1960
VACUUM TUBE COMPRESSOR
OPERATORS MANUAL
CONTENTS
SAFETY CONSIDERATIONS
page 1
INTRODUCTION
page 2
APPLICATIONS
page 2
INSTALLATION
page 3
CONTROL DESCRIPTIONS:
" Compressor
" Microphone Pre-amplifier
" Auxiliary Input
page
page
page
page
QUICK SET-UP
page 8
IF A FAULT DEVELOPS
page 9
CONTACTING DRAWMER
page 9
TECHNICAL SPECIFICATION
page 10
BLOCK DIAGRAM
page 11
i
5
5
7
7
COPYRIGHT
This manual is copyrighted © 1993 by Drawmer Electronics, Ltd. With all rights
reserved. Under copyright laws, this manual may not be duplicated in whole or in
part without the written consent of Drawmer.
ONE YEAR LIMITED WARRANTY
Drawmer Electronics Ltd., warrants the Drawmer 1960 audio processor to
conform substantially to the specifications of this manual for a period of one year
from the original date of purchase when used in accordance with the
specifications detailed in this manual. In the case of a valid warranty claim, your
sole and exclusive remedy and Drawmer’s entire liability under any theory of
liability will be to, at Drawmer’s discretion, repair or replace the product without
charge, or, if not possible, to refund the purchase price to you. This warranty is
not transferable. It applies only to the original purchaser of the product.
For warranty service please call your local Drawmer dealer. Alternatively call
Drawmer Electronics Ltd. at +44 (0)1709 527574. Then ship the defective
product, with transportation and insurance charges pre-paid, to Drawmer
Electronics Ltd., Coleman Street, Parkgate, Rotherham, S62 6EL UK. Write the
RA number in large letters in a prominent position on the shipping box. Enclose
your name, address, telephone number, copy of the original sales invoice and a
detailed description of the problem. Drawmer will not accept responsibility for loss
or damage during transit.
This warranty is void if the product has been damaged by misuse, modification or
unauthorised repair.
THIS WARRANTY IS IN LIEU OF ALL WARRANTIES, WHETHER ORAL OR
WRITTEN, EXPRESSED, IMPLIED OR STATUTORY. DRAWMER MAKES NO
OTHER WARRANTY EITHER EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING, WITHOUT
LIMITATION, ANY IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY, FITNESS
FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE, OR NON-INFRINGEMENT. PURCHASER’S
SOLE AND EXCLUSIVE REMEDY UNDER THIS WARRANTY SHALL BE REPAIR
OR REPLACEMENT AS SPECIFIED HEREIN.
IN NO EVENT WILL DRAWMER ELECTRONICS LTD. BE LIABLE FOR ANY
DIRECT, INDIRECT, SPECIAL, INCIDENTAL OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES
RESULTING FROM ANY DEFECT IN THE PRODUCT, INCLUDING LOST
PROFITS, DAMAGE TO PROPERTY, AND, TO THE EXTENT PERMITTED BY
LAW, DAMAGE FOR PERSONAL INJURY, EVEN IF DRAWMER HAS BEEN
ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGES.
Some states and specific countries do not allow the exclusion of implied
warranties or limitations on how long an implied warranty may last, so the above
limitations may not apply to you. This warranty gives you specific legal rights. You
may have additional rights that vary from state to state, and country to country.
In the interests of product development, Drawmer reserve the right to modify or
improve specifications of this product at any time, without prior notice.
ii
1960 OPERATORS’ MANUAL
1
DRAWMER 1960
Dual Vacuum Tube
Compressor
SAFETY CONSIDERATIONS
CAUTION - MAINS FUSE
TO REDUCE THE RISK OF FIRE REPLACE THE MAINS FUSE ONLY WITH A
FUSE THAT CONFORMS TO IEC 127-2. 250 VOLT WORKING, TIME DELAY
TYPE WITH A BODY SIZE OF 20mm x 5mm.
THE MAINS INPUT FUSE MUST BE RATED AT 250mA WHERE THE MAINS
INPUT VOLTAGE SWITCH IS SET TO 230 VOLTS AC. AND 500mA WHERE
THE MAINS INPUT VOLTAGE IS 115 VOLTS AC.
THE REAR PANEL H.T. FUSE MUST ALWAYS BE RATED AT 50mA,
IRRESPECTIVE OF THE MAINS VOLTAGE SETTING.
CAUTION - MAINS CABLE
DO NOT ATTEMPT TO CHANGE OR TAMPER WITH THE SUPPLIED MAINS
CABLE.
CAUTION - SERVICING
DO NOT PERFORM ANY SERVICING. REFER ALL SERVICING TO
QUALIFIED SERVICE PERSONNEL.
WARNING
TO REDUCE THE RISK OF FIRE OR ELECTRIC SHOCK DO NOT EXPOSE
THIS EQUIPMENT TO RAIN OR MOISTURE.
2
1960 OPERATORS’ MANUAL
INTRODUCTION
The 1960 is a hybrid vacuum tube/semi-conductor, dual-channel compressor which has
numerous applications in studio recording, live sound, location recording, postproduction and as part of a musician's rack system.
The microphone input stages feature extremely low noise, balanced input circuitry with
additional tube amplification, enabling modern microphones to take on the
characteristics of older tube models.
APPLICATIONS
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
General studio compressor
Complete stereo mixes.
For high quality location recording, the 1960 makes the perfect partner for
a DAT machine, as it combines the functions of stereo mic preamp with
that of a compressor.
The mic inputs provide up to 60dB of gain.
As an instrument amplifier, the 1960 provides gain, EQ and compression,
providing the type of overdrive sound associated with tube guitar
amplifiers.
When the compressor is overdriven, it can be used creatively on electric
guitar or rock vocal sounds.
The Aux input may be used for processing the output from a dedicated
guitar preamplifier, where the EQ can be used to further tailor the sound
before it is compressed.
1960 OPERATORS’ MANUAL
3
INSTALLATION
The 1960 is designed for standard 19" rack mounting and occupies 2U of rack space.
Avoid mounting the unit directly above power amplifiers or power supplies that radiate
significant amounts of heat and always connect the mains earth to the unit. Fibre or
plastic washers may be used to prevent the front panel becoming marked by the
mounting bolts. Because the tube circuitry generates more heat than an equivalent
solid-state design, it is advisable to leave space above the unit to allow the heat to
dissipate.
AUDIO CONNECTIONS
The inputs and outputs are electronically balanced on conventionally wired XLRs (pin
1 screen, pin 2 hot, pin 3 cold and XLR shell is connected to chassis). The 1960 fully
conforms to the EMC standards, if the unit is used where it maybe exposed to high
levels of disturbance such as found close to a TV or radio transmitter we suggest that
the screen of the signal cable is connected to the chassis connection on the XLR type
connector. The operating level is nominally +4dBu.
If earth loop problems are encountered, do not disconnect the mains earth but instead,
try disconnecting the signal screen on one end of the cables connecting the outputs of
the 1960 to the patchbay. Balanced operation is recommended.
The side-chain access point and the two different level insert points are unbalanced.
The side chain feature on the 1960 is part of the compressor feedback stage and would
normally be connected to a normalised or semi-normalised pair of patchbay contacts.
This would allow the user to insert additional EQ for some de-essing, or frequency
conscious compression. The intended use of the audio insert jacks would be to patch
in EQ (eg 1961), reverb or similar processing. Connection is via stereo ¼" jacks, the
wiring convention being: ring is signal send, tip is signal return and sleeve ground.
4
1960 OPERATORS’ MANUAL
POWER CONNECTION
The unit will have been supplied with a power cable suitable for domestic power outlets
in your country. For your own safety it is important that you use this cable. The unit
should always be connected to the mains supply earth using this cable.
If for some reason the unit is to be used at a mains input operating voltage which is
different to that as supplied, the following procedure must be carried out. (see following
diagram)
1:
Disconnect the unit from the mains.
2:
With a size1 pozidrive screwdriver, remove the two self-tapping screws
holding the voltage selection switch cover plate on the rear panel.
3:
Remove the cover plate and slide the switch fully to its opposite end.
4:
Rotate the cover plate one half turn, (180E) and refit the two screws.
5:
Fit a correctly rated Mains Fuse for the selected operation voltage.
Do not make any changes to the HT Fuse.
6:
Re-connect to mains power source.
1960 OPERATORS’ MANUAL
5
CONTROL DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION
With the exception of the Aux preamp section, both channels of the 1960 are identical
and may be used independently or linked for stereo operation. In linked mode, the
compressor controls should, ideally, be set to the same settings (as the control-circuitry
for both channels responds to the average between the two channel settings). In Stereo
Link mode, both channels track together to avoid the inevitable image shifting that would
occur if the two channels of a stereo signal were treated independently.
COMPRESSOR
Source Select:
This rotary switch selects the compressor input source. The
Line and Mic inputs are via the rear-panel XLRs while the
Aux input is available on the front panel. The two Mic
positions offer an input with or without +48V phantom
powering, with a red LED lit when active.
Note: if the Aux input is to be used at the same time as a Mic input, it is
recommended that the Mic input be processed through the upper channel
and the Aux input through the lower channel as this minimises crosstalk
between tube amplification stages sharing the same envelope.
High-pass:
The signal path incorporates a switchable high-pass filter
which may be set to 50Hz, 100Hz or Off. Its use is to
attenuate low frequency signals that might otherwise prove
troublesome, eg. traffic rumble or stage vibration.
Threshold:
Determines the input level above which gain reduction will
be applied and may be set in the range -24dB to infinity.
Because the compression system is based on the Soft Knee
principle, the onset of compression is progressive, so no
Ratio control is necessary.
6
1960 OPERATORS’ MANUAL
Attack:
Three switchable Attack settings are provided giving Fast,
Medium and Slow attack times. The actual attack time is
further modified by the release setting chosen.
Release:
There are four fixed Release times and a further two which
are programme dependent. Switch settings 1 through to 4
provide progressively increasing release times, while
positions 5 and 6 cause the release times to vary in a
manner which automatically adapts to the dynamics of the
incoming signal, as detailed below:-
Release Times
1
2
3
4
5
6
Output: (Gain)
The Output level may be amplified, or attenuated by up to
20dB to compensate for level changes caused by
compression and limiting.
VU Meter:
A moving coil VU meter monitors either the level of the
output signal (over the range -10dB to +10dB with reference
to the +4dBu operating level) or the amount of gain
reduction taking place. Because the meter has VU
characteristics, it closely reflects what is actually being
heard, though will not respond quickly enough to register
short signal peaks.
VU / GR:
Switches the meters to show either the output level (VU) or
the amount of gain reduction (GR).
Norm/Bypass
S/C Listen:
400 ms
(Fixed)
1 sec
(Fixed)
2 sec
(Fixed)
4 sec
(Fixed)
Automatic 400 ms to 2 sec signal dependent
Automatic 200 ms to 20 sec signal dependent
In Normal mode, the signal is passed through the
compressor. Bypass only takes the compressor out of
circuit leaving the vacuum tube warmth in the circuit path;
the output signal is taken from the signal insert return point.
S/C Listen routes the side-chain signal directly to the
output allowing the effects of any additional side-chain
processing, such as equalisation, to be monitored.
1960 OPERATORS’ MANUAL
Stereo Link:
7
Averages the left and right channel control settings
when the unit is used for processing a stereo signal.
The same degree of gain reduction is applied to both
audio channels to prevent image shifting which
would otherwise occur whenever the left and right
signal dynamics varied from each other by any
significant degree.
MICROPHONE PRE-AMPLIFIER
Mic Input Gain:
This fully variable control sets the mic input gain over the
range 0 to 60dB. The adjacent Clip LED illuminates when
excessive Mic gain has been applied and there is a danger
of clipping.
AUXILIARY INPUT
The Auxiliary Input has a 2M2Ù impedance and feeds a specialised instrument input
stage which provides both gain and equalisation, suitable for use with both active and
passive guitar pickup systems as well as with electronic keyboards. The passive Bass
and Treble controls are based on those used in classic tube guitar amplifiers while the
Bright switch puts a peak in the frequency response at around 2kHz to simulate the
voicing of a typical guitar amplifier. A two position high or low gain switch provides an
additional 10dB of gain when required for level matching or for creating overdrive
effects.
When setting up a good starting point is to switch Bright 'On' and set the compressor for
'Med' attack and '6' release. The threshold should be adjusted to give a gain reduction
reading of around 5dB on signal peaks. By increasing the Gain control setting, the input
stage can be made to overdrive in a manner similar to that of traditional valve guitar
amplifiers.
8
1960 OPERATORS’ MANUAL
Bass EQ:
Passive equaliser control, which can be set to provide up to
15dB of bass boost at 40Hz.
Treble EQ:
Passive equaliser control, which can be set to provide up to
18dB of treble boost at 16kHz.
Gain:
Provides up to 30dB of gain at the Low Gain switch setting
or 40dB at the High Gain setting.
Low/High:
Sensitivity selector switch. Adds 10dB of gain in the High
position.
Flat/EQ:
Switches the equaliser controls out of circuit when a flat
response is required, or for 'A/B' comparison of EQ
effectiveness.
Norm/Bright:
Switches in 10dB of boost at 2kHz in the Bright position, (
when 'EQ' has been selected on the Flat/EQ switch.)
QUICK SET UP
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
Select Stereo Link mode for use with a stereo signal, otherwise ensure
this switch is Off.
Choose correct signal source for each channel using selector.
Initially, set the Attack selector to the Medium position and set Release to
6 (Programme Dependent).
Set the Mode switch to Normal and the Meter switch to GR.
With programme material playing, adjust the Threshold control until the
desired amount of gain reduction registers on the meters.
Use the Output Gain control to restore any level lost due to compression.
If necessary, change the Attack and Release settings to suit the material.
1960 OPERATORS’ MANUAL
9
IF A FAULT DEVELOPS
For warranty service please call Drawmer Electronics Ltd. Or their nearest authorised
service facility, giving full details of the difficulty. On receipt of this information, service
or shipping instructions will be forwarded to you. No equipment should be returned
under the warranty without prior consent from Drawmer or their authorised
representative.
For service claims under the warranty agreement a service Returns Authorisation (RA)
number will be given. Write this RA number in large letters in a prominent position on
the shipping box. Enclose your name, address, telephone number, copy of the original
sales invoice and a detailed description of the problem.
Authorised returns should be prepaid and must be insured. All Drawmer products are
packaged in specially designed containers for protection. If the unit is to be returned,
the original container must be used. If this container is not available, then the equipment
should be packaged in substantial shock-proof material, capable of withstanding the
handling for the transit.
CONTACTING DRAWMER
Drawmer Electronics Ltd., will be pleased to answer all application questions to enhance
your usage of this equipment. Please address correspondence to:
Drawmer (Technical Help line) : Coleman St.: Parkgate : Rotherham : S62 6EL : UK
or, E-mail us on :
tech@drawmer.com
Drawmer dealers, Authorised service departments and other contact information can be
obtained from our web pages on
http://www.drawmer.com
10
1960 OPERATORS’ MANUAL
TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS
(All measurements taken at +4dBu operating level)
INPUT IMPEDANCES
LINE
MIC
AUX
20KÙ
150Ù to 600Ù
2M2Ù
-128.5dB (@ +60dB gain)
+20dBu
50 Ù
+22dBm (balanced)
<10Hz to 22KHz -1dB
MIC INPUT NOISE
MAXIMUM INPUT LEVEL
OUTPUT IMPEDANCE
MAXIMUM OUTPUT LEVEL
BANDWIDTH
COMPRESSOR NOISE AT UNITY GAIN
Wideband
22Hz - 22KHz
CCIR ARM
IEC A
Q-Pk CCIR
AV
-82dB
-88dB
-88dB
-91dB
-77dB
RMS
-81dB
-87dB
-87dB
-90dB
DISTORTION (THD & Noise)
1KHz
Line Input with BYPASS selected
< 0.1%
Line Input with NORMAL selected
< 0.3%
POWER REQUIREMENTS
230Volt or 115Volt at 50-60Hz,
38 W atts
FUSE RATING
FUSE TYPE
250mA for 230Volt,
500mA for 115Volt
CONFORMING TO IEC 127-2
20mm x 5mm, Class 3 Slo-Blo, 250Volt working
CASE SIZE
482mm (w) x 88mm (h) x 250mm (d)
WEIGHT (incl packaging)
6.0 Kgs
1960 OPERATORS’ MANUAL
BLOCK DIAGRAM
11