 138
Chapter 13: Configuring Domain Name Service
144
13.1 General DNS Server Parameters................................................................................................................ 144
13.2 Static DNS Host to Address Entries............................................................................................................ 145
13.3 Displaying the DNS Cache ......................................................................................................................... 147
Chapter 14: Using the Command Line Interface
148
14.1 Exec Commands......................................................................................................................................... 148
14.2 Configuration Commands ........................................................................................................................... 149
14.3 Command Groups....................................................................................................................................... 150
Chapter 15: Configuration Guide
152
15.1 Line Commands.......................................................................................................................................... 152
15.2 General Commands.................................................................................................................................... 152
15.3 System Management Commands............................................................................................................... 153
15.4 Authentication Commands.......................................................................................................................... 159
15.5 Access Control List Commands .................................................................................................................. 161
15.6 SNMP Commands ...................................................................................................................................... 164
15.7 DHCP Commands ...................................................................................................................................... 164
15.8 Interface Commands................................................................................................................................... 165
15.9 Mirror Port Commands................................................................................................................................ 166
15.10 Rate Limit Commands .............................................................................................................................. 166
15.11 Link Aggregation Commands.................................................................................................................... 166
15.12 Address Table Commands ....................................................................................................................... 168
15.13 Spanning Tree Commands ....................................................................................................................... 168
15.14 VLAN Commands ..................................................................................................................................... 169
15.15 GVRP and Bridge Extension Commands ................................................................................................. 171
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15.16 Priority Commands ................................................................................................................................... 172
15.17 Multicast Filtering Commands................................................................................................................... 173
15.18 IP Interface Commands ............................................................................................................................ 175
Chapter 16: Command Reference
176
16.1 access-list ip ............................................................................................................................................... 176
16.2 access-list ip mask-precedence .................................................................................................................. 177
16.3 access-list mac ........................................................................................................................................... 177
16.4 access-list mac mask-precedence .............................................................................................................. 178
16.5 authentication dot1x default ........................................................................................................................ 179
16.6 authentication enable.................................................................................................................................. 180
16.7 authentication login ..................................................................................................................................... 181
16.8 boot system ................................................................................................................................................ 181
16.9 bridge-ext gvrp ............................................................................................................................................ 182
16.10 calendar set .............................................................................................................................................. 183
16.11 capabilities ................................................................................................................................................ 184
16.12 channel-group ........................................................................................................................................... 185
16.13 clear counters ........................................................................................................................................... 185
16.14 clear dns cache......................................................................................................................................... 186
16.15 clear host .................................................................................................................................................. 187
16.16 clear logging ............................................................................................................................................. 187
16.17 clear mac-address-table dynamic ............................................................................................................. 188
16.18 clock timezone .......................................................................................................................................... 188
16.19 combo-forced-mode.................................................................................................................................. 189
16.20 configure ................................................................................................................................................... 190
16.21 copy .......................................................................................................................................................... 190
16.22 databits ..................................................................................................................................................... 192
16.23 delete ........................................................................................................................................................ 193
16.24 delete public-key ....................................................................................................................................... 194
16.25 description ................................................................................................................................................ 194
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16.26 dir.............................................................................................................................................................. 195
16.27 disable ...................................................................................................................................................... 196
16.28 disconnect................................................................................................................................................. 197
16.29 dot1x default ............................................................................................................................................. 197
16.30 dot1x max-req ........................................................................................................................................... 198
16.31 dot1x operation-mode ............................................................................................................................... 198
16.32 dot1x port-control ...................................................................................................................................... 199
16.33 dot1x re-authenticate ................................................................................................................................ 199
16.34 dot1x re-authentication ............................................................................................................................. 200
16.35 dot1x timeout quiet-period ........................................................................................................................ 200
16.36 dot1x timeout re-authperiod ...................................................................................................................... 201
16..37 dot1x timeout tx-period ............................................................................................................................ 201
16.38 enable ....................................................................................................................................................... 202
16.39 enable password....................................................................................................................................... 203
16.40 end............................................................................................................................................................ 203
16.41 exec-timeout ............................................................................................................................................. 204
16.42 exit ............................................................................................................................................................ 205
16.43 flowcontrol................................................................................................................................................. 205
16.44 garp timer.................................................................................................................................................. 206
16.45 hostname .................................................................................................................................................. 207
16.46 interface .................................................................................................................................................... 208
16.47 interface vlan ............................................................................................................................................ 208
16.48 ip access-group......................................................................................................................................... 209
16.49 ip address ................................................................................................................................................. 210
16.50 ip default-gateway..................................................................................................................................... 211
16.51 ip dhcp restart ........................................................................................................................................... 211
16.52 ip domain-list............................................................................................................................................. 212
16.53 ip domain-lookup....................................................................................................................................... 213
16.54 ip domain-name ........................................................................................................................................ 214
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16.55 ip host ....................................................................................................................................................... 215
16.56 ip http port................................................................................................................................................. 216
16.57 ip http secure-port ..................................................................................................................................... 216
16.58 ip http secure-server ................................................................................................................................. 217
16.59 ip http server ............................................................................................................................................. 218
16.60 ip igmp snooping....................................................................................................................................... 219
16.61 ip igmp snooping querier........................................................................................................................... 219
16.62 ip igmp snooping query-count ................................................................................................................... 220
16.63 ip igmp snooping query-interval ................................................................................................................ 221
16.64 ip igmp snooping query-max-response-time ............................................................................................. 221
16.65 ip igmp snooping router-port-expire-time .................................................................................................. 222
16.66 ip igmp snooping version .......................................................................................................................... 223
16.67 ip igmp snooping vlan mrouter .................................................................................................................. 223
16.68 ip igmp snooping vlan static ...................................................................................................................... 224
16.69 ip name-server .......................................................................................................................................... 225
16.70 ip ssh authentication-retries ...................................................................................................................... 226
16.71 ip ssh crypto host-key generate ................................................................................................................ 226
16.72 ip ssh crypto zeroize ................................................................................................................................. 227
16.73 ip ssh save host-key ................................................................................................................................. 228
16.74 ip ssh server ............................................................................................................................................. 228
16.75 ip ssh server-key size ............................................................................................................................... 229
16.76 ip ssh timeout............................................................................................................................................ 230
16.77 jumbo frame .............................................................................................................................................. 231
16.78 lacp ........................................................................................................................................................... 231
16.79 lacp admin-key (Ethernet Interface) .......................................................................................................... 232
16.80 lacp admin-key (Port Channel) ................................................................................................................. 233
16.81 lacp port-priority ........................................................................................................................................ 234
16.82 lacp system-priority ................................................................................................................................... 235
16.83 line ............................................................................................................................................................ 236
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16.84 logging facility ........................................................................................................................................... 236
16.85 logging history........................................................................................................................................... 237
16.86 logging host .............................................................................................................................................. 238
16.87 logging on ................................................................................................................................................. 239
16.88 logging sendmail ....................................................................................................................................... 239
16.89 logging sendmail destination-email ........................................................................................................... 240
16.90 logging sendmail host ............................................................................................................................... 240
16.91 logging sendmail level............................................................................................................................... 241
16.92 logging sendmail source-email.................................................................................................................. 242
16.93 logging trap ............................................................................................................................................... 242
16.94 login .......................................................................................................................................................... 243
16.95 mac access-group..................................................................................................................................... 244
16.96 mac-address-table aging-time .................................................................................................................. 244
16.97 mac-address-table static........................................................................................................................... 245
16.98 management ............................................................................................................................................. 246
16.99 map access-list ip ..................................................................................................................................... 247
16.100 mask (IP ACL)......................................................................................................................................... 248
16.101 map access-list mac ............................................................................................................................... 251
16.102 map ip dscp (Global Configuration)......................................................................................................... 252
16.103 map ip dscp (Interface Configuration) ..................................................................................................... 252
16.104 map ip port (Global Configuration) .......................................................................................................... 254
16.105 map ip port (Interface Configuration) ...................................................................................................... 254
16.106 map ip precedence (Global Configuration) ............................................................................................. 255
16.107 map ip precedence (Interface Configuration) .......................................................................................... 255
16.108 mask (MAC ACL) .................................................................................................................................... 256
16.109 match access-list ip................................................................................................................................. 258
16.110 match access-list mac............................................................................................................................. 259
16.111 max-hops ................................................................................................................................................ 260
16.112 mst priority .............................................................................................................................................. 260
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16.113 mst vlan .................................................................................................................................................. 261
16.114 name....................................................................................................................................................... 262
16.115 negotiation .............................................................................................................................................. 263
16.116 parity ....................................................................................................................................................... 263
16.117 password ................................................................................................................................................ 264
16.118 password-thresh ..................................................................................................................................... 265
16.119 permit, deny (Extended ACL).................................................................................................................. 266
16.120 permit, deny (MAC ACL)......................................................................................................................... 268
16.121 permit, deny (Standard ACL) .................................................................................................................. 270
16.122 ping ......................................................................................................................................................... 270
16.123 port security ............................................................................................................................................ 272
16.124 prompt..................................................................................................................................................... 273
16.125 protocol-vlan protocol-group (Configuring Groups) ................................................................................. 274
16.126 protocol-vlan protocol-group (Configuring Interfaces) ............................................................................. 274
16.127 pvlan ....................................................................................................................................................... 275
16.128 queue bandwidth..................................................................................................................................... 276
16.129 queue cos-map ....................................................................................................................................... 277
16.130 queue mode ............................................................................................................................................ 278
16.131 quit .......................................................................................................................................................... 278
16.132 radius-server host ................................................................................................................................... 279
16.133 radius-server key .................................................................................................................................... 279
16.134 radius-server port.................................................................................................................................... 280
16.135 radius-server retransmit .......................................................................................................................... 280
16.136 radius-server timeout .............................................................................................................................. 281
16.137 rate-limit .................................................................................................................................................. 281
16.138 reload...................................................................................................................................................... 282
16.139 revision ................................................................................................................................................... 282
16.140 show access-group ................................................................................................................................. 283
16.141 show access-list...................................................................................................................................... 283
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16.142 show access-list ip mask-precedence..................................................................................................... 284
16.143 show access-list mac mask-precedence................................................................................................. 285
16.144 show bridge-ext....................................................................................................................................... 285
16.145 show calendar......................................................................................................................................... 286
16.146 show dns................................................................................................................................................. 286
16.147 show dns cache ...................................................................................................................................... 287
16.148 show dot1x.............................................................................................................................................. 287
16.149 show garp timer ...................................................................................................................................... 290
16.150 show gvrp configuration .......................................................................................................................... 291
16.151 show history ............................................................................................................................................ 291
16.152 show hosts .............................................................................................................................................. 292
16.153 show interfaces counters ........................................................................................................................ 292
16.154 show interfaces protocol-vlan protocol-group ......................................................................................... 294
16.155 show interfaces status ............................................................................................................................ 294
16.156 show interfaces switchport ...................................................................................................................... 295
16.157 show ip access-group ............................................................................................................................. 297
16.158 show ip access-list .................................................................................................................................. 297
16.159 show ip igmp snooping ........................................................................................................................... 298
16.160 show ip igmp snooping mrouter .............................................................................................................. 298
16.161 show ip interface ..................................................................................................................................... 299
16.162 show ip redirects ..................................................................................................................................... 300
16.163 show ip ssh ............................................................................................................................................. 300
16.164 show lacp................................................................................................................................................ 300
16.165 show line................................................................................................................................................. 304
16.166 show logging ........................................................................................................................................... 305
16.167 show logging sendmail............................................................................................................................ 306
16.168 show mac access-group ......................................................................................................................... 307
16.169 show mac access-list .............................................................................................................................. 307
16.170 show mac-address-table......................................................................................................................... 308
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16.171 show mac-address-table aging-time ....................................................................................................... 309
16.172 show mac-address-table multicast.......................................................................................................... 309
16.173 show map access-list ip .......................................................................................................................... 310
16.174 show map access-list mac ...................................................................................................................... 311
16.175 show map ip dscp ................................................................................................................................... 311
16.176 show map ip port..................................................................................................................................... 312
16.177 show map ip precedence ........................................................................................................................ 313
16.178 show management.................................................................................................................................. 314
16.179 show marking.......................................................................................................................................... 315
16.180 show port monitor ................................................................................................................................... 315
16.181 show protocol-vlan protocol-group .......................................................................................................... 316
16.182 show public-key ...................................................................................................................................... 317
16.183 show pvlan .............................................................................................................................................. 318
16.184 show queue bandwidth ........................................................................................................................... 318
16.185 show queue cos-map.............................................................................................................................. 319
16.186 show queue mode................................................................................................................................... 319
16.187 show radius-server.................................................................................................................................. 320
16.188 show running-config................................................................................................................................ 320
16.189 show snmp.............................................................................................................................................. 322
16.190 show sntp................................................................................................................................................ 323
16.191 show spanning-tree................................................................................................................................. 323
16.192 show spanning-tree mst configuration .................................................................................................... 325
16.193 show ssh................................................................................................................................................. 325
16.194 show startup-config................................................................................................................................. 327
16.195 show system ........................................................................................................................................... 329
16.196 show tacacs-server ................................................................................................................................. 329
16.197 show users.............................................................................................................................................. 330
16.198 show version ........................................................................................................................................... 330
16.199 show vlan................................................................................................................................................ 331
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16.200 shutdown ................................................................................................................................................ 332
16.201 silent-time ............................................................................................................................................... 332
16.202 snmp-server community.......................................................................................................................... 333
16.203 snmp-server contact ............................................................................................................................... 334
16.204 snmp-server enable traps ....................................................................................................................... 334
16.205 snmp-server host .................................................................................................................................... 335
16.206 snmp-server location............................................................................................................................... 336
16.207 sntp broadcast client ............................................................................................................................... 337
16.208 sntp client................................................................................................................................................ 337
16.209 sntp poll .................................................................................................................................................. 338
16.210 sntp server .............................................................................................................................................. 339
16.211 spanning-tree .......................................................................................................................................... 340
16.212 spanning-tree cost .................................................................................................................................. 340
16.213 spanning-tree edge-port.......................................................................................................................... 341
16.214 spanning-tree forward-time ..................................................................................................................... 342
16.215 spanning-tree hello-time ......................................................................................................................... 343
16.216 spanning-tree link-type............................................................................................................................ 343
16.217 spanning-tree mst cost............................................................................................................................ 344
16.218 spanning-tree mst port-priority ................................................................................................................ 345
16.219 spanning-tree max-age ........................................................................................................................... 346
16.220 spanning-tree mode ................................................................................................................................ 347
16.221 spanning-tree mst configuration.............................................................................................................. 348
16.222 spanning-tree pathcost method............................................................................................................... 349
16.223 spanning-tree portfast ............................................................................................................................. 349
16.224 spanning-tree port-priority....................................................................................................................... 350
16.225 spanning-tree priority .............................................................................................................................. 351
16.226 spanning-tree spanning-disabled ............................................................................................................ 351
16.227 spanning-tree transmission-limit ............................................................................................................. 352
16.228 speed ...................................................................................................................................................... 353
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16.229 speed-duplex .......................................................................................................................................... 353
16.230 stopbits ................................................................................................................................................... 354
16.231 switchport acceptable-frame-types ......................................................................................................... 355
16.232 switchport allowed vlan ........................................................................................................................... 356
16.233 switchport broadcast packet-rate ............................................................................................................ 357
16.234 switchport forbidden vlan ........................................................................................................................ 357
16.235 switchport gvrp........................................................................................................................................ 358
16.236 switchport ingress-filtering ...................................................................................................................... 359
16.237 switchport mode...................................................................................................................................... 359
16.238 switchport native vlan.............................................................................................................................. 360
16.239 switchport priority default ........................................................................................................................ 361
16.240 tacacs-server host................................................................................................................................... 362
16.241 tacacs-server key.................................................................................................................................... 362
16.242 tacacs-server port ................................................................................................................................... 363
16.243 username................................................................................................................................................ 363
16.244 vlan database.......................................................................................................................................... 364
16.245 vlan ......................................................................................................................................................... 365
16.246 whichboot................................................................................................................................................ 366
Appendix A: Web Browser Interface and Command Line Interface Overview
367
A.1 Navigating the Web Browser Interface ......................................................................................................... 367
A.2 Improving Response Time............................................................................................................................ 367
A.3 Configuration Options................................................................................................................................... 367
A.4 Accessing the CLI......................................................................................................................................... 368
A.5 Console Connection ..................................................................................................................................... 368
A.6 Telnet Connection ........................................................................................................................................ 368
A.7 Entering Commands..................................................................................................................................... 369
Appendix B: Upgrading Firmware Through the Serial Port
373
B.1 Power Cycle the Switch................................................................................................................................ 373
Appendix C: Software Specifications
14
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Asanté IntraCore 36000 Series
Appendix D: Troubleshooting and Pinouts
380
D.1 Troubleshooting Chart.................................................................................................................................. 380
D.2 Console Port Pin Assignments ..................................................................................................................... 380
Appendix E: FCC Compliance and Warranty Statements
381
E.1 FCC Compliance Statement......................................................................................................................... 381
E.2 Important Safety Instructions ........................................................................................................................ 381
E.3 IntraCare Warranty Statement...................................................................................................................... 382
Appendix F. Online Warranty Registration
383
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Chapter 1: Introduction
This switch provides a broad range of features for Layer 2 switching. It includes a management agent that
allows you to configure the features listed in this manual. The default configuration can be used for most of
the features provided by this switch. You can also configure the switch to maximize the network
performance.
Feature
Description
Configuration Backup and Restore
Backup to TFTP server
Authentication
Console, Telnet, web – User name / password, RADIUS, TACACS+
Web – HTTPS; Telnet – SSH
SNMP – Community strings, IP address filtering
Port – IEEE 802.1x, MAC address filtering
Access Control Lists
Supports up to 32 IP or MAC ACLs
DHCP Client
Supported
DHCP Server
Supported
Port Configuration
Speed, duplex mode and flow control
Rate Limiting
Input and output rate limiting per port
Port Mirroring
One or more ports mirrored to single analysis port
Port Trunking
Supports up to 6 trunks using either static or dynamic trunking
(LACP)
Broadcast Storm Control
Supported
Static Address
Up to 16K MAC addresses in the forwarding table
IEEE 802.1D Bridge
Supports dynamic data switching and addresses learning
Store-and-Forward Switching
Supported to ensure wire-speed switching while eliminating bad
frames
Spanning Tree Protocol
Supports standard STP, Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol (RSTP), and
Multiple Spanning Tree Protocol (MSTP)
Virtual LANs
Up to 255 using IEEE 802.1Q, port-based, protocol-based, or private
VLANs
Traffic Prioritization
Default port priority, traffic class map, queue scheduling, IP
Precedence, or Differentiated Services Code Point (DSCP), and
TCP/UDP Port
IP Routing
Routing Information Protocol (RIP), Open Shortest Path First
(OSPF), static routes
ARP
Static and dynamic address configuration, proxy ARP
Multicast Filtering
Supports IGMP snooping and query
Multicast Routing
Supports DVMRP and PIM-DM
1.1 Description of Software Features
The switch provides a wide range of advanced performance enhancing features. Some of the management
features are briefly described below.
Configuration Backup and Restore – Save the current configuration settings to a file on a TFTP server,
and later download this file to restore the switch configuration settings.
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Authentication – Permit management access through the console port, Telnet or web browser. User names
and passwords are configured locally or verified through a remote authentication server (RADIUS or
TACACS+). Port-based authentication is supported using the IEEE 802.1x protocol. This protocol uses the
Extensible Authentication Protocol over LANs (EAPOL) to request a user name and password from the
802.1x client, and then verifies the client’s right to access the network.
Other authentication options include HTTPS for secure management access through the web, SSH for
secure management access over a Telnet-equivalent connection, IP address filtering for SNMP/web/Telnet
management access, and MAC address filtering for port access.
Access Control Lists – Provide packet filtering for IP frames (based on address, protocol, TCP/UDP port
number or TCP control code) or any frames (based on MAC address or Ethernet type). Use ACLs to
improve performance by blocking unnecessary network traffic or to implement security controls by restricting
access to specific network resources or protocols.
Port Configuration – Configure the speed, duplex mode, and flow control used on specific ports, or use
auto-negotiation to detect the connection settings used by the attached device. Full-duplex mode doubles
the throughput of switch connections. Flow control manages network traffic during periods of congestion to
prevent the loss of packets when port buffer thresholds are exceeded. The switch supports flow control
based on the IEEE 802.3x standard.
Rate Limiting – Control the maximum rate for traffic transmitted or received on an interface. Rate limiting is
configured on interfaces at the edge of a network to limit traffic into or out of the network. Traffic that falls
within the rate limit is transmitted, while packets that exceed the acceptable amount of traffic are dropped.
Port Mirroring – Mirror traffic from any port to a monitor port. You can then attach a protocol analyzer or
RMON probe to this port to perform traffic analysis and verify connection integrity.
Port Trunking – Combine ports into an aggregate connection. Trunks can be manually set up or
dynamically configured using IEEE 802.3ad Link Aggregation Control Protocol (LACP). The additional ports
dramatically increase the throughput across any connection, and provide redundancy by taking over the load
if a port in the trunk should fail. The switch supports up to 6 trunks.
Broadcast Storm Control – Prevent broadcast traffic from overwhelming the network by managing the
level of broadcast traffic passing through the port is restricted. If broadcast traffic rises above a pre-defined
threshold, it is suppressed until it reaches the defined level.
Static Addresses – Increase network security by restricting access for a known host to a specific port. A
static address is assigned to a specific interface on this switch and are not moved. When a static address is
detected by another interface, the address is ignored and is not written to the address table.
IEEE 802.1D Bridge –Facilitates data switching by learning addresses, and then filtering or forwarding
traffic based on this information. The address table supports up to 16K addresses. The switch supports
IEEE 802.1D transparent bridging.
Store-and-Forward Switching – Copy each frame into memory before forwarding to another port. This
ensures that all frames are a standard Ethernet size and are verified for accuracy with the cyclic redundancy
check (CRC). This prevents bad frames from entering the network and wasting port bandwidth.
To avoid dropping frames on congested ports, the switch provides 1 MB for frame buffering. This buffer can
queue packets awaiting transmission on congested networks.
Spanning Tree Protocol – The switch supports these spanning tree protocols:
Spanning Tree Protocol (STP, IEEE 802.1D) – Adds a level of fault tolerance by allowing two or more
redundant connections to be created between a pair of LAN segments. For multiple physical paths between
segments, this protocol chooses a single path and disables others to ensure that only one route exists
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between any two stations on the network, preventing the creation of loops. If the path should fail, an
alternate path is activated to maintain the connection.
Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol (RSTP, IEEE 802.1w) – Reduce the convergence time for network topology
changes to about 10% required by the older IEEE 802.1D STP standard. It is intended as a complete
replacement for STP, but can still interoperate with switches running the older standard by automatically
reconfiguring ports to STP-compliant mode if they detect STP protocol messages from attached devices.
Multiple Spanning Tree Protocol (MSTP, IEEE 802.1s) –Provide an independent spanning tree for different
VLANs. It simplifies network management, provides for faster convergence than RSTP. It limits the size of
each region, and prevents VLAN members from being segmented from the group (as sometimes occurs with
IEEE 802.1D STP). This protocol is direct extension of RSTP.
Virtual LANs – Provide support for up to 255 VLANs. A Virtual LAN is a collection of network nodes that
share the same collision domain regardless of physical location or connection point in the network. The
switch supports tagged VLANs based on the IEEE 802.1Q standard. Members of VLAN groups can be
dynamically learned using GVRP. You can also manually assigned a port to a specific set of VLANs allowing
the switch to restrict traffic to the VLAN groups where a user is assigned. By segmenting your network into
VLANs, you can:
Eliminate broadcast storms that severely degrade performance in a flat network.
Simplify network management for node changes/moves by remotely configuring VLAN membership for any
port, rather than having to manually change the network connection.
Provide data security by restricting all traffic to the originating VLAN.
Restrict private VLANs to restrict traffic to pass only between data ports and uplink ports. This isolates
adjacent ports within the same VLAN, and allows you to limit the number of VLANs needing configuration.
Restrict traffic to specified interfaces based on protocol type.
Traffic Prioritization – Prioritize each packet based on the required level of service, using eight priority
queues with strict or Weighted Round Robin Queuing. It uses IEEE 802.1p and 802.1Q tags to prioritize
incoming traffic based on input from the end-station application. Use these functions to provide independent
priorities for delay-sensitive data and best-effort data.
This switch also supports several common methods of prioritizing layer 3/4 traffic to meet application
requirements. Traffic is prioritized based on the priority bits in the IP frame’s Type of Service (ToS) octet or
the number of the TCP/UDP port. When these services are enabled, the priorities are mapped to a Class of
Service value by the switch, and the traffic then sent to the corresponding output queue.
Multicast Filtering – Assign specific multicast traffic to its own VLAN to ensure that it does not interfere with
normal network traffic and to guarantee real-time delivery by setting the required priority level for the
designated VLAN. The switch uses IGMP Snooping and Query to manage multicast group registration.
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1.2 System Defaults
The system defaults are in the configuration file “Factory_Default_Config.cfg.” Set this files as the startup
configuration file to resent the defaults (see, 2.9.1 Downloading Configuration Settings from a Server).
The following table lists some of the basic system defaults.
Function
Parameter
Default
Console Port Connection
Baud Rate
Auto
Data bits
8
Stop bits
1
Parity
none
Local Console Timeout
0 (disabled)
Privileged Exec Level
Username “root”
Password “Asante”
Normal Exec Level
Username “root”
Password “Asante”
Enable Privileged Exec from Normal Exec
Level
Password “super”
RADIUS Authentication
Disabled
S/TATACS/TATACS Authentication
Disabled
802.1x Port Authentication
Disabled
HTTPS
Enabled
SSH
Disabled
Port Security
Disabled
IP Filtering
Disabled
HTTP Server
Enabled
HTTP Port Number
80
HTTP Secure Server
Enabled
HTTP Secure Port Number
443
Community Strings
“public” (read only)
“private” (read/write)
Traps
Authentication traps: enabled
Link-up-down events: enabled
Authentication
Web Management
SNMP
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Port Configuration
Admin Status
Enabled
Auto-negotiation
Enabled
Flow Control
Disabled
Port Capability
1000BASE-T –
10 Mbps half duplex
10 Mbps full duplex
100 Mbps half duplex
100 Mbps full duplex
1000 Mbps full duplex
Full-duplex flow control
disabled
Symmetric flow control
disabled
1000BASE-SX/LX/LH –
1000 Mbps full duplex
Full-duplex flow control
disabled
Symmetric flow control
disabled
Rate Limiting
Input and Output Limits
Disabled
Port Trucking
Static Trucks
None
LACP (all ports)
Disabled
Status
Enabled (all ports)
Broadcast Limit Rate
500 packets per second
Status
Fast Forwarding (edge port)
Enabled, MSTP (Defaults: All
values based on IEEE 802.1s)
Disabled
Address Table
Aging Time
300 seconds
Virtual LANs
Default VLAN
1
PVID
1
Acceptable Frame Type
All
Ingress Filtering
Disabled
Switchport Mode (egress mode)
Hybrid: tagged/untagged
frames
Broadcast Storm Protection
Spanning Tree Protocol
GVRP (global)
Disabled
GVRP (port interface)
Disabled
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Traffic Prioritization
Ingress Port Priority
0
Weighted Round Robin
Queue: 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Weight: 2 0 1 3 4 5 6 7
IP Precedence Priority
Disabled
IP DSCP Priority
Disabled
IP Port Priority
Disabled
IP Address
192.168.0.1
Subnet Mask
255.255.255.0
Default Gateway
0.0.0.0
DHCP
Client: Disabled
BOOTP
Disabled
ARP
Enabled
Cache Timeout: 20 minutes
Proxy Disabled
RIP
Disabled
OSPF
Disabled
Port Security
Learning is enabled
DNS Server
Lookup
Disabled
Multicast Filtering
IGMP Snooping
Snooping: Enabled
Querier: Enabled
IGMP (Layer 3)
Disabled
DVMRP
Disabled
PIM-DIM
Disabled
Status
Enabled
Messages Logged
Levels 0-37 (all)
Messages Logged to Flash
Levels 0-3
SMTP Email Alerts
Event Handler
Disabled
SNTP
Clock Synchronization
Disabled
IP Settings
Multicast Routing
System Log
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Chapter 2: Initial Configuration
2.1 Connecting to the Switch
The switch includes a built-in network management agent. The agent offers a variety of management
options, including SNMP, RMON and a web-based interface. You can connect a PC directly to the switch for
configuration and monitoring via a command line interface (CLI).
Note: The IP address for this switch is 192.168.0.1. To change this address, refer to Section 2.4 Setting an
IP Address.
The switch’s HTTP web agent allows you to configure switch parameters, monitor port connections, and
display statistics using a standard web browser such as Netscape Navigator version 6.2 and higher or
Microsoft IE version 5.0 and higher. Access the switch’s web management interface from any computer
attached to the network.
The following illustration shows the web interface.
Access the CLI program with a direct connection to the RS-232 serial console port on the switch, or remotely
by a Telnet connection over the network.
The switch’s management agent also supports SNMP (Simple Network Management Protocol). Manage this
switch using the SNMP agent from any system in the network using network management software such as
HP OpenView.
The switch’s web interface, CLI configuration program, and SNMP agent allow you to perform the following
management functions:
•
Set user names and passwords for up to 16 users
•
Set an IP interface for a management VLAN
•
Configure SNMP parameters
•
Enable/disable any port
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Asanté IntraCore 36000 Series
•
Set the speed/duplex mode for any port
•
Configure the bandwidth of any port by limiting input or output rates
•
Control port access through IEEE 802.1x security or static address filtering
•
Filter packets using Access Control Lists (ACLs)
•
Configure up to 255 IEEE 802.1Q VLANs
•
Enable GVRP automatic VLAN registration
•
Configure IGMP multicast filtering
•
Upload and download system firmware using TFTP
•
Upload and download switch configuration files using TFTP
•
Configure Spanning Tree parameters
•
Configure Class of Service (CoS) priority queuing
•
Configure up to 6 static or LACP trunks
•
Enable port mirroring
•
Set broadcast storm control on any port
•
Display system information and statistics
2.2 Connections
The switch provides an RS-232 serial port that enables a connection to a PC or terminal for monitoring and
configuring the switch. The switch comes with a null-modem console cable.
Attach a VT100-compatible terminal, or a PC running a terminal emulation program to the switch. You can
use the console cable provided with this package, or use a null-modem cable that complies with the wiring
assignments shown in the Installation Guide.
To connect a terminal to the console port, complete the following steps:
1.
Connect the console cable to the serial port on a terminal, or a PC running terminal emulation software,
and tighten the captive retaining screws on the DB-9 connector.
2.
Connect the other end of the cable to the RS-232 serial port on the switch.
3.
Make sure the terminal emulation software is set as follows:
•
Select the appropriate serial port (COM port 1 or COM port 2).
•
Set to 9600 baud rate if you want to view all the system initialization messages.
•
Set the data format to 8 data bits, 1 stop bit, and no parity.
•
Set flow control to none.
•
Set the emulation mode to VT100.
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4.
When using HyperTerminal, select Terminal keys, not Windows keys.
®
®
When using HyperTerminal with Microsoft Windows 2000, make sure that you have Windows 2000
Service Pack 2 or later installed. Windows 2000 Service Pack 2 fixes the problem of arrow keys not
functioning in HyperTerminal’s VT100 emulation. See www.microsoft.com for information on Windows 2000
service packs.
Refer to section 15.1 Line Commands for a complete description of console configuration options.
The console login screen appears when the system is setup correctly.
For a description of how to use the CLI, see Chapter 14: Using the Command Line Interface. For a list of
all the CLI commands and detailed information on using the CLI, refer to section 14.5.3 Command Groups.
2.2.1 Console Connections
The CLI program provides two different command levels — normal access level (Normal Exec) and
privileged access level (Privileged Exec). The commands available at the Normal Exec level are a limited
subset of those available at the Privileged Exec level and allow you to only display information and use basic
utilities. To fully configure the switch parameters, you must access the CLI at the Privileged Exec level.
Access to both CLI levels is controlled by user names and passwords. The switch has a default user name
and password for each level. To log into the CLI at the Privileged Exec level using the default user name
and password, perform these steps:
1. To initiate your console connection, press <Enter>. The “User Access Verification” procedure starts.
2. At the Username prompt, enter “root.”
3. At the Password prompt, also enter “Asante.” (The password characters are not displayed on the
console screen.)
4. The session is opened and the CLI displays the “Console#” prompt indicating you have access at the
Privileged Exec level.
2.2.3 Remote Connections
Before accessing the switch’s onboard agent via a network connection, you must first configure it with a
valid IP address, subnet mask, and default gateway using a console connection, DHCP or BOOTP protocol.
This switch supports four concurrent Telnet/SSH sessions.
2.3 Setting a Password
If this is your first time logging in to the switch, the following login information is the standard default:
[Default IP Address: 192.168.0.1]
[Default username: root
[Default password: Asante
]
]
You should define new usernames and passwords using the “username” command.
Passwords can consist of up to eight alphanumeric characters and are case sensitive. To prevent
unauthorized access to the switch, set the passwords as follows:
1. Open the console interface and type the default user name root and password Asante to access the
Privileged Exec level.
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Asanté IntraCore 36000 Series
2. Type configure and press Enter.
3. Type username guest password 0 [p asswo rd] where passw ord is your new password. Press
Enter.
Switch> enable
Password: <no password by default; press Enter>
Switch# configure
Switch(config)#username admin password 0 [password ]
Switch(config)# admin Password
Switch(config)# exit
2.4 Setting an IP Address
This section describes how to configure an IP interface for management access over the network.
Note: By default, DHCP provides the IP address for the switch.
To manually configure an address, you need to change the switch’s default settings (IP address 192.168.0.1
and netmask 255.255.255.0) to values that are compatible with your network. Establish a default gateway
between the switch and management stations that exist on another network segment.
You can manually configure a specific IP address, or direct the device to obtain an address from a BOOTP
or DHCP server. Valid IP addresses consist of four decimal numbers, 0 to 255, separated by periods.
You must establish IP address information for the switch to obtain management access through the network.
Do this in either of the two following ways:
Manual — Input the IP address and subnet mask. If your management station is not in the same IP subnet
as the switch, you also need to specify the default gateway.
Dynamic — The switch sends IP configuration requests to BOOTP or DHCP address allocation servers
on the network.
Command Attributes
Management VLAN – ID of the configured VLAN (1-4094, no leading zeroes). By default, all ports on the
switch are members of VLAN 1. You can attach the management station to a port belonging to any VLAN,
when the VLAN has an IP address.
IP Address Mode – Specifies how IP functionality is enabled, by manual configuration (Static), Dynamic Host
Configuration Protocol (DHCP), or Boot Protocol (BOOTP). If DHCP/BOOTP is enabled, IP does not
function until the server replies. Periodically, the switch sends broadcast requests for an IP address.
(DHCP/BOOTP values can include the IP address, subnet mask, and default gateway.)
IP Address – Address of the VLAN interface allowed management access. Valid IP addresses consist of
four numbers, 0 to 255, separated by periods. (Default: 192.168.0.1)
Subnet Mask – Mask identifies the host address bits used for routing to specific subnets. (Default:
255.255.255.0)
Gateway IP Address – IP address of the gateway router between this device and management stations that
exist on other network segments. (Default: 0.0.0.0)
MAC Address – The physical layer address for this switch.
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2.4.1 Manual Configuration
You can manually assign an IP address to the switch. You may also need to specify a default gateway that
resides between this device and management stations that exist on another network segment. Valid IP
addresses consist of four decimal numbers, 0 to 255, separated by periods.
Before you can assign an IP address to the switch, you must obtain the following information from your
network administrator:
•
IP address for the switch
•
Default gateway for the network
•
Network mask for this network
To assign an IP address to the switch, complete the following steps:
1. From the Privileged Exec level global configuration mode prompt, type “interface vlan 1” to access the
interface-configuration mode and press Enter.
2. Type “ip address ip-address netmask,” where “ip-address” is the switch IP address and “netmask” is the
network mask for the network and press Enter.
3. Type “exit” to return to the global configuration mode prompt and press Enter.
4. To set the IP address of the default gateway for the network to which the switch belongs, type “ip
default-gateway gateway,” where “gateway” is the IP address of the default gateway and press Enter.
Web
Click System – IP Configuration. Select the VLAN through which the management station is attached, set
the IP Address Mode to “Static,” enter the IP address, subnet mask and gateway, then click Apply.
CLI
Specify the management interface, IP address and default gateway.
Console#config
Console(config)#interface vlan 1
Console(config-if)#ip address 10.1.0.254 255.255.255.0
Console(config-if)#exit
Console(config)#ip default-gateway 192.168.1.254
Console(config)#
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Asanté IntraCore 36000 Series
2.4.2 Dynamic Configuration
You can set the switch for dynamic configuration when your network provides DHCP/BOOTP services. If you
select the “bootp” or “dhcp” option, IP is active but does not function until a BOOTP or DHCP reply is received.
You need to use the ip dhcp restart command to start broadcasting service requests. To obtain IP
configuration information, the switch periodically sends requests. BOOTP and DHCP values can include the
IP address, subnet mask, and default gateway.
When you save “bootp” or “dhcp” to the startup-configuration file, broadcast service requests are sent at
launch.
Web
Click System – IP Configuration. Specify the VLAN where the management station is attached, set the IP
Address Mode to DHCP or BOOTP. Click Apply to save your changes. Then click Restart DHCP to
immediately request a new address. Note that the switch will also broadcast a request for IP configuration
settings on each power reset.
Note: If you lose your management connection, use a console connection and enter “show ip interface” to
determine the new switch address.
CLI
To automatically configure the switch by communicating with BOOTP or DHCP address allocation servers
on the network, complete the following steps:
1. From the Global Configuration mode prompt, type interface vlan 1 to access the interfaceconfiguration mode. Press Enter.
2. At the interface-configuration mode prompt, use one of the commands in the following table:
Command
Purpose
ip address dhcp
Obtains IP settings using DHCP
ip address bootp
Obtains IP settings using BOOTP
ip dhcp restart client
Starts broadcasting service requests
3. Wait a few minutes, and then check the IP configuration settings by typing show ip interface and press
Enter.
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4. Then save your configuration changes by typing “copy running-config startup-config.” Enter the startup
file name and press Enter.
Console(config)#interface vlan 1
Console(config-if)#ip address dhcp
Console(config-if)#end
Console#ip dhcp restart
Console#show ip interface
IP address and netmask: 192.168.1.54 255.255.255.0 on VLAN 1,
and address mode: User specified.
Console#copy running-config startup-config
Startup configuration file name []: startup
\Write to FLASH Programming.
\Write to FLASH finish.
Success.
2.5 Enabling SNMP Management Access
You can configure the switch to accept management commands from Simple Network Management
Protocol (SNMP) applications such as HP OpenView. You can configure the switch to (1) respond to SNMP
requests or (2) generate SNMP traps.
When SNMP management stations send requests to the switch (either to return information or to set a
parameter), the switch provides the requested data or sets the specified parameter. You can also configure
the switch to send information to SNMP managers (without being requested by the managers) through trap
messages, which inform the manager that certain events have occurred.
2.5.1 Community Strings
Community strings are used to control management access to SNMP stations, as well as to authorize SNMP
stations to receive trap messages from the switch. You therefore need to assign community strings to
specified users or user groups, and set the access level.
The default strings are:
public - with read-only access. Authorized management stations are only able to retrieve MIB objects.
private - with read-write access. Authorized management stations are able to both retrieve and modify MIB
objects.
Note: If you do not intend to utilize SNMP, delete both of the default community strings. If there are no
community strings, then SNMP management access to the switch is disabled.
To prevent unauthorized access to the switch using SNMP, change the default community strings.
To configure a community string, complete the following steps:
1. From the Privileged Exec level global configuration mode prompt, type “snmp-server community string
mode,” where “string” is the community access string and “mode” is rw (read/write) or ro (read only).
Press <Enter>. (Default: read only)
2. To remove an existing string, simply type “no snmp-server community string,” where “string” is the
community access string to remove. Press <Enter>.
Console(config)#snmp-server community admin rw
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Asanté IntraCore 36000 Series
Console(config)#snmp-server community private
Console(config)#
2.5.2 Trap Receivers
You can also specify SNMP stations that are to receive traps from the switch.
To configure a trap receiver, complete the following steps:
1. From the Privileged Exec level global configuration mode prompt, type “snmp-server host host-address
community-string,” where “host-address” is the IP address for the trap receiver and “community-string”
is the string associated with that host and press Enter.
2. In order to configure the switch to send SNMP notifications, you must enter at least one snmp-server
enable traps command. Type “snmp-server enable traps type,” where “type” is either authentication or
link-up-down and press Enter.
Console(config)#snmp-server enable traps link-up-down
Console(config)#
2.6 Saving Configuration Settings
Configuration commands only modify the running configuration file and are lost when you reboot the switch.
To save all your configuration changes in nonvolatile storage, you must copy the running configuration file to
the start-up configuration file using the “copy” command.
To save the current configuration settings, enter the following command:
1. From the Privileged Exec mode prompt, type “copy running-config startup-config” and press Enter.
2. Enter the name of the start-up file and press Enter.
Console#copy running-config startup-config
Startup configuration file name []: startup
\Write to FLASH Programming.
\Write to FLASH finish.
Success.
Console#
2.7 Managing System Files
The switch’s flash memory supports three types of system files that can be managed by the CLI program,
web interface, or SNMP. The switch’s file system allows files to be uploaded and downloaded, copied,
deleted, and set as a start-up file.
The three types of files are:
Configuration — This file stores system configuration information and is created when configuration settings
are saved. Saved configuration files can be used as a system start-up file or uploaded through TFTP to a
server for backup. A file named “Factory_Default_Config.cfg” contains all the system default settings. You
cannot delete this file from the system. For more information, see Section 2.9 Saving or Restoring
Configuration Settings.
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Operation Code — System software that is executed after boot-up, also known as run-time code. This code
runs the switch operations and provides the CLI and web management interfaces. See Section 2.8
Managing Firmware for more information.
Diagnostic Code — Software that is run during system boot-up, also known as POST (Power On Self-Test).
Due to the size limit of the flash memory, the switch supports only two operation code files. You can have as
many diagnostic code files and configuration files as available flash memory space allows.
In the system flash memory, one file of each type must be set as the start-up file. During a system boot, the
diagnostic and operation code files set as the start-up file are run, and then the start-up configuration file is
loaded.
Note: Download configuration files using a file name that reflects the contents or usage of the file settings. If
you download directly to the running-config, when the system reboots, the settings need to be copied from
the running-config to a permanent file.
2.8 Managing Firmware
You can upload/download firmware to or from a TFTP server. By saving runtime code to a file on a TFTP
server, that file can later be downloaded to the switch to restore operation. You can also set the switch to
use new firmware without overwriting the previous version.
Command Attributes
TFTP Server IP Address – The IP address of a TFTP server.
File Name – The file name should not contain slashes (\ or /), the leading letter of the file name should not
be a period (.), and the maximum length for file names on the TFTP server is 127 characters or 31
characters for files on the switch. (Valid characters: A-Z, a-z, 0-9, “.”, “-”, “_”)
Note: Up to two copies of the system software (For example, the runtime firmware) can be stored in the file
directory on the switch. You cannot delete the current startup version of this file.
2.8.1 Downloading System Software from a Server
When downloading runtime code, you can specify the destination file name to replace the current image, or
first download the file using a different name from the current runtime code file, and then set the new file as
the startup file.
Web
Click System – File, Firmware. Enter the IP address of the TFTP server, enter the file name of the
software to download, select a file on the switch to overwrite or specify a new file name, then click Transfer
from Server. To start the new firmware, reboot the system via the System/Reset menu.
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Asanté IntraCore 36000 Series
If you download to a new destination file, then select the file from the drop-down box for the operation code
used at startup, and click Apply Changes. To start the new firmware, reboot the system via the
System/Reset menu.
CLI
Enter the IP address of the TFTP server, select “config” or “opcode” file type, then enter the source and
destination file names, set the new file to start up the system, and then restart the switch.
Console#copy tftp file
TFTP server ip address: 10.1.0.19
Choose file type:
1. config: 2. opcode: <1-2>: 2
Source file name: M100000.bix
Destination file name: V1.0
\Write to FLASH Programming.
-Write to FLASH finish.
Success.
Console#config
Console(config)#boot system opcode:V1.0
Console(config)#exit
Console#reload
2.9 Saving or Restoring Configuration Settings
You can upload/download configuration settings to/from a TFTP server. Use this file to restore settings.
Command Attributes
TFTP Server IP Address – The IP address of a TFTP server.
File Name — The configuration file name should not contain slashes (\ or /), the leading letter of the file
name should not be a period (.), and the maximum length for file names on the TFTP server is 127
characters or 31 characters for files on the switch. (Valid characters: A-Z, a-z, 0-9, “.”, “-”, “_”)
Note: The available flash memory space limits the maximum number of user-defined configuration files.
2.9.1 Downloading Configuration Settings from a Server
You can download the configuration file under a new file name and then set it as the startup file, or you can
specify the current startup configuration file as the destination file to directly replace it. The file
“Factory_Default_Config.cfg” can be copied to the TFTP server, but cannot be used as the destination on
the switch.
Web
Click System – File, Configuration. Enter the IP address of the TFTP server, enter the name of the file to
download, select a file on the switch to overwrite or specify a new file name, and then click Transfer from
Server.
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If you download to a new file name, then select the new file from the drop-down box for Startup
Configuration File, and press Apply Changes. To use the new settings, reboot the system via the
System/Reset menu.
CLI
Enter the IP address of the TFTP server, specify the source file on the server, set the startup file name on
the switch, and then restart the switch.
Console#copy tftp startup-config
TFTP server ip address: 192.168.1.19
Source configuration file name: config-1
Startup configuration file name [] : startup
\Write to FLASH Programming.
-Write to FLASH finish.
Success.
Console#reload
If you download the startup configuration file under a new file name, you can set this file as the startup file
later, and then restart the switch.
Console#config
Console(config)#boot system config: startup-new
Console(config)#exit
Console#reload
2.9.2 Resetting the System
Web
Click System – Reset. Click the Reset button to restart the switch.
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CLI
Use the reload command to restart the switch.
Console#reload
System will be restarted, continue <y/n>?
Note:
When restarting the system, it will always run the Power-On Self-Test.
2.9.3 Renewing DCHP
DHCP may lease addresses to clients indefinitely or for a specific period. If the address expires or the switch
is moved to another network segment, you lose management access to the switch. In this case, you can
reboot the switch or submit a client request to restart DHCP service through the CLI.
Web
If the address assigned by DHCP is no longer functioning, you will not be able to renew the IP settings via
the web interface. You can only restart DHCP service via the web interface if the current address is still
available.
CLI
Enter the following command to restart DHCP service.
Console#ip dhcp restart
Console#
2.10 Basic Management
The section describes setting the system clock, displaying system information, displaying hardware and
software versions and bridge expansion capabilities.
2.10.1 Setting the System Clock
Simple Network Time Protocol (SNTP) allows the switch to set its internal clock based on periodic updates
from a timeserver (SNTP or NTP). Maintaining an accurate time on the switch enables the system log to
record meaningful dates and times for event entries. You can also manually set the clock using the CLI.
(Refer to the calendar set command in Chapter 16.) If the clock is not set, the switch only records the time
from the factory default set at the last bootup.
This switch acts as an SNTP client in two modes:
Unicast – The switch periodically sends a request for a time update to a configured timeserver. You can
configure up to three timeserver IP addresses. The switch will attempt to poll each server in the configured
sequence.
Broadcast – The switch sets its clock from a timeserver in the same subnet that broadcasts time updates. If
there is more than one SNTP server, the switch accepts the first broadcast it detects and ignores broadcasts
from other servers.
2.10.2 Displaying System Information
You can easily identify the system by displaying the device name, location and contact information.
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Field Attributes
System Name: Name assigned to the switch system.
Object ID: MIB II object ID for switch’s network management subsystem.
Location – Specifies the system location.
Contact: Administrator responsible for the system.
System Up Time: Length of time the management agent has been running.
These additional parameters are displayed for the CLI.
MAC Address: The physical layer address for this switch.
Web server: Shows if management access using HTTP is active.
Web server port: Shows the TCP port number used by the web interface.
Web secure server: Shows if management access through HTTPS is active.
Web secure server port: Shows the TCP port used by the HTTPS interface.
POST result: Shows results of the power-on self-test
Web
Click System – System Information. Specify the system name, location, and contact information for the
system administrator, then click Apply. (This page also includes a Telnet button that allows access to the
Command Line Interface through a Telnet connection.)
CLI: Specify the hostname, location and contact information.
Console(config)#hostname R&D 5
Console(config)#snmp-server location WC
Console(config)#snmp-server contact james
Console(config)#exit
Console#show system
System description: 44 10/100/1000 ports + 4 Gigabit Combo ports L2/L4 managed
standalone switch
System OID string: 1.3.6.1.4.1.259.6.10.51
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Asanté IntraCore 36000 Series
System information
System Up time: 0 days, 2 hours, 4 minutes, and 7.13 seconds
System Name
: R&D 5
System Location
: WC 9
System Contact
: James
MAC address
: 00-30-f1-47-58-3a
Web server
: enable
Web server port
: 80
Web secure server
: enable
Web secure server port : 443
POST result
DUMMY Test 1.................PASS
UART LOOP BACK Test..........PASS
DRAM Test....................PASS
Timer Test...................PASS
PCI Device 1 Test............PASS
Switch Int Loopback test.....PASS
Crossbar Int Loopback Test...PASS
Done All Pass.
Console#
2.10.3 Displaying Switch Hardware/Software Versions
Use the Switch Information page to display hardware/firmware version numbers for the main board and
management software, as well as the power status of the system.
Field Attributes
Main Board
Serial Number: The serial number of the switch.
Number of Ports: Number of built-in RJ-45 ports and SFP slots.
Hardware Version: Hardware version of the main board.
Internal Power Status: Displays the status of the internal power supply.
Redundant Power Status: (CLI only) Displays the status of the redundant power supply.
Management Software
Loader Version: Version number of loader code.
Boot-ROM Version: Version of Power-On Self-Test (POST) and boot code.
Operation Code Version: Version number of runtime code.
Role: Shows that this switch is operating as Master (For example, operating stand-alone).
Web
Click System – Switch Information.
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35
CLI
Use the following command to display version information.
Console#show version
Unit1
Serial number
Hardware version
Number of ports
Main power status
Redundant power status
Agent(master)
Unit id
Loader version
Boot rom version
Operation code version
Console#
:A305051234
:R0A
:24
:up
:not present
:1
:1.0.0.1
:1.0.0.1
:1.1.0.13
2.10.4 Displaying Bridge Extension Capabilities
The Bridge MIB includes extensions for managed devices that support Multicast Filtering, Traffic Classes,
and Virtual LANs. You can access these extensions to display default settings for the key variables.
Field Attributes
Extended Multicast Filtering Services: This switch does not support the filtering of individual multicast
addresses based on GMRP (GARP Multicast Registration Protocol).
Traffic Classes: This switch provides mapping of user priorities to multiple traffic classes. (Refer to the
section “Number of Egress Traffic Classes” under the section 11.1 Setting the Default Priority for
Interfaces.)
Static Entry Individual Port: This switch allows static filtering for unicast and multicast addresses. (Refer to
8.1 Setting Static Addresses section.)
VLAN Learning: This switch uses Independent VLAN Learning (IVL), where each port maintains its own
filtering database.
Configurable PVID Tagging: This switch allows you to override the default Port VLAN ID (PVID used in
frame tags) and egress status (VLAN-Tagged or Untagged) on each port. (Refer to Chapter 10 Configuring
VLANs.)
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Asanté IntraCore 36000 Series
Local VLAN Capable: This switch supports multiple local bridges; For example, multiple spanning trees.
(Refer to section 3.3 Configuring Multiple Spanning Trees.)
GMRP: GARP Multicast Registration Protocol (GMRP) allows network devices to register end stations with
multicast groups. This switch does not support GMRP; it uses the Internet Group Management Protocol
(IGMP) to provide automatic multicast filtering.
Web
Click System – Bridge Extension.
CLI
Enter the following command.
Console#show bridge-ext
Max support vlan numbers: 255
Max support vlan ID: 4094
Extended multicast filtering services: No
Static entry individual port: Yes
VLAN learning: IVL
Configurable PVID tagging: Yes
Local VLAN capable: No
Traffic classes: Enabled
Global GVRP status: Disabled
GMRP: Disabled
Console#
User’s Manual
37
Chapter 3: Configuring Global Settings
The switch’s HTTP web agent allows you to configure switch parameters, monitor port connections and
display statistics using a standard web browser such as Internet Explorer 5, Netscape 6, Apple Safari 1.2,
Mozilla Firefox 0.8 or later, using Windows Me/2000/XP, Mac OS X 10.3 or Linex. The recommended screen
resolution is 1024 x 768 or higher. You can access the switch’s web management interface from any
computer attached to the network.
Note: The screen captures used in this manual are based on the IC36480, but are all the same for the
IC36240 except for the port count.
Before accessing the switch from a web browser, be sure you have first performed the following tasks:
1. Configure the switch with a valid IP address, subnet mask, and default gateway using an out-of-band
serial connection, BOOTP or DHCP protocol. (See Section 2.4 Setting an IP Address.)
2. Set user names and passwords using an out-of-band serial connection. Access to the web agent is
controlled by the same user names and passwords as the onboard configuration program. (See
Section 2.3 Setting a Password in chapter 2.)
3. After you enter a user name and password, you will have access to the system configuration program.
Note: You are allowed three attempts to enter the correct password; after the third attempt, the current
connection is terminated.
If you log into the web interface as guest (Normal Exec level), you can view the configuration settings or
change the guest password. If you log in as “admin” (Privileged Exec level), you can change the settings on
any page.
When you manage the switch using the web interface the home page, as shown below, provides the main
menu on the left side of the screen and the screen information on the right.
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Asanté IntraCore 36000 Series
You can also use the Command Line Interface (CLI) to manage the switch over a serial connection to the
console port or via Telnet. For more information on using the CLI, refer to Appendix A: Web and
Command Line Interface Overview.
3.1 Configuring Spanning Tree
The follow section describe using and configuring spanning tree protocols including rapid spanning tree
(RSTP) and multiple spanning trees (MSTP).
3.1.1 Spanning Tree Global Settings
Global settings apply to the entire switch.
Spanning Tree Protocol
Uses RSTP for the internal state machine, but sends only 802.1D BPDUs. This creates one spanning tree
instance for the entire network.
Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol
RSTP supports connections to either STP or RSTP nodes by monitoring the incoming protocol messages
and dynamically adjusting the type of protocol messages the RSTP node transmits, as described below:
STP Mode – If the switch receives an 802.1D BPDU (For example, STP BPDU) after a port’s migration
delay timer expires, the switch assumes it is connected to an 802.1D bridge and starts using only 802.1D
BPDUs.
RSTP Mode – If RSTP is using 802.1D BPDUs on a port and receives an RSTP BPDU after the migration
delay expires, RSTP restarts the migration delay timer and begins using RSTP BPDUs on that port.
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39
Multiple Spanning Tree Protocol
To allow multiple spanning trees to operate over the network, you must configure a related set of bridges
with the same MSTP configuration, allowing them to participate in a specific set of spanning tree instances.
•
A spanning tree instance can exist only on bridges that have compatible VLAN instance assignments.
•
Be careful when switching between spanning tree modes. Changing modes stops all spanning-tree
instances for the previous mode and restarts the system in the new mode, temporarily disrupting user
traffic.
3.1.2 Spanning Tree Basic Configuration
This section describes the basic configuration for STP, including the global settings and root device
configuration,
Global Settings
Spanning Tree State – Enables/disables STA on this switch. (Default: Enabled)
Spanning Tree Type – Specifies the type of spanning tree used on this switch:
•
STP: Spanning Tree Protocol (IEEE 802.1D); For example, when this option is selected, the switch will
use RSTP set to STP forced compatibility mode).
•
RSTP: Rapid Spanning Tree (IEEE 802.1w)
•
MSTP: Multiple Spanning Tree (IEEE 802.1s); MSTP is the default.
Priority – Bridge priority is used in selecting the root device, root port, and designated port. The device with
the highest priority becomes the STA root device. If all devices have the same priority, the device with the
lowest MAC address will then become the root device. (Note that lower numeric values indicate higher
priority.)
•
Default: 32768
•
Range: 0-61440, in steps of 4096
•
Options: 0, 4096, 8192, 12288, 16384, 20480, 24576, 28672, 32768, 36864, 40960, 45056, 49152,
53248, 57344, 61440
Root Device Configuration
Hello Time – Interval (in seconds) at which the root device transmits a configuration message.
•
Default: 2
•
Minimum: 1
•
Maximum: The lower of 10 or [(Max. Message Age / 2) -1]
Maximum Age – The maximum time (in seconds) a device can wait without receiving a configuration
message before attempting to reconfigure. All device ports (except for designated ports) should receive
configuration messages at regular intervals. Any port that ages out STA information (provided in the last
configuration message) becomes the designated port for the attached LAN. If it is a root port, a new root port
is selected from among the device ports attached to the network. (References to “ports” in this section mean
“interfaces,” which includes both ports and trunks.)
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•
Default: 20
•
Minimum: The higher of 6 or [2 x (Hello Time + 1)].
•
Maximum: The lower of 40 or [2 x (Forward Delay - 1)]
Forward Delay – The maximum time (in seconds) this device will wait before changing states (For example,
discarding to learning to forwarding). This delay is required because every device must receive information
about topology changes before it starts to forward frames. In addition, each port needs time to listen for
conflicting information that would make it return to a discarding state; otherwise, temporary data loops might
result.
•
Default: 15
•
Minimum: The higher of 4 or [(Max. Message Age / 2) + 1]
•
Maximum: 30
3.1.3 Configuration Settings for RSTP
The following attributes apply to both RSTP and MSTP:
Path Cost Method – The path cost is used to determine the best path between devices. The path cost
method is used to determine the range of values that can be assigned to each interface.
•
Long: Specifies 32-bit based values that range from 1-200,000,000. (This is the default.)
•
Short: Specifies 16-bit based values that range from 1-65535.
Transmission Limit – The maximum transmission rate for BPDUs is specified by setting the minimum interval
between the transmission of consecutive protocol messages. (Range: 1-10; Default: 3)
3.1.4 Configuration Settings for MSTP
The following configuration settings apply to the MSTP.
Max Instance Numbers – The maximum number of MSTP instances to which this switch can be assigned.
(Default: 65)
Region Revision* – The revision for this MSTI. (Range: 0-65535; Default: 0)
Region Name* – The name for this MSTI. (Maximum length: 32 characters)
Maximum Hop Count – The maximum number of hops allowed in the MST region before a BPDU is
discarded. (Range: 1-40; Default: 20)
Note: The MST name and revision number are both required to uniquely identify an MST region.
Configuring Switch Using the Web or CLI
Web
Click Spanning Tree – STA, Configuration. Modify the required attributes, and click Apply.
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41
CLI
This example enables Spanning Tree Protocol, sets the mode to MST, and then configures the STA and
MSTP parameters.
Console(config)#spanning-tree
Console(config)#spanning-tree
Console(config)#spanning-tree
Console(config)#spanning-tree
Console(config)#spanning-tree
Console(config)#spanning-tree
Console(config)#spanning-tree
Console(config)#spanning-tree
Console(config)#spanning-tree
Console(config-mstp)#revision
Console(config-mstp)#name R&D
Console(config-mstp)#max-hops
Console(config-mstp)#
mode mstp
priority 45056
hello-time 5
max-age 14
forward-time 20
pathcost method long
transmission-limit 4
mst configuration
1
30
3.1.5 Displaying Interface Settings
The STA Port Information and STA Trunk Information pages display the status of ports and trunks in the
Spanning Tree.
Field Attributes
Spanning Tree – Shows if STA has been enabled on this interface.
STA Status – Displays current state of this port within the Spanning Tree:
Discarding–Port receives STA configuration messages, but does not forward packets.
Learning–Port has transmitted configuration messages for an interval set by the Forward Delay parameter
without receiving contradictory information. Port address table is cleared, and the port begins learning
addresses.
Forwarding–Port forwards packets, and continues learning addresses.
The rules defining port status are:
•
A port on a network segment with no other STA compliant bridging device is always forwarding.
•
If two ports of a switch are connected to the same segment and there is no other STA device attached
to this segment, the port with the smaller ID forwards packets and the other is discarding.
•
All ports are discarding when the switch is booted, then some of them change state to learning, and
then to forwarding.
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Asanté IntraCore 36000 Series
Forward Transitions – The number of times this port has transitioned from the Learning state to the
Forwarding state.
Designated Cost – The cost for a packet to travel from this port to the root in the current Spanning Tree
configuration. The slower the media, the higher the cost.
Designated Bridge – The bridge priority and MAC address of the device through which this port must
communicate to reach the root of the Spanning Tree.
Designated Port – The port priority and number of the port on the designated bridging device through which
this switch must communicate with the root of the Spanning Tree.
Oper Link Type – The operational point-to-point status of the LAN segment attached to this interface. This
parameter is determined by manual configuration or by auto-detection, as described for Admin Link Type in
STA Port Configuration in section 3.2 Configuring Interface Settings.
Oper Edge Port – This parameter is initialized to the setting for Admin Edge Port in STA Port Configuration
in section 3.2 Configuring Interface Settings (for example, true or false), but will be set to false if a BPDU
is received, indicating that another bridge is attached to this port.
Port Role – Roles are assigned according to whether the port is part of the active topology connecting the
bridge to the root bridge (for example, root port), connecting a LAN through the bridge to the root bridge (for
example, designated port), or is the MSTI regional root (for example, master port). The are also assigned as
an alternate or backup port that may provide connectivity if other bridges, bridge ports, or LANs fail or are
removed. The role is set to disabled (For example, disabled port) if a port has no role within the spanning
tree.
Trunk Member – Indicates if a port is a member of a trunk. (STA Port Information only)
These additional parameters are only displayed for the CLI:
Admin status – Shows if this interface is enabled.
External path cost – The path cost for the IST. This parameter is used by the STA to determine the best
path between devices. Therefore, lower values should be assigned to ports attached to faster media, and
higher values assigned to ports with slower media. (Path cost takes precedence over port priority.)
Internal path cost – The path cost for the MST. Refer to the proceeding item “External Path Cost” for more
information.
Priority – Defines the priority used for this port in the Spanning Tree Algorithm. If the path cost for all ports
on a switch is the same, the port with the highest priority (For example, lowest value) will be configured as
an active link in the Spanning Tree. This makes a port with higher priority less likely to be blocked if the
Spanning Tree Algorithm is detecting network loops. Where more than one port is assigned the highest
priority, the port with the lowest numeric identifier will be enabled.
Designated root – The priority and MAC address of the device in the Spanning Tree that this switch has
accepted as the root device.
Fast forwarding – This field provides the same information as Admin Edge port, and is only included for
backward compatibility with earlier products.
Admin Edge Port – You can enable this option if an interface is attached to a LAN segment that is at the end
of a bridged LAN or to an end node. Since end nodes cannot cause forwarding loops, they can pass directly
through to the spanning tree forwarding state. Specifying Edge Ports provides quicker convergence for
devices such as workstations or servers, retains the current forwarding database to reduce the amount of
frame flooding required to rebuild address tables during reconfiguration events, does not cause the spanning
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43
tree to reconfigure when the interface changes state, and also overcomes other STA-related timeout
problems. The Edge Port should only be enabled for ports connected to an end-node device.
Admin Link Type – The link type attached to this interface.
Point-to-Point – A connection to exactly one other bridge.
Shared – A connection to two or more bridges.
Auto – The switch automatically determines if the interface is attached to a point-to-point link or to shared
media.
Configuring Switch Using the Web or CLI
Web
Click Spanning Tree – STA, Port Information or Trunk Information.
CLI
This example shows the STA attributes for port 5.
Console#show spanning-tree ethernet 1/5
Eth 1/ 5 information
-------------------------------------------------------------Admin status
: enable
Role
: disable
State
: discarding
External path cost
: 10000
Internal path cost
: 10000
Priority
: 128
Designated cost
: 200000
Designated port
: 128.5
Designated root
: 61440.0.0000E9313131
Designated bridge
: 61440.0.0000E9313131
Fast forwarding
: enable
Forward transitions : 0
Admin edge port
: enable
Oper edge port
: enable
Admin Link type
: auto
Oper Link type
: point-to-point
Spanning Tree Status : enable
Console#
3.2 Configuring Interface Settings
You can configure RSTP and MSTP attributes for specific interfaces, including port priority, path cost, link
type, and edge port. You may use a different priority or path cost for ports of the same media type to indicate
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Asanté IntraCore 36000 Series
the preferred path, link type to indicate a point-to-point connection or shared-media connection, and edge
port to indicate if the attached device can support fast forwarding.
3.2.1 Attributes
Read-Only Attributes
STA State – Displays current state of this port within the Spanning Tree. (For more information, refer to
section 3.1.5 Displaying Interface Settings.)
•
Discarding - Port receives STA configuration messages, but does not forward packets.
•
Learning - Port has transmitted configuration messages for an interval set by the Forward Delay
parameter without receiving contradictory information. Port address table is cleared, and the port begins
learning addresses.
•
Forwarding - Port forwards packets, and continues learning addresses.
Trunk – Indicates if a port is a member of a trunk. (STA Port Configuration only)
Configuration Attributes
Spanning Tree – Enables/disables STA on this interface. (Default: Enabled).
Priority – Defines the priority used for this port in the Spanning Tree Protocol. If the path cost for all ports on
a switch are the same, the port with the highest priority (For example, lowest value) will be configured as an
active link in the Spanning Tree. This makes a port with higher priority less likely to be blocked if the
Spanning Tree Protocol is detecting network loops. Where more than one port is assigned the highest
priority, the port with lowest numeric identifier is enabled.
•
Default: 128
•
Range: 0-240, in steps of 16
Path Cost – This parameter is used by the STP to determine the best path between devices. Therefore,
lower values should be assigned to ports attached to faster media, and higher values assigned to ports with
slower media. (Path cost takes precedence over port priority.) Note that when the Path Cost Method is set to
short (see section 9.9.1), the maximum path cost is 65,535.
Range :
•
Ethernet: 20,000-2,000,000
•
Gigabit Ethernet: 2,000-200,000
Default:
•
Ethernet – Half duplex: 2,000,000; full duplex: 1,000,000; trunk: 500,000
•
Fast Ethernet – Half duplex: 200,000; full duplex: 100,000; trunk: 50,000
•
Gigabit Ethernet – Full duplex: 10,000; trunk: 5,000
Admin Link Type – The link type attached to this interface.
Point-to-Point – A connection to exactly one other bridge.
Shared – A connection to two or more bridges.
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45
Auto – The switch automatically determines if the interface is attached to a point-to-point link or to shared
media. (This is the default setting.)
Admin Edge Port (Fast Forwarding) – Enable this option if an interface is attached to a LAN segment that is
at the end of a bridged LAN or to an end node. Since end nodes cannot cause forwarding loops, they can
pass directly through to the spanning tree forwarding state. Specifying Edge Ports provides quicker
convergence for devices such as workstations or servers, retains the current forwarding database to reduce
the amount of frame flooding required to rebuild address tables during reconfiguration events, does not
cause the spanning tree to initiate reconfiguration when the interface changes state, and also overcomes
other STA-related timeout problems. The Edge Port should only be enabled for ports connected to an endnode device. (Default: Disabled)
Migration – If at any time the switch detects STP BPDUs, including Configuration or Topology Change
Notification BPDUs, it will automatically set the selected interface to forced STP-compatible mode. You can
also use the Protocol Migration button to manually re-check the appropriate BPDU format (RSTP or STPcompatible) to send on the selected interfaces. (Default: Disabled)
Configuring Switch Using the Web or CLI
Web
Click Spanning Tree – STA, Port Configuration or Trunk Configuration. Modify the required attributes, then
click Apply.
CLI
This example sets STA attributes for port 7.
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/7
Console(config-if)#no spanning-tree spanning-disabled
Console(config-if)#spanning-tree port-priority 0
Console(config-if)#spanning-tree cost 5
Console(config-if)#spanning-tree link-type auto
Console(config-if)#no spanning-tree edge-port
Console(config-if)#
3.3 Configuring Multiple Spanning Trees
MSTP generates a unique spanning tree for each instance. This provides multiple pathways across the
network, thereby balancing the traffic load, preventing wide-scale disruption when a bridge node in a single
instance fails, and allowing for faster convergence of a new topology for the failed instance.
By default, all VLANs are assigned to the Internal Spanning Tree (MST Instance 0) that connects all bridges
and LANs within the MST region. This switch supports up to 65 instances. You should try to group VLANs
that cover the same general area of your network. You must configure all bridges within the same MSTI
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Asanté IntraCore 36000 Series
Region (section 3.1.1) with the same set of instances, and the same instance (on each bridge) with the
same set of VLANs. Also, note that RSTP treats each MSTI region as a single node, connecting all regions
to the Common Spanning Tree.
To use multiple spanning trees:
1. Set the spanning tree type to MSTP (STA Configuration, section 3.1.1).
2. Enter the spanning tree priority for the selected MST instance (MSTP VLAN Configuration).
3. Add the VLANs that will share this MSTI (MSTP VLAN Configuration).
Note: All VLANs are automatically added to the IST (Instance 0).
To ensure that the MSTI maintains connectivity across the network, you must configure a related set of
bridges with the same MSTI settings.
3.3.1 Attributes
MST Instance – Instance identifier of this spanning tree. (Default: 0)
Priority – The priority of a spanning tree instance. (Range: 0-61440 in steps of 4096; Options: 0, 4096, 8192,
12288, 16384, 20480, 24576, 28672, 32768, 36864, 40960, 45056, 49152, 53248, 57344, 61440; Default:
32768)
VLANs in MST Instance – VLANs assigned this instance.
MST ID – Instance identifier to configure. (Range: 0-4094; Default: 0)
VLAN ID – VLAN to assign to this selected MST instance. (Range: 1-4094)
The other global attributes are described under section 9.1.1 Displaying Global Settings. The attributes
displayed by the CLI for individual interfaces are described under section 3.1.5 Displaying Interface
Settings.
Configuring Switch Using the Web or CLI
Web
Click Spanning Tree – MSTP, VLAN Configuration. Select an instance identifier from the list, set the
instance priority, and click Apply. To add the VLAN members to an MSTI instance, enter the instance
identifier, the VLAN identifier, and click Add.
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47
CLI
This displays STA settings for instance 1, followed by settings for each port.
Console#show spanning-tree mst 1
Spanning-tree information
--------------------------------------------------------------Spanning tree mode
:MSTP
Spanning tree enable/disable
:enable
Instance
:1
Vlans configuration
:1-5
Priority
:32768
Bridge Hello Time (sec.)
:2
Bridge Max Age (sec.)
:20
Bridge Forward Delay (sec.)
:15
Root Hello Time (sec.)
:2
Root Max Age (sec.)
:20
Root Forward Delay (sec.)
:15
Max hops
:20
Remaining hops
:20
Designated Root
:4096.2.0000E9313131
Current root port
:0
Current root cost
:0
Number of topology changes
:0
Last topology changes time (sec.):646
Transmission limit
:3
Path Cost Method
:long
--------------------------------------------------------------Eth 1/ 7 information
--------------------------------------------------------------Admin status
: enable
Role
: disable
State
: discarding
External path cost
: 10000
Internal path cost
: 10000
Priority
: 128
Designated cost
: 0
Designated port
: 128.7
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Designated root
Designated bridge
Fast forwarding
Forward transitions
Admin edge port
Oper edge port
Admin Link type
Oper Link type
Spanning Tree Status
.
.
.
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
4096.2.0000E9313131
4096.2.0000E9313131
enable
0
enable
enable
auto
point-to-point
enable
CLI
This example sets the priority for MSTI 1, and adds VLANs 1-5 to this MSTI.
Console(config)#spanning-tree mst configuration
Console(config-mst)#mst 1 priority 4096
Console(config-mstp)#mst 1 vlan 1-5
Console(config-mst)#
3.3.2 Displaying Interface Settings for MSTP
The MSTP Port Information and MSTP Trunk Information pages display the status of ports and trunks in the
selected MST instance.
Field Attributes
MST Instance ID – Instance identifier to configure. (Range: 0-4094; Default: 0)
The other attributes are described under Section 3.1.5 Displaying Interface Settings.
Configuring Switch Using the Web or CLI
Web
Click Spanning Tree – MSTP, Port Information or Trunk Information. Select the required MST instance
to display the current spanning tree values.
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49
CLI
This displays STA settings for instance 0, followed by settings for each port. The settings for instance 0 are
global settings that apply to the IST (section 9.1.1), the settings for other instances only apply to the local
spanning tree.
Console#show spanning-tree mst 0
Spanning-tree information
--------------------------------------------------------------Spanning tree mode
:MSTP
Spanning tree enable/disable
:enable
Instance
:0
Vlans configuration
:1-4094
Priority
:32768
Bridge Hello Time (sec.)
:2
Bridge Max Age (sec.)
:20
Bridge Forward Delay (sec.)
:15
Root Hello Time (sec.)
:2
Root Max Age (sec.)
:20
Root Forward Delay (sec.)
:15
Max hops
:20
Remaining hops
:20
Designated Root
:32768.0.0000ABCD0000
Current root port
:1
Current root cost
:200000
Number of topology changes
:1
Last topology changes time (sec.):645
Transmission limit
:3
Path Cost Method
:long
--------------------------------------------------------------Eth 1/ 1 information
--------------------------------------------------------------Admin status
: enable
Role
: root
State
: forwarding
External path cost
: 100000
Internal path cost
: 100000
Priority
: 128
Designated cost
: 200000
Designated port
: 128.24
Designated root
: 32768.0.0000ABCD0000
Designated bridge
: 32768.0.0030F1552000
Fast forwarding
: disable
Forward transitions : 1
Admin edge port
: enable
Oper edge port
: disable
Admin Link type
: auto
Oper Link type
: point-to-point
Spanning Tree Status : enable
.
.
.
3.3.5 Configuring Interface Settings for MSTP
You can configure the STA interface settings for an MST Instance using the MSTP Port Configuration and
MSTP Trunk Configuration pages.
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Asanté IntraCore 36000 Series
Field Attributes
Read Only Attributes
STA State – Displays current state of this port within the Spanning Tree. (For more information, refer to
section 3.1.5 Displaying Interface Settings.)
•
Discarding - Port receives STA configuration messages, but does not forward packets.
•
Learning - Port has transmitted configuration messages for an interval set by the Forward Delay
parameter without receiving contradictory information. Port address table is cleared, and the port begins
learning addresses.
•
Forwarding - Port forwards packets, and continues learning addresses.
Trunk – Indicates if a port is a member of a trunk. (STA Port Configuration only)
Configuration Attributes
MST Instance ID – Instance identifier to configure. (Range: 0-4094; Default: 0)
Priority – Defines the priority used for this port in the Spanning Tree Protocol. If the path cost for all ports on
a switch are the same, the port with the highest priority (For example, lowest value) will be configured as an
active link in the Spanning Tree. This makes a port with higher priority less likely to be blocked if the
Spanning Tree Protocol is detecting network loops. Where more than one port is assigned the highest
priority, the port with lowest numeric identifier will be enabled.
•
Default: 128
•
Range: 0-240, in steps of 16
MST Path Cost – This parameter is used by the MSTP to determine the best path between devices.
Therefore, lower values should be assigned to ports attached to faster media, and higher values assigned to
ports with slower media. (Path cost takes precedence over port priority.) Note that when the Path Cost
Method is set to short (section 9.9.1), the maximum path cost is 65,535.
Range:
•
Ethernet: 200,000-20,000,000
•
Fast Ethernet: 20,000-2,000,000
•
Gigabit Ethernet: 2,000-200,000
Default:
•
Ethernet – Half duplex: 2,000,000; full duplex: 1,000,000; trunk: 500,000
•
Fast Ethernet – Half duplex: 200,000; full duplex: 100,000; trunk: 50,000
•
Gigabit Ethernet – Full duplex: 10,000; trunk: 5,000
Configuring Switch Using the Web or CLI
Web
Click Spanning Tree – MSTP, Port Configuration or Trunk Configuration. Enter the priority and path
cost for an interface, and click Apply.
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CLI
This example sets the MSTP attributes for port 4.
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/4
Console(config-if)#spanning-tree mst port-priority 0
Console(config-if)#spanning-tree mst cost 50
Console(config-if)
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Chapter 4: Configuring SNTP
You can configure the switch to send time synchronization requests to specific time servers (For example,
client mode), update its clock based on broadcasts from time servers, or use both methods. When both
methods are enabled, the switch will update its clock using information broadcast from time servers, but will
query the specified server(s) if a broadcast is not received within the polling interval.
4.1 SNTP Attributes
SNTP Client – Configures the switch to operate as an SNTP unicast client. This mode requires at least one
time server to be specified in the SNTP Server field. (Default: Disabled)
SNTP Broadcast Client – Configures the switch to operate as an SNTP broadcast client. This mode requires
no other configuration settings; the switch will obtain time updates from time server broadcasts (using the
multicast address 224.0.1.1). (Default: Disabled)
SNTP Poll Interval – Sets the interval between sending requests for a time update from a time server when
set to SNTP Client mode. (Range: 16-16284 seconds; Default: 16 seconds)
SNTP Server – In unicast mode, sets the IP address for up to three time servers. The switch attempts to
update the time from the first server, if this fails it attempts an update from the next server in the sequence.
Configuring Switch Using the Web or CLI
Web
Click SNTP – Configuration. Modify any of the required parameters, and click Apply.
CLI
This example configures the switch to operate as an SNTP broadcast client.
Console(config)#sntp
Console(config)#sntp
Console(config)#sntp
Console(config)#sntp
Console(config)#
client
poll 16
server 10.1.0.19 137.82.140.80 128.250.36.2
broadcast client
4.2 Setting the Time Zone
SNTP uses Coordinated Universal Time (or UTC, formerly Greenwich Mean Time, or GMT) based on the
time at the Earth’s prime meridian, zero degrees longitude. To display a time corresponding to your local
time, you must indicate the number of hours and minutes your time zone is east (before) or west (after) of
UTC.
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4.2.1 Attributes
Current Time – Displays the current time.
Name – Assigns a name to the time zone.
Hours (0-12) – The number of hour’s before/after UTC.
Minutes (0-59) – The number of minute’s before/after UTC.
Direction – Configures the time zone to be before (east) or after (west) UTC.
Configuring Switch Using the Web or CLI
Web
Select SNTP – Clock Time Zone. Set the offset for your time zone relative to the UTC, and click Apply.
CLI
This example shows how to set the time zone for the system clock.
Console(config)#clock timezone PDT hours 7 minute 0 after-UTC
Console#
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Chapter 5: Simple Network Management Protocol
Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) is a communication protocol designed specifically for
managing devices on a network. Equipment commonly managed with SNMP includes switches, routers and
host computers. SNMP is typically used to configure these devices for proper operation in a network
environment, as well as to monitor them to evaluate performance or detect potential problems.
The switch includes an onboard SNMP agent that continuously monitors the status of its hardware, as well
as the traffic passing through its ports. A network management station can access this information using
software such as HP OpenView. Access rights to the onboard agent are controlled by community strings. To
communicate with the switch, the management station must first submit a valid community string for
authentication. The options for configuring community strings, trap functions, and restricting access to clients
with specified IP, addresses are described in the following sections.
5.1 Setting Community Access Strings
You may configure up to five community strings authorized for management access. All community strings
used for IP Trap Managers should be listed in this table. For security reasons, you should consider removing
the default strings.
5.1.2 Attributes
SNMP Community Capability – Indicates that the switch supports up to five community strings.
Community String – A community string that acts like a password and permits access to the SNMP protocol.
Default strings: “public” (read-only access), “private” (read/write access)
Range: 1-32 characters, case sensitive
Access Mode
Read-Only – Specifies read-only access. Authorized management stations are only able to retrieve MIB
objects.
Read/Write – Specifies read-write access. Authorized management stations are able to both retrieve and
modify MIB objects.
Configuring Switch Using the Web or CLI
Web
Click SNMP – Configuration. Add new community strings as required, select the access rights from the
Access Mode drop-down list, then click Add.
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CLI
The following example adds the string “james” with read/write access.
Console(config)#snmp-server community james rw
Console(config)#
5.2 Specifying Trap Managers and Trap Types
Traps indicating status changes are issued by the switch to specified trap managers. You must specify trap
managers so that key events are reported by this switch to your management station (using network
management platforms such as HP OpenView). You can specify up to five management stations that will
receive authentication failure messages and other trap messages from the switch.
5.2.1 Attributes
Trap Manager Capability – This switch supports up to five trap managers.
Trap Manager IP Address – Internet address of the host (the targeted recipient).
Trap Manager Community String – Community string sent with the notification operation. (Range: 1-32
characters, case sensitive)
Trap Version – Specifies whether to send notifications as SNMP v1 or v2c traps. (The default is version 1.)
Enable Authentication Traps – Issues a trap message whenever an invalid community string is submitted
during the SNMP access authentication process. (The default is enabled.)
Enable Link-up and Link-down Traps – Issues link-up or link-down traps. (The default is enabled.)
Configuring Switch Using the Web or CLI
Web
Click SNMP – Configuration. Fill in the IP address and community string for each trap manager that will
receive these messages, specify the SNMP version, mark the trap types required, and then click Add.
CLI
This example adds a trap manager and enables both authentication and link-up, link-down traps.
Console(config)#snmp-server host 192.168.1.19 private version 2c
Console(config)#snmp-server enable traps
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Chapter 6: Configuring Security
You can restrict management access to this switch using the following options:
User Accounts – Manually configure access rights on the switch for specified users.
Authentication Settings – Use remote authentication to configure access rights.
HTTPS Settings – Provide a secure web connection.
SSH Settings – Provide a secure shell (for secure Telnet access).
Port Security – Configure secure addresses for individual ports.
802.1x – Use IEEE 802.1x port authentication to control access to specific ports.
Access Control Lists – provide packet filtering for IP frames.
IP Filter – Filters management access to the web, SNMP or Telnet interface.
6.1 Configuring User Accounts
The guest only has read access for most configuration parameters. The administrator has write access for
all parameters governing the onboard agent. You should assign a new administrator password, and store it
in a safe place.
The default guest name is “guest” with the password “guest.” The default administrator name is “admin” with
the password “admin.”
Configuring Switch Using the CLI
CLI
Assign a user name to access-level 15 (For example, administrator), then specify the password.
Console(config)#username james access-level 15
Console(config)#username james password 0 smith
Console(config)#
6.2 Configuring Local/Remote Logon Authentication
Use the Authentication Settings menu to restrict management access based on specified user names and
passwords. You can manually configure access rights on the switch, or you can use a remote access
authentication server based on RADIUS or TACACS+ protocols.
Remote Authentication Dial-in User Service (RADIUS) and Terminal Access Controller Access Control
System Plus (TACACS+) are logon authentication protocols that use software running on a central server to
control access to RADIUS-aware or TACACS-aware devices on the network. An authentication server
contains a database of multiple user name/password pairs with associated privilege levels for each user that
requires management access to the switch.
RADIUS uses UDP while TACACS+ uses TCP. UDP only offers best effort delivery, while TCP offers a
connection-oriented transport. Also, note that RADIUS encrypts only the password in the access-request
packet from the client to the server, while TACACS+ encrypts the entire body of the packet.
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6.2.1 Usage Guidelines
By default, management access is always checked against the authentication database stored on the local
switch. If a remote authentication server is used, you must specify the authentication sequence and the
corresponding parameters for the remote authentication protocol. Local and remote logon authentication
control management access via the console port, web browser, or Telnet.
RADIUS and TACACS+ logon authentication assign a specific privilege level for each user name/password
pair. The user name, password, and privilege level must be configured on the authentication server.
You can specify up to three authentication methods for any user to indicate the authentication sequence. For
example, if you select (1) RADIUS, (2) TACACS and (3) Local, the user name and password on the RADIUS
server is verified first. If the RADIUS server is not available, then authentication is attempted using the
TACACS+ server, and finally the local user name and password is checked.
6.2.2 Command Attributes
Authentication – Select the authentication, or authentication sequence required:
Local – User authentication is performed only locally by the switch.
Radius – User authentication is performed using a RADIUS server only.
TACACS – User authentication is performed using a TACACS+ server only.
[authentication sequence] – User authentication is performed by up to three authentication methods in the
indicated sequence.
6.2.3 RADIUS Settings
Server IP Address – Address of authentication server. (Default: 0.0.0.0)
Server Port Number – Network (UDP) port of authentication server used for authentication messages.
(Range: 1-65535; Default: 1812)
Secret Text String – Encryption key used to authenticate logon access for client. Do not use blank spaces in
the string. (Maximum length: 20 characters)
Number of Server Transmits – Number of times the switch tries to authenticate logon access via the
authentication server. (Range: 1-30; Default: 2)
Timeout for a reply – The number of seconds the switch waits for a reply from the RADIUS server before it
resends the request. (Range: 1-65535; Default: 5)
6.2.4 TACACS Settings
Server IP Address – Address of the TACACS+ server. (Default: 0.0.0.0)
Server Port Number – Network (TCP) port of TACACS+ server used for authentication messages. (Range:
1-65535; Default: 49)
Secret Text String – Encryption key used to authenticate logon access for client. Do not use blank spaces in
the string. (Maximum length: 20 characters)
Note: The local switch user database has to be set up by manually entering user names and passwords
using the CLI. (See the username command in Chapter 16.)
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Configuring Switch Using the Web or CLI
Web
Click Security – Authentication Settings. To configure local or remote authentication preferences, specify
the authentication sequence (For example, one to three methods), fill in the parameters for RADIUS or
TACACS+ authentication if selected, and click Apply.
CLI
Specify all the required parameters to enable logon authentication.
Console#show radius-server
Remote radius server configuration:
Server IP address: 0.0.0.0
Communication key with radius server:
Server port number: 1812
Retransmit times: 5
Request timeout: 10
Console#show tacacs-server
Remote TACACS server configuration:
Server IP address: 0.0.0.0
Communication key with tacacs server: green
Server port number: 200
Console#
6.3 Configuring HTTPS
You can configure the switch to enable the Secure Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTPS) over the Secure
Socket Layer (SSL), providing secure access (For example, an encrypted connection) to the switch’s web
interface.
6.3.1 Usage Guidelines
Both the HTTP and HTTPS service can be enabled independently on the switch. You cannot configure both
services to use the same UDP port.
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If you enable HTTPS, you must indicate this in the URL that you specify in your browser:
https://device[:port_number]
•
When you start HTTPS, the connection is established in this way:
•
The client authenticates the server using the server’s digital certificate.
•
The client and server negotiate a set of security protocols to use for the connection.
•
The client and server generate session keys for encrypting and decrypting data.
The client and server establish a secure encrypted connection.
A padlock icon should appear in the status bar for Internet Explorer 5.x or above and Netscape Navigator
4.x or above.
The following web browsers and operating systems currently support HTTPS:
Web Browser
Operating System
Internet Explorer 5.0 or later
Windows 98,Windows NT (with service pack 6a), Windows 2000,
Windows XP
Netscape Navigator 4.76 or
later
Windows 98,Windows NT (with service pack 6a), Windows 2000,
Windows XP, Solaris 2.6
To specify a secure-site certificate, see section 6.3.2 Replacing the Default Secure-site Certificate.
Command Attributes
HTTPS Status – Allows you to enable/disable the HTTPS server feature on the switch. (Default: Enabled)
Change HTTPS Port Number – Specifies the UDP port number used for HTTPS/SSL connection to the
switch’s web interface. (Default: Port 443)
Configuring Switch Using the Web or CLI
Web
Click Security – HTTPS Settings. Enable HTTPS and specify the port number, then click Apply.
CLI
This example enables the HTTP secure server and modifies the port number.
Console(config)#ip http secure-server
Console(config)#ip http secure-port 441
Console(config)#
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6.3.2 Replacing the Default Secure-site Certificate
When you log onto the web interface using HTTPS (for secure access), a Secure Sockets Layer (SSL)
certificate appears for the switch. By default, the certificate that Netscape and Internet Explorer display will
be associated with a warning that the site is not recognized as a secure site. This is because the certificate
has not been signed by an approved certification authority. If you want this warning to be replaced by a
message confirming that the connection to the switch is secure, you must obtain a unique certificate and a
private key and password from a recognized certification authority.
Caution: For maximum security, obtain a unique Secure Sockets Layer certificate at the earliest opportunity.
The default certificate for the switch is not unique.
When you have obtained these, place them on your TFTP server, and use the following command at the
switch's command-line interface to replace the default (unrecognized) certificate with an authorized one:
Console#copy tftp https-certificate
TFTP server ip address: <server ip-address>
Source certificate file name: <certificate file name>
Source private file name: <private key file name>
Private password: <password for private key>
Note: The switch must be reset for the new certificate to be activated. To reset the switch, type:
Console#reload
6.4 Configuring the Secure Shell
The Berkley-standard includes remote access tools originally designed for Unix systems. Some of these
tools have also been implemented for Microsoft Windows and other environments. These tools, including
commands such as rlogin (remote login), rsh (remote shell), and rcp (remote copy), are not secure from
hostile attacks.
The Secure Shell (SSH) includes server/client applications intended as a secure replacement for the older
Berkley remote access tools. SSH can also provide remote management access to this switch as a secure
replacement for Telnet. When the client contacts the switch via the SSH protocol, the switch generates a
public-key that the client uses along with a local user name and password for access authentication. SSH
also encrypts all data transfers passing between the switch and SSH-enabled management station clients,
and ensures that data traveling over the network arrives unaltered.
Note that you need to install an SSH client on the management station to access the switch for management
via the SSH protocol.
Note: The switch supports both SSH Version 1.5 and 2.0.
6.4.1 Usage Guidelines
The SSH server on this switch supports both password and public key authentication. If password
authentication is specified by the SSH client, then the password can be authenticated either locally or via a
RADIUS or TACACS+ remote authentication server, as specified on the Authentication Settings Page
(section 6.2 Configuring Local/Remote Logon Authentication). If public key authentication is specified by
the client, then you must configure authentication keys on both the client and the switch as described in the
following section. Note that regardless of whether you use public key or password authentication, you still
have to generate authentication keys on the switch (SSH Host Key Settings) and enable the SSH server
(Authentication Settings).
To use the SSH server, complete these steps:
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1. Generate a Host Key Pair – On the SSH Host Key Settings page, create a host public/private key pair.
2. Provide Host Public Key to Clients – Many SSH client programs automatically import the host public key
during the initial connection setup with the switch. Otherwise, you need to manually create a known
hosts file on the management station and place the host public key in it. An entry for a public key in the
known hosts file would appear similar to the following example:
10.1.0.54 1024 35 15684995401867669259333946775054617325313674890836547254
15020245593199868544358361651999923329781766065830956 10825913212890233
76546801726272571413428762941301196195566782 59566410486957427888146206
5194174677298486546861571773939016477935594230357741309802273708779454524083971
752646358058176716709574804776117
3. Import Client’s Public Key to the Switch – Use the copy tftp public-key command (section 15.2.1) to
copy a file containing the public key for all the SSH client’s granted management access to the switch.
(Note that these clients must be configured locally on the switch via the User Accounts page as
described in section 6.1 Configuring User Accounts.) The clients are subsequently authenticated
using these keys. The current firmware only accepts public key files based on standard UNIX format as
shown in the following example for an RSA Version 1 key:
1024 35 1341081685609893921040944920155425347631641921872958921143173880
0555361616310517759408386863110929123222682851925437460310093718772119969631781
3662774141689851320491172048303392543241016379975923714490119380060902539484084
8271781943722884025331159521348610229029789827213532671316294325328189150453063
93916643 steve@192.168.1.19
4. Set the Optional Parameters – On the SSH Settings page, configure the optional parameters, including
the authentication timeout, the number of retries, and the server key size.
5. Enable SSH Service – On the SSH Settings page, enable the SSH server on the switch.
6. Challenge-Response Authentication – When an SSH client attempts to contact the switch, the SSH
server uses the host key pair to negotiate a session key and encryption method. Only clients that have
a private key corresponding to the public keys stored on the switch can access. The following
exchanges take place during this process:
•
The client sends its public key to the switch.
•
The switch compares the client's public key to those stored in memory.
•
If a match is found, the switch uses the public key to encrypt a random sequence of bytes, and
sends this string to the client.
•
The client uses its private key to decrypt the bytes, and sends the decrypted bytes back to the
switch.
•
The switch compares the decrypted bytes to the original bytes it sent. If the two sets match, this
means that the client's private key corresponds to an authorized public key, and the client is
authenticated.
Note: To use SSH with only password authentication, the host public key must still be given to the client,
either during initial connection or manually entered into the known host file. You do not need to configure the
client’s keys.
Note: The SSH server supports up to four client sessions. The maximum number of client sessions includes
both current Telnet sessions and SSH sessions.
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6.4.2 Generating the Host Key Pair
A host public/private key pair is used to provide secure communications between an SSH client and the
switch. After generating this key pair, you must provide the host public key to SSH clients and import the
client’s public key to the switch as described in the proceeding section (Usage).
Field Attributes
Public-Key of Host-Key – The public key for the host.
•
RSA (Version 1): The first field indicates the size of the host key (e.g., 1024), the second field is the
encoded public exponent (e.g., 65537), and the last string is the encoded modulus.
•
DSA (Version 2): The first field indicates that the encryption method used by SSH is based on the
Digital Signature Standard (DSS). The last string is the encoded modulus.
•
Host-Key Type – The key type used to generate the host key pair (For example, public and private
keys). (Range: RSA (Version 1), DSA (Version 2), Both: Default: RSA)
The SSH server uses RSA or DSA for key exchange when the client first establishes a connection with the
switch, and then negotiates with the client to select either DES (56-bit) or 3DES (168-bit) for data encryption.
Save Host-Key from Memory to Flash – Saves the host key from RAM (For example, volatile memory to
flash memory. Otherwise, the host key pair is stored to RAM by default. Before generating the host-key pair,
you must select this item.
Generate – This button is used to generate the host key pair. Note that you must first generate the host key
pair before you can enable the SSH server on the SSH Server Settings page.
Configuring Switch Using the Web or CLI
Web
Click Security – SSH Host-Key Settings. Select the host-key type from the drop-down box, select the
option to save the host key from memory to flash (if required) before generating the key, and then click
Generate.
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CLI
This example generates a host-key pair using both the RSA and DSA algorithms, stores the keys to flash
memory, and then displays the host’s public keys.
Console#ip ssh crypto host-key generate
Console#ip ssh save host-key
Console#show public-key host
Host:
RSA:
1024 65537 127250922544926402131336514546131189679055192360076028653006761
8240969094744832010252487896597759216832222558465238779154647980739631403386925
7931051057652122430528078658854857892726029378660892368414232759121276032591968
3697053439336438445223335188287173896894511729290510813919642025190932104328579
045764891
DSA:
ssh-dss AAAAB3NzaC1kc3MAAACBAN6zwIqCqDb3869jYVXlME1sHL0EcE/Re6hlasfEthIwmj
hLY4O0jqJZpcEQUgCfYlum0Y2uoLka+Py9ieGWQ8f2gobUZKIICuKg6vjO9XTs7XKc05xfzkBiKviDa
+2OrIz6UK+6vFOgvUDFedlnixYTVo+h5v8r0ea2rpnO6DkZAAAAFQCNZn/x17dwpW8RrV
DQnSWw4Qk+6QAAAIEAptkGeB6B5hwagH4gUOCY6i1TmrmSiJgfwO9OqRPUMbCAkCC+uzxatOo7drnIZ
ypMx+Sx5RUdMGgKS+9ywsa1cWqHeFY5ilc3lDCNBueeLykZzVS+RS+azTKIk/zrJh8GLG
Nq375R55yRxFvmcGIn/Q7IphPqyJ3o9MK8LFDfmJEAAACAL8A6tESiswP2OFqX7VGoEbzVDSOI
RTMFy3iUXtvGyQAOVSy67Mfc3lMtgqPRUOYXDiwIBp5NXgilCg5z7VqbmRm28mWc5a//f8TUAg
PNWKV6W0hqmshQdotVzDR1e+XKNTZj0uTwWfjO5Kytdn4MdoTHgrbl/DMdAfjnte8MZZs=
Console#
6.4.3 Configuring the SSH Server
The SSH server includes basic settings for authentication.
Field Attributes
SSH Server Status – Allows you to enable/disable the SSH server on the switch. (Default: Disabled)
Version – The Secure Shell version number. Version 2.0 is displayed, but the switch supports management
access through SSH either Version 1.5 or 2.0 clients.
SSH Authentication Timeout – Specifies the time interval in seconds that the SSH server waits for a
response from a client during an authentication attempt.
(Range: 1 to 120 seconds; Default: 120 seconds)
SSH Authentication Retries – Specifies the number of authentication attempts that a client is allowed before
authentication fails and the client has to restart the authentication process. (Range: 1-5 times; Default: 3)
SSH Server-Key Size – Specifies the SSH server key size. (Range: 512-896 bits)
•
The server key is a private key that is never shared outside the switch.
•
The host key is shared with the SSH client, and is fixed at 1024 bits.
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Configuring Switch Using the Web or CLI
Web
Click Security – SSH, Settings. Enable SSH and adjust the authentication parameters as required, then
click Apply. Note that you must first generate the host key pair on the SSH Host-Key Settings page before
you can enable the SSH server.
CLI
This example enables SSH, sets the authentication parameters, and displays the current configuration. It
shows that the administrator has made a connection through SHH, and then disables this connection.
Console(config)#ip ssh server
Console(config)#ip ssh timeout 100
Console(config)#ip ssh authentication-retries 5
Console(config)#ip ssh server-key size 512
Console(config)#end
Console#show ip ssh
SSH Enabled - version 2.0
Negotiation timeout: 120 secs; Authentication retries: 3
Server key size: 768 bits
Console#show ssh
Information of secure shell
Session Username Version Encrypt method Negotiation state
------- -------- ------- -------------- ----------------0
admin
2.0
cipher-3des
session-started
Console#disconnect 0
Console#
6. 5 Configuring Port Security
Port security is a feature that allows you to configure a switch port with one or more device MAC addresses
that are authorized to access the network through that port.
When port security is enabled on a port, the switch stops learning new MAC addresses on the specified port.
Only incoming traffic with source addresses already stored in the dynamic or static address table will be
accepted as authorized to access the network through that port. If a device with an unauthorized MAC
address attempts to use the switch port, the intrusion will be detected and the switch can automatically take
action by disabling the port and sending a trap message.
To use port security, first allow the switch to dynamically learn the <source MAC address, VLAN> pair for
frames received on a port for an initial training period, and then enable port security to stop address
learning. Be sure you enable the learning function long enough to ensure that all valid VLAN members have
been registered on the selected port. Note that you can also restrict the maximum number of addresses that
can be learned by a port.
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To add new VLAN members later, you can manually add secure addresses with the Static Address Table
(section 8.1 Setting Static Addresses), or turn off port security to reenable the learning function long
enough for new VLAN members to be registered. Learning may then be disabled again, if desired, for
security.
6.5.1 Guidelines
A secure port has the following restrictions:
•
Cannot use port monitoring.
•
Cannot be a multi-VLAN port.
•
Cannot be used as a member of a static or dynamic trunk.
•
Should not be connected to a network interconnection device.
If a port is disabled (shut down) due to a security violation, it must be manually re-enabled from the Port/Port
Configuration page (see section 7.2 Configuring Interface Connections).
Command Attributes
Port – Port number.
Name – Descriptive text.
Action – Indicates the action to be taken when a port security violation is detected:
•
None: No action should be taken. (This is the default.)
•
Trap: Send an SNMP trap message.
•
Shutdown: Disable the port.
•
Trap and Shutdown: Send an SNMP trap message and disable the port.
Security Status – Enables or disables port security on the port. (Default: Disabled)
Trunk – Trunk number if port is a member (section 9.9.1).
Configuring Switch Using the Web or CLI
Web
Click Security – Port Security. Set the action to take when an invalid address is detected on a port, mark
the checkbox in the Status column to enable security for a port and click Apply.
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CLI
This example sets the command mode to Port 5, sets the port security action to send a trap and disable the
port, and then enables port security for the switch.
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/5
Console(config-if)#port security action trap-and-shutdown
Console(config-if)#port security
Console(config-if)#
6.6 Configuring 802.1x Port Authentication
Network switches can provide open and easy access to network resources by simply attaching a client PC.
Although this automatic configuration and access is a desirable feature, it also allows unauthorized
personnel to easily intrude and possibly gain access to sensitive network data.
The IEEE 802.1x (dot1x) standard defines a port-based access control procedure that prevents
unauthorized access to a network by requiring users to first submit credentials for authentication. Access to
all switch ports in a network can be centrally controlled from a server, which means that authorized users
can use the same credentials for authentication from any point within the network.
This switch uses the Extensible Authentication Protocol over LANs (EAPOL) to exchange authentication
protocol messages with the client, and a remote RADIUS authentication server to verify user identity and
access rights. When a client (For example, Supplicant) connects to a switch port, the switch (For example,
Authenticator) responds with an EAPOL identity request. The client provides its identity (such as a user
name) in an EAPOL response to the switch, which it forwards to the RADIUS server. The RADIUS server
verifies the client identity and sends an access challenge back to the client. The EAP packet from the
RADIUS server contains not only the challenge, but also the authentication method to be used. The client
can reject the authentication method and request another, depending on the configuration of the client
software and the RADIUS server. The authentication method currently supported is MD5 only. The client
responds to the appropriate method with its password. The RADIUS server verifies the client credentials and
responds with an accept or reject packet. If authentication is successful, the switch allows the client to
access the network. Otherwise, network access is denied and the port remains blocked.
The operation of 802.1x on the switch requires the following:
•
The switch must have an IP address assigned.
•
RADIUS authentication must be enabled on the switch and the IP address of the RADIUS server
specified.
•
Each switch port that will be used must be set to dot1x “Auto” mode.
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67
•
Each client that needs to be authenticated must have dot1x client software installed and properly
configured.
•
The RADIUS server and 802.1x client support EAP. (The switch only supports EAPOL in order to pass
the EAP packets from the server to the client.)
•
The RADIUS server and client also have to support the same EAP authentication type – MD5, (Some
clients have native support in Windows, otherwise the dot1x client must support it.)
6.6.1: Displaying 802.1x Global Settings
The dot1x protocol includes global parameters that control the client authentication process that runs
between the client and the switch (For example, authenticator), as well as the client identity lookup process
that runs between the switch and authentication server. These parameters are described in this section.
Command Attributes
802.1X Re-authentication – Indicates if switch port requires a client to be re-authenticated after a certain
period.
802.1X Max Request Count – The maximum number of times the switch port will retransmit an EAP request
packet to the client before it times out the authentication session.
Timeout For Quiet Period – Indicates the time that a switch port waits after the Max Request Count has
been exceeded before attempting to acquire a new client.
Timeout For Re-authentication Period – Indicates the time after which a connected client must be reauthenticated.
Timeout For Tx Period – The period during an authentication session that the switch waits before retransmitting an EAP packet.
Supplicant Timeout – The time the switch waits for a client response to an EAP request.
Server Timeout – The time the switch waits for a response from the authentication server (RADIUS) to an
authentication request.
Re-authentication Max Count – The number of times the switch will attempt to re-authenticate a connected
client before the port becomes unauthorized.
Configuring Switch Using the Web or CLI
Web
Click Security – 802.1x, Information.
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CLI
This example shows the default protocol settings for 802.1x. For a description of the additional entries
displayed in the CLI, See the show dot1x command.
Console#show dot1x
Global 802.1X Parameters
reauth-enabled: yes
reauth-period: 3600
quiet-period:
60
tx-period:
30
supp-timeout:
30
server-timeout: 30
reauth-max:
2
max-req:
2
802.1X Port Summary
Port Name
Status
1/1
disabled
1/2
disabled
.
.
.
1/47
disabled
1/48
enabled
Operation Mode
Single-Host
Single-Host
Single-Host
Single-Host
Mode
ForceAuthorized
ForceAuthorized
ForceAuthorized
Auto
Authorized
n/a
n/a
n/a
yes
802.1X Port Details
802.1X is disabled on port 1/1
802.1X is disabled on port 1/2
.
.
.
.
802.1X is disabled on port
1/47
802.1X is enabled on port 1/48
Status
Authorized
Operation mode
Single-Host
Max count
5
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Port-control
Supplicant
Current Identifier
Auto
00-00-e8-49-5e-dc
3
Authenticator State Machine
State
Authenticated
Reauth Count
0
Backend State Machine
State
Idle
Request Count
0
Identifier(Server) 2
Reauthentication State Machine
State
Initialize
Console#
6.6.2 Configuring 802.1x Global Settings
The dot1x protocol includes global parameters that control the client authentication process that runs
between the client and the switch (For example, authenticator), as well as the client identity lookup process
that runs between the switch and authentication server. The configuration options for parameters are
described in this section.
Command Attributes
802.1X Re-authentication – Sets the client to be re-authenticated after the interval specified by the Timeout
for Re-authentication Period. Re-authentication can be used to detect if a new device is plugged into a
switch port. (Default: Disabled)
802.1X Max Request Count – Sets the maximum number of times the switch port will retransmit an EAP
request packet to the client before it times out the authentication session. (Range: 1-10; Default 2)
Timeout For Quiet Period – Sets the time that a switch port waits after the dot1X Max Request Count has
been exceeded before attempting to acquire a new client. (Range: 1-65535 seconds; Default: 60 seconds)
Timeout For Re-authentication Period – Sets the time after which a connected client must be reauthenticated. (Range: 1-65535 seconds; Default: 3600 seconds)
Timeout For Tx Period – Sets the time during an authentication session that the switch waits before retransmitting an EAP packet. (Range: 1-65535; Default: 30 seconds)
authentication dot1x default (CLI only) – Sets the default authentication server type. Note that the specified
authentication server type must be enabled and properly configured for dot1x to function properly. (Options:
radius).
Configuring Switch Using the Web or CLI
Web
Select Security – 802.1x, Configuration. Enable dot1x globally for the switch, modify any of the
parameters required, and then click Apply.
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CLI
This enables re-authentication and sets all of the global parameters for 802.1x.
Console(config)#dot1x re-authentication
Console(config)#dot1x max-req 5
Console(config)#dot1x timeout quiet-period 40
Console(config)#dot1x timeout re-authperiod 5
Console(config)#dot1x timeout tx-period 40
Console(config)#authentication dot1x default radius
Console(config)#
6.6.3 Configuring Port Authorization Mode
When dot1x is enabled, you need to specify the dot1x authentication mode configured for each port.
Command Attributes
Status – Indicates if authentication is enabled or disabled on the port.
Operation Mode – Allows single or multiple hosts (clients) to connect to an 802.1X-authorized port. (Range:
Single-Host, Multi-Host; Default: Single-Host)
Max Count – The maximum number of hosts that can connect to a port when the Multi-Host operation mode
is selected. (Range: 1-20; Default: 5)
Mode – Sets the authentication mode to one of the following options:
•
Auto – Requires a dot1x-aware client to be authorized by the authentication server. Clients that are not
dot1x-aware will be denied access.
•
Force-Authorized – Forces the port to grant access to all clients, either dot1x-aware or otherwise.
•
Force-Unauthorized – Forces the port to deny access to all clients, either dot1x-aware or otherwise.
Authorized – Sets the authorization:
•
Yes – Connected client is authorized.
•
No – Connected client is not authorized.
•
Blank – Displays nothing when dot1x is disabled on a port.
Supplicant – Indicates the MAC address of a connected client.
Trunk – Indicates if the port is configured as a trunk port.
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71
Configuring Switch Using the Web or CLI
Web
Click Security – 802.1x, Port Configuration. Select the authentication mode from the drop-down box and
click Apply.
CLI
This example sets the authentication mode to enable 802.1x on port 2, and allows up to ten clients to
connect to this port.
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/2
Console(config-if)#dot1x port-control auto
Console(config-if)#dot1x operation-mode multi-host max-count 10
Console(config-if)#
6.6.4 Displaying 802.1x Statistics
This switch can display statistics for dot1x protocol exchanges for any port.
The following table lists the parameters and descriptions for the 802.1x statistical values
Parameter
Description
Rx EXPOL Start
The number of EAPOL Start frames that have been received by this
Authenticator.
Rx EAPOL Logoff
The number of EAPOL Logoff frames that have been received by this
Authenticator.
Rx EAPOL Invalid
The number of EAPOL frames that have been received by this Authenticator in
which the frame type is not recognized.
Rx EAPOL Total
The number of valid EAPOL frames of any type that have been received by this
Authenticator.
Rx EAP Resp/Id
The number of EAP Resp/Id frames that have been received by this
Authenticator.
Rx EAP Resp/Oth
The number of valid EAP Response frames (other than Resp/Id frames) that
have been received by this Authenticator.
Rx EAP LenError
The number of EAPOL frames that have been received by this Authenticator in
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which the Packet Body Length field is invalid.
Rx Last EAPOLVer
The protocol version number carried in the most recently received EAPOL frame.
Rx Last EAPOLSrc
The source MAC address carried in the most recently received EAPOL frame.
Tx EAPOL Total
The number of EAPOL frames of any type that have been transmitted by this
Authenticator.
Tx EAP Req/Id
The number of EAP Req/Id frames that have been transmitted by this
Authenticator.
Tx EAP Req/Oth
The number of EAP Request frames (other than Rq/Id frames) that have been
transmitted by this Authenticator.
Configuring Switch Using the Web or CLI
Web
Select Security – 802.1x, Statistics. Select the required port and then click Query. Click Refresh to update
the statistics.
CLI
This example displays the 802.1x statistics for port 4.
Console#show dot1x statistics interface ethernet 1/4
Eth 1/4
Rx: EAPOL
Start
2
Last
EAPOLVer
1
Tx: EAPOL
Total
2017
EAPOL
Logoff
0
EAPOL
Invalid
0
EAPOL
Total
1007
EAP
Resp/Id
672
EAP
EAP
Resp/Oth LenError
0
0
Last
EAPOLSrc
00-00-E8-98-73-21
EAP
Req/Id
1005
EAP
Req/Oth
0
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Console#
6.7 Configuring Access Control Lists
Access Control Lists (ACL) provide packet filtering for IP frames (based on address, protocol, Layer 4
protocol port number or TCP control code) or any frames (based on MAC address or Ethernet type). To filter
incoming packets, first create an access list, add the required rules, specify a mask to modify the
precedence in which the rules are checked, and then bind the list to a specific port.
6.7.1 Guidelines
An ACL is a sequential list of permit or deny conditions that apply to IP addresses, MAC addresses, or other
more specific criteria. This switch tests ingress or egress packets against the conditions in an ACL one by
one. A packet will be accepted as soon as it matches a permit rule, or dropped as soon as it matches a deny
rule. If no rules match for a list of all permit rules, the packet is dropped; and if no rules match for a list of all
deny rules, the packet is accepted.
The following restrictions apply to ACLs:
Each ACL can have up to 32 rules.
The maximum number of ACLs is also 32.
The average number of rules bound to the ports should not exceed 20.
You must configure a mask for an ACL rule before you can bind it to a port or set the queue or frame
priorities associated with the rule.
When an ACL is bound to an interface as an egress filter, all entries in the ACL must be deny rules.
Otherwise, the bind operation will fail.
The switch does not support the explicit “deny any any” rule for the egress IP ACL or the egress MAC ACLs.
If these rules are included in ACL, and you attempt to bind the ACL to an interface for egress checking, the
bind operation will fail.
The order in which active ACLs are checked is as follows:
1. User-defined rules in the Egress MAC ACL for egress ports.
2. User-defined rules in the Egress IP ACL for egress ports.
3. User-defined rules in the Ingress MAC ACL for ingress ports.
4. User-defined rules in the Ingress IP ACL for ingress ports.
5. Explicit default rule (permit any any) in the ingress IP ACL for ingress ports.
6. Explicit default rule (permit any any) in the ingress MAC ACL for ingress ports.
7. If no explicit rule is matched, the implicit default is permit all.
6.7.2 Setting the ACL Name and Type
Use the ACL Configuration page to designate the name and type of an ACL.
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Asanté IntraCore 36000 Series
Command Attributes
Name – Name of the ACL. (Maximum length: 16 characters)
Type – There are three filtering modes:
•
Standard: IP ACL mode that filters packets based on the source IP address.
•
Extended: IP ACL mode that filters packets based on source or destination IP address, as well as
protocol type and protocol port number. If the “TCP” protocol is specified, then you can also filter
packets based on the TCP control code.
•
MAC: MAC ACL mode that filters packets based on the source or destination MAC address and the
Ethernet frame type (RFC 1060).
Configuring Switch Using the Web or CLI
Web
Click Security – ACL, Configuration. Enter an ACL name in the Name field, select the list type (IP
Standard, IP Extended, or MAC), and click Add to open the configuration page for the new list.
CLI
This example creates a standard IP ACL named asante.
Console(config)#access-list ip standard asante
Console(config-std-acl)#
6.7.3 Configuring a Standard IP ACL
Command Attributes
Action – An ACL can contain all permit rules or all deny rules. (Default: Permit rules)
IP – Specifies the source IP address. Use “Any” to include all possible addresses, “Host” to specify a
specific host address in the Address field, or “IP” to specify a range of addresses with the Address and
SubMask fields. (Options: Any, Host, IP; Default: Any)
Address – Source IP address.
SubMask – A subnet mask containing four integers from 0 to 255, each separated by a period. The mask
uses 1 bits to indicate “match” and 0 bits to indicate “ignore.” The mask is bitwise appended with the
specified source IP address, and compared with the address for each IP packet entering the port(s) to which
this ACL has been assigned.
User’s Manual
75
Configuring Switch Using the Web or CLI
Web
Specify the action (For example, Permit or Deny). Select the address type (Any, Host, or IP). If you select
“Host,” enter a specific address. If you select “IP,” enter a subnet address and the mask for an address
range. Then click Add.
Jaci need picture here Need Breen to help with illo
CLI
This example configures one permit rule for the specific address 10.1.1.21 and another rule for the address
range 168.92.16.x – 168.92.31.x using a bitmask.
Console(config-std-acl)#permit host 10.1.1.21
Console(config-std-acl)#permit 168.92.16.0 255.255.240.0
Console(config-std-acl)#
6.7.4 Configuring an Extended IP ACL
Command Attributes
Action – An ACL contains either all permit rules or all deny rules. (Default: Permit rules)
Src/Dst IP – Specifies the source or destination IP address. Use “Any” to include all possible addresses,
“Host” to specify a specific host address in the Address field, or “IP” to specify a range of addresses with the
Address and SubMask fields. (Options: Any, Host, IP; Default: Any)
Src/Dst Address – Source or destination IP address.
Src/Dst SubMask – Subnet mask for source or destination address. (See the description for SubMask in
section 6.7.3 Configuring a Standard IP ACL.)
Service Type – Packet priority settings based on the following criteria:
•
Precedence – IP precedence level. (Range: 0-7)
•
TOS – Type of Service level. (Range: 0-15)
•
DSCP – DSCP priority level. (Range: 0-64)
Protocol – Specifies the protocol type to match as TCP, UDP or Others, where others indicates a specific
protocol number (0-255). (Options: TCP, UDP, Others; Default: TCP)
Src/Dst Port – Source/destination port number for the specified protocol type. (Range: 0-65535)
Src/Dst Port Bitmask – Decimal number representing the port bits to match. (Range: 0-65535)
Control Code – Decimal number (representing a bit string) that specifies flag bits in byte 14 of the TCP
header. (Range: 0-63)
Control Bitmask – Decimal number representing the code bits to match.
The control bitmask is a decimal number (for an equivalent binary bit mask) that is applied to the control
code. Enter a decimal number, where the equivalent binary bit “1” means to match a bit and “0” means to
ignore a bit. The following bits may be specified:
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Asanté IntraCore 36000 Series
•
1 (fin) – Finish
•
2 (syn) – Synchronize
•
4 (rst) – Reset
•
8 (psh) – Push
•
16 (ack) – Acknowledgement
•
32 (urg) – Urgent pointer
For example, use the code value and mask below to catch packets with the following flags set:
SYN flag valid, use control-code 2, control bitmask 2
Both SYN and ACK valid, use control-code 18, control bitmask 18
SYN valid and ACK invalid, use control-code 2, control bitmask 18
Configuring Switch Using the Web or CLI
Web
Specify the action (For example, Permit or Deny). Specify the source and/or destination addresses. Select
the address type (Any, Host, or IP). If you select “Host,” enter a specific address. If you select “IP,” enter a
subnet address and the mask for an address range. Set any other required criteria, such as service type,
protocol type, or TCP control code. Then click Add.
Jaci need pic here 3-29 Need Breen to help
CLI
This example adds three rules:
•
Accept any incoming packets if the source address is in subnet 10.7.1.x. For example, if the rule is
matched; For example, the rule (10.7.1.0 & 255.255.255.0) equals the masked address (10.7.1.2 &
255.255.255.0), the packet passes through.
•
Allow TCP packets from class C addresses 192.168.1.0 to any destination address when set for
destination TCP port 80 (For example, HTTP).
•
Permit all TCP packets from class C addresses 192.168.1.0 with the TCP control code set to “SYN”.
Console(config-ext-acl)#permit 10.7.1.1 255.255.255.0 any
Console(config-ext-acl)#permit 192.168.1.0 255.255.255.0 any destination-port
80
Console(config-ext-acl)#permit tcp 192.168.1.0 255.255.255.0 any
control-flag 2 2
Console(config-ext-acl)#
6.7.5 Configuring a MAC ACL
Egress MAC ACLs only work for destination-mac-known packets, not for multicast, broadcast, or
destination-mac-unknown packets.
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77
Command Attributes
Action – An ACL can contain all permit rules or all deny rules. (Default: Permit rules)
Source/Destination MAC – Use “Any” to include all possible addresses, “Host” to indicate a specific MAC
address, or “MAC” to specify an address range with the Address and Bitmask fields. (Options: Any, Host,
MAC; Default: Any)
Source/Destination MAC Address – Source or destination MAC address.
Source/Destination MAC Bitmask – Hexadecimal mask for source or destination MAC address.
VID – VLAN ID. (Range: 1-4094)
VID Mask – VLAN bitmask. (Range: 1-4094)
Ethernet Type – This option can only be used to filter Ethernet II formatted packets. (Range: 600-fff hex.)
A detailed listing of Ethernet protocol types can be found in RFC 1060. A few of the common types include
0800 (IP), 0806 (ARP) and 8137 (IPX).
Ethernet Type Mask – Protocol bitmask. (Range: 600-fff hex.)
Packet Format – This attribute includes the following packet types:
•
Any – Any Ethernet packet type.
•
Untagged-eth2 – Untagged Ethernet II packets.
•
Untagged-802.3 – Untagged Ethernet 802.3 packets.
•
Tagged-eth2 – Tagged Ethernet II packets.
•
Tagged-802.3 – Tagged Ethernet 802.3 packets.
Configuring Switch Using the Web or CLI
Web
Specify the action (For example, Permit or Deny). Specify the source and/or destination addresses. Select
the address type (Any, Host, or MAC). If you select “Host,” enter a specific address (e.g., 11-22-33-44-5566). If you select “MAC,” enter a base address and a hexadecimal bitmask for an address range. Set any
other required criteria, such as VID, Ethernet type, or packet format. Then click Add.
Jaci need pic here 3-30 Need breen to help
CLI
This rule permits packets from any source MAC address to the destination address 00-e0-29-94-34-de
where the Ethernet type is 0800.
Console(config-mac-acl)#permit any host 00-e0-29-94-34-de ethertype 0800
Console(config-mac-acl)#
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6.7.6 Configuring ACL Masks
You can specify optional masks that control the order in which ACL rules are checked. The switch includes
two system default masks that pass/filter packets matching the permit/deny rules specified in an ingress
ACL. You can also configure up to seven user-defined masks for an ingress or egress ACL. A mask must be
bound exclusively to one of the basic ACL types (For example, Ingress IP ACL, Egress IP ACL, Ingress
MAC ACL or Egress MAC ACL), but a mask can be bound to up to four ACLs of the same type.
Follow these guidelines:
Up to seven entries can be assigned to an ACL mask.
Packets crossing a port are checked against all the rules in the ACL until a match is found. The order in
which these packets are checked is determined by the mask, and not the order in which the ACL rules are
entered.
Create the required ACLs and the ingress or egress masks before mapping an ACL to an interface.
You must configure a mask for an ACL rule before you can bind it to a port or set the queue or frame
priorities associated with the rule.
Use the ACL Mask Configuration page to edit the mask for the Ingress IP ACL, Egress IP ACL, Ingress MAC
ACL or Egress MAC ACL.
Configuring Switch Using the Web or CLI
Web
Click Security – ACL, Mask Configuration. Click Edit for one of the basic mask types to open the
configuration page.
CLI
This example creates an IP ingress mask, and then adds two rules. Each rule is checked in order of
precedence to look for a match in the ACL entries. The first entry matching a mask is applied to the inbound
packet.
Console(config)#access-list ip mask-precedence in
Console(config-ip-mask-acl)#mask host any
Console(config-ip-mask-acl)#mask 255.255.255.0 any
Console(config-ip-mask-acl)#
6.7.7 Configuring an IP ACL Mask
This mask defines the fields to check in the IP header.
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79
Follow these guidelines.
Masks that include an entry for a Layer 4 protocol source port or destination port can only be applied to
packets with a header length of exactly five bytes.
Command Attributes
Src/Dst IP – Specifies the source or destination IP address. Use “Any” to match any address, “Host” to
specify a host address (not a subnet), or “IP” to specify a range of addresses. (Options: Any, Host, IP;
Default: Any)
Src/Dst IP Bitmask – Source or destination address of rule must match this bitmask. (See the description for
SubMask in section 6.7.3 Configuring a Standard IP ACL.)
Protocol Bitmask – Check the protocol field.
Service Type – Check the rule for the specified priority type. (Options: Precedence, TOS, DSCP; Default:
TOS)
Src/Dst Port Bitmask – Protocol port of rule must match this bitmask. (Range: 0-65535)
Control Bitmask – Control flags of rule must match this bitmask. (Range: 0-63)
Configuring Switch Using the Web or CLI
Web
Configure the mask to match the required rules in the IP ingress or egress ACLs. Set the mask to check for
any source or destination address, a specific host address, or an address range. Include other criteria to
search for in the rules, such as a protocol type or one of the service types. Alternatively, use a bitmask to
search for specific protocol port(s) or TCP control code(s). Then click Add.
CLI
This shows that the entries in the mask override the precedence in which the rules are entered into the ACL.
In the following example, packets with the source address 10.1.1.1 are dropped because the “deny 10.1.1.1
255.255.255.255” rule has the higher precedence according the “mask host any” entry.
Console(config)#access-list ip standard A2
Console(config-std-acl)#permit 10.1.1.0 255.255.255.0
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Asanté IntraCore 36000 Series
Console(config-std-acl)#deny 10.1.1.1 255.255.255.255
Console(config-std-acl)#exit
Console(config)#access-list ip mask-precedence in
Console(config-ip-mask-acl)#mask host any
Console(config-ip-mask-acl)#mask 255.255.255.0 any
Console(config-ip-mask-acl)#
6.7.8 Configuring a MAC ACL Mask
This mask defines the fields to check in the packet header.
Follow these guidelines.
You must configure a mask for an ACL rule before you can bind it to a port.
Command Attributes
Source/Destination MAC – Use “Any” to match any address, “Host” to specify the host address for a single
node, or “MAC” to specify a range of addresses. (Options: Any, Host, MAC; Default: Any)
Source/Destination MAC Bitmask – Address of rule must match this bitmask.
VID Bitmask – VLAN ID of rule must match this bitmask.
Ethernet Type Bitmask – Ethernet type of rule must match this bitmask.
Packet Format Bitmask – A packet format must be specified in the rule.
Configuring Switch Using the Web or CLI
Web
Configure the mask to match the required rules in the MAC ingress or egress ACLs. Set the mask to check
for any source or destination address, a host address, or an address range. Use a bitmask to search for
specific VLAN ID(s) or Ethernet type(s). Alternatively, check for rules where a packet format was specified.
Then click Add.
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81
CLI
This example shows how to create an Ingress MAC ACL and bind it to a port. You can see the mask has
changed the order of the rules.
Console(config)#access-list mac M4
Console(config-mac-acl)#permit any any
Console(config-mac-acl)#deny tagged-eth2 00-11-11-11-11-11 ff-ff-ff-ff-ff-ff
any vid 3
Console(config-mac-acl)#end
Console#show access-list
MAC access-list M4:
permit any any
deny tagged-eth2 host 00-11-11-11-11-11 any vid 3
Console(config)#access-list mac mask-precedence in
Console(config-mac-mask-acl)#mask pktformat ff-ff-ff-ff-ff-ff any vid
Console(config-mac-mask-acl)#exit
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/12
Console(config-if)#mac access-group M4 in
Console(config-if)#end
Console#show access-list
MAC access-list M4:
deny tagged-eth2 host 00-11-11-11-11-11 any vid 3
permit any any
MAC ingress mask ACL:
mask pktformat host any vid
Console#
6.7.9 Binding a Port to an Access Control List
After configuring the Access Control Lists (ACL), you can bind the ports that need to filter traffic to the
appropriate ACLs. You can only bind a port to one ACL for each basic type – IP ingress, IP egress, MAC
ingress and MAC egress.
Follow these guidelines.
You must configure a mask for an ACL rule before you can bind it to a port.
This switch supports ACLs for both ingress and egress filtering. You can only bind one IP ACL and one MAC
ACL to any port for ingress filtering, and one IP ACL and one MAC ACL to any port for egress filtering. In
other words, only four ACLs can be bound to an interface – Ingress IP ACL, Egress IP ACL, Ingress MAC
ACL and Egress MAC ACL.
When an ACL is bound to an interface as an egress filter, all entries in the ACL must be deny rules.
Otherwise, the bind operation will fail.
The switch does not support the explicit “deny any any” rule for the egress IP ACL or the egress MAC ACLs.
If these rules are included in ACL, and you attempt to bind the ACL to an interface for egress checking, the
bind operation will fail.
Command Attributes
Port – Fixed port or SFP module. (Range: 1-24, 1-48)
IP – Specifies the IP ACL to bind to a port.
MAC – Specifies the MAC ACL to bind to a port.
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IN – ACL for ingress packets.
OUT – ACL for egress packets.
ACL Name – Name of the ACL.
Configuring Switch Using the Web or CLI
Web
Click Security – ACL, Port Binding. Mark the Enable field for the port you want to bind to an ACL for
ingress or egress traffic, select the required ACL from the drop-down list, then click Apply.
CLI
This examples assigns an IP and MAC ingress ACL to port 1, and an IP ingress ACL to port 2.
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/1
Console(config-if)#ip access-group david in
Console(config-if)#mac access-group jerry in
Console(config-if)#exit
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/2
Console(config-if)#ip access-group david in
Console(config-if)#
6.8 Configuring IP Filters
The switch allows you to create a web browser list of up to 16 IP addresses or IP address groups that are
allowed access to the switch via web browser, SNMP, or Telnet.
6.8.1 Guidelines
To specify the clients allowed management access, enter an IP address to identify a specific host or a range
of valid addresses. For example:
•
IP address 192.168.1.1 – Specifies a valid IP address of 192.168.1.1 for a single client.
The default setting is null, which allows all IP groups management access to the switch. If one or more IP
addresses are configured, IP filtering is enabled and only addresses listed in this table will have
management access.
Note: Subnet masks may only be specified at the command line.
Command Attributes
Web IP Filter List – Configures IP address(es) for the web group.
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SNMP IP Filter List – Configures IP address(es) for the SNMP group.
Telnet IP Filter List – Configures IP address(es) for the Telnet group.
IP Filter List – IP addresses which are allowed management access to this interface.
Start IP Address – A single IP address, or the starting address of a range.
End IP Address – The end address of a range.
Configuring Switch Using the Web or CLI
Web
Click Security – IP Filter. Enter the addresses that are allowed management access to an interface, and
click Add IP Filtering Entry.
CLI
This example allows SNMP access for a specific client.
Console(config)#management snmp-client 10.1.2.3
Console(config)#end
Console#show management all-client
Management Ip Filter
Http-Client:
Start ip address End ip address
----------------------------------------------Snmp-Client:
Start ip address End ip address
----------------------------------------------1. 10.1.2.3
10.1.2.3
Telnet-Client:
Start ip address End ip address
----------------------------------------------Console#
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Chapter 7: Configuring Ports
7.1 Displaying Connection Status
You can use the Port Information or Trunk Information pages to display the current connection status,
including link state, speed/duplex mode, flow control, and auto-negotiation.
Field Attributes (Web)
Name – Interface label.
Type – Indicates the port type.
(1000BASE-T, 1000BASE-SX, 1000BASE-LX or 100BASE-LH)
Admin Status – Shows if the interface is enabled or disabled.
Oper Status – Indicates if the link is Up or Down.
Speed Duplex Status – Shows the current speed and duplex mode. (Auto, or fixed choice)
Flow Control Status – Indicates the type of flow control currently in use.
(IEEE 802.3x, Back-Pressure or None)
Autonegotiation – Shows if auto-negotiation is enabled or disabled.
Forced Mode1 – Shows the forced/preferred port type to use for combination ports 21-24 or 45-48. (CopperForced, Copper-Preferred-Auto, SFP-Forced, SFP-Preferred-Auto)
Trunk Member1 – Shows if port is a trunk member.
Creation2 – Shows if a trunk is manually configured or dynamically set via LACP.
1: Port Information only.
2: Trunk Information only
Configuring Switch Using the Web or CLI
Web
Click Port – Port Information or Trunk Information.
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Field Attributes (CLI)
Basic information
Port type – Indicates the port type. (1000BASE-T, 1000BASE-SX, 1000BASE-LX or 1000BASE-LH)
MAC address – The physical layer address for this port. (To access this item on the web, see section 2.4
Setting an IP Address.)
Configuration
Name – Interface label.
Port admin – Shows if the interface is enabled or disabled (For example, up or down).
Speed-duplex – Shows the current speed and duplex mode. (Auto, or fixed choice)
Capabilities – Specifies the capabilities to be advertised for a port during auto-negotiation. (To access this
item on the web, see section 7.2 Configuring Interface Connections.) The following capabilities are
supported.
•
10half - Supports 10 Mbps half-duplex operation
•
10full - Supports 10 Mbps full-duplex operation
•
100half - Supports 100 Mbps half-duplex operation
•
100full - Supports 100 Mbps full-duplex operation
•
1000full - Supports 1000 Mbps full-duplex operation
•
Sym - Transmits and receives pause frames for flow control
•
FC - Supports flow control
Broadcast storm – Shows if broadcast storm control is enabled or disabled.
Broadcast storm limit – Shows the broadcast storm threshold. (500 - 262143 packets per second)
Flow control – Shows if flow control is enabled or disabled.
LACP – Shows if LACP is enabled or disabled.
Port Security – Shows if port security is enabled or disabled.
Max MAC count – Shows the maximum number of MAC address that can be learned by a port. (0 - 20
addresses)
Port security action – Shows the response to take when a security violation is detected. (shutdown, trap,
trap-and-shutdown)
Combo forced mode – Shows the forced/preferred port type to use for combination ports 21-24 or 45-48.
(copper forced, copper preferred auto, SFP forced, SFP preferred auto)
Current status
Link Status – Indicates if the link is up or down.
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Operation speed-duplex – Shows the current speed and duplex mode.
Flow control type – Indicates the type of flow control currently in use.
(IEEE 802.3x, Back-Pressure or none)
CLI
This example shows the connection status for Port 5.
Console#show interfaces status ethernet 1/5
Information of Eth 1/13
Basic information:
Port type: 1000T
Mac address: 00-30-f1-47-58-46
Configuration:
Name:
Port admin: Up
Speed-duplex: Auto
Capabilities: 10half, 10full, 100half, 100full, 1000full,
Broadcast storm: Enabled
Broadcast storm limit: 500 packets/second
Flow control: Disabled
Lacp: Disabled
Port security: Disabled
Max MAC count: 0
Port security action: None
Combo forced mode: None
Current status:
Link status: Down
Operation speed-duplex: 100full
Flow control type: None
Console#
7.2 Configuring Interface Connections
You can use the Port Configuration or Trunk Configuration page to enable/disable an interface, set autonegotiation and the interface capabilities to advertise, or manually fix the speed, duplex mode, and flow
control.
Command Attributes
Name – Allows you to label an interface. (Range: 1-64 characters)
Admin – Allows you to manually disable an interface. You can disable an interface due to abnormal behavior
(e.g., excessive collisions), and then reenable it after the problem has been resolved. You may also disable
an interface for security reasons.
Speed/Duplex – Allows you to manually set the port speed and duplex mode.
Flow Control – Allows automatic or manual selection of flow control.
Autonegotiation (Port Capabilities) – Allows auto-negotiation to be enabled/disabled. When auto-negotiation
is enabled, you need to specify the capabilities to be advertised. When auto-negotiation is disabled, you can
force the settings for speed, mode, and flow control. The following capabilities are supported.
•
10half - Supports 10 Mbps half-duplex operation
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•
10full - Supports 10 Mbps full-duplex operation
•
100half - Supports 100 Mbps half-duplex operation
•
100full - Supports 100 Mbps full-duplex operation
•
1000full - Supports 1000 Mbps full-duplex operation
•
Sym (Gigabit only) - Check this item to transmit and receive pause frames, or clear it to auto-negotiate
the sender and receiver for asymmetric pause frames. (The current switch chip only supports symmetric
pause frames.)
•
FC - Supports flow control. Flow control can eliminate frame loss by “blocking” traffic from end stations
or segments connected directly to the switch when its buffers fill. When enabled, back pressure is used
for half-duplex operation and IEEE 802.3x for full-duplex operation. (Avoid using flow control on a port
connected to a hub unless it is actually required to solve a problem. Otherwise back pressure jamming
signals may degrade overall performance for the segment attached to the hub.)
(Default: Autonegotiation enabled; Advertised capabilities for 1000BASE-T – 10half, 10full, 100half,
100full, 1000full; 1000BASE-SX/LX/LH – 1000full)
Forced Mode – Shows the forced/preferred port type to use for the combination ports 21-24 or 45-48.
•
Copper-Forced - Always uses the built-in RJ-45 port.
•
Copper-Preferred-Auto - Uses the built-in RJ-45 port if both combination types are functioning and the
RJ-45 port has a valid link.
•
SFP-Forced - Always uses the SFP port (even if module is not installed).
•
SFP-Preferred-Auto - Uses SFP port if both combination types are functioning and the SFP port has a
valid link.
Trunk – Indicates if a port is a member of a trunk. To create trunks and select port members, see section 7.3
Configuring Trunk Groups.
Note: Auto-negotiation must be disabled before you can configure or force the interface to use the
Speed/Duplex Mode or Flow Control options.
Configuring Switch Using the Web or CLI
Web
Click Port – Port Configuration or Trunk Configuration. Modify the required interface settings, and click
Apply.
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CLI
Select the interface, and then enter the required settings.
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/13
Console(config-if)#description RD SW#13
Console(config-if)#shutdown
.
Console(config-if)#no shutdown
Console(config-if)#no negotiation
Console(config-if)#speed-duplex 100half
Console(config-if)#flowcontrol
.
Console(config-if)#negotiation
Console(config-if)#capabilities 100half
Console(config-if)#capabilities 100full
Console(config-if)#capabilities flowcontrol
Console(config-if)#exit
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/21
Console(config-if)#combo-forced-mode copper-forced
Console(config-if)#
7.3 Configuring Trunk Groups
You can create multiple links between devices that work as one virtual, aggregate link. A port trunk offers a
dramatic increase in bandwidth for network segments where bottlenecks exist, as well as providing a faulttolerant link between two devices. You can create up to six trunks at a time.
The switch supports both static trunking and dynamic Link Aggregation Control Protocol (LACP). Static
trunks have to be manually configured at both ends of the link, and the switches must comply with the Cisco
EtherChannel standard. On the other hand, LACP configured ports can automatically negotiate a trunked
link with LACP-configured ports on another device. You can configure any number of ports on the switch as
LACP, as long as they are not already configured as part of a static trunk. If ports on another device are also
configured as LACP, the switch and the other device will negotiate a trunk link between them. If an LACP
trunk consists of more than four ports, all other ports will be placed in a standby mode. Should one link in the
trunk fail, one of the standby ports will automatically be activated to replace it.
Usage Guidelines
Besides balancing the load across each port in the trunk, the other ports provide redundancy by taking over
the load if a port in the trunk fails. Before making any physical connections between devices, use the web
interface or CLI to specify the trunk on the devices at both ends. When using a port trunk, take note of the
following points:
•
Finish configuring port trunks before you connect the corresponding network cables between switches
to avoid creating a loop.
•
You can create up to six trunks on the switch, with up to eight ports per trunk.
•
The ports at both ends of a connection must be configured as trunk ports.
•
When configuring static trunks on switches of different types, they must be compatible with the Cisco
EtherChannel standard.
•
The ports at both ends of a trunk must be configured in an identical manner, including communication
mode (For example, speed, duplex mode and flow control), VLAN assignments, and CoS settings.
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•
All the ports in a trunk have to be treated as a whole when moved from/to, added or deleted from a
VLAN.
•
STP, VLAN, and IGMP settings can only be made for the entire trunk.
7.3.1 Creating a Static Trunk
When configuring static trunks, you may not be able to link switches of different types, depending on the
manufacturer’s implementation. The static trunks on this switch are Cisco EtherChannel compatible.
To avoid creating a loop in the network, be sure you add a static trunk via the configuration interface before
connecting the ports, and disconnect the ports before removing a static trunk via the configuration interface.
Configuring Switch Using the Web or CLI
Web
Click Port – Trunk Membership. Enter a trunk ID of 1-6 in the Trunk field, select any of the switch ports
from the scroll-down port list, and click Add. After you have completed adding ports to the member list, click
Apply.
CLI
This example creates trunk 2 with ports 1 and 2. Just connect these ports to two static trunk ports on
another switch to form a trunk.
Console(config)#interface port-channel 1
Console(config-if)#exit
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/1
Console(config-if)#channel-group 1
Console(config-if)#exit
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/2
Console(config-if)#channel-group 1
Console(config-if)#end
Console#show interfaces status port-channel 1
Information of Trunk 1
Basic information:
Port type: 1000T
Mac address: 00-00-E8-AA-AA-01
Configuration:
Name:
Port admin: Up
Speed-duplex: Auto
Capabilities: 10half, 10full, 100half, 100full, 1000full,
Flow control: Disabled
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Port security: Disabled
Max MAC count: 0
Current status:
Created by: User
Link status: Down
Operation speed-duplex: 1000full
Flow control type: None
Member Ports: Eth1/1, Eth1/2,
Console#
7.4 Enabling LACP on Selected Ports
To avoid creating a loop in the network, be sure you enable LACP before connecting the ports, and also
disconnect the ports before disabling LACP.
If the target switch has also enabled LACP on the connected ports, the trunk will be activated automatically.
A trunk formed with another switch using LACP will automatically be assigned the next available trunk ID.
If more than four ports attached to the same target switch have LACP enabled, the additional ports will be
placed in standby mode, and will only be enabled if one of the active links fails.
All ports on both ends of an LACP trunk must be configured for full duplex, by forced either mode or autonegotiation.
Configuring Switch Using the Web or CLI
Web
Click Port – LACP, Configuration. Select any of the switch ports from the scroll-down port list and click
Add. After you have completed adding ports to the member list, click Apply.
CLI
The following example enables LACP for ports 1 to 6. Just connect these ports to LACP-enabled trunk ports
on another switch to form a trunk.
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/1
Console(config-if)#lacp
Console(config-if)#exit
.
.
.
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Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/6
Console(config-if)#lacp
Console(config-if)#end
Console#show interfaces status port-channel 1
Information of Trunk 1
Basic information:
Port type: 1000T
Mac address: 22-22-22-22-22-2d
Configuration:
Name:
Port admin status: Up
Speed-duplex: Auto
Capabilities: 10half, 10full, 100half, 100full, 1000full,
Flow control status: Disabled
Port security: Disabled
Max MAC count: 0
Port security action: None
Combo forced mode: None
Current status:
Created by: Lacp
Link status: Up
Port operation status: Up
Operation speed-duplex: 1000full
Flow control type: None
Member Ports: Eth1/1, Eth1/2, Eth1/3, Eth1/4, Eth1/5, Eth1/6,
Console#
7.4.1 Configuring LACP Parameters
Dynamically Creating a Port Channel
Ports assigned to a common port channel must meet the following criteria:
•
Ports must have the same LACP System Priority.
•
Ports must have the same LACP port Admin Key.
•
If the “port channel” Admin Key is set (lacp admin-key command), then the port Admin Key must be set
to the same value for a port to be allowed to join a channel group.
Note: If the port channel admin key (lacp admin-key command) is not set (through the CLI) when a
channel group is formed (it has a null value of 0), this key is set to the same value as the port admin key
used by the interfaces that joined the group (lacp admin-key command as described in Chapter 16).
Command Attributes
Set Port Actor – This menu sets the local side of an aggregate link; For example, the ports on this switch.
Port – Port number. (Range:1-24, 1-48)
System Priority – LACP system priority is used to determine link aggregation group (LAG) membership, and
to identify this device to other switches during LAG negotiations. (Range: 0-65535; Default: 32768)
•
Ports must be configured with the same system priority to join the same LAG.
•
System priority is combined with the switch’s MAC address to form the LAG identifier. This identifier is
used to indicate a specific LAG during LACP negotiations with other systems.
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Admin Key – The LACP administration key must be set to the same value for ports that belong to the same
LAG. (Range: 0-65535; Default: 0)
Port Priority – If a link goes down, LACP port priority is used to select a backup link. (Range: 0-65535;
Default: 32768)
Set Port Partner – This menu sets the remote side of an aggregate link; For example, the ports on the
attached device. The command attributes have the same meaning as those used for the port actor.
Configuring LACP settings for the partner only applies to its administrative state, not its operational state,
and will only take effect the next time an aggregate link is established with the partner.
Configuring Switch Using the Web or CLI
Web
Click Port – LACP, Aggregation Port. Set the System Priority, Admin Key, and Port Priority for the Port
Actor. You can optionally configure these settings for the Port Partner. (Be aware that these settings only
affect the administrative state of the partner, and will not take effect until the next time an aggregate link is
formed with this device.) After you have completed setting the port LACP parameters, click Apply.
CLI
The following example configures LACP parameters for ports 1-6. Ports 1-4 are used as active members of
the LAG; ports 5 and 6 are set to backup mode.
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/1
Console(config-if)#lacp actor system-priority 3
Console(config-if)#lacp actor admin-key 120
Console(config-if)#lacp actor port-priority 128
Console(config-if)#exit
.
.
.
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/6
Console(config-if)#lacp actor system-priority 3
Console(config-if)#lacp actor admin-key 120
Console(config-if)#lacp actor port-priority 512
Console(config-if)#end
Console#show lacp sysid
Channel Group
System Priority
System MAC Address
------------------------------------------------------------------------1
32768
00-00-E9-31-31-31
2
32768
00-00-E9-31-31-31
3
32768
00-00-E9-31-31-31
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4
32768
00-00-E9-31-31-31
5
32768
00-00-E9-31-31-31
6
32768
00-00-E9-31-31-31
Console#show lacp 1 internal
Channel group : 1
------------------------------------------------------------------------Oper Key : 120
Admin Key : 120
Console#
7.4.2 Displaying LACP Port Counters
You can display statistics for LACP protocol messages.
The following table shows the counter information for the LACP statistics
Field
Description
LACPDUs Sent
Number of valid LACPDUs transmitted from this channel group.
LACPDUs Received
Number of valid LACPDUs received on this channel group.
Marker Sent
Number of valid Marker PDUs transmitted from this channel group.
Marker Received
Number of valid Marker PDUs received by this channel group.
LACPDUs Unknown
Pkts
Number of frames received that either (1) Carry the Slow Protocols Ethernet
Type value, but contain an unknown PDU, or (2) are addressed to the Slow
Protocols group MAC Address, but do not carry the Slow Protocols Ethernet
Type.
LACPDUs Illegal Pkts
Number of frames that carry the Slow Protocols Ethernet Type value, but contain
a badly formed PDU or an illegal value of Protocol Subtype.
Configuring Switch Using the Web or CLI
Web
Click Port – LACP, Port Counters Information. Select a member port to display the corresponding
information.
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CLI
The following example displays LACP counters for port channel 1.
Console#show lacp 1 counters
Channel group : 1 -----------------------------------------------------------Eth 1/ 1 --------------------------------------------------------------------LACPDUs Sent : 21
LACPDUs Received : 21
Marker Sent : 0
Marker Received : 0
LACPDUs Unknown Pkts : 0
LACPDUs Illegal Pkts : 0
.
.
.
Console#
7.4.3 Displaying LACP Settings and Status for the Local Side
You can display configuration settings and the operational state for the local side of an link aggregation.
The following table describes the internal configuration information from the LACP display.
Field
Description
Oper Key
Current operational value of the key for the aggregation port.
Admin Key
Current administrative value of the key for the aggregation port.
LACPDUs Internal
Number of seconds before invalidating received LACPDU information.
LACP System Priority
LACP system priority assigned to this port channel.
LACP Port Priority
LACP port priority assigned to this interface within the channel group.
Admin State, Oper
State
Administrative or operational values of the actor’s state parameters:
Expired – The actor’s receive machine is in the expired state;
Defaulted – The actor’s receive machine is using defaulted operational partner
information, administratively configured for the partner.
Distributing – If false, distribution of outgoing frames on this link is disabled; For
example, distribution is currently disabled and is not expected to be enabled in
the absence of administrative changes or changes in received protocol
information.
Collecting – Collection of incoming frames on this link is enabled; For example,
collection is currently enabled and is not expected to be disabled in the absence
of administrative changes or changes in received protocol information.
Synchronization – The System considers this link to be IN_SYNC; For example, it
has been allocated to the correct Link Aggregation Group, the group has been
associated with a compatible Aggregator, and the identity of the Link Aggregation
Group is consistent with the System ID and operational Key information
transmitted.
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Aggregation – The system considers this link to be aggregatable; For example, a
potential candidate for aggregation.
Long timeout – Periodic transmission of LACPDUs uses a slow transmission rate.
LACP-Activity – Activity control value with regard to this link. (0: Passive; 1:
Active)
Web
Click Port – LACP, Port Internal Information. Select a port channel to display the corresponding
information.
Configuring Switch Using the Web or CLI
CLI
The following example displays the LACP configuration settings and operational state for the local side of
port channel 1.
Console#show lacp 1 internal
Channel group : 1
------------------------------------------------------------------------Oper Key : 4
Admin Key : 0
Eth 1/1
------------------------------------------------------------------------LACPDUs Internal : 30 sec
LACP System Priority : 32768
LACP Port Priority : 32768
Admin Key : 4
Oper Key : 4
Admin State : defaulted, aggregation, long timeout, LACP-activity
Oper State : distributing, collecting, synchronization, aggregation,
long timeout, LACP-activity
Console#
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7.4.4 Displaying LACP Settings and Status for the Remote Side
You can display configuration settings and the operational state for the remote side of an link aggregation.
The following table lists the display information from the LACP remote setting output.
Field
Description
Partner Admin System
ID
LAG partner’s system ID assigned by the user.
Partner Oper System
ID
LAG partner’s system ID assigned by the LACP protocol.
Partner Admin Port
Number
Current administrative value of the port number for the protocol Partner.
Partner Oper Port
Number
Operational port number assigned to this aggregation port by the port’s protocol
partner.
Port Admin Priority
Current administrative value of the port priority for the protocol partner.
Port Oper Priority
Priority value assigned to this aggregation port by the partner.
Admin Key
Current administrative value of the Key for the protocol partner.
Oper Key
Current operational value of the Key for the protocol partner.
Admin State
Administrative values of the partner’s state parameters. (See preceding table in
section 7.4.3.)
Oper State
Operational values of the partner’s state parameters. (See preceding table in
section 4.7.3.)
Configuring Switch Using the Web or CLI
Web
Click Port – LACP, Port Neighbors Information. Select a port channel to display the corresponding
information.
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CLI
The following example displays the LACP configuration settings and operational state for the remote side of
port channel 1.
Console#show lacp 1 neighbors
Channel group 1 neighbors
------------------------------------------------------------------------Eth 1/1
------------------------------------------------------------------------Partner Admin System ID : 32768, 00-00-00-00-00-00
Partner Oper System ID : 32768, 00-00-00-00-00-01
Partner Admin Port Number : 1
Partner Oper Port Number : 1
Port Admin Priority : 32768
Port Oper Priority : 32768
Admin Key : 0
Oper Key : 4
Admin State : defaulted, distributing, collecting, synchronization,
long timeout,
Oper State : distributing, collecting, synchronization, aggregation,
long timeout, LACP-activity
.
.
.
Console#
7.5 Setting Broadcast Storm Thresholds
Broadcast storms may occur when a device on your network is malfunctioning, or if application programs are
not well designed or properly configured. If there is too much broadcast traffic on your network, performance
can be severely degraded or everything can come to complete halt.
You can protect your network from broadcast storms by setting a threshold for broadcast traffic for each
port. Any broadcast packets exceeding the specified threshold will then be dropped.
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7.5.1 Guidelines
Broadcast Storm Control is enabled by default.
The default threshold is 500 packets per second.
Broadcast control does not effect IP multicast traffic.
The specified threshold applies to all ports on the switch.
Command Attributes
Port – Port number.
Type – Indicates the port type. (1000BASE-T, 1000BASE-SX, 1000BASE-LX or 100BASE-LH)
Protect Status – Shows whether or not broadcast storm control has been enabled. (Default: Enabled)
Threshold – Threshold as percentage of port bandwidth. (Range: 500-262143 packets per second; Default:
500)
Trunk – Shows if port is a trunk member.
Configuring Switch Using the Web or CLI
Web
Click Port – Port/Trunk Broadcast Control. Set the threshold and click Apply.
CLI
Specify any interface, and then enter the threshold. The following disables broadcast storm control for port
1, and then sets broadcast suppression at 600 packets per second for port 2.
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/1
Console(config-if)#no switchport broadcast
Console(config-if)#exit
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/2
Console(config-if)#switchport broadcast packet-rate 600
Console(config-if)#end
Console#show interfaces switchport ethernet 1/2
Information of Eth 1/2
Broadcast threshold: Enabled, 600 packets/second
Lacp status: Disabled
Ingress rate limit: disable,1000M bits per second
Egress rate limit: disable,1000M bits per second
VLAN membership mode: Hybrid
Ingress rule: Disabled
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Acceptable frame type: All frames
Native VLAN: 1
Priority for untagged traffic: 0
Gvrp status: Disabled
Allowed Vlan:
1(u),
Forbidden Vlan:
Console#
7.6 Configuring Port Mirroring
You can mirror traffic from any source port to a target port for real-time analysis. You can then attach a logic
analyzer or RMON probe to the target port and study the traffic crossing the source port in a completely
unobtrusive manner.
7.6.1 Guidelines
Monitor port speed should match or exceed source port speed, otherwise traffic may be dropped from the
monitor port.
All mirror sessions have to share the same destination port.
When mirroring port traffic, the target port must be included in the same VLAN as the source port.
Command Attributes
Mirror Sessions – Displays a list of current mirror sessions.
Source Port – The port whose traffic will be monitored.
Type – Allows you to select which traffic to mirror to the target port, Rx (receive), Tx (transmit), or Both.
Target Port – The port that duplicates (mirrors) the traffic on the source port.
Configuring Switch Using the Web or CLI
Web
Click Port – Mirror Port configuration. Specify the source port, the traffic type to be mirrored, and the
monitor port, then click Add.
CLI
Use the interface command to select the monitor port, then use the port monitor command to specify the
source port. Note that default mirroring under the CLI is for both received and transmitted packets.
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Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/10
Console(config-if)#port monitor ethernet 1/13
Console(config-if)#
7.7 Configuring Rate Limits
This function allows the network manager to control the maximum rate for traffic transmitted or received on
an interface. Rate limiting is configured on interfaces at the edge of a network to limit traffic coming out of
the switch. Traffic that falls within the rate limit is transmitted, while packets that exceed the acceptable
amount of traffic are dropped.
Rate limiting can be applied to individual ports or trunks. When an interface is configured with this feature,
the traffic rate will be monitored by the hardware to verify conformity. Non-conforming traffic is dropped,
conforming traffic is forwarded without any changes.
Command Attribute
Rate Limit – Sets the output rate limit for an interface.
Default Status – Disabled
Default Rate – 1000 Mbps
Range – 1 - 1000 Mbps
Configuring Switch Using the Web or CLI
Web
Click Rate – Limit Input/Output Port/Trunk Configuration. Set the Input Rate Limit Status or Output Rate
Limit Status, then set the rate limit for the individual interfaces, and click Apply.
CLI
This example sets the rate limit for input and output traffic passing through port 1 to 600 Mbps.
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/1
Console(config-if)#rate-limit input 600
Console(config-if)#rate-limit output 600
Console(config-if)#
7.8 Showing Port Statistics
You can display standard statistics on network traffic from the Interfaces Group and Ethernet-like MIBs, as
well as a detailed breakdown of traffic based on the RMON MIB. Interfaces and Ethernet-like statistics
display errors on the traffic passing through each port. This information can be used to identify potential
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problems with the switch (such as a faulty port or unusually heavy loading). RMON statistics provide access
to a broad range of statistics, including a total count of different frame types and sizes passing through each
port. All values displayed have been accumulated since the last system reboot, and are shown as counts
per second. Statistics are refreshed every 60 seconds by default.
Note: RMON groups 2, 3 and 9 can only be accessed using SNMP management software such as HP
OpenView.
The following table lists the statistical values from the show port display.
Parameter
Description
Interface Statistics
Received Octets
The total number of octets received on the interface, including framing
characters.
Received Unicast
Packets
The number of subnetwork-unicast packets delivered to a higher-layer protocol.
Received Multicast
Packets
The number of packets, delivered by this sub-layer to a higher (sub-)layer, which
were addressed to a multicast address at this sub-layer.
Received Broadcast
Packets
The number of packets, delivered by this sub-layer to a higher (sub-)layer, which
were addressed to a broadcast address at this sub-layer.
Received Discarded
Packets
The number of inbound packets that were chosen to be discarded even though
no errors had been detected to prevent their being deliverable to a higher-layer
protocol. One possible reason for discarding such a packet could be to free up
buffer space.
Received Unknown
Packets
The number of packets received using the interface that were discarded because
of an unknown or unsupported protocol.
Received Errors
The number of inbound packets that contained errors preventing them from
being deliverable to a higher-layer protocol.
Transmit Octets
The total number of octets transmitted out of the interface, including framing
characters.
Transmit Unicast
Packets
The total number of packets that higher-level protocols requested be transmitted
to a subnetwork-unicast address, including those that were discarded or not
sent.
Transmit Multicast
Packets
The total number of packets that higher-level protocols requested be transmitted,
and which were addressed to a multicast address at this sub-layer, including
those that were discarded or not sent.
Transmit Broadcast
Packets
The total number of packets that higher-level protocols requested be transmitted,
and which were addressed to a broadcast address at this sub-layer, including
those that were discarded or not sent.
Transmit Discarded
Packets
The number of outbound packets that were chosen to be discarded even though
no errors had been detected to prevent their being transmitted. One possible
reason for discarding such a packet could be to free up buffer space.
Transmit Errors
The number of outbound packets that could not be transmitted because of
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errors.
Etherlike Statistics
Alignment Errors
The number of alignment errors (missynchronized data packets).
Late Collisions
The number of times that a collision is detected later than 512 bit-times into the
transmission of a packet.
FCS Errors
A count of frames received on a particular interface that are an integral number
of octets in length but do not pass the FCS check. This count does not include
frames received with frame-too-long or frame-too-short error.
Excessive Collisions
A count of frames for which transmission on a particular interface fails due to
excessive collisions. This counter does not increment when the interface is
operating in full-duplex mode.
Single Collision Frames
The number of successfully transmitted frames for which transmission is
inhibited by exactly one collision.
Internal MAC Transmit
Errors
A count of frames for which transmission on a particular interface fails due to an
internal MAC sublayer transmit error.
Multiple Collision
Frames
A count of successfully transmitted frames for which transmission is inhibited by
more than one collision.
Carrier Sense Errors
The number of times that the carrier sense condition was lost or never asserted
when attempting to transmit a frame.
SQE Test Errors
A count of times that the SQE TEST ERROR message is generated by the PLS
sublayer for a particular interface.
Frames Too Long
A count of frames received on a particular interface that exceed the maximum
permitted frame size.
Deferred Transmissions
A count of frames for which the first transmission attempt on a particular
interface is delayed because the medium was busy.
Internal MAC Receive
Errors
A count of frames for which reception on a particular interface fails due to an
internal MAC sublayer receive error.
RMON Statistics
Drop Events
The total number of events in which packets were dropped due to lack of
resources.
Jabbers
The total number of frames received that were longer than 1518 octets
(excluding framing bits, but including FCS octets), and had either an FCS or an
alignment error.
Received Bytes
Total number of bytes of data received on the network. This statistic can be used
as a reasonable indication of Ethernet utilization.
Collisions
The best estimate of the total number of collisions on this Ethernet segment.
Received Frames
The total number of frames (bad, broadcast and multicast) received.
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Broadcast Frames
The total number of good frames received that were directed to the broadcast
address. Note that this does not include multicast packets.
Multicast Frames
The total number of good frames received that were directed to this multicast
address.
CRC/Alignment Errors
The number of CRC/alignment errors (FCS or alignment errors).
Undersize Frames
The total number of frames received that were less than 64 octets long
(excluding framing bits, but including FCS octets) and were otherwise well
formed.
Oversize Frames
The total number of frames received that were longer than 1518 octets
(excluding framing bits, but including FCS octets) and were otherwise well
formed.
Fragments
The total number of frames received that were less than 64 octets in length
(excluding framing bits, but including FCS octets) and had either an FCS or an
alignment error.
64 Bytes Frames
The total number of frames (including bad packets) received and transmitted that
were 64 octets in length (excluding framing bits but including FCS octets).
65--1518 Byte Frames
The total number of frames (including bad packets) received and transmitted
where the number of octets fall within the specified range (excluding framing bits
but including FCS octets).
1519-1536 Byte Frames
The total number of frames (including bad packets) received and transmitted
where the number of octets fall within the specified range (excluding framing bits
but including FCS octets).
Configuring Switch Using the Web or CLI
Web
Click Port – Port Statistics. Select the required interface, and click Query. You can also use the Refresh
button at the bottom of the page to update the screen.
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CLI
This example shows statistics for port 13.
Console#show interfaces counters ethernet 1/13
Ethernet 1/13
Iftable stats:
Octets input: 868453, Octets output: 3492122
Unicast input: 7315, Unitcast output: 6658
Discard input: 0, Discard output: 0
Error input: 0, Error output: 0
Unknown protos input: 0, QLen output: 0
Extended iftable stats:
Multi-cast input: 0, Multi-cast output: 17027
Broadcast input: 231, Broadcast output: 7
Ether-like stats:
Alignment errors: 0, FCS errors: 0
Single Collision frames: 0, Multiple collision frames: 0
SQE Test errors: 0, Deferred transmissions: 0
Late collisions: 0, Excessive collisions: 0
Internal mac transmit errors: 0, Internal mac receive errors: 0
Frame too longs: 0, Carrier sense errors: 0
Symbol errors: 0
RMON stats:
Drop events: 0, Octets: 4422579, Packets: 31552
Broadcast pkts: 238, Multi-cast pkts: 17033
Undersize pkts: 0, Oversize pkts: 0
Fragments: 0, Jabbers: 0
CRC align errors: 0, Collisions: 0
Packet size <= 64 octets: 25568, Packet size 65 to 127 octets: 1616
Packet size 128 to 255 octets: 1249, Packet size 256 to 511 octets: 1449
Packet size 512 to 1023 octets: 802, Packet size 1024 to 1518 octets: 871
Console#
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Chapter 8: Configuring Address Table Settings
Switches store the addresses for all known devices. This information is used to pass traffic directly between
the inbound and outbound ports. All the addresses learned by monitoring traffic are stored in the dynamic
address table. You can also manually configure static addresses that are bound to a specific port.
8.1 Setting Static Addresses
A static address can be assigned to a specific interface on this switch. Static addresses are bound to the
assigned interface and will not be moved. When a static address is seen on another interface, the address is
ignored and is not written to the address table.
Command Attributes
Static Address Counts (Web Only) – The number of manually configured addresses.
Current Static Address Table – Lists all the static addresses.
Interface – Port or trunk associated with the device assigned a static address.
MAC Address – Physical address of a device mapped to this interface.
VLAN – ID of configured VLAN (1-4094).
Configuring Switch Using the Web or CLI
Web
Click Address Table – Static Addresses. Specify the interface, the MAC address and VLAN, then click
Add Static Address. Then set this as a permanent address or to be deleted on reset.
CLI
This example adds an address to the static address table, but sets it to be deleted when the switch is reset.
Console(config)#mac-address-table static 00-e0-29-94-34-de interface ethernet
1/1 vlan 1 delete-on-reset
Console(config)#
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8.2 Displaying the Dynamic Address Table
The Dynamic Address Table contains the MAC addresses learned by monitoring the source address for
traffic entering the switch. When the destination address for inbound traffic is found in the database, the
packets intended for that address are forwarded directly to the associated port. Otherwise, the traffic is
flooded to all ports.
Command Attributes
Interface – Indicates a port or trunk.
MAC Address – Physical address associated with this interface.
VLAN – ID of configured VLAN (1-4094).
Address Table Sort Key – You can sort the information displayed based on MAC address, VLAN or interface
(port or trunk).
Dynamic Address Counts – The number of addresses dynamically learned.
Current Dynamic Address Table – Lists all the dynamic addresses.
Configuring Switch Using the Web or CLI
Web
Click Address Table – Dynamic Addresses. Specify the search type (For example, mark the Interface,
MAC Address, or VLAN checkbox), select the method of sorting the displayed addresses, and then click
Query.
CLI
This example also displays the address table entries for port 1.
Console#show mac-address-table interface ethernet 1/1
Interface Mac Address
Vlan Type
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--------- ----------------- ---- ----------------Eth 1/ 1 00-E0-29-94-34-DE
1 Permanent
Eth 1/ 1 00-20-9C-23-CD-60
2 Learned
Console#
8.3 Changing the Aging Time
You can set the aging time for entries in the dynamic address table.
Command Attributes
Aging Status – Enables or disables the aging time.
Aging Time – The time after which a learned entry is discarded. (Range: 10-1000000 seconds; Default: 300
seconds)
Configuring Switch Using the Web or CLI
Web
Click Address Table – Address Aging. Specify the new aging time, click Apply.
CLI
This example sets the aging time to 400 seconds.
Console(config)#mac-address-table aging-time 400
Console(config)#
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Chapter 9: Configuring Spanning Tree
The Spanning Tree Algorithm (STA) can be used to detect and disable network loops, and to provide
backup links between switches, bridges or routers. This allows the switch to interact with other bridging
devices (that is, an STA-compliant switch, bridge or router) in your network to ensure that only one route
exists between any two stations on the network, and provide backup links that automatically take over when
a primary link goes down.
The spanning tree algorithms supported by this switch include these versions:
•
STP – Spanning Tree Protocol (IEEE 802.1D)
•
RSTP – Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol (IEEE 802.1w)
•
MSTP – Multiple Spanning Tree Protocol (IEEE 802.1s)
STA uses a distributed algorithm to select a bridging device (STA-compliant switch, bridge or router) that
serves as the root of the spanning tree network. It selects a root port on each bridging device (except for the
root device), which incurs the lowest path cost when forwarding a packet from that device to the root device.
Then it selects a designated bridging device from each LAN, which incurs the lowest path cost when
forwarding a packet from that LAN to the root device. All ports connected to designated bridging devices are
assigned as designated ports. After determining the lowest cost spanning tree, it enables all root ports and
designated ports, and disables all other ports. Network packets are therefore only forwarded between root
ports and designated ports, eliminating any possible network loops.
Once a stable network topology has been established, all bridges listen for Hello BPDUs (Bridge Protocol
Data Units) transmitted from the Root Bridge. If a bridge does not get a Hello BPDU after a predefined
interval (Maximum Age), the bridge assumes that the link to the Root Bridge is down. This bridge will then
initiate negotiations with other bridges to reconfigure the network to reestablish a valid network topology.
RSTP is designed as a general replacement for the slower, legacy STP. RSTP is also incorporated into
MSTP. RSTP achieves must faster reconfiguration (For example, around one tenth of the time required by
STP) by reducing the number of state changes before active ports start learning, predefining an alternate
route that can be used when a node or port fails, and retaining the forwarding database for ports insensitive
to changes in the tree structure when reconfiguration occurs.
When using STP or RSTP, it may be difficult to maintain a stable path between all VLAN members.
Frequent changes in the tree structure can easily isolate some of the group members. MSTP (an extension
of RSTP) is designed to support independent spanning trees based on VLAN groups. Once you specify the
VLANs to include in a Multiple Spanning Tree Instance (MSTI), the protocol automatically builds an MSTI
tree to maintain connectivity between each of the VLANs. MSTP maintains contact with the global network
because each instance is treated as an RSTP node in the Common Spanning Tree (CST).
9.1.1 Displaying Global Settings
You can display a summary of the current bridge STA information that applies to the entire switch using the
STA Information screen.
Field Attributes
Spanning Tree State – Shows if the switch is enabled to participate in an STA-compliant network.
Bridge ID – A unique identifier for this bridge, consisting of the bridge priority and MAC address (where the
address is taken from the switch system).
Max Age – The maximum time (in seconds) a device can wait without receiving a configuration message
before attempting to reconfigure. All device ports (except for designated ports) should receive configuration
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messages at regular intervals. Any port that ages out STA information (provided in the last configuration
message) becomes the designated port for the attached LAN. If it is a root port, a new root port is selected
from among the device ports attached to the network. (References to “ports” in this section mean
“interfaces,” which includes both ports and trunks.)
Hello Time – Interval (in seconds) at which the root device transmits a configuration message.
Forward Delay – The maximum time (in seconds) the root device waits before changing states (for example,
discarding to learning to forwarding). This delay is required as every device must receive information about
topology changes before it starts to forward frames. Each port needs time to detect conflicting information
that would make it return to a discarding state; otherwise, temporary data loops might result.
Designated Root – The priority and MAC address of the device in the Spanning Tree that this switch has
accepted as the root device.
Root Port – The number of the port on this switch that is closest to the root. This switch communicates with
the root device through this port. If there is no root port, then this switch has been accepted as the root
device of the Spanning Tree network.
Root Path Cost – The path cost from the root port on this switch to the root device.
Configuration Changes – The number of times the Spanning Tree has been reconfigured.
Last Topology Change – Time since the Spanning Tree was last reconfigured.
These additional parameters are only displayed for the CLI:
Spanning tree mode – Specifies the type of spanning tree used on this switch:
•
STP: Spanning Tree Protocol (IEEE 802.1D)
•
RSTP: Rapid Spanning Tree (IEEE 802.1w)
•
MSTP: Multiple Spanning Tree (IEEE 802.1s)
Instance – Instance identifier of this spanning tree. (This is always 0 for the CIST.)
Vlans configuration – VLANs assigned to the CIST.
Priority – Bridge priority is used in selecting the root device, root port, and designated port. The device with
the highest priority becomes the STA root device. If all devices have the same priority, the device with the
lowest MAC address will then become the root device.
Root Hello Time – Interval (in seconds) at which this device transmits a configuration message.
Root Maximum Age – The maximum time (in seconds) this device can wait without receiving a configuration
message before attempting to reconfigure. All device ports (except for designated ports) should receive
configuration messages at regular intervals. If the root port ages out STA information (provided in the last
configuration message), a new root port is selected from among the device ports attached to the network.
(References to “ports” in this section means “interfaces,” which includes both ports and trunks.)
Root Forward Delay – The maximum time (in seconds) this device will wait before changing states (For
example, discarding to learning to forwarding). This delay is required because every device must receive
information about topology changes before it starts to forward frames. In addition, each port needs time to
listen for conflicting information that would make it return to a discarding state; otherwise, temporary data
loops might result.
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Root Hold Time – The interval (in seconds) during which no more than two bridge configuration protocol
data units shall be transmitted by this node.
Max hops – The max number of hop counts for the MST region.
Remaining hops – The remaining number of hop counts for the MST instance.
Transmission limit – The minimum interval between the transmissions of consecutive RSTP/MSTP BPDUs.
Path Cost Method – The path cost is used to determine the best path between devices. The path cost
method is used to determine the range of values that can be assigned to each interface.
Configuring Switch Using the Web or CLI
Web
Click Spanning Tree – STA, Information.
CLI
This command displays global STA settings, followed by settings for each port.
Console#show spanning-tree
Spanning-tree information
--------------------------------------------------------------Spanning tree mode
:MSTP
Spanning tree enable/disable
:enable
Instance
:0
Vlans configuration
:1-4094
Priority
:32768
Bridge Hello Time (sec.)
:2
Bridge Max Age (sec.)
:20
Bridge Forward Delay (sec.)
:15
Root Hello Time (sec.)
:2
Root Max Age (sec.)
:20
Root Forward Delay (sec.)
:15
Max hops
:20
Remaining hops
:20
Designated Root
:32768.0.0000ABCD0000
Current root port
:1
Current root cost
:200000
Number of topology changes
:1
Last topology changes time (sec.):13380
Transmission limit
:3
Path Cost Method
:long
Note: The current root port and current root cost display as zero when this device is not connected to the
network.
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Chapter 10: Configuring VLAN
In large networks, routers are used to isolate broadcast traffic for each subnet into separate domains. This
switch provides a similar service at Layer 2 by using VLANs to organize any group of network nodes into
separate broadcast domains. VLANs confine broadcast traffic to the originating group, and can eliminate
broadcast storms in large networks. This also provides a more secure and cleaner network environment.
An IEEE 802.1Q VLAN is a group of ports that can be located anywhere in the network, but communicate as
though they belong to the same physical segment.
VLANs help to simplify network management by allowing you to move devices to a new VLAN without
having to change any physical connections. VLANs can be easily organized to reflect departmental groups
(such as Marketing or R&D), usage groups (such as e-mail), or multicast groups (used for multimedia
applications such as videoconferencing).
VLANs provide greater network efficiency by reducing broadcast traffic, and allow you to make network
changes without having to update IP addresses or IP subnets. VLANs inherently provide a high level of
network security since traffic must pass through a configured Layer 3 link to reach a different VLAN.
This switch supports the following VLAN features:
•
Up to 255 VLANs based on the IEEE 802.1Q standard
•
Distributed VLAN learning across multiple switches using explicit or implicit tagging and GVRP protocol
•
Port overlapping, allowing a port to participate in multiple VLANs
•
End stations can belong to multiple VLANs
•
Passing traffic between VLAN-aware and VLAN-unaware devices
•
Priority tagging
10.1 Assigning Ports to VLANs
Before enabling VLANs for the switch, assign each port to the VLAN group(s) where it participates. By
default, all ports are assigned to VLAN 1 as untagged ports. Add a port as a tagged port to carry traffic for
one or more VLANs, and any intermediate network devices or the host at the other end of the connection
supports VLANs. Use GVRP, either manually or dynamically, to assign ports on other VLAN-aware network
devices on a path that carries this traffic to the same VLAN(s). If you want a port on this switch to participate
in one or more VLANs, but none of the intermediate network devices or the host at the other end of the
connection supports VLANs, then you should add this port to the VLAN as an untagged port.
Note: VLAN-tagged frames pass through VLAN-aware or VLAN-unaware network interconnection devices,
but the VLAN tags are stripped off before passing it on to any end host that does not support VLAN tagging.
VLAN Classification – When the switch receives a frame, it classifies the frame in one of two ways. If the
frame is untagged, the switch assigns the frame to an associated VLAN (based on the default VLAN ID of
the receiving port). If the frame is tagged, the switch uses the tagged VLAN ID to identify the port broadcast
domain of the frame.
Port Overlapping – Port overlapping can be used to allow access to commonly shared network resources
among different VLAN groups, such as file servers or printers. If you implement VLANs that do not overlap,
but still need to communicate, you can connect them by using a Layer-3 router or switch.
Untagged VLANs – Untagged (or static) VLANs are typically used to reduce broadcast traffic and to increase
security. A group of network users assigned to a VLAN form a broadcast domain that is separate from other
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VLANs configured on the switch. Packets are forwarded only between ports that are designated for the
same VLAN. Untagged VLANs can be used to manually isolate user groups or subnets. Use IEEE 802.3
tagged VLANs with GVRP to fully automate VLAN registration.
Automatic VLAN Registration – GVRP (GARP VLAN Registration Protocol) defines a system where the
switch can automatically learn the VLANs to which each end station should be assigned. If an end station (or
its network adapter) supports the IEEE 802.1Q VLAN protocol, it can be configured to broadcast a message
to your network indicating the VLAN groups it wants to join. When this switch receives these messages, it
will automatically place the receiving port in the specified VLANs, and then forward the message to all other
ports. When the message arrives at another switch that supports GVRP, it will also place the receiving port
in the specified VLANs, and pass the message on to all other ports. VLAN requirements are propagated in
this way throughout the network. This allows GVRP-compliant devices to be automatically configured for
VLAN groups based solely on end station requests.
To implement GVRP in a network, add the host devices to the required VLANs (using the operating system
or other application software), so the VLANs can be propagated onto the network. For both edge switches
attached directly to these hosts and core switches in the network, enable GVRP on the links between these
devices. Also, determine security boundaries in the network and disable GVRP on the boundary ports to
prevent advertisements from being propagated, or forbid those ports from joining restricted VLANs.
Note: Host devices that do not support GVRP should be configured as static or untagged VLANs for the
switch ports connected to these devices (see section 10.1.6 Adding Static Members to VLANs (VLAN
Index). You can still enable GVRP on these edge switches, as well as on the core switches in the network.
10.1.1 Forwarding Tagged/Untagged Frames
If you want to create a small port-based VLAN for devices attached directly to a single switch, you can
assign ports to the same untagged VLAN. To participate in a VLAN group that crosses several switches, you
should create a VLAN for that group and enable tagging on all ports.
Ports can be assigned to multiple tagged or untagged VLANs. Each port on the switch is capable of passing
tagged or untagged frames. When forwarding a frame from this switch along a path that contains any VLANaware devices, the switch should include VLAN tags. When forwarding a frame from this switch along a path
that does not contain any VLAN-aware devices (including the destination host), the switch must first strip off
the VLAN tag before forwarding the frame. When the switch receives a tagged frame, it passes this frame
onto the VLAN(s) indicated by the frame tag. When this switch receives an untagged frame from a VLANunaware device, it first decides where to forward the frame, and then inserts a VLAN tag reflecting the
ingress port’s default VID.
10.1.2 Enabling or Disabling GVRP (Global Setting)
GARP VLAN Registration Protocol (GVRP) defines a way for switches to exchange VLAN information and to
register VLAN members on ports across the network. VLANs are dynamically configured based on join
messages issued by host devices and propagated throughout the network. GVRP must be enabled to permit
automatic VLAN registration and to support VLANs that extend beyond the local switch. (Default: Disabled)
Configuring Switch Using the Web or CLI
Web
Click VLAN – 802.1Q VLAN, GVRP Status. Enable or disable GVRP, and click Apply.
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CLI
This example enables GVRP for the switch.
Console(config)#bridge-ext gvrp
Console(config)#
10.1.3 Displaying Basic VLAN Information
The VLAN Basic Information page displays basic information on the VLAN type supported by the switch.
Field Attributes
VLAN Version Number (Web Only) – The VLAN version used by this switch as specified in the IEEE 802.1Q
standard.
Maximum VLAN ID – Maximum VLAN ID recognized by this switch.
Maximum Number of Supported VLANs – Maximum number of VLANs that can be configured on this switch.
Configuring Switch Using the Web or CLI
Web
Click VLAN – 802.1Q VLAN, Basic Information.
CLI
Enter the following command.
Console#show bridge-ext
Max support vlan numbers: 255
Max support vlan ID: 4094
Extended multicast filtering services: No
Static entry individual port: Yes
VLAN learning: IVL
Configurable PVID tagging: Yes
Local VLAN capable: No
Traffic classes: Enabled
Global GVRP status: Enabled
GMRP: Disabled
Console#
10.1.4 Displaying Current VLANs
The VLAN Current Table shows the current port members of each VLAN and whether or not the port
supports VLAN tagging. Ports assigned to a large VLAN group that crosses several switches should use
VLAN tagging. If you want to create a small port-based VLAN for one or two switches, you can disable
tagging.
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Command Attributes (Web)
VLAN ID – ID of configured VLAN (1-4094).
Up Time at Creation – Time this VLAN was created (For example, System Up Time).
Status – Shows how this VLAN was added to the switch.
•
Dynamic GVRP: Automatically learned via GVRP.
•
Permanent: Added as a static entry.
Egress Ports – Shows all the VLAN port members.
Untagged Ports – Shows the untagged VLAN port members.
Configuring Switch Using the Web or CLI
Web
Click VLAN – 802.1Q VLAN, Current Table. Select any ID from the scroll-down list.
Command Attributes (CLI)
VLAN – ID of configured VLAN (1-4094, no leading zeroes).
Type – Shows how this VLAN was added to the switch.
•
Dynamic: Automatically learned via GVRP.
•
Static: Added as a static entry.
Name – Name of the VLAN (1 to 32 characters).
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Status – Shows if this VLAN is enabled or disabled.
•
Active: VLAN is operational.
•
Suspend: VLAN is suspended; For example, does not pass packets.
Ports / Channel groups – Shows the VLAN interface members.
CLI
Current VLAN information can be displayed with the following command.
Console#show
VLAN Type
---- ------1
Static
Console#
vlan id
Name
Status
Ports/Channel groups
----------- ----------------------------------------DefaultVlan Active Eth1/1 Eth1/2
10.1.5 Creating VLANs
Use the VLAN Static List to create or remove VLAN groups. To propagate information about VLAN groups
used on this switch to external network devices, you must specify a VLAN ID for each of these groups.
Command Attributes
Current – List all the current VLAN groups created for this system. Up to 255 VLAN groups can be defined.
VLAN 1 is the default untagged VLAN.
New – Specify the name and numeric identifier for a new VLAN group. (The VLAN name is only used for
management on this system; it is not added to the VLAN tag.)
VLAN ID – ID of configured VLAN (1-4094, no leading zeroes).
VLAN Name – Name of the VLAN (1 to 32 characters).
Status (Web) – Enable or disable the specified VLAN.
•
Enable: VLAN is operational.
•
Disable: VLAN is suspended; For example, does not pass packets.
State (CLI) – Enable or disable the specified VLAN.
•
Active: VLAN is operational.
•
Suspend: VLAN is suspended; For example, does not pass packets.
Add – Add a new VLAN group to the current list.
Remove – Remove a VLAN group from the current list. If any port is assigned to this group as untagged, it is
reassigned to VLAN group 1 as untagged.
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Configuring Switch Using the Web or CLI
Web
Click VLAN – 802.1Q VLAN, Static List. To create a new VLAN, enter the VLAN ID and VLAN name, mark
the Enable checkbox to activate the VLAN, and then click Add.
CLI
This example creates a new VLAN.
Console(config)#vlan database
Console(config-vlan)#vlan 2 name R&D media ethernet state active
Console(config-vlan)#end
Console#show vlan
VLAN Type
Name
Status
Ports/Channel groups
---- ------- ---------------- --------- ---------------------------------1 Static
DefaultVlan
Active Eth1/ 1 Eth1/ 2
2 Static
R&D
Active Eth1/ 3 Eth1/ 4
3 Static
Active Eth1/ 5 Eth1/ 6
4 Static
Active Eth1/ 7 Eth1/ 8
5 Static
Active Eth1/ 9 Eth1/10
6 Static
Active Eth1/11 Eth1/12
7 Static
Active Eth1/13 Eth1/14
8 Static
Active Eth1/15 Eth1/16
.
.
.
Console(config-vlan)#
10.1.6 Adding Static Members to VLANs (VLAN Index)
Use the VLAN Static Table to configure port members for the selected VLAN index. Assign ports as tagged
if they are connected to 802.1Q VLAN compliant devices, or untagged they are not connected to any VLANaware devices. You can also configure a port as forbidden to prevent the switch from automatically adding it
to a VLAN via the GVRP protocol.
Note: You can also use the VLAN Static Membership by Port page to configure VLAN groups based on the
port index (10.1.7). This configuration page can only add ports to a VLAN as tagged members.
VLAN 1 is the default untagged VLAN containing all ports on the switch, and can only be modified by first
reassigning the default port VLAN ID as described under section 10.1.8 Configuring VLAN Behavior for
Interfaces.
Command Attributes
VLAN – ID of configured VLAN (1-4094, no leading zeroes).
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Name – Name of the VLAN (1 to 32 characters).
Status – Enables or disables the specified VLAN.
•
Enable: VLAN is operational.
•
Disable: VLAN is suspended; For example, does not pass packets.
Port – Port identifier.
Trunk – Trunk identifier.
Membership Type – Select VLAN membership for each interface by marking the appropriate radio button for
a port or trunk:
•
Tagged: Interface is a member of the VLAN. All packets transmitted by the port carries a tag with VLAN
or CoS information.
•
Untagged: Interface is a member of the VLAN. All packets transmitted by the port does not carry VLAN
or CoS information. Note that an interface must be assigned to at least one group as an untagged port.
•
Forbidden: Interface is forbidden from automatically joining the VLAN via GVRP. For more information,
see “Automatic VLAN Registration” in section 10.1 Assigning VLAN Ports.
•
None: Interface is not a member of the VLAN. Packets associated with this VLAN is not transmitted by
the interface.
Trunk Member – Indicates if a port is a member of a trunk. To add a trunk to the selected VLAN, use the last
table on the VLAN Static Table page.
Configuring Switch Using the Web or CLI
Web
Click VLAN – 802.1Q VLAN, Static Table. Select a VLAN ID from the scroll-down list. Modify the VLAN
name and status if required. Select the membership type by marking the appropriate radio button in the list
of ports or trunks. Click Apply.
CLI
The following example adds tagged and untagged ports to VLAN 2.
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/1
Console(config-if)#switchport allowed vlan add 2 tagged
Console(config-if)#exit
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4
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/2
Console(config-if)#switchport allowed vlan add 2 untagged
Console(config-if)#exit
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/13
Console(config-if)#switchport allowed vlan add 2 tagged
10.1.7 Adding Static Members to VLANs (Port Index)
Use the VLAN Static Membership by Port menu to assign VLAN groups to the selected interface as a
tagged member.
Command Attributes
Interface – Port or trunk identifier.
Member – VLANs for which the selected interface is a tagged member.
Non-Member – VLANs for which the selected interface is not a tagged member.
Configuring Switch Using the Web or CLI
Web
Open VLAN – 802.1Q VLAN, Static Membership. Select an interface from the scroll-down box (Port or
Trunk). Click Query to display membership information for the interface. Select a VLAN ID, and then click
Add to add the interface as a tagged member, or click Remove to remove the interface. After configuring
VLAN membership for each interface, click Apply.
CLI
This example adds Port 3 to VLAN 1 as a tagged port, and removes Port 3 from VLAN 2.
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/3
Console(config-if)#switchport allowed vlan add 1 tagged
Console(config-if)#switchport allowed vlan remove 2
10.1.8 Configuring VLAN Behavior for Interfaces
You can configure VLAN behavior for specific interfaces, including the default VLAN identifier (PVID),
accepted frame types, ingress filtering, GVRP status, and GARP timers.
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Usage Guidelines
GVRP – GARP VLAN Registration Protocol defines a way for switches to exchange VLAN information to
automatically register VLAN members on interfaces across the network.
GARP – Group Address Registration Protocol is used by GVRP to register or deregister client attributes for
client services within a bridged LAN. The default values for the GARP timers are independent of the media
access method or data rate. These values should not be changed unless you are experiencing difficulties
with GVRP registration/deregistration.
Command Attributes
PVID – VLAN ID assigned to untagged frames received on the interface. (Default: 1)
•
If an interface is not a member of VLAN 1 and you assign its PVID to this VLAN, the interface will
automatically be added to VLAN 1 as an untagged member. For all other VLANs, an interface must first
be configured as an untagged member before you can assign its PVID to that group.
Acceptable Frame Type – Sets the interface to accept all frame types, including tagged or untagged frames,
or only tagged frames. When set to receive all frame types, any received frames that are untagged are
assigned to the default VLAN. (Option: All, Tagged; Default: All)
Ingress Filtering – Determines how to process frames tagged for VLANs for which the ingress port is not a
member. (Default: Disabled)
•
Ingress filtering only affects tagged frames.
•
If ingress filtering is disabled and a port receives frames tagged for VLANs for which it is not a member,
these frames will be flooded to all other ports (except for those VLANs explicitly forbidden on this port).
•
If ingress filtering is enabled and a port receives frames tagged for VLANs for which it is not a member,
these frames will be discarded.
•
Ingress filtering does not affect VLAN independent BPDU frames, such as GVRP or STP. They do
affect VLAN dependent BPDU frames, such as GMRP.
GVRP Status – Enables/disables GVRP for the interface. GVRP must be globally enabled for the switch
before this setting can take effect. (See section 2.4.10 Displaying Bridge Extension Capabilities) When
disabled, any GVRP packets received on this port will be discarded and no GVRP registrations will be
propagated from other ports. (Default: Disabled)
GARP Join Timer – The interval between transmitting requests/queries to participate in a VLAN group.
(Range: 20-1000 centiseconds; Default: 20) (Timer settings: 2 x (join timer) < leave timer < leaveAll timer)
GARP Leave Timer – The interval a port waits before leaving a VLAN group. This time should be set to
more than twice the join time. This ensures that after a Leave or LeaveAll message has been issued, the
applicants can rejoin before the port actually leaves the group. (Range: 60-3000 centiseconds; Default: 60)
(Timer settings: 2 x (join timer) < leave timer < leaveAll timer)
GARP LeaveAll Timer – The interval between sending out a LeaveAll query message for VLAN group
participants and the port leaving the group. This interval should be considerably larger than the Leave Time
to minimize the amount of traffic generated by nodes rejoining the group. (Range: 500-18000 centiseconds;
Default: 1000) (Timer settings: 2 x (join timer) < leave timer < leaveAll timer)
Mode – Indicates VLAN membership mode for an interface. (Default: 1Q Trunk)
•
120
1Q Trunk – Specifies a port as an end-point for a VLAN trunk. A trunk is a direct link between two
switches, so the port transmits tagged frames that identify the source VLAN. Note that frames belonging
Asanté IntraCore 36000 Series
to the port’s default VLAN (For example, associated with the PVID) are also transmitted as tagged
frames.
•
Hybrid – Specifies a hybrid VLAN interface. The port may transmit tagged or untagged frames.
Trunk Member – Indicates if a port is a member of a trunk. To add a trunk to the selected VLAN, use the last
table on the VLAN Static Table page.
Configuring Switch Using the Web or CLI
Web
Click VLAN – 802.1Q VLAN, Port Configuration or VLAN Trunk Configuration. Fill in the required
settings for each interface, click Apply.
CLI
This example sets port 3 to accept only tagged frames, assigns PVID 3 as the native VLAN ID, enables
GVRP, sets the GARP timers, and then sets the switchport mode to hybrid.
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/3
Console(config-if)#switchport acceptable-frame-types tagged
Console(config-if)#switchport ingress-filtering
Console(config-if)#switchport native vlan 3
Console(config-if)#switchport gvrp
Console(config-if)#garp timer join 20
Console(config-if)#garp timer leave 90
Console(config-if)#garp timer leaveall 2000
Console(config-if)#switchport mode hybrid
Console(config-if)#
10.2 Configuring Private VLANs
Private VLANs provide port-based security and isolation between ports within the assigned VLAN. Data
traffic on downlink ports can only be forwarded to, and from, uplink ports. (Private VLANs and normal VLANs
can exist simultaneously within the same switch.)
10.2.1 Enabling Private VLANs
Use the Private VLAN Status page to enable/disable the Private VLAN function. (Default: Disabled)
Configuring Switch Using the Web or CLI
Web
Click VLAN – Private VLAN, Status. Select Enable or Disable from the scroll-down box, and click Apply.
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CLI
This example enables private VLANs.
Console(config)#pvlan
Console(config)#
10.2.2 Configuring Uplink and Downlink Ports
Use the Private VLAN Link Status page to set ports as downlink or uplink ports. Ports designated as
downlink ports can not communicate with any other ports on the switch except for the uplink ports. Uplink
ports can communicate with any other ports on the switch and with any designated downlink ports.
Configuring Switch Using the Web or CLI
Web
Click VLAN – Private VLAN, Link Status. Mark the ports that will serve as uplinks and downlinks for the
private VLAN, then click Apply.
CLI
This configures ports 3 and 4 as uplinks and ports 5 and 6 as downlinks.
Console(config)#pvlan uplink ethernet 1/3-4 downlink ethernet 1/5-6
Console(config)#
10.3 Configuring Protocol-Based VLANs
The network devices required to support multiple protocols cannot be easily grouped into a common VLAN.
This may require non-standard devices to pass traffic between different VLANs in order to encompass all the
devices participating in a specific protocol. This kind of configuration deprives users of the basic benefits of
VLANs, including security and easy accessibility.
To avoid these problems, you can configure this switch with protocol-based VLANs that divide the physical
network into logical VLAN groups for each required protocol. When a frame is received at a port, its VLAN
membership can then be determined based on the protocol type being used by the inbound packets.
Usage Guidelines
To configure protocol-based VLANs, follow these steps:
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1.
Configure VLAN groups for the protocols you want to use (section 10.1.5). You should configure a
separate VLAN for each major protocol running on your network. Do not add port members at this
time.
2.
Create a protocol group for each of the protocols you want to assign to a VLAN using the Protocol
VLAN Configuration page.
3.
Then map the protocol for each interface to the appropriate VLAN using the Protocol VLAN Port
Configuration page.
10.3.1 Configuring Protocol Groups
Create a protocol group for one or more protocols.
Command Attributes
Protocol Group ID – Group identifier of this protocol group. (Range: 1-2147483647)
Frame Type – Frame type used by this protocol. (Options: Ethernet, RFC_1042, LLC_other)
Protocol Type – The only option for the LLC_other frame type is IPX_raw. The options for all other frames
types include: IP, ARP, RARP.
Configuring Switch Using the Web or CLI
Web
Click VLAN – Protocol VLAN, Configuration. Enter a protocol group ID, frame type and protocol type,
then click Apply.
CLI
The following creates protocol group 1, and then specifies Ethernet frames with IP and ARP protocol types.
Console(config)#protocol-vlan protocol-group 1 add frame_type ethernet
protocol-type ip
Console(config)#protocol-vlan protocol-group 1 add frame_type ethernet
protocol-type arp
Console(config)#
10.3.2 Mapping Protocols to VLANs
Map a protocol group to a VLAN for each interface that will participate in the group.
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Usage Guidelines
When creating a protocol-based VLAN, only assign interfaces using this configuration screen. If you assign
interfaces using any of the other VLAN commands such as VLAN Static Table (section 10.1.6 Adding
Static Members to VLANs (VLAN Index).) or VLAN Static Membership (in section 10.1.7 Adding Static
Members to VLANs (Port Index), these interfaces will admit traffic of any protocol type into the associated
VLAN.
When a frame enters a port that has been assigned to a protocol VLAN, it is processed in the following
manner:
•
If the frame is tagged, it will be processed according to the standard rules applied to tagged frames.
•
If the frame is untagged and the protocol type matches, the frame is forwarded to the appropriate VLAN.
•
If the frame is untagged but the protocol type does not match, the frame is forwarded to the default
VLAN for this interface.
Command Attributes
Interface – Port or trunk identifier.
Protocol Group ID – Group identifier of this protocol group. (Range: 1-2147483647)
VLAN ID – VLAN to which matching protocol traffic is forwarded. (Range: 1-4094)
Configuring Switch Using the Web or CLI
Web
Click VLAN – Protocol VLAN, Port Configuration. Select a port or trunk, enter a protocol group ID, the
corresponding VLAN ID, and click Apply.
CLI
The following maps the traffic entering Port 1, which matches the protocol type specified in protocol group 1
to VLAN 3.
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/1
Console(config-if)#protocol-vlan protocol-group 1 vlan
Console(config-if)#
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Chapter 11: Configuring Packet Priority
Class of Service (CoS) allows you to specify which data packets have greater precedence when traffic is
buffered in the switch due to congestion. This switch supports CoS with eight priority queues for each port.
Data packets in a port’s high-priority queue will be transmitted before those in the lower-priority queues. You
can set the default priority for each interface, and configure the mapping of frame priority tags to the switch’s
priority queues.
11.1 Setting the Default Priority for Interfaces
You can specify the default port priority for each interface on the switch. All untagged packets entering the
switch are tagged with the specified default port priority, and then sorted into the appropriate priority queue
at the output port.
Follow these guidelines:
•
This switch provides four priority queues for each port. It uses Weighted Round Robin to prevent headof-queue blockage.
•
The default priority applies for an untagged frame received on a port set to accept all frame types (for
example, receives both untagged and tagged frames). This priority does not apply to IEEE 802.1Q
VLAN tagged frames. If the incoming frame is an IEEE 802.1Q VLAN tagged frame, the IEEE 802.1p
User Priority bits will be used.
•
If the output port is an untagged member of the associated VLAN, these frames are stripped of all VLAN
tags prior to transmission.
Command Attributes
Default Priority (CLI Only) – The priority that is assigned to untagged frames received on the specified
interface. (Range: 0 - 7, Default: 0)
Number of Egress Traffic Classes – The number of queue buffers provided for each port.
The information is displayed as “Priority for untagged traffic.”
Configuring Switch Using the Web or CLI
Web
Click Priority – Default Port Priority or Default Trunk Priority. Modify the default priority for any interface,
then click Apply.
CLI
This example assigns a default priority of 5 to port 3.
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/3
Console(config-if)#switchport priority default 5
Console(config-if)#end
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Console#show interfaces switchport ethernet 1/5
Information of Eth 1/3
Broadcast threshold: Enabled, 500 packets/second
Lacp status: Disabled
Ingress rate limit: disable,1000M bits per second
Egress rate limit: disable,1000M bits per second
VLAN membership mode: Hybrid
Ingress rule: Disabled
Acceptable frame type: All frames
Native VLAN: 1
Priority for untagged traffic: 5
Gvrp status: Disabled
Allowed Vlan:
1(u),
Forbidden Vlan:
Console#
11.2 Mapping CoS Values to Egress Queues
This switch processes Class of Service (CoS) priority tagged traffic by using eight priority queues for each
port, with service schedules based on strict or Weighted Round Robin (WRR). Up to eight separate traffic
priorities are defined in IEEE 802.1p. The default priority levels are assigned according to recommendations
in the IEEE 802.1p standard as shown in the following table.
The following table gives information for mapping CoS values to egress queues.
Queue
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
Priority
2
0
1
3
4
5
6
7
The priority levels recommended in the IEEE 802.1p standard for various network applications are shown in
the following table. You can map the priority levels to the switch’s output queues in any way that benefits
application traffic for your own network.
Priority Level
Traffic Type
1
Background
2
(Spare)
0 (default)
Best Effort
3
Excellent Effort
4
Controlled Load
5
Video, less than 100 milliseconds latency and jitter
6
Voice, less than 10 milliseconds latency and jitter
7
Network Control
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Command Attributes
Priority – CoS value. (Range: 0-7, where 7 is the highest priority)
Traffic Class (CLI show queue)– Output queue buffer. (Range: 0-7, where 7 is the highest CoS priority
queue)
Configuring Switch Using the Web or CLI
Web
Click Priority – Traffic Classes. Mark an interface and click Select to display the current mapping of CoS
values to output queues. Assign priorities to the traffic classes (for example, output queues) for the selected
interface, then click Apply.
CLI
The following example shows how to change the CoS assignments to a one-to-one mapping.
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/1
Console(config-if)#queue cos-map 0 0
Console(config-if)#queue cos-map 1 1
Console(config-if)#queue cos-map 2 2
Console(config-if)#end
Console#show queue cos-map ethernet 1/1
Information of Eth 1/1
CoS Value
: 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Priority Queue: 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
console#
Mapping specific values for CoS priorities is implemented as an interface configuration command, but any
changes will apply to the all interfaces on the switch.
11.3 Selecting the Queue Mode
You can set the switch to service the queues based on a strict rule that requires all traffic in a higher priority
queue to be processed before lower priority queues are serviced, or use Weighted Round-Robin (WRR)
queuing that specifies a relative weight of each queue. WRR uses a predefined relative weight for each
queue that determines the percentage of service time the switch services each queue before moving on to
the next queue. This prevents the head-of-line blocking that can occur with strict priority queuing.
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Command Attributes
WRR - Weighted Round-Robin shares bandwidth at the egress ports by using scheduling weights 1, 2, 4, 6,
8, 10, 12, 14 for queues 0 through 7 respectively. (This is the default selection.)
Strict - Services the egress queues in sequential order, transmitting all traffic in the higher priority queues
before servicing lower priority queues.
Configuring Switch Using the Web or CLI
Web
Click Priority – Queue Mode. Select Strict or WRR, then click Apply.
CLI
The following sets the queue mode to strict priority service mode.
Console(config)#queue mode strict
Console(config)#exit
Console#show queue mode
Queue mode: strict
Console#
11.4 Setting the Service Weight for Traffic Classes
This switch uses the Weighted Round Robin (WRR) algorithm to determine the frequency at which it
services each priority queue. As described in section 11.2 Mapping CoS Values to Egress Queues, the
traffic classes are mapped to one of the eight egress queues provided for each port. You can assign a
weight to each of these queues (and thereby to the corresponding traffic priorities). This weight sets the
frequency at which each queue will be polled for service, and subsequently affects the response time for
software applications assigned a specific priority value.
Command Attributes
WRR Setting Table* – Displays a list of weights for each traffic class (CLI shows Queue ID).
Weight Value – Set a new weight for the selected traffic class. (Range: 1-15)
Configuring Switch Using the Web or CLI
Web
Click Priority – Queue Scheduling. Select the interface, highlight a traffic class (for example, output
queue), enter a weight, then click Apply.
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CLI
The following example shows how to assign WRR weights to each of the priority queues.
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/1
Console(config-if)#queue bandwidth 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 4-189
Console(config-if)#end
Console#show queue bandwidth
Information of Eth 1/1
Queue ID Weight
-------- -----0
1
1
3
2
5
3
7
4
9
5
11
6
13
7
15
Information of Eth 1/2
Queue ID Weight
.
.
.
11.4.1 Mapping Layer 3/4 Priorities to CoS Values
This switch supports several common methods of prioritizing layer 3/4 traffic to meet application
requirements. Traffic priorities can be specified in the IP header of a frame, using the priority bits in the Type
of Service (ToS) octet or the number of the TCP port. If priority bits are used, the ToS octet may contain
three bits for IP Precedence or six bits for Differentiated Services Code Point (DSCP) service. When these
services are enabled, the priorities are mapped to a Class of Service value by the switch, and the traffic then
sent to the corresponding output queue.
Because different priority information may be contained in the traffic, this switch maps priority values to the
output queues in the following manner:
The precedence for priority mapping is IP Precedence or DSCP Priority, and then Default Port Priority.
IP Precedence and DSCP Priority cannot both be enabled. Enabling one of these priority types will
automatically disable the other.
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11.5 Selecting IP Precedence/DSCP Priority
The switch allows you to choose between using IP Precedence or DSCP priority. Select one of the methods
or disable this feature.
Command Attributes
Disabled – Disables both priority services. (This is the default setting.)
IP Precedence – Maps layer 3/4 priorities using IP Precedence.
IP DSCP – Maps layer 3/4 priorities using Differentiated Services Code Point Mapping.
Configuring Switch Using the Web or CLI
Web
Click Priority – IP Precedence/DSCP Priority Status. Select Disabled, IP Precedence or IP DSCP from
the scroll-down menu.
CLI
The following example enables IP Precedence service on the switch.
Console(config)#map ip precedence
Console(config)#
11.5.1 Mapping IP Precedence
The Type of Service (ToS) octet in the IPv4 header includes three precedence bits defining eight different
priority levels ranging from highest priority for network control packets to lowest priority for routine traffic.
The default IP Precedence values are mapped one-to-one to Class of Service values (For example,
Precedence value 0 maps to CoS value 0, and so forth). Bits 6 and 7 are used for network control, and the
other bits for various application types. ToS bits are defined in the following table.
Priority Level
Traffic Type
Priority Level
Traffic Type
7
Network Control
3
Flash
6
Internetwork Control
2
Immediate
5
Critical
1
Priority
4
Flash Override
0
Routine
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Command Attributes
IP Precedence Priority Table – Shows the IP Precedence to CoS map.
Class of Service Value – Maps a CoS value to the selected IP Precedence value. Note that “0” represents
low priority and “7” represent high priority.
Configuring Switch Using the Web or CLI
Web
Click Priority – IP Precedence Priority. Select an entry from the IP Precedence Priority Table, enter a
value in the Class of Service Value field, and then click Apply.
CLI
The following example globally enables IP Precedence service on the switch, maps IP Precedence value 1
to CoS value 0 (on port 1), and then displays the IP Precedence settings.
Console(config)#map ip precedence
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/1
Console(config-if)#map ip precedence 1 cos 0
Console(config-if)#end
Console#show map ip precedence ethernet 1/1
Precedence mapping status: disabled
Port
Precedence COS
--------- ---------- --Eth 1/ 1
0
0
Eth 1/ 1
1
0
Eth 1/ 1
2
2
Eth 1/ 1
3
3
Eth 1/ 1
4
4
Eth 1/ 1
5
5
Eth 1/ 1
6
6
Eth 1/ 1
7
7
Console#
Mapping specific values for IP Precedence is implemented as an interface configuration command, and any
changes apply to the all interfaces on the switch.
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11.5.2 Mapping DSCP Priority
The DSCP is six bits wide, allowing coding for up to 64 different forwarding behaviors. The DSCP replaces
the ToS bits, but it retains backward compatibility with the three precedence bits so that non-DSCP
compliant, ToS-enabled devices, will not conflict with the DSCP mapping. Based on network policies,
different kinds of traffic can be marked for different kinds of forwarding. The DSCP default values are
defined in the following table. Note that all the DSCP values that are not specified are mapped to CoS value
0.
IP DSCP Value
CoS Value
0
0
8
1
10, 12, 14, 16
2
18, 20, 22, 24
3
26, 28, 30, 32, 34, 36
4
38, 40, 42
5
48
6
46, 56
7
Command Attributes
DSCP Priority Table – Shows the DSCP Priority to CoS map.
Class of Service Value – Maps a CoS value to the selected DSCP Priority value. Note that “0” represents
low priority and “7” represent high priority.
Note: IP DSCP settings apply to all interfaces.
Configuring Switch Using the Web or CLI
Web
Click Priority – IP DSCP Priority. Select an entry from the DSCP table, enter a value in the Class of
Service Value field, then click Apply.
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CLI
The following example globally enables DSCP Priority service on the switch, maps DSCP value 0 to CoS
value 1 (on port 1), and then displays the DSCP Priority settings.
Console(config)#map ip dscp
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/1
Console(config-if)#map ip dscp 1 cos 0
Console(config-if)#end
Console#show map ip dscp ethernet 1/1
DSCP mapping status: enabled
Port
DSCP COS
--------- ---- --Eth 1/ 1
0
0
Eth 1/ 1
1
0
Eth 1/ 1
2
0
Eth 1/ 1
3
0
.
.
.
Eth 1/ 1
61
0
Eth 1/ 1
62
0
Eth 1/ 1
63
0
Console#
Mapping specific values for IP DSCP is implemented as an interface configuration command, but any
changes will apply to the all interfaces on the switch.
11.5.3 Mapping IP Port Priority
You can also map network applications to Class of Service values based on the IP port number (For
example, TCP/UDP port number) in the frame header. Some of the more common TCP service ports
include: HTTP: 80, FTP: 21, Telnet: 23 and POP3: 110.
Command Attributes
IP Port Priority Status – Enables or disables the IP port priority. (Default: Disabled)
Interface – Selects the port or trunk interface to which the settings apply.
IP Port Priority Table – Shows the IP port to CoS map.
IP Port Number (TCP/UDP) – Set a new IP port number.
Class of Service Value – Sets a CoS value for a new IP port. Note that “0” represents low priority and “7”
represents high priority.
Note: IP Port Priority settings apply to all interfaces.
Configuring Switch Using the Web or CLI
Web
Click Priority – IP Port Priority Status. Set IP Port Priority Status to Enabled.
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Web
Click Priority–IP Port Priority. Enter the IP port number for a network application in the IP Port Number
box and the new CoS values in the Class of Service box, and then click Apply.
Mapping specific values for IP Precedence is implemented as an interface configuration command, and any
changes apply to the all interfaces on the switch.
CLI
The following example globally enables IP Port Priority service on the switch, maps HTTP traffic on port 5 to
CoS value 0, and then displays all the IP Port Priority settings for that port.
Console(config)#map ip port
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/5
Console(config-if)#map ip port 80 cos 0
Console(config-if)#end
Console#show map ip port ethernet 1/5
TCP port mapping status: disabled
Port
Port no. COS
--------- -------- --Eth 1/ 5
80
0
Console#
11.6 Mapping CoS Values to ACLs
Use the ACL CoS Mapping page to set the output queue for packets matching an ACL rule as shown in the
following table. Note that the specified CoS value is only used to map the matching packet to an output
queue; it is not written to the packet itself. For information on mapping the CoS values to output queues, see
section 2.10 Mapping CoS Values to Egress Queues.
Priority
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
Queue
1
2
0
3
4
5
6
7
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11.6.1 Guidelines
You must configure an ACL mask before you can map CoS values to the rule.
Command Attributes
Port – Port identifier.
Name – Name of ACL. For information on configuring ACLs, see section 6.7 Configuring Access Control
Lists.
Type – Type of ACL (IP or MAC).
CoS Priority – CoS value used for packets matching an IP ACL rule. (Range: 0-7)
Configuring Switch Using the Web or CLI
Web
Click Priority – ACL CoS Priority. Enable mapping for any port, select an ACL from the scroll-down list,
then click Apply.
CLI
This example assigns a CoS value of zero to packets matching rules within the specified ACL on port 24.
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/24
Console(config-if)#map access-list ip bill cos 0
Console(config-if)#
11.7 Changing Priorities Based on ACL Rules
Change traffic priorities for frames matching the defined ACL rule. (This is the ACL packet marking feature.)
This switch can change the IEEE 802.1p priority, IP Precedence, or DSCP Priority of IP frames; or change
the IEEE 802.1p priority of Layer 2 frames. Use the no form to remove the ACL marker.
11.7.1 Guidelines
You must configure an ACL mask before you can change priorities based on a rule.
Traffic priorities may be included in the IEEE 802.1p priority tag. This tag is also incorporated as part of the
overall IEEE 802.1Q VLAN tag. The 802.1p priority may be set for either Layer 2 or IP frames.
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135
The IP frame header also includes priority bits in the Type of Service (ToS) octet. The Type of Service octet
may contain three bits for IP Precedence or six bits for Differentiated Services Code Point (DSCP) service.
Note that the IP frame header can include either the IP Precedence or the DSCP priority type.
The precedence for priority mapping by this switch is IP Precedence or DSCP Priority, and then 802.1p
priority.
Command Attributes
Port – Port identifier.
Name – Name of ACL. For information on configuring ACLs, see section 6.7 Configuring Access Control
Lists.
Type – Type of ACL (IP or MAC).
Precedence – IP Precedence value. (Range: 0-7)
DSCP – Differentiated Services Code Point value. (Range: 0-63)
802.1p Priority – Class of Service value in the IEEE 802.1p priority tag. (Range: 0-7; 7 is the highest priority)
Configuring Switch Using the Web or CLI
Web
Click Priority – ACL Marker. Select a port and an ACL rule. To specify a ToS priority, mark the
Precedence/DSCP check box, select Precedence or DSCP from the scroll-down box, and enter a priority. To
specify an 802.1p priority, mark the 802.1p Priority check box, and enter a priority. Then click Add.
CLI
This example changes the DSCP priority for packets matching an IP ACL rule, and the 802.1p priority for
packets matching a MAC ACL rule.
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/1
Console(config-if)#match access-list ip bill set dscp 0
Console(config-if)#match access-list mac mike set priority 0
Console(config-if)#end
Console#show marking
Interface ethernet 1/1
match access-list IP bill set DSCP 0
match access-list MAC a set priority 0
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Console#
The purpose of IP multicast filtering is to optimize a switched network’s performance, so multicast packets
will only be forwarded to those ports containing multicast group hosts or multicast routers/switches, instead
of flooding traffic to all ports in the subnet (VLAN).
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Chapter 12: Layer 2 IGMP (Snooping and Query)
IGMP Snooping and Query – If multicast routing is not supported on other switches in your network, you can
use IGMP Snooping and Query (section 12.1.1 Configuring IGMP Snooping and Query Parameters) to
monitor IGMP service requests passing between multicast clients and servers, and dynamically configure
the switch ports that need to forward multicast traffic.
Static IGMP Router Interface – If IGMP snooping cannot locate the IGMP querier, you can manually
designate a known IGMP querier (For example, a multicast router/switch) connected over the network to an
interface on your switch (section 12.1.4). This interface will then join all the current multicast groups
supported by the attached router/switch to ensure that multicast traffic is passed to all appropriate interfaces
within the switch.
Static IGMP Host Interface – For multicast applications that you need to control more carefully, you can
manually assign a multicast service to specific interfaces on the switch (section 12.1.5).
12.1 IGMP Multicast Filtering
Multicasting is used to support real-time applications such as videoconferencing or streaming audio. A
multicast server does not have to establish a separate connection with each client. It merely broadcasts its
service to the network, and any hosts that want to receive the multicast register with their local multicast
switch/router. Although this approach reduces the network overhead required by a multicast server, the
broadcast traffic must be carefully pruned at every multicast switch/router it passes through to ensure that
traffic is only passed on to the hosts that subscribed to this service.
This switch uses IGMP (Internet Group Management Protocol) to query for any attached hosts that want to
receive a specific multicast service. It identifies the ports containing hosts requesting to join the service and
sends data out to those ports only. It then propagates the service request up to any neighboring multicast
switch/router to ensure that it will continue to receive the multicast service. This procedure is called multicast
filtering.
12.1.1 Configuring IGMP Snooping and Query Parameters
You can configure the switch to forward multicast traffic intelligently. Based on the IGMP query and report
messages, the switch forwards traffic only to the ports that request multicast traffic. This prevents the switch
from broadcasting the traffic to all ports and possibly disrupting network performance.
Follow these guidelines:
•
IGMP Snooping – This switch can passively snoop on IGMP Query and Report packets transferred
between IP multicast routers/switches and IP multicast host groups to identify the IP multicast group
members. It simply monitors the IGMP packets passing through it, picks out the group registration
information, and configures the multicast filters accordingly.
•
IGMP Querier – A router, or multicast-enabled switch, can periodically ask their hosts if they want to
receive multicast traffic. If there is more than one router/switch on the LAN performing IP multicasting,
one of these devices is elected “querier” and assumes the role of querying the LAN for group members.
It then propagates the service requests on to any upstream multicast switch/router to ensure that it will
continue to receive the multicast service.
Note: Multicast routers use this information, along with a multicast routing protocol such as DVMRP or PIM,
to support IP multicasting across the Internet.
Command Attributes
IGMP Status — When enabled, the switch monitors network traffic to determine which hosts want to receive
multicast traffic. This is also referred to as IGMP Snooping. (Default: Enabled)
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Act as IGMP Querier — When enabled, the switch can serve as the Querier, which is responsible for asking
hosts if they want to receive multicast traffic. (Default: Enabled)
IGMP Query Count — Sets the maximum number of queries issued for which there has been no response
before the switch takes action to drop a client from the multicast group. (Range: 2-10, Default: 2)
IGMP Query Interval — Sets the frequency at which the switch sends IGMP host-query messages. (Range:
60-125 seconds, Default: 125)
IGMP Report Delay — Sets the time between receiving an IGMP Report for an IP multicast address on a
port before the switch sends an IGMP Query out of that port and removes the entry from its list. (Range: 530 seconds, Default: 10)
IGMP Query Timeout — The time the switch waits after the previous querier stops before it considers the
router port (For example, the interface which had been receiving query packets) to have expired. (Range:
300-500 seconds, Default: 300)
IGMP Version — Sets the protocol version for compatibility with other devices on the network. (Range: 1-2;
Default: 2)
Notes: All systems on the subnet must support the same version. Some attributes are only enabled for
IGMPv2, including IGMP Report Delay and IGMP Query Timeout.
Configuring Switch Using the Web or CLI
Web
Click IGMP Snooping–IGMP Configuration. Adjust the IGMP settings as required, and then click Apply.
(The default settings are shown below.)
CLI
This example modifies the settings for multicast filtering, and then displays the current status.
Console(config)#ip igmp snooping
Console(config)#ip igmp snooping querier
Console(config)#ip igmp snooping query-count 10
Console(config)#ip igmp snooping query-interval 100
Console(config)#ip igmp snooping query-max-response-time 20
Console(config)#ip igmp snooping router-port-expire-time 300
Console(config)#ip igmp snooping version 2
Console(config)#exit
Console#show ip igmp snooping
Service status
: Enabled
Querier status
: Enabled
Query count
: 10
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Query interval
Query max response time
Router port expire time
IGMP snooping version
Console#
:
:
:
:
100 sec
20 sec
300 sec
Version 2
12.1.2 Displaying Interfaces Attached to a Multicast Router
Multicast routers that are attached to ports on the switch use information obtained from IGMP, along with a
multicast routing protocol such as DVMRP or PIM, to support IP multicasting across the Internet. These
routers may be dynamically discovered by the switch or statically assigned to an interface on the switch.
You can use the Multicast Router Port Information page to display the ports on this switch attached to a
neighboring multicast router/switch for each VLAN ID.
Command Attributes
VLAN ID – ID of configured VLAN (1-4094).
Multicast Router List – Multicast routers dynamically discovered by this switch or those that are statically
assigned to an interface on this switch.
Configuring Switch Using the Web or CLI
Web
Click IGMP Snooping – Multicast Router Port Information. Select the required VLAN ID from the scrolldown list to display the associated multicast routers.
CLI
This example shows that Port 11 has been statically configured as a port attached to a multicast router.
Console#show ip igmp snooping mrouter vlan 1
VLAN M'cast Router Port Type
---- ------------------ ------1
Eth 1/11 Static
console#
12.1.3 Specifying Static Interfaces for a Multicast Router
Depending on your network connections, IGMP snooping may not always be able to locate the IGMP
querier. Therefore, if the IGMP querier is a known multicast router/ switch connected over the network to an
interface (port or trunk) on your switch, you can manually configure the interface (and a specified VLAN) to
join all the current multicast groups supported by the attached router. This can ensure that multicast traffic is
passed to all the appropriate interfaces within the switch.
Command Attributes
Interface – Activates the Port or Trunk scroll down list.
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VLAN ID – Selects the VLAN to propagate all multicast traffic coming from the attached multicast router.
Port or Trunk – Specifies the interface attached to a multicast router.
Configuring Switch Using the Web or CLI
Web
Click IGMP Snooping–Static Multicast Router Port Configuration. Specify the interfaces attached to a
multicast router, indicate the VLANs forwarded all the corresponding multicast traffic, and then click Add.
After you have finished adding interfaces to the list, click Apply.
CLI
This example configures port 11 as a multicast router port within VLAN 1.
Console(config)#ip igmp snooping vlan 1 mrouter ethernet 1/11
Console(config)#exit
Console#show ip igmp snooping mrouter vlan 1
VLAN M'cast Router Port Type
---- ------------------ ------1
Eth 1/11 Static
Console#
12.1.4 Displaying Port Members of Multicast Services
You can display the port members associated with a specified VLAN and multicast service.
Command Attributes
VLAN ID – Selects the VLAN for which to display port members.
Multicast IP Address – The IP address for a specific multicast service.
Multicast Group Port List – Shows the interfaces that have already been assigned to the selected VLAN to
propagate a specific multicast service.
Configuring the Switch Using the Web or CLI
Web
Click IGMP Snooping – IP Multicast Registration Table. Select a VLAN ID and the IP address for a
multicast service from the scroll-down lists. The switch will display all the interfaces that are propagating this
multicast service.
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CLI
This example displays all the known multicast services supported on VLAN 1, along with the ports
propagating the corresponding services. The Type field shows if this entry was learned dynamically or was
statically configured.
Console#show mac-address-table multicast vlan 1
VLAN M'cast IP addr. Member ports Type
---- --------------- ------------ ------1
224.1.1.12
Eth1/12
USER
1
224.1.2.3
Eth1/12
IGMP
Console#
12.1.5 Assigning Ports to Multicast Services
Multicast filtering can be dynamically configured using IGMP Snooping and IGMP Query messages as
described in section 12.1.1 Configuring IGMP Snooping and Query Parameters. For certain applications
that require tighter control, you may need to statically configure a multicast service on the switch. First, add
all the ports attached to participating hosts to a common VLAN, and then assign the multicast service to that
VLAN group.
Follow these guidelines.
Static multicast addresses are never aged out.
When a multicast address is assigned to an interface in a specific VLAN, the corresponding traffic can only
be forwarded to ports within that VLAN.
Command Attribute
Interface – Activates the Port or Trunk scroll down list.
VLAN ID – Selects the VLAN to propagate all multicast traffic coming from the attached multicast
router/switch.
Multicast IP – The IP address for a specific multicast service
Port or Trunk – Specifies the interface attached to a multicast router/switch.
Configuring the Switch Using the Web or CLI
Web
Click IGMP Snooping – IGMP Member Port Table. Specify the interface attached to a multicast service
(via an IGMP-enabled switch or multicast router), indicate the VLAN that will propagate the multicast service,
specify the multicast IP address, and click Add. After you have completed adding ports to the member list,
click Apply.
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CLI
This example assigns a multicast address to VLAN 1, and then displays all the known multicast services
supported on VLAN 1.
Console(config)#ip igmp snooping vlan 1 static 224.1.1.12
ethernet 1/12
Console(config)#exit
Console#show mac-address-table multicast vlan 1
VLAN M'cast IP addr. Member ports Type
---- --------------- ------------ ------1
224.1.1.12
Eth1/12
USER
1
224.1.2.3
Eth1/12
IGMP
Console#
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Chapter 13: Configuring Domain Name Service
The Domain Naming System (DNS) service on this switch allows host names to be mapped to IP addresses
using static table entries or by redirection to other name servers on the network. When a client device
designates this switch as a DNS server, the client will attempt to resolve host names into IP addresses by
forwarding DNS queries to the switch, and waiting for a response.
You can manually configure entries in the DNS table used for mapping domain names to IP addresses,
configure default domain names, or specify one or more name servers to use for domain name to address
translation.
13.1 General DNS Server Parameters
Follow these guidelines.
To enable DNS service on this switch, first configure one or more name servers, and then enable domain
lookup status.
To append domain names to incomplete host names received from a DNS client (For example, not
formatted with dotted notation), you can specify a default domain name or a list of domain names to be tried
in sequential order.
If there is no domain list, the default domain name is used. If there is a domain list, the default domain name
is not used.
When an incomplete host name is received by the DNS server on this switch and a domain name list has
been specified, the switch works through the domain list, appending each domain name in the list to the host
name, and checking with the specified name servers for a match.
When more than one name server is specified, the servers are queried in the specified sequence until a
response is received, or the end of the list is reached with no response.
Note: If all name servers are deleted, DNS is automatically disabled.
Command Attributes
Domain Lookup Status – Enables DNS host name-to-address translation.
Default Domain Name – Defines the default domain name appended to incomplete host names. Do not
include the initial dot that separates the host name from the domain name. (Range: 1-64 alphanumeric
characters)
Domain Name List – Defines define a list of domain names that can be appended to incomplete host names.
Do not include the initial dot that separates the host name from the domain name. (Range: 1-64
alphanumeric characters. 1-5 names)
Name Server List – Specifies the address of one or more domain name servers to use for name-to-address
resolution. (Range: 1-6 IP addresses)
Configuring the Switch Using the Web or CLI
Web
Select DNS – General Configuration. Set the default domain name or list of domain names, specify one or
more name servers to use to use for address resolution, enable domain lookup status, and click Apply.
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CLI
This example sets a default domain name and a domain list. If a domain list is specified, the default domain
name is not used.
Console(config)#ip domain-name sample.com
Console(config)#ip domain-list sample.com.uk
Console(config)#ip domain-list sample.com.jp
Console(config)#ip name-server 192.168.1.55 10.1.0.55
Console(config)#ip domain-lookup
Console(config)#end
Console#show dns
Domain Lookup Status:
DNS enabled
Default Domain Name:
sample.com
Domain Name List:
sample.com.uk
sample.com.jp
Name Server List:
192.168.1.55
10.1.0.55
Console#
13.2 Static DNS Host to Address Entries
You can manually configure static entries in the DNS table that are used to map domain names to IP
addresses.
13.2.1 Guidelines
Static entries may be used for local devices connected directly to the attached network, or for commonly
used resources located elsewhere on the network.
Servers or other network devices may support one or more connections via multiple IP addresses. If more
than one IP address is associated with a host name in the static table or via information returned from a
name server, a DNS client can try each address in succession, until it establishes a connection with the
target device.
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Field Attributes
Host Name – Name of a host device that is mapped to one or more IP addresses. (Range: 1-64 characters)
IP Address – Internet address(es) associated with a host name. (Range: 1-8 addresses)
Alias – Displays the host names that are mapped to the same address(es) as a previously configured entry.
Configuring the Switch Using the Web or CLI
Web
Select DNS – Static Host Table. Enter a host name and one or more corresponding addresses, then click
Apply.
CLI
This example maps two address to a host name, and then configures an alias host name for the same
addresses.
Console(config)#ip host rd5 192.168.1.55 10.1.0.55
Console(config)#ip host rd6 10.1.0.55
Console(config)#end
Console#show hosts
Hostname
rd5
Inet address
10.1.0.55 192.168.1.55
Alias
1.rd6
Console#
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13.3 Displaying the DNS Cache
You can display entries in the DNS cache that have been learned via the designated name servers.
Field Attributes
No – The entry number for each resource record.
Flag – The flag is always “4” indicating a cache entry and therefore unreliable.
Type – This field includes CNAME, which specifies the canonical or primary name for the owner, and ALIAS,
which specifies multiple domain names that are mapped to the same IP address as an existing entry.
IP – The IP address associated with this record.
TTL – The time to live reported by the name server.
Domain – The domain name associated with this record.
Configuring the Switch Using the Web or CLI
Web
Select DNS – Cache.
CLI
This example displays all the resource records learned from the designated name servers.
Console#show dns cache
NO
FLAG
TYPE
0
4
CNAME
1
4
CNAME
2
4
CNAME
3
4
CNAME
4
4
CNAME
5
4
ALIAS
6
4
CNAME
7
4
ALIAS
8
4
CNAME
9
4
ALIAS
10
4
CNAME
Console#
IP
207.46.134.222
207.46.134.190
207.46.134.155
207.46.249.222
207.46.249.27
POINTER TO:4
207.46.68.27
POINTER TO:6
65.54.131.192
POINTER TO:8
165.193.72.190
TTL
51
51
51
51
51
51
71964
71964
605
605
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DOMAIN
www.microsoft.akadns.net
www.microsoft.akadns.net
www.microsoft.akadns.net
www.microsoft.akadns.net
www.microsoft.akadns.net
www.microsoft.com
msn.com.tw
www.msn.com.tw
passportimages.com
www.passportimages.com
global.msads.net
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Chapter 14: Using the Command Line Interface
The command set is divided into Exec and Configuration classes. Exec commands generally display
information on system status or clear statistical counters. Configuration commands, on the other hand,
modify interface parameters or enable certain switching functions. These classes are further divided into
different modes. Available commands depend on the selected mode. You can always enter a question mark
“?” at the prompt to display a list of the commands available for the current mode. The command classes
and associated modes are displayed in the following table:
Class
Mode
Exec
Normal
Privileged
Configuration
Global*
Access Control List
Interface
Line
Multiple Spanning Tree
VLAN Database
You must be in Privileged Exec mode to access the Global configuration mode. You must be in Global
Configuration mode to access any of the other configuration modes.
14.1 Exec Commands
When you open a new console session on the switch with the user name and password “guest,” the system
enters the Normal Exec command mode (or guest mode), displaying the “Console>” command prompt. Only
a limited number of the commands are available in this mode. You can access all commands only from the
Privileged Exec command mode (or administrator mode). To access Privilege Exec mode, open a new
console session with the user name and password “admin.” The system will now display the “Console#”
command prompt. You can also enter Privileged Exec mode from within Normal Exec mode, by entering the
enable command, followed by the privileged level password “super”
To enter Privileged Exec mode, enter the following user names and passwords:
Username: admin
Password: [admin login password]
CLI session with the 44 10/100/1000 ports 4 Gigabit Combo ports
L2/L4 managed standalone switch is opened.
To end the CLI session, enter [Exit].
Console#
Username: guest
Password: [guest login password]
CLI session with the 44 10/100/1000 ports 4 Gigabit Combo ports
L2/L4 managed standalone switch is opened.
To end the CLI session, enter [Exit].
Console#enable
Password: [privileged level password]
Console#
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14.2 Configuration Commands
Configuration commands are privileged level commands used to modify switch settings. These commands
only modify the running configuration. When the switch is rebooted, the start-up configuration is used. To
store the running configuration use the copy running-config startup-config command.
The configuration commands are organized into different modes:
Global Configuration - These commands modify the system level configuration, and include commands such
as hostname and snmp-server community.
Access Control List Configuration - These commands are used for packet filtering.
Interface Configuration - These commands modify the port configuration such as speed-duplex and
negotiation.
Line Configuration - These commands modify the console port and Telnet configuration, and include
command such as parity and databits.
VLAN Configuration - Includes the command to create VLAN groups.
Multiple Spanning Tree Configuration - These commands configure settings for the selected multiple
spanning tree instance.
To enter the Global Configuration mode, enter the command configure in Privileged Exec mode. The system
prompt will change to “Console(config)#” which gives you access privilege to all Global Configuration
commands.
Console#configure
Console(config)#
To enter the other modes, at the configuration prompt type one of the following commands. Use the exit or
end command to return to the Privileged Exec mode.
Mode
Command
Prompt
Line
line {console | vty}
Console(config-line)#
Interface
interface {ethernet port | portchannel id| vlan id}
Console(config-if)#
VLAN
vlan database
Console(config-vlan)#
MSTP
spanning-tree mst
Console(config-mstp)#
access-list ip standard
Console(config-std-acl)
access-list ip extended
Console(config-ext-acl)
access-list ip mask-precedence
Console(config-ip-mask-acl)
access-list mac
Console(config-mac-acl)
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access-list mac mask-precedence
Console(config-mac-mask-acl)
For example, you can use the following commands to enter interface configuration mode, and then return to
Privileged Exec mode
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/5
.
.
.
Console(config-if)#exit
Console(config)#
14.3 Command Groups
The system commands can be broken down into the functional groups shown below.
Command Group
Description
Line
Sets communication parameters for the serial port and Telnet, including baud rate and
console time-out
General
Basic commands for entering privileged access mode, restarting the system, or quitting
the CLI
System Management
Controls system logs, system passwords, user name, browser management options, and
a variety of other system information
Flash/File
Manages code image or switch configuration files
Authentication
Configures logon access using local or remote authentication; also configures port
security and IEEE 802.1x port access control
Access Control List
Provides filtering for IP frames (based on address, protocol, TCP/UDP port number or
TCP control code) or non-IP frames (based on MAC address or Ethernet type)
SNMP
Activates authentication failure traps; configures community access strings, and trap
managers; also configures IP address filtering
DHCP
Configures DHCP client
DNS
Configures DNS services.
Interface
Configures the connection parameters for all Ethernet ports, aggregated links, and VLANs
Mirror Port
Mirrors data to another port for analysis without affecting the data passing through or the
performance of the monitored port
Rate Limiting
Controls the maximum rate for traffic transmitted or received on a port
Link Aggregation
Statically groups multiple ports into a single logical trunk; configures Link Aggregation
Control Protocol for port trunks
Address Table
Configures the address table for filtering specified addresses, displays current entries,
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clears the table, or sets the aging time
Spanning Tree
Configures Spanning Tree settings for the switch
VLANs
Configures VLAN settings, and defines port membership for VLAN groups; also enables
or configures private VLANs and protocol VLANs
GVRP and Bridge
Extension
Configures GVRP settings that permit automatic VLAN learning; shows the configuration
for the bridge extension MIB
Priority
Sets port priority for untagged frames, selects strict priority or weighted round robin,
relative weight for each priority queue, also sets priority for TCP traffic types, IP
precedence, and DSCP
Multicast Filtering
Configures IGMP multicast filtering, query parameters, and specifies ports attached to a
multicast router
IP Interface
Configures IP address for the switch
The access mode shown in the following tables is indicated by these abbreviations:
•
ACL (Access Control List Configuration)
•
GC (Global Configuration)
•
IC (Interface Configuration)
•
LC (Line Configuration)
•
MST (Multiple Spanning Tree)
•
NE (Normal Exec)
•
PE (Privileged Exec)
•
VC (VLAN Database Configuration)
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Chapter 15: Configuration Guide
This chapter provides information about each of the features and an overview of the CLI commands needed
to configure, manage and maintain the switch. For more complete information about the commands refer to
Chapter 16: Command Reference.
15.1 Line Commands
You can access the onboard configuration program by attaching a VT100 compatible device to the server’s
serial port. These commands are used to set communication parameters for the serial port or Telnet (For
example, a virtual terminal).
Command
Function
Mode
line
Identifies a specific line for configuration and starts the line configuration
mode.
GC
login
Enables password checking at login.
LC
password
Specifies a password on a line.
LC
exec-timeout
Sets the interval that the command interpreter waits until input is detected.
LC
password-thresh
Sets the password intrusion threshold, which limits the number of failed logon
attempts.
LC
silent-time
Sets the amount of time the management console is inaccessible after the
number of unsuccessful logon attempts exceeds the threshold set by the
password-thresh command. This command only applies to the serial port.
LC
databits
Sets the number of data bits per character that are interpreted and generated
by hardware. This command only applies to the serial port.
LC
parity
Defines the generation of a parity bit. This command only applies to the serial
port.
LC
speed
Sets the terminal baud rate. This command only applies to the serial port.
LC
stopbits
Sets the number of the stop bits transmitted per byte. This command only
applies to the serial port.
LC
disconnect
Terminates a line connection.
PE
show line
Displays a terminal line's parameters.
NE, PE
15.2 General Commands
The following table lists the general commands and describes the functions and command modes of each
command.
Command
Function
Mode
enable
Activates privileged mode
NE
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disable
Returns to normal mode from privileged mode
PE
configure
Activates global configuration mode
PE
show history
Shows the command history buffer
NE, PE
reload
Restarts the system
PE
end
Returns to Privileged Exec mode
any config.
mode
exit
Returns to the previous configuration mode, or exits the CLI
any
quit
Exits a CLI session
NE, PE
help
Shows how to use help
any
?
Shows options for command completion (context sensitive)
any
15.2.1 Flash/File Commands
These commands are used to manage the system code or configuration files.
Command
Function
Mode
copy
Copies a code image or a switch configuration to or from flash
memory or a TFTP server
PE
delete
Deletes a file or code image
PE
dir
Displays a list of files in flash memory
PE
whichboot
Displays the files booted
PE
boot system
Specifies the file or image used to start up the system
GC
15.3 System Management Commands
Use these commands to control system logs, passwords, user names, browser configuration options, and
display or configure a variety of other system information.
The following table lists the system management commands and describes the functions of each command.
Command Group
Function
Device Designation
Configures information that uniquely identifies this switch
User Access
Configures the basic user names and passwords for management access
IP Filter
Configures IP addresses that are allowed management access
Web Server
Enables management access via a Web browser
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Secure Shell
Provides secure replacement for Telnet
Event Logging
Controls logging of error messages
SMTP Alerts
Configures SMTP email alerts
Time (System Clock)
Sets the system clock automatically via NTP/SNTP server or manually
System Status
Displays system configuration, active managers, and version information
Frame Size
Enables support for jumbo frames
15.3.1 Device Designation Commands
The following table lists the device designation commands and describes the functions and command
modes of each command.
Command
Function
Mode
Prompt
Customizes the prompt used in PE and NE mode
GC
hostname
Specifies the host name for the switch
GC
snmp-server contact
Sets the system contact string
GC
snmp-server location
Sets the system location string
GC
15.3.2 User Access Commands
The basic commands required for management access are listed in this section. This switch also includes
other options for password checking through the console or a Telnet connection, user authentication through
a remote authentication server and host access authentication for specific ports.
The following table lists the user access commands and describes the functions and command modes of
each command.
Command
Function
Mode
Username
Establishes a user name-based authentication system at login
GC
Enable password
Sets a password to control access to the Privileged Exec level
GC
15.3.3 IP Filter Commands
The following table lists the filter commands and describes the functions and command modes of each
command.
Command
Function
Mode
management
Configures IP addresses that are allowed management access
GC
show management
Displays the switch to be monitored or configured from a browser
PE
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15.3.4 Web Server Commands
The following table lists the web server commands and describes the functions and command modes of
each command.
Command
Function
Mode
ip http port
Specifies the port to be used by the Web browser interface
GC
ip http server
Allows the switch to be monitored or configured from a browser
GC
ip http secure-server
Enables HTTPS/SSL for encrypted communications
GC
ip http secure-port
Specifies the UDP port number for HTTPS/SSL
GC
15.3.5 Secure Shell Commands
The Berkley-standard includes remote access tools originally designed for Unix systems. Some of these
tools have also been implemented for Microsoft Windows and other environments. These tools, including
commands such as rlogin (remote login), rsh (remote shell), and rcp (remote copy), are not secure from
hostile attacks.
The Secure Shell (SSH) includes server/client applications intended as a secure replacement for the older
Berkley remote access tools. SSH can also provide remote management access to this switch as a secure
replacement for Telnet. When a client contacts the switch via the SSH protocol, the switch uses a public-key
that the client must match along with a local user name and password for access authentication. SSH also
encrypts all data transfers passing between the switch and SSH-enabled management station clients, and
ensures that data traveling over the network arrives unaltered.
This section describes the commands used to configure the SSH server. You also need to install a SSH
client on the management station when using this protocol to configure the switch.
Note: The switch supports both SSH Version 1.5 and 2.0.
The following table lists the filter commands and describes the functions and command modes of each
command.
Command
Function
Mode
ip ssh server
Enables the SSH server on the switch
GC
ip ssh timeout
Specifies the authentication timeout for the SSH server
GC
ip ssh authenticationretries
Specifies the number of retries allowed by a client
GC
ip ssh server-key size
Sets the SSH server key size
GC
copy tftp public-key
Copies the user’s public key from a TFTP server to the switch
PE
delete public-key
Deletes the public key for the specified user
PE
ip ssh crypto host-key
generate
Generates the host key
PE
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ip ssh crypto zeroize
Clear the host key from RAM
PE
ip ssh save host-key
Saves the host key from RAM to flash memory
PE
disconnect
Terminates a line connection
PE
show ip ssh
Displays the status of the SSH server and the configured values for
authentication timeout and retries
PE
show ssh
Displays the status of current SSH sessions
PE
show public-key
Shows the public key for the specified user or for the host
PE
show users
Shows SSH users, including privilege level and public key type
PE
The SSH server on this switch supports both password and public key authentication. If password
authentication is specified by the SSH client, then the password can be authenticated either locally or via a
RADIUS or TACACS+ remote authentication server, as specified by the authentication login command. If
public key authentication is specified by the client, then you must configure authentication keys on both the
client and the switch as described in the following section. Note that regardless of whether you use public
key or password authentication, you still have to generate authentication keys on the switch and enable the
SSH server.
To use the SSH server, complete these steps:
1.
Generate a Host Key Pair – Use the ip ssh crypto host-key generate command to create a host
public/private key pair.
2.
Provide Host Public Key to Clients – Many SSH client programs automatically import the host public
key during the initial connection setup with the switch. Otherwise, you need to manually create a
known hosts file on the management station and place the host public key in it. An entry for a public
key in the known hosts file would appear similar to the following example:
10.1.0.54 1024 35 15684995401867669259333946775054617325313674890836547254
15020245593199868544358361651999923329781766065830956 10825913212890233
76546801726272571413428762941301196195566782 59566410486957427888146206
5194174677298486546861571773939016477935594230357741309802273708779454524083971
752646358058176716709574804776117
3. Import Client’s Public Key to the Switch – Use the copy tftp public-key command to copy a file
containing the public key for all the SSH client’s granted management access to the switch. (Note
that these clients must be configured locally on the switch using the User Accounts page as
described in section 6.1.1 Configuring User Accounts.) The clients are subsequently
authenticated using these keys. The current firmware only accepts public key files based on
standard UNIX format as shown in the following example for an RSA Version 1 key:
1024 35 1341081685609893921040944920155425347631641921872958921143173880
0555361616310517759408386863110929123222682851925437460310093718772119969631781
3662774141689851320491172048303392543241016379975923714490119380060902539484084
8271781943722884025331159521348610229029789827213532671316294325328189150453063
93916643 steve@192.168.1.19
4. Set the Optional Parameters – Set other optional parameters, including the authentication timeout,
the number of retries, and the server key size.
156
5.
Enable SSH Service – Use the ip ssh server command to enable the SSH server on the switch.
6.
Configure Challenge-Response Authentication – When an SSH client attempts to contact the switch,
the SSH server uses the host key pair to negotiate a session key and encryption method. Only
Asanté IntraCore 36000 Series
clients that have a private key corresponding to the public keys stored on the switch can gain
access. The following exchanges take place during this process:
•
The client sends its public key to the switch.
•
The switch compares the client's public key to those stored in memory.
•
If a match is found, the switch uses the public key to encrypt a random sequence of bytes, and
sends this string to the client.
•
The client uses its private key to decrypt the bytes, and sends the decrypted bytes back to the
switch.
•
The switch compares the decrypted bytes to the original bytes it sent. If the two sets match,
this means that the client's private key corresponds to an authorized public key, and the client
is authenticated.
Note: To use SSH with only password authentication, the host public key must still be given to the client,
either during initial connection or manually entered into the known host file. You do not need to configure the
client’s keys.
15.3.6 Event Logging Commands
The following table lists the even logging commands.
Command
Function
Mode
logging on
Controls logging of error messages
GC
logging history
Limits syslog messages saved to switch memory based on severity
GC
logging host
Adds a syslog server host IP address that will receive logging
messages
GC
logging facility
Sets the facility type for remote logging of syslog messages
GC
logging trap
Limits syslog messages saved to a remote server based on severity
GC
clear logging
Clears messages from the logging buffer
PE
show logging
Displays the state of logging configuration
PE
15.3.7 SMTP Alert Commands
Configures SMTP event handling, and forwarding of alert messages to the specified SMTP servers and
email recipients.
Command
Function
Mode
logging sendmail host
SMTP servers to receive alert messages
GC
logging sendmail level
Severity threshold used to trigger alert messages
GC
logging sendmail source-email
Email address used for “From” field of alert messages
GC
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logging sendmail destination-email
Email recipients of alert messages
GC
logging sendmail
Enables SMTP event handling
GC
show logging sendmail
Displays SMTP event handler settings
NE, PE
15.3.8 Time Commands
The system clock can be dynamically set by polling a set of specified time servers (NTP or SNTP), or by
using information broadcast by local time servers.
Command
Function
Mode
sntp client
Accepts time from specified time servers
GC
sntp server
Specifies one or more time servers
GC
sntp poll
Sets the interval at which the client polls for time
GC
sntp broadcast client
Accepts time from any time broadcast server
GC
show sntp
Shows current SNTP configuration settings
NE, PE
clock timezone
Sets the time zone for the switch’s internal clock
GC
Calendar set
Sets the system date and time
PE
show calendar
Displays the current date and time setting
NE, PE
15.3 9 System Status Commands
The following table lists the system status commands.
Command
Function
Mode
show startup-config
Displays the contents of the configuration file (stored in flash
memory) that is used to start up the system
PE
show running-config
Displays the configuration data currently in use
PE
show system
Displays system information
NE, PE
show users
Shows all active console and Telnet sessions, including user name,
idle time, and IP address of Telnet clients
NE, PE
show version
Displays version information for the system
NE, PE
15.3.10 Frame Size Commands
The following table lists the frame size commands.
Command
158
Function
Mode
Asanté IntraCore 36000 Series
jumbo frame
Enables support for jumbo frames
GC
15.4 Authentication Commands
You can configure this switch to authenticate users logging into the system for management access using
local or RADIUS authentication methods. You can also enable port-based authentication for network client
access using IEEE 802.1x.
The following table lists the authentication commands and describes the functions and command modes of
each command.
Command Mode
Function
Authentication Sequence
Defines logon authentication method and precedence
RADIUS Client
Configures settings for authentication via a RADIUS server
TACACS+ Client
Configures settings for authentication via a TACACS+ server
Port Security
Configures secure addresses for a port
Port Authentication
Configures host authentication on specific ports using 802.1x
15.4.1 Authentication Sequence
The following table lists the authentication sequence commands.
Command
Function
Mode
authentication login
Defines logon authentication method and precedence
GC
authentication enable
Defines the authentication method and precedence for command
mode change
GC
15.4.2 RADIUS Client
Remote Authentication Dial-in User Service (RADIUS) is a logon authentication protocol that uses software
running on a central server to control access to RADIUS-aware devices on the network. An authentication
server contains a database of multiple user name/password pairs with associated privilege levels for each
user or group that require management access to a switch.
Command
Function
Mode
radius-server host
Specifies the RADIUS server
GC
radius-server port
Sets the RADIUS server network port
GC
radius-server key
Sets the RADIUS encryption key
GC
radius-server retransmit
Sets the number of retries
GC
radius-server timeout
Sets the interval between sending authentication requests
GC
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show radius-server
Shows the current RADIUS settings
PE
15.4.3 TACACS+ Client
Terminal Access Controller Access Control System (TACACS+) is a logon authentication protocol that uses
software running on a central server to control access to TACACS-aware devices on the network. An
authentication server contains a database of multiple user name/password pairs with associated privilege
levels for each user or group that require management access to a switch.
Command
Function
Mode
tacacs-server host
Specifies the TACACS+ server
GC
tacacs-server port
Specifies the TACACS+ server network port
GC
tacacs-server key
Sets the TACACS+ encryption key
GC
show tacacs-server
Shows the current TACACS+ settings
GC
15.4.4 Port Security Commands
These commands can be used to disable the learning function or manually specify secure addresses for a
port. You can leave port security off for an initial training period (for example, enable the learning function) to
register all the current VLAN members on the selected port, and then enable port security. Doing this helps
that the port will drop any incoming frames with a source MAC address that is unknown or has been
previously learned from another port.
Command
Function
Mode
port security
Configures a secure port
IC
mac-address-table static
Maps a static address to a port in a VLAN
GC
show mac-address-table
Displays entries in the bridge-forwarding database
PE
15.4.5 The 802.1x Port Authentication
The switch supports IEEE 802.1x (dot1x) port-based access control that prevents unauthorized access to
the network by requiring users to first submit credentials for authentication. Client authentication is controlled
centrally by a RADIUS server using EAP (Extensible Authentication Protocol).
Command
Function
Mode
authentication dot1x
default
Sets the default authentication server type
GC
dot1x default
Resets all dot1x parameters to their default values
GC
dot1x max-req
Sets the maximum number of times the switch retransmits an EAP
request/identity packet to the client before it times
GC
dot1x port-control
Sets dot1x mode for a port interface
IC
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dot1x operation-mode
Allows single or multiple hosts on an dot1x port
IC
dot1x re-authenticate
Forces re-authentication on specific ports
PE
dot1x re-authentication
Enables re-authentication for all ports
GC
dot1x timeout quiet-period
Sets the time that a switch port waits after the Max Request Count has
been exceeded before attempting to acquire a new client
GC
dot1x timeout reauthperiod
Sets the time period after which a connected client must be reauthenticated
GC
dot1x timeout tx-period
Sets the time period during an authentication session that the switch waits
before re-transmitting an EAP packet
GC
show dot1x
Shows all dot1x related information
PE
15.5 Access Control List Commands
Access Control Lists (ACL) provide packet filtering for IP frames (based on address, protocol, Layer 4
protocol port number or TCP control code) or any frames (based on MAC address or Ethernet type). To filter
packets, first create an access list, add the required rules, specify a mask to modify the precedence in which
the rules are checked, and then bind the list to a specific port.
An ACL is a sequential list of permit or deny conditions that apply to IP addresses, MAC addresses, or other
more specific criteria. This switch tests ingress or egress packets against the conditions in an ACL one by
one. A packet will be accepted as soon as it matches a permit rule, or dropped as soon as it matches a deny
rule. If no rules match for a list of all permit rules, the packet is dropped; and if no rules match for a list of all
deny rules, the packet is accepted.
There are three filtering modes:
•
Standard IP ACL mode (STD-ACL) filters packets based on the source IP address.
•
Extended IP ACL mode (EXT-ACL) filters packets based on source or destination IP address, as well as
protocol type and protocol port number. If the TCP protocol is specified, then you can also filter packets
based on the TCP control code.
•
MAC ACL mode (MAC-ACL) filters packets based on the source or destination MAC address and the
Ethernet frame type (RFC 1060).
The following restrictions apply to ACLs:
•
This switch supports ACLs for both ingress and egress filtering. You can only bind one IP ACL and one
MAC ACL to any port for ingress filtering, and one IP ACL and one MAC ACL to any port for egress
filtering. In other words, only four ACLs can be bound to an interface – Ingress IP ACL, Egress IP ACL,
Ingress MAC ACL and Egress MAC ACL.
•
When an ACL is bound to an interface as an egress filter, all entries in the ACL must be deny rules.
Otherwise, the bind operation will fail.
•
Each ACL can have up to 32 rules.
•
The maximum number of ACLs is also 32.
•
The average number of rules bound the ports should not exceed 20.
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•
You must configure a mask for an ACL rule before you can bind it to a port or set the queue or frame
priorities associated with the rule.
•
The switch does not support the explicit “deny any any” rule for the egress IP ACL or the egress MAC
ACLs. If these rules are included in ACL, and you attempt to bind the ACL to an interface for egress
checking, the bind operation will fail.
•
Egress MAC ACLs only work for destination-mac-known packets, not for multicast, broadcast, or
destination-mac-unknown packets.
The order in which active ACLs are checked is as follows:
1.
User-defined rules in the Egress MAC ACL for egress ports.
2.
User-defined rules in the Egress IP ACL for egress ports.
3.
User-defined rules in the Ingress MAC ACL for ingress ports.
4.
User-defined rules in the Ingress IP ACL for ingress ports.
5.
Explicit default rule (permit any any) in the ingress IP ACL for ingress ports.
6.
Explicit default rule (permit any any) in the ingress MAC ACL for ingress ports.
7.
If no explicit rule is matched, the implicit default is permit all.
Masks for Access Control Lists
You can specify optional masks that control the order in which ACL rules are checked. The switch includes
two system default masks that pass/filter packets matching the permit/deny the rules specified in an ingress
ACL. You can also configure up to seven user-defined masks for an ACL. A mask must be bound
exclusively to one of the basic ACL types (For example, Ingress IP ACL, Egress IP ACL, Ingress MAC ACL
or Egress MAC ACL), but a mask can be bound to up to four ACLs of the same type.
Command Groups
Function
IP ACLs
Configures ACLs based on IP addresses, TCP/UDP port number, protocol type,
and TCP control code
MAC ACLs
Configures ACLs based on hardware addresses, packet format, and Ethernet
type
ACL Information
Displays ACLs and associated rules; shows ACLs assigned to each port
15.5.1 IP ACLs
The following table lists the IP access control list commands.
Command
Function
Mode
access-list ip
Creates an IP ACL and enters configuration mode
GC
permit, deny
Filters packets matching a specified source IP address
STDACL
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permit, deny
Filters packets meeting the specified criteria, including source and
destination IP address, TCP/UDP port number, protocol type, and
TCP control code
EXTACL
show ip access-list
Displays the rules for configured IP ACLs
PE
access-list ip maskprecedence
Changes to the mode for configuring access control masks
GC
Mask
Sets a precedence mask for the ACL rules
IP-Mask
show access-list ip maskprecedence
Shows the ingress or egress rule masks for IP ACLs
PE
ip access-group
Adds a port to an IP ACL
IC
show ip access-group
Shows port assignments for IP ACLs
PE
map access-list ip
Sets the CoS value and corresponding output queue for packets
matching an ACL rule
IC
show map access-list ip
Shows CoS value mapped to an access list for an interface
PE
match access-list ip
Changes the 802.1p priority, IP Precedence, or DSCP Priority of a
frame matching the defined rule (For example, also called packet
marking)
IC
show marking
Displays the current configuration for packet marking
PE
15.5.2 MAC ACLs
The following table lists the MAC access control list commands.
Command
Function
Mode
access-list mac
Creates a MAC ACL and enters configuration mode
GC
permit, deny
Filters packets matching a specified source and destination
address, packet format, and Ethernet type
MAC-ACL
show mac access-list
Displays the rules for configured MAC ACLs
PE
access-list mac maskprecedence
Changes to the mode for configuring access control masks
GC
Mask
Sets a precedence mask for the ACL rules
MACMask
show access-list mac
mask-precedence
Shows the ingress or egress rule masks for MAC ACLs
PE
mac access-group
Adds a port to a MAC ACL
IC
show mac access-group
Shows port assignments for MAC ACLs
PE
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map access-list mac
Sets the CoS value and corresponding output queue for packets
matching an ACL rule
IC
show map access-list
mac
Shows CoS value mapped to an access list for an interface
PE
match access-list mac
Changes the 802.1p priority the priority of a frame matching the
defined rule (For example, also called packet marking)
IC
show marking
Displays the current configuration for packet marking
PE
15.5.3 ACL Information
The following table lists the commands used to show information about ACLs.
Command
Function
Mode
show access-list
Show all ACLs and associated rules
PE
show access-group
Shows the ACLs assigned to each port
PE
15.6 SNMP Commands
Controls access to this switch from management stations using the Simple Network Management Protocol
(SNMP), as well as the error types sent to trap managers.
Command
Function
Mode
snmp-server community
Sets up the community access string to permit access to SNMP
commands
GC
snmp-server contact
Sets the system contact string
GC
snmp-server location
Sets the system location string
GC
snmp-server host
Specifies the recipient of an SNMP notification operation
GC
snmp-server enable traps
Enables the device to send SNMP traps (For example, SNMP
notifications)
GC
show snmp
Displays the status of SNMP communications
NE, PE
15.7 DHCP Commands
These commands are used to configure Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) client. You can
configure any VLAN interface to be automatically assigned an IP address via DHCP.
DHCP Client
Command
Function
Mode
ip dhcp restart
Submits a BOOTP or DHCP client request
PE
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15.7.1 DNS Commands
These commands are used to configure Domain Naming System (DNS) services. You can manually
configure entries in the DNS domain name to IP address mapping table, configure default domain names, or
specify one or more name servers to use for domain name to address translation.
Domain name services is not be enabled until at least one name server is specified with the ip name-server
command and domain lookup is enabled with the ip domain-lookup command.
Command
Function
Mode
ip host
Creates a static host name-to-address mapping
GC
clear host
Deletes entries from the host name-to-address table
PE
ip domain-name
Defines a default domain name for incomplete host names
GC
ip domain-list
Defines a list of default domain names for incomplete host names
GC
ip name-server
Specifies the address of one or more name servers to use for host
name-to-address translation
GC
ip domain-lookup
Enables DNS-based host name-to-address translation
GC
show hosts
Displays the static host name-to-address mapping table
PE
show dns
Displays the configuration for DNS services
PE
show dns cache
Displays entries in the DNS cache
PE
clear dns cache
Clears all entries from the DNS cache
PE
15.8 Interface Commands
These commands are used to display or set communication parameters for an Ethernet port, aggregated
link, or VLAN.
Command
Function
Mode
Interface
Configures an interface type and enters interface configuration
mode
GC
description
Adds a description to an interface configuration
IC
speed-duplex
Configures the speed and duplex operation of a given interface
when autonegotiation is disabled
IC
negotiation
Enables autonegotiation of a given interface
IC
capabilities
Advertises the capabilities of a given interface for use in
autonegotiation
IC
flowcontrol
Enables flow control on a given interface
IC
combo-forced-mode
Force port type selected for combination ports
IC
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shutdown
Disables an interface
IC
switchport broadcast
packet-rate
Configures the broadcast storm control threshold
IC
clear counters
Clears statistics on an interface
PE
show interfaces status
Displays status for the specified interface
NE, PE
show interfaces counters
Displays statistics for the specified interfaces
NE, PE
show interfaces
switchport
Displays the administrative and operational status of an interface
NE, PE
15.9 Mirror Port Commands
This section describes how to mirror traffic from a source port to a target port.
Command
Function
Mode
port monitor
Configures a mirror session
IC
show port monitor
Shows the configuration for a mirror port
PE
15.10 Rate Limit Commands
This function allows the network manager to control the maximum rate for traffic transmitted or received on
an interface. Rate limiting is configured on interfaces at the edge of a network to limit traffic into or out of the
network. Traffic that falls within the rate limit is transmitted, while packets that exceed the acceptable
amount of traffic are dropped.
Rate limiting can be applied to individual ports or trunks. When an interface is configured with this feature,
the traffic rate will be monitored by the hardware to verify conformity. Non-conforming traffic is dropped,
conforming traffic is forwarded without any changes.
Command
Function
Mode
rate-limit
Configures the maximum input or output rate for a port
IC
15.11 Link Aggregation Commands
Ports can be statically grouped into an aggregate link (For example, trunk) to increase the bandwidth of a
network connection or to ensure fault recovery. You can use the Link Aggregation Control Protocol (LACP)
to automatically negotiate a trunk link between this switch and another network device. For static trunks, the
switches have to comply with the Cisco EtherChannel standard. For dynamic trunks, the switches have to
comply with LACP. This switch supports up to six trunks. For example, a trunk consisting of two 1000 Mbps
ports can support an aggregate bandwidth of 4 Gbps when operating at full duplex.
The following table lists the manual configuration commands.
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Command
Function
Mode
interface port-channel
Enters interface configuration mode and Configures a trunk
GC
Channel-group
Adds a port to a trunk
IC (Ethernet)
Dynamic Configuration Command
lacp
Configures LACP for the current interface
IC (Ethernet)
lacp system-priority
Configures a port's LACP system priority
IC (Ethernet)
lacp admin-key
Configures a port's administration key
IC (Ethernet)
lacp admin-key
Configures an port channel’s administration key
IC (Port
Channel)
lacp port-priority
Configures a port's LACP port priority
IC (Ethernet)
Trunk Status Display Command
show interfaces status
port-channel
Shows trunk information
NE, PE
show lacp
Shows LACP information
PE
Guidelines for Creating Trunks
•
Finish configuring port trunks before you connect the corresponding network cables between switches
to avoid creating a loop.
•
A trunk can have up to eight ports.
•
The ports at both ends of a connection must be configured as trunk ports.
•
All ports in a trunk must be configured in an identical manner, including communication mode (For
example, speed, duplex mode and flow control), VLAN assignments, and CoS settings.
•
All the ports in a trunk have to be treated as a whole when moved from/to, added or deleted from a
VLAN via the specified port-channel.
•
STP, VLAN, and IGMP settings can only be made for the entire trunk via the specified port-channel.
Dynamically Creating a Port Channel
Ports assigned to a common port channel must meet the following criteria:
•
Ports must have the same LACP system priority.
•
Ports must have the same port admin key (Ethernet Interface).
•
If the port channel admin key (lacp admin key - Port Channel) is not set when a channel group is formed
(For example, it has the null value of 0), this key is set to the same value as the port admin key (lacp
admin key - Ethernet Interface) used by the interfaces that joined the group.
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•
If the port channel admin key is set, then the port admin key must be set to the same value for a port to
be allowed to join a channel group.
•
If a link goes down, LACP port priority is used to select the backup link.
15.12 Address Table Commands
These commands are used to configure the address table for filtering specified addresses, displaying
current entries, clearing the table, or setting the aging time.
Command
Function
Mode
mac-address-table static
Maps a static address to a port in a VLAN
GC
clear mac-address-table
dynamic
Removes any learned entries from the forwarding database
PE
show mac-address-table
Displays entries in the bridge-forwarding database
PE
mac-address-table agingtime
Sets the aging time of the address table
GC
show mac-address-table
aging-time
Shows the aging time for the address table
PE
15.13 Spanning Tree Commands
This section includes commands that configure the Spanning Tree Algorithm (STA) globally for the switch,
and commands that configure STA for the selected interface.
Command
Function
Mode
spanning-tree
Enables the spanning tree protocol
GC
spanning-tree mode
Configures STP, RSTP or MSTP mode
GC
spanning-tree forwardtime
Configures the spanning tree bridge forward time
GC
spanning-tree hello-time
Configures the spanning tree bridge hello time
GC
spanning-tree max-age
Configures the spanning tree bridge maximum age
GC
spanning-tree priority
Configures the spanning tree bridge priority
GC
spanning-tree path-cost
method
Configures the path cost method for RSTP/MSTP
GC
spanning-tree
transmission-limit
Configures the transmission limit for RSTP/MSTP
GC
spanning-tree mstconfiguration
Changes to MSTP configuration mode
GC
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mst vlan
Adds VLANs to a spanning tree instance
MST
mst priority
Configures the priority of a spanning tree instance
MST
Name
Configures the name for the multiple spanning tree
MST
Revision
Configures the revision number for the multiple spanning tree
MST
max-hops
Configures the maximum number of hops allowed in the region
before a BPDU is discarded
MST
spanning-tree spanningdisabled
Disables spanning tree for an interface
IC
spanning-tree cost
Configures the spanning tree path cost of an interface
IC
spanning-tree port-priority
Configures the spanning tree priority of an interface
IC
spanning-tree edge-port
Enables fast forwarding for edge ports
IC
spanning-tree portfast
Sets an interface to fast forwarding
IC
spanning-tree link-type
Configures the link type for RSTP/MSTP
IC
spanning-tree mst cost
Configures the path cost of an instance in the MST
IC
spanning-tree mst portpriority
Configures the priority of an instance in the MST
IC
show spanning-tree
Shows spanning tree configuration for the common spanning tree
(For example, overall bridge), a selected interface, or an instance
within the multiple spanning tree
PE
show spanning-tree mst
configuration
Shows the multiple spanning tree configuration
PE
15.14 VLAN Commands
A VLAN is a group of ports that can be located anywhere in the network, but communicate as though they
belong to the same physical segment. This section describes commands used to create VLAN groups, add
port members, specify how VLAN tagging is used, and enable automatic VLAN registration for the selected
interface.
Command Groups
Function
Editing VLAN Groups
Sets up VLAN groups, including name, VID and state
Configuring VLAN
Interfaces
Configures VLAN interface parameters, including ingress and egress tagging
mode, ingress filtering, PVID, and GVRP
Displaying VLAN
Information
Displays VLAN groups, status, port members, and MAC addresses
Configuring Private
VLANs
Configures private VLANs, including uplink and downlink ports
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Configuring Protocol
VLANs
Configures protocol-based VLANs based on frame type and protocol
15.14.1 Editing VLANs
The following table list the commands for editing VLAN groups.
Command
Function
Mode
vlan database
Enters VLAN database mode to add, change, and delete VLANs
GC
vlan
Configures a VLAN, including VID, name and state
VC
15.14.2 Configuring VLAN Interfaces
Command
Function
Mode
Interface vlan
Enters interface configuration mode for a specified VLAN
IC
switchport mode
Configures VLAN membership mode for an interface
IC
switchport acceptable-frametypes
Configures frame types to be accepted by an interface
IC
switchport ingress-filtering
Enables ingress filtering on an interface
IC
switchport native vlan
Configures the PVID (native VLAN) of an interface
IC
switchport allowed vlan
Configures the VLANs associated with an interface
IC
switchport gvrp
Enables GVRP for an interface
IC
switchport forbidden vlan
Configures forbidden VLANs for an interface
IC
15.14.3 Displaying VLAN Information
The following table lists the commands need to show VLAN information.
Command
Function
Mode
show vlan
Shows VLAN information
NE, PE
show interfaces status
vlan
Displays status for the specified VLAN interface
NE, PE
show interfaces
switchport
Displays the administrative and operational status of an interface
NE, PE
15.14.4 Configuring Private VLANs
Private VLANs provide port-based security and isolation between ports within the assigned VLAN. This
section describes commands used to configure private VLANs.
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Command
Function
Mode
Pvlan
Enables and configured private VLANS
GC
show pvlan
Displays the configured private VLANS
PE
15.14.5 Configuring Protocol-based VLANs Using the CLI
The network devices required to support multiple protocols cannot be easily grouped into a common VLAN.
This may require non-standard devices to pass traffic between different VLANs in order to encompass all the
devices participating in a specific protocol. This kind of configuration deprives users of the basic benefits of
VLANs, including security and easy accessibility.
To avoid these problems, you can configure this switch with protocol-based VLANs that divide the physical
network into logical VLAN groups for each required protocol. When a frame is received at a port, its VLAN
membership can then be determined based on the protocol type in use by the inbound packets.
Command
Function
Mode
Protocol-vlan protocolgroup
Create a protocol group, specifying the supported protocols
GC
Protocol-vlan protocolgroup
Maps a protocol group to a VLAN
IC
show protocol-vlan
protocol-group
Shows the configuration of protocol groups
PE
show interfaces protocolvlan protocol-group
Shows the interfaces mapped to a protocol group and the
corresponding VLAN
PE
To configure protocol-based VLANs, follow these steps:
1. Configure VLAN groups for the protocols you want to use (see 15.14.2). Although not mandatory, you
should suggest configuring a separate VLAN for each major protocol running on your network. Do not
add port members at this time.
2. Create a protocol group for each of the protocols you want to assign to a VLAN using the protocol-vlan
protocol-group command (General Configuration mode).
3. Then map the protocol for each interface to the appropriate VLAN using the protocol-vlan protocolgroup command (Interface Configuration mode).
15.15 GVRP and Bridge Extension Commands
GARP VLAN Registration Protocol defines a way for switches to exchange VLAN to automatically register
VLAN members on interfaces across the network. This section describes how to enable GVRP for individual
interfaces and globally for the switch, as well as how to display default configuration settings for the Bridge
Extension MIB.
Command
Function
Mode
bridge-ext gvrp
Enables GVRP globally for the switch
GC
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show bridge-ext
Shows the global bridge extension configuration
PE
switchport gvrp
Enables GVRP for an interface
IC
switchport forbidden vlan
Configures forbidden VLANs for an interface
IC
show gvrp configuration
Displays GVRP configuration for the selected interface
NE, PE
garp timer
Sets the GARP timer for the selected function
IC
show garp timer
Shows the GARP timer for the selected function
NE, PE
15.16 Priority Commands
The commands described in this section allow you to specify which data packets have greater precedence
when traffic is buffered in the switch due to congestion. This switch supports CoS with eight priority queues
for each port. Data packets in a port’s high-priority queue will be transmitted before those in the lowerpriority queues. You can set the default priority for each interface, the relative weight of each queue, and the
mapping of frame priority tags to the switch’s priority queues.
Command Groups
Function
Priority (Layer 2)
Configures default priority for untagged frames, sets queue weights, and maps
class of service tags to hardware queues
Priority (Layer 3 and 4)
Maps TCP ports, IP precedence tags, or IP DSCP tags to class of service values
15.16.1 Priority Commands (Layer 2)
The following table lists the layer 2 priority commands.
Command
Function
Mode
switchport priority default
Sets a port priority for incoming untagged frames
IC
queue mode
Sets the queue mode to strict priority or Weighted Round-Robin
(WRR)
GC
queue bandwidth
Assigns round-robin weights to the priority queues
GC
queue cos map
Assigns class-of-service values to the priority queues
IC
show queue mode
Shows the current queue mode
PE
show queue bandwidth
Shows round-robin weights assigned to the priority queues
PE
show queue cos-map
Shows the class-of-service map
PE
show interfaces
switchport
Displays the administrative and operational status of an interface
PE
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15.16.2 Priority Commands (Layer 3 and 4)
The following table lists the layer 3 and 4 priority commands.
Command
Function
Mode
map ip port
Enables TCP class of service mapping
GC
map ip port
Maps TCP socket to a class of service
IC
map ip precedence
Enables IP precedence class of service mapping
GC
map ip precedence
Maps IP precedence value to a class of service
IC
map ip dscp
Enables IP DSCP class of service mapping
GC
map ip dscp
Maps IP DSCP value to a class of service
IC
map access-list ip
Sets the CoS value and corresponding output queue for packets
matching an ACL rule
IC
map access-list mac
Sets the CoS value and corresponding output queue for packets
matching an ACL rule
IC
show map access-list ip
Shows CoS value mapped to an access list for an interface
PE
show map access-list
mac
Shows CoS value mapped to an access for an interface
PE
show map ip port
Shows the IP port map
PE
show map ip precedence
Shows the IP precedence map
PE
show map ip dscp
Shows the IP DSCP map
PE
15.17 Multicast Filtering Commands
This switch uses IGMP (Internet Group Management Protocol) to query for any attached hosts that want to
receive a specific multicast service. It identifies the ports containing hosts requesting a service and sends
data out to those ports only. It then propagates the service request up to any neighboring multicast
switch/router to ensure that it continues to receive the multicast service.
Command Groups
Function
IGMP Snooping
Configures multicast groups via IGMP snooping or static assignment,
sets the IGMP version, displays current snooping and query settings,
and displays the multicast service and group members
IGMP Query
Configures IGMP query parameters for multicast filtering at Layer 2
Static Multicast Routing
Configures static multicast router ports
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15.17.1 IGMP Snooping Commands
The following table lists the IGMP snooping commands.
Command
Function
Mode
ip igmp snooping
Enables IGMP snooping
GC
ip igmp snooping vlan
static
Adds an interface as a member of a multicast group
GC
ip igmp snooping version
Configures the IGMP version for snooping
GC
show ip igmp snooping
Shows the IGMP snooping and query configuration
PE
show mac-address-table
multicast
Shows the IGMP snooping MAC multicast list
PE
15.17.2 IGMP Query Commands (Layer 2)
The following table lists the IGMP layer 2 query commands.
Command
Function
Mode
ip igmp snooping querier
Allows this device to act as the querier for IGMP snooping
GC
ip igmp snooping querycount
Configures the query count
GC
ip igmp snooping queryinterval
Configures the query interval
GC
ip igmp snooping querymax-response-time
Configures the report delay
GC
ip igmp snooping routerport-expire-time
Configures the query timeout
GC
15.17.3 Static Multicast Routing Commands
The following table lists the static multicast routing commands.
Command
Function
Mode
ip igmp snooping vlan
mrouter
Adds a multicast router port
GC
show ip igmp snooping
mrouter
Shows multicast router ports
PE
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15.18 IP Interface Commands
There are no IP addresses assigned to this switch by default. You must manually configure a new address
to manage the switch over your network. You may also need to a establish a default gateway between this
device and management stations or other devices that exist on another network segment.
The following table lists the basic IP configuration commands.
Command
Function
Mode
ip address
Sets the IP address for the current interface
IC
ip default-gateway
Defines the default gateway through which this switch can reach
other subnetworks
GC
show ip interface
Displays the IP settings for this device
PE
show ip redirects
Displays the default gateway configured for this device
PE
ping
Sends ICMP echo request packets to another node on the network
NE, PE
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Chapter 16: Command Reference
The section contains an alphabetical listing of all the commands used to configure, manage and maintain
your switch. Refer to Chapter 15: Configuration Guide, for information on specific features and associated
commands.
16.1 access-list ip
This command adds an IP access list and enters configuration mode for standard or extended IP ACLs. Use
the no form to remove the specified ACL.
Syntax Description
[no] access-list ip {standard | extended} acl_name
Standard
Specifies an ACL that filters packets based on the source IP address.
Extended
Specifies an ACL that filters packets based on the source or destination IP
address, and other more specific criteria.
acl_name
Name of the ACL. (Maximum length: 16 characters)
Default
None
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Usage Guidelines
An egress ACL must contain all deny rules.
When you create a new ACL or enter configuration mode for an existing ACL, use the permit or deny
command to add new rules to the bottom of the list. To create an ACL, you must add at least one rule to the
list.
To remove a rule, use the no permit or no deny command followed by the exact text of a previously
configured rule.
An ACL can contain up to 32 rules.
Example
The following is sample output from the access-list command with the ip argument.
Console(config)#access-list ip standard james
Console(config-std-acl)#
Related Commands
permit, deny
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ip access-group
show ip access-list
16.2 access-list ip mask-precedence
This command changes to the IP Mask mode used to configure access control masks. Use the no form to
delete the mask table.
Syntax Description
[no] access-list ip mask-precedence {in | out}
In
Ingress mask for ingress ACLs.
Out
Egress mask for egress ACLs.
Default
Default system mask: Filter inbound packets according to specified IP ACLs.
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Usage Guidelines
A mask can only be used by all ingress ACLs or all egress ACLs.
The precedence of the ACL rules applied to a packet is not determined by order of the rules, but instead by
the order of the masks; For example, the first mask that matches a rule will determine the rule that is applied
to a packet.
You must configure a mask for an ACL rule before you can bind it to a port or set the queue or frame
priorities associated with the rule.
Example
The following is sample output from the access-list command with the ip mask-precedence argument.
Console(config)#access-list ip mask-precedence in
Console(config-ip-mask-acl)#
Related Commands
mask (IP ACL)
ip access-group
16.3 access-list mac
This command adds a MAC access list and enters MAC ACL configuration mode. Use the no form to
remove the specified ACL.
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Syntax Description
[no] access-list mac acl_name
acl_name
Name of the ACL. (Maximum length: 16 characters)
Default
None
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Usage Guidelines
An egress ACL must contain all deny rules.
When you create a new ACL or enter configuration mode for an existing ACL, use the permit or deny
command to add new rules to the bottom of the list. To create an ACL, you must add at least one rule to the
list.
To remove a rule, use the no permit or no deny command followed by the exact text of a previously
configured rule.
An ACL can contain up to 32 rules.
Example
The following is sample output from the access-list command with the mac argument.
Console(config)#access-list mac james
Console(config-mac-acl)#
Related Commands
permit, deny
mac access-group
show mac access-list
16.4 access-list mac mask-precedence
This command changes to MAC Mask mode used to configure access control masks. Use the no form to
delete the mask table.
Syntax Description
[no] access-list ip mask-precedence {in | out}
In
Ingress mask for ingress ACLs.
Out
Egress mask for egress ACLs.
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Default
Default system mask: Filter inbound packets according to specified MAC ACLs.
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Usage Guidelines
You must configure a mask for an ACL rule before you can bind it to a port or set the queue or frame
priorities associated with the rule.
A mask can only be used by all ingress ACLs or all egress ACLs.
The precedence of the ACL rules applied to a packet is not determined by order of the rules, but instead by
the order of the masks; For example, the first mask that matches a rule will determine the rule that is applied
to a packet.
Example
The following is sample output from the access-list command with the mac mask-precedence argument.
Console(config)#access-list mac
Console(config-mac-mask-acl)#
mask-precedence in
Related Commands
mask (MAC ACL)
mac access-group
16.5 authentication dot1x default
This command sets the default authentication server type. Use the no form to restore the default.
Syntax Description
authentication dot1x default radius
no authentication dot1x
Default
RADIUS
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Example
The following is sample output from the authentication command with the dot1x argument.
Console(config)#authentication dot1x default radius
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Console(config)#
16.6 authentication enable
This command defines the authentication method and precedence to use when changing from Exec
command mode to Privileged Exec command mode with the enable command in Chpater 16. Use the no
form to restore the default.
Syntax Description
authentication enable {[local] [radius] [tacacs]}
no authentication enable
Local
Use local password only.
radius
Use RADIUS server password only.
tacacs
Use TACACS server password.
Default
Local
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Usage Guidelines
RADIUS uses UDP while TACACS+ uses TCP. UDP only offers best effort delivery, while TCP offers a
connection-oriented transport. Also, note that RADIUS encrypts only the password in the access-request
packet from the client to the server, while TACACS+ encrypts the entire body of the packet.
RADIUS and TACACS+ logon authentication assigns a specific privilege level for each user name and
password pair. The user name, password, and privilege level must be configured on the authentication
server.
You can specify three authentication methods in a single command to indicate the authentication sequence.
For example, if you enter “authentication enable radius tacacs local,” the user name and password on the
RADIUS server is verified first. If the RADIUS server is not available, then authentication is attempted on the
TACACS+ server. If the TACACS+ server is not available, the local user name and password is checked.
Example
The following is sample output from the authentication enable command.
Console(config)#authentication enable radius
Console(config)#
Related Commands
enable password
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16.7 authentication login
This command defines the login authentication method and precedence. Use the no form to restore the
default.
Syntax Description
authentication login {[local] [radius] [tacacs]}
no authentication login
Local
Use local password.
radius
Use RADIUS server password.
tacacs
Use TACACS server password.
Default
Local
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Usage Guidelines
RADIUS uses UDP while TACACS+ uses TCP. UDP only offers best effort delivery, while TCP offers a
connection-oriented transport. Also, note that RADIUS encrypts only the password in the access-request
packet from the client to the server, while TACACS+ encrypts the entire body of the packet.
RADIUS and TACACS+ logon authentication assigns a specific privilege level for each user name and
password pair. The user name, password, and privilege level must be configured on the authentication
server.
You can specify three authentication methods in a single command to indicate the authentication sequence.
For example, if you enter “authentication login radius tacacs local,” the user name and password on the
RADIUS server is verified first. If the RADIUS server is not available, then authentication is attempted on the
TACACS+ server. If the TACACS+ server is not available, the local user name and password is checked.
Example
The following is sample output from the authentication login command.
Console(config)#authentication login radius
Console(config)#
Related Commands
username
16.8 boot system
This command specifies the image used to start up the system.
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Syntax Description
boot system {boot-rom| config | opcode}: filename
The type of file or image to set as a default includes:
boot-rom
Boot ROM.
Config
Configuration file.
opcode
Run-time operation code.
filename
Name of the configuration file or image name. The colon (:) is required before
the filename.
Default
None
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Usage Guidelines
A colon (:) is required after the specified file type.
If the file contains an error, it cannot be set as the default file.
Example
The following is sample output from the boot command with the system argument.
Console(config)#boot system config: startup
Console(config)#
Related Commands
dir
whichboot
16.9 bridge-ext gvrp
This command enables GVRP globally for the switch. Use the no form to disable it.
Syntax Description
[no] bridge-ext gvrp
Default
Disabled
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Command Mode
Global Configuration
Usage Guidelines
GVRP defines a way for switches to exchange VLAN information in order to register VLAN members on
ports across the network. This function should be enabled to permit automatic VLAN registration, and to
support VLANs that extend beyond the local switch.
Example
The following is sample output from the bridge-ext gvrp command.
Console(config)#bridge-ext gvrp
Console(config)#
16.10 calendar set
This command sets the system clock.
Syntax Description
calendar set hour min sec {day month year | month day year}
Hour
Hour in 24-hour format. (Range: 0 - 23)
Min
Minute. (Range: 0 - 59)
Sec
Second. (Range: 0 - 59)
Day
Day of month. (Range: 1 – 31)
month
january | february | march | april | may | june | july | august | september | october
| november | december
Year
Year (4-digit). (Range: 2001 - 2101)
Default
None
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Example
This example shows how to set the system clock to 15:12:34, August 1st, 2004.
Console#calendar set 15 12 34 1 August 2004
Console#
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16.11 capabilities
This command advertises the port capabilities of a given interface during autonegotiation. Use the no form
with parameters to remove an advertised capability, or the no form without parameters to restore the default
values.
Syntax Description
[no] capabilities {1000full | 100full | 100half | 10full | 10half |
flowcontrol | symmetric}
1000full
Supports 1000 Mbps full-duplex operation
100full
Supports 100 Mbps full-duplex operation
100half
Supports 100 Mbps half-duplex operation
10full
Supports 10 Mbps full-duplex operation
10half
Supports 10 Mbps half-duplex operation
flowcontrol
Supports flow control
symmetric (Gigabit
only)
When specified, the port transmits and receives pause frames; when not
specified, the port will auto-negotiate to determine the sender and receiver for
asymmetric pause frames. (The current switch ASIC only supports symmetric
pause frames.)
Default
100BASE-TX: 10half, 10full, 100half, 100full
1000BASE-T: 10half, 10full, 100half, 100full, 1000full
1000BASE-SX/LX/LH: 1000full
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet, Port Channel)
Usage Guidelines
When auto-negotiation is enabled with the negotiation command, the switch will negotiate the best settings
for a link based on the capabilities command. When auto-negotiation is disabled, you must manually specify
the link attributes with the speed-duplex and flowcontrol commands.
Example
The following example configures Ethernet port 5 capabilities to 100half, 100full and flow control.
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/5
Console(config-if)#capabilities 100half
Console(config-if)#capabilities 100full
Console(config-if)#capabilities flowcontrol
Console(config-if)#
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Related Commands
negotiation
speed-duplex
flowcontrol
16.12 channel-group
This command adds a port to a trunk. Use the no form to remove a port from a trunk.
Syntax Description
channel-group channel-id
no channel-group
channel-id
Trunk index (Range: 1-6)
Default
The current port will be added to this trunk.
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet)
Usage Guidelines
When configuring static trunks, the switches must comply with the Cisco EtherChannel standard.
Use no channel-group to remove a port group from a trunk.
Use no interfaces port-channel to remove a trunk from the switch.
Example
The following example creates trunk 1 and then adds port 11:
Console(config)#interface port-channel 1
Console(config-if)#exit
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/11
Console(config-if)#channel-group 1
Console(config-if)#
16.13 clear counters
This command clears statistics on an interface.
Syntax Description
clear counters interface
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Interface
ethernet unit/port
unit – This is device 1.
port - Port number.
Port-channel
Channel-id (Range: 1-6)
Default
None
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Usage Guidelines
Statistics are only initialized for a power reset. This command sets the base value for displayed statistics to
zero for the current management session. If you log out and back into the management interface, the
statistics displayed will show the absolute value accumulated since the last power reset.
Example
The following example clears statistics on port 5.
Console#clear counters ethernet 1/5
Console#
16.14 clear dns cache
This command clears all entries in the DNS cache.
Default
None
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Example
The following is sample output from the clear dns cache command the viewing the results using the show
dns cache command/
Console#clear dns cache
Console#show dns cache
NO
FLAG
TYPE
IP
Console#
TTL
DOMAIN
Related Commands
show dns cache
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16.15 clear host
This command deletes entries from the DNS table.
Syntax Description
clear host {name | *}
Name
Name of the host. (Range: 1-64 characters)
*
Removes all entries.
Default
None
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Example
This example clears all static entries from the DNS table.
Console#clear host *
Console#
16.16 clear logging
This command clears messages from the log buffer.
Syntax Description
clear logging [flash | ram]
flash
Event history stored in flash memory (For example, permanent memory).
ram
Event history stored in temporary RAM (For example, memory flushed on
power reset).
Default
Flash and RAM
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Example
The following example shows using the clear logging command.
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Console#clear logging
Console#
Related Commands
show logging
16.17 clear mac-address-table dynamic
This command removes any learned entries from the forwarding database and clears the transmit and
receive counts for any static or system configured entries.
Default
None
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Example
The following is sample output from the clear command using the mac-address argument.
Console#clear mac-address-table dynamic
16.18 clock timezone
This command sets the time zone for the switch’s internal clock.
Syntax Description
clock timezone name hour hours minute minutes {before-utc | after-utc}
Name
Name of timezone, usually an acronym. (Range: 1-29 characters)
Hours
Number of hours before/after UTC. (Range: 0-12 hours)
Minutes
Number of minutes before/after UTC. (Range: 0-59 minutes)
before-utc
Sets the local time zone before (east) of UTC.
after-utc
Sets the local time zone after (west) of UTC.
Default
None
Command Mode
Global Configuration
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Usage Guidelines
This command sets the local time zone relative to the Coordinated Universal Time (UTC, formerly
Greenwich Mean Time or GMT), based on the earth’s prime meridian, zero degrees longitude. To display a
time corresponding to your local time, you must indicate the number of hours and minutes your time zone is
east (before) or west (after) of UTC.
Example
The following is an example of using the clock timezone command.
Console(config)#clock timezone Japan hours 8 minute 0 after-UTC
Console(config)#
Related Commands
show sntp
16.19 combo-forced-mode
This command forces the port type selected for combination ports 21-24/45-48. Use the no form to restore
the default mode.
Syntax Description
combo-forced-mode mode
no combo-forced-mode
Mode
copper-forced - Always uses the built-in RJ-45 port.
copper-preferred-auto - Uses the built-in RJ-45 port if both combination types are
functioning and the RJ-45 port has a valid link.
sfp-forced - Always uses the SFP port (even if module not installed).
sfp-preferred-auto - Uses SFP port if both combination types are functioning and the SFP
port has a valid link.
Default
sfp-preferred-auto
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet)
Example
The following example shows forcing the switch to use the built-in RJ-45 port for the combination port 48.
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/48
Console(config-if)#combo-forced-mode copper-forced
Console(config-if)#
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16.20 configure
This command activates Global Configuration mode. You must enter this mode to modify any settings on the
switch. You must also enter Global Configuration mode prior to enabling some of the other configuration
modes, including Interface Configuration, Line Configuration, VLAN Database Configuration, and Multiple
Spanning Tree Configuration. See section 14.5 Understanding Command Modes.
Default
None
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Example
The following is sample output using the configure command.
Console#configure
Console(config)#
Related Commands
end
16.21 copy
This command moves (upload/download) a code image or configuration file between the switch’s flash
memory and a TFTP server. When you save the system code or configuration settings to a file on a TFTP
server, that file can later be downloaded to the switch to restore system operation. The success of the file
transfer depends on the accessibility of the TFTP server and the quality of the network connection.
Syntax Description
copy file {file | running-config | startup-config | tftp}
copy running-config {file | startup-config | tftp}
copy startup-config {file | running-config | tftp}
copy tftp {file | running-config | startup-config | https-certificate |
public-key}
file
Keyword that allows you to copy to/from a file.
running-config
Keyword that allows you to copy to/from the current running configuration.
Startup-config
The configuration used for system initialization.
tftp
Keyword that allows you to copy to/from a TFTP server.
https-certificate
Copies an HTTPS certificate from an TFTP server to the switch.
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public-key
Keyword that allows you to copy a SSH key from a TFTP server.
Default
None
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Usage Guidelines
The system prompts for data required to complete the copy command.
The destination file name should not contain slashes (\ or /), the leading letter of the file name should not be
a period (.), and the maximum length for file names on the TFTP server is 127 characters or 31 characters
for files on the switch. (Valid characters: A-Z, a-z, 0-9, “.”, “-”, “_”)
Due to the size limit of the flash memory, the switch supports only two operation code files.
The maximum number of user-defined configuration files depends on available memory.
You can use “Factory_Default_Config.cfg” as the source to copy from the factory default configuration file,
but you cannot use it as the destination.
To replace the startup configuration, you must use startup-config as the destination.
The Boot ROM and Loader cannot be uploaded or downloaded from the TFTP server. You must use a direct
console connection and access the download menu during a boot up to download the Boot ROM (or
diagnostic) image. See Appendix B: Upgrading Firmware via the Serial Port for more informaiton.
For information on specifying an https-certificate, see section 6.3.2 Replacing the Default Secure-site
Certificate. For information on configuring the switch to use HTTPS/SSL for a secure connection, see ip
http secure-server command.
Example
The following example shows how to upload the configuration settings to a file on the TFTP server:
Console#copy file tftp
Choose file type:
1. config: 2. opcode: <1-2>: 1
Source file name: startup
TFTP server ip address: 10.1.0.99
Destination file name: startup.01
TFTP completed.
Success.
Console#
The following example shows how to copy the running configuration to a startup file.
Console#copy running-config file
destination file name: startup
Write to FLASH Programming.
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\Write to FLASH finish.
Success.
Console#
The following example shows how to download a configuration file:
Console#copy tftp startup-config
TFTP server ip address: 10.1.0.99
Source configuration file name: startup.01
Startup configuration file name [startup]:
Write to FLASH Programming.
\Write to FLASH finish.
Success.
Console#
The following example shows how to copy a secure-site certificate from an TFTP server. It then reboots the
switch to activate the certificate:
Console#copy tftp https-certificate
TFTP server ip address: 10.1.0.19
Source certificate file name: SS-certificate
Source private file name: SS-private
Private password: ********
Success.
Console#reload
System will be restarted, continue <y/n>? y
The following example shows coping a public-key used by SSH from an TFTP server. Note that public key
authentication via SSH is only supported for users configured locally on the switch:
Console#copy tftp public-key
TFTP server IP address: 192.168.1.19
Choose public key type:
1. RSA: 2. DSA: <1-2>: 1
Source file name: asante_start
Username: asante
TFTP Download
Success.
Write to FLASH Programming.
Success.
Console#
16.22 databits
This command sets the number of data bits per character that are interpreted and generated by the console
port. Use the no form to restore the default value.
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Syntax Description
databits {7 | 8}
no databits
7
Seven data bits per character.
8
Eight data bits per character.
Default
8 data bits per character
Command Mode
Line Configuration
Usage Guidelines
The databits command can be used to mask the high bit on input from devices that generate 7 data bits with
parity. If parity is being generated, specify 7 data bits per character. If no parity is required, specify 8 data
bits per character.
Example
To specify 7 data bits, enter this command:
Console(config-line)#databits 7
Console(config-line)#
Related Commands
parity
16.23 delete
This command deletes a file or image.
Syntax Description
delete filename
filename
Name of the configuration file or image name.
Default
None
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
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Usage Guidelines
If the file type is used for system startup, then this file cannot be deleted.
“Factory_Default_Config.cfg” cannot be deleted.
Example
This example shows how to delete the test2.cfg configuration file from flash memory.
Console#delete test2.cfg
Console#
Related Commands
dir
delete public-key
16.24 delete public-key
Use this command to delete the specified user’s public key.
Syntax Description
delete public-key username [dsa | rsa]
username
Name of an SSH user. (Range: 1-8 characters)
Dsa
DSA public key type.
Rsa
RSA public key type.
Default
Deletes both the DSA and RSA key.
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Example
The following example shows using the public-key command with the dsa argument.
Console#delete public-key admin dsa
Console#
16.25 description
This command adds a description to an interface. Use the no form to remove the description.
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Syntax Description
description string
no description
String
Comment or a description to help you remember what is attached to this
interface. (Range: 1-64 characters)
Default
None
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet, Port Channel)
Example
The following example adds a description to port 24.
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/24
Console(config-if)#description RD-SW#3
Console(config-if)#
16.26 dir
This command displays a list of files in flash memory.
Syntax Description
dir [boot-rom | config | opcode [:filename]]
The type of file or image to display includes:
boot-rom
Boot ROM (or diagnostic) image file.
Config
Switch configuration file.
opcode
Run- time operation code image file.
filename
Name of the file or image. The file is not displayed if the file exists and contains errors.
Default
None
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
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Usage Guidelines
If you enter the dir command without any parameters, the system displays all files.
File information is shown below:
Column Heading
Description
file name
The name of the file.
file type
File types: Boot-Rom, Operation Code, and Config file.
startup
Shows if this file is used when the system is started.
Size
The length of the file in bytes.
Example
The following example shows how to display all file information:
Console#dir
file name
file type startup size (byte)
-------------------------------- -------------- ------- ----------Unit1:
Diag.bix Boot-Rom image
Y
818812
ES4548C_ZZ(V0.1.0.2).bix Operation Code
Y
2346020
Factory_Default_Config.cfg
Config File
N
374
startup
Config File
Y
7606
------------------------------------------------------------------Total free space:
3932160
Console#
16.27 disable
This command returns to Normal Exec mode from privileged mode. In normal access mode, you can only
display basic information on the switch's configuration or Ethernet statistics. To gain access to all
commands, you must use the privileged mode.
Default
None
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Usage Guidelines
The “>” character is appended to the end of the prompt to indicate that the system is in normal access
mode.
Example
The following example shows executing the disable command.
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Console#disable
Console>
Related Commands
enable
16.28 disconnect
Use this command to terminate an SSH, Telnet, or console connection.
Syntax Description
disconnect session-id
session-id
The session identifier for an SSH, Telnet or console connection. (Range: 0-4)
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Usage Guidelines
Specifying session identifier “0” will disconnect the console connection. Specifying any other identifiers for
an active session will disconnect an SSH or Telnet connection.
Example
The following example show disconnecting session 1.
Console#disconnect 1
Console#
Related Commands
show ssh
show users
16.29 dot1x default
This command sets all configurable dot1x global and port settings to their default values.
Syntax Description
dot1x default
Command Mode
Global Configuration
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Example
Console(config)#dot1x default
Console(config)#
16.30 dot1x max-req
This command sets the maximum number of times the switch port will retransmit an EAP request/identity
packet to the client before it times out the authentication session. Use the no form to restore the default.
Syntax Description
dot1x max-req count
no dot1x max-req
count
The maximum number of requests. (Range: 1-10)
Default
2
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Example
The following example shows setting the maximum number of requests to 2.
Console(config)#dot1x max-req 2
Console(config)#
16.31 dot1x operation-mode
This command allows single or multiple hosts (clients) to connect to an 802.1X-authorized port. Use the no
form without keywords to restore the default to single host. Use the no form with the multi-host max-count
keywords to restore the default maximum count.
Syntax Description
dot1x operation-mode {single-host | multi-host [max-count count]}
no dot1x operation-mode [multi-host max-count]
single-host
Allows only a single host to connect to this port.
multi-host
Allows multiple host to connect to this port.
max-count
Keyword for the maximum number of hosts.
count
The maximum number of hosts that can connect to a port. (Range: 1-20;
Default: 5)
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Default
Single-host
Command Mode
Interface Configuration
Example
The following example shows setting the system to allow a maximum of 10 hosts to connect to a port.
Console(config)#interface eth 1/2
Console(config-if)#dot1x operation-mode multi-host max-count 10
Console(config-if)#
16.32 dot1x port-control
This command sets the dot1x mode on a port interface. Use the no form to restore the default.
Syntax Description
dot1x port-control {auto | force-authorized | force-unauthorized}
no dot1x port-control
auto
Requires a dot1x-aware connected client to be authorized by the RADIUS
server. Clients that are not dot1x-aware will be denied access.
force-authorized
Configures the port to grant access to all clients.
force-unauthorized
Configures the port to deny access to all clients.
Default
force-authorized
Command Mode
Interface Configuration
Example
Console(config)#interface eth 1/2
Console(config-if)#dot1x port-control auto
Console(config-if)#
16.33 dot1x re-authenticate
This command forces re-authentication on all ports or a specific interface.
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Syntax Description
dot1x re-authenticate [interface]
The interface argument includes Ethernet as follows:
unit
This is device 1.
port
Port number.
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Example
Console#dot1x re-authenticate
Console#
16.34 dot1x re-authentication
This command enables periodic re-authentication globally for all ports. Use the no form to disable reauthentication.
Syntax Description
[no] dot1x re-authentication
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Example
Console(config)#dot1x re-authentication
Console(config)#
16.35 dot1x timeout quiet-period
This command sets the time that a switch port waits after the Max Request Count has been exceeded
before attempting to acquire a new client. Use the no form to reset the default.
Syntax Description
dot1x timeout quiet-period seconds
no dot1x timeout quiet-period
seconds
200
The number of seconds. (Range: 1-65535)
Asanté IntraCore 36000 Series
Default
60 seconds
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Example
Console(config)#dot1x timeout quiet-period 350
Console(config)#
16.36 dot1x timeout re-authperiod
This command sets the period of time before a connected client must be re-authenticated.
Syntax Description
dot1x timeout re-authperiod seconds
no dot1x timeout re-authperiod
seconds
The number of seconds. (Range: 1-65535)
Default
3600 seconds
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Example
Console(config)#dot1x timeout re-authperiod 300
Console(config)#
16..37 dot1x timeout tx-period
This command sets the time that the switch waits during an authentication session before re-transmitting an
EAP packet. Use the no form to reset to the default value.
Syntax Description
dot1x timeout tx-period seconds
no dot1x timeout tx-period
seconds
The number of seconds. (Range: 1-65535)
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Default
30 seconds
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Example
Console(config)#dot1x timeout tx-period 300
Console(config)#
16.38 enable
This command activates Privileged Exec mode. In privileged mode, additional commands are available, and
certain commands display additional information. See section 14.5 Understanding Command Modes.
Syntax Description
enable [level]
level
Privilege level to log into the device. The device has two predefined privilege
levels: 0: Normal Exec, 15: Privileged Exec. Enter level 15 to access Privileged
Exec mode.
Default
Level 15
Command Mode
Normal Exec
Usage Guidelines
The default password required to change the command mode from Normal Exec to Privileged Exec is
super. (To set this password, refer to the enable password command.
The “#” character is appended to the end of the prompt to indicate that the system is in privileged access
mode.
Example
Console>enable
Password: [privileged level password]
Console#
Related Commands
disable
enable password
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16.39 enable password
After initially logging onto the system, you should set the Privileged Exec password. Remember to record it
in a safe place. This command controls access to the Privileged Exec level from the Normal Exec level. Use
the no form to reset the default password.
Syntax Description
enable password [level level] {0 | 7} password
no enable password [level level]
level level
Level 15 for Privileged Exec. (Levels 0 and 14 are not used.)
{0 | 7}
0 means plain password, 7 means encrypted password.
password
password for this privilege level. (Maximum length: 8 characters plain text, 32 encrypted,
case sensitive)
Default
The default is level 15.
The default password is “super”
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Usage Guidelines
You must enter a password to change the command mode from Normal Exec to Privileged Exec using the
enable command.
The encrypted password is required for compatibility with legacy password settings (for example, plain or
encrypted text) when reading the configuration file during initial system launch or when downloading the
configuration file from a TFTP server. You do not need to manually configure encrypted passwords.
Example
Console(config)#enable password level 15 0 admin
Console(config)#
Related Commands
enable
16.40 end
This command returns to Privileged Exec mode.
Default
None
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Command Mode
Global Configuration, Interface Configuration, Line Configuration, VLAN Database Configuration, and
Multiple Spanning Tree Configuration.
Example
This example shows how to return to the Privileged Exec mode from the Interface Configuration mode:
Console(config-if)#end
Console#
16.41 exec-timeout
This command sets the interval that the system waits until user input is detected. Use the no form to restore
the default.
Syntax Description
exec-timeout [seconds]
no exec-timeout
seconds
Integer that specifies the number of seconds. (Range: 0 - 65535 seconds; 0: no
timeout)
Default
CLI: No timeout
Telnet: 10 minutes
Command
Line Configuration
Usage Guidelines
If user input is detected within the timeout interval, the session is kept open; otherwise, the session is
terminated.
This command applies to both the local console and Telnet connections.
Telnet sessions cannot be disabled.
Example
To set the timeout to two minutes, enter this command:
Console(config-line)#exec-timeout 120
Console(config-line)#
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16.42 exit
This command returns to the previous configuration mode or exit the configuration program.
Default
None
Command Mode
Any
Example
This example shows how to return to the Privileged Exec mode from the Global Configuration mode, and
then quit the CLI session:
Console(config)#exit
Console#exit
Press ENTER to start session
User Access Verification
Username:
16.43 flowcontrol
This command enables flow control. Use the no form to disable flow control.
Syntax Description
[no] flowcontrol
Default
enabled
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet, Port Channel)
Usage Guidelines
Flow control can eliminate frame loss by “blocking” traffic from end stations or segments connected directly
to the switch when its buffers fill. When enabled, back pressure is used for half-duplex operation and IEEE
802.3x for full-duplex operation.
To force flow control on or off (with the flowcontrol or no flowcontrol command), use the no negotiation
command to disable auto-negotiation on the selected interface.
When using the negotiation command to enable auto-negotiation, the optimal settings is determined by the
capabilities command. To enable flow control under auto-negotiation, “flowcontrol” must be included in the
capabilities list for any port
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Avoid using flow control on a port connected to a hub unless it is actually required to solve a problem.
Otherwise, back pressure jamming signals may degrade overall performance for the segment attached to
the hub.
Example
The following example enables flow control on port 5.
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/5
Console(config-if)#flowcontrol
Console(config-if)#no negotiation
Console(config-if)#
Related Commands
negotiation
capabilities (flowcontrol, symmetric)
16.44 garp timer
This command sets the values for the join, leave and leaveall timers. Use the no form to restore the timers’
default values.
Syntax Description
garp timer {join | leave | leaveall} timer_value
no garp timer {join | leave | leaveall}
{join | leave | leaveall}
Which timer to set.
timer_value
Value of timer. Ranges:
join: 20-1000 centiseconds
leave: 60-3000 centiseconds
leaveall: 500-18000 centiseconds
Default
join: 20 centiseconds
leave: 60 centiseconds
leaveall: 1000 centiseconds
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet, Port Channel)
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Usage Guidelines
Group Address Registration Protocol is used by GVRP and GMRP to register or deregister client attributes
for client services within a bridged LAN. The default values for the GARP timers are independent of the
media access method or data rate. Unless you are experiencing, difficulties with GMRP or GVRP
registration/deregistration do not change timer values.
Timer values are applied to GVRP for all the ports on all VLANs.
Timer values must meet the following criteria:
•
leave >= (2 x join)
•
leaveall > leave
Note: To avoid problems set GVRP timers on all Layer 2 devices connected in the same network to the
same values.
Example
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/1
Console(config-if)#garp timer join 100
Console(config-if)#
Related Commands
show garp timer
16.45 hostname
This command specifies or modifies the host name for this device. Use the no form to restore the default
host name.
Syntax Description
hostname name
no hostname
name
The name of this host. (Maximum length: 255 characters)
Default
None
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Example
The following example shows setting the host name to RD#1.
Console(config)#hostname RD#1
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Console(config)#
16.46 interface
This command configures an interface type and enter interface configuration mode. Use the no form to
remove a trunk.
Syntax Description
interface interface
no interface port-channel channel-id
interface
ethernet unit/port
unit - This is device 1.
port - Port number.
port-channel
channel-id (Range: 1-6)
Vlan
vlan-id (Range: 1-4094)
Default
None
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Example
To specify port 24, enter the following command:
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/24
Console(config-if)#
16.47 interface vlan
This command enters interface configuration mode for VLANs, which is used to configure VLAN parameters
for a physical interface.
Syntax Description
interface vlan vlan-id
vlan-id
ID of the configured VLAN. (Range: 1-4094, no leading zeroes)
Default
None
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Command Mode
Global Configuration
Example
The following example shows how to set the interface configuration mode to VLAN 1, and then assign an IP
address to the VLAN:
Console(config)#interface vlan 1
Console(config-if)#ip address 192.168.1.254 255.255.255.0
Console(config-if)#
Related Commands
shutdown
16.48 ip access-group
This command binds a port to an IP ACL. Use the no form to remove the port.
Syntax Description
[no] ip access-group acl_name {in | out}
acl_name
Name of the ACL. (Maximum length: 16 characters)
in
Indicates that this list applies to ingress packets.
out
Indicates that this list applies to egress packets.
Default
None
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet)
Usage Guidelines
A port can only be bound to one ACL.
If a port is already bound to an ACL and you bind it to a different ACL, the switch replaces the old binding
with the new one.
You must configure a mask for an ACL rule before you can bind it to a port.
Example
The following examples shows binding interface Ethernet 1/25 to IP access group david.
Console(config)#int eth 1/25
Console(config-if)#ip access-group david in
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Console(config-if)#
Related Commands
show ip access-list
16.49 ip address
This command sets the IP address for the currently selected VLAN interface. Use the no form to restore the
default IP address.
Syntax Description
ip address {ip-address netmask | bootp | dhcp}
no ip address
ip-address
IP address
netmask
Network mask for the associated IP subnet. This mask identifies the host
address bits used for routing to specific subnets.
Bootp
Obtains IP address from BOOTP.
dhcp
Obtains IP address from DHCP.
Default
DHCP
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (VLAN)
Usage Guidelines
You must assign an IP address to this device to gain management access over the network. You can
manually configure a specific IP address, or direct the device to obtain an address from a BOOTP or DHCP
server. Valid IP addresses consist of four numbers, 0 to 255, separated by periods. Nothing outside this
format will be accepted by the configuration program.
If you select the bootp or dhcp option, IP is enabled but will not function until a BOOTP or DHCP reply has
been received. Requests will be broadcast periodically by this device in an effort to learn its IP address.
(BOOTP and DHCP values can include the IP address, default gateway, and subnet mask).
You can start broadcasting BOOTP or DHCP requests by entering an ip dhcp restart command, or by
rebooting the switch.
Note: Before you change the IP address, you must first clear the current address with the no form of this
command.
Example
In the following example, the device is assigned an address in VLAN 1.
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Console(config)#interface vlan 1
Console(config-if)#ip address 192.168.1.5 255.255.255.0
Console(config-if)#
Related Commands
ip dhcp restart
16.50 ip default-gateway
This command establishes a static route between this switch and management stations that exist on another
network segment. Use the no form to remove the static route.
Syntax Description
ip default-gateway gateway
no ip default-gateway
gateway
IP address of the default gateway.
Default
No static route is established.
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Usage Guidelines
Define the gateway first if the management station is located in a different IP segment .
Example
The following example defines a default gateway for this device:
Console(config)#ip default-gateway 10.1.1.254
Console(config)#
Related Commands
show ip redirects
16.51 ip dhcp restart
This command submits a BOOTP or DHCP client request.
Default
None
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Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Usage Guidelines
This command issues a BOOTP or DHCP client request for any IP interface set to BOOTP or DHCP mode
using the ip address command.
DHCP requires the server to reassign the client’s last address if available.
If the BOOTP or DHCP server was moved to a different domain, the network portion of the address provided
to the client is based on this new domain.
Example
In the following example, the device is reassigned the same address and confirmed using the show interface
command.
Console(config)#interface vlan 1
Console(config-if)#ip address dhcp
Console(config-if)#exit
Console#ip dhcp restart
Console#show ip interface
IP address and netmask: 192.168.1.54 255.255.255.0 on VLAN 1,
and address mode: Dhcp.
Console#
Related Commands
ip address
show ip interface
16.52 ip domain-list
This command defines a list of domain names that can be appended to incomplete host names (For
example, host names passed from a client that are not formatted with dotted notation). Use the no form to
remove a name from this list.
Syntax Description
[no] ip domain-list name
name
Name of the host. Do not include the initial dot that separates the host name
from the domain name. (Range: 1-64 characters)
Default
None
Command Mode
Global Configuration
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Usage Guidelines
Domain names are added to the end of the list one at a time.
When an incomplete host name is received by the DNS server on this switch, it will work through the domain
list, appending each domain name in the list to the host name, and checking with the specified name servers
for a match.
If there is no domain list, the domain name specified with the ip domain-name command is used. If there is a
domain list, the default domain name is not used.
Example
This example adds two domain names to the current list and then displays the list and uses the show dns
command to confirm the configuration.
Console(config)#ip domain-list sample.com.jp
Console(config)#ip domain-list sample.com.uk
Console(config)#end
Console#show dns
Domain Lookup Status:
DNS disabled
Default Domain Name:
sample.com
Domain Name List:
sample.com.jp
sample.com.uk
Name Server List:
Console#
Related Commands
ip domain-name
show dns
16.53 ip domain-lookup
This command enables DNS host name-to-address translation. Use the no form to disable DNS.
Syntax Description
[no] ip domain-lookup
Default
Disabled
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Usage Guidelines
At least one name server must be specified before you can enable DNS.
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If all name servers are deleted, DNS is automatically disabled.
Example
This example enables DNS and then displays the configuration.
Console(config)#ip domain-lookup
Console(config)#end
Console#show dns
Domain Lookup Status:
DNS enabled
Default Domain Name:
sample.com
Domain Name List:
sample.com.jp
sample.com.uk
Name Server List:
192.168.1.55
10.1.0.55
Console#
Related Commands
ip domain-name
ip name-server
show dns
16.54 ip domain-name
This command defines the default domain name appended to incomplete host names (For example, host
names passed from a client that are not formatted with dotted notation). Use the no form to remove the
current domain name.
Syntax Description
ip domain-name name
no ip domain-name
name
Name of the host. Do not include the initial dot that separates the host name
from the domain name. (Range: 1-64 characters)
Default
None
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Example
Console(config)#ip domain-name sample.com
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Console(config)#end
Console#show dns
Domain Lookup Status:
DNS disabled
Default Domain Name:
sample.com
Domain Name List:
Name Server List:
Console#
Related Commands
ip domain-list
ip name-server
ip domain-lookup
show dns
16.55 ip host
This command creates a static entry in the DNS table that maps a host name to an IP address. Use the no
form to remove an entry.
Syntax Description
[no] ip host name address1 [address2 … address8]
name
Name of the host. (Range: 1-64 characters)
address1
Corresponding IP address.
address2 … address8
Additional corresponding IP addresses.
Default
No static entries
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Usage Guidelines
Servers or other network devices may support one or more connections via multiple IP addresses. If more
than one IP address is associated with a host name using this command, a DNS client can try each address
in succession, until it establishes a connection with the target device.
Example
This example maps two address to a host name and uses the show hosts commands to confirm
configuration.
Console(config)#ip host rd5 192.168.1.55 10.1.0.55
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Console(config)#end
Console#show hosts
Hostname
rd5
Inet address
192.168.1.55 10.1.0.55
Alias
Console#
Related Commands
show hosts
16.56 ip http port
This command specifies the TCP port number used by the Web browser interface. Use the no form to use
the default port.
Syntax Description
ip http port port-number
no ip http port
port-number
The TCP port to be used by the browser interface. (Range: 1-65535)
Default
80
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Example
The following example shows setting the ip http port to 769.
Console(config)#ip http port 769
Console(config)#
Related Commands
ip http server
16.57 ip http secure-port
This command specifies the UDP port number used for HTTPS/SSL connection to the switch’s Web
interface. Use the no form to restore the default port.
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Syntax Description
ip http secure-port port_number
no ip http secure-port
port_number
The UDP port used for HTTPS/SSL. (Range: 1-65535)
Default
443
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Usage Guidelines
You cannot configure HTTP and HTTPS servers to use the same port.
If you change the HTTPS port number, clients attempting to connect to the HTTPS server must specify the
port number in the URL, in this format:
https://device:port_number
Example
The following example shows setting the secure port to port 1000.
Console(config)#ip http secure-port 1000
Console(config)#
Related Commands
ip http secure-server
16.58 ip http secure-server
This command enables the secure hypertext transfer protocol (HTTPS) over the Secure Socket Layer (SSL),
providing secure access (For example, an encrypted connection) to the switch’s Web interface. Use the no
form to disable this function.
Syntax Description
[no] ip http secure-server
Default
Enabled
Command Mode
Global Configuration
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Usage Guidelines
Both HTTP and HTTPS service can be enabled independently on the switch. You cannot configure the
HTTP and HTTPS servers to use the same UDP port.
If you enable HTTPS, you must indicate this in the URL that you specify in your browser:
https://device[:port_number]
When you start HTTPS, the connection is established in this way:
•
The client authenticates the server using the server’s digital certificate.
•
The client and server negotiate a set of security protocols to use for the connection.
•
The client and server generate session keys for encrypting and decrypting data.
The client and server establish a secure encrypted connection.
A padlock icon should appear in the status bar for Internet Explorer 5.x and Netscape Navigator 4.x or later
versions.
Jaci Verify this The following Web browsers and operating systems currently support HTTPS:
Web Browser
Operating System
Internet Explorer 5.0 or later
Windows 98,Windows NT (with service pack 6a), Windows 2000,
Windows XP
Netscape Navigator 4.76 or
later
Windows 98,Windows NT (with service pack 6a), Windows 2000,
Windows XP, Solaris 2.6
To specify a secure-site certificate, refer to the section 6.3.2 Replacing the Default Secure-site Certificate
and the copy command.
Example
Console(config)#ip http secure-server
Console(config)#
Related Commands
ip http secure-port
copy tftp https-certificate
16.59 ip http server
This command allows the device to be monitored or configured from a browser. Use the no form to disable
this function.
Syntax Description
[no] ip http server
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Default
Enabled
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Example
The following example shows setting the device to be monitored from the server.
Console(config)#ip http server
Console(config)#
Related Commands
ip http port
16.60 ip igmp snooping
This command enables IGMP snooping on this switch. Use the no form to disable it.
Syntax Description
[no] ip igmp snooping
Default
Enabled
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Example
The following example enables IGMP snooping.
Console(config)#ip igmp snooping
Console(config)#
16.61 ip igmp snooping querier
This command enables the switch as an IGMP source that queries other IGMP hosts. Use the no form to
disable it.
Syntax Description
[no] ip igmp snooping querier
Default
Enabled
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Command Mode
Global Configuration
Usage Guidelines
If enabled, the switch serves as source that queries other hosts if elected. The switch is responsible for
pinging hosts to receive multicast traffic connections.
Example
Console(config)#ip igmp snooping querier
Console(config)#
16.62 ip igmp snooping query-count
This command configures the query count. Use the no form to restore the default.
Syntax Description
ip igmp snooping query-count count
no ip igmp snooping query-count
count
The maximum number of queries issued for which there has been no response
before the switch takes action to drop a client from the multicast group. (Range:
2-10)
Default
2 times
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Usage Guidelines
The query count defines how long the IGMP query source waits for a response from a multicast client before
taking action. If queries were sent and the client has not responded, a countdown timer is started using the
time defined by ip igmp snooping query-max- response-time. If the countdown finishes, and the client still
has not responded, then that client is no longer part of the multicast group.
Example
The following shows how to configure the query count to 10:
Console(config)#ip igmp snooping query-count 10
Console(config)#
Related Commands
ip igmp snooping query-max-response-time
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16.63 ip igmp snooping query-interval
This command configures the query interval. Use the no form to restore the default.
Syntax Description
ip igmp snooping query-interval seconds
no ip igmp snooping query-interval
seconds
The frequency at which the switch sends IGMP host-query messages. (Range:
60-125)
Default
125 seconds
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Example
The following shows how to configure the query interval to 100 seconds:
Console(config)#ip igmp snooping query-interval 100
Console(config)#
16.64 ip igmp snooping query-max-response-time
This command configures the query report delay. Use the no form to restore the default.
Syntax Description
ip igmp snooping query-max-response-time seconds
no ip igmp snooping query-max-response-time
seconds
The report delay advertised in IGMP queries. (Range: 5-25)
Default
10 seconds
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Usage Guidelines
The switch must be using IGMPv2 for this command to take effect.
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This command defines the time after a query, during which a response is expected from a multicast client. If
a querier has sent a number of queries defined by the ip igmp snooping query-count, but a client has not
responded, a countdown timer is started using an initial value set by this command. If the countdown
finishes, and the client still has not responded, then that client is considered to have left the multicast group.
Example
The following shows how to configure the maximum response time to 20 seconds:
Console(config)#ip igmp snooping query-max-response-time 20
Console(config)#
Related Commands
ip igmp snooping version
16.65 ip igmp snooping router-port-expire-time
This command configures the query timeout. Use the no form to restore the default.
Syntax Description
ip igmp snooping router-port-expire-time seconds
no ip igmp snooping router-port-expire-time
seconds
The time the switch waits before it considers the router port (for example, the
interface which had been receiving query packets) to have expired. (Range:
300-500)
Default
300 seconds
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Usage Guidelines
The switch must use IGMPv2 for this command to take effect.
Example
The following shows how to configure the default timeout to 300 seconds:
Console(config)#ip igmp snooping router-port-expire-time 300
Console(config)#
Related Commands
ip igmp snooping version
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16.66 ip igmp snooping version
This command configures the IGMP snooping version. Use the no form to restore the default.
Syntax Description
ip igmp snooping version {1 | 2}
no ip igmp snooping version
1
IGMP Version 1
2
IGMP Version 2
Default
IGMP Version 2
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Usage Guidelines
All systems on the subnet must support the same version. If there are legacy devices in your network that
only support Version 1, you will also have to configure this switch to use Version 1.
Some commands are only enabled for IGMPv2, including ip igmp query-max-response-time and ip igmp
query-timeout.
Example
The following configures the switch to use IGMP Version 1:
Console(config)#ip igmp snooping version 1
Console(config)#
16.67 ip igmp snooping vlan mrouter
This command statically configures a multicast router port. Use the no form to remove the configuration.
Syntax Description
[no] ip igmp snooping vlan vlan-id mrouter interface
vlan-id
VLAN ID (Range: 1-4094)
interface
ethernet unit/port
unit - This is device 1.
port - Port number.
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port-channel
channel-id (Range: 1-6)
Default
No static multicast router ports are configured.
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Usage Guidelines
Depending on your network connections, IGMP snooping may not always be able to locate the IGMP
querier. Therefore, if the IGMP querier is a known multicast router/switch connected over the network to an
interface (port or trunk) on your router, you can manually configure that interface to join all the current
multicast groups.
Example
The following shows how to configure port 11 as a multicast router port within VLAN 1:
Console(config)#ip igmp snooping vlan 1 mrouter ethernet 1/11
Console(config)#
16.68 ip igmp snooping vlan static
This command adds a port to a multicast group. Use the no form to remove the port.
Syntax Description
[no] ip igmp snooping vlan vlan-id static ip-address interface
vlan-id
VLAN ID (Range: 1-4094)
ip-address
IP address for multicast group
interface
ethernet unit/port
unit - This is device 1.
port - Port number.
port-channel
channel-id (Range: 1-6)
Default
None
Command Mode
Global Configuration
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Example
The following shows how to statically configure a multicast group on a port:
Console(config)#ip igmp snooping vlan 1 static 224.0.0.12 ethernet 1/5
Console(config)#
16.69 ip name-server
This command specifies the address of one or more domain name servers to use for name-to-address
resolution. Use the no form to remove a name server from this list.
Syntax Description
[no] ip name-server server-address1 [server-address2 … server-address6]
server-address1
IP address of domain-name server.
server-address2 … server-address6
IP address of additional domain-name servers.
Default
None
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Usage Guidelines
The listed name servers are queried in the specified sequence until a response is received, or the end of the
list is reached with no response.
Example
This example adds two domain-name servers to the list and then displays the list. Use the show dns
command to confirm configuration.
Console(config)#ip name-server 192.168.1.55 10.1.0.55
Console(config)#end
Console#show dns
Domain Lookup Status:
DNS disabled
Default Domain Name:
sample.com
Domain Name List:
sample.com.jp
sample.com.uk
Name Server List:
192.168.1.55
10.1.0.55
Console#
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225
Related Commands
ip domain-name
ip domain-lookup
show dns
16.70 ip ssh authentication-retries
Use this command to configure the number of times the SSH server attempts to reauthenticate a user. Use
the no form to restore the default setting.
Syntax Description
ip ssh authentication-retries count
no ip ssh authentication-retries
count
The number of authentication attempts permitted after which the interface is reset.
(Range: 1-5)
Default
3
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Example
The following example shows setting the SSH server to stop after the third attempt.
Console(config)#ip ssh authentication-retires 2
Console(config)#
Related Commands
show ip ssh
16.71 ip ssh crypto host-key generate
Use this command to generate the host key pair (For example, public and private).
Syntax Description
ip ssh crypto host-key generate [dsa | rsa]
dsa
DSA (Version 2) key type.
rsa
RSA (Version 1) key type.
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Default
Generates both
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Usage Guidelines
This command stores the host key pair in memory (For example, RAM). Use the ip ssh save host-key
command to save the host key pair to flash memory.
Some SSH client programs automatically add the public key to the known hosts file as part of the
configuration process. Otherwise, you must manually create a known hosts file and place the host public key
in it.
The SSH server uses this host key to negotiate a session key and encryption method with the client trying to
connect to it.
Example
Console#ip ssh crypto host-key generate dsa
Console#
Related Commands
ip ssh crypto zeroize
ip ssh save host-key
16.72 ip ssh crypto zeroize
Use this command to clear the host key from memory (For example RAM).
Syntax Description
ip ssh crypto zeroize [dsa | rsa]
dsa
DSA (Version 2) key type.
rsa
RSA (Version 1) key type.
Default
Clears both
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
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227
Usage Guidelines
This command clears the host key from volatile memory (RAM). Use the no ip ssh save host-key command
to clear the host key from flash memory.
The SSH server must be disabled before you can execute this command.
Example
Console#ip ssh crypto zeroize dsa
Console#
Related Commands
ip ssh crypto host-key generate
ip ssh save host-key
no ip ssh server
16.73 ip ssh save host-key
Use this command to save host key from RAM to flash memory.
Syntax Description
ip ssh save host-key
Default
Save
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Example
Console#ip ssh save host-key
Console#
Related Commands
ip ssh crypto host-key generate
16.74 ip ssh server
Use this command to enable the Secure Shell (SSH) server on this switch. Use the no form to disable this
service.
Syntax Description
ip ssh server
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no ip ssh server
Default
Disabled
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Usage Guidelines
The SSH server supports up to four client sessions. The maximum number of client sessions includes both
current Telnet sessions and SSH sessions.
The SSH server uses DSA or RSA for key exchange when the client first establishes a connection with the
switch, and then negotiates with the client to select either DES (56-bit) or 3DES (168-bit) for data encryption.
You must generate the host key before enabling the SSH server.
Example
Console#configure
Console(config)#ip ssh server
Console(config)#
Related Commands
ip ssh crypto host-key generate
show ssh
16.75 ip ssh server-key size
Use this command to set the SSH server key size. Use the no form to restore the default setting.
Syntax Description
ip ssh server-key size key-size
no ip ssh server-key size
key-size
The size of server key. (Range: 512-896 bits)
Default
768 bits
Command Mode
Global Configuration
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229
Usage Guidelines
The server key is a private key that is never shared outside the switch.
The host key is shared with the SSH client, and is fixed at 1024 bits.
Example
The following example shows setting the private key to 512.
Console(config)#ip ssh server-key size 512
Console(config)#
16.76 ip ssh timeout
Use this command to configure the timeout for the SSH server. Use the no form to restore the default
setting.
Syntax Description
ip ssh timeout seconds
no ip ssh timeout
seconds
The timeout for client response during SSH negotiation. (Range: 1-120)
Default
10 seconds
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Usage Guidelines
The timeout specifies the interval the switch will wait for a response from the client during the SSH
negotiation phase. Once an SSH session has been established, the timeout for user input is controlled by
the exec-timeout command for vty sessions.
Example
The following example show setting the session to time out after 1 minute.
Console(config)#ip ssh timeout 60
Console(config)#
Related Commands
exec-timeout
show ip ssh
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16.77 jumbo frame
This command enables support for jumbo frames. Use the no form to disable it.
Syntax Description
[no] jumbo frame
Default
Disabled
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Usage Guidelines
This switch provides more efficient throughput for large sequential data transfers by supporting jumbo
frames up to 9216 bytes. Compared to standard Ethernet frames that run only up to 1.5 KB, using jumbo
frames significantly reduces the per-packet overhead required to process protocol encapsulation fields.
To use jumbo frames, both the source and destination end nodes (such as a computer or server) must
support this feature. In addition, when the connection is operating at full duplex, all switches in the network
between the two end nodes must be able to accept the extended frame size. For half-duplex connections, all
devices in the collision domain would need to support jumbo frames.
Enabling jumbo frames limits the maximum threshold for broadcast storm control to 64 packets per second.
(See the switchport broadcast command.)
Example
Console(config)#jumbo frame
Console(config)#
16.78 lacp
This command enables 802.3ad Link Aggregation Control Protocol (LACP) for the current interface. Use the
no form to disable it.
Syntax Description
[no] lacp
Default
Disabled
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet)
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231
Usage Guidelines
The ports on both ends of an LACP trunk must be configured for full duplex, either by forced mode or autonegotiation.
A trunk formed with another switch using LACP will automatically be assigned the next available portchannel ID.
If the target switch has also enabled LACP on the connected ports, the trunk will be activated automatically.
If more than four ports attached to the same target switch have LACP enabled, the additional ports will be
placed in standby mode, and will only be enabled if one of the active links fails.
Example
The following shows LACP enabled on ports 11-13. Because LACP has also been enabled on the ports at
the other end of the links, the show interfaces status port-channel 1 command shows that Trunk1 has been
established.
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/11
Console(config-if)#lacp
Console(config-if)#exit
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/12
Console(config-if)#lacp
Console(config-if)#exit
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/13
Console(config-if)#lacp
Console(config-if)#exit
Console(config)#exit
Console#show interfaces status port-channel 1
Information of Trunk 1
Basic information:
Port type: 1000T
Mac address: 00-00-e8-00-00-0b
Configuration:
Name:
Port admin status: Up
Speed-duplex: Auto
Capabilities: 10half, 10full, 100half, 100full, 1000full,
Flow control status: Disabled
Port security: Disabled
Max MAC count: 0
Current status:
Created by: lacp
Link status: Up
Operation speed-duplex: 1000full
Flow control type: None
Member Ports: Eth1/11, Eth1/12, Eth1/13,
Console#
Related Command
show interfaces
16.79 lacp admin-key (Ethernet Interface)
This command configures a port's LACP administration key. Use the no form to restore the default setting.
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Syntax Description
lacp {actor | partner} admin-key key
[no] lacp {actor | partner} admin-key
actor
The local side an aggregate link.
partner
The remote side of an aggregate link.
key
The port admin key must be set to the same value for ports that belong to the
same link aggregation group (LAG). (Range: 0-65535)
Default
0
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet)
Usage Guidelines
Ports are only allowed to join the same LAG if (1) the LACP system priority matches, (2) the LACP port
admin key matches, and (3) the LACP port channel admin key matches (if configured).
If the port channel admin key (lacp admin key - Port Channel) is not set when a channel group is formed
(For example, it has the null value of 0), this key is set to the same value as the port admin key (lacp admin
key - Ethernet Interface) used by the interfaces that joined the group.
Once the remote side of a link has been established, LACP operational settings are already in use on that
side. Configuring LACP settings for the partner only applies to its administrative state, not its operational
state, and will only take effect the next time an aggregate link is established with the partner.
Example
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/5
Console(config-if)#lacp actor admin-key 120
Console(config-if)#
16.80 lacp admin-key (Port Channel)
This command configures a port channel's LACP administration key string. Use the no form to restore the
default setting.
Syntax Description
lacp admin-key key
[no] lacp admin-key
key
Use the port channel admin key to identify a specific link aggregation group (LAG)
during local LACP setup on this switch. (Range: 0-65535)
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Default
0
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Port Channel)
Usage Guidelines
Ports are only allowed to join the same LAG if (1) the LACP system priority matches, (2) the LACP port
admin key matches, and (3) the LACP port channel key matches (if configured).
If the port channel admin key (lacp admin key - Port Channel) is not set when a channel group is formed
(For example, it has the null value of 0), this key is set to the same value as the port admin key (lacp admin
key - Ethernet Interface) used by the interfaces that joined the group. Note that when the LAG is no longer
used, the port channel admin key is reset to 0.
Example
Console(config)#interface port channel 1
Console(config-if)#lacp admin-key 3
Console(config-if)#
16.81 lacp port-priority
This command configures LACP port priority. Use the no form to restore the default setting.
Syntax Description
lacp {actor | partner} port-priority priority
no lacp {actor | partner} port-priority
actor
Use this to set the local side an aggregate link.
partner
Use this to set the remote side of an aggregate link.
priority
Use this to set the LACP port priority to select a backup link. (Range: 0-65535)
Default
32768
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet)
Usage Guidelines
Setting a lower value indicates a higher effective priority.
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If an active port link goes down, the backup port with the highest priority replaces the downed link. If two or
more ports have the same LACP port priority, the port with the lowest physical port number is used as the
backup port.
Once the remote side of a link is established, LACP operational settings are in use on that side. Configuring
LACP settings for the partner only applies to its administrative state, not its operational state, and only takes
effect the next time an aggregate link is established with the partner.
Example
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/5
Console(config-if)#lacp actor port-priority 128
16.82 lacp system-priority
This command configures a port's LACP system priority. Use the no form to restore the default setting.
Syntax Description
lacp {actor | partner} system-priority priority
no lacp {actor | partner} system-priority
actor
Use this to set the local side an aggregate link.
partner
Use this to set the remote side of an aggregate link.
priority
Use this to determine link aggregation group (LAG) membership, and to identify
this device to other switches during LAG negotiations. (Range: 0-65535)
Default
32768
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet)
Usage Guidelines
You must configure the port with the same system priority to join the same LAG.
The system priority combined with the switch’s MAC address forms the LAG identifier. This identifier
indicates the specific LAG during LACP negotiations with other systems.
When the remote side of a link is established, LACP operational settings are in use on that side. Configuring
LACP settings for the partner only applies to its administrative state, not its operational state, and will only
take effect the next time an aggregate link is established with the partner.
Example
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/5
Console(config-if)#lacp actor system-priority 3
Console(config-if)#
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16.83 line
This command identifies a specific line for configuration, and to process subsequent line configuration
commands.
Syntax Description
line {console | vty}
console
Console terminal line.
vty
Virtual terminal for remote console access (For example, Telnet).
Default
There is no default line.
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Usage Guidelines
Telnet is a virtual terminal connection and is shown as “Vty” in screen displays such as show users. The
serial communication parameters (for example databits) do not affect Telnet connections.
Example
To enter console line mode, enter the following command:
Console(config)#line console
Console(config-line)#
Related Commands
show line
show users
16.84 logging facility
This command sets the facility type for remote logging of syslog messages. Use the no form to return the
type to the default.
Syntax Description
[no] logging facility type
type
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A number that indicates the facility used by the syslog server to dispatch log
messages to an appropriate service. (Range: 16-23)
Asanté IntraCore 36000 Series
Default
23
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Usage Guidelines
The command specifies the facility type tag sent in syslog messages. (See RFC 3164.) This type has no
effect on the kind of messages reported by the switch. It may be used by the syslog server to sort messages
or to store messages in the corresponding database.
Example
Console(config)#logging facility 19
Console(config)#
16.85 logging history
This command limits syslog messages saved to switch memory based on severity. The no form returns the
logging of syslog messages to the default level.
Syntax Description
logging history {flash | ram} level
no logging history {flash | ram}
flash
Event history stored in flash memory (For example, permanent memory).
ram
Event history stored in temporary RAM (For example, memory flushed on
power reset).
level
One of the levels listed below. Messages sent include the selected level down
to level 0. (Range: 0-7)
The following table gives information on each level name, number and general description.
Level Name
Level
Description
debugging
7
Debugging messages
informational
6
Informational messages only
notifications
5
Normal but significant condition, such as cold start
warnings
4
Warning conditions (such as, return false,
unexpected return)
Errors
3
Error conditions (such as, invalid input, default
used)
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critical
2
Critical conditions (such as, memory allocation, or
free memory error - resource exhausted)
Alerts
1
Immediate action needed
emergencies
0
System unusable
Note: Error messages are only at Level 2, 5 and 6.
Default
Flash: errors (level 3 - 0)
RAM: warnings (level 7 - 0)
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Usage Guidelines
The message level specified for flash memory must be a higher priority (for example, numerically lower)
than that specified for RAM.
Example
Console(config)#logging history ram 0
Console(config)#
16.86 logging host
This command adds a syslog server host IP address that will receive logging messages. Use the no form to
remove a syslog server host.
Syntax Description
[no] logging host host_ip_address
host_ip_address
The IP address of a syslog server.
Default
None
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Usage Guidelines
Use this command more than once to build a list of host IP addresses.
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The maximum number of host IP addresses allowed is five.
Example
Console(config)#logging host 10.1.0.3
Console(config)#
16.87 logging on
This command controls logging of error messages, sending debug or error messages to switch memory.
The no form disables the logging process.
Syntax Description
[no] logging on
Default
None
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Usage Guidelines
The logging process controls error messages saved to switch memory. You can use the logging history
command to control the type of error messages that are stored.
Example
Console(config)#logging on
Console(config)#
Related Commands
logging history
clear logging
16.88 logging sendmail
This command enables SMTP event handling. Use the no form to disable this function.
Syntax Description
[no] logging sendmail
Default
Disabled
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Command Mode
Global Configuration
Example
Console(config)#logging sendmail
Console(config)#
16.89 logging sendmail destination-email
This command specifies the email recipients of alert messages. Use the no form to remove a recipient.
Syntax Description
[no] logging sendmail destination-email email-address
Email-address
The source email address used in alert messages. (Range: 1-41 characters)
Default
None
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Usage Guidelines
You can specify up to five recipients for alert messages. To do this, you must enter a separate command to
specify each recipient.
Example
Console(config)#logging sendmail destination-email ted@this-company.com
Console(config)#
16.90 logging sendmail host
This command specifies SMTP servers that will be sent alert messages. Use the no form to remove an
SMTP server.
Syntax Description
[no] logging sendmail host ip_address
ip_address
IP address of an SMTP server that will be sent alert messages for event
handling.
Default
None
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Command Mode
Global Configuration
Usage Guidelines
You can specify up to three SMTP servers for event handing. You must enter a separate command to
specify each server.
To send email alerts, the switch first opens a connection, sends all the email alerts waiting in the queue one
by one, and finally closes the connection.
To open a connection, the switch first selects the server that successfully sent mail during the last
connection, or the first server configured by this command. If it fails to send mail, the switch selects the next
server in the list and tries to send mail again. If it still fails, the system will repeat the process at a periodic
interval. (A trap will be triggered if the switch cannot successfully open a connection.)
Example
Console(config)#logging sendmail host 192.168.1.19
Console(config)#
16.91 logging sendmail level
This command sets the severity threshold used to trigger alert messages.
Syntax Description
logging sendmail level level
level
One of the system message levels. Messages sent include the selected level
down to level 0. (Range: 0-7) For more information on the levels, refer to the
table in logging history command.
Default
Level 7
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Usage Guidelines
The specified level indicates an event threshold. All events at this level or higher are sent to the configured
email recipients. (For example, using Level 7 reports all events from level 7 to level 0.)
Example
This example shows setting the system to send email alerts for system errors from level 3 through 0.
Console(config)#logging sendmail level 3
Console(config)#
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16.92 logging sendmail source-email
This command sets the email address used for the “From” field in alert messages.
Syntax Description
logging sendmail source-email email-address
Email-address
The source email address used in alert messages. (Range: 1-41 characters)
Default
None
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Usage Guidelines
You may use a symbolic email address that identifies the switch, or the address of an administrator
responsible for the switch.
Example
This example shows setting to system to send email alerts for system alerts for emails received from a
specific address.
Console(config)#logging sendmail source-email bill@this-company.com
Console(config)#
16.93 logging trap
This command enables the logging of system messages to a remote server, or limits the syslog messages
saved to a remote server based on severity. Use this command without a specified level to enable remote
logging. Use the no form to disable remote logging.
Syntax Description
logging trap [level]
no logging trap
level
One of the level arguments listed in the table under the logging history
command. Messages sent include the selected level up through level 0.
Default
Level 3 - 0
Command Mode
Global Configuration
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Example
Console(config)#logging trap 4
Console(config)#
16.94 login
This command enables password checking at login. Use the no form to disable password checking and
allow connections without a password.
Syntax Description
login [local]
no login
Local
Selects local password checking. Authentication is based on the user name
specified with the username command.
Default
login local
Command Mode
Line Configuration
Usage Guidelines
There are three authentication modes provided at login:
Login
Selects authentication by a single global password as specified by the
password line configuration command. When using this method, the
management interface starts in Normal Exec (NE) mode.
login local
Selects authentication via the user name and password specified by the
username command (For example, default setting). When using this method,
the management interface starts in Normal Exec (NE) or Privileged Exec (PE)
mode, depending on the user’s privilege level (0 or 15 respectively).
no login
Selects no authentication. When using this method, the management interface
starts in Normal Exec (NE) mode.
This command controls login authentication through the switch. To configure user names and passwords for
remote authentication servers, use the RADIUS or TACACS software installed on those servers.
Example
Console(config-line)#login local
Console(config-line)#
Related Commands
username
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password
16.95 mac access-group
This command binds a port to a MAC ACL. Use the no form to remove the port.
Syntax Description
mac access-group acl_name {in | out}
acl_name
Name of the ACL. (Maximum length: 16 characters)
In
Indicates that this list applies to ingress packets.
Out
Indicates that this list applies to egress packets.
Default
None
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet)
Usage Guidelines
A port can only be bound to one ACL.
If a port is already bound to an ACL and you bind it to a different ACL, the switch replaces the old binding
with the new one.
Example
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/25
Console(config-if)#mac access-group james in
Console(config-if)#
Related Commands
show mac access-list
16.96 mac-address-table aging-time
This command sets the aging time for entries in the address table. Use the no form to restore the default
aging time.
Syntax Description
mac-address-table aging-time seconds
no mac-address-table aging-time
Seconds
244
Aging time. (Range: 10-1000000 seconds; 0 to disable aging)
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Default
300 seconds
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Usage Guidelines
Use this command to dynamically delete learned forwarding information after a specified period of time.
Example
Console(config)#mac-address-table aging-time 100
Console(config)#
16.97 mac-address-table static
This command maps a static address to a destination port in a VLAN. Use the no form to remove an
address.
Syntax Description
mac-address-table static mac-address interface interface vlan vlan-id
[action]
no mac-address-table static mac-address vlan vlan-id
mac-address
The MAC address.
interface
Is ethernet unit/port
unit - This is device 1.
port - Port number.
port-channel
channel-id (Range: 1-6)
vlan-id
VLAN ID (Range: 1-4094)
Action
Specify
delete-on-reset - Assignment lasts until the switch is reset.
permanent - Assignment is permanent
Default
no
The default mode is permanent.
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Command Mode
Global Configuration
Usage Guidelines
You can define the static address for a host device to a specific port within a specific VLAN. Use this
command to add static addresses to the MAC Address Table. Static addresses have the following
characteristics:
Static addresses remain in the address table if the interface link is down.
Static addresses are bound to the assigned interface. When a static address is detected on another
interface, the address is ignored and not added to the address table.
Static addresses are not added until the address is removed by using the no form of this command.
Example
The following is sample output from the mac-address-table command using the static argument.
Console(config)#mac-address-table static 00-e0-29-94-34-de interface ethernet
1/1 vlan 1 delete-on-reset
16.98 management
This command specifies the client IP addresses that are allowed management access to the switch through
various protocols. Use the no form to restore the default setting.
Syntax Description
[no] management {all-client | http-client | snmp-client | telnetclient} start-address [end-address]
all-client
Adds IP address(es) to the SNMP, Web and Telnet groups.
http-client
Adds IP address(es) to the Web group.
snmp-client
Adds IP address(es) to the SNMP group.
telnet-client
Adds IP address(es) to the Telnet group.
Start-address
A single IP address, or the starting address of a range.
end-address
The end address of a range.
Default
All addresses
Command Mode
Global Configuration
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Usage Guidelines
If anyone tries to access a management interface on the switch from an invalid address, the switch rejects
the connection, enter an event message in the system log, and send a trap message to the trap manager.
IP address can be configured for SNMP, Web and Telnet access respectively. Each of these groups can
either include up to five different sets of addresses, individual addresses or address ranges.
When entering addresses for the same group (For example, SNMP, Web or Telnet), the switch does not
accept overlapping address ranges. When entering addresses for different groups, the switch accepts
overlapping address ranges.
You cannot delete an individual address from a specified range. You must delete the entire range, and
reenter the addresses.
You can delete an address range just by specifying the start address, or by specifying both the start address
and end address.
Example
This example restricts management access to the indicated addresses.
Console(config)#management all-client 192.168.1.19
Console(config)#management all-client 192.168.1.25 192.168.1.30
Console#
Related Commands
show management
16.99 map access-list ip
This command sets the output queue for packets matching an ACL rule. The specified CoS value is only
used to map the matching packet to an output queue; it is not written to the packet itself. Use the no form to
remove the CoS mapping.
Syntax Description
[no] map access-list ip acl_name cos cos-value
acl_name
Name of the ACL. (Maximum length: 16 characters)
cos-value
CoS value. (Range: 0-7)
Default
None
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet)
Usage Guidelines
You must configure an ACL mask before you can map CoS values to the rule.
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A packet matching a rule within the specified ACL is mapped to one of the output queues as shown in the
following table. For information on mapping the CoS values to output queues, see queue cos-map
command.
Priority
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
Queue
1
2
0
3
4
5
6
7
Example
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/25
Console(config-if)#map access-list ip david cos 0
Console(config-if)#
Related Commands
queue cos-map
show map access-list ip
16.100 mask (IP ACL)
This command defines a mask for IP ACLs. This mask defines the fields to check in the IP header. Use the
no form to remove a mask.
Syntax Description
[no] mask [protocol]
{any | host | source-bitmask}
{any | host | destination-bitmask}
[precedence] [tos] [dscp]
[source-port [port-bitmask]] [destination-port [port-bitmask]]
[control-flag [flag-bitmask]]
protocol
Check the protocol field.
any
Any address will be matched.
host
The address must be for a host device, not a subnetwork.
source-bitmask
Source address of rule must match this bitmask.
destination-bitmask
Destination address of rule must match this bitmask.
precedence
Check the IP precedence field.
tos
Check the TOS field.
dscp
Check the DSCP field.
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source-port
Check the protocol source port field.
destination-port
Check the protocol destination port field.
port-bitmask
Protocol port of rule must match this bitmask. (Range: 0-65535)
control-flag
Check the field for control flags.
flag-bitmask
Control flags of rule must match this bitmask. (Range: 0-63)
Default
None
Command Mode
IP Mask
Usage Guidelines
Use this command to check packets crossing a port against the rules set in the ACL until it finds a match.
The order the rules entered in the ACL file do not determine the order the packets are checked.
You must first create the required ACLs and ingress or egress masks before mapping an ACL to an
interface.
If you enter dscp, you cannot enter tos or precedence. You can enter both tos and precedence without dscp.
Masks that include an entry for a Layer 4 protocol source port or destination port only apply to packets with a
header length of exactly five bytes.
Example
This example creates an IP ingress mask with two rules. Each rule is checked in order of precedence to look
for a match in the ACL entries. The first entry matching a mask is applied to the inbound packet.
Console(config)#access-list ip mask-precedence in
Console(config-ip-mask-acl)#mask host any
Console(config-ip-mask-acl)#mask 255.255.255.0 any
Console(config-ip-mask-acl)#
This shows that the entries in the mask override the precedence in which the rules are entered into the ACL.
In the following example, packets with the source address 10.1.1.1 are dropped because the “deny 10.1.1.1
255.255.255.255” rule has the higher precedence according the “mask host any” entry.
Console(config)#access-list ip standard A2
Console(config-std-acl)#permit 10.1.1.0 255.255.255.0
Console(config-std-acl)#deny 10.1.1.1 255.255.255.255
Console(config-std-acl)#exit
Console(config)#access-list ip mask-precedence in
Console(config-ip-mask-acl)#mask host any
Console(config-ip-mask-acl)#mask 255.255.255.0 any
Console(config-ip-mask-acl)#
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This shows how to create a standard ACL with an ingress mask to deny access to the IP host
171.69.198.102, and permit access to any others.
Console(config)#access-list ip standard A2
Console(config-std-acl)#permit any
Console(config-std-acl)#deny host 171.69.198.102
Console(config-std-acl)#end
Console#show access-list
IP standard access-list A2:
deny host 171.69.198.102
permit any
Console#configure
Console(config)#access-list ip mask-precedence in
Console(config-ip-mask-acl)#mask host any
Console(config-ip-mask-acl)#exit
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/1
Console(config-if)#ip access-group A2 in
Console(config-if)#end
Console#show access-list
IP standard access-list A2:
deny host 171.69.198.102
permit any
Console#
This shows how to create an extended ACL with an egress mask to drop packets leaving network
171.69.198.0 when the Layer 4 source port is 23.
Console(config)#access-list ip extended A3
Console(config-ext-acl)#deny host 171.69.198.5 any
Console(config-ext-acl)#deny 171.69.198.0 255.255.255.0 any source-port 23
Console(config-ext-acl)#end
Console#show access-list
IP extended access-list A3:
deny host 171.69.198.5 any
deny 171.69.198.0 255.255.255.0 any source-port 23
Console#config
Console(config)#access-list ip mask-precedence out
Console(config-ip-mask-acl)#mask 255.255.255.0 any source-port
Console(config-ip-mask-acl)#exit
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/15
Console(config-if)#ip access-group A3 out
Console(config-if)#end
Console#show access-list
IP extended access-list A3:
deny 171.69.198.0 255.255.255.0 any source-port 23
deny host 171.69.198.5 any
IP egress mask ACL:
mask 255.255.255.0 any source-port
Console#
This is a more comprehensive example. It denies any TCP packets in which the SYN bit is ON, and permits
all other packets. It then sets the ingress mask to check the deny rule first, and finally binds port 1 to this
ACL. Note that once the ACL is bound to an interface (For example, the ACL is active), the order in which
the rules are displayed is determined by the associated mask.
Switch(config)#access-list ip extended A6
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Switch(config-ext-acl)#permit any any
Switch(config-ext-acl)#deny tcp any any control-flag 2 2
Switch(config-ext-acl)#end
Console#show access-list
IP extended access-list A6:
permit any any
deny tcp any any control-flag 2 2
Console#configure
Switch(config)#access-list ip mask-precedence in
Switch(config-ip-mask-acl)#mask protocol any any control-flag 2
Switch(config-ip-mask-acl)#end
Console#sh access-list
IP extended access-list A6:
permit any any
deny tcp any any control-flag 2 2
IP ingress mask ACL:
mask protocol any any control-flag 2
Console#configure
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/1
Console(config-if)#ip access-group A6 in
Console(config-if)#end
Console#show access-list
IP extended access-list A6:
deny tcp any any control-flag 2 2
permit any any
IP ingress mask ACL:
mask protocol any any control-flag 2
Console#
16.101 map access-list mac
This command sets the output queue for packets matching an ACL rule. The specified CoS value is only
used to map the matching packet to an output queue; it is not written to the packet itself. Use the no form to
remove the CoS mapping.
Syntax Description
[no] map access-list mac acl-name cos cos-value
acl-name
Name of the ACL. (Maximum length: 16 characters)
cos-value
CoS value. (Range: 0-7)
Default
None
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet)
Usage Guidelines
You must configure an ACL mask before you can map CoS values to the rule.
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A packet matching a rule within the specified ACL then maps to one of the output queues as shown below.
Priority
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
Queue
1
2
0
3
4
5
6
7
Example
Console(config)#int eth 1/5
Console(config-if)#map access-list mac M5 cos 0
Console(config-if)#
Related Commands
queue cos-map
show map access-list mac
16.102 map ip dscp (Global Configuration)
This command enables IP DSCP mapping (For example, Differentiated Services Code Point mapping). Use
the no form to disable IP DSCP mapping.
Syntax Description
[no] map ip dscp
Default
Disabled
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Usage Guidelines
The precedence for priority mapping is IP Port, IP Precedence or IP DSCP, and default switchport priority.
IP Precedence and IP DSCP cannot both be enabled. Enabling one of these priority types will automatically
disable the other type.
Example
The following example shows how to enable IP DSCP mapping globally:
Console(config)#map ip dscp
Console(config)#
16.103 map ip dscp (Interface Configuration)
This command sets IP DSCP priority (For example, Differentiated Services Code Point priority). Use the no
form to restore the default table.
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Syntax Description
map ip dscp dscp-value cos cos-value
no map ip dscp
dscp-value
DSCP value. (Range: 0-63)
cos-value
Class-of-Service value (Range: 0-7)
Default
The DSCP default values are defined in the following table. Note that all the DSCP values that are not
specified are mapped to CoS value 0.
IP DSCP Value
CoS Value
0
0
8
1
10, 12, 14, 16
2
18, 20, 22, 24
3
26, 28, 30, 32, 34, 36
4
38, 40, 42
5
48
6
46, 56
7
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet, Port Channel)
Usage Guidelines
The precedence for priority mapping is IP Port, IP Precedence or IP DSCP, and default switchport priority.
DSCP priority values are mapped to default Class of Service values according to recommendations in the
IEEE 802.1p standard, and then subsequently mapped to the eight hardware priority queues.
This command sets the IP DSCP priority for all interfaces.
Example
The following example shows how to map IP DSCP value 1 to CoS value 0:
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/5
Console(config-if)#map ip dscp 1 cos 0
Console(config-if)#
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16.104 map ip port (Global Configuration)
This command enables IP port mapping (For example, class of service mapping for TCP/UDP sockets). Use
the no form to disable IP port mapping.
Syntax Description
[no] map ip port
Default
Disabled
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Usage Guidelines
The precedence for priority mapping is IP Port, IP Precedence or IP DSCP, and default switchport priority.
Example
The following example shows how to enable TCP/UDP port mapping globally:
Console(config)#map ip port
Console(config)#
16.105 map ip port (Interface Configuration)
This command enables IP port mapping (For example, TCP/UDP port priority). Use the no form to remove a
specific setting.
Syntax Description
map ip port port number cos cos-value
no map ip port port-number
port-number
The 16-bit TCP/UDP port number.(Range 1-65535)
cos-value
The Class-of-Service value. (Range: 0-7)
Default
None
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet, Port Channel)
Usage Guidelines
The precedence for priority mapping is IP Port, IP Precedence or IP DSCP, and default switchport priority.
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This command sets the IP port priority for all interfaces.
Example
The following example shows how to map HTTP traffic to CoS value 0:
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/5
Console(config-if)#map ip port 80 cos 0
Console(config-if)#
16.106 map ip precedence (Global Configuration)
This command enables IP precedence mapping (for example, IP Type of Service). Use the no form to
disable IP precedence mapping.
Syntax Description
[no] map ip precedence
Default
Disabled
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Usage Guidelines
The precedence for priority mapping is IP Port, IP Precedence or IP DSCP, and default switchport priority.
IP Precedence and IP DSCP cannot both be enabled. Enabling one of these priority types will automatically
disable the other type.
Example
The following example shows how to enable IP precedence mapping globally:
Console(config)#map ip precedence
Console(config)#
16.107 map ip precedence (Interface Configuration)
This command sets IP precedence priority (For example, IP Type of Service priority). Use the no form to
restore the default table.
Syntax Description
map ip precedence ip-precedence-value cos cos-value
no map ip precedence
precedence-value
3-bit precedence value. (Range: 0-7)
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cos-value
Class-of-Service value (Range: 0-7)
Default
The list below shows the default priority mapping.
IP Precedence
Value
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
CoS Value
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet, Port Channel)
Usage Guidelines
The precedence for priority mapping is IP Port, IP Precedence or IP DSCP, and default switchport priority.
IP Precedence values are mapped to default Class of Service values on a one-to-one basis according to
recommendations in the IEEE 802.1p standard, and then subsequently mapped to the eight hardware
priority queues.
This command sets the IP Precedence for all interfaces.
Example
The following example shows how to map IP precedence value 1 to CoS value 0:
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/5
Console(config-if)#map ip precedence 1 cos 0
Console(config-if)#
16.108 mask (MAC ACL)
This command defines a mask for MAC ACLs. This mask defines the fields to check in the packet header.
Use the no form to remove a mask.
Syntax Description
[no] mask [pktformat]
{any | host | source-bitmask} {any | host | destination-bitmask}
[vid [vid-bitmask]] [ethertype [ethertype-bitmask]]
pktformat
Check the packet format field. (If this keyword is used in the mask, the packet
format must be specified in ACL rule to match.)
any
Match any address.
host
The address must be for a single node.
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source-bitmask
Source address of rule must match this bitmask.
destination-bitmask
Destination address of rule must match this bitmask.
vid
Check the VLAN ID field.
vid-bitmask
VLAN ID of rule must match this bitmask.
Ethertype
Check the Ethernet type field.
ethertype-bitmask
Ethernet type of rule must match this bitmask.
Default
None
Command Mode
MAC Mask
Usage Guidelines
Up to seven masks can be assigned to an ingress or egress ACL.
Packets crossing a port are checked against all the rules in the ACL until a match is found. The order in
which these packets are checked is determined by the mask, and not the order in which the ACL rules were
entered.
Create the required ACLs and inbound or outbound masks before mapping an ACL to an interface.
Example
This example shows how to create an Ingress MAC ACL and bind it to a port. You can then see that the
order of the rules have been changed by the mask.
Console(config)#access-list mac M4
Console(config-mac-acl)#permit any any
Console(config-mac-acl)#deny tagged-eth2 00-11-11-11-11-11 ff-ff-ff-ff-ff-ff
any vid 3
Console(config-mac-acl)#end
Console#show access-list
MAC access-list M4:
permit any any
deny tagged-eth2 host 00-11-11-11-11-11 any vid 3
Console(config)#access-list mac mask-precedence in
Console(config-mac-mask-acl)#mask pktformat ff-ff-ff-ff-ff-ff any vid
Console(config-mac-mask-acl)#exit
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/12
Console(config-if)#mac access-group M4 in
Console(config-if)#end
Console#show access-list
MAC access-list M4:
deny tagged-eth2 host 00-11-11-11-11-11 any vid 3
permit any any
MAC ingress mask ACL:
mask pktformat host any vid
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Console#
This example creates an Egress MAC ACL.
Console(config)#access-list mac M5
Console(config-mac-acl)#deny tagged-802.3 host 00-11-11-11-11-11 any
Console(config-mac-acl)#deny tagged-eth2 00-11-11-11-11-11 ff-ff-ff-ff-ff-ff
any vid 3 ethertype 0806
Console(config-mac-acl)#end
Console#show access-list
MAC access-list M5:
deny tagged-802.3 host 00-11-11-11-11-11 any
deny tagged-eth2 host 00-11-11-11-11-11 any vid 3 ethertype 0806
Console#configure
Console(config)#access-list mac mask-precedence out
Console(config-mac-mask-acl)#mask pktformat ff-ff-ff-ff-ff-ff any vid
Console(config-mac-mask-acl)#exit
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/5
Console(config-if)#mac access-group M5 out
Console(config-if)#end
Console#show access-list
MAC access-list M5:
deny tagged-eth2 host 00-11-11-11-11-11 any vid 3 ethertype 0806
deny tagged-802.3 host 00-11-11-11-11-11 any
MAC ingress mask ACL:
mask pktformat host any vid ethertype
Console#
16.109 match access-list ip
This command changes the IEEE 802.1p priority, IP Precedence, or DSCP Priority of a frame matching the
defined ACL rule. (This feature is commonly referred to as ACL packet marking.) Use the no form to remove
the ACL marker.
Syntax Description
match access-list ip acl_name [set priority priority] {set precedence
precedence_value | set dscp dscp_value}
no match access-list ip acl_name
acl_name
Name of the ACL. (Maximum length: 16 characters)
priority
Class of Service value in the IEEE 802.1p priority tag. (Range: 0-7; 7 is the
highest)
precedence_value
IP Precedence value. (Range: 0-7)
dscp_value
Differentiated Services Code Point value. (Range: 0-63)
Default
None
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Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet)
Usage Guidelines
You must configure an ACL mask before you can change frame priorities based on an ACL rule.
Traffic priorities may be included in the IEEE 802.1p priority tag. This tag is also incorporated as part of the
overall IEEE 802.1Q VLAN tag. To specify this priority, use the set priority keywords.
The IP frame header also includes priority bits in the Type of Service (ToS) octet. The Type of Service octet
may contain three bits for IP Precedence or six bits for Differentiated Services Code Point (DSCP) service.
To specify the IP precedence priority, use the set tos keywords. To specify the DSCP priority, use the set
dscp keywords. The IP frame header can include either the IP Precedence or DSCP priority type.
The precedence for priority mapping by this switch is IP Precedence or DSCP Priority, and then 802.1p
priority.
Example
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/12
Console(config-if)#match access-list ip bill set dscp 0
Console(config-if)#
Related Commands
show marking
16.110 match access-list mac
This command changes the IEEE 802.1p priority of a Layer 2 frame matching the defined ACL rule. (This
feature is commonly referred to as ACL packet marking.) Use the no form to remove the ACL marker.
Syntax Description
match access-list mac acl_name set priority priority
no match access-list mac acl_name
acl_name
Name of the ACL. (Maximum length: 16 characters)
priority
Class of Service value in the IEEE 802.1p priority tag. (Range: 0-7; 7 is the
highest)
Default
None
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet)
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Usage Guidelines
You must configure an ACL mask before you can change frame priorities based on an ACL rule.
Example
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/12
Console(config-if)#match access-list mac james set priority 0
Console(config-if)#
Related Commands
show marking
16.111 max-hops
This command configures the maximum number of hops in the region before a BPDU is discarded. Use the
no form to restore the default.
Syntax Description
max-hops hop-number
hop-number
Maximum hop number for multiple spanning tree. (Range: 1-40)
Default
20
Command Mode
MST Configuration
Usage Guidelines
A MSTI region is treated as a single node by the STP and RSTP protocols. Therefore, the message age for
BPDUs inside a MSTI region is never changed. Each spanning tree instance within a region, and the internal
spanning tree (IST) that connects these instances use a hop count to specify the maximum number of
bridges that propagates a BPDU. Each bridge decrements the hop count by one before passing on the
BPDU. When the hop count reaches zero, the message is dropped.
Example
Console(config-mstp)#max-hops 30
Console(config-mstp)#
16.112 mst priority
This command configures the priority of a spanning tree instance. Use the no form to restore the default.
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Syntax Description
mst instance_id priority priority
no mst instance_id priority
instance_id
Instance identifier of the spanning tree. (Range: 0-64)
priority
Priority of the a spanning tree instance. (Range: 0-61440 in steps of 4096;
Options: 0, 4096, 8192, 12288, 16384, 20480, 24576, 28672, 32768, 36864,
40960, 45056, 49152, 53248, 57344, 61440)
Default
32768
Command Mode
MST Configuration
Usage Guidelines
MST priority is used in selecting the root bridge and alternate bridge of the specified instance. The device
with the highest priority (For example, lowest numerical value) becomes the MSTI root device. If all devices
have the same priority, the device with the lowest MAC address will then become the root device.
You can set this switch to act as the MSTI root device by specifying a priority of 0, or as the MSTI alternate
device by specifying a priority of 16384.
Example
Console(config-mstp)#mst 1 priority 4096
Console(config-mstp)#
16.113 mst vlan
This command adds VLANs to a spanning tree instance. Use the no form to remove the specified VLANs.
Using the no form without any VLAN parameters to remove all VLANs.
Syntax Description
[no] mst instance_id vlan vlan-range
instance_id
Instance identifier of the spanning tree. (Range: 0-4094)
vlan-range
Range of VLANs. (Range: 1-4094)
Default
none
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Command Mode
MST Configuration
Usage Guidelines
Use this command to group VLANs into spanning tree instances. MSTP generates a unique spanning tree
for each instance. This provides multiple pathways across the network, thereby balancing the traffic load,
preventing wide-scale disruption when a bridge node in a single instance fails, and allowing for faster
convergence of a new topology for the failed instance.
By default, all VLANs are assigned to the Internal Spanning Tree (MSTI 0) that connects all bridges and
LANs within the MST region. This switch supports up to 58 instances. You should try to group VLANs that
cover the same general area of your network. You must configure all bridges within the same MSTI Region
(see the name command) with the same set of instances, and the same instance (on each bridge) with the
same set of VLANs. Also, note that RSTP treats each MSTI region as a single node, connecting all regions
to the Common Spanning Tree.
Example
Console(config-mstp)#mst 1 vlan 2-5
Console(config-mstp)#
16.114 name
This command configures the name for the multiple spanning tree region in which this switch is located. Use
the no form to clear the name.
Syntax Description
name name
name
Name of the spanning tree.
Default
Switch’s MAC address
Command Mode
MST Configuration
Usage Guidelines
Use the MST region name and revision number (refer to the mst command) to designate a unique MST
region. A bridge (for example, spanning-tree compliant device such as this switch) can only belong to one
MST region and all bridges in the same region must be configured with the same MST instances.
Example
Console(config-mstp)#name R&D
Console(config-mstp)#
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Related Commands
revision
16.115 negotiation
This command enables auto-negotiation for a specified interface. Use the no form to disable a previously set
auto-negotiation.
Syntax Description
[no] negotiation
Default
Enabled
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet, Port Channel)
Usage Guidelines
When auto-negotiation is enabled, the switch negotiates the best settings for a link based on the capabilities
command. When auto-negotiation is disabled, you must manually specify the link attributes with the speedduplex and flowcontrol commands.
If autonegotiation is disabled, auto-MDI/MDI-X pin signal configuration is also disabled for the RJ-45 ports.
Example
The following example configures port 11 to use autonegotiation.
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/11
Console(config-if)#negotiation
Console(config-if)#
Related Commands
capabilities
flowcontrol
speed-duplex
16.116 parity
This command defines the generation of a parity bit. Use the no form to restore the default setting.
Syntax Description
parity {none | even | odd}
no parity
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none
No parity
even
Even parity
odd
Odd parity
Default
no parity
Command Mode
Line Configuration
Usage Guidelines
Communication protocols provided by devices such as terminals and modems often require a specific parity
bit setting.
Example
To specify even parity, enter this command:
Console(config-line)#parity even
Console(config-line)#
16.117 password
This command specifies the password for a line. Use the no form to remove the password.
Syntax Description
password {0 | 7} password
no password
{0 | 7}
0 means plain password, 7 means encrypted password
password
Character string that specifies the line password. (Maximum length: 8
characters plain text, 32 encrypted, case sensitive)
Default
No password is specified.
Command Mode
Line Configuration
Usage Guidelines
When a connection is started on a line with password protection, the system prompts for the password. If
you enter the correct password, the system shows a prompt. You can use the password-thresh command to
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set the number of times a user can enter an incorrect password before the system terminates the line
connection and returns the terminal to the idle state.
The encrypted password is required for compatibility with legacy password settings (For example, plain text
or encrypted) when reading the configuration file during system bootup or when downloading the
configuration file from a TFTP server. There is no need for you to manually configure encrypted passwords.
Example
Console(config-line)#password 0 secret
Console(config-line)#
Related Commands
login
password-thresh
16.118 password-thresh
This command sets the password intrusion threshold, which limits the number of failed logon attempts. Use
the no form to remove the threshold value.
Syntax Description
password-thresh [threshold]
no password-thresh
threshold
The number of allowed password attempts. (Range: 1-120; 0: no threshold)
Default
The default is three attempts.
Command Mode
Line Configuration
Usage Guidelines
When the logon attempt threshold is reached, the system interface becomes silent for a specified amount of
time before allowing the next logon attempt. (Use the silent-time command to set this interval.) When this
threshold is reached for Telnet, the Telnet logon interface shuts down.
This command applies to both the local console and Telnet connections.
Example
To set the password threshold to five attempts, enter this command:
Console(config-line)#password-thresh 5
Console(config-line)#
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Related Commands
silent-time
16.119 permit, deny (Extended ACL)
This command adds a rule to an Extended IP ACL. The rule sets a filter condition for packets with specific
source or destination IP addresses, protocol types, source or destination protocol ports, or TCP control
codes. Use the no form to remove a rule.
Syntax Description
[no] {permit | deny} [protocol-number | udp]
{any | source address-bitmask | host source}
{any | destination address-bitmask | host destination}
[precedence precedence] [tos tos] [dscp dscp]
[source-port sport [bitmask]] [destination-port dport [port-bitmask]]
[no] {permit | deny} tcp
{any | source address-bitmask | host source}
{any | destination address-bitmask | host destination}
[precedence precedence] [tos tos] [dscp dscp]
[source-port sport [bitmask]] [destination-port dport [port-bitmask]]
[control-flag control-flags flag-bitmask]
protocol-number
A specific protocol number. (Range: 0-255)
source
Source IP address.
destination
Destination IP address.
address-bitmask
Decimal number representing the address bits to match.
host
Keyword followed by a specific IP address.
precedence
IP precedence level. (Range: 0-7)
tos
Type of Service level. (Range: 0-7)
dscp
DSCP priority level. (Range: 0-63)
sport
Protocol* source port number. (Range: 0-65535)
dport
Protocol (Includes TCP, UDP or other protocol types) destination port number.
(Range: 0-65535)
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port-bitmask
Decimal number representing the port bits to match. (Range: 0-65535)
control-flags
Decimal number (representing a bit string) that specifies flag bits in byte 14 of
the TCP header. (Range: 0-63)
flag-bitmask
Decimal number representing the code bits to match. (Range: 0-63)
Default
None
Command Mode
Extended ACL
Usage Guidelines
All new rules are appended to the end of the list.
Address bitmasks are similar to a subnet mask, containing four integers from 0 to 255, each separated by a
period. The binary mask uses 1 bits to indicate “match” and 0 bits to indicate “ignore.” The bitmask is bitwise
ANDed with the specified source IP address, and then compared with the address for each IP packet
entering the port(s) to which this ACL has been assigned.
You can specify both Precedence and ToS in the same rule. If DSCP is used, then neither Precedence nor
ToS can be specified.
The control-code bitmask is a decimal number (representing an equivalent bit mask) that is applied to the
control code. Enter a decimal number, where the equivalent binary bit “1” means to match a bit and “0”
means to ignore a bit. The following bits may be specified:
•
1 (fin) – Finish
•
2 (syn) – Synchronize
•
4 (rst) – Reset
•
8 (psh) – Push
•
16 (ack) – Acknowledgement
•
32 (urg) – Urgent pointer
For example, use the code value and mask below to catch packets with the following flags set:
SYN flag valid, use “control-code 2 2”
Both SYN and ACK valid, use “control-code 18 18”
SYN valid and ACK invalid, use “control-code 2 18”
Example
This example accepts any incoming packets if the source address is within subnet 10.7.1.x. For example, if
the rule is matched; For example, the rule (10.7.1.0 & 255.255.255.0) equals the masked address (10.7.1.2
& 255.255.255.0), the packet passes through.
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Console(config-ext-acl)#permit 10.7.1.1 255.255.255.0 any
Console(config-ext-acl)#
This allows TCP packets from class C addresses 192.168.1.0 to any destination address when set for
destination TCP port 80 (For example, HTTP).
Console(config-ext-acl)#permit 192.168.1.0 255.255.255.0 any destination-port
80
Console(config-ext-acl)#
This permits all TCP packets from class C addresses 192.168.1.0 with the TCP control code set to “SYN.”
Console(config-ext-acl)#permit tcp 192.168.1.0 255.255.255.0 any control-flag 2
2
Console(config-ext-acl)#
Related Commands
access-list ip
16.120 permit, deny (MAC ACL)
This command adds a rule to a MAC ACL. The rule filters packets matching a specified MAC source or
destination address (For example, physical layer address), or Ethernet protocol type. Use the no form to
remove a rule.
Syntax Description
[no] {permit | deny}
{any | host source | source address-bitmask}
{any | host destination | destination address-bitmask}
[vid vid vid-bitmask] [ethertype protocol [protocol-bitmask]]
Note:
- The default is for Ethernet II packets.
[no] {permit | deny} tagged-eth2
[ethertype protocol [protocol-bitmask]]
[no] {permit | deny} tagged-802.3
tagged-eth2
Tagged Ethernet II packets.
untagged-eth2
Untagged Ethernet II packets.
tagged-802.3
Tagged Ethernet 802.3 packets.
untagged-802.3
Untagged Ethernet 802.3 packets.
any
Any MAC source or destination address.
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host
A specific MAC address.
source
Source MAC address.
destination
Destination MAC address range with bitmask.
address-bitmask
Bitmask for MAC address (in hexadecimal format) ) (1 means care and 0
means ignore).
vid
VLAN ID. (Range: 1-4095).
vid-bitmask
VLAN bitmask. (Range: 1-4095) (1 means care and 0 means ignore).
protocol
A specific Ethernet protocol number. (Range: 600-fff hex.)
protocol-bitmask
Protocol bitmask. (Range: 600-fff hex.) (1 means care and 0 means ignore).
Default
None
Command Mode
MAC ACL
Usage Guidelines
New rules are added to the end of the list.
The ethertype option can only be used to filter Ethernet II formatted packets.
A detailed listing of Ethernet protocol types can be found in RFC 1060. A few of the more common types
include the following:
•
0800 - IP
•
0806 - ARP
•
8137 - IPX
Example
This rule permits packets from any source MAC address to the destination address 00-e0-29-94-34-de
where the Ethernet type is 0800.
Console(config-mac-acl)#permit any host 00-e0-29-94-34-de ethertype 0800
Console(config-mac-acl)#
Related Commands
access-list mac
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16.121 permit, deny (Standard ACL)
This command adds a rule to a Standard IP ACL. The rule sets a filter condition for packets emanating from
the specified source. Use the no form to remove a rule.
Syntax Description
[no] {permit | deny} {any | source bitmask | host source}
any
Any source IP address.
source
Source IP address.
bitmask
Decimal number representing the address bits to match.
host
Keyword followed by a specific IP address.
Default
None
Command Mode
Standard ACL
Usage Guidelines
New rules are appended to the end of the list.
Address bitmasks are similar to a subnet mask, containing four integers from 0 to 255, each separated by a
period. The binary mask uses 1 bits to indicate “match” and 0 bits to indicate “ignore.” The bitmask is bitwise
ANDed with the specified source IP address, and then compared with the address for each IP packet
entering the port(s) to which this ACL has been assigned.
Example
This example configures one permit rule for the specific address 10.1.1.21 and another rule for the address
range 168.92.16.x – 168.92.31.x using a bitmask.
Console(config-std-acl)#permit host 10.1.1.21
Console(config-std-acl)#permit 168.92.16.0 255.255.240.0
Console(config-std-acl)#
Related Commands
access-list ip
16.122 ping
This command sends ICMP echo request packets to another node on the network.
Syntax Description
ping host [size size] [count count]
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host
IP address or IP alias of the host.
size
Number of bytes in a packet. (Range: 32-512, default: 32) The actual packet
size will be eight bytes larger than the size specified because the switch adds
header information.
count
Number of packets to send. (Range: 1-16, default: 5)
Default
This command has no default for the host.
Command Mode
Normal Exec, Privileged Exec
Usage Guidelines
Use the ping command to see if another site on the network can be reached. Press <Esc> to stop pinging.
Following are some results of the ping command:
Normal response
The normal response occurs in one to ten seconds, depending on network
traffic.
Destination does not
respond
If the host does not respond, a “timeout” appears in ten seconds.
Destination unreachable
The gateway for this destination indicates that the destination is unreachable.
Network or host
unreachable
The gateway found no corresponding entry in the route table.
Example
Console#ping 10.1.0.9
Type ESC to abort.
PING to 10.1.0.9, by 5 32-byte payload ICMP packets, timeout is 5 seconds
response time: 10 ms
response time: 10 ms
response time: 10 ms
response time: 10 ms
response time: 0 ms
Ping statistics for 10.1.0.9:
5 packets transmitted, 5 packets received (100%), 0 packets lost (0%)
Approximate round trip times:
Minimum = 0 ms, Maximum = 10 ms, Average = 8 ms
Console#
Related Commands
interface
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16.123 port security
This command enables or configures port security. Use the no form without any keywords to disable port
security. Use the no form with the appropriate keyword to restore the default settings for a response to
security violation or for the maximum number of allowed addresses.
Syntax Description
port security [action {shutdown | trap | trap-and-shutdown} | max-maccount address-count]
no port security [action | max-mac-count]
action
Response to take when port security is violated.
shutdown - Disable port only.
trap - Issue SNMP trap message only.
trap-and-shutdown - Issue SNMP trap message and disable port.
max-mac-count
The maximum number of MAC addresses that can be counted on a port.
(Range: 0 - 20)
address-count
The maximum number of MAC addresses that can be learned on a port.
(Range: 0 - 20)
Default
Status: Disabled
Action: None
Maximum Addresses: 0
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet)
Usage Guidelines
If you enable port security, the switch stops dynamically learning new addresses on the specified port. Only
incoming traffic with source addresses already stored in the dynamic or static address table are accepted.
To use port security, first allow the switch to dynamically learn the <source MAC address, VLAN> pair for
frames received on a port for an initial training period, and then enable port security to stop address
learning. Be sure you enable the learning function long enough to ensure that all valid VLAN members have
been registered on the selected port.
To add new VLAN members at a later time, you can manually add secure addresses with the mac-addresstable static command, or turn off port security to re-enable the learning function long enough for new VLAN
members to be registered. Learning may then be disabled again, if desired, for security.
A secure port has the following restrictions:
•
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Cannot use port monitoring.
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•
Cannot be a multi-VLAN port.
•
Cannot be connected to a network interconnection device.
•
Cannot be a trunk port.
If a port is disabled due to a security violation, it must be manually re-enabled using the no shutdown
command.
Example
The following example enables port security for port 5, and sets the response to a security violation to issue
a trap message:
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/5
Console(config-if)#port security action trap
Related Commands
shutdown
mac-address-table static
show mac-address-table
16.124 prompt
This command customizes the CLI prompt. Use the no form to restore the default prompt.
Syntax Description
prompt string
no prompt
string
Any alphanumeric string to use for the CLI prompt. (Maximum length: 255
characters)
Default
Console
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Example
Console(config)#prompt RD2
RD2(config)#
Console(config)#
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16.125 protocol-vlan protocol-group (Configuring Groups)
This command creates a protocol group, or to add specific protocols to a group. Use the no form to remove
a protocol group.
Syntax Description
protocol-vlan protocol-group group-id [{add | remove} frame_type frame
protocol-type protocol]
no protocol-vlan protocol-group group-id
group-id
Group identifier of this protocol group. (Range: 1-2147483647)
frame
Frame type used by this protocol. (Options: ethernet, rfc_1042, llc_other)
protocol
Protocol type. The only option for the llc_other frame type is ipx_raw. The
options for all other frames types include: ip, arp, rarp.
Default
No protocol groups are configured.
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Example
The following creates protocol group 1, and specifies Ethernet frames with IP and ARP protocol types:
Console(config)#protocol-vlan protocol-group 1 add frame-type ethernet
protocol-type ip
Console(config)#protocol-vlan protocol-group 1 add frame-type ethernet
protocol-type arp
Console(config)#
16.126 protocol-vlan protocol-group (Configuring Interfaces)
This command maps a protocol group to a VLAN for the current interface. Use the no form to remove the
protocol mapping for this interface.
Syntax Description
protocol-vlan protocol-group group-id vlan vlan-id
no protocol-vlan protocol-group group-id vlan
group-id
Group identifier of this protocol group. (Range: 1-2147483647)
vlan-id
VLAN to which matching protocol traffic is forwarded. (Range: 1-4094)
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Default
No protocol groups are mapped for any interface.
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet, Port Channel)
Usage Guidelines
When creating a protocol-based VLAN, only assign interfaces via this command. If you assign interfaces
using any of the other VLAN commands (see 15.14.2), these interfaces will admit traffic of any protocol type
into the associated VLAN.
When a frame enters a port that has been assigned to a protocol VLAN, it is processed in the following
manner:
•
If the frame is tagged, it will be processed according to the standard rules applied to tagged frames.
•
If the frame is untagged and the protocol type matches, the frame is forwarded to the appropriate VLAN.
•
If the frame is untagged but the protocol type does not match, the frame is forwarded to the default
VLAN for this interface.
Example
The following example maps the traffic entering Port 1, which matches the protocol type specified in protocol
group 1 to VLAN 2.
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/1
Console(config-if)#protocol-vlan protocol-group 1 vlan 2
Console(config-if)#
16.127 pvlan
This command enables or configures a private VLAN. Use the no form to disable the private VLAN.
Syntax Description
pvlan [up-link interface-list down-link interface-list]
no pvlan
up-link
Specifies an uplink interface.
down-link
Specifies a downlink interface.
Default
No private VLANs are defined.
Command Mode
Global Configuration
User’s Manual
275
Usage Guidelines
A private VLAN provides port-based security and isolation between ports within the VLAN. Data traffic on the
downlink ports can only be forwarded to, and from, the uplink port.
Private VLANs and normal VLANs can exist simultaneously within the same switch.
Entering the pvlan command without any parameters enables the private VLAN. Entering no pvlan disables
the private VLAN.
Example
This example enables the private VLAN, and then sets port 24 as the uplink and ports 1-4 as the downlinks.
Console(config)#pvlan
Console(config)#pvlan up-link ethernet 1/24 down-link ethernet 1/1-4
16.128 queue bandwidth
This command assigns weighted round-robin (WRR) weights to the eight class of service (CoS) priority
queues. Use the no form to restore the default weights.
Syntax Description
queue bandwidth weight1...weight4
no queue bandwidth
weight1...weight4
The ratio of weights for queues 0 - 3 determines the weights used by the WRR
scheduler. (Range: 1 - 15)
Default
Weights 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14 are assigned to queues 0 - 7 respectively.
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet, Port Channel)
Usage Guidelines
WRR controls bandwidth sharing at the egress port by defining scheduling weights.
Example
This example shows how to assign WRR weights to each of the priority queues:
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/8
Console(config-if)#queue bandwidth 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15
Console(config-if)#
Related Commands
show queue bandwidth
276
Asanté IntraCore 36000 Series
16.129 queue cos-map
This command assigns class of service (CoS) values to the priority queues (For example, hardware output
queues 0 - 7). Use the no form set the CoS map to the default values.
Syntax Description
queue cos-map queue_id [cos1 ... cosn]
no queue cos-map
queue_id
The ID of the priority queue. Ranges are 0 to 7, where 7 is the highest priority
queue.
cos1 .. cosn
The CoS values that are mapped to the queue ID. It is a space-separated list of
numbers. The CoS value is a number from 0 to 7, where 7 is the highest
priority.
Default
This switch supports Class of Service by using eight priority queues, with Weighted Round Robin queuing
for each port. Eight separate traffic classes are defined in IEEE 802.1p. The default priority levels are
assigned according to recommendations in the IEEE 802.1p standard as shown below.
Queue
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
Priority
2
0
1
3
4
5
6
7
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet, Port Channel)
Usage Guidelines
CoS values assigned at the ingress port are also used at the egress port.
This command sets the CoS priority for all interfaces.
Example
The following example shows how to change the CoS assignments to a one-to-one mapping:
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/1
Console(config-if)#queue cos-map 0 0
Console(config-if)#queue cos-map 1 1
Console(config-if)#queue cos-map 2 2
Console(config-if)#exit
Console#show queue cos-map ethernet 1/1
Information of Eth 1/1
Cos Value
: 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Priority Queue: 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Console#
User’s Manual
277
Related Commands
show queue cos-map
16.130 queue mode
This command sets the queue mode to strict priority or Weighted Round-Robin (WRR) for the class of
service (CoS) priority queues. Use the no form to restore the default value.
Syntax Description
queue mode {strict | wrr}
no queue mode
strict
Services the egress queues in sequential order, transmitting all traffic in the
higher priority queues before servicing lower priority queues.
wrr
Weighted Round-Robin shares bandwidth at the egress ports by using
scheduling weights 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14 for queues 0 - 7 respectively.
Default
Weighted Round Robin
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Usage Guidelines
You can set the switch to service the queues based on a strict rule that requires all traffic in a higher priority
queue to be processed before lower priority queues are serviced, or use WRR queuing that specifies a
relative weight of each queue. WRR uses a predefined relative weight for each queue that determines the
percentage of service time the switch services each queue before moving on to the next queue. This
prevents the head-of-line blocking that can occur with strict priority queuing.
Example
The following example sets the queue mode to strict priority service mode:
Console(config)#queue mode strict
Console(config)#
16.131 quit
This command exits the configuration program.
Default
None
278
Asanté IntraCore 36000 Series
Command Mode
Normal Exec, Privileged Exec
Usage Guidelines
The quit and exit commands can both exit the configuration program.
Example
This example shows how to quit a CLI session:
Console#quit
Press ENTER to start session
User Access Verification
Username:
16.132 radius-server host
This command specifies the RADIUS server. Use the no form to restore the default.
Syntax Description
radius-server host host_ip_address
no radius-server host
host_ip_address
IP address of server.
Default
10.1.0.1
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Example
Console(config)#radius-server host 192.168.1.25
Console(config)#
16.133 radius-server key
This command sets the RADIUS encryption key. Use the no form to restore the default.
Syntax Description
radius-server key key_string
User’s Manual
279
no radius-server key
key_string
Encryption key used to authenticate logon access for client. Do not use blank
spaces in the string. (Maximum length: 20 characters)
Default
None
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Example
Console(config)#radius-server key green
Console(config)#
16.134 radius-server port
This command sets the RADIUS server network port. Use the no form to restore the default.
Syntax Description
radius-server port port_number
no radius-server port
port_number
RADIUS server UDP port used for authentication messages. (Range: 1-65535)
Default
1812
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Example
Console(config)#radius-server port 181
Console(config)#
16.135 radius-server retransmit
This command sets the number of retries. Use the no form to restore the default.
Syntax Description
radius-server retransmit number_of_retries
no radius-server retransmit
280
Asanté IntraCore 36000 Series
number_of_retries
Number of times the switch will try to authenticate logon access via the RADIUS
server. (Range: 1 - 30)
Default
2
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Example
Console(config)#radius-server retransmit 5
Console(config)#
16.136 radius-server timeout
This command sets the interval between transmitting authentication requests to the RADIUS server. Use the
no form to restore the default.
Syntax Description
radius-server timeout number_of_seconds
no radius-server timeout
number_of_seconds
Number of seconds the switch waits for a reply before resending a request.
(Range: 1-65535)
Default
5
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Example
Console(config)#radius-server timeout 10
Console(config)#
16.137 rate-limit
This command defines the rate limit for a specific interface. Use this command without specifying a rate to
restore the default rate. Use the no form to restore the default status of disabled.
Syntax Description
rate-limit {input | output} [rate]
User’s Manual
281
no rate-limit {input | output}
input
Input rate
output
Output rate
rate
Maximum value in Mbps. (Range: 1 to 1000 Mbps)
Default
1000 Mbps
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet, Port Channel)
Example
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/1
Console(config-if)#rate-limit input 600
Console(config-if)#
16.138 reload
This command restarts the system.
Note:
When the system is restarted, it runs the Power-On Self-Test. It retains all configuration information
stored in non-volatile memory by the copy running-config startup-config command.
Default
None
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Usage Guidelines
This command resets the entire system.
Example
This example shows how to reset the switch:
Console#reload
System will be restarted, continue <y/n>? y
16.139 revision
This command configures the revision number for this multiple spanning tree configuration of this switch.
Use the no form to restore the default.
282
Asanté IntraCore 36000 Series
Syntax Description
revision number
number
Revision number of the spanning tree. (Range: 0-65535)
Default
0
Command Mode
MST Configuration
Usage Guidelines
The MST region name and revision number are used to designate a unique MST region. A bridge (for
example, spanning-tree compliant device such as this switch) can only belong to one MST region. In
addition, all bridges in the same region must be configured with the same MST instances.
Example
Console(config-mstp)#revision 1
Console(config-mstp)#
Related Commands
name
16.140 show access-group
This command shows the port assignments of ACLs.
Command Mode
Privileged Executive
Example
The following is sample output from the show access-group command.
Console#show access-group
Interface ethernet 1/25
IP standard access-list james
MAC access-list jerry
Console#
16.141 show access-list
This command shows all ACLs and associated rules, as well as all the user-defined masks.
User’s Manual
283
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Usage Guidelines
Once the ACL is bound to an interface (for example, the ACL is active), the order in which the rules are
displayed is determined by the associated mask.
Example
The following is sample output from the show access-list command.
Console#show access-list
IP standard access-list david:
permit host 10.1.1.21
permit 168.92.0.0 0.0.15.255
IP extended access-list bob:
permit 10.7.1.1 0.0.0.255 any
permit 192.168.1.0 0.0.0.255 any dport 80
permit 192.168.1.0 0.0.0.255 any protocol tcp control-code 2 2
MAC access-list jerry:
permit any 00-30-29-94-34-de ethertype 800
IP extended access-list A6:
deny tcp any any control-flag 2 2
permit any any
IP ingress mask ACL:
mask protocol any any control-flag 2
Console#
16.142 show access-list ip mask-precedence
This command shows the ingress or egress rule masks for IP ACLs.
Syntax Description
show access-list ip mask-precedence [in | out]
in
Ingress mask precedence for ingress ACLs.
out
Egress mask precedence for egress ACLs.
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Example
The following is sample output from the show access-list ip mask precedence command.
Console#show access-list ip mask-precedence
IP ingress mask ACL:
mask host any
mask 255.255.255.0 any
Console#
284
Asanté IntraCore 36000 Series
Related Commands
mask (IP ACL)
16.143 show access-list mac mask-precedence
This command shows the ingress or egress rule masks for MAC ACLs.
Syntax Description
show access-list mac mask-precedence [in | out]
in
Ingress mask precedence for ingress ACLs.
out
Egress mask precedence for egress ACLs.
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Example
The following is sample output from the show access-list mac mask-precedence command.
Console#show access-list mac mask-precedence
MAC egress mask ACL:
mask pktformat host any vid ethertype
Console#
Related Commands
mask (MAC ACL)
16.144 show bridge-ext
This command shows the configuration for bridge extension commands.
Default
None
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Usage Guidelines
See section 10.1.3 Displaying Basic VLAN Information and section 2.10.4 Displaying Bridge Extension
Capabilities for a description of the displayed items.
Example
The following is sample output from the show bridge-ext command.
User’s Manual
285
Console#show bridge-ext
Max support vlan numbers: 255
Max support vlan ID: 4094
Extended multicast filtering services: No
Static entry individual port: Yes
VLAN learning: IVL
Configurable PVID tagging: Yes
Local VLAN capable: No
Traffic classes: Enabled
Global GVRP status: Enabled
GMRP: Disabled
Console#
16.145 show calendar
This command displays the system clock.
Default
None
Command Mode
Normal Exec, Privileged Exec
Example
The following is sample output from the show calendar command.
Console#show calendar
15:12:34 February 1 2004
Console#
16.146 show dns
This command displays the configuration of the DNS server.
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Example
The following is sample output from the show dns command.
Console#show dns
Domain Lookup Status:
DNS enabled
Default Domain Name:
sample.com
Domain Name List:
sample.com.jp
sample.com.uk
Name Server List:
192.168.1.55
286
Asanté IntraCore 36000 Series
10.1.0.55
Console#
16.147 show dns cache
This command displays entries in the DNS cache.
Default
None
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Example
The following is sample output from the show dns cache command.
Console#show dns cache
NO
FLAG
TYPE
0
4
CNAME
1
4
CNAME
2
4
CNAME
3
4
CNAME
4
4
CNAME
5
4
CNAME
6
4
CNAME
7
4
CNAME
8
4
ALIAS
Console#
IP
10.2.44.96
10.2.44.3
66.218.71.84
66.218.71.83
66.218.71.81
66.218.71.80
66.218.71.89
66.218.71.86
POINTER TO:7
TTL
893
898
298
298
298
298
298
298
298
DOMAIN
pttch_pc.accton.com.tw
ahten.accton.com.tw
www.yahoo.akadns.net
www.yahoo.akadns.net
www.yahoo.akadns.net
www.yahoo.akadns.net
www.yahoo.akadns.net
www.yahoo.akadns.net
www.yahoo.com
Field
Description
NO
The entry number for each resource record.
FLAG
The flag is always “4” indicating a cache entry and therefore unreliable.
TYPE
This field includes CNAME which specifies the canonical or primary name for
the owner, and ALIAS which specifies multiple domain names, which are
mapped to the same IP address as an existing entry.
IP
The IP address associated with this record.
TTL
The time to live reported by the name server.
DOMAIN
The domain name associated with this record.
16.148 show dot1x
This command shows general port authentication related settings on the switch or a specific interface.
User’s Manual
287
Syntax Description
show dot1x [statistics] [interface interface]
interface
ethernet unit/port
•
unit - This is device 1.
•
port - Port number.
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Usage Guidelines
This command displays the following information:
Global 802.1X Parameters – Displays the global port access control parameters that can be configured for
this switch as described in the preceding pages, including reauth-enabled, reauth-period, quiet-period,
tx-period and max-req commands. It also displays the following global parameters that are set to a fixed
value, including the following items:
supp-timeout
Supplicant timeout.
server-timeout
Server timeout.
reauth-max
Maximum number of reauthentication attempts.
802.1X Port Summary
Displays the port access control parameters for each interface, including the
following items:
Status
Administrative state for port access control.
Operation Mode
Dot1x port operation mode command.
Mode
Dot1x port control mode command.
Authorized
Authorization status (yes or n/a - not authorized).
802.1X Port Details
Displays detailed port access control settings for each interface as described in
the preceding pages, including dot1x operation mode, dot1x max count, dot1x
port-control and dot1x current Identifier commands. It also displays the
following information:
Status
Authorization status (authorized or unauthorized).
Supplicant
MAC address of authorized client.
Authenticator State Machine
State
Current state (including initialize, disconnected, connecting, authenticating,
authenticated, aborting, held, force_authorized, force_unauthorized).
Reauth Count
Number of times connecting state is re-entered.
288
Asanté IntraCore 36000 Series
Backend State Machine
State
Current state (including request, response, success, fail, timeout, idle, initialize).
Request Count
Number of EAP Request packets sent to the Supplicant without receiving a
response.
Identifier(Server)
Identifier carried in the most recent EAP Success, Failure or Request packet
received from the Authentication Server.
Reauthentication State Machine
State
Current state (including initialize, reauthenticate).
Example
The following is sample output from the show dot1x command.
Console#show dot1x Global 802.1X Parameters
reauth-enabled: yes
reauth-period: 3600
quiet-period:
60
tx-period:
30
supp-timeout:
30
server-timeout: 30
reauth-max:
2
max-req:
2
802.1X Port Summary
Port Name
Status
1/1
disabled
1/2
disabled
.
.
.
1/47
disabled
1/48
enabled
Operation Mode
Single-Host
Single-Host
Single-Host
Single-Host
Mode
ForceAuthorized
ForceAuthorized
ForceAuthorized
Auto
Authorized
n/a
n/a
n/a
yes
802.1X Port Details
802.1X is disabled on port 1/1
802.1X is disabled on port 1/2
.
.
.
.
802.1X is disabled on port
1/47
802.1X is enabled on port 1/48
Status
Authorized
Operation mode
Single-Host
Max count
5
Port-control
Auto
User’s Manual
289
Supplicant
Current Identifier
00-00-e8-49-5e-dc
3
Authenticator State Machine
State
Authenticated
Reauth Count
0
Backend State Machine
State
Idle
Request Count
0
Identifier(Server) 2
Reauthentication State Machine
State
Initialize
Console#
16.149 show garp timer
This command shows the GARP timers for the selected interface.
Syntax Description
show garp timer [interface]
interface
port-channel
ethernet unit/port
•
unit - This is device 1.
•
port - Port number.
channel-id (Range: 1-6)
Default
Shows all GARP timers.
Command Mode
Normal Exec, Privileged Exec
Example
The following is sample output from the show garp timer command.
Console#show garp timer ethernet 1/1
Eth 1/ 1 GARP timer status:
Join timer: 20 centiseconds
Leave timer: 60 centiseconds
Leaveall timer: 1000 centiseconds
Console#
Related Commands
garp timer
290
Asanté IntraCore 36000 Series
16.150 show gvrp configuration
This command shows if GVRP is enabled.
Syntax Description
show gvrp configuration [interface]
interface
port-channel
ethernet unit/port
•
unit - This is device 1.
•
port - Port number.
channel-id (Range: 1-6)
Default
Shows both global and interface-specific configuration.
Command Mode
Normal Exec, Privileged Exec
Example
The following is sample output from the show gvrp configuration command .
Console#show gvrp configuration ethernet 1/7
Eth 1/ 7:
Gvrp configuration: Disabled
Console#
16.151 show history
This command shows the contents of the command history buffer.
Default
None
Command Mode
Normal Exec, Privileged Exec
Usage Guidelines
The history buffer size is fixed at 10 Execution commands and 10 Configuration commands.
Example
The following is sample output from the show history command.
Console#show history
User’s Manual
291
Execution command history:
2 config
1 show history
Configuration command history:
4 interface vlan 1
3 exit
2 interface vlan 1
1 end
Console#
The ! command repeats commands from the Execution command history buffer when you are in Normal
Exec or Privileged Exec Mode, and commands from the Configuration command history buffer when you are
in any of the configuration modes. In this example, the !2 command repeats the second command in the
Execution history buffer (config).
Console#!2
Console#config
Console(config)#
16.152 show hosts
This command displays the static host name-to-address mapping table.
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Example
The following is sample output from the show hosts command.
Note that a host name will be displayed as an alias if it is mapped to the same address(es) as a previously
configured entry.
Console#show hosts
Hostname
rd5
Inet address
10.1.0.55 192.168.1.55
Alias
1.rd6
Console#
16.153 show interfaces counters
This command displays interface statistics.
Syntax Description
show interfaces counters [interface]
292
Asanté IntraCore 36000 Series
interface
ethernet unit/port (source port)
unit - Switch (unit 1).
port - port number
port-channel
channel-id (Range: 1-6)
Default
Shows the counters for all interfaces.
Command Mode
Normal Exec, Privileged Exec
Usage Guidelines
If no interface is specified, information on all interfaces is displayed. For a description of the items displayed
by this command, see section 7.8 Showing Port Statistics.
Example
The following is sample output from the show interfaces counters command .
Console#show interfaces counters ethernet 1/7
Ethernet 1/7
Iftable stats:
Octets input: 30658, Octets output: 196550
Unicast input: 6, Unicast output: 5
Discard input: 0, Discard output: 0
Error input: 0, Error output: 0
Unknown protos input: 0, QLen output: 0
Extended iftable stats:
Multi-cast input: 0, Multi-cast output: 3064
Broadcast input: 262, Broadcast output: 1
Ether-like stats:
Alignment errors: 0, FCS errors: 0
Single Collision frames: 0, Multiple collision frames: 0
SQE Test errors: 0, Deferred transmissions: 0
Late collisions: 0, Excessive collisions: 0
Internal mac transmit errors: 0, Internal mac receive errors: 0
Frame too longs: 0, Carrier sense errors: 0
Symbol errors: 0
RMON stats:
Drop events: 0, Octets: 227208, Packets: 3338
Broadcast pkts: 263, Multi-cast pkts: 3064
Undersize pkts: 0, Oversize pkts: 0
Fragments: 0, Jabbers: 0
CRC align errors: 0, Collisions: 0
Packet size <= 64 octets: 3150, Packet size 65 to 127 octets: 139
Packet size 128 to 255 octets: 49, Packet size 256 to 511 octets: 0
Packet size 512 to 1023 octets: 0, Packet size 1024 to 1518 octets: 0
Console#
User’s Manual
293
16.154 show interfaces protocol-vlan protocol-group
This command shows the mapping from protocol groups to VLANs for the selected interfaces.
Syntax Description
show interfaces protocol-vlan protocol-group [interface]
interface
interface
port-channel
ethernet unit/port
•
unit - This is device 1.
•
port - Port number.
channel-id (Range: 1-6)
Default
The mapping for all interfaces is displayed.
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Example
The following is sample output from the show interfaces protocol-vlan protocol-group command.
This shows that traffic entering Port 1 that matches the specifications for protocol group 1 will be mapped to
VLAN 2:
Console#show interfaces protocol-vlan protocol-group
Port
ProtocolGroup ID
Vlan ID
---------- ------------------ ----------Eth 1/1
1
vlan2
Console#
16.155 show interfaces status
This command displays the status for an interface.
Syntax Description
show interfaces status [interface]
interface
ethernet unit/port
unit – This is device 1.
port - Port number.
294
Asanté IntraCore 36000 Series
port-channel
Channel-id (Range: 1-6)
vlan
Vlan-id (Range: 1-4094)
Default
Shows the status for all interfaces.
Command Mode
Normal Exec, Privileged Exec
Usage Guidelines
If no interface is specified, information on all interfaces is displayed. For a description of the items displayed
by this command, see section 7.1 Displaying Connection Status.
Example
The following is sample output from the show interfaces status command.
Console#show interfaces status ethernet 1/5
Information of Eth 1/5
Basic information:
Port type: 1000T
Mac address: 00-00-AB-CD-00-01
Configuration:
Name:
Port admin: Up
Speed-duplex: Auto
Capabilities: 10half, 10full, 100half, 100full, 1000full,
Broadcast storm: Enabled
Broadcast storm limit: 500 packets/second
Flow control: Disabled
Lacp: Disabled
Port security: Disabled
Max MAC count: 0
Port security action: None
Combo forced mode: None
Current status:
Link status: Up
Operation speed-duplex: 1000full
Flow control type: None
Console#show interfaces status vlan 1
Information of VLAN 1
MAC address: 00-00-A3-42-00-80
Console#
16.156 show interfaces switchport
This command displays the administrative and operational status of the specified interfaces.
Syntax Description
show interfaces switchport [interface]
User’s Manual
295
interface
Ethernet unit/port (source port)
unit - Switch (unit 1).
port - Port number.
port-channel
channel-id (Range: 1-6)
Default
Shows all interfaces.
Command Mode
Normal Exec, Privileged Exec
Usage Guidelines
If no interface is specified, information on all interfaces is displayed.
Example
The following is sample output from the show interfaces switchport command .
This example shows the configuration setting for port 24.
Console#show interfaces switchport ethernet 1/24
Broadcast threshold: Enabled, 500 packets/second
Lacp status: Disabled
Ingress rate limit: disable,1000M bits per second
Egress rate limit: disable,1000M bits per second
VLAN membership mode: Hybrid
Ingress rule: Disabled
Acceptable frame type: All frames
Native VLAN: 1
Priority for untagged traffic: 0
Gvrp status: Disabled
Allowed Vlan:
1(u),
Forbidden Vlan:
Console#
Field
Description
Broadcast threshold
Shows if broadcast storm suppression is enabled or disabled; if enabled it
also shows the threshold level.
Lacp status
Shows if Link Aggregation Control Protocol has been enabled or disabled.
Ingress/Egress rate limit
Shows if rate limiting is enabled, and the current rate limit.
VLAN membership mode
Indicates membership mode as Trunk or Hybrid.
Ingress rule
Shows if ingress filtering is enabled or disabled.
296
Asanté IntraCore 36000 Series
Acceptable frame type
Shows if acceptable VLAN frames include all types or tagged frames only.
Native VLAN
Indicates the default Port VLAN ID.
Priority for untagged traffic
Indicates the default priority for untagged frames.
Gvrp status
Shows if GARP VLAN Registration Protocol is enabled or disabled.
Allowed Vlan
Shows the VLANs this interface has joined, where “(u)” indicates untagged
and “(t)” indicates tagged.
Forbidden Vlan
Shows the VLANs this interface can not dynamically join via GVRP.
16.157 show ip access-group
This command shows the ports assigned to IP ACLs.
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Example
The following is sample output from the show ip access-group command.
Console#show ip access-group
Interface ethernet 1/25
IP access-list david in
Console#
Related Commands
ip access-group
16.158 show ip access-list
This command displays the rules for configured IP ACLs.
Syntax Description
show ip access-list {standard | extended} [acl_name]
standard
Specifies a standard IP ACL.
extended
Specifies an extended IP ACL.
acl_name
Name of the ACL. (Maximum length: 16 characters)
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
User’s Manual
297
Example
The following is sample output from the show ip access-list command.
Console#show ip access-list standard
IP standard access-list david:
permit host 10.1.1.21
permit 168.92.0.0 0.0.15.255
Console#
Related Commands
permit, deny
ip access-group
16.159 show ip igmp snooping
This command shows the IGMP snooping configuration.
Default
None
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Usage Guidelines
See section 12.1.1 Configuring IGMP Snooping and Query Parameters for a description of the displayed
items.
Example
The following is sample output from the show ip igmp snooping command.
Console#show ip igmp snooping
Service status: Enabled
Querier status: Enabled
Query count: 2
Query interval: 125 sec
Query max response time: 10 sec
Router port expire time: 300 sec
IGMP snooping version: Version 2
Console#
16.160 show ip igmp snooping mrouter
This command displays information on statically configured and dynamically learned multicast router ports.
Syntax Description
show ip igmp snooping mrouter [vlan vlan-id]
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Asanté IntraCore 36000 Series
vlan-id
VLAN ID (Range: 1-4094)
Default
Displays multicast router ports for all configured VLANs.
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Usage Guidelines
Multicast router port types displayed include Static or Dynamic.
Example
The following is sample output from the show ip igmp snooping mrouter command.
The following shows that port 11 in VLAN 1 is attached to a multicast router:
Console#show ip igmp snooping mrouter vlan 1
VLAN M'cast Router Port Type
---- ------------------- ------1
Eth 1/11 Static
2
Eth 1/12 Dynamic
Console#
16.161 show ip interface
This command displays the settings of an IP interface.
Default
All interfaces
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Example
The following is sample output from the show ip interface command.
Console#show ip interface
IP address and netmask: 192.168.1.54 255.255.255.0 on VLAN 1,
and address mode: User specified.
Console#
Related Commands
show ip redirects
User’s Manual
299
16.162 show ip redirects
This command shows the default gateway configured for this device.
Default
None
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Example
The following is sample output from the show ip redirects command.
Console#show ip redirects
ip default gateway 10.1.0.254
Console#
Related Commands
ip default-gateway
16.163 show ip ssh
Use this command to display the connection settings used when authenticating client access to the SSH
server.
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Example
The following is sample output from the show ip ssh command.
Console#show ip ssh
SSH Enabled - version 1.99
Negotiation timeout: 120 secs; Authentication retries: 3
Server key size: 768 bits
Console#
16.164 show lacp
This command displays LACP information.
Syntax Description
show lacp [port-channel] {counters | internal | neighbors | sysid}
port-channel
300
Local identifier for a link aggregation group. (Range: 1-6)
Asanté IntraCore 36000 Series
counters
Statistics for LACP protocol messages.
internal
Configuration settings and operational state for local side.
neighbors
Configuration settings and operational state for remote side.
sysid
Summary of system priority and MAC address for all channel groups.
Default
Port Channel: all
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Example
The following is sample output from the show lacp command.
Console#show lacp 1 counters
Channel group : 1 -----------------------------------------------------------------------Eth 1/ 1 -----------------------------------------------------------------------LACPDUs Sent : 21
LACPDUs Received : 21
Marker Sent : 0
Marker Received : 0
LACPDUs Unknown Pkts : 0
LACPDUs Illegal Pkts : 0
.
.
.
The following table describes fields shown in the show lacp counter display.
Field
Description
LACPDUs Sent
Number of valid LACPDUs transmitted from this channel group.
LACPDUs Received
Number of valid LACPDUs received on this channel group.
Marker Sent
Number of valid Marker PDUs transmitted from this channel group.
Marker Received
Number of valid Marker PDUs received by this channel group.
LACPDUs Unknown
Pkts
Number of frames received that either (1) Carry the Slow Protocols Ethernet
Type value, but contain an unknown PDU, or (2) are addressed to the Slow
Protocols group MAC Address, but do not carry the Slow Protocols Ethernet
Type.
LACPDUs Illegal Pkts
Number of frames that carry the Slow Protocols Ethernet Type value, but contain
a badly formed PDU or an illegal value of Protocol Subtype.
User’s Manual
301
Console#show lacp 1 internal
Channel group : 1
------------------------------------------------------------------------Oper Key : 4
Admin Key : 0
Eth 1/1
------------------------------------------------------------------------LACPDUs Internal : 30 sec
LACP System Priority : 32768
LACP Port Priority : 32768
Admin Key : 4
Oper Key : 4
Admin State : defaulted, aggregation, long timeout, LACP-activity
Oper State : distributing, collecting, synchronization, aggregation,
long timeout, LACP-activity
.
.
.
The following table describes fields shown in the show lacp internal display.
Field
Description
Oper Key
Current operational value of the key for the aggregation port.
Admin Key
Current administrative value of the key for the aggregation port.
LACPDUs Internal
Number of seconds before invalidating received LACPDU information.
LACP System Priority
LACP system priority assigned to this port channel.
LACP Port Priority
LACP port priority assigned to this interface within the channel group.
Admin or Oper State
Administrative or operational vales of the actor’s parameters.
Expired – The actor’s receive machine is in the expired state;
Defaulted – The actor’s receive machine is using defaulted operational partner
information, administratively configured for the partner.
Distributing – If false, distribution of outgoing frames on this link is disabled; For
example, distribution is currently disabled and is not expected to be enabled in
the absence of administrative changes or changes in received protocol
information.
Collecting – Collection of incoming frames on this link is enabled; For example,
collection is currently enabled and is not expected to be disabled in the absence
of administrative changes or changes in received protocol information.
Synchronization – The System considers this link to be IN_SYNC; For example, it
has been allocated to the correct Link Aggregation Group, the group has been
associated with a compatible Aggregator, and the identity of the Link Aggregation
Group is consistent with the System ID and operational Key information
transmitted.
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Asanté IntraCore 36000 Series
Aggregation – The system considers this link to be aggregatable; For example, a
potential candidate for aggregation.
Long timeout – Periodic transmission of LACPDUs uses a slow transmission rate.
LACP-Activity – Activity control value with regard to this link. (0: Passive; 1:
Active)
Console#show lacp 1 neighbors
Channel group 1 neighbors
------------------------------------------------------------------------Eth 1/1
------------------------------------------------------------------------Partner Admin System ID : 32768, 00-00-00-00-00-00
Partner Oper System ID : 32768, 00-00-00-00-00-01
Partner Admin Port Number : 1
Partner Oper Port Number : 1
Port Admin Priority : 32768
Port Oper Priority : 32768
Admin Key : 0
Oper Key : 4
Admin State : defaulted, distributing, collecting, synchronization,
long timeout,
Oper State : distributing, collecting, synchronization, aggregation,
long timeout, LACP-activity
.
.
.
The following table describes fields shown in the show lacp neighbor display.
Field
Description
Partner Admin System ID
LAG partner’s system ID assigned by the user.
Partner Oper System ID
LAG partner’s system ID assigned by the LACP protocol.
Partner Admin Port Number
Current administrative value of the port number for the protocol
Partner.
Partner Oper Port Number
Operational port number assigned to this aggregation port by the port’s
protocol partner.
Port Admin Priority
Current administrative value of the port priority for the protocol partner.
Port Oper Priority
Priority value assigned to this aggregation port by the partner.
Admin Key
Current administrative value of the Key for the protocol partner.
Oper Key
Current operational value of the Key for the protocol partner.
Admin State
Administrative values of the partner’s state parameters. (See
preceding table.)
User’s Manual
303
Oper State
Operational values of the partner’s state parameters. (See preceding
table.)
The following is sample output from the show lacp sysid command.
Console#show lacp sysid
Channel group
System Priority
System MAC Address
------------------------------------------------------------------------1
32768
00-30-F1-8F-2C-A7
2
32768
00-30-F1-8F-2C-A7
3
32768
00-30-F1-8F-2C-A7
4
32768
00-30-F1-8F-2C-A7
5
32768
00-30-F1-8F-2C-A7
6
32768
00-30-F1-8F-2C-A7
Console#
The following table describes fields shown in the show lacp sysid display.
Field
Description
Channel group
A link aggregation group configured on this switch.
System Priority
LACP system priority for this channel group. The LACP system priority
and system MAC address are concatenated to form the LAG system
ID.
System MAC Address
System MAC address. The LACP system priority and system MAC
address are concatenated to form the LAG system ID.
16.165 show line
This command displays the terminal line’s parameters.
Syntax Description
show line [console | vty]
Console
Console terminal line.
Vty
Virtual terminal for remote console access (for example, Telnet).
Default
Shows all lines
Command Mode
Normal Exec, Privileged Exec
304
Asanté IntraCore 36000 Series
Example
The following is sample output from the show line command.
Console#show line
Console configuration:
Password threshold: 3 times
Interactive timeout: Disabled
Silent time: Disabled
Baudrate: 9600
Databits: 8
Parity: none
Stopbits: 1
Vty configuration:
Password threshold: 3 times
Interactive timeout: 600 sec
Console#
16.166 show logging
This command displays the logging configuration, along with any system and event messages stored in
memory.
Syntax Description
show logging {flash | ram | sendmail | trap}
Flash
Event history stored in flash memory (For example, permanent memory).
Ram
Event history stored in temporary RAM (For example, memory flushed on
power reset).
Sendmail
Displays settings for the SMTP event handler.
trap
Displays settings for the trap function.
Default
None
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Example
The following is sample output from the show logging command.
This example shows that system logging is enabled, the message level for flash memory is “errors” (For
example, default level 3 - 0), the message level for RAM is “debugging” (For example, default level 7 - 0).
Console#show logging flash
Syslog logging: Enable
History logging in FLASH: level errors
User’s Manual
305
Console#
The following table show logging output.
Field
Description
Syslog logging
Shows if system logging has been enabled via the logging on command.
History logging in
FLASH
The message level(s) reported based on the logging history command.
History logging in RAM
The message level(s) reported based on the logging history command.
The following example displays settings for the trap function.
Console#show logging trap
Syslog logging: Enable
REMOTELOG status: disable
REMOTELOG facility type: local use 7
REMOTELOG level type: Debugging messages
REMOTELOG server IP address: 1.2.3.4
REMOTELOG server IP address: 0.0.0.0
REMOTELOG server IP address: 0.0.0.0
REMOTELOG server IP address: 0.0.0.0
REMOTELOG server IP address: 0.0.0.0
Console#
The following table show logging traps output.
Field
Description
Syslog logging
Shows if system logging has been enabled via the logging on command.
REMOTELOG status
Shows if remote logging has been enabled via the logging trap
command.
REMOTELOG facility type
The facility type for remote logging of syslog messages as specified in
the logging facility command.
REMOTELOG level type
The severity threshold for syslog messages sent to a remote server as
specified in the logging trap command.
REMOTELOG server IP
address
The address of syslog servers as specified in the logging host command.
Related Commands
show logging sendmail
16.167 show logging sendmail
This command displays the settings for the SMTP event handler.
306
Asanté IntraCore 36000 Series
Command Mode
Normal Exec, Privileged Exec
Example
The following is sample output from the show logging sendmail command .
Console#show logging sendmail
SMTP servers
----------------------------------------------Active SMTP server: 192.168.1.19
SMTP minimum severity level: 7
SMTP destination email addresses
----------------------------------------------1. ted@this-company.com
SMTP source email address: bill@this-company.com
SMTP status: Enable
Console#
16.168 show mac access-group
This command shows the ports assigned to MAC ACLs.
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Example
The following is sample output from the show mac access-group command .
Console#show mac access-group
Interface ethernet 1/5
MAC access-list M5 out
Console#
Related Commands
mac access-group
16.169 show mac access-list
This command displays the rules for configured MAC ACLs.
Syntax Description
show mac access-list [acl_name]
User’s Manual
307
acl_name
Name of the ACL. (Maximum length: 16 characters)
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Example
The following is sample output from the show mac access-list command.
Console#show mac access-list
MAC access-list jerry:
permit any 00-e0-29-94-34-de ethertype 0800
Console#
Related Commands
permit, deny
mac access-group
16.170 show mac-address-table
This command shows classes of entries in the bridge-forwarding database.
Syntax Description
show mac-address-table [address mac-address [mask]] [interface
interface] [vlan vlan-id] [sort {address | vlan | interface}]
mac-address
MAC address.
mask
Bits to match in the address.
interface
ethernet unit/port
unit - This is device 1.
port - Port number.
port
channel channel-id (Range: 1-6)
vlan-id
VLAN ID (Range: 1-4094)
sort
Sort by address, vlan or interface.
Default
None
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
308
Asanté IntraCore 36000 Series
Usage Guidelines
The MAC Address Table contains the MAC addresses associated with each interface. Note that the Type
field may include the following types:
•
Learned - Dynamic address entries
•
Permanent - Static entry
•
Delete-on-reset - Static entry to be deleted when system is reset
The mask should be hexadecimal numbers (representing an equivalent bit mask) in the form xx-xx-xx-xx-xxxx that is applied to the specified MAC address. Enter hexadecimal numbers, where an equivalent binary bit
“0” means to match a bit and “1” means to ignore a bit. For example, a mask of 00-00-00-00-00-00 means
an exact match, and a mask of FF-FF-FF-FF-FF-FF means “any.”
The maximum number of address entries is 8191.
Example
The following is sample output from the show mac-address-table command.
Console#show mac-address-table
Interface Mac Address
Vlan Type
--------- ----------------- ---- ----------------Eth 1/ 1 00-e0-29-94-34-de
1 Delete-on-reset
Console#
16.171 show mac-address-table aging-time
This command shows the aging time for entries in the address table.
Default
None
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Example
The following is sample output from the show mac-address-table aging-time command.
Console#show mac-address-table aging-time
Aging time: 300 sec.
Console#
16.172 show mac-address-table multicast
This command shows known multicast addresses.
Syntax Description
show mac-address-table multicast [vlan vlan-id] [user | igmp-snooping]
User’s Manual
309
vlan- id
VLAN ID (1 to 4094)
user
Display only the user configured multicast entries.
Igmp- snooping
Display only entries learned through IGMP snooping.
Default
None
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Usage Guidelines
Member types displayed include IGMP or USER, depending on selected options.
Example
The following is sample output from the mac-address-table command with the multicast argument.
This shows the multicast entries learned through IGMP snooping for VLAN 1:
Console#show mac-address-table multicast vlan 1 igmp-snooping
VLAN M'cast IP addr. Member ports Type
---- --------------- ------------ ------1
224.1.2.3
Eth1/11
IGMP
Console#
16.173 show map access-list ip
This command shows the CoS value mapped to an IP ACL for the current interface. (The CoS value
determines the output queue for packets matching an ACL rule.)
Syntax Description
show map access-list ip [interface]
interface
ethernet unit/port
unit - This is device 1.
port - Port number.
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Example
The following is sample output from the show map access-list ip command.
310
Asanté IntraCore 36000 Series
Console#show map access-list ip
Eth 1/25
access-list ip david cos 0
Console#
Related Commands
map access-list ip
16.174 show map access-list mac
This command shows the CoS value mapped to a MAC ACL for the current interface. (The CoS value
determines the output queue for packets matching an ACL rule.)
Syntax Description
show map access-list mac [interface]
interface
ethernet unit/port
•
unit - This is device 1.
•
port - Port number.
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Example
The following is sample output from the show map access-list mac command.
Console#show map access-list mac
Access-list to COS of Eth 1/5
Access-list M5 cos 0
Console#
Related Commands
map access-list mac
16.175 show map ip dscp
This command shows the IP DSCP priority map.
Syntax Description
show map ip dscp [interface]
interface
ethernet unit/port
unit - This is device 1.
User’s Manual
311
port - Port number. port-channel channel-id (Range: 1-6)
Default
None
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Example
The following is sample output from the show map ip dscp command with the argument.
Console#show map ip dscp ethernet 1/1
DSCP mapping status: disabled
Port
DSCP COS
--------- ---- --Eth 1/ 1
0
0
Eth 1/ 1
1
0
Eth 1/ 1
2
0
Eth 1/ 1
3
0
.
.
.
Eth 1/ 1
61
0
Eth 1/ 1
62
0
Eth 1/ 1
63
0
Console#
Related Commands
map ip dscp (Global Configuration)
map ip dscp (Interface Configuration)
16.176 show map ip port
This command shows the IP port priority map.
Syntax Description
show map ip port [interface]
interface
ethernet unit/port
•
unit - This is device 1.
•
port - Port number. port-channel channel-id (Range: 1-6)
Default
None
312
Asanté IntraCore 36000 Series
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Example
The following is sample output from the show map ip port command.
The example shows that HTTP traffic has been mapped to CoS value 0:
Console#show map ip port ethernet 1/5
TCP port mapping status: enabled
Port
Port no. COS
--------- ---------- --Eth 1/ 5
80
0
Console#
Related Commands
map ip port (Global Configuration)
map ip port (Interface Configuration)
16.177 show map ip precedence
This command shows the IP precedence priority map.
Syntax Description
show map ip precedence [interface]
interface
ethernet unit/port
•
unit - This is device 1.
•
port - Port number. port-channel channel-id (Range: 1-6)
Default
None
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Example
The following is sample output from the show map ip precedence command.
Console#show map ip precedence ethernet 1/5
Precedence mapping status: disabled
Port
Precedence COS
--------- ---------- --User’s Manual
313
Eth 1/
Eth 1/
Eth 1/
Eth 1/
Eth 1/
Eth 1/
Eth 1/
Eth 1/
Console#
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
Related Commands
map ip port (Global Configuration)
map ip precedence (Interface Configuration)
16.178 show management
This command displays the client IP addresses that are allowed management access to the switch through
various protocols.
Syntax Description
show management {all-client | http-client | snmp-client | telnetclient}
all-client
Adds IP address(es) to the SNMP, Web and Telnet groups.
http-client
Adds IP address(es) to the Web group.
snmp-client
Adds IP address(es) to the SNMP group.
telnet-client
Adds IP address(es) to the Telnet group.
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Example
The following is sample output from the show management command.
Console#show management all-client
Management Ip Filter
Http-Client:
Start ip address
End ip address
----------------------------------------------1. 192.168.1.19
192.168.1.19
2. 192.168.1.25
192.168.1.30
Snmp-Client:
Start ip address
End ip address
----------------------------------------------1. 192.168.1.19
192.168.1.19
2. 192.168.1.25
192.168.1.30
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Asanté IntraCore 36000 Series
Telnet-Client:
Start ip address
End ip address
----------------------------------------------1. 192.168.1.19
192.168.1.19
2. 192.168.1.25
192.168.1.30
Console#
Related Commands
Management
16.179 show marking
This command displays the current configuration for packet marking.
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Example
The following is sample output from the show marking command.
Console#show marking
Interface ethernet 1/12
match access-list IP bill set DSCP 0
match access-list MAC a set priority 0
Console#
Related Commands
match access-list ip
16.180 show port monitor
This command displays mirror information.
Syntax Description
show port monitor [interface]
interface-ethernet
unit/port (source port)
unit - Switch (unit 1).
port
Port number.
Default
Shows all sessions.
User’s Manual
315
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Usage Guidelines
This command displays the currently configured source port, destination port, and mirror mode (For
example, RX, TX, RX/TX).
Example
The following is sample output from the show port monitor command.
The example shows mirroring configured from port 6 to port 11:
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/11
Console(config-if)#port monitor ethernet 1/6
Console(config-if)#end
Console#show port monitor
Port Mirroring
------------------------------------Destination port(listen port):Eth1/1
Source port(monitored port) :Eth1/6
Mode
:RX/TX
Console#
16.181 show protocol-vlan protocol-group
This command shows the frame and protocol type associated with protocol groups.
Syntax Description
show protocol-vlan protocol-group [group-id]
group- id
Group identifier for a protocol group. (Range: 1-2147483647)
Default
All protocol groups are displayed.
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Example
The following is sample output from the show protocol-vlan protocol-group command.
This shows protocol group 1 configured for IP over Ethernet:
Console#show protocol-vlan protocol-group
ProtocolGroup ID
Frame Type
Protocol Type
------------------ ------------- --------------1
ethernet
08 00
316
Asanté IntraCore 36000 Series
Console#
16.182 show public-key
Use this command to show the public key for the specified user or for the host.
Syntax Description
show public-key [user [username]| host]
username
Name of an SSH user. (Range: 1-8 characters)
Default
Shows all public keys.
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Usage Guidelines
If no parameters are entered, all keys are displayed. If the user keyword is entered, but no user name is
specified, then the public keys for all users are displayed.
When an RSA key is displayed, the first field indicates the size of the host key (e.g., 1024), the second field
is the encoded public exponent (e.g., 35), and the last string is the encoded modulus. When a DSA key is
displayed, the first field indicates that the encryption method used by SSH is based on the Digital Signature
Standard (DSS), and the last string is the encoded modulus.
Example
The following is sample output from the show public-key command.
Console#show public-key host
Host:
RSA:
1024 35
1568499540186766925933394677505461732531367489083654725415020245593199868544358
3616519999233297817660658309586108259132128902337654680172627257141342876294130
1196195566782595664104869574278881462065194174677298486546861571773939016477935
594230357741309802273708779454524083971752646358058176716709574804776117
DSA:
ssh-dss AAAB3NzaC1kc3MAAACBAPWKZTPbsRIB8ydEXcxM3dyV/yrDbKStIlnzD/Dg0h2Hxc
YV44sXZ2JXhamLK6P8bvuiyacWbUW/a4PAtp1KMSdqsKeh3hKoA3vRRSy1N2XFfAKxl5fwFfv
JlPdOkFgzLGMinvSNYQwiQXbKTBH0Z4mUZpE85PWxDZMaCNBPjBrRAAAAFQChb4vsdfQGNIjwbvwrNL
aQ77isiwAAAIEAsy5YWDC99ebYHNRj5kh47wY4i8cZvH+/p9cnrfwFTMU01VFDly3IR
2G395NLy5Qd7ZDxfA9mCOfT/yyEfbobMJZi8oGCstSNOxrZZVnMqWrTYfdrKX7YKBw/Kjw6Bm
iFq7O+jAhf1Dg45loAc27s6TLdtny1wRq/ow2eTCD5nekAAACBAJ8rMccXTxHLFAczWS7EjOy
DbsloBfPuSAb4oAsyjKXKVYNLQkTLZfcFRu41bS2KV5LAwecsigF/+DjKGWtPNIQqabKgYCw2
o/dVzX4Gg+yqdTlYmGA7fHGm8ARGeiG4ssFKy4Z6DmYPXFum1Yg0fhLwuHpOSKdxT3kk475S7 w0W
Console#
User’s Manual
317
16.183 show pvlan
This command displays the configured private VLAN.
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Example
The following is sample output from the show pvlan command.
Console#show pvlan
Private VLAN status: Enabled
Up-link port:
Ethernet 1/24
Down-link port:
Ethernet 1/1
Ethernet 1/2
Ethernet 1/3
Ethernet 1/4
Console#
16.184 show queue bandwidth
This command displays the weighted round-robin (WRR) bandwidth allocation for the eight priority queues.
Default
None
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Example
The following is sample output from the show queue bandwidth command.
Console#show queue bandwidth
Information of Eth 1/1
Queue ID Weight
-------- -----0
1
1
2
2
4
3
6
4
8
5
10
6
12
7
14
.
.
.
Console#
318
Asanté IntraCore 36000 Series
16.185 show queue cos-map
This command shows the class of service priority map.
Syntax Description
show queue cos-map [interface]
interface
ethernet unit/port
unit - This is device 1.
port - Port number. port-channel channel-id (Range: 1-6)
Default
None
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Example
The following is sample output from the show queue cos-map command.
Console#show queue
Information of Eth
CoS Value
: 0
Priority Queue: 0
Console#
cos-map ethernet 1/1
1/1
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
16.186 show queue mode
This command shows the current queue mode.
Default
None
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Example
The following is sample output from the show queue mode command.
Console#show queue mode
Queue mode: strict
Console#
User’s Manual
319
16.187 show radius-server
This command displays the current settings for the RADIUS server.
Default
None
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Example
The following is sample output from the show radius-server command.
Console#show radius-server
Server IP address: 10.1.0.1
Communication key with radius server:
Server port number: 1812
Retransmit times: 2
Request timeout: 5
Console#
16.188 show running-config
This command displays the configuration information currently in use.
Default
None
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Usage Guidelines
Use this command in conjunction with the show startup-config command to compare the information in
running memory to the information stored in non-volatile memory.
This command displays settings for key command modes. Each mode group is separated by “!” symbols,
and includes the configuration mode command, and corresponding commands. This command displays the
following information:
•
SNMP community strings
•
Users (names, access levels, and encrypted passwords)
•
VLAN database (VLAN ID, name and state)
•
VLAN configuration settings for each interface
•
Multiple spanning tree instances (name and interfaces)
•
IP address configured for VLANs
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Asanté IntraCore 36000 Series
•
Spanning tree settings
•
Any configured settings for the console port and Telnet
Example
The following is sample output from the show running-config command.
Console#show running-config
building running-config, please wait.....
!
phymap 00-00-a3-42-00-80
!
sntp server 0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0
sntp client
sntp broadcast client
sntp poll 60
!
snmp-server community private rw
snmp-server community public ro
!
!
username admin access-level 15
username admin password 7 21232f297a57a5a743894a0e4a801fc3
username guest access-level 0
username guest password 7 084e0343a0486ff05530df6c705c8bb4
enable password level 15 7 1b3231655cebb7a1f783eddf27d254ca
!
!
logging sendmail destination-email ted
logging sendmail source-email bill
!
vlan database
vlan 1 name DefaultVlan media ethernet state active
.
.
!
spanning-tree mst-configuration
!
interface ethernet 1/1
switchport allowed vlan add 1 untagged
switchport native vlan 1
.
.
.
!
interface vlan 1
ip address 10.1.0.1 255.255.255.0
!
!
no spanning-tree
!
!
no ip igmp snooping
!
no map ip precedence
no map ip dscp
!
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321
line console
!
line vty
!
end
Console#
Related Commands
show startup-config
16.189 show snmp
This command checks the status of SNMP communications.
Default
None
Command Mode
Normal Exec, Privileged Exec
Usage Guidelines
This command provides information on the community access strings, counter information for SNMP input
and output protocol data units, and whether or not SNMP logging has been enabled with the snmp-server
enable traps command.
Example
The following is sample output from the show snmp command.
Console#show snmp
System Contact: Paul
System Location: WC-19
SNMP traps:
Authentication: enable
Link-up-down: enable
SNMP communities:
1. alpha, and the privilege is read-write
2. private, and the privilege is read-write
3. public, and the privilege is read-only
0 SNMP packets input
0 Bad SNMP version errors
0 Unknown community name
0 Illegal operation for community name supplied
0 Encoding errors
0 Number of requested variables
0 Number of altered variables
0 Get-request PDUs
0 Get-next PDUs
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Asanté IntraCore 36000 Series
0 Set-request PDUs
0 SNMP packets output
0 Too big errors
0 No such name errors
0 Bad values errors
0 General errors
0 Response PDUs
0 Trap PDUs
SNMP logging: enabled
Logging to 10.1.19.23 batman version 1
Console#
16.190 show sntp
This command displays the current time and configuration settings for the SNTP client, and indicates
whether or not the local time has been properly updated.
Command Mode
Normal Exec, Privileged Exec
Usage Guidelines
This command displays the current time, the poll interval used for sending time synchronization requests
(when the switch is set to SNTP client mode), and the current SNTP mode (For example, client or
broadcast).
Example
The following is sample output from the show sntp command.
Console#show sntp
Current time: Jul 10 05:13:28 2003
Poll interval: 16
Current mode: broadcast
Console#
16.191 show spanning-tree
This command shows the configuration for the common spanning tree (CST) or for an instance within the
multiple spanning tree (MST).
Syntax Description
show spanning-tree [interface | mst instance_id]
interface
instance_id
ethernet unit/port
•
unit - This is device 1.
•
port - Port number. port-channel channel-id (Range: 1-6)
Instance identifier of the multiple spanning tree. (Range: 0-4094, no leading
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323
zeroes)
Default
None
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Usage Guidelines
Use the show spanning-tree command with no parameters to display the spanning tree configuration for the
switch for the Common Spanning Tree (CST) and for every interface in the tree.
Use the show spanning-tree interface command to display the spanning tree configuration for an interface
within the Common Spanning Tree (CST).
Use the show spanning-tree mst instance_id command to display the spanning tree configuration for an
instance within the Multiple Spanning Tree (MST).
For a description of the items displayed under “Spanning-tree information,” see Chapter 3: Configuring
Global Settings. For a description of the items displayed for specific interfaces, refer to section 3.1.5
Displaying Interface Settings.
Example
The following is sample output from the show spanning-tree command.
Console#show spanning-tree
Spanning-tree information
--------------------------------------------------------------Spanning tree mode
:MSTP
Spanning tree enable/disable
:enable
Instance
:0
Vlans configuration
:1-4094
Priority
:32768
Bridge Hello Time (sec.)
:2
Bridge Max Age (sec.)
:20
Bridge Forward Delay (sec.)
:15
Root Hello Time (sec.)
:2
Root Max Age (sec.)
:20
Root Forward Delay (sec.)
:15
Max hops
:20
Remaining hops
:20
Designated Root
:32768.0.0000ABCD0000
Current root port
:1
Current root cost
:200000
Number of topology changes
:1
Last topology changes time (sec.):22
Transmission limit
:3
Path Cost Method
:long
--------------------------------------------------------------Eth 1/ 1 information
--------------------------------------------------------------Admin status
: enable
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Asanté IntraCore 36000 Series
Role
State
External path cost
Internal path cost
Priority
Designated cost
Designated port
Designated root
Designated bridge
Fast forwarding
Forward transitions
Admin edge port
Oper edge port
Admin Link type
Oper Link type
Spanning Tree Status
.
.
.
Console#
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
root
forwarding
100000
100000
128
200000
128.24
32768.0.0000ABCD0000
32768.0.0030F1552000
disable
1
enable
disable
auto
point-to-point
enable
16.192 show spanning-tree mst configuration
This command shows the configuration of the multiple spanning tree.
Syntax Description
show spanning-tree mst configuration
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Example
The following is sample output from the show spanning-tree mst configuration command.
Console#show spanning-tree mst configuration
Mstp Configuration Information
-------------------------------------------------------------Configuration name:00 00 a3 42 00 80
Revision level:0
Instance Vlans
-------------------------------------------------------------0
1-4094
Console#
16.193 show ssh
Use this command to display the current SSH server connections.
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
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325
Example
The following is sample output from the show ssh command.
Console#show ssh
Connection Version State
0
2.0
Session-Started
Username Encryption
admin
ctos aes128-cbc-hmac-md5
stoc aes128-cbc-hmac-md5
Console#
The following table describes the output fields.
Field
Description
Session
The session number. (Range: 0-3)
Version
The Secure Shell version number.
State
The authentication negotiation state. (Values: Negotiation-Started,
Authentication-Started, Session-Started)
Username
The user name of the client.
Encryption
The encryption method is automatically negotiated between the client and server.
Options for SSHv1.5 include: DES, 3DES
Options for SSHv2.0 can include different algorithms for the client-to-server (ctos)
and server-to-client (stoc):
aes128-cbc-hmac-sha1
aes192-cbc-hmac-sha1
aes256-cbc-hmac-sha1
3des-cbc-hmac-sha1
blowfish-cbc-hmac-sha1
aes128-cbc-hmac-md5
aes192-cbc-hmac-md5
aes256-cbc-hmac-md5
3des-cbc-hmac-md5
blowfish-cbc-hmac-md5
Terminology:
DES
326
Data Encryption Standard (56-bit key)
Asanté IntraCore 36000 Series
3DES
Triple DES (Uses three iterations of DES, 112- bit key)
Aes
Advanced Encryption Standard (160 or 224-bit key)
Blowfish
Blowfish (32-448 bit key)
Cbc
Cipher-block chaining
sha1
Secure Hash Algorithm 1 (160-bit hashes)
md5
Message Digest algorithm number 5 (128-bit hashes)
16.194 show startup-config
This command displays the configuration file stored in non-volatile memory that is used to start up the
system.
Default
None
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Usage Guidelines
Use this command in conjunction with the show running-config command to compare the information in
running memory to the information stored in non-volatile memory.
This command displays settings for key command modes. Each mode group is separated by “!” symbols,
and includes the configuration mode command, and corresponding commands. This command displays the
following information:
•
SNMP community strings
•
Users (names and access levels)
•
VLAN database (VLAN ID, name and state)
•
VLAN configuration settings for each interface
•
Multiple spanning tree instances (name and interfaces)
•
IP address configured for VLANs
•
Spanning tree settings
•
Any configured settings for the console port and Telnet
Example
The following is sample output from the show startup-config command.
Console#show startup-config
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327
building startup-config, please wait.....
!
phymap 00-00-a3-42-00-80
!
sntp server 0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0
!
snmp-server community private rw
snmp-server community public ro
!
username admin access-level 15
username admin password 7 21232f297a57a5a743894a0e4a801fc3
username guest access-level 0
username guest password 7 084e0343a0486ff05530df6c705c8bb4
enable password level 15 7 1b3231655cebb7a1f783eddf27d254ca!
!
!
!
vlan database
vlan 1 name DefaultVlan media ethernet state active
.
.
!
spanning-tree mst-configuration
!
interface ethernet 1/1
switchport allowed vlan add 1 untagged
switchport native vlan 1
.
.
.
interface vlan 1
ip address 10.1.0.1 255.255.255.0
!
!
no spanning-tree
!
!
no ip igmp snooping
!
no map ip precedence
no map ip dscp
!
!
line console
!
!
line vty
!
end
Console#
Related Commands
show running-config
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Asanté IntraCore 36000 Series
16.195 show system
This command displays system information.
Default
None
Command Mode
Normal Exec, Privileged Exec
Usage Guidelines
For a description of the items shown by this command, refer to section 2.10.2 Displaying System
Information.
The POST results should all display “PASS.” If any POST test indicates “FAIL,” contact your distributor for
assistance.
Example
The following is sample output from the show system command.
Console#show system
System description: 44 10/100/1000 ports + 4 Gigabit Combo ports L2/L4 managed
standalone switch
System OID string: 1.3.6.1.4.1.259.6.10.51
System information
System Up time: 0 days, 1 hours, 23 minutes, and 44.61 seconds
System Name
: [NONE]
System Location
: [NONE]
System Contact
: [NONE]
MAC address
: 00-30-f1-47-58-3a
Web server
: enable
Web server port
: 80
Web secure server
: enable
Web secure server port : 443
POST result
UART LOOP BACK Test...........PASS
DRAM Test.....................PASS
Timer Test....................PASS
PCI Device 1 Test.............PASS
Switch Int Loopback test......PASS
Crossbar Int Loopback Test ...PASS
Done All Pass.
Console#
16.196 show tacacs-server
This command displays the current settings for the TACACS+ server.
Default
None
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329
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Example
The following is sample output from the show tacacs-server command.
Console#show tacacs-server
Remote TACACS server configuration:
Server IP address: 10.11.12.13
Communication key with radius server: green
Server port number: 49
Console#
16.197 show users
Shows all active console and Telnet sessions, including user name, idle time, and IP address of Telnet
client.
Default
None
Command Mode
Normal Exec, Privileged Exec
Usage Guidelines
The session used to execute this command is indicated by a “*” symbol next to the Line (For example,
session) index number.
Example
The following is sample output from the show users command.
Console#show users
Username accounts:
Username Privilege Public-Key
-------- --------- ---------admin
15
None
guest
0
None
Online users:
Line
Username Idle time (h:m:s) Remote IP addr.
----------- -------- ----------------- --------------* 0
console
admin
0:00:00
1
vty 0
admin
0:04:37
10.1.0.19
Console#
16.198 show version
This command displays hardware and software version information for the system.
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Asanté IntraCore 36000 Series
Default
None
Command Mode
Normal Exec, Privileged Exec
Usage Guidelines
See section 2.10.3 Displaying Switch Hardware/Software Versions for detailed information on the items
displayed by this command.
Example
The following is sample output from the show version command.
Console#show version
Unit1
Serial number
Hardware version
Number of ports
Main power status
Redundant power status
Agent(master)
Unit id
Loader version
Boot rom version
Operation code version
Console#
:A305051234
:R0A
:48
:up
:not present
:1
:1.0.0.1
:1.0.0.1
:1.1.0.13
16.199 show vlan
This command shows VLAN information.
Syntax Description
show vlan [id vlan-id | name vlan-name]
id
Keyword to be followed by the VLAN ID. vlan-id - ID of the configured VLAN.
(Range: 1-4094, no leading zeroes)
name
Keyword to be followed by the VLAN name. vlan-name - ASCII string from 1 to
32 characters.
Default
Shows all VLANs.
Command Mode
Normal Exec, Privileged Exec
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331
Example
This example shows how to display information for VLAN 1:
Console#show vlan id 1
VLAN Type
Name
Status
Ports/Channel
groups
---- ------- ---------------- --------- ---------------------------------1 Static DefaultVlan
Active
Eth1/ 1 Eth1/2
Console#
16.200 shutdown
This command disables an interface. To restart a disabled interface, use the no form.
Syntax Description
[no] shutdown
Default
All interfaces are enabled.
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet, Port Channel)
Usage Guidelines
This command allows you to disable a port due to abnormal behavior (e.g., excessive collisions), and then
reenable it after the problem has been resolved. You may also want to disable a port for security reasons.
Example
The following example disables port 5.
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/5
Console(config-if)#shutdown
Console(config-if)#
16.201 silent-time
This command sets the amount of time the management console is inaccessible after the number of
unsuccessful logon attempts exceeds the threshold set by the password-thresh command. Use the no form
to remove the silent time value.
Syntax Description
silent-time [seconds]
no silent-time
seconds
332
The number of seconds to disable console response. (Range: 0-65535; 0: no
silent-time)
Asanté IntraCore 36000 Series
Default
no silent-time.
Command Mode
Line Configuration
Example
The following is sample output from the silent-time command.
To set the silent time to 60 seconds, enter this command:
Console(config-line)#silent-time 60
Console(config-line)#
Related Commands
password-thresh
16.202 snmp-server community
This command defines the community access string for the Simple Network Management Protocol. Use the
no form to remove the specified community string.
Syntax Description
snmp-server community string [ro|rw]
no snmp-server community string
string
Community string that acts like a password and permits access to the SNMP
protocol. (Maximum length: 32 characters, case sensitive; Maximum number of
strings: 5)
ro
Specifies read-only access. Authorized management stations are only able to
retrieve MIB objects.
rw
Specifies read/write access. Authorized management stations are able to both
retrieve and modify MIB objects.
Default
public - Read-only access. Authorized management stations are only able to retrieve MIB objects.
private - Read/write access. Authorized management stations are able to both retrieve and modify MIB
objects.
Command Mode
Global Configuration
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333
Usage Guidelines
The first snmp-server community command you enter enables SNMP (SNMPv1). The no snmp-server
community command disables SNMP.
Example
The following is sample output from the snmp-server community command .
Console(config)#snmp-server community alpha rw
Console(config)#
16.203 snmp-server contact
This command sets the system contact string. Use the no form to remove the system contact information.
Syntax Description
snmp-server contact string
no snmp-server contact
string
String that describes the system contact information. (Maximum length: 255
characters)
Default
None
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Example
The following is sample output from the snmp-server contact command.
Console(config)#snmp-server contact Paul
Console(config)#
Related Commands
snmp-server location
16.204 snmp-server enable traps
This command enables this device to send Simple Network Management Protocol traps (SNMP
notifications). Use the no form to disable SNMP notifications.
Syntax Description
[no] snmp-server enable traps [authentication | link-up-down]
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Asanté IntraCore 36000 Series
authentication
Keyword to issue authentication failure traps.
link-up-down
Keyword to issue link-up or link-down traps. The link-up-down trap can only be
enabled/disabled via the CLI.
Default
Issue authentication and link-up-down traps.
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Usage Guidelines
If you do not enter an snmp-server enable traps command, no notifications controlled by this command are
sent. In order to configure this device to send SNMP notifications, you must enter at least one snmp-server
enable traps command. If you enter the command with no keywords, both authentication and link-up-down
notifications are enabled. If you enter the command with a keyword, only the notification type related to that
keyword is enabled.
The snmp-server enable traps command is used in conjunction with the snmp-server host command. Use
the snmp-server host command to specify which host or hosts receive SNMP notifications. In order to send
notifications, you must configure at least one snmp-server host command.
Example
The following is sample output from the snmp-server enable traps command.
Console(config)#snmp-server enable traps link-up-down
Console(config)#
Related Commands
snmp-server host
16.205 snmp-server host
This command specifies the recipient of a Simple Network Management Protocol notification operation. Use
the no form to remove the specified host.
Syntax Description
snmp-server host host-addr community-string [version {1 | 2c}]
no snmp-server host host-addr
host-addr
Internet address of the host (the targeted recipient). (Maximum host addresses:
5 trap destination IP address entries)
community-string
Password-like community string sent with the notification operation. Although
you can set this string using the snmp-server host command by itself, you
should define this string using the snmp-server community command prior to
using the snmp-server host command. (Maximum length: 32 characters)
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335
version
Specifies whether to send notifications as SNMP v1 or v2c traps.
Default
Host Address: None
SNMP Version: 1
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Usage Guidelines
If you do not enter an snmp-server host command, no notifications are sent. In order to configure the switch
to send SNMP notifications, you must enter at least one snmp-server host command. In order to enable
multiple hosts, you must issue a separate snmp-server host command for each host.
The snmp-server host command is used in conjunction with the snmp-server enable traps command. Use
the snmp-server enable traps command to specify which SNMP notifications are sent globally. For a host to
receive notifications, at least one snmp-server enable traps command and the snmp-server host command
for that host must be enabled.
Some notification types cannot be controlled with the snmp-server enable traps command. For example,
some notification types are always enabled.
The switch can send SNMP version 1 or version 2c notifications to a host IP address, depending on the
SNMP version that the management station supports. If the snmp-server host command does not specify
the SNMP version, the default is to send SNMP version 1 notifications.
Example
The following is sample output from the snmp-server host command.
Console(config)#snmp-server host 10.1.19.23 batman
Console(config)#
Related Commands
snmp-server enable traps
16.206 snmp-server location
This command sets the system location string. Use the no form to remove the location string.
Syntax Description
snmp-server location text
no snmp-server location
text
336
String that describes the system location. (Maximum length: 255 characters)
Asanté IntraCore 36000 Series
Default
None
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Example
The following is sample output from the snmp-server location command .
Console(config)#snmp-server location WC-19
Console(config)#
Related Commands
snmp-server contact
16.207 sntp broadcast client
This command synchronizes the switch’s clock based on time broadcast from time servers (using the
multicast address 224.0.1.1). Use the no form to disable SNTP broadcast client mode.
Syntax Description
[no] sntp broadcast client
Default
Disabled
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Example
The following is sample output from the sntp broadcast client command.
Console(config)#sntp broadcast client
Console#
16.208 sntp client
This command enables SNTP client requests for time synchronization from NTP or SNTP time servers
specified with the sntp servers command. Use the no form to disable SNTP client requests.
Syntax Description
[no] sntp client
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337
Default
Disabled
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Usage Guidelines
The time acquired from time servers is used to record accurate dates and times for log events. Without
SNTP, the switch only records the time starting from the factory default set at the last bootup (For example,
00:00:00, Jan. 1, 2001).
This command enables client time requests to time servers specified via the sntp servers command. It
issues time synchronization requests based on the interval set via the sntp poll command.
The SNTP time query method is set to client mode when the first sntp client command is issued. If the sntp
broadcast client command is issued, then the no sntp broadcast client command must be used to return the
switch to SNTP client mode.
Example
The following is sample output from the sntp client command.
Console(config)#sntp server 10.1.0.19
Console(config)#sntp poll 60
Console(config)#sntp client
Console(config)#end
Console#show sntp
Current time: Jul 10 02:52:44 2003
Poll interval: 60
Current mode: unicast
Console#
Related Commands
sntp server
sntp poll
sntp broadcast client
show sntp
16.209 sntp poll
This command sets the interval between sending time requests when the switch is set to SNTP client mode.
Use the no form to restore to the default.
Syntax Description
sntp poll seconds
no sntp poll
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Asanté IntraCore 36000 Series
seconds
Interval between time requests. (Range: 16 - 16384 seconds)
Default
16 seconds
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Usage Guidelines
This command is only applicable when the switch is set to SNTP client Command Mode.
Example
The following is sample output from the sntp poll command.
Console(config)#sntp poll 60
Console#
Related Commands
sntp client
16.210 sntp server
This command sets the IP address of the servers to which SNTP time requests are issued. Use the this
command with no arguments to clear all time servers from the current list.
Syntax Description
sntp server [ip1 [ip2 [ip3]]]
ip
IP address of an time server (NTP or SNTP). (Range: 1-3 addresses)
Default
None
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Usage Guidelines
This command specifies time servers from which the switch will poll for time updates when set to SNTP
client mode. The client will poll the time servers in the order specified until a response is received. It issues
time synchronization requests based on the interval set via the sntp poll command.
Example
The following is sample output from the sntp server command.
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339
Console(config)#sntp server 10.1.0.19
Console#
Related Commands
sntp client
sntp poll
show sntp
16.211 spanning-tree
This command enables the Spanning Tree Algorithm globally for the switch. Use the no form to disable it.
Syntax Description
[no] spanning-tree
Default
Spanning tree is enabled.
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Usage Guidelines
The Spanning Tree Algorithm (STA) can be used to detect and disable network loops, and to provide
backup links between switches, bridges or routers. This allows the switch to interact with other bridging
devices (that is, an STA-compliant switch, bridge or router) in your network to ensure that only one route
exists between any two stations on the network, and provide backup links that automatically take over when
a primary link goes down.
Example
This example shows how to enable the Spanning Tree Algorithm for the switch:
Console(config)#spanning-tree
Console(config)#
16.212 spanning-tree cost
This command configures the spanning tree path cost for the specified interface. Use the no form to restore
the default.
Syntax Description
spanning-tree cost cost
no spanning-tree cost
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Asanté IntraCore 36000 Series
cost
The path cost for the port. (Range: 1-200,000,000)) The recommended range
is:
•
Ethernet: 200,000-20,000,000
•
Fast Ethernet: 20,000-2,000,000
•
Gigabit Ethernet: 2,000-200,000
Default
Ethernet – half duplex: 2,000,000; full duplex: 1,000,000; trunk: 500,000
Fast Ethernet – half duplex: 200,000; full duplex: 100,000; trunk: 50,000
Gigabit Ethernet – full duplex: 10,000; trunk: 5,000
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet, Port Channel)
Usage Guidelines
This command is used by the Spanning Tree Algorithm to determine the best path between devices.
Therefore, lower values should be assigned to ports attached to faster media, and higher values assigned to
ports with slower media.
Path cost takes precedence over port priority.
When the spanning-tree pathcost method command is used and is set to short, the maximum value for
path cost is 65,535.
Example
The following is sample output from the spanning-tree cost command.
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/5
Console(config-if)#spanning-tree cost 50
Console(config-if)#
16.213 spanning-tree edge-port
This command specifies an interface as an edge port. Use the no form to restore the default.
Syntax Description
[no] spanning-tree edge-port
Default
Disabled
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet, Port Channel)
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341
Usage Guidelines
You can enable this option if an interface is attached to a LAN segment that is at the end of a bridged LAN
or to an end node. Since end nodes cannot cause forwarding loops, they can pass directly through to the
spanning tree forwarding state. Specifying Edge Ports provides quicker convergence for devices such as
workstations or servers, retains the current forwarding database to reduce the amount of frame flooding
required to rebuild address tables during reconfiguration events, does not cause the spanning tree to initiate
reconfiguration when the interface changes state, and also overcomes other STA-related timeout problems.
The Edge Port should only be enabled for ports connected to an end-node device.
This command has the same effect as the spanning-tree portfast.
Example
The following is sample output from the spanning-tree edge-port command.
Console(config)#interface ethernet ethernet 1/5
Console(config-if)#spanning-tree edge-port
Console(config-if)#
Related Commands
spanning-tree portfast
16.214 spanning-tree forward-time
This command configures the spanning tree bridge forward time globally for this switch. Use the no form to
restore the default.
Syntax Description
spanning-tree forward-time seconds
no spanning-tree forward-time
seconds
Time in seconds. (Range: 4 -30 seconds) The minimum value is the higher of 4
or [(max-age / 2) + 1].
Default
15 seconds
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Usage Guidelines
This command sets the maximum time (in seconds) the root device will wait before changing states (For
example, discarding to learning to forwarding). This delay is required because every device must receive
information about topology changes before it starts to forward frames. In addition, each port needs time to
listen for conflicting information that would make it return to the discarding state; otherwise, temporary data
loops might result.
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Example
The following is sample output from the spanning-tree forward-time command.
Console(config)#spanning-tree forward-time 20
Console(config)#
16.215 spanning-tree hello-time
This command configures the spanning tree bridge hello time globally for this switch. Use the no form to
restore the default.
Syntax Description
spanning-tree hello-time time
no spanning-tree hello-time
time
Time in seconds. (Range: 1-10 seconds). The maximum value is the lower of
10 or [(max-age / 2) -1].
Default
2 seconds
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Usage Guidelines
This command sets the time interval (in seconds) at which the root device transmits a configuration
message.
Example
The following is sample output from the spanning-tree hello-time command .
Console(config)#spanning-tree hello-time 5
Console(config)#
16.216 spanning-tree link-type
This command configures the link type for Rapid Spanning Tree and Multiple Spanning Tree. Use the no
form to restore the default.
Syntax Description
spanning-tree link-type {auto | point-to-point | shared}
no spanning-tree link-type
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auto
Automatically derived from the duplex mode setting.
point-to-point
Point-to-point link.
shared
Shared medium.
Default
auto
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet, Port Channel)
Usage Guidelines
Specify a point-to-point link if the interface can only be connected to exactly one other bridge, or a shared
link if it can be connected to two or more bridges.
When automatic detection is selected, the switch derives the link type from the duplex mode. A full-duplex
interface is considered a point-to-point link, while a half-duplex interface is assumed to be on a shared link.
RSTP only works on point-to-point links between two bridges. If you designate a port as a shared link, RSTP
is forbidden. Since MSTP is an extension of RSTP, this same restriction applies.
Example
The following is sample output from the spanning-tree link-type command.
Console(config)#interface ethernet ethernet 1/5
Console(config-if)#spanning-tree link-type point-to-point
16.217 spanning-tree mst cost
This command configures the path cost on a spanning instance in the Multiple Spanning Tree. Use the no
form to restore the default.
Syntax Description
spanning-tree mst instance_id cost cost
no spanning-tree mst instance_id cost
instance_id
Instance identifier of the spanning tree. (Range: 1-4094, no leading zeroes)
cost
Path cost for an interface. (Range: 1-200,000,000) The recommended range is:
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•
Ethernet: 200,000-20,000,000
•
Fast Ethernet: 20,000-2,000,000
•
Gigabit Ethernet: 2,000-200,000
Asanté IntraCore 36000 Series
Default
Ethernet – half duplex: 2,000,000; full duplex: 1,000,000; trunk: 500,000
Fast Ethernet – half duplex: 200,000; full duplex: 100,000; trunk: 50,000
Gigabit Ethernet – full duplex: 10,000; trunk: 5,000
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet, Port Channel)
Usage Guidelines
Each spanning-tree instance is associated with a unique set of VLAN IDs.
This command is used by the multiple spanning-tree algorithm to determine the best path between devices.
Therefore, lower values should be assigned to interfaces attached to faster media, and higher values
assigned to interfaces with slower media.
Path cost takes precedence over interface priority.
Example
The following is sample output from the spanning-tree mst cost command.
Console(config)#interface ethernet ethernet 1/5
Console(config-if)#spanning-tree mst 1 cost 50
Console(config-if)#
Related Commands
spanning-tree mst port-priority
16.218 spanning-tree mst port-priority
This command configures the interface priority on a spanning instance in the Multiple Spanning Tree. Use
the no form to restore the default.
Syntax Description
spanning-tree mst instance_id port-priority priority
no spanning-tree mst instance_id port-priority
instance_id
Instance identifier of the spanning tree. (Range: 1-4094, no leading zeroes)
priority
Priority for an interface. (Range: 0-240 in steps of 16)
Default
128
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Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet, Port Channel)
Usage Guidelines
This command defines the priority for the use of an interface in the multiple spanning-tree. If the path cost
for all interfaces on a switch are the same, the interface with the highest priority (that is, lowest value) will be
configured as an active link in the spanning tree.
Where more than one interface is assigned the highest priority, the interface with lowest numeric identifier
will be enabled.
Example
The following is sample output from the spanning-tree mst port-priority command.
Console(config)#interface ethernet ethernet 1/5
Console(config-if)#spanning-tree mst 1 port-priority 0
Console(config-if)#
Related Commands
spanning-tree mst cost
16.219 spanning-tree max-age
This command configures the spanning tree bridge maximum age globally for this switch. Use the no form to
restore the default.
Syntax Description
spanning-tree max-age seconds
no spanning-tree max-age
seconds
Time in seconds. (Range: 6-40 seconds) The minimum value is the higher of 6
or [2 x (hello-time + 1)]. The maximum value is the lower of 40 or [2 x (forwardtime - 1)].
Default
20 seconds
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Usage Guidelines
This command sets the maximum time (in seconds) a device can wait without receiving a configuration
message before attempting to reconfigure. All device ports (except for designated ports) should receive
configuration messages at regular intervals. Any port that ages out STA information (provided in the last
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configuration message) becomes the designated port for the attached LAN. If it is a root port, a new root port
is selected from among the device ports attached to the network.
Example
The following is sample output from the spanning-tree max-age command.
Console(config)#spanning-tree max-age 40
Console(config)#
16.220 spanning-tree mode
This command selects the spanning tree mode for this switch. Use the no form to restore the default.
Syntax Description
spanning-tree mode {stp | rstp | mstp}
no spanning-tree mode
stp
Spanning Tree Protocol (IEEE 802.1D)
rstp
Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol (IEEE 802.1w)
mstp
Multiple Spanning Tree (IEEE 802.1s)
Default
mstp
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Usage Guidelines
Spanning Tree Protocol
•
Uses RSTP for the internal state machine, but sends only 802.1D BPDUs.
This creates one spanning tree instance for the entire network. If multiple VLANs are implemented on a
network, the path between specific VLAN members may be inadvertently disabled to prevent network loops,
which isolates group members. To presvent this select the MSTP option operating multiple VLANs.
Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol
RSTP supports connections to either STP or RSTP nodes by monitoring the incoming protocol messages
and dynamically adjusting the type of protocol messages, the RSTP node transmits, as described below:
•
STP Mode – If the switch receives an 802.1D BPDU after a port’s migration delay timer expires, the
switch assumes it is connected to an 802.1D bridge and starts using only 802.1D BPDUs.
•
RSTP Mode – If RSTP is using 802.1D BPDUs on a port and receives an RSTP BPDU after the
migration delay expires, RSTP restarts the migration delay timer and begins using RSTP BPDUs on
that port.
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Multiple Spanning Tree Protocol
•
To allow multiple spanning trees to operate over the network, you must configure a related set of
bridges with the same MSTP configuration, allowing them to participate in a specific set of spanning
tree instances.
•
A spanning tree instance can exist only on bridges that have compatible VLAN instance assignments.
•
Be careful when switching between spanning tree modes. Changing modes stops all spanning-tree
instances for the previous mode and restarts the system in the new mode, temporarily disrupting user
traffic.
Example
This example configures the switch to use Rapid Spanning Tree:
Console(config)#spanning-tree mode rstp
Console(config)#
16.221 spanning-tree mst configuration
Use this command to change to Multiple Spanning Tree (MST) configuration mode.
Default
No VLANs are mapped to any MST instance.
The region name is set the switch’s MAC address.
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Example
The following is sample output from the spanning-tree mst configuration command.
Console(config)#spanning-tree mst configuration
Console(config-mstp)#
Related Commands
mst vlan
mst priority
name
revision
max-hops
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16.222 spanning-tree pathcost method
This command configures the path cost method used for Rapid Spanning Tree and Multiple Spanning Tree.
Use the no form to restore the default.
Syntax Description
spanning-tree pathcost method {long | short}
no spanning-tree pathcost method
long
Specifies 32-200,000,000.
short
Specifies 16bit based values that range from 1-65535.
Default
Long method
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Usage Guidelines
The path cost method is used to determine the best path between devices. Therefore, lower values should
be assigned to ports attached to faster media, and higher values assigned to ports with slower media. Note
that path cost takes precedence over port priority.
Example
The following is sample output from the spanning-tree pathcost method command.
Console(config)#spanning-tree pathcost method long
Console(config)#
16.223 spanning-tree portfast
This command sets an interface to fast forwarding. Use the no form to disable fast forwarding.
Syntax Description
[no] spanning-tree portfast
Default
Disabled
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet, Port Channel)
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Usage Guidelines
This command is used to enable/disable the fast spanning-tree mode for the selected port. In this mode,
ports skip the Discarding and Learning states, and proceed straight to Forwarding.
Since end-nodes cannot cause forwarding loops, they can be passed through the spanning tree state
changes more quickly than allowed by standard convergence time. Fast forwarding can achieve quicker
convergence for end-node workstations and servers, and also overcome other STA related timeout
problems. (Remember that fast forwarding should only be enabled for ports connected to a LAN segment
that is at the end of a bridged LAN or for an end-node device.)
This command is the same as spanning-tree edge-port, and is only included for backward compatibility with
earlier products. Note that this command may be removed for future software versions.
Example
The following is sample output from the spanning-tree portfast command.
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/5
Console(config-if)#bridge-group 1 portfast
Console(config-if)#
Related Commands
spanning-tree edge-port
16.224 spanning-tree port-priority
This command configures the priority for the specified interface. Use the no form to restore the default.
Syntax Description
spanning-tree port-priority priority
no spanning-tree port-priority
priority
The priority for a port. (Range: 0-240, in steps of 16)
Default
128
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet, Port Channel)
Usage Guidelines
This command defines the priority for the use of a port in the Spanning Tree Algorithm. If the path cost for all
ports on a switch are the same, the port with the highest priority (that is, lowest value) will be configured as
an active link in the spanning tree.
Where more than one port is assigned the highest priority, the port with lowest numeric identifier will be
enabled.
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Example
The following is sample output from the spanning-tree port-priority command.
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/5
Console(config-if)#spanning-tree port-priority 0
Related Commands
spanning-tree cost
16.225 spanning-tree priority
This command configures the spanning tree priority globally for this switch. Use the no form to restore the
default.
Syntax Description
spanning-tree priority priority
no spanning-tree priority
priority
Priority of the bridge. (Range: 0 - 65535) (Range – 0-61440, in steps of 4096;
Options: 0, 4096, 8192, 12288, 16384, 20480, 24576, 28672, 32768, 36864,
40960, 45056, 49152, 53248, 57344, 61440)
Default
32768
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Usage Guidelines
Bridge priority is used in selecting the root device, root port, and designated port. The device with the
highest priority becomes the STA root device. If all devices have the same priority, the device with the
lowest MAC address will then become the root device.
Example
The following is sample output from the spanning-tree priority command.
Console(config)#spanning-tree priority 45056
Console(config)#
16.226 spanning-tree spanning-disabled
This command disables the spanning tree algorithm for the specified interface. Use the no form to reenable
the spanning tree algorithm for the specified interface.
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Syntax Description
[no] spanning-tree spanning-disabled
Default
Enabled
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet, Port Channel)
Example
This example disables the spanning tree algorithm for port 5.
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/5
Console(config-if)#spanning-tree spanning-disabled
Console(config-if)#
16.227 spanning-tree transmission-limit
This command configures the minimum interval between the transmissions of consecutive RSTP/MSTP
BPDUs. Use the no form to restore the default.
Syntax Description
spanning-tree transmission-limit count
no spanning-tree transmission-limit
count
The transmission limit in seconds. (Range: 1-10)
Default
3
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Usage Guidelines
This command limits the maximum transmission rate for BPDUs.
Example
The following is sample output from the spanning-tree transmission-limit command .
Console(config)#spanning-tree transmission-limit 4
Console(config)#
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16.228 speed
This command sets the terminal line’s baud rate. This command sets both the transmit (to terminal) and
receive (from terminal) speeds. Use the no form to restore the default setting.
Syntax Description
speed bps
no speed
bps
Baud rate in bits per second. (Options: 9600, 19200, 38400, 57600, 115200
bps, or auto)
Default
auto
Command Mode
Line Configuration
Usage Guidelines
Set the speed to match the baud rate of the device connected to the serial port. Some baud rates available
on devices connected to the port might not be supported. The system indicates if the speed you selected is
not supported. If you select the “auto” option, the switch will automatically detect the baud rate configured on
the attached terminal, and adjust the speed accordingly.
Example
To specify 57600 bps, enter this command:
Console(config-line)#speed 57600
Console(config-line)#
16.229 speed-duplex
This command configures the speed and duplex mode of a given interface when autonegotiation is disabled.
Use the no form to restore the default.
Syntax Description
speed-duplex {1000full | 100full | 100half | 10full | 10half}
no speed-duplex
1000full
Forces 1000 Mbps full-duplex operation
100full
Forces 100 Mbps full-duplex operation
100half
Forces 100 Mbps half-duplex operation
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10full
Forces 10 Mbps full-duplex operation
10half
Forces 10 Mbps half-duplex operation
Default
Auto-negotiation is enabled by default.
When auto-negotiation is disabled, the default speed-duplex setting is 100half for 100BASE-TX ports and
1000full for Gigabit Ethernet ports.
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet, Port Channel)
Usage Guidelines
To force operation to the speed and duplex mode specified in a speed-duplex command, use the no
negotiation command to disable auto-negotiation on the selected interface.
When using the negotiation command to enable auto-negotiation, the optimal settings will be determined by
the capabilities command. To set the speed/duplex mode under auto-negotiation, the required mode must
be specified in the capabilities list for an interface.
Example
This example configures port 5 to 100 Mbps, half-duplex operation.
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/5
Console(config-if)#speed-duplex 100half
Console(config-if)#no negotiation
Console(config-if)#
Related Commands
negotiation
capabilities
16.230 stopbits
This command sets the number of the stop bits transmitted per byte. Use the no form to restore the default
setting.
Syntax Description
stopbits {1 | 2}
1
One stop bit
2
Two stop bits
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Default
1 stop bit
Command Mode
Line Configuration
Example
To specify 2 stop bits, enter this command:
Console(config-line)#stopbits 2
Console(config-line)#
16.231 switchport acceptable-frame-types
This command configures the acceptable frame types for a port. Use the no form to restore the default.
Syntax Description
switchport acceptable-frame-types {all | tagged}
no switchport acceptable-frame-types
all
The port accepts all frames, tagged or untagged.
tagged
The port only receives tagged frames.
Default
All frame types
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet, Port Channel)
Usage Guidelines
When set to receive all frame types, any received frames that are untagged are assigned to the default
VLAN.
Example
The following is sample output from the switchport acceptable-frame-types command.
This example shows how to restrict the traffic received on port 1 to tagged frames:
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/1
Console(config-if)#switchport acceptable-frame-types tagged
Console(config-if)#
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Related Commands
switchport mode
16.232 switchport allowed vlan
This command configures VLAN groups on the selected interface. Use the no form to restore the default.
Syntax Description
switchport allowed vlan {add vlan-list [tagged | untagged] | remove
vlan-list}
no switchport allowed vlan
add vlan- list
List of VLAN identifiers to add.
remove vlan-list
List of VLAN identifiers to remove.
vlan-list
Separate nonconsecutive VLAN identifiers with a comma and no spaces; use a
hyphen to designate a range of IDs. Do not enter leading zeros. (Range: 14094).
Default
All ports are assigned to VLAN 1 by default.
The default frame type is untagged.
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet, Port Channel)
Usage Guidelines
A port, or a trunk with switchport mode set to hybrid, must be assigned to at least one VLAN as untagged.
If a trunk has switchport mode set to trunk (For example, 1Q Trunk), then you can only assign an interface to
VLAN groups as a tagged member.
Frames are always tagged within the switch. The tagged/untagged parameter used when adding a VLAN to
an interface tells the switch whether to keep or remove the tag from a frame on egress.
If none of the intermediate network devices or the host at the other end of the connection supports VLANs,
the interface should be added to these VLANs as an untagged member. Otherwise, it is only necessary to
add at most one VLAN as untagged, and this should correspond to the native VLAN for the interface.
If a VLAN on the forbidden list for an interface is manually added to that interface, the VLAN is automatically
removed from the forbidden list for that interface.
Example
The following is sample output from the switchport allowed vlan command.
This example shows how to add VLANs 1, 2, 5 and 6 to the allowed list as tagged VLANs for port 1:
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Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/1
Console(config-if)#switchport allowed vlan add 1,2,5,6 tagged
Console(config-if)#
16.233 switchport broadcast packet-rate
This command configures broadcast storm control. Use the no form to disable broadcast storm control.
Syntax Description
switchport broadcast packet-rate rate
no switchport broadcast
rate
Threshold level as a rate; For example, packets per second. (Range: 500 –
262143)
Default
Enabled for all ports
Packet-rate limit: 500 packets per second
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet)
Usage Guidelines
When broadcast traffic exceeds the specified threshold, packets above that threshold are dropped.
This command can enable or disable broadcast storm control for the selected interface. The specified
threshold value applies to all ports on the switch.
Example
This shows how to configure broadcast storm control at 600 packets per second:
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/5
Console(config-if)#switchport broadcast packet-rate 600
Console(config-if)#
16.234 switchport forbidden vlan
This command configures forbidden VLANs. Use the no form to remove the list of forbidden VLANs.
Syntax Description
switchport forbidden vlan {add vlan-list | remove vlan-list}
no switchport forbidden vlan
add vlan-list
List of VLAN identifiers to add.
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remove vlan-list
List of VLAN identifiers to remove.
vlan-list
Separate nonconsecutive VLAN identifiers with a comma and no spaces; use a
hyphen to designate a range of IDs. Do not enter leading zeros. (Range: 14094).
Default
No VLANs are included in the forbidden list.
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet, Port Channel)
Usage Guidelines
This command prevents a VLAN from being automatically added to the specified interface via GVRP.
If a VLAN has been added to the set of allowed VLANs for an interface, then you cannot add it to the set of
forbidden VLANs for that same interface.
Example
The following is sample output from the switchport forbidden vlan command.
This example shows how to prevent port 1 from being added to VLAN 3:
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/1
Console(config-if)# The following is sample output from the XXX command with
the XXX argument.
Console(config-if)#
16.235 switchport gvrp
This command enables GVRP for a port. Use the no form to disable it.
Syntax Description
[no] switchport gvrp
Default
Disabled
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet, Port Channel)
Example
The following is sample output from the switchport gvrp command.
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/1
Console(config-if)#switchport gvrp
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Console(config-if)#
16.236 switchport ingress-filtering
This command enables ingress filtering for an interface. Use the no form to restore the default.
Syntax Description
[no] switchport ingress-filtering
Default
Disabled
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet, Port Channel)
Usage Guidelines
Ingress filtering only affects tagged frames.
If ingress filtering is disabled and a port receives frames tagged for VLANs for which it is not a member,
these frames will be flooded to all other ports (except for those VLANs explicitly forbidden on this port).
If ingress filtering is enabled and a port receives frames tagged for VLANs for which it is not a member,
these frames will be discarded.
Ingress filtering does not affect VLAN independent BPDU frames, such as GVRP or STA. They do affect
VLAN dependent BPDU frames, such as GMRP.
Example
This example shows how to set the interface to port 1 and then enable ingress filtering:
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/1
Console(config-if)#switchport ingress-filtering
Console(config-if)#
16.237 switchport mode
This command configures the VLAN membership mode for a port. Use the no form to restore the default.
Syntax Description
switchport mode {trunk | hybrid}
no switchport mode
trunk
Specifies a port as an end point for a VLAN trunk. A trunk is a direct link
between two switches, so the port transmits tagged frames that identify the
source VLAN. Note that frames belonging to the port’s default VLAN (For
example, associated with the PVID) are also transmitted as tagged frames.
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hybrid
Specifies a hybrid VLAN interface. The port may transmit tagged or untagged
frames.
Default
All ports are in hybrid mode with the PVID set to VLAN 1.
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet, Port Channel)
Example
The following shows how to set the configuration mode to port 1, and then set the switchport mode to hybrid:
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/1
Console(config-if)#switchport mode hybrid
Console(config-if)#
Related Commands
switchport acceptable-frame-types
16.238 switchport native vlan
This command configures the PVID (For example, default VLAN ID) for a port. Use the no form to restore
the default.
Syntax Description
switchport native vlan vlan-id
no switchport native vlan
vlan-id
Default VLAN ID for a port. (Range: 1-4094, no leading zeroes)
Default
VLAN 1
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet, Port Channel)
Usage Guidelines
If an interface is not a member of VLAN 1 and you assign its PVID to this VLAN, the interface will
automatically be added to VLAN 1 as an untagged member. For all other VLANs, an interface must first be
configured as an untagged member before you can assign its PVID to that group.
If acceptable frame types is set to all or switchport mode is set to hybrid, the PVID will be inserted into all
untagged frames entering the ingress port.
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Example
The following is sample output from the switchport native vlan command.
This example shows how to set the PVID for port 1 to VLAN 3:
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/1
Console(config-if)#switchport native vlan 3
Console(config-if)#
16.239 switchport priority default
This command sets a priority for incoming untagged frames. Use the no form to restore the default value.
Syntax Description
switchport priority default default-priority-id
no switchport priority default
default-priority-id
The priority number for untagged ingress traffic. The priority is a number from 0
to 7. Seven is the highest.
Default
The priority is not set, and the default value for untagged frames received on the interface is zero.
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet, Port Channel)
Usage Guidelines
The precedence for priority mapping is IP Port, IP Precedence or IP DSCP, and default switchport priority.
The default priority applies for an untagged frame received on a port set to accept all frame types (for
example, receives both untagged and tagged frames). This priority does not apply to IEEE 802.1Q VLAN
tagged frames. If the incoming frame is an IEEE 802.1Q VLAN tagged frame, the IEEE 802.1p User Priority
bits will be used.
This switch provides eight priority queues for each port. It is configured to use Weighted Round Robin, which
can be viewed with the show queue bandwidth command. Inbound frames that do not have VLAN tags are
tagged with the input port’s default ingress user priority, and then placed in the appropriate priority queue at
the output port. The default priority for all ingress ports is zero. Therefore, any inbound frames that do not
have priority tags will be placed in queue 0 of the output port. (Note that if the output port is an untagged
member of the associated VLAN, these frames are stripped of all VLAN tags prior to transmission.)
Example
The following example shows how to set a default priority on port 3 to 5:
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/3
Console(config-if)#
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16.240 tacacs-server host
This command specifies the TACACS+ server. Use the no form to restore the default.
Syntax Description
tacacs-server host host_ip_address
no tacacs-server host
host_ip_address
IP address of a TACACS+ server.
Default
10.11.12.13
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Example
Console(config)#tacacs-server host 192.168.1.25
Console(config)#
16.241 tacacs-server key
This command sets the TACACS+ encryption key. Use the no form to restore the default.
Syntax Description
tacacs-server key key_string
no tacacs-server key
key_string
Encryption key used to authenticate logon access for the client. Do not use
blank spaces in the string. (Maximum length: 20 characters)
Default
None
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Example
Console(config)#tacacs-server key green
Console(config)#
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16.242 tacacs-server port
This command specifies the TACACS+ server network port. Use the no form to restore the default.
Syntax Description
tacacs-server port port_number
no tacacs-server port
port_number
TACACS+ server TCP port used for authentication messages. (Range: 165535)
Default
49
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Example
Console(config)#tacacs-server port 181
Console(config)#
16.243 username
This command adds named users, requires authentication at login, specifies or changes a user's password
(or specify that no password is required), or specifies or changes a user's access level. Use the no form to
remove a user name.
Syntax Description
username name {access-level level | nopassword | password {0 | 7}
password}
no username name
name
The name of the user. (Maximum length: 8 characters, case sensitive. Maximum
users: 16)
level
Specifies the user level. The device has two predefined privilege levels: 0:
Normal Exec, 15: Privileged Exec.
no password
No password is required for this user to log in. {0 | 7} - 0 means plain password, 7
means encrypted password.
password
The authentication password for the user. (Maximum length: 8 characters plain
text, 32 encrypted, case sensitive)
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Default
The default access level is Normal Exec.
The factory defaults for the user name and password is:
[Default IP Address: 192.168.0.1]
[Default username: root
[Default password: Asante
]
]
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Usage Guidelines
The encrypted password is required for compatibility with legacy password settings (For example, plain text
or encrypted) when reading the configuration file during system bootup or when downloading the
configuration file from a TFTP server. There is no need for you to manually configure encrypted passwords.
Example
This example shows how the set the access level and password for a user.
Console(config)#username bob access-level 15
Console(config)#username bob password 0 smith
Console(config)#
16.244 vlan database
This command enters VLAN database mode. All commands in this mode take effect immediately.
Default
None
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Usage Guidelines
Use the VLAN database command mode to add, change, and delete VLANs. After finishing configuration
changes, you can display the VLAN settings by entering the show vlan command.
Use the interface vlan command mode to define the port membership mode and add or remove ports from a
VLAN. The results of these commands are written to the running-configuration file, and you can display this
file by entering the show running-config command.
Example
Console(config)#vlan database
Console(config-vlan)#
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Related Commands
show vlan
16.245 vlan
This command configures a VLAN. Use the no form to restore the default settings or delete a VLAN.
Syntax Description
vlan vlan-id [name vlan-name] media ethernet [state {active | suspend}]
no vlan vlan-id [name | state]
vlan-id
ID of configured VLAN. (Range: 1-4094, no leading zeroes)
name
Keyword followed by the VLAN name.
vlan-name
ASCII string from 1 to 32 characters.
media ethernet
Ethernet media type.
state
Keyword to be followed by the VLAN state.
active - VLAN is operational.
suspend - VLAN is suspended. Suspended VLANs do not pass packets.
Default
By default, only VLAN 1 exists and is active.
Command Mode
VLAN Database Configuration
Usage Guidelines
no vlan vlan-id
deletes the VLAN.
no vlan vlan-id
name removes the VLAN name.
no vlan vlan-id
state returns the VLAN to the default state (For example, active).
You can configure up to 255 VLANs on the switch.
Example
The following example adds a VLAN, using VLAN ID 105 and name RD5. The VLAN is activated by default.
Console(config)#vlan database
Console(config-vlan)#vlan 105 name RD5 media ethernet
Console(config-vlan)#
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Related Commands
show vlan
16.246 whichboot
This command shows which files were booted when the system powered up.
Default
None
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Example
This example shows the information displayed by the whichboot command. See the dir command for a
description of the file information displayed by this command.
Console#whichboot
file name
file type startup size (byte)
-------------------------------- -------------- ------- ----------Unit1:
Diag.bix Boot-Rom image
Y
818812
ES4548C_ZZ(V0.1.0.2).bix Operation Code
Y
2346020
startup
Config File
Y
7606
Console#
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Appendix A: Web Browser Interface and Command Line
Interface Overview
A.1 Navigating the Web Browser Interface
To access the web-browser interface you must first enter a user name and password. The administrator has
Read/Write access to all configuration parameters and statistics. The default user name and password for
the administrator is “admin.”
A.1.1 Home Page
When your web browser connects with the switch’s web agent, the home page is displayed as shown below.
The home page displays the Main Menu on the left side of the screen and System Information on the right
side. The Main Menu links are used to navigate to other menus, and display configuration parameters and
statistics.
A.1.2 Panel Display
The web agent displays an image of the switch’s ports. The Mode can be set to display different information
for the ports, including Active (For example, up or down), Duplex (For example, half or full duplex, or Flow
Control (For example, with or without flow control). Clicking on the image of a port opens the Port
Configuration page as described in section 7.2 Configuring Interface Connections.
A.1.3 Main Menu
Using the onboard web agent, you can define system parameters, manage and control the switch, and all its
ports, or monitor network conditions.
This chapter describes how to use the Command Line Interface (CLI) and provides an alphabetical list of the
commands.
A.2 Improving Response Time
Response time on management commands issued through the web interface can be improved if the path
between your management station and the switch does not pass through any device that uses the Spanning
Tree Algorithm, then set the switch port attached to your management station to fast forwarding. (For
example, enable Admin Edge Port.) See section 3.2 Configuring Interface Settings.
A.3 Configuration Options
Configurable parameters have a dialog box or a drop-down list. Once a configuration change has been
made on a page, be sure to click on the “Apply” or “Apply Changes” button to confirm the new setting. The
following table summarizes the web page configuration buttons.
Button
Action
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Revert
Cancels specified values and restores current values prior to pressing Apply.
Apply
Sets specified values to the system.
Help
Links directly to webhelp.
To ensure proper screen refresh, be sure that Internet Explorer 5.x is configured as follows: Under the menu
“Tools / Internet Options / General / Temporary Internet Files / Settings,” the setting for item “Check for
newer versions of stored pages” should be “Every visit to the page.”
Note: When using Internet Explorer 5.0, you may have to manually refresh the screen after making
configuration changes by pressing the browser’s refresh button.
A.4 Accessing the CLI
When accessing the management interface for the switch over a direct connection to the server’s console
port, or through a Telnet connection, the switch can be managed by entering command keywords and
parameters at the prompt. Using the CLI is similar to entering commands on a UNIX system.
A.5 Console Connection
To access the switch through the console port, perform these steps:
1.
At the console prompt, enter the user name and password. (The default user names are “admin”
and “guest” with corresponding passwords of “admin” and “guest.”) When the administrator user
name and password is entered, the CLI displays the “Console#” prompt and enters privileged
access mode (For example, Privileged Exec). When the guest user name and password is entered,
the CLI displays the “Console>” prompt and enters normal access mode (For example, Normal
Exec).
2.
Enter the necessary commands to complete your desired tasks.
3.
When finished, exit the session with the “quit” or “exit” command.
After connecting to the system through the console port, the login screen displays:
User Access Verification
Username: admin
Password:
CLI session with the 44 10/100/1000 ports 4 Gigabit Combo ports
L2/L4 managed standalone switch is opened.
To end the CLI session, enter [Exit].
Console#
A.6 Telnet Connection
Telnet operates over the IP transport protocol. In this environment, your management station and any
network device you want to manage over the network must have a valid IP address. Valid IP addresses
consist of four numbers, 0 to 255, separated by periods. Each address consists of a network portion and
host portion. For example, the IP address assigned to this switch, 10.1.0.1, consists of a network portion
(10.1.0) and a host portion (1).
Note: The IP address for this switch is unassigned by default.
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To access the switch through a Telnet session, you must first set the IP address for the switch, and set the
default gateway if you are managing the switch from a different IP subnet. For example,
Console(config)#interface vlan 1
Console(config-if)#ip address 10.1.0.254 255.255.255.0
Console(config-if)#exit
Console(config)#ip default-gateway 10.1.0.254
If your corporate network is connected to another network outside your office or to the Internet, you need to
apply for a registered IP address. If the switch is attached to an isolated network, then you can use any IP
address that matches the network segment to which you are attached.
After you configure the switch with an IP address, you can open a Telnet session by performing these steps:
1.
From the remote host, enter the Telnet command and the IP address of the device you want to
access.
2.
At the prompt, enter the user name and system password. The CLI will display the “Vty-0#” prompt
for the administrator to show that you are using privileged access mode (For example, Privileged
Exec), or “Vty-0>” for the guest to show that you are using normal access mode (For example,
Normal Exec).
3.
Enter the necessary commands to complete your desired tasks.
4.
When finished, exit the session with the “quit” or “exit” command.
After entering the Telnet command, the login screen displays:
Username: admin
Password:
CLI session with the 44 10/100/1000 ports 4 Gigabit Combo ports
L2/L4 managed standalone switch is opened.
To end the CLI session, enter [Exit].
Vty-0#
Note: You can open up to four sessions to the device via Telnet.
A.7 Entering Commands
This section describes how to enter CLI commands.
A.7.1 Keywords and Arguments
A CLI command is a series of keywords and arguments. Keywords identify a command, and arguments
specify configuration parameters. For example, in the command “show interfaces status ethernet 1/5,” show
interfaces and status are keywords, ethernet is an argument that specifies the interface type, and 1/5
specifies the unit/port.
You can enter commands as follows:
•
To enter a simple command, enter the command keyword.
•
To enter multiple commands, enter each command in the required order. For example, to enable
Privileged Exec command mode, and display the startup configuration, enter:
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369
Console>enable
Console#show startup-config
•
To enter commands that require parameters, enter the required parameters after the command
keyword. For example, to set a password for the administrator, enter:
Console(config)#username admin password 0 smith
Minimum Abbreviation
The CLI accepts a minimum number of characters that uniquely identify a command. For example, the
command “configure” can be entered as con. If an entry is ambiguous, the system will prompt for further
input.
A.7.2 Command Completion
If you terminate input with a Tab key, the CLI complete the remaining characters of a partial keyword up to
the point of ambiguity. In the “logging history” example, typing log followed by a tab key provides the extra
characters up to “logging.”
A.7.3 Getting Help on Commands
You can display a brief description of the help system by entering the help command. You can also display
command syntax by using the “?” character to list keywords or parameters.
A.7.4 Showing Commands
If you enter a “?” at the command prompt, the system will display the first level of keywords for the current
command class (Normal Exec or Privileged Exec) or configuration class (Global, ACL, Interface, Line, VLAN
Database, or MSTP). You can also display a list of valid keywords for a specific command. For example, the
command “show ?” displays a list of possible show commands:
Console#show ?
access-group
access-list
bridge-ext
calendar
dns
dot1x
garp
gvrp
history
hosts
interfaces
ip
lacp
line
logging
mac
mac-address-table
management
map
marking
port
protocol-vlan
public-key
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Access groups
Access lists
Bridge extend information
Date information
DNS information
Show 802.1x content
Garp property
Show GVRP information of interface
Information of history
Host information
Information of interfaces
IP information
Show lacp statistic
TTY line information
Show the contents of logging buffers
MAC access lists
Set configuration of the address table
Show management ip filter
Map priority
Specify marker
Characteristics of the port
Protocol-vlan information
Show information of public key
Asanté IntraCore 36000 Series
pvlan
queue
radius-server
running-config
snmp
sntp
spanning-tree
ssh
startup-config
system
tacacs-server
users
version
vlan
Console#show
Information of private VLAN
Information of priority queue
RADIUS server information
The system configuration of running
SNMP statistics
Sntp
Specify spanning-tree
Secure shell
The system configuration of starting up
Information of system
Login by tacacs server
Display information about terminal lines
System hardware and software status
Switch VLAN Virtual Interface
The command “show interfaces ?” will display the following information:
Console#show interfaces ?
counters
Information of interfaces counters
protocol-vlan Protocol-vlan information
status
Information of interfaces status
switchport
Information of interfaces switchport
Console#
A.7.5 Partial Keyword Lookup
If you terminate a partial keyword with a question mark, alternatives that match the initial letters are
provided. (Remember not to leave a space between the command and question mark.) For example, “s?”
shows all the keywords starting with “s.”
Console#show s?
snmp
sntp
system
console#show s
spanning-tree
ssh
startup-config
A.7.6 Negating the Effect of Commands
For many configuration commands you can enter the prefix keyword “no” to cancel the effect of a command
or reset the configuration to the default value. For example, the logging command will log system messages
to a host server. To disable logging, specify the no logging command. This guide describes the negation
effect for all applicable commands.
A.7.7 Using Command History
The CLI maintains a history of commands that have been entered. You can scroll back through the history of
commands by pressing the up arrow key. Any command displayed in the history list can be executed again,
or first modified and then executed.
Using the show history command displays a longer list of recently executed commands.
A.7.8 Navigating the Command Line
Commands are not case sensitive. You can abbreviate commands and parameters as long as they contain
enough letters to differentiate them from any other currently available commands or parameters. You can
use the Tab key to complete partial commands, or enter a partial command followed by the “?” character to
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371
display a list of possible matches. You can also use the following editing keystrokes for command-line
processing:
Keystroke
Function
Ctrl-A
Shifts cursor to start of command line.
Ctrl-B
Shifts cursor to the left one character.
Ctrl-C
Terminates the current task and displays the command prompt.
Ctrl-E
Shifts cursor to end of command line.
Ctrl-F
Shifts cursor to the right one character.
Ctrl-K
Deletes all characters from the cursor to the end of the line.
Ctrl-L
Repeats current command line on a new line.
Ctrl-N
Enters the next command line in the history buffer.
Ctrl-P
Enters the last command.
Ctrl-R
Repeats current command line on a new line.
Ctrl-U
Deletes from the cursor to the beginning of the line.
Ctrl-W
Deletes the last word typed.
Esc-B
Moves the cursor back one word.
Esc-D
Deletes from the cursor to the end of the word.
Esc-F
Moves the cursor forward one word.
Delete or backspace
key
Erases a mistake when entering a command.
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Appendix B: Upgrading Firmware Through the Serial Port
The switch contains three firmware components that can be upgraded; the loader code, diagnostics (or
Boot-ROM) code, and runtime operation code. The runtime code can be upgraded via the switch’s RS232
serial console port, via a network connection to a TFTP server, or using SNMP management software. The
loader code and diagnostics code can be upgraded only via the switch’s RS232 serial console port.
You can use the switch’s web interface to download runtime code via TFTP. Downloading large runtime
code files via TFTP is normally much faster than downloading via the switch’s serial port.
You can upgrade switch firmware by connecting a PC directly to the serial Console port on the switch’s front
panel and using VT100 terminal emulation software that supports the XModem protocol. (See section 2.2
Connections.)
Connect a PC to the switch’s Console port using a null-modem or crossover RS-232 cable with a female
DB-9 connector.
Configure the terminal emulation software’s communication parameters to 9600 baud, 8 data bits, 1 stop bit,
no parity, and set flow control to none.
B.1 Power Cycle the Switch.
When the switch initialization screen appears, enter firmware-download mode by pressing Ctrl and u
immediately after power on or rebooting the switch. Screen text similar to that shown below displays:
File Name
--------------------------------$logfile_1
$logfile_2
diag_0070
diag_0074
run_03024
run_10020
--------------------------------[X]modem Download [D]elete File
[C]hange Baudrate [Q]uit
Select>
S/Up Type Size
Create Time
---- ---- ---------- -------0
3
64 00:00:07
0
3
64 00:00:12
0
1
96500 00:06:37
1
1
97780 00:00:05
0
2
1121956 00:21:41
1
2
1124416 00:00:10
---- ---- ---------- -------[S]et Startup File
Press <c> to change the baud rate of the switch’s serial connection.
Press <b> to select the option for 115200 baud.
There are two baud rate settings available, 9600 and 115200. Using the higher baud rate minimizes the time
required to download firmware code files.
Set your PC’s terminal emulation software to match the 115200 baud rate. Press Enter to reset
communications with the switch.
Select>
Change baudrate [A]9600 [B]115200
Baudrate set to 115200
Check that the switch has sufficient flash memory space for the new code file before starting the download.
You can store a maximum of only two runtime and two diagnostic code files in the switch’s flash memory.
Use the [D]elete File command to remove a runtime or diagnostic file.
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Press x to start downloading the new code file.
If using Windows HyperTerminal, click the “Transfer” button, and then click “Send File....” Select the
XModem Protocol and then use the “Browse” button to select the required firmware code file from your PC
system. The “Xmodem file send” window displays the progress of the download procedure.
The download file must be a binary software file for this switch.
After the file has been downloaded, you are prompted with “Update Image File:” to specify the type of code
file. Press R for runtime code, D for diagnostic code, or L for loader code.
If you select L for loader code, be sure the file is a valid loader code file for the switch. If you download an
invalid file, the switch will not be able to boot. Unless absolutely necessary, do not attempt to download
loader code files.
Specify a name for the downloaded code file. File names are case-sensitive, should be from 1 to 31
characters, not contain slashes (\ or /), and the leading letter of the file name should not be a period (.).
(Valid characters: A-Z, a-z, 0-9, “.”, “-”, “_”)
For example, the following screen text shows the download procedure for a runtime code file:
Select> R
Xmodem Receiving Start ::
Image downloaded to buffer.
[R]untime
[D]iagnostic
[L]oader (Warning: you sure what you are doing?)
Update Image File:r
Runtime Image Filename: run_1013
Updating file system.
File system updated.
[Press any key to continue]
To set the new downloaded file as the startup file, use the [S]et Startup File menu option.
When you have finished downloading code files, use the [C]hange Baudrate menu option to change the
baud rate of the switch’s serial connection back to 9600 baud.
Set your PC’s terminal emulation software baud rate back to 9600 baud. Press <Enter> to reset
communications with the switch.
Press <q> to quit the firmware-download mode and boot the switch.
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Appendix C: Software Specifications
Authentication
•
Local, RADIUS, TACACS, Port (802.1x), HTTPS, SSH, Port Security
Access Control Lists
•
IP, MAC (up to 32 lists)
DHCP Client, Relay, Server
DNS Server
Port Configuration
•
1000BASE-T: 10/100/1000 Mbps, half/full duplex
•
1000BASE-SX/LX/LH: 1000 Mbps, full duplex
Flow Control
•
Full Duplex: IEEE 802.3x
•
Half Duplex: Back pressure
Broadcast Storm Control
•
Traffic throttled above a critical threshold
Port Mirroring
•
Multiple source ports, one destination port
Rate Limits
•
Input Limit
•
Output limit
•
Range (configured per port)
Port Trunking
•
Static trunks (Cisco EtherChannel compliant)
•
Dynamic trunks (Link Aggregation Control Protocol)
Spanning Tree Protocol
•
Spanning Tree Protocol (STP, IEEE 802.1D)
•
Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol (RSTP, IEEE 802.1w)
•
Multiple Spanning Tree Protocol (MSTP, IEEE 802.1s)
VLAN Support
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•
Up to 255 groups; port-based, protocol-based, or tagged (802.1Q),
•
GVRP for automatic VLAN learning, private VLANs
Class of Service
•
Supports eight levels of priority and Weighted Round Robin Queueing (configured by VLAN tag or port),
•
Layer 3/4 priority mapping: IP Port, IP Precedence, IP DSCP
Multicast Filtering
•
IGMP Snooping (Layer 2)
•
IGMP (Layer 3)
Multicast Routing
•
DVMRP, PIM-DM
IP Routing
•
ARP, Proxy ARP
•
Static routes
•
RIP, RIPv2 and OSPFv2 dynamic routing
Additional Features
•
BOOTP client
•
SNTP (Simple Network Time Protocol)
•
SNMP (Simple Network Management Protocol)
•
RMON (Remote Monitoring, groups 1,2,3,9)
•
SMTP Email Alerts
Management Features
In-Band Management
•
Telnet, Web-based HTTP or HTTPS, SNMP manager, or Secure Shell
Out-of-Band Management
•
RS-232 DB-9 console port
Software Loading
•
TFTP in-band or XModem out-of-band
SNMP
•
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Management access via MIB database
Asanté IntraCore 36000 Series
•
Trap management to specified hosts
RMON
•
Groups 1, 2, 3, 9 (Statistics, History, Alarm, Event)
Standards
•
IEEE 802.3 Ethernet,
•
IEEE 802.3u Fast Ethernet
•
IEEE 802.3x Full-duplex flow control (ISO/IEC 8802-3)
•
IEEE 802.3z Gigabit Ethernet,
•
IEEE 802.3ab 1000BASE-T
•
IEEE 802.3ac VLAN tagging
•
IEEE 802.1Q VLAN
•
IEEE 802.1v Protocol-based VLANs
•
IEEE 802.3ad Link Aggregation Control Protocol
•
IEEE 802.1D Spanning Tree Protocol and traffic priorities
•
IEEE 802.1p Priority tags
•
IEEE 802.1s Multiple Spanning Tree Protocol
•
IEEE 802.1w Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol
•
IEEE 802.1x Port Authentication
•
ARP (RFC 826)
•
RIP (RFC 1058)
•
DHCP (RFC 1541)
•
HTTPS
•
DVMRP (RFC 1075)
•
ICMP (RFC 792)
•
IGMP (RFC 1112)
•
IGMPv2 (RFC 2236)
•
PIM-DM (draft-ietf-idmr-pim-dm-06)
•
RADIUS+ (RFC 2618)
•
RMON (RFC 1757 groups 1,2,3,9)
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•
SNMP (RFC 1157)
•
SNMPv2 (RFC 1907)
•
RIPv2 (RFC 2453)
•
OSPF (RFC 2328, 1587)
•
SNTP (RFC 2030)
•
SSH (Version 2.0)
Management Information Bases
•
Bridge MIB (RFC 1493)
•
Entity MIB (RFC 2737)
•
Ethernet MIB (RFC 2665)
•
Ether-like MIB (RFC 1643)
•
Extended Bridge MIB (RFC 2674)
•
Extensible SNMP Agents MIB (RFC 2742)
•
Forwarding Table MIB (RFC 2096)
•
IGMP MIB (RFC 2933)
•
Interface Group MIB (RFC 2233)
•
Interfaces Evolution MIB (RFC 2863)
•
IP Multicasting related MIBs
•
MAU MIB (RFC 2668)
•
MIB II (RFC 1213)
•
PIM MIB (RFC 2934)
•
Port Access Entity MIB (IEEE 802.1x)
•
Private MIB
•
Quality of Service MIB
•
RIP1 MIB (RFC 1058)
•
RIP2 MIB (RFC 2453)
•
OSPF MIB (RFC 1850)
•
RADIUS Authentication Client MIB (RFC 2618)
•
RMON MIB (RFC 2819)
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•
RMON II Probe Configuration Group (RFC 2021, partial implementation)
•
TACACS+ Authentication Client MIB
•
TCP MIB (RFC 2013)
•
Trap (RFC 1215)
•
UDP MIB (RFC 2012)
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Appendix D: Troubleshooting and Pinouts
D.1 Troubleshooting Chart
Symptom
Action
Cannot connect using Telnet,
Web browser, or SNMP
software
Be sure you have configured the agent with a valid IP address, subnet
mask and default gateway.
If you are trying to connect to the agent via the IP address for a tagged
VLAN group, your management station must include the appropriate tag
in its transmitted frames.
Check that you have a valid network connection to the switch and that
the port you are using has not been disabled.
Check network cabling between the management station and the switch.
If you cannot connect using Telnet or SSH, you may have exceeded the
maximum number of concurrent Telnet/SSH sessions permitted. Try
connecting again at a later time.
Cannot access the on-board
configuration program via a
serial port connection
Be sure you have set the terminal emulator program to VT100
compatible, 8 data bits, 1 stop bit, no parity, and the baud rate set to any
of the following (9600, 19200, 38400, 57600, 115200 bps).
Check that the null-modem serial cable conforms to the pin-out
connections provided in the Installation Guide.
Forgot or lost the password
Contact your local distributor.
D.2 Console Port Pin Assignments
Refer to the Setup Guide for complete pinout information.
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Appendix E: FCC Compliance and Warranty Statements
E.1 FCC Compliance Statement
This equipment has been tested and found to comply with the limits for a Class A digital device, pursuant to
part 15 of the FCC Rules. These limits are designed to provide reasonable protection against harmful
interference when the equipment is operated in a commercial environment. This equipment generates, uses
and can radiate radio frequency energy and, if not installed and used in accordance with the instructions,
may cause harmful interference to radio communications. Operation of this equipment in a residential area is
likely to cause harmful interference, in which case you will be required to correct the interference at your
own expense.
E.2 Important Safety Instructions
Caution: Do not use an RJ-11 (telephone) cable to connect network equipment.
1. Read all of these instructions.
2. Save these instructions for later use.
3. Follow all warnings and instructions marked on the product.
4. Unplug this product from the wall outlet before cleaning. Do not use liquid cleaners or aerosol cleaners.
Use a damp cloth for cleaning.
5. Do not use this product near water.
6. Do not place this product on an unstable cart or stand. The product may fall, causing serious damage to
the product.
7. The air vent should never be blocked (such as by placing the product on a bed, sofa or rug). This
product should never be placed near or over a radiator or heat register. This product should not be
placed in a built-in installation unless proper ventilation is provided.
8. This product should be operated from the type of power source indicated on the marking label. If you
are not sure of the type of power available, consult your dealer or local power company.
9. This product is equipped with a three-wire grounding type plug, which is a plug having a third
(grounding) pin. This plug will only fit into a grounding type power outlet. This is a safety feature. If you
are unable to insert the plug into the outlet, contact your electrician to replace your outlet. Do not defeat
the purpose of the grounding type plug.
10. Do not allow anything to rest on the power cord. Do not place this product where people will walk on the
cord.
11. If an extension cord is used with this product, make sure that the total ampere ratings on the products
into the extension cord do not exceed the extension cord ampere rating. Also make sure that the total of
all products plugged into the wall outlet does not exceed 15 amperes.
12. Never push objects of any kind into this product through air ventilation slots as they may touch
dangerous voltage points or short out parts that could result in a risk of fire or electric shock. Never spill
liquid of any kind on the product.
13. Do not attempt to service this product yourself. As opening or removing covers may expose you to
dangerous voltage points or other risks. Refer all servicing to service personnel.
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E.3 IntraCare Warranty Statement
Products:
IntraCore 36240
IntraCore 36480
Duration:
3 years product warranty; 1 year technical support and updates
Replacement:
Other Countries: See your local distributor or reseller.
1. Asanté Technologies warrants (to the original end-user purchaser) the covered IntraCore products
against defects in materials and workmanship for the period specified above. If Asanté receives notice
of such defects during the warranty period, Asanté will, at its option, either repair or replace products
that prove to be defective. Replacement products may be either new or like-new.
2. Asanté warrants that Asanté software will not fail to execute its programming instructions, for the period
specified previously, due to defects in material and workmanship when properly installed and used. If
Asanté receives notice of such defects during the warranty period, Asanté will replace software media
that does not execute its programming instructions due to such defects.
3. The warranty period begins on the date of delivery or on the date of installation if installed by Asanté.
4. Warranty does not apply to defects resulting from (a) improper or inadequate maintenance or
calibration, (b) software, interfacing, parts, or supplies not received from Asanté, (c) unauthorized
modification or misuse, (d) operation outside of the published environmental specifications for the
product, or (e) improper site preparation or maintenance. This warranty expressly excludes problems
arising from compatibility with other vendors’ products, or future compatibility due to third-party software
or driver updates.
5. TO THE EXTENT ALLOWED BY LOCAL LAW, THE PREVIOUS WARRANTIES ARE EXCLUSIVE
AND NO OTHER WARRANTY OR CONDITION, WHETHER WRITTEN OR ORAL, IS EXPRESSED
OR IMPLIED AND ASANTÉ SPECIFICALLY DISCLAIMS ANY IMPLIED WARRANTIES OR
CONDITIONS OF MERCHANTABILITY, SATISFACTORY QUALITY, AND FITNESS FOR A
PARTICULAR PURPOSE.
6. TO THE EXTENT ALLOWED BY LOCAL LAW, THE REMEDIES IN THIS WARRANTY STATEMENT
ARE THE CUSTOMER’S SOLE AND EXCLUSIVE REMEDIES. EXCEPT AS INDICATED
PREVIOUSLY, IN NO EVENT WILL ASANTÉ OR ITS SUPPLIERS BE LIABLE FOR LOSS OF DATA
OR FOR DIRECT, SPECIAL, INCIDENTAL, CONSEQUENTIAL (INCLUDING LOST PROFIT OR
DATA), OR OTHER DAMAGE, WHETHER BASED IN CONTRACT, OR OTHERWISE.
Some jurisdictions do not allow the exclusion or limitation of incidental or consequential damages or
imitations on how long an implied warranty lasts, so the previous limitations or exclusions may not apply to
you. This warranty gives you specific legal rights, and you may have other rights, which vary from jurisdiction
to jurisdiction.
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Appendix F. Online Warranty Registration
Please register the switch online at www.asante.com/support/warranty/index.html. By doing so, you’ll be
entitled to special offers, up-to-date information, and important product bulletins.
You may also register the switch by returning the following warranty card by mail.
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