Vector Product Manual
Vector POTS Codec
SECTION
1 ........ INTRODUCTION ...................................................................................... 4
...................... VECTOR FEATURES ...................................................................... 4
...................... PORTABLE UNIT INCLUDES: ............................................................ 4
...................... RACKMOUNT UNIT INCLUDES: ........................................................ 4
...................... ABOUT THE ALGORITHM ............................................................... 5
...................... WHAT COMES WITH THE VECTOR? ................................................. 5
...................... UPGRADES ................................................................................. 5
...................... OPERATIONAL CONSIDERATIONS ..................................................... 5
2 ........ VECTOR MENU SELECTION TREE ................................................................ 6
3 ........ DIAGRAMS AND DESCRIPTIONS OF CONTROLS AND CONNECTORS ....................... 7
...................... PORTABLE - TOP SURFACE DIAGRAM ................................................ 7
...................... PORTABLE - DESCRIPTION OF TOP SURFACE ...................................... 8
...................... PORTABLE - REAR PANEL DIAGRAM ................................................. 10
...................... PORTABLE - DESCRIPTION OF REAR PANEL ........................................ 11
...................... RACKMOUNT - FRONT PANEL DIAGRAM ............................................ 13
...................... RACKMOUNT - DESCRIPTION OF FRONT PANEL .................................. 14
...................... RACKMOUNT - REAR PANEL DIAGRAM .............................................. 15
...................... RACKMOUNT - DESCRIPTION OF REAR PANEL .................................... 16
4 ........ SETTING UP THE VECTOR ......................................................................... 18
...................... POWER CONNECTIONS ................................................................. 18
...................... TELEPHONE CONNECTIONS ........................................................... 18
...................... AUDIO CONNECTIONS - RACKMOUNT .............................................. 18
...................... AUDIO CONNECTIONS - PORTABLE .................................................. 20
...................... ABOUT UNBALANCED CONNECTIONS ............................................... 21
5 ........ CONFIGURING THE VECTOR ...................................................................... 22
...................... POWER UP SEQUENCE ................................................................. 22
...................... SETTING THE MAX RATE .............................................................. 23
...................... PROGRAMMING QDIAL ................................................................. 24
...................... MODEM MONITOR ...................................................................... 24
...................... AUTO ANSWER ........................................................................... 24
...................... TONE/PULSE DIALING .................................................................. 24
...................... AUDIO CODING SELECTION .......................................................... 25
6 ........ PLACING A CALL FROM THE VECTOR ............................................................ 26
...................... DIALING FROM THE KEYPAD .......................................................... 26
...................... DIALING WITH QDIAL ................................................................. 27
...................... ANSWERING A CALL MANUALLY ....................................................... 27
...................... COMPLEX DIALING SITUATIONS ...................................................... 28
...................... USING THE VECTOR IN PLAIN TELEPHONE MODE .............................. 28
...................... HANGING UP THE CALL ................................................................ 28
...................... D ROPPING THE CONNECT RATE DURING A CALL ............................... 29
...................... L AST NUMBER REDIAL ................................................................. 29
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Comrex Corporation
SECTION
7 ........ ADDITIONAL FUNCTIONS .......................................................................... 30
...................... AUTOSAFE MODE ........................................................................ 30
...................... MODEM REBOOT ........................................................................ 30
...................... TEST ........................................................................................ 31
...................... CONTACT CLOSURES ................................................................... 31
...................... ANCILLARY DATA ......................................................................... 32
...................... ABOUT THE VECTOR CONTROL AND DATA SIGNALS ............................ 32
...................... MUTE AUX OUT SELECTION ......................................................... 32
8 ........ HOW TO ACHIEVE OPTIMUM VECTOR PERFORMANCE ...................................... 33
9 ........ SOME OPERATING TIPS ............................................................................ 35
...................... USING LONG DISTANCE ACCESS CODES .......................................... 36
...................... INTERNATIONAL A/C POWER CORDS AND TELEPHONE CONNECTORS ...... 36
...................... DIALING THE VECTOR INTERNATIONALLY .......................................... 37
...................... COMPUTER MODEMS VS. VECTOR MODEM ....................................... 38
10 ...... TECHNICAL DETAILS ................................................................................ 39
...................... TROUBLESHOOTING THE VECTOR ................................................... 39
...................... ABOUT ANCILLARY DATA .............................................................. 41
...................... TROUBLESHOOTING THE ANCILLARY DATA CHANNEL ........................... 43
11 ...... SPECIFICATIONS ...................................................................................... 44
...................... PORTABLE ................................................................................. 44
...................... RACKMOUNT .............................................................................. 45
...................... AUDIO FREQUENCY RESPONSE (PORTABLE & RACKMOUNT) ................. 45
...................... PINOUTS ................................................................................... 46
...................... VECTOR TELSET KILL & +8 DBU JUMPERS ...................................... 47
...................... FCC REQUIREMENTS ................................................................... 50
APPENDIX A ...... MODEM LINE CHECKLIST ............................................................. 51
.................................. A LITTLE BACKGROUND... ................................................. 51
.................................. CHECKLIST .................................................................... 52
.................................. PHONE LINE 101 ........................................................... 54
APPENDIX B ...... ABOUT MIX MINUS .................................................................... 56
...................... “I'M USING MIX-MINUS AND I STILL HEAR AN ECHO!” ...................... 57
SCHEMATICS
.................................. PORTABLE AUDIO SCHEMATIC
.................................. PORTABLE DIGITAL SCHEMATIC
.................................. RACKMOUNT AUDIO SCHEMATIC
.................................. RACKMOUNT DIGITAL SCHEMATIC
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Vector Product Manual
About Comrex
Comrex has been building reliable, high quality broadcast equipment since 1961. Our products are used daily
in every part of the world by networks, stations, and program producers.
Every product we manufacture has been carefully designed to function flawlessly, under the harshest
conditions, over many years of use. Each unit we ship has been individually and thoroughly tested. Most items
are available off-the-shelf, either directly from Comrex or from our stocking dealers.
Comrex stands behind its products. We promise that if you call us for technical assistance, you will talk directly
with someone who knows about the equipment and will do everything possible to help you.
Our toll free number in North America is 800-237-1776. The toll free number from the United Kingdom is
0-800-96-2093. Product information along with Engineering Notes and User Reports are available through our
Fax-on-Demand system. Simply dial 978-264-9973 from any TouchTone phone and follow the instructions.
This information can also be found on the World Wide Web at http://www.comrex.com. Our internet E-Mail
address is info@comrex.com.
Warranty and Disclaimer
All equipment manufactured by Comrex Corporation is warranted by Comrex against defects in material and
workmanship for one year from the date of original purchase, as verified by the return of the Warranty
Registration Card. During the warranty period, we will repair or, at our option, replace at no charge a product
that proves to be defective, provided you obtain return authorization from Comrex and return the product,
shipping prepaid, to Comrex Corporation, 65 Nonset Path, Acton, MA 01720 USA. For return authorization,
contact Comrex at 800-237-1776 or 978 263-1800 or fax 978-635-0401.
This Warranty does not apply if the product has been damaged by accident or misuse or as the result of service
or modification performed by anyone other than Comrex Corporation.
With the exception of the warranties set forth above, Comrex Corporation makes no other warranties,
expressed or implied or statutory, including but not limited to warranties of merchantability and fitness for a
particular purpose, which are hereby expressly disclaimed. In no event shall Comrex Corporation have any
liability for indirect, consequential or punitive damages resulting from the use of this product.
Copyright Notice
The Comrex proprietary code and licensed, third party proprietary code residing in and otherwise associated
with this product are protected by copyright law and international treaties. Unauthorized reproduction or
distribution of this product, or any portion of it, may result in civil and criminal sanctions, and will be
prosecuted to the fullest extent of the law.
US Government Restricted Rights - Use, duplication, or disclosure by the US Government is subject to
restrictions set forth in subparagraph (c)(1)(ii) of the Rights in Technical Data and Computer Software clause at
DFARS (48 CFR) 252.227-7013 or subparagraphs (c)(1) and (2) of the Commercial Computer Software Restricted Rights clause at FAR (48 CFR) 52.227-19, as applicable.
3
Comrex Corporation
SECTION 1.
INTRODUCTION
The Comrex Vector is a digital audio transmission device for analog telephone
lines. The Vector allows wideband, broadcast quality audio to pass through a
telephone channel which otherwise supports only “toll quality” voice
transmission. Here’s a short list of the Vector’s features:
VECTOR FEATURES
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PORTABLE UNIT INCLUDES:
Full duplex FM quality audio bandwidth at connect rates of 24 kb/s
and above.
Full duplex audio scales from 12.7 kHz to 4.7 kHz at connect rates
of 21.6 kb/s to 9.6 kb/s.
Easy to use dialing and configuring interface.
Available in portable or rackmount chassis.
Automatically connects at highest possible rate supported by
telephone connection.
Monitors line quality and renegotiates should line degrade.
Ability to dial and answer telephone calls in “Plain Telephone Mode.”
Two tally closures (one on connection, one triggered by the user).
Ability to inter-operate with a Comrex HotLine.
Ability to store 49 telephone numbers and last number dialed in
nonvolatile memory.
100 mS coding delay is short enough to allow two-way conversation.
Four channel microphone mixer (2 channels mic/line selectable)
Three headphone outputs (adjustable mix of send /receive audio)
Balanced line level audio out (adjustable mix of send/receive audio)
Input and output kill buttons
Spotter/producer input
Rugged, lightweight plastic chassis with rubber cushioning
RACKMOUNT UNIT INCLUDES:
4
Internal universal AC power supply
Balanced line level audio in/out
Mic/line switchable IFB input
Ability to dial on contact closure
Ability to remote control IFB and contact closure
Vector Product Manual
ABOUT THE ALGORITHM
The Vector utilizes audio coding which is uniquely suited to the task of
moving high quality audio along the narrow data channels provided by
analog modems. The Vector algorithm draws on principles from various
previous coding methods, yet doesn't incorporate the long processing
delays (which equates to audio delay) that plague other coding schemes.
While the Vector algorithm does not provide true “transparency” to the
reconstructed audio, much work has been done to place the artifacts that
do exist in a place where they will be less irritating to the listeners.
WHAT COMES WITH
VECTOR?
The following items are shipped with a new Vector:
UPGRADES
A substantial portion of the functions and features of the Vector is software
driven, which will allow upgrades to these units by a simple exchange of
EPROMs. We will keep our customers apprised of software updates and
make these available at no charge. In order to assure that we will be able
to contact you, please be sure to return the warranty card with complete
address and contact information.
OPERATIONAL
CONSIDERATIONS
Two Vectors (or a Vector and a HotLine) are required — one at each end
of the telephone line. Cellular telephones are not suitable for use with the
Vector because they do not transfer data at a sufficiently consistent data
rate. The Vector requires a moderately high quality telephone line on each
end of the call and may have performance issues if the telephone
connection has excessive noise, hum or crosstalk. As a general rule, avoid
connecting through in-house PABX systems. A direct, outside line should
be used for best performance. For further details on telephone line quality
issues, we suggest you read the “Modem Line Checklist” in Appendix A on
page 51 of the manual. Also, because the Vector's algorithm creates a small
coding delay, it is necessary to send a “Mix Minus” feed from the studio
back to the remote site. For more on Mix-Minus, refer to Appendix B on
page 56 of the manual.
A
(1) Comrex Vector POTS codec (Portable or Rackmount)
(1) A/C Power module with A/C cord (Rackmount unit has only A/C cord)
(1) RJ11C modular telephone cord
(1) Operating Manual
(1) Warranty Card (Please fill out and return)
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Comrex Corporation
SECTION 2.
Menu
VECTOR MENU SELECTION TREE
Place a Call
Configure
Keypad
Key in number now
Ext phone
Dial w/Ext Phone--Press OK when far end answers
Telephone Mode
Press Off Hook and Dial the Number
Modem\Dial
Max Rate
Select new MaxRate
(33600...12000)
Prgrm Qdial
Qdial #(01-49)
Key in #
More
Modem Mon
On
Off
Auto Ans
On
Off
Tone\Pulse
Tone
Pulse
Audio in\out*
(Portable)
Audio Coding
Test
Qdial # (01-49)
Redial
Dialing (xxxxxxxxxxxx)
6
Answering
Mix
Split
Mute Switch
Mute Local
Mute Rtrn
Mute Both
Music
Voice
Choose a Data Rate for Test (33600...12000)
QDial
Answer Call
Headphones
*Audio in\out
(Rackmount)
Input audio
-10 dbu
0 dbu
+4 dbu
Output audio
-10 dbu
0 dbu
+4 dbu
Vector Product Manual
SECTION 3.
DIAGRAMS AND DESCRIPTIONS OF CONTROLS AND CONNECTORS
The rackmount and portable versions of the Vector are so different they
are described separately.
PORTABLE - TOP SURFACE DIAGRAM
1) INPUT LEVEL CONTROLS 1, 2, & 3
9) MENU SOFTKEYS
2) RETURN AUDIO LEVEL FOR HEADPHONES 1, 2, & 3
10) MUTE AUDIO IN BUTTON
3) LOCAL AUDIO LEVEL FOR HEADPHONES 1, 2, & 3
11) DIALING KEYPAD
4) HEADPHONE JACKS 1, 2, & 3
12) MUTE AUX OUT BUTTON
5) CC INDICATOR
13) AUX INPUT LEVEL CONTROL
6) READY INDICATOR
14) RETURN AUDIO LEVEL FOR AUX OUT
7) RING/CD INDICATOR
15) LOCAL AUDIO LEVEL FOR AUX OUT
8) VU METER
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Comrex Corporation
PORTABLE - DESCRIPTION OF TOP SURFACE
1
INPUT LEVEL CONTROLS
1, 2, & 3
These knobs control the input audio level for audio channels 1, 2, and 3 respectively. The knobs are color coded. Adjust each mixer channel using these knobs
until an appropriate indication is achieved on the VU meter (when the VU meter
peaks just over the “0” mark, which is the yellow LED ).
2
RETURN AUDIO LEVEL FOR
HEADPHONES 1, 2, & 3
These knobs determine the level of the audio on each headphone that is received
from the other end of the link. Adjust these knobs until a comfortable listening
level is achieved. If you do not wish to hear any return audio on any particular
headphone, turn that control all the way down. The headphone control knobs are
color coded to coincide with the input level controls.
3
LOCAL AUDIO LEVEL FOR
HEADPHONES 1, 2, & 3
These knobs determine the level of the audio on each headphone that is generated
locally, within the Vector. This includes all the mics and other sources plugged
into the Vector as well as the aux input, if it is set up as a producer or spotter feed.
Adjust this knob until a comfortable listening level is achieved on the headphones.
If you do not wish to hear any local audio on any particular headphone, turn that
control all the way down. The headphone control knobs are color coded to
coincide with the input level controls.
Note: The headphones can be set up two different ways in the menu system. The
first option is to hear the same mix of local and return audio in both sides of each
headphone. The second option allows for a “split feed,” where the local audio is
heard in the left side of the headphones only, and the return audio is only heard in
the right side. See page 21 for more details and configuration.
4
HEADPHONE JACKS
1, 2, & 3
These are 3 conductor 1/4 inch headphone jacks (suitable for most stereo
headphones).
5
CC INDICATOR
This indicator lights up when the person using the Vector or Hotline on the other
end sends an “alert signal” via their keypad. On the Vector, they will have pushed
the CC key, and on the Hotline, they will have pushed the ENTER key. A contact
closure is available on the rear panel which follows this indication.
6
READY INDICATOR
This is a signal from the digital audio decoder which signifies it has locked onto
the incoming digital audio signal. This will usually light up a few seconds after
connection, and go out if a retrain is necessary, or if the codec “loses sync” for any
reason. A contact closure which follows this indication is available on the
rear panel.
7
RING/CD INDICATOR
When the Vector receives an incoming call, this light will flash to indicate the line
ringing. When the modem inside the Vector is connected to another compatible
codec, this light will be on steady.
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Vector Product Manual
8
VU METER
This provides an indication of the audio level being fed into the Vector. It
doesn’t mirror the receive audio in any way. Most users set input level so the
VU meter peaks just over the “0” mark, which is the yellow LED on the Vector.
9
MENU SOFTKEYS
These work like the buttons on an Automatic Teller Machine. Depending on
your menu selection, one or more of the keys will offer you the different
choices in that menu.
10
MUTE AUDIO IN
This is a toggle switch which kills all audio going into the Vector when
activated. It can be used as a “cough” switch, or simply a way to keep your
conversations private during a break. When this button is depressed, the VU
meter will no longer show the input audio level for any input channel.
11
DIALING KEYPAD
Use this keypad to place calls, either in Vector or POTS Mode. Note: The *
and # keys have dual functions. The * key allows you to access an on-line
help display, describing in detail the function of whichever menu you are
currently accessing. The # key is used while on-line to send the CC signal to
the other end.
12
MUTE AUX OUT
This is a toggle switch which will kill the audio feed provided on the AUX OUT
audio output on the rear panel. Like the headphone channels, this line level
output is a user-adjustable mix of local and return audio. This button can be
configured via the menu to mute only the return audio, only the local audio,
or both. This can be useful when the Vector is connected to a PA system at a
remote venue, and you don’t want some programming to be heard over the
PA.
13
AUX INPUT LEVEL CONTROL
This knob determines the input level for the audio at the AUX IN connector. If
this connector has been configured to be a main program channel, the level
will appear on the VU meter. If the AUX IN has been configured as a producer/
spotter channel, no VU indication will appear, but the level control still
adjusts this level into the headphones. You may wish to set this level with the
channel configured in the “program mode” then switch it to the “spotter/
producer” mode, if desired. (See “Portable Input 4” on page 20 for details.)
14
RETURN AUDIO LEVEL FOR
AUX OUT
This knob controls the level of the audio present on the AUX OUT connector
that is sent from the far end of the link. If you do not wish to hear any return
audio from this output, turn the knob all the way down. The knob is color
coded to coincide with the aux in knob.
15
LOCAL AUDIO LEVEL FOR
AUX OUT
This knob controls the level of the audio present on the AUX OUT connector
that is locally mixed within the Vector, including channels 1-3, and AUX IN if
configured as a program channel.
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Comrex Corporation
PORTABLE - REAR PANEL DIAGRAM
16) CHANNEL 1 INPUT MICROPHONE CONNECTOR
17) CHANNEL 2 INPUT MICROPHONE CONNECTOR
18) CHANNEL 3 INPUT CONNECTOR
19) POWER CONNECTOR STRAIN RELIEF
20) CHANNEL 3 MIC/LINE SWITCH
21) POWER JACK
22) CC RECEIVE CLOSURE
23) READY CLOSURE
24) TEL SET JACK
25) TEL LINE JACK
26) ACCESSORY PORT
27) AUX OUT CONNECTOR
28) AUX IN MIC/LINE SWITCH
29) AUX IN CONNECTOR
30) AUX IN CONTROL SWITCH
31) POWER SWITCH
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Vector Product Manual
PORTABLE - DESCRIPTION OF REAR PANEL CONTROLS
16 & 17 CHANNEL 1 & 2
INPUT MIC CONNECTORS
These 3 pin female XLR connectors are designed to accept balanced,
microphone level audio feeds. The input level for these channels is
adjustable via the knobs in the left and middle positions as shown in #1 of
the Top Surface diagram on page 7.
18 CHANNEL 3
INPUT CONNECTOR
This 3 pin female XLR connector is designed to accept a balanced,
microphone or line level audio feed. The input level for this connector is
adjustable via the top surface control in the right position as shown in #1 of
the Top Surface diagram. The level is selectable between nominal mic or
line level via the associated switch. (See #20)
19 POWER CONNECTOR STRAIN
RELIEF
This built in clip is designed to sit over the cord feeding the power
connector, providing protection against the connector pulling out if
someone should tug on the cord. To use it, simply feed the power cable
under the clip before connecting it to the Vector.
20 CHANNEL 3
MIC/LINE SWITCH
This switch determines whether audio input #3 is configured to receive a
microphone level (-80 to -40 dBu) or line level (-10 to +4 dBu) audio input.
21 POWER JACK
This is a 2-conductor barrel connector designed to mate with the Vector
power supply module. Be sure to attach only the power supply provided
from Comrex here. The Vector requires 5V on this connector.
22 CC RECEIVE CLOSURE
This mini jack is a dry contact closure which triggers closed when the Vector
is on-line and the far end sends a CC command via the keypad.
23 READY CLOSURE
This mini jack provides a dry contact closure when the digital audio decoder
achieves synchronization with an incoming digital audio signal — i.e., when
the decoder is decoding audio. This closure follows the READY light next to
the front panel display.
24 TEL SET JACK
This RJ-11 jack is for attaching an external telephone to the Vector. This can
be useful for dialing especially complicated numbers with lots of pauses and
special codes. It can also serve to provide an audible “ring” when an
incoming call is received. By default, this jack is disconnected from the
telephone line when the Vector is off-hook. For this reason, if you connect
the telephone line to this jack, the Vector will not work.
25 TEL LINE JACK
This RJ-11 jack is for attaching the telephone line from the outside world to
the Vector. Be careful what you plug into here. Some PABXs contain
voltages which can damage the Vector.
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Comrex Corporation
26 ACCESSORY PORT
This 9-pin female connector provides connection for a 300 bps ancillary
data channel when the Vector is operating in VOICE MODE and if the connect
rate is 16.8 kb/s or higher. This port may be used for additional applications
with future software upgrades.
27 AUX OUT CONNECTOR
This 3-pin male XLR output provides a mix of codec return and local audio
from the Vector. It is a balanced, line level audio feed, whose level is
adjustable via the AUX OUT RETURN and AUX OUT LOCAL knobs on the top
surface. Suitable for connection to a PA system, it can be selectively muted
via the top surface MUTE AUX OUT control. (See page 32.)
28 AUX IN MIC/LINE SWITCH
When this switch is “up,” the AUX IN connector (#29) is configured to
receive a microphone level (-80 to -40 dBu) audio level. When this switch is
“down,” the AUX IN is configured to receive a line level (-10 to +4 dBu). At
either setting, the level is adjustable via the AUX IN control knob on the top
surface.
29 AUX IN CONNECTOR
This is a 3-pin female XLR connector suitable for balanced mic or line level
audio (dependent on the setting of switch #28). It can be used as a main
program channel or as a spotter/producer input (dependent on the setting
of switch #30 ).
30 AUX IN CONTROL SWITCH
If this switch is “up,” the audio present at the AUX IN connector is not heard
on air. Instead, it is heard only in the headphones. This is useful if a
producer or spotter is present who is to be heard only by the people on-air.
If this switch is “down,” AUX IN becomes a main program channel and
functions just like the channel 3 input.
31 POWER SWITCH
0 = off, 1 = on. These markings are screened directly on the rocker switch.
12
Vector Product Manual
RACKMOUNT - FRONT PANEL DIAGRAM
1) IFB BUTTON
2) RING/CARRIER DETECT (CD) INDICATOR
3) READY INDICATOR
4) CONTACT CLOSURE (CC) INDICATOR
5) VU METER
6) MENU SOFTKEYS
7) DIALING KEYPAD
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Comrex Corporation
RACKMOUNT - DESCRIPTION OF FRONT PANEL CONTROLS AND INDICATORS
1
IFB BUTTON
This is a momentary switch which, when depressed, removes the input
audio from the Vector codec section and applies a secondary or IFB audio
channel. The most common use of IFB is to route the station’s air signal
into the main audio input and a producer microphone into the IFB input.
Then, when the button is pressed, the air signal is interrupted briefly while
the producer speaks. The function of this button is remote controllable via
mini jack on the rear panel.
2
RING/CD INDICATOR
When the Vector receives an incoming call, this light will flash to indicate
the line ringing. When the modem inside the Vector is connected to
another compatible codec, this light will be on steadily.
3
READY INDICATOR
This is a signal from the digital audio decoder which signifies it has locked
onto the incoming digital audio bitstream. This will usually light up a few
seconds after connection and go out if a retrain is necessary — or if the
codec “loses sync” for any reason. A contact closure which follows this
indication is available on the rear panel.
4
CC INDICATOR
This indicator lights up when the person using the Vector or Hotline on
the other end sends an “alert signal” via their keypad. On the Vector, they
will have pushed the CC key, and on the Hotline, they will have pushed the
ENTER key. A contact closure is available on the rear panel which follows this
indication.
5
VU METER
This provides an indication of the audio level being fed into the Vector. It
doesn’t mirror the receive audio in any way. Most users set input level so
the VU peaks just over the “0” mark, which is the yellow LED on the Vector.
6
MENU SOFTKEYS
These work like the buttons on an ATM. Depending on your menu
selection, one or more of the keys will offer you the different choices in
that menu.
7
DIALING KEYPAD
Use this keypad to place calls, either in Vector or POTS Mode. Note that the
* and # keys have dual functions. The * key allows you to access an on-line
help display, describing in detail the function of whichever menu you are
currently accessing. The # key is used while on-line to send the CC signal
to the other end.
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Vector Product Manual
RACKMOUNT - REAR PANEL DIAGRAM
8) POWER/SWITCH/FUSE OUTLET
9) TEL SET JACK
10) TEL LINE JACK
11) ACCESSORY PORT
12) AUX CONNECTOR
13) CC SEND CONTROL
14) CC RECEIVE CLOSURE
15) READY CLOSURE
16) IFB REMOTE CONTROL
17) OUTPUT CONNECTOR
18) INPUT CONNECTOR
19) IFB INPUT CONNECTOR
20) IFB LEVEL CONTROL
21) IFB MIC/LINE SWITCH
15
Comrex Corporation
RACKMOUNT - DESCRIPTION OF REAR PANEL CONTROLS AND CONNECTORS
8
POWER/SWITCH/FUSE
OUTLET
This is an IEC connector for the main power. The Vector works on any worldwide
AC power, from 100-240VAC. The power switch is also integrated into this connector (0 = off, 1 = on), as well as the fuse holder. Use only the fuse specified on
page 45 in the Specifications section of this manual.
9
TEL SET JACK
This RJ-11 jack is for attaching an external telephone to the Vector. This can be
useful for dialing especially complicated numbers with lots of pauses and special
codes. It can also serve to provide an audible “ring” when an incoming call is
received. By default, this jack is disconnected from the telephone line when the
Vector is off-hook. For this reason, if you connect the telephone line to this jack,
the Vector will not work.
10
TEL LINE JACK
This RJ-11 jack is for attaching the telephone line from the outside world to the
Vector. Be careful what you plug into here. Some PABXs contain voltages which
can damage the Vector.
11
ACCESSORY PORT
This 9 pin female connector provides connection for a 300 bps ancillary data
channel when the Vector is operating in VOICE MODE and if the connect rate is 16.8
kb/s or higher. This port may be used for additional applications with future
software upgrades.
12
AUX CONNECTOR
This mini jack is an input which will provide several features planned for the
future, the first of which is the ability to dial the first stored phone number when
this contact is closed. This makes the Vector useful as a backup to your STL. (See
page 30 for more details.)
13
CC SEND CONTROL
This mini jack allows the user to remote control the CC button on the front
keypad. When the Vector is on-line, a closure here will send a signal to the other
end and close the CC receive relay and light the CC light on the other Vector.
14
CC RECEIVE CLOSURE
This mini jack is a dry contact closure which triggers closed when the Vector is online and the far end sends the CC command via the keypad.
15
READY CLOSURE
This mini jack provides a dry contact closure when the digital audio decoder
achieves synchronization with an incoming digital audio signal. ie: the decoder is
decoding audio. This closure follows the READY light on the front panel.
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Vector Product Manual
16 IFB REMOTE CONTROL
This mini jack allows you to remote control the function of the “IFB”
button on the front panel. When the two conductors on this jack are
closed together, the main audio input is disconnected from the codec and
replaced with audio on the IFB input.
17 OUTPUT CONNECTOR
This is a 3-pin male XLR connector containing balanced output audio. The
rackmount Vector does not mix any local audio into this output. The only
audio heard here will be coming from the far end. The level of this output
is adjustable via the menu system.
18 INPUT CONNECTOR
This is a 3-pin female XLR connector designed to accept balanced, line
level audio. This audio is sent into the encoder on the Vector and is
reflected on the front panel VU meter. The nominal level of this input is
selectable via the menu system.
19 IFB INPUT CONNECTOR
This is a 3-pin female XLR connector designed to accept balanced audio
for the IFB function. When IFB is engaged, this audio will be sent to the
encoder instead of the main audio.
20 IFB LEVEL CONTROL
This is a recessed level control which may be adjusted with a small screwdriver. After applying IFB audio, engage the IFB and adjust this control for
proper reading on the VU meter.
21 IFB MIC/LINE SWITCH
When this switch is in (red indicator), the IFB input connector and level
control are set to accept a line-level audio signal (-10 to +4 dBu). When
this switch is out, (black indicator), the connector and control are set for
direct connection to a microphone (-80 to -40 dBu).
17
Comrex Corporation
SECTION 4
POWER CONNECTIONS
SETTING UP THE VECTOR
Rackmount — Attach the supplied IEC power cable to the Vector power inlet.
Attach the other end to A/C power. Turn on power to the Vector via the power
switch adjacent to the power cord socket. 0 = off on this switch and 1 = on.
The Vector display should light up, and you should see the introductory screen
replaced shortly by the STATUS screen. See “Power Up Sequence” on page 22.
Portable — Attach the external power supply to the connector on the rear
panel marked “power.” If you wish, route this cable under the plastic clip to
provide a strain relief. Attach the provided A/C power cord to the power
supply, and apply A/C power. Turn the Vector on using the rear panel power
switch (0 = off and 1 = on). The Vector display should light up. You will then
see the introductory screen followed shortly by the STATUS screen. See “Power
Up Sequence” on page 22.
18
TELEPHONE CONNECTIONS
Rackmount and Portable — Attach the supplied telephone (RJ-11) cable to the
jack on the rear panel of the Vector labeled TEL LINE. This plug also fits into the
TELSET jack, but the Vector won’t work if you attach the cable here. Connect the
other end of the telephone cable to the telephone jack provided by the phone
company. Note: If you plan to use a PABX connection, you may damage the
Vector by plugging it into the jack. If you’re unsure about this, better to try a
cheap telephone first before plugging in the Vector. Usually, any jack which will
support a fax machine or computer modem can be used with the Vector,
although use on PABXs usually results in less than optimal performance. Under
rare circumstances, you may wish to connect a telephone to the jack on the
Vector labeled TEL SET. This will allow you to hear the telephone line ring when
an incoming call comes — or just to use the phone line for other purposes
when not on-air. Also, an external telephone may be used to dial the Vector
when the dialing functions of the Vector won’t fit the bill (very long, complex
dialing strings with lots of digits and prompts). But usually, you’ll leave this
jack unconnected.
AUDIO CONNECTIONS RACKMOUNT
Rackmount Input — Connect your send audio to the jack on the rear panel
labeled INPUT. This jack is designed to accept line level, balanced audio. If you
will be delivering unbalanced audio to the Vector (not recommended) see the
section on page 21 called “Unbalanced Audio Connections.” The nominal input
level to the Vector is 0dBu (.775V) but can be changed to -10 and +4 dbu via
the menu. A +8 dBu level can also be selected via an internal jumper, see page
49. Beyond that, you will need to adjust the level of the device feeding the
Vector to achieve an appropriate level. Once the audio is connected correctly,
you will see the level reflected on the front panel VU meter.
Vector Product Manual
To set the input level to the Vector, press the MENU softkey in the STATUS menu.
Next press CONFIGURE to enter the configuration options and then AUDIO IN/OUT to
access the level menu. Select the INPUT LEVEL softkey. You can make your choice
between the three nominal levels, -10, 0 and +4 dBu. Whichever level you
select will be stored in the Vector until it is changed, even after being powered
off. Once the correct level is selected, watch the VU meter for appropriate
deflection. Most users like to see a VU meter peak occasionally over the “0”
mark, which is the yellow LED on this meter. If you cannot achieve a good
input level using the available selections, you will need to adjust the level of
the device feeding the Vector.
Rackmount IFB Input — If you plan on using the IFB function, you will first
need to decide whether you will be delivering a microphone or line level IFB
audio signal. In the IFB box on the rear panel, there is a mic/line switch which
will need to be set appropriately before you connect your audio. Once this
switch is set, connect your IFB audio feed to the XLR connector labeled IFB
INPUT. The IFB level can be adjusted using the recessed level control next to the
IFB INPUT connector. To adjust this level, send IFB audio into the device and
press the front panel IFB button to activate it. Adjust the level control with a
small screwdriver until a good deflection is seen on the front panel VU meter.
Because the IFB input has a wider input range and accepts microphone level,
you may wish to make this your main and only audio input. This is easily done
by building a two conductor 1/8" mini plug with the conductors connected
together. Insert the plug into the mini jack on the rear panel labeled IFB
REMOTE CONTROL and the unit will remain in IFB Mode permanently.
Rackmount Output — Attach your balanced output audio connector to the
male XLR on the rear panel labeled OUTPUT. If you require unbalanced audio
from the Vector, see the section on page 21 called “Unbalanced Audio
Connections.” Like the input level, the output level is factory configured for
0dBu (.775V) nominal but can be set via the menu for -10, 0 or +4 dBu (+8 is
available via internal jumpers—see page 49). To do this, press the MENU
selection on the status display, followed by CONFIGURE. Select AUDIO IN/OUT, then
OUTPUT LEVEL. Select which level you’d like here. Your selection will remain until
it is changed, even after powered off. There is an easy way to check the output
level of the Vector, even before placing a call. First, set up your input level so it
has audio at the correct level. From the status display, press MENU to access the
main menu. Now select TEST. Choose any loopback test here, #2 is a good
choice. The READY light on the front panel is on now, and you can monitor the
audio you are sending through the output port. Assuming the end to which
you’re connected has set their input level correctly, this is the approximate
level you will receive on the output. You may adjust the input stage of the
device being fed from the Vector based on this level.
19
Comrex Corporation
AUDIO CONNECTIONS PORTABLE
Portable Inputs 1, 2, & 3 — The portable Vector has four inputs. First we will
tackle channels 1 and 2, which are microphone level only inputs. As you look at
the unit from the rear, these are the 3 pin female XLR connectors farthest to the
right. Both channels operate the same way. Connect your microphone to either
of these XLRs, and adjust your input level via the channel 1 or 2 input level
control — on the top surface. The input level will be reflected on the VU meter.
Most users like to see a VU meter peak occasionally over the “0” mark, which is
the yellow LED on this meter. If you cannot achieve a good input level, make
sure the top surface button labeled MUTE AUDIO INPUTS is disengaged (no red
showing). If that doesn’t work, you will need to try a different microphone or
cable. These inputs do not support microphones which require phantom
power. Channel 3 input works much the same way, but you can select whether
you wish to feed a microphone or line level source into this input. If you are
connecting a microphone, the switch next to the channel 3 input connector
must be up. Otherwise, set the switch down and feed a balanced line level into
the connector. If your source is unbalanced, read the section on page 21
“Connecting Unbalanced Audio.” In any case, you will control the input level
with the top surface Channel 3 input level knob until you get a good reading on
the VU meter.
Portable Input 4 — Channel 4 has more options than the others. To get started,
set the control switch furthest to the left on the rear panel to the “down”
position. This will make channel 4 a regular program channel. Now select
whether you will be feeding a mic or line level input into channel 4, and set the
channel 4 mic/line switch appropriately. Now feed some typical audio into
channel 4, and adjust the level on the VU meter using the channel 4 input level
control on the top surface. If you plan on using channel 4 as a regular program
channel, you’re done with your input audio setup. If you’d like to use channel 4
as a spotter or producer input, move the control switch (the one on the far left)
to the “up” position. Channel 4 will now not be heard on-air (or seen on the
VU) but can be heard in the headphones.
Headphone Outputs 1, 2, and 3 — All work the same way so we’ll describe
headphone 1 operation and you can take it from there. First you must
determine whether you want the headphone audio to be SPLIT or MIXED. The
Vector headphones feed the user two different audio sources . The first is called
RETURN which is all the audio being sent from the other end of the link. The
second is called LOCAL which contains all the microphones and other sources
connected to the Vector itself. The Vector can be configured to “split” these two
sources (feed local audio into the left headphone and return into the right) or
“mix” the two sources (feed both left and right with the same mix). Only one
selection is allowed for all three headphones. If you won’t be listening to one of
the audio sources, we recommend the MIX option so the remaining source will
be fed to both headphone ears.
20
Vector Product Manual
To select an option, press the MENU softkey on the STATUS display to access the
main menu. Now select CONFIGURE. From the CONFIGURE selections, select AUDIO IN/
OUT. Now select HEADPHONES. Choose the MIX or SPLIT options here. Your choice
will remain in memory until it is changed, even after the power is off.
You must have stereo headphones to use with the Vector. Plug the headphones
into the number 1 headphone jack. Feed some audio into one of the inputs and
get a good level on the VU meter. Turn both headphone controls (LOCAL and
RETURN) for channel 1 all the way down. First we’ll set the level for the return
audio, then the local. Press the MENU softkey on the display to access the main
menu. Now press TEST. Select any loopback test here; #2 is a good choice. The
READY light next to the display should now come on. Now turn up the channel 1
knob (farthest column on the left) labeled RETURN until you hear the audio clearly.
When finished, press any key to exit the test mode, and press CANCEL and EXIT to
get back to the status display. You have now set the correct headphone level for
the audio which will come to you from the other end of the link. Now we must
adjust the level of the audio being generated in the Vector. Turn up the headphone 1 control labeled LOCAL until you get a comfortable listening level. Your
headphone adjustment is complete. Feel free to adjust LOCAL and RETURN after a
connection is made to achieve the right balance and overall level. Headphones 2
and 3 are adjusted the same way. In some situations, you may wish to hear only
LOCAL or only RETURN audio in a particular headphone. Simply turn the unwanted
audio control for that headphone all the way down.
Auxiliary Output 4 —
—There is one line level audio output on the Vector portable,
labeled AUX OUT. Like the headphone outputs, this is an adjustable mix of LOCAL
and RETURN audio, but it is at a balanced line level on a 3 pin male XLR. The XLR
connector is on the rear panel of the Vector, and the LOCAL and RETURN level
controls are on the top surface. Use the same procedure outlined in the
headphone section to set the correct levels at this port.
ABOUT UNBALANCED
CONNECTIONS
It is best when using professional audio gear to connect everything together
using balanced audio connections. Sometimes, however, it is unavoidable to
connect to consumer equipment with unbalanced connections. If you must use
unbalanced audio, here’s how to connect to the Vector:
Vector inputs — When driving the Vector from an unbalanced source, connect
pins 1 and 3 together on the Vector input XLR. This gets connected to the
ground signal on your unbalanced device. Connect pin 2 on the Vector XLR to
the unbalanced device’s audio + connection.
Vector outputs — The Vector uses active balanced outputs designed to drive
unbalanced sources directly. This means there won’t be any level difference
when feeding an unbalanced source. On the Vector output XLR, connect pins 1
and 3 together, and tie this to ground on your unbalanced device. Tie pin 2 on
the Vector XLR to audio + on the unbalanced device.
21
Comrex Corporation
SECTION 5
POWER UP SEQUENCE
CONFIGURING THE VECTOR
When the Vector is connected to power and turned on, the initializing
menu appears for approximately two seconds. It is during this initializing
period that the powerup sequence can be interrupted to change the
dialing parameters of the modem for various international protocols or to
reboot the modem by pressing the HELP key. (Refer to page 30 for further
details on modem reboot and to page 37 for international codes.) The
country code selection is retained in nonvolatile memory.
As delivered from the factory, the Vector is configured for North American
dialing protocols. The dialing protocol selected is displayed momentarily
after the initializing screen. The Vector then shows the main STATUS display.
The main setup options are displayed in the lower left portion of the
screen. As shipped from the factory, the Vector STATUS display will be the
same as the screen shown below. Again, these selections will remain in
nonvolatile memory until changed.
initializing....
Configured for
North America
Status
¨ Max Rate 33,600
¨ Music Mode
¨ Modem Mon on
¨ Auto answer on
22
Menu
Q Dial
Redial
Answer
Call
Vector Product Manual
SETTING THE MAX RATE
The Max Rate option allows you to limit the maximum modem connect
rate. If the Vector is allowed to negotiate on an unrestricted basis, it will
find the highest possible connect rate. Since telephone line connections
can vary over time due to crosstalk, burst errors and other changing
parameters, the initial connect rate may not be sustainable. It may help to
set a Max Rate at a level or two below the maximum unrestricted rate to
provide a “guard band” of sorts against the noise and corruption which
may cause errors on the line. If two Vectors are configured for Max Rate,
the unit with the lowest Max Rate setting will determine the maximum
connect rate.
To set the Max Rate, press MENU from the STATUS display. Then press
CONFIGURE and then MODEM\DIAL. Choose MAX RATE and, using the keypad,
press the number which corresponds to the Max Rate setting you want.
Status
¨ Max Rate 33,600
¨ Music Mode
¨ Modem Mon on
¨ Auto answer on
Main
Menu
Menu
Q Dial
Redial
Ü
Answer
Call
Place a call
Configure
Test
Exit
Ü
Ü
Config
Menu
Modem\Dial
Audio in\out
Audio Coding
Exit
Modem
Dialing
Options
Max Rate
Prgrm Qdial
More
Exit
Ü
Choose a
new max
rate
0=33600
1=31200
2=28800
3=26400
4=24000
5=21600
6=19200
7=16800
8=14400
9=12000
Cancel
23
Comrex Corporation
PROGRAMMING QDIAL
Up to 39 numbers may be pre-programmed into the Vector and then
recalled through the quick dial or “QDial” button on the STATUS Display.
These numbers will remain in memory even when power is turned off.
The number programmed into the QDial #01 location is used by the
AUTOSAFE Mode. (See page 30 for more information on Autosafe Mode.)
To program a QDial number into memory, press MENU in the STATUS
display. Then press CONFIGURE and MODEM\DIAL. Select PRGRM QDIAL. Enter
the QDial position you wish to use (i.e. “01”) and then key in the number
to dial, including any country, area or other codes you wish (up to 44
digits). To insert a two second pause, press the INSERT PAUSE softkey. When
the number is entered correctly, press the OK softkey. CANCEL will exit this
menu without saving your entry.
24
MODEM MONITOR
You may choose to hear the modems negotiate through the audio port.
This is also found in the Modem Dialing Option menu. To select a
modem monitor option, press MENU in the STATUS display and then select
CONFIGURE. Now select MODEM\DIAL. The factory default is for the Modem
Monitor to be “on,” which allows you to hear the modem “chat” familiar
to computer users. This includes dial tone, pulse or tone digits, ringing,
and all those funny “blurps” that happen at the beginning of a modem
connection. Under some circumstances, you may not wish to hear these
things. If for example, the Vector in the studio were “on-air” all the time,
the listeners would hear these sounds. To turn the modem monitor off,
enter the main menu and select CONFIGURE. Now select MODEM\DIAL. In the
Modem Dialing Option menu, select more. Then select MODEM MON and
then OFF.
AUTO ANSWER
To choose how you want the Vector to answer incoming calls, press MENU
in the STATUS display and then select CONFIGURE. Now select MODEM\DIAL
and then MORE. Select AUTO ANS and then choose whether your wish Auto
Answering to be ON , 6 RINGS, or OFF. Note: There is a bullet next to the
currently selected mode.
TONE/PULSE DIALING
To select tone or pulse dialing, press MENU in the STATUS display and then
select CONFIGURE. Now select MODEM\DIAL and then MORE. Select either TONE
or PULSE here. The Vector will remember your selection until you change
it, even when powered down. The Vector's factory default setting is for
TONE dialing.
Vector Product Manual
AUDIO CODING SELECTION
Music Mode — This mode, optimized to give the widest frequency
response possible, is the factory default setting. Your Vector will
automatically operate in this mode unless it calls or is called by a Vector
set to a less demanding mode or by a HotLine. If connecting to a HotLine,
the Vector will automatically switch to HotLine Mode. If connecting to a
Vector set to Voice Mode, the Vector will automatically default to the more
conservative Voice Mode. If you are having difficulty connecting in Music
Mode, double check that both codecs are set to Music Mode.
To set the Vector for Music Mode, press the MENU softkey at the STATUS
display. Select CONFIGURE here. Now select AUDIO CODING options. Select
MUSIC in this menu, and the Vector will remain in this mode until you
change it. You can now EXIT back to the STATUS display.
Voice Mode — Under normal operation, the Vector is designed to provide
maximum bandwidth based on the connect rate. Some users, however,
may prefer to forego very high bandwidth in favor of a more reliable
connection. AM stations, for instance, may not have many listeners with
radios capable of more than 7 kHz audio, so anything beyond that makes
little difference. Voice Mode locks the highest bandwidth at 7 kHz, and any
leftover data rate is used to provide error correction. This will (within
limits) provide for a more reliable audio link. (See Section 8 of this manual
for more on this.) If one Vector is set to Voice Mode and the other is not,
the connection will default to Voice Mode in both directions.
To set the Vector for Voice Mode, press the MENU softkey at the STATUS
display. Select CONFIGURE and then AUDIO CODING. Select VOICE in this menu,
and the Vector will remain in this mode until you change it. You can now
EXIT back to the STATUS display.
25
Comrex Corporation
SECTION 6
PLACING A CALL FROM THE VECTOR
So now it’s time to use your Vector. We will assume that all the proper
connections have been made, and you’re ready to place a call. There are
several ways to dial from the Vector. The most common method is to dial
from the built-in keypad.
DIALING FROM THE KEYPAD
From the Status display, press MENU and then PLACE A CALL. Select KEYPAD and
key in the number you wish to dial. Then press OK to dial the number.
Menu
Q Dial
Redial
Ü
Place a call
Configure
Test
Exit
Ü
Keypad
Ext phone
Ü
Status
¨ Max Rate 33,600
¨ Music Mode
¨ Modem Mon on
¨ Auto answer on
Main
Menu
How
would
you like
to place
a call?
Answer
Call
Plain T
elephone
Telephone
Mode
Key in number now
Cancel
OK
Back
space
Insert
pause
Cancel
26
Ü
Vector Product Manual
If you wish to use the Comrex Vector test line number, call 978-929-9807.
You may enter up to 44 digits in a dialing string. A two second pause may
be entered anywhere and used multiple times in the dialing sequence by
pushing the INSERT PAUSE softkey. This will insert a comma to indicate the
position of the pause. This pause may be needed to dial through certain
PABXs or to place credit card calls. Also, you may wish to enter other
characters such as “*70” which is typically used at the beginning of a
number to disable call waiting.
To dial the number, press OK when you have entered the number. Note:
The phone line doesn’t go “off hook” until the OK softkey is pressed
(much like a fax machine). The far end unit will either auto answer, or will
need to be answered manually, depending on its setup. Once the far end
has answered, the Vectors will negotiate and a “connect” message will be
displayed on both units, including the rate at which the connection was
accomplished. Within a second or two, the READY light on each Vector
should turn on. At this point, you will have wideband audio (response
dependent on connect rate) in both directions.
DIALING WITH QDIAL
To place a QDial call, simply press the second key adjacent to the STATUS
display and then enter the QDial number (01 - 39) that you wish to dial.
(See page 24 for instructions on programming numbers into QDial.)
Status
¨ Max Rate 33,600
¨ Music Mode
¨ Modem Mon on
¨ Auto answer on
ANSWERING A CALL
MANUALLY
Menu
QDial
Redial
Ü
Answer
Call
First, check on the STATUS display that your auto answer is off. If you need
to reset this, follow the instructions on page 24. You can connect a
telephone set to the TELSET jack on the rear panel to hear the line ring.
Otherwise, you will need to wait for the yellow RING/CD light on the
Vector to begin flashing to indicate an incoming call. Then press the
ANSWER CALL softkey. The Vector will answer the incoming call and
negotiate a connect speed. The call can be disconnected normally by
pressing the HANG UP softkey.
Status
¨ Max Rate 33,600
¨ Music Mode
¨ Modem Mon on
¨ Auto answer off
Menu
QDial
Redial
Answer
Call
Ü
27
Comrex Corporation
COMPLEX DIALING
SITUATIONS
There are two ways to handle complex dialing situations, such as when an
operator may be involved or when the dialing string is longer than 44
digits. The first option is to dial the Vector with an external telephone set.
Connect an external single line telephone set to the modular jack on the
rear panel of the Vector labeled TELSET. From the STATUS menu, select MENU.
Then select PLACE A CALL and finally EXT TELSET. Pick up the telephone
handset and listen for a dial tone. Dial the number, and press OK at the
first ring. When you press OK, this disconnects the telephone set from the
Vector and engages the modem.
An easier way to accomplish this is by utilizing the Plain Telephone Mode
(see next section to access this mode). Once in the OFF HOOK menu, dial
your call (speak to someone if necessary), and press the VECTOR key at the
first ring. We strongly recommend that you monitor the call progress with
your headphones. If you wait until the other Vector answers, the modems
may not successfully negotiate a connection. Note: The receving end does
not need to be set for Plain Telephone Mode.
USING THE VECTOR IN
PLAIN TELEPHONE MODE
This mode converts the Vector into a plain old telephone. You can speak
and listen through the microphones and headphones connected to the
Vector. If the Vector is unable to make a modem connection on a
telephone line or, if the far end does not have a Vector or HotLine, it is
possible to use the Vector mixing facilities and Plain Telephone Mode to
send program. Naturally, the program quality will not match the POTS
codec quality.
To enter the PLAIN TELEPHONE MODE, press MENU from the STATUS display and
then press PLACE A CALL. Select PLAIN TELEPHONE MODE, and press OFF HOOK.
You may now dial another telephone, a coupler, a hybrid or another
Vector (must be set for Plain Telephone Mode). The auto answer and
disconnect functions are disabled in the Plain Telephone Mode.
HANGING UP THE CALL
28
When you wish to disconnect your call, simply press the HANG UP softkey.
After several seconds, the call will be cleared and the STATUS display will
return. If the other end initiates the disconnect, your unit will also
disconnect and revert to the STATUS display. Note: It can take about five
seconds between the time you terminate the call to the time the Vector
releases the line for the next call.
Vector Product Manual
DROPPING THE CONNECT
RATE DURING A CALL
If a telephone line degrades during a broadcast, it is possible to lower the
connect rate on the line without disconnecting the call. The lower connect
rate will help to provide a “guard band” against the errors on the line.
During the renegotiation period, the audio will be muted for about ten
seconds. To drop the connect rate, simply press the DROP RATE softkey.
Connect 26400 M
Drop
Rate
Ü
Hang Up
Retraining.......
Drop
Rate
Hang Up
Connect 24000 M
Drop
Rate
Hang Up
LAST NUMBER REDIAL
Redialing the last number is easy — simply press the REDIAL softkey from the
STATUS display. The last number you dialed from the Vector will be redialed.
This number will remain in memory after the Vector is powered down.
29
Comrex Corporation
SECTION 7.
AUTOSAFE MODE
ADDITIONAL FUNCTIONS
The Vector Autosafe Mode automatically dials the number entered into QDial
location #01. This mode works slightly differently in the portable and rack
versions and can either be used as an “STL backup” function or simply as an
auto-redial in case of disconnection. Here’s how it works:
Autosafe Mode is enabled from the STATUS display by pressing the number “0”
on the keypad. The Vector will respond, asking whether you want to enter
the Autosafe Mode now. If you choose YES, Autosafe Mode is enabled, and
the STATUS heading on the STATUS display is replaced by AUTOSAFE. Once in
Autosafe Mode, a portable Vector will then show PREPARING TO DIAL AUTOSAFE
MODE on the display for three seconds. During this time, the user may press
the softkey labeled ABORT on the display and will be given the option to
disable AutoSafe Mode. If the call is dropped from either end, the process
will repeat, and the call will be placed again. Autosafe Mode is programmed
into nonvolatile memory and will be retained after the unit is powered
down. If a Vector has been left in Autosafe Mode, it will automatically start
the Autosafe dialing sequence as soon as power is turned on.
On the Rackmount Vector, the process is similar except that the Vector waits
until the AUX input connector is closed to initiate dialing. When the AUX
contact closure is closed, the screen will show PREPARING TO DIAL AUTOSAFE MODE
and the sequence will proceed as described above for the portable Vector.
Autosafe Mode will continue until the contact closure is opened, or until
Autosafe Mode is exited during the PREPARING TO DIAL sequence. Autosafe
Mode can also be disabled on the Rackmount Vector, if the AUX connector is
open and the user presses the “0” key from the status display. A menu will
appear asking if you want to exit Autosafe Mode. If the user selects YES, he
will return to the status display with Autosafe disabled.
MODEM REBOOT
In rare occasions, it is possible for the modem registers to become
scrambled, interfering with normal operation. If your Vector malfunctions,
you can try rebooting the modem. To do this, turn the power off on the
Vector and then turn it back on. When you see the INITIALIZING display, press
the HELP key to access the BOOT-UP menu. From this menu select MODEM BOOT
and then RESETTING MODEM will appear in the display. This procedure will
reset all the modem registers to the factory default state.
initializing....
30
Ver X
Boot-Up
Country
Options
Modem
Boot
Cancel
Ü
Vector Product Manual
TEST
The TEST function allows the user to test the encoder and decoder portion of
the Vector and to check out audio levels by “looping” the input audio back
through to the output. It also gives the user the ability to listen to audio at
various data rates. If you are not familiar with the audio connections on the
Vector, read more about these on pages 18-21 of this manual.
To initiate the TEST function, first feed audio into the Vector at a typical level
and adjust the appropriate INPUT control until the Vector VU meter reads
correctly. (See page 20.) Connect the Vector output to your monitoring
facility. (See page 19 for the Rackmount Vector and pages 20-21 for the
Portable Vector.) On the Portable Vector, turn the LOCAL level control all the
way down.
To enable the TEST function, press MENU from the STATUS display and TEST.
Select a data rate by pressing the corresponding number on the keypad.
When the READY LED comes on, adjust the RETURN level control until you have
a comfortable level in your headphone and/or monitor. To exit TEST, press
the CANCEL softkey.
CONTACT CLOSURES
The contact closure labeled READY is available through the 1/8" mini jack on
the rear panel of the Vector will remain closed as long as the green READY
light is illuminated on the front panel .. i.e. as long as the call is connected.
If you wish to provide an indication to the other Vector user at any time
during the audio transfer or activate a device remotely through the far end
Vector, simply press the CC key in the lower right position on the keypad.
While this key is pressed, two things will occur:
1) The CC LED to the right of the LCD display will illuminate.
2) A contact closure will be made silently across the CC terminal on
the remote end. This is a momentary “dry closure” available through the
1/8" mini jack on the rear panel of the Vector, marked CC.
The contact closures will have no effect on audio quality.
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Comrex Corporation
ANCILLARY DATA
The Vector provides a 300 bps asynchronous data channel when
connected in Voice Mode at a data rate of 16.8 kbs and above. 300 bps was
chosen as the ancillary data rate because it allows us to steal only one byte
from each audio frame, having little impact on audio quality. This speed is
perfectly adequate for sending and receiving text characters (few people
can type 30 characters per second) but will prove quite lacking in
applications requiring graphics or any other “high-overhead” data
transmissions. If your applications require higher data throughput, it may
be best to use another telephone connection with a normal modem.
Ancillary data is provided on the Vector through the 9-pin “D” connector
on the rear panel labeled ACCESSORY PORT. Pinouts for the ACCESSORY PORT are
shown in the “connections” section on pages 44-45 of this manual and
should mate correctly with a 9-pin PC style serial port. Use a “straight
through” data cable. A “null modem” cable will not work. More
information on setting up an ancillary data connection is outlined in the
“About Ancillary Data” on page 41 and “Troubleshooting Ancillary Data”
on page 43.
32
ABOUT THE VECTOR
CONTROL AND DATA
SIGNALS
The Vector provides contact closures which can be used to trigger
automated equipment on the far end of the audio link and an ancillary
data channel when used in the Voice Mode. Both types of signals can be
useful to the user but have their limitations. Because real-time audio data
cannot use non-real time error correction, it is possible that both contact
closures and data can be corrupted if errors are present on the telephone
line. If your requirements are for control over on-air automation systems,
this can cause problems. We would recommend under these
circumstances that you use a different phone line and attach a normal
computer modem, which will provide higher speed as well as a
guaranteed error free link.
MUTE AUX OUT SELECTION
There is one line level audio output on the Vector portable, labeled AUX
OUT. Like the headphone outputs, this is an adjustable mix of local and
return audio and the user can select which audio is to be muted when the
MUTE AUX OUT switch on the front panel is activated. To make this
selection, press MENU from the STATUS display. Then press CONFIGURE and
choose AUDIO IN/OUT. Select MUTE SWITCH and then decide which audio you
wish to mute when the MUTE Switch is engaged. The current selection will
be indicated.
Vector Product Manual
SECTION 8.
HOW TO ACHIEVE OPTIMUM VECTOR PERFORMANCE
For those who have used digital telephone technology (like ISDN),
good data performance is taken for granted. This is because the
information transmitted is kept in digital form from end to end and is
therefore somewhat impervious to the nasty effects of telephone
carriers. When using analog modems, however (as in the Vector), data
is converted to analog tones which are sent through the telephone
channel. These tones are much more likely to be affected by the
limitations of the telephone channel.
Moving high speed data along analog telephone lines can best be
described as a “balancing act.” It requires sophisticated modem
technology which senses the quality of each telephone connection and
then dynamically adapts all kinds of parameters in short order to
“clean up” the connection. These parameters are set and locked
during the “negotiation sequence” which takes place shortly after the
Vectors are connected together. This is the hash sound you hear when
the modem monitor is enabled. During this sequence, the modems
also measure bandwidth and noise level on the phone connection to
determine the highest data rate which may be supported.
This adaptation is usually done quite well, and the modems can
usually be trusted to optimize for a reliable data rate and a solid
connection. If the adaptation to the phone call is less than perfect, the
result will be errors. Errors manifest themselves in the Vector audio as
occasional clicks, dropouts, or frame repeats (almost like a “cd
skipping” sound). Errors may occur more on long distance calls than
local ones and are often a problem when connected to in-house phone
systems (another reason to bypass them). A much more detailed
discussion of issues encountered on telephone line modem
connections is found in Appendix A of this manual in the “Modem Line
Check List” on pages 51-55.
To address this potential problem, the Vector has features which allow
the user to minimize the number of errors during an audio feed. Each
has its advantages and often can be used in conjunction with each
other to fix any error problems which might occur. Forcing a DROP RATE
(page 29), or renegotiation of the connection data rate is the first and
most obvious step to take when experiencing errors during program
transmission. If the connection is to be done regularly, setting a
MAXRATE (page 23) may be appropriate.
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Comrex Corporation
The best maximum rate setting can be determined by dialing the
connection with no max rate selected and seeing the rate at which the
modem negotiates. If the connection appears to be error free, you may
wish to select the next rate down as a max rate just to provide some
insurance. If you experience errors, it may be best to set it a couple of
notches below the unrestricted connect rate.
The Vector has built-in error correction in the Voice Mode. Since the audio
bandwidth in Voice Mode is limited to 7 kHz, we have been able to use the
leftover data rate for error correction. If errors become objectionable in
Music Mode, you may wish to sacrifice some audio bandwidth in favor of a
more reliable connection.
Note: Under most circumstances, the options described above should
normally not be necessary. The Vector contains the most sophisticated
modem technology available and will negotiate the highest reliable speed.
No modem can, however, predict what will happen to a telephone
connection in the future. Rate Drop, Max Rate and Voice Mode settings are
provided as tools to enhance the reliability of the phone network. Please
understand that POTS coding has its inherent limitations and risks, and
that the Vector was designed specifically to minimize these problems.
These problems exist in the phone network, however, not in the Vector.
34
Vector Product Manual
SECTION 9.
SOME OPERATING TIPS
1. Use direct, outside telephone lines for best performance.
2. A line used by a fax machine usually provides this direct access.
(Be sure to disconnect the fax machine before connecting the Vector!)
3. Do not even think of using cellular phones with the Vector.
4. Check to see that there are no extensions or modems on the line you are
using — or at least arrange that no one uses these during your broadcast.
5. If there is call-waiting on your line, disable it by entering “*70” in front of the
number you are dialing.
6. If possible, try the Vector out at the remote site before your actual broadcast,
at about the same time of day that you plan to use it. This will give you a good
idea of expected connect rates and possible line problems.
7. At minimum, connect a few minutes before airtime to assess the connection
quality. If you experience low connection rates or errors, try
the following:
Low Connection Rate (or no connection at all):
a. Try redialing. If a good connection is found, keep that line up.
b. Dial from the other end.
c. If the call is long distance, try forcing to another carrier.
(See page 36.)
d. Verify that you have a direct, outside connection and that there
is nothing else connected to that line.
Errors:
a. Renegotiate to a lower connect rate with Drop Rate .
(See page 29.)
b. For repeated feeds, set the modem to a comfortable Max Rate.
(See pages 23 & 33.)
c. Change to Voice Mode for additional error correction.
(See pages 25 & 34.)
d. Refer to the “Modem Line Check List” in Appendix A.
(See pages 51-55.)
8. Make sure that a “mix-minus” feed is available from the studio to the remote
site so that the remote talent will not hear themselves “echoed back.” (See
Appendix B on pages 56-57 for more information on mix-minus.)
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Comrex Corporation
USING LONG DISTANCE
ACCESS CODES
In our field tests with the Vector and HotLine POTS codecs, we have seen
a wide variety in the quality of connections, particularly in long distance
calls. This makes sense, because there is no way of predicting how a call
will be routed by the telephone companies involved. We looked for
meaningful statistical results from our trials which would show an
advantage in using a particular long distance carrier and did not come up
with anything concrete. What we did find, however, is that it may help to
be able to force a different routing, if your particular connection is not
good. To find out which long distance access has been selected for a given
line, dial 0-0. The above said, we have found, in general, that you “get
what you pay for.” We have seen some highly discounted long distance
consolidators that seem to provide consistently low data connections. If
your station is using “Joe's Long Distance Phone Service” you may well find
much better connect rates with a mainstream carrier.
Here is a list of some commonly used long lines carriers and their access
codes. To force a particular long distance carrier, simply dial the access
code number, followed by the telephone number you would normally
dial. For example, to dial Comrex Corporation’s main number (978 2631800) via AT&T, you would enter 101028819782631800.
AT&T
MCI
INTERNATIONAL A/C POWER
CORDS AND TELEPHONE
CONNECTORS
1010288
1010222
Sprint
Frontier
1010333
1010444
A/C adapter cords are available which will connect the standard IEC 320
Inlet on the in-line portable Vector switching supply and the built in
rackmount switching supply to a wide range of international power
receptacles. These may be purchased from:
Panel Components Corp.
P.O. Box 115
Oskaloosa, IA 52577-0115
Tel:
Fax:
800-662-2290 (USA)
515-673-5000 (INT)
800-645-5360 (USA)
515-673-5100 (INT)
A comprehensive source for international telephone connectors and also
power cords can be found on the World Wide Web at www.magellans.com.
One solution for international telephone connections: Look for the fax
machine. Fax machines provide direct line connections and use standard
RJ11 modular jacks, so you can simply unplug the fax machine and plug into
the Vector. Note: It may be necessary to change the dialing parameters. (See
next page.)
36
Vector Product Manual
DIALING THE VECTOR
INTERNATIONALLY
The Vector’s modem can be user configured for operation in twenty
different countries. Once configured, the Vector will remain in this
setting until the country parameter is changed. Country configuration is
confirmed following the INITIALIZING screen, where the Vector's display will
show the current configuration (CONFIGURED FOR NORTH AMERICA, etc.).
Country configurations change dialing parameters, such as DTMF level
and pulse and ring cadence, as well as call progress tone detection,
including dial and busy tones.
To change the country configuration, power the Vector off. Wait a few
seconds, power it back on, and when you see the INITIALIZING display,
momentarily press the HELP key. Select COUNTRY, and enter the
appropriate number next to the country name. The Vector will go
through an initializing process and confirm the country selection on the
display screen before returning to the STATUS menu.
Note: The country parameter only needs to be changed when dialing
from a country, not to it. Some experimentation may yield a listed code
which works well in countries not listed here. Also, dialing from an
external phone is a good method to avoid issues with international
phone systems altogether.
PRESS THE HELP KEY
initializing....
Ver 4
Boot-Up
Country
Options
Modem
Boot
Cancel
Country:
0=N. Amer.
1=Austria
2=Australia
3=Belgium
4=Denmark
5=Finland
6=France
7=Germany
8=Greece
9=Ireland
More
Cancel
Country:
0=Italy
1=Japan
2=Netherld
3=Norway
4=Portugal
5=
Singapore
5=Singapore
6=Spain
7=Sweden
8=Switzerld
9=U.K.
Back
Cancel
37
Comrex Corporation
COMPUTER MODEMS VS.
VECTOR MODEM
Some users attempt to compare the connect rate message they receive
when using their computer modem to that which is produced by the
Vector. Often, they find the Vector message reports a dramatically lower
connect rate than their computer. This is because most computer modems
default to reporting the speed between the computer and the modem,
rather than the actual speed between the modems. Most computer
modems can be programmed to report the actual connect speed using the
following procedure:
Using Procomm, Windows terminal, or some other communications
program, get the attention of your modem:
Type:
AT
The modem will respond
OK
Now Type:
ATW1
The modem should again respond:
OK
If you want to make your modem always work this way type:
AT&W
And the modem will respond:
OK
Now the modem should report the actual connect speed, which is more
likely to compare to Vector speeds on similar circuits. Note: The
initialization strings of some programs (like internet access or on-line
service programs) may delete these settings in their initialization strings.
You may need to edit the initialization string in your program by removing
any reference to Wx in the string, where x is any number. Don’t remove it
if the W is preceded by a symbol (such as & or !).
38
Vector Product Manual
SECTION 10.
TROUBLESHOOTING THE
VECTOR
TECHNICAL DETAILS
Because of the delicate nature of moving audio data over telephone lines,
it is likely that you will experience problems at some point with
establishing a reliable connection using the Vector. There are dozens of
factors that can affect the success or failure of a Vector call, some within
the user’s control and some not. Comrex has support personnel to help
troubleshoot problems which may occur, but please use this section first to
“run down” the most common issues when using the Vector.
1) Are you on an in-house phone system?
There are only so many times we can say this... an in house phone system
is almost always a bad idea with the Vector. If at all humanly possible, use
the Vector on a direct telephone company line. If you call for support, and
you are using an in-house phone system, the first request you are likely to
receive is to move the Vector to a direct, “Ma Bell” line.
2) Have you checked your audio quality going into the Vector?
Often problems with noise or distortion in audio are added before the
Vector, but since the Vector is the most mysterious link in the chain, it is
assumed to fail first.
Check your audio in and out of the Vector locally, by listening to the
“local” program output. Any noise or distortion present in the Vector audio
input will be present on this output. Next, enter the TEST Mode (see page
31) and then select a loopback rate similar to the rate at which you have
been able to establish a connection. This will allow you to monitor audio
after it has gone through the encoder and decoder section. (Turn down
the local control and use the RETURN audio control to monitor this.) Due to
the extremely high compression of the Vector, some artifacts due to the
coding are unavoidable. Also check that your input level is correct and that
the VU meter on the Vector is not flashing into the red LEDs. You may also
wish to experiment between the Music and Voice modes (see page 25) as
some audio material may sound better in one mode than the other.
3) Have you disconnected all other devices from your lines?
Be absolutely certain that other fax machines, modems, etc. are removed
from your telephone line on each end, not simply disabled. Even “onhook,” some devices can affect the Vector performance. Also, their removal
will prevent anyone from inadvertently “picking up” the line during audio
transfer and causing the Vector to drop out.
39
Comrex Corporation
4) Have you tried redialing and/or changing lines or carriers?
Some telephone connections simply won’t support the movement of data
at the rates required by the Vector. If you have trouble establishing a
reliable connection even with a speed drop, try redialing several times.
The telephone systems often route calls differently each time, and you
may pick up a cleaner circuit on a different call. The problem may also be
that your local loop runs a very long distance, is subject to cross-talk, or is
“loaded” by the phone company, causing the modems in the Vector (or
any modems, for that matter) to perform poorly. If possible, try a different
line. Finally, we find a change in long distance carriers (assuming you are
dialing long distance) can make a world of difference. Try dialing the
access code of a different carrier if you have difficulty, see page 36 for
some access codes. In general we find better connections with the larger
carriers (avoid “Joe’s phone company” if possible).
Vector performance can be affected by factors such as time of day,
weather, and geographic location. Once you have used the Vector, you
will probably gain a better understanding of how it works on different
lines and what can go wrong.
If you call Comrex for support, we will likely attempt to connect to each
of your Vectors from our office. This way, by connecting from a known
good line and carrier, we can often at least isolate which end of the
connection is causing the difficulty. To save your time and ours, please be
sure you have run through the above checklist before calling for support.
40
Vector Product Manual
ABOUT ANCILLARY DATA
The Vector provides an ancillary data channel, when set in Voice Mode, to
send low speed data along the same digital telephone channel used for the
Vector audio. The vital information you need to know is that this channel
has the following parameters:
300 Baud; 8 bits; no parity; 1 stop bit
Now, we will describe a few concepts:
The Vector ancillary data channel is asynchronous. This is the most
common format for information exchange between computers. An
asynchronous data link simply provides a “pipe” which passes bits back
and forth between the devices. What you do with this data is dependent
completely on the computers and software used in the connection.
It is the nature of asynchronous data that we define a “baud rate.” This is
the rate at which individual bits run along the asynchronous link. In some
asynchronous systems, however, a continuous stream of data at the
specified baud rate will overload the system. This is because the baud rate
specifies only the speed on the pipe feeding into the system. Further
down, the pipe may narrow and less throughput is possible. Asynchronous
communication allows flow control where the sending device will be
triggered by the network when enough capacity is available to send more
information. In the Vector, the “pipe” has the same throughput all the way
across, and flow control is not necessary.
Flow control works because asynchronous links do not need to send
information at all times. When there are no characters for a computer to
send a modem, for example, the asynchronous link is idle. When the
computer has information to send, it will usually format this information
into one or more bytes, attach a start and stop bit, (so the receiving system
knows where the byte begins and ends) send it off and again make the line
idle. In the most common application for ancillary data (two terminals with
operators sending text characters back and forth), the asynchronous link is
active only a small fraction of the time. During a file download, however,
the link will most likely be constantly active, with one byte being sent
immediately after the next (unless flow control is active).
Here is a description of a typical ancillary data hookup:
At least one Vector must be configured for Voice Mode and the connect
rate on the line must be at least 16.8 kb/s. Each operator will attach a PC
com port to the ancillary data connector on the Vector (via a straightthrough 9 pin cable) and load a terminal emulation program such as
Windowstm terminal or Procommtm. Each will set the correct com port in
software, and set the communications parameters to 300 baud, 8 bits, no
parity, 1 stop bit. Flow control should be turned off.
41
Comrex Corporation
In most ways, the link will resemble a normal modem connection. When a
key is typed on one terminal, the ASCII byte corresponding to that
character will be sent out the computer com port to the Vector. The Vector
will embed this character into the data it is sending, and the Vector on the
far end will extract this character from the incoming data. It will then send
the character to the other computer com port, and it will appear on the
other display. Of course, since the channel is full duplex, this exchange
may be happening in both directions simultaneously.
A few common options in terminal programs will ease communication:
a) Local echo — Engage this if you wish to see what you are typing on your
own display. The Vector cannot echo the characters you send back to your
display, only send them to the other end. You must configure your
communications program to do this.
b) Cr-> CR-LF — When you type a carriage return (enter key), the CR
character is all that is usually sent through the Vector data link. Your
program will likely interpret this correctly and send the cursor back to the
beginning of the same line. Your program can probably be set to interpret
the CR character as both a CR and LF (line feed) sending the cursor to the
beginning of the next line. Your program can also usually be altered to
send both characters when the “enter” key is pressed. Usually only one of
the above options is required.
c) Other options — The software setup of your communications program
may require additional parameters. Keep in mind that the Vector data
channel is simply a “pipe.” What bytes are sent and how they are
interpreted is completely dependent on the software being used and how
that software is configured.
42
Vector Product Manual
TROUBLESHOOTING THE
ANCILLARY DATA CHANNEL
The loopback testing facility in the Vector can aid in troubleshooting
ancillary data connections. It is often difficult to find a fault in a problem
like this, since the trouble could be at either end of the link. By loopback
testing the ancillary data channel on each end, at least you can easily find
which end has the trouble. To loopback test ancillary data:
1) Connect a computer serial port to the Vector.
2) Run a program on the computer with basic serial communications
functions, such as Procomm, Windows Terminal, or Win95 Hyperterminal.
3) Set the communications parameters as follows:
300 baud
8 bits
no parity
1 stop bit
echo off (half-duplex mode in Hyperterminal)
4) Make sure the software has the serial port chosen which is connected to
the Vector.
5) Verfiy that your Vector has been set to Voice Mode.
6) Type some characters on your computer, and verify that you do NOT
see them on your screen.
7) Go into the test menu on the Vector (see page 31), and select a
loopback rate of 16.8 kb/s or higher. The READY light should come on.
8) Type on your computer keyboard. You should see your characters
echoed back to you on the screen.
If this test is successful, you have sent data down the cable to the Vector,
into the encoder, looped through to the decoder, and back to your
computer screen.
If not successful, try the following:
1) Type “AT” (Enter). If you get a response “OK” then you are probably
talking to a modem inside your computer, configured for the chosen com
setting. Try a different configuration.
2) Try a different com port. Sometimes these ports “burn out” if connected
wrong previously.
3) Remove any adapters, “dongles” or other connectors on the port.
4) Make sure you are using a “straight through” 9 pin to 9 pin cable. Do
not use a null modem cable.
43
Comrex Corporation
SECTION 11.
PORTABLE
SPECIFICATIONS
Connections
Audio In: 3-pin XLR female (4)
Audio Out: 3-pin XLR male (1)
Headphone Out: 1/4” stereo phone jacks (3)
Tel Line & Tel Set: 6-pin RJ11C modular jacks (2)
Contact Closures (Ready & CC): 1/8" 2-conductor mini-jacks (2)
Accessory Port: 9-pin "D" type connnector (1)
Levels
Audio input impedance: 10K ohms
Mic input levels: -85 to -40 dBu
Line input levels: -10 to +10 dBu
Audio output impedance: 100 ohms
Line level out: +12 dBu max
Headphone out: .5 watt
Telephone Line out: -9 dBm @ 600 ohms
Power: External supply; 5V, 4 Amp; 110 to 240 VAC 50/60 Hz
Power connection: 2.1mm i.d.; 5.5mm o.d.; coaxial.
Size : 13” W x 9” D x 3.5” H
Weight: Net: 3 lbs; Shipping: 7 lbs
Contact Closures :
“Ready” provides dry closure when decoder is in sync with encoder.
“CC” provides momentary dry closure when the "CC" key is pressed
during connection.
Nominal Coding Delay: 100 mS
44
Vector Product Manual
RACKMOUNT
Connections
Audio In: 3-pin XLR female (2)
Audio Out: 3-pin XLR male (1)
Tel Line & Tel Set: 6-pin RJ11C modular jacks (2)
Contact Closures: (5) "Ready" "CC" "AUX" "CC input" "IFB input"
1/8" 2-conductor mini-jacks
Accessory Port: 9-pin “D” type connnector (1)
Levels
Audio input impedance: 10K ohms
Mic input levels: -85 to -40 dBu (adjustable via rear panel trimmer)
Line input levels: -10, 0, +4 dBu (via jumpers to +8)
Audio output impedance: 100 ohms
Audio output: -10, 0, +4 dBu (via jumpers to +8)
Telephone Line out: -9 dBm @ 600 ohms
Power: Internal supply 110 to 240 VAC 50/60 Hz
Fuse: (2) 315 mA 5x20mm SLO BLO
Size: 2U Rack 19"W x 8"D x 3.5"H
Weight: Net: 5.5 lbs; Shipping: 10 lbs
Contact Closures :
“Ready” provides dry closure when decoder is in sync with encoder.
“CC” provides momentary dry closure when the "CC" key is pressed
during connection.
Nominal Coding Delay: 100 mS
AUDIO FREQUENCY
RESPONSE (PORTABLE &
RACKMOUNT)
At all connect rates and in all modes, the low frequency
response is 20 Hz. The high end response is listed below.
Connect rate Music Mode
Voice Mode
HotLine Mode
9.6 kb/s
12 kb/s
14.4 kb/s
16.8 kb/s
19.2 kb/s
21.6 kb/s
24 kb/s
26.4 kb/s
28.8 kb/s
31.2 kb/s
33.6 kb/s
4.7 kHz
6 kHz
7 kHz
7 kHz
7 kHz
7 kHz
7 kHz
7 kHz
7 kHz
7 kHz
7 kHz
n/a
4.5 kHz
5.4 kHz
5.6 kHz
5.8 kHz
6.5 kHz
7 kHz
8 kHz
8.6 kHz
9.3 kHz
10 kHz
4.7 kHz
6 kHz
7 kHz
7 kHz
11.2 kHz
12.7 kHz
14 kHz
14 kHz
14 kHz
14 kHz
14 kHz
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Comrex Corporation
PINOUTS
Tel Line:
Physical: RJ11C 6-pin modular jack
Pin 3: Tip
Pin 4: Ring
Tel Set:
Physical: RJ11C 6-pin modular jack
Pin 3: Ring
Pin 4: Tip
Audio inputs:
Physical: 3-pin female XLR
Pin 1: Ground
Pin 2: + Audio In
Pin 3: - Audio In
Audio outputs:
Physical: 3-pin male XLR
Pin 1: Ground
Pin 2: + Audio Out
Pin 3: - Audio Out
Headphone outputs (portable only):
Physical: 3-conductor 1/4" phone jack
Tip: L Audio Out +
Ring: R Audio Out +
Sleeve: Ground
Contact Closures and Remote Controls:
Physical: 2-conductor 1/8" mini jack
Contact closures are floating
Input controls have sleeve connected to Ground
Power (portable):
Physical: 2.1mm i.d., 5.5mm o.d., coaxial.
Outer shield: Ground
Inner core: +5V
Accessory Port:
Physical: 9-pin D typed female (pinned as DCE)
Pin#
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
46
Function
CD
RXD
TXD
DTR
GND
DSR
RTS
CTS
RI
Direction
From Vector
From Vector
To Vector
From Vector
From Vector
To Vector
No Connection
Vector Product Manual
VECTOR TELSET KILL &
+8 DBU JUMPERS
The Vector has a few options which are set by internal jumpers. It is very
rare that these options need to be changed by the user. The following
descriptions and diagrams show the function and location of these jumpers.
Telset Kill jumper — By default, the Vector kills connection to the TELSET
jack when it has gone “off hook” or engaged the line. This can be defeated
by repositioning a jumper on the Main Vector PC board. This jumper is
labeled J8 on the portable Vector and J6 on the rackmount Vector. The
factory default is for this jumper to close pins 3 and 4 (as the board legend
designates). If this jumper is moved over to pins 1 and 2, the TELSET jack is
always enabled, even with the Vector on-line.
VECTOR PORTABLE MAIN BOARD TELSET KILL JUMPER
47
Comrex Corporation
VECTOR RACKMOUNT MAIN BOARD TELSET KILL JUMPER
48
Vector Product Manual
Rackmount audio input/output level jumpers — On the Vector rackmount
only, there are jumpers available to set the input and output levels to
+8dBu. Moving these jumpers disables the ability to control levels via the
Vector menu. These jumpers are shown as J19 (input) and J20 (output).
Factory default is for these jumpers to be in “normal” mode, where levels
are controlled via the menu system.
VECTOR RACKMOUNT MAIN BOARD +8 DBU INPUT & OUTPUT JUMPERS
49
Comrex Corporation
FCC REQUIREMENTS
1) This equipment complies with Part 68 of the FCC rules. On the bottom of
the Vector is a label that contains, among other information, the FCC
registration number and ringer equivalence number (REN) for this
equipment. The USOC jack required is an RJ-11C. If requested, this
information must be provided to the telephone company.
2) The REN is used to determine the quantity of devices which may be
connected to the telephone line. Excessive REN’s on the telephone line may
result in the devices not ringing in response to an incoming call. In most, but
not all areas, the sum of the REN’s should not exceed five (5.0). To be certain
of the number of devices that may be connected to the line, as determined by
the total REN’s, contact the telephone company to determine the maximum
REN for the calling area.
3) If the Vector caused harm to the telephone network, the telephone
company will notify you in advance that temporary discontinuance of service
may be required. But if advance notice isn’t practical, the telephone company
will notify the customer as soon as possible. Also, you will be advised of your
rights to file a complaint with the FCC if you believe it is necessary.
4) The telephone company may make changes in its facilities, equipment,
operation or procedures that could affect the operation of the equipment. If
this happens, the telephone company will provide advance notice in order
for you to make the necessary modifications in order to maintain
uninterrupted service.
5) If trouble is experienced with the Vector, please contact Comrex
Corporation at the address below for repair and warranty information. If the
trouble is causing harm to the telephone network, the telephone company
may request you remove the equipment from the network until the problem
is resolved.
Comrex Corporation
65 Nonset Path
Acton, MA 01720
Tel: 978-263-1800
6) The Vector cannot be used on public coin service provided by the
telephone company. Connection to Party Line Service is subject to state
tariffs. Contact the state public utility commission, public service commission
or corporation commission for information.
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APPENDIX A
MODEM LINE CHECK LIST
This Comrex Engineering Note discusses problems (and possible solutions)
encountered in using modems on dial telephone lines. Such circuits are
sometimes called POTS (plain old telephone service) or PSTN (public
switched telephone network) lines. It is not applicable to ISDN, SW-56 or DDS
lines or to equalized program circuits.
A LITTLE BACKGROUND…
The Comrex HotLine and Vector codecs use internal high-speed modems to
send audio in digital format over POTS lines. These modems follow the
international V.34+ standard and are very similar to modems used in personal
computers. Some of you may remember when 300 bps and 1200 bps modems
were considered very fast. Modern V.34+ modems communicate at rates up to
33,600 bps on high quality phone lines. The faster rate is made possible by
having the modems make a detailed analysis of technical parameters like
frequency response, noise and time delay at the beginning of the call and at
any time they are required to renegotiate the connection. The beeps and
“hash” you hear at the beginning of the modem call take about 10 seconds
and are used to set the connect speed and a number of internal parameters.
If the telephone line is fairly “quiet,” the negotiation at the start of the call may
be all you need to insure reliable operation for the duration of a broadcast.
You should realize, though, that the digital data moving between Vectors or
HotLines must be very error-free, because the audio is being decoded in real
time. If much of the data is damaged in transit, you will have gaps or strange
noises in the audio. You can eliminate small problems with error correction
(standard with the Vector and selectable on the Hotline), but there is no time
to fix large errors by re-sending data that was missed. The usual remedy is to
lower the data rate, as the slower speeds are more tolerant of errors. On the
other hand, you would prefer to have the data rate set as high as practical, as
this gives better audio quality. The battle between these approaches starts
many users thinking about the “health” of their phone lines.
In most cases, you will have better results with a direct line to the telephone
company than through a business phone system. Modems work best if the call
is converted once to digital form, and once back to analog. You may get
additional analog to digital conversions by running the call through your
phone system. This will limit the maximum speed that the modems can
achieve. The major exception to the direct line “rule” is in truly large business
phone systems where the call is sent to the phone company digitally over a
high-capacity trunk like a T1 system.
One more note on in-house telephone systems: Modular jacks are used on all
kinds of phone systems. If you see multi-line phones with lots of lights and
buttons, be very cautious about plugging a HotLine or Vector into that jack!
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The voltages and currents present may “fry” your modem. If you need to borrow
a line from a business, try to use a fax or modem line. You might want to bring
along a simple tester like the IBM “Modem Saver” or even a cheap phone. It is a
lot cheaper to blow up a hardware store phone than a POTS codec!
If you are having trouble getting good modem connections, we strongly suggest
you start your troubleshooting at the studio end. If you have a problem there, it
will affect all of your POTS codec broadcasts.
CHECKLIST
Make a test call to the Comrex HotLine/Vector test number: 978-9299807. Note the modem connect speed. Listen to the audio for 5-10 minutes. If
you notice errors, try using the DROP RATE key to step down one speed at a time
until the audio is stable. You may want to try more than one call, and see if
there is any difference. If you are happy with the performance, your problems
may be at the other end of your broadcasts. Try the same test there.
If your POTS codecs work fine on long-distance calls, but have problems
on calls within your area code, the real culprit may be the manner in which the
phone company routes calls between those offices. You may be “getting stuck”
with older microwave circuits, or extra analog/digital conversions at the
boundaries of different phone companies. Your ability to solve this problem is
limited. It is worth complaining about, but there may be no practical solution. In
any case, if you are happy with long distance calls from a particular site, the local
part of your telephone circuit is OK! The rest of the information in this checklist
may help, but your real problems are elsewhere.
Since natural events (like thunderstorms) and unnatural events (like
interns who plug your expensive POTS codec into electronic key phone
systems) can damage the modem or interface circuitry in your Vector or
HotLine, you should try to weed out a bad unit. Make calls from each codec to
our test number, using the same phone line, if possible. If one unit behaves
oddly, call Comrex Tech Support.
Start at the back of the codec. Try another modular phone cord, even if
you have been using the one we supplied. You might also look at the telephone
wall jack to see if the pins are straight and the cable connections are OK. You’ll
feel mighty foolish if you spend lots of time with the phone company, only to
find that this is the problem!
Next, plug a phone into the line jack, and make a call to a cooperative
person on another (hopefully clean) line. Listen carefully for hum, buzz, clicks,
or crosstalk from other phone lines. Try to do this at a time of day when other
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phones at that site are in frequent use. If you can hear such noises, you
will have a target to aim for. Then try the same call with the phone
connected at the demarcation point where the phone lines are terminated
by the phone company. Be sure that your other internal wiring is
disconnected when you make the call. If the line is clean, the trouble may
be in your inside wiring. If the line is still noisy, the problem is either with
the phone company or the phone wiring at the other end.
Check out your inside wiring. How does the line get from the
telephone company demarc point to your codec? You may want to route a
separate line away from other lines or electrical circuits. Make sure there
are no cable staples that go through the cable! What kind of wire is used?
We strongly suggest twisted pair phone cables — if you are using “quad
wire,” you may be picking up extra noise. If you are buying cable, consider
using Category 3 (or higher) computer network cable.
Are there other phones, modems, fax machines or devices on your
line? We suggest that your POTS codec be the only thing on the line. Even
if the other equipment is turned off, the extra circuitry on the line may
limit your modem performance. If you need to share the line with other
equipment, consider putting in a simple switch to isolate the codec.
Are you located at an AM transmitter site? If so, we strongly suggest
using a telephone line RF filter with good attenuation in the AM broadcast
frequency range. In really stubborn cases, you may need to filter the line at
the telephone company demarc point and at the back of the codec.
Assuming that the inside wiring checks out OK at each end, it
probably is time to start talking with the phone company. Just a caution,
though — they are now being deluged with calls from Internet users who
feel that their modem performance is being affected by their phone lines.
It is probably not in your best interest to stress the word modem in your
conversations with the telephone company. They will probably just give
you a terse dissertation on how they are not required to support modems
above the 2400 bps level.
If there is audible noise on the outside line, go right ahead and
report it. If the problem is weather related (such as with rainy weather),
make the call when the line is actually acting up. They will do an initial test
through their computer system. If they see something wrong, they will
dispatch a repair person to deal with it. The problem will likely be some
imbalance between the line and ground, may be due to a bad cable, or a
bad line protection device. If they don’t see a significant problem by
looking through their computer system, you may have to do some talking
to get them to dispatch someone. Be persuasive, but don’t try to dazzle
them with your technical competence or assertiveness training.
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Comrex Corporation
If a repair person visits you, make the most of the situation. Don’t
just send them to the closet at the end of the hall. Clean it out in advance
so they can get in there without danger. Stay with them. Gently explain
your problem. Offer coffee. Even if they don’t find the problem, you may
wind up with a better friend the next time. Try to get them to check the
line for “balance,” even if you are a little shaky as to what that means. See
if you can find out how the line gets to you from the telephone company
office. In order for this conversation to make sense, we suggest that you
read the following:
PHONE LINE 101
The simplest phone line is just a pair of copper wires running from the
telephone company office to your location. Part of the line may run above
ground suspended on phone poles, and part may be underground, either
directly buried or in conduit pipes. Both are subject to weather-related
problems. Water can enter improperly sealed cables and cause partial
connections between your wires and ground, or other wires in the cable.
Small animals can chew at cables and damage the insulation on the wires,
with the same result. Lightning strikes can damage protective devices on
the lines, resulting in partial connections from the wires to ground.
Even the simple phone line is actually fairly complicated. If the line is over
3 miles in length, the phone company will insert “loading coils” which
help equalize the frequency response of the line. These loading coils don’t
introduce any extra noise, but they will limit modem performance to
21,600 bps or so. A nastier thing is the addition of “bridge taps” on the
line. These are simply other pairs of wires connected across your line.
They may run down other streets and end on poles, in manholes, or inside
other buildings. Nothing is connected at the other end, but the extra
capacitance of that cable will cause peaks and valleys in the frequency
response of your line. Bridge taps may also introduce extra noise or
crosstalk as well. A “worst case” scenario would be for you to be assigned a
cable pair that was previously used at another location and still has inside
wiring connected in that building.
As telephone use has expanded, phone companies have found it
impractical to keep running more copper lines, particularly in urban and
large suburban areas. This has led to the increased use of “SLIC”
(Subscriber Line Interface Concentrator) cabinets connected by
conventional copper wire to homes and businesses in a neighborhood.
You have seen these cabinets (usually green or gray) at street corners. The
equipment in the cabinet converts the local call into digital format so that
individual pairs are not necessary all the way back to the telephone
company office.
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There are two basic types of SLICs: integrated and nonintegrated. An integrated
SLIC is connected by fiber-optic cable or copper wire to the telephone office. It
is a high capacity digital device that is actually part of the phone company
switching equipment. Your call undergoes an analog to digital conversion in
the cabinet, and stays in that form all the way through the telco switch. An
integrated SLIC is very modem-friendly, as it shortens that analog part of your
phone line, avoiding loading coils and extra bridge taps. A nonintegrated SLIC
is not tied directly to the switch, but requires a companion unit at the telco
office that will introduce another set of digital/analog conversions, and that will
limit modem performance. It may be better than an excessively long copper
line, but it will not be as good as an integrated SLIC.
AND NOW BACK TO THE CHECKLIST!
If the phone company believes that you have a bad cable pair, they will
probably switch you to another pair. This is a good opportunity to request
(don’t demand) the shortest possible routing for the line, hopefully without
loading coils and with a minimum number of bridge taps. You can also plead
not to be put on a nonintegrated SLIC, as that may worsen the situation.
If the phone company thinks your line is OK, you may want to try an
“end run” around the regular people. The telco folks have higher-level
customer service people who can advocate for you within the company. If your
monthly bills are substantial enough, you can request that such a person be
assigned to your account. If that fails, you might contact the person in charge of
media relations in your area. They want to stay friendly with radio and TV
stations, and may be able to connect you with an influential “inside person.” As
always, be friendly and diplomatic. Mugs and T-shirts might be an idea for
people who seem to be working on your behalf. It wouldn’t hurt to have your
call letters on their desk!
Attention “tech types”: If you used to order equalized phone lines for
remotes, and you still remember which cable pairs the telephone company
used for the lines to your studio, you might try requesting one of those pairs for
your POTS codec line. Equalized lines are usually free of loading coils and
bridge taps and are tested more rigorously for noise and balance.
If you are absolutely stuck with a lousy phone line to your studio, you
might want to try creating a “perfect” phone line from an ISDN line (assuming
that is available). All you will need is a computer-type external terminal adapter
with at least one POTS port. That port will have ringing and dial tone just like a
regular phone line and will be all-digital to the phone company. You will need
to program the TA with a computer, entering switch type, SPIDs and LDNs.
After that, no computer connection is necessary.
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APPENDIX B
ABOUT MIX MINUS
Even the simplest remotes are a two-way process. The remote site must send its
audio to the studio and receive a return feed to monitor the programming. This
return feed may be done over a radio station’s regular transmitter (with an AM or
FM radio at the remote), over a special radio link or over a telephone circuit. This
feed may just go to headphones at the remote and also be put on speakers for
any spectators.
The problem comes when there is a time delay in getting audio to and/or from the
studio. In this case, the remote “talent” hears a delayed version of their voice in the
headphones and finds this very distracting. Even a remote done with simple
equipment or a frequency extender on plain phone lines may have this problem on
a long-distance call. All remotes using ISDN, Switched-56, and POTS codecs will
have delays each way as signals are processed from analog to digital, compressed,
uncompressed, and converted back to analog audio. Some digital compression
schemes, such as G.722, result in shorter delay times, but there will still be a
“reverb” effect in headphones at the remote site if their audio is sent back from the
studio. In any of these cases, it may not be possible for the remote people to listen
to an off-air or program channel feed.
The solution is mix-minus
mix-minus. A mix-minus feed has a mix of all of the programming
on the radio station (or network) minus the audio from the remote. In other words,
the station or network doesn’t send the remote audio back to the remote. At the
remote end, this mix-minus feed is converted back to an “air monitor” by mixing in
the local audio from the remote. This is easily done on the Vector, with the LOCAL
volume control.
For radio stations, in addition to fixing the time delay problem, using a mix-minus
feed has two other advantages. First, if the station uses a 6-7 second delay to allow
editing of phone calls, pre-delay audio can be sent to the remote site. Second, if
there is a PA system at the remote, they will be able to run the speaker levels higher
with the mix-minus audio. This is because the remote microphone audio is not
running through the station’s audio processing, and the levels stay under the
control of the remote operator.
The simplest way to do one mix-minus feed in a typical radio studio is to use the
Audition or second program channel. On many audio consoles, each fader’s output
may be sent to both Program and Audition. If your board will allow those feeds
simultaneously, just set all of the modules to Program and Audition, with the
exception of the one carrying the remote audio. Set that one to Program only. The
Audition channel will then be a mix of everything on the console except the
remote. That will be your mix-minus which should be sent to the remote site. One
caution — make sure that audio is being sent to and from any telephone modules
you may have in the console. They may have been designed to work with only one
channel at a time — either Program or Audition, but not both. If so, you will have
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to check with your “tech guy” or the board manufacturer for advice. If you use
multiple audio codecs, you should investigate the Comrex Mix-Minus Bridge.
This will allow you to expand one Program/Audition setup to handle five
codecs or other remote audio devices. It also provides IFB (talkback) to
remote sites.
“I’M USING MIX-MINUS
I STILL HEAR AN
ECHO!”
AND
If you are using a Portable Vector or Comrex HotLine at the studio, check the
LOCAL audio knob. If it is turned up, audio from the studio board will be sent
back to the board, and funny effects will result.
If you are doing a call-in talk show on the road, the remote people may
complain of hearing an echo when a caller is put on the air. With the
telephone pot down, everything is OK. The culprit is the telephone hybrid
being used to put callers on the air. Some of the remote audio is “leaking”
through the hybrid and mixing with the caller audio. Modern digital hybrids
do a much better job of preventing this than the older units that had to be
manually “tweaked” for each call. If you are using a digital hybrid and having
this problem, dig out the manual and re-do the hybrid’s initial setup.
Some stations do not feed regular audio back to the remote, particularly for
sports broadcasts. Instead, they send a continuous feed of the board
operator’s microphone out to the game. In this case, the board op must
remember to wear headphones and keep the studio speakers off. His
microphone would pick up the remote audio from the speakers, and the crew
at the game would hear themselves in delayed form.
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