Pratt & Whitney Canada PT6A Turboprop Operating instructions

Key
NEW
OWNER
WISDOm
YOUR PT6A
turboprop
Key
NEW
OWNER
WISDOm
YOUR PT6A
turboprop
Know your pt6A turboprop
Know your pt6A turboprop
Congratulations on your acquisition of an aircraft powered by the
Pratt & Whitney Canada Corp. (P&WC) dependable PT6A Turboprop
Engine! Just like you, operators around the globe have made the
PT6A engines their choice in the business and general aviation
market – engines known to provide exceptional power, performance
and peace of mind. By making this wise choice, you are benefiting
from 45 years and 300 million hours of in-service experience
resulting in unmatched reliability.
Congratulations on your acquisition of an aircraft powered by the
Pratt & Whitney Canada Corp. (P&WC) dependable PT6A Turboprop
Engine! Just like you, operators around the globe have made the
PT6A engines their choice in the business and general aviation
market – engines known to provide exceptional power, performance
and peace of mind. By making this wise choice, you are benefiting
from 45 years and 300 million hours of in-service experience
resulting in unmatched reliability..
This handbook has been designed to give you a brief overview
of the PT6A engine as well as some maintenance and power
management recommendations. Always refer to the Pilots Operating
Handbook (POH), Aircraft Flight Manual (AFM), Engine Maintenance
Manual (EMM), Service Bulletin’s (SB) or other service information
documentation for a complete text of the approved / recommended
procedures and latest information.
This handbook has been designed to give you a brief overview
of the PT6A engine as well as some maintenance and power
management recommendations. Always refer to the Pilots Operating
Handbook (POH), Aircraft Flight Manual (AFM), Engine Maintenance
Manual (EMM), Service Bulletin’s (SB) or other service information
documentation for a complete text of the approved / recommended
procedures and latest information.
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1
Know your pt6A turboprop
Know your pt6A turboprop
Should you require additional information related to:
Should you require additional information related to:
AOG / critical emergency services
Technical / maintenance consultation
Warranty
Publications
Field Service Representative (FSR) contact info
Rental Engines
Engine status in any P&WC Service Centre
Eagle Service Plan® (ESP®)
AOG Parts After Hours,
AOG / critical emergency services
Technical / maintenance consultation
Warranty
Publications
Field Service Representative (FSR) contact info
Rental Engines
Engine status in any P&WC Service Centre
Eagle Service Plan® (ESP®)
AOG Parts After Hours,
our Customer FIRST Centre is available 24 hours a day,
7 days a week to assist you.
our Customer FIRST Centre is available 24 hours a day,
7 days a week to assist you.
In Canada and the United States:
Tel: 1-800-268-8000
In Canada and the United States:
Tel: 1-800-268-8000
International:
Tel: International Access Code + 8000-268-8000
International:
Tel: International Access Code + 8000-268-8000
Other Numbers:
Tel: (450) 647-8000
Other Numbers:
Tel: (450) 647-8000
Fax: (450) 647-2888
Email:
cfirst@pwc.ca
Email:
cfirst@pwc.ca
Visit our website at:
www.pwc.ca
Visit our website at:
www.pwc.ca
2
Fax: (450) 647-2888
2
Know your pt6A turboprop
Know your pt6A turboprop
Take note of your PT6A engine model and serial number.
This will help us to coordinate our support in a timely manner.
Take note of your PT6A engine model and serial number.
This will help us to coordinate our support in a timely manner.
Engine Model:
Engine Model:
Engine Serial Number:
Engine Serial Number:
Engine Logbook:
Engine Logbook:
Each engine is supplied with a logbook(s) to record all maintenance
actions as well as engine running times and cycles. The logbook(s)
must accompany the engine or module each time they are sent to an
approved service or overhaul facility.
Each engine is supplied with a logbook(s) to record all maintenance
actions as well as engine running times and cycles. The logbook(s)
must accompany the engine or module each time they are sent to an
approved service or overhaul facility.
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Disclaimer
Disclaimer
Disclaimer
The information contained herein has been set out in summary
form and is provided for general reference purposes only and may
be changed without prior notice. It should not be construed as
creating any obligation on the part of Pratt & Whitney Canada Corp.
While every care has been taken to avoid errors, Pratt & Whitney
Canada Corp. makes no representations about the accuracy of
these guidelines and accepts no responsibility for any error herein.
In no event shall P&WC be liable for any damages whatsoever
resulting from the misuse, misinterpretation, analysis,
interpretation or application of any of the guidelines contained
herein. The information contained herein does not replace or
supersede the information contained in the appropriate airframe or
engine maintenance manuals or other official publications.
Disclaimer
The information contained herein has been set out in summary
form and is provided for general reference purposes only and may
be changed without prior notice. It should not be construed as
creating any obligation on the part of Pratt & Whitney Canada Corp.
While every care has been taken to avoid errors, Pratt & Whitney
Canada Corp. makes no representations about the accuracy of
these guidelines and accepts no responsibility for any error herein.
In no event shall P&WC be liable for any damages whatsoever
resulting from the misuse, misinterpretation, analysis,
interpretation or application of any of the guidelines contained
herein. The information contained herein does not replace or
supersede the information contained in the appropriate airframe or
engine maintenance manuals or other official publications.
Always refer to the Pilot’s Operating Handbooks (POH), Aircraft
Flight Manuals (AFM), Engine Maintenance Manuals (EMM),
Service Bulletins (SB) or other Service Information documentation
for a complete text of the approved / recommended procedures
and latest information.
Always refer to the Pilot’s Operating Handbooks (POH), Aircraft
Flight Manuals (AFM), Engine Maintenance Manuals (EMM),
Service Bulletins (SB) or other Service Information documentation
for a complete text of the approved / recommended procedures
and latest information.
PT6 and PT6A are trademarks of Pratt & Whitney Canada Corp.
PT6 and PT6A are trademarks of Pratt & Whitney Canada Corp.
© Copyright Pratt & Whitney Canada Corp. May not be reproduced, in whole
or in part, without prior written consent
© Copyright Pratt & Whitney Canada Corp. May not be reproduced, in whole
or in part, without prior written consent
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Nomenclature
Nomenclature
ADAS
Aircraft Data Acquisition System
ADAS
Aircraft Data Acquisition System
AFM
Aircraft Flight Manual
AFM
Aircraft Flight Manual
AGB
Accessory Gearbox
AGB
Accessory Gearbox
AOG
Aircraft On Ground
AOG
Aircraft On Ground
CT
Compressor Turbine
CT
Compressor Turbine
ECTM®
Engine Condition Trend Monitoring®
ECTM®
Engine Condition Trend Monitoring®
EESP
Extended Engine Service Policy
EESP
Extended Engine Service Policy
EPL
Emergency Power Lever
EPL
Emergency Power Lever
ESP®
Eagle Service Plan®
ESP®
Eagle Service Plan®
FOD
Foreign Object Damage
FOD
Foreign Object Damage
FSR
Field Service Representative
FSR
Field Service Representative
HSI
Hot Section Inspection
HSI
Hot Section Inspection
ITT
Interturbine Temperature
ITT
Interturbine Temperature
LCF
Low Cycle Fatigue
LCF
Low Cycle Fatigue
MOR
Manual Override
MOR
Manual Override
Ng
Gas Generator Speed
Ng
Gas Generator Speed
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6
Nomenclature
Nomenclature
Np
Propeller Speed
Np
Propeller Speed
PPSP
Primary Parts Service Policy
PPSP
Primary Parts Service Policy
PLA
Power Lever Assembly
PLA
Power Lever Assembly
POH
Pilot’s Operating Handbook
POH
Pilot’s Operating Handbook
PT
Power Turbine
PT
Power Turbine
RPM
Rotations Per Minute
RPM
Rotations Per Minute
SB
Service Bulletin
SB
Service Bulletin
SHP
Shaft Horsepower
SHP
Shaft Horsepower
SIL
Service Information Letter
SIL
Service Information Letter
STOL
Short Takeoff and Landing
STOL
Short Takeoff and Landing
TBO
Time Between Overhaul
TBO
Time Between Overhaul
TSO
Time Since Overhaul
TSO
Time Since Overhaul
TTSN
Total Time Since New
TTSN
Total Time Since New
TCSN
Total Cycles Since New
TCSN
Total Cycles Since New
UAC
United Aircraft Corporation
UAC
United Aircraft Corporation
Wf
Fuel Flow Rate
Wf
Fuel Flow Rate
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Know your pt6A turboprop
Know your pt6A turboprop
Initial Customer Support Presentation
Initial Customer Support Presentation
P&WC offers a three-part introduction to the company, engine maintenance
and our aftermarket support logistics. You have the option of scheduling a
meeting at your convenience or we will be happy to send you an information
kit with brochures and a copy of the presentation that you may review at
your leisure. When the time comes, your local FSR can provide guidance
on such things as fuel nozzle exchange, boroscope inspection of the hot
section or other maintenance areas.
P&WC offers a three-part introduction to the company, engine maintenance
and our aftermarket support logistics. You have the option of scheduling a
meeting at your convenience or we will be happy to send you an information
kit with brochures and a copy of the presentation that you may review at
your leisure. When the time comes, your local FSR can provide guidance
on such things as fuel nozzle exchange, boroscope inspection of the hot
section or other maintenance areas.
Publications
Publications
P&WC offers a package of high-quality technical publications for new
aircraft operators. Moreover, a free two-year revision service is provided
for each new publications subscription. Additional publications may also
be purchased. The price list for commercial publications is available upon
request by contacting Publications Customer Services.
P&WC offers a package of high-quality technical publications for new
aircraft operators. Moreover, a free two-year revision service is provided
for each new publications subscription. Additional publications may also
be purchased. The price list for commercial publications is available upon
request by contacting Publications Customer Services.
For additional details on our Technical Publications, including contact info,
please visit us at our website, www.pwc.ca
For additional details on our Technical Publications, including contact info,
please visit us at our website, www.pwc.ca
Warranty
Warranty
P&WC prides itself in offering transferable warranty coverage that is
amongst the best in the aerospace business. The new engine warranty is
comprised of the Basic Coverage Period and may be supplemented by one
or both of the following available service policies:
P&WC prides itself in offering transferable warranty coverage that is
amongst the best in the aerospace business. The new engine warranty is
comprised of the Basic Coverage Period and may be supplemented by one
or both of the following available service policies:
·The Primary Parts Service Policy (PPSP) is a renewable pro-rata warranty
coverage for the repair or replacement of specific engine parts damaged
due to a defect in material or manufacturing workmanship during their
P&WC commercially-supported class life.
·The Primary Parts Service Policy (PPSP) is a renewable pro-rata warranty
coverage for the repair or replacement of specific engine parts damaged
due to a defect in material or manufacturing workmanship during their
P&WC commercially-supported class life.
·The Extended Engine Service Policy (EESP) applies for a premature,
engine-chargeable event when an overhaul is required.
·The Extended Engine Service Policy (EESP) applies for a premature,
engine-chargeable event when an overhaul is required.
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Know your pt6A turboprop
Know your pt6A turboprop
Once we have been informed of a new PT6A engine delivery to an aircraft
operator, a copy of the applicable new engine warranty will be sent
to the new owner by the P&WC Warranty Administration department.
Notification of new aircraft sales is normally received directly from aircraft
manufacturers, their licensed dealers or directly from the owner. Note
that warranty coverage is attached to the engine serial number, not to
the owner. For any warranty questions, please feel free to email us at
warranty@pwc.ca.
Once we have been informed of a new PT6A engine delivery to an aircraft
operator, a copy of the applicable new engine warranty will be sent
to the new owner by the P&WC Warranty Administration department.
Notification of new aircraft sales is normally received directly from aircraft
manufacturers, their licensed dealers or directly from the owner. Note
that warranty coverage is attached to the engine serial number, not to
the owner. For any warranty questions, please feel free to email us at
warranty@pwc.ca.
If your aircraft is involved in an incident which affects the engine (e.g. prop
strike, hard landing), you must inform P&WC Warranty by filling out the
form included in SIL GEN-039. This will ensure that your warranty policy is
reinstated following the corrective maintenance actions.
If your aircraft is involved in an incident which affects the engine (e.g. prop
strike, hard landing), you must inform P&WC Warranty by filling out the
form included in SIL GEN-039. This will ensure that your warranty policy is
reinstated following the corrective maintenance actions.
Customer Portal
Customer Portal
Pratt & Whitney Canada is committed to providing global support services
that delights our customers. The P&WC Customer portal is just one of the
many ways in which we collaborate with our customers. The portal will give
access to an increasing list of on-line services and information.
Pratt & Whitney Canada is committed to providing global support services
that delights our customers. The P&WC Customer portal is just one of the
many ways in which we collaborate with our customers. The portal will give
access to an increasing list of on-line services and information.
Register today on our website, www.pwc.ca, free of charge, to receive
the P&WC Extranet Application URL, username and password once the
registration request has been approved and processed.
Register today on our website, www.pwc.ca, free of charge, to receive
the P&WC Extranet Application URL, username and password once the
registration request has been approved and processed.
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PT6A engine General
PT6A engine General
PT6A Engine Overview
PT6A Engine Overview
Unmatched versatility, dependability and performance have made the PT6A
engine the most thoroughly proven and popular turboprop engine family
in the 500- to 1,700-shp class, covering a diverse range of applications
across all aircraft markets. We continually invest in technology to make our
engines the most environmentally friendly and to offer even greater value in
the form of higher performance and digital engine control.
Unmatched versatility, dependability and performance have made the PT6A
engine the most thoroughly proven and popular turboprop engine family
in the 500- to 1,700-shp class, covering a diverse range of applications
across all aircraft markets. We continually invest in technology to make our
engines the most environmentally friendly and to offer even greater value in
the form of higher performance and digital engine control.
The PT6 engine, a lightweight free turbine engine incorporating a reverse
flow combustion path, is designed for aircraft propulsion use. It utilizes two
counter-rotating turbines; one driving the compressor and the other driving
the propeller through a reduction gearbox. The latter turbine is “free”
or independent of the compressor turbine. More recent, higher powered
models incorporate a two-stage power turbine.
The PT6 engine, a lightweight free turbine engine incorporating a reverse
flow combustion path, is designed for aircraft propulsion use. It utilizes two
counter-rotating turbines; one driving the compressor and the other driving
the propeller through a reduction gearbox. The latter turbine is “free”
or independent of the compressor turbine. More recent, higher powered
models incorporate a two-stage power turbine.
Over the years, the PT6 engine has evolved and adapted to a multitude of
uses. The PT6A engine is the turboprop designation, powering commuter,
corporate and utility aircraft, aerobatic trainers, agricultural aircraft, short
takeoff and landing (STOL) aircraft and water bombers. This handbook is
dedicated to the PT6A variant.
Over the years, the PT6 engine has evolved and adapted to a multitude of
uses. The PT6A engine is the turboprop designation, powering commuter,
corporate and utility aircraft, aerobatic trainers, agricultural aircraft, short
takeoff and landing (STOL) aircraft and water bombers. This handbook is
dedicated to the PT6A variant.
The PT6B, C & T (Twin-Pac®) engines are turboshaft variants, providing
reliable power to many of the worlds helicopters and more recently to
tiltrotors.
The PT6B, C & T (Twin-Pac®) engines are turboshaft variants, providing
reliable power to many of the worlds helicopters and more recently to
tiltrotors.
The ST6 engine is an industrial variant of the PT6 engine, originally
developed for the United Aircraft Corporation (UAC) TurboTrain and
intended for stationary application.
The ST6 engine is an industrial variant of the PT6 engine, originally
developed for the United Aircraft Corporation (UAC) TurboTrain and
intended for stationary application.
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Modularity
Modularity
The design of the PT6A engine allows it to be split into two major parts
called the power section assembly and the gas generator assembly. Only
certain engine models are defined as being modular, which allows the
interchange and tracking of each module. Three criteria must be met for the
engine to be modular.
The design of the PT6A engine allows it to be split into two major parts
called the power section assembly and the gas generator assembly. Only
certain engine models are defined as being modular, which allows the
interchange and tracking of each module. Three criteria must be met for the
engine to be modular.
1. E ach major assembly is equipped with a data plate and a third data
plate is located on the inlet case for the complete engine assembly.
1. E ach major assembly is equipped with a data plate and a third data
plate is located on the inlet case for the complete engine assembly.
2. There is a logbook for each module.
2. There is a logbook for each module.
3. In the appropriate SB on service lives, there will be an overhaul interval
quoted for each module and the engine assembly.
3. In the appropriate SB on service lives, there will be an overhaul interval
quoted for each module and the engine assembly.
On non-modular PT6A engines, the power section assembly can be removed
and sent for service, but must be returned and installed on the same gas
generator assembly.
On non-modular PT6A engines, the power section assembly can be removed
and sent for service, but must be returned and installed on the same gas
generator assembly.
Small PT6A Engine
Small PT6A Engine
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Advantages of the PT6A engine Design
Advantages of the PT6A engine Design
A number of advantages are derived from the design of the PT6A engine
which have proven valuable in routine field operation.
A number of advantages are derived from the design of the PT6A engine
which have proven valuable in routine field operation.
During an engine start, only the compressor section of the PT6A engine
needs be rotated by the starter-generator. By comparison, a fixed-shaft
engine must spin all rotating components including the reduction gearbox
and propeller during an engine start, resulting in a requirement for heavier
starting systems.
During an engine start, only the compressor section of the PT6A engine
needs be rotated by the starter-generator. By comparison, a fixed-shaft
engine must spin all rotating components including the reduction gearbox
and propeller during an engine start, resulting in a requirement for heavier
starting systems.
The PT6A engine free turbine design allows the propeller RPM to be reduced
and the propeller feathered during ground operation without shutting
down the engine. This facilitates fast passenger loading and permits very
quiet ground operation. Propeller RPM can also be varied in flight (on most
applications) permitting propeller RPM to be set for quieter cruise and
optimum efficiency.
The PT6A engine free turbine design allows the propeller RPM to be reduced
and the propeller feathered during ground operation without shutting
down the engine. This facilitates fast passenger loading and permits very
quiet ground operation. Propeller RPM can also be varied in flight (on most
applications) permitting propeller RPM to be set for quieter cruise and
optimum efficiency.
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12
Principles of Operation
Principles of Operation
The PT6A engine consists of two main sections, the gas generator section
and the power section.
The PT6A engine consists of two main sections, the gas generator section
and the power section.
The gas generator section compresses and delivers air to the combustion
chamber where it is mixed with fuel and ignited. The resulting hot gases
turn the compressor turbine which provides the power to run the compressor
and the accessory gearbox located at the rear of the engine. The hot gases
continue on to the power turbine where the remaining energy is extracted to
turn the propeller.
The gas generator section compresses and delivers air to the combustion
chamber where it is mixed with fuel and ignited. The resulting hot gases
turn the compressor turbine which provides the power to run the compressor
and the accessory gearbox located at the rear of the engine. The hot gases
continue on to the power turbine where the remaining energy is extracted to
turn the propeller.
Np
Tq
Nf
T5 (ITT)
Ng
Np
Tq
Nf
T5 (ITT)
Ng
FCU
FCU
Wf
13
Wf
13
Airflow
Airflow
Air is directed to a compressor consisting of three axial stages (Four
axial stages on large PT6A engine models) and one centrifugal stage.
Compressed air leaving the compressor passes through diffuser pipes
which turn the flow 90 degrees, reduce its speed and direct the air into the
combustion chamber.
Air is directed to a compressor consisting of three axial stages (Four
axial stages on large PT6A engine models) and one centrifugal stage.
Compressed air leaving the compressor passes through diffuser pipes
which turn the flow 90 degrees, reduce its speed and direct the air into the
combustion chamber.
In the annular combustion chamber the air is mixed with fuel and burned.
Two igniter plugs are used to light the fuel/air mixture when the engine is
started. They are not required to maintain the combustion process and can
be shut off once the engine has reached idle speed.
In the annular combustion chamber the air is mixed with fuel and burned.
Two igniter plugs are used to light the fuel/air mixture when the engine is
started. They are not required to maintain the combustion process and can
be shut off once the engine has reached idle speed.
The expanding hot gases are directed first through the compressor turbine
and then through the power turbine. After passing through the power
turbine, the gases are exhausted through ports on each side of the engine.
(Some engines are fitted with a single-port exhaust.) The exhaust stubs
fitted to the engine are normally directed to utilize the remaining energy of
the gases in the form of thrust for additional aircraft propulsion.
The expanding hot gases are directed first through the compressor turbine
and then through the power turbine. After passing through the power
turbine, the gases are exhausted through ports on each side of the engine.
(Some engines are fitted with a single-port exhaust.) The exhaust stubs
fitted to the engine are normally directed to utilize the remaining energy of
the gases in the form of thrust for additional aircraft propulsion.
Two bleed air systems are incorporated in the PT6A engine. Automatic bleed
air from the compressor prevents compressor stall during acceleration from
low engine speeds or deceleration from high engine speeds. For aircraft
use, air may be bled for heating or pressurizing aircraft cabins.
Two bleed air systems are incorporated in the PT6A engine. Automatic bleed
air from the compressor prevents compressor stall during acceleration from
low engine speeds or deceleration from high engine speeds. For aircraft
use, air may be bled for heating or pressurizing aircraft cabins.
Medium PT6A Engine
Medium PT6A Engine
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14
Power Train
Power Train
A shaft connects the power turbine to the two-stage planetary reduction
gearbox. The first stage reduction ring gear floats axially against a hydraulic
torquemeter cylinder. The oil pressure in this cylinder is proportional to
output torque which is displayed on the torque indicator in the cockpit.
Bevel gears located forward of the second stage planetary gears drive the
following accessories mounted on the forward reduction gearbox case:
A shaft connects the power turbine to the two-stage planetary reduction
gearbox. The first stage reduction ring gear floats axially against a hydraulic
torquemeter cylinder. The oil pressure in this cylinder is proportional to
output torque which is displayed on the torque indicator in the cockpit.
Bevel gears located forward of the second stage planetary gears drive the
following accessories mounted on the forward reduction gearbox case:
· propeller governor or constant speed unit
· propeller overspeed governor
· tachometer-generator
· propeller governor or constant speed unit
· propeller overspeed governor
· tachometer-generator
2 ND STAGE
REDUCTION
GEAR
1 ST STAGE
REDUCTION
GEAR
COMPRESSOR
TURBINE
POWER
TURBINES
COMPRESSOR
2 ND STAGE
REDUCTION
GEAR
ACCESSORY
GEARBOX
PROPELLER
SHAFT
1 ST STAGE
REDUCTION
GEAR
COMPRESSOR
TURBINE
POWER
TURBINES
COMPRESSOR
ACCESSORY
GEARBOX
PROPELLER
SHAFT
Large PT6A Engine
Large PT6A Engine
The accessory gearbox, mounted on the rear of the engine, is used to drive
the following engine accessories:
The accessory gearbox, mounted on the rear of the engine, is used to drive
the following engine accessories:
· High-pressure fuel pump
· Fuel control unit
· Oil scavenge and oil pressure pumps.
· High-pressure fuel pump
· Fuel control unit
· Oil scavenge and oil pressure pumps.
Space is also provided for aircraft manufacturer provided accessories such
as the starter-generator, gas generator tachometer-generator, fuel boost
pumps or hydraulic pumps.
Space is also provided for aircraft manufacturer provided accessories such
as the starter-generator, gas generator tachometer-generator, fuel boost
pumps or hydraulic pumps.
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15
Bearings
Bearings
Support of the main shafts in the PT6A engine is accomplished by a
combination of ball and roller bearings. Ball bearings support axial and
radial loading, while the roller bearings support only radial loads, allowing
for thermal expansion.
Support of the main shafts in the PT6A engine is accomplished by a
combination of ball and roller bearings. Ball bearings support axial and
radial loading, while the roller bearings support only radial loads, allowing
for thermal expansion.
Propeller Shaft
No. 5: Roller
No. 6: Ball
No. 7: Roller**
Power Turbine
No. 3: Roller
No. 4: Ball
Compressor
No. 1: Ball
No. 2: Roller
Propeller Shaft
No. 5: Roller
No. 6: Ball
No. 7: Roller**
** Smaller reduction gearboxes do not utilize a No. 7 bearing.
7 6
7 6
5
A-60
A-65
A-67
A-52
A-61
A-64
A-66
A-52
A-61
A-64
A-66
5
4
2
3
16
1
Compressor
No. 1: Ball
No. 2: Roller
** Smaller reduction gearboxes do not utilize a No. 7 bearing.
A-60
A-65
A-67
6
Power Turbine
No. 3: Roller
No. 4: Ball
6
5
5
4
2
3
16
1
FOD Protection
FOD Protection
Inertial Separator
Inertial Separator
The nacelle inlet of many aircraft models includes an inertial separator
provided by the aircraft manufacturer to prevent heavy particles from
entering the engine inlet. Most installations incorporate two moveable
vanes, one upstream of the engine inlet and the other blocking the bypass
duct. For bypass operation, the inlet vane is lowered and the bypass
duct vane is opened permitting maximum separating efficiency. In some
installations, the vanes are fixed in the bypass mode.
The nacelle inlet of many aircraft models includes an inertial separator
provided by the aircraft manufacturer to prevent heavy particles from
entering the engine inlet. Most installations incorporate two moveable
vanes, one upstream of the engine inlet and the other blocking the bypass
duct. For bypass operation, the inlet vane is lowered and the bypass
duct vane is opened permitting maximum separating efficiency. In some
installations, the vanes are fixed in the bypass mode.
As shown in the sketch, air entering the engine inlet must turn sharply past
the inlet vane (shown in the lowered position). Particles heavier than air
are carried straight through, by their own inertia, into the bypass duct and
dumped overboard.
As shown in the sketch, air entering the engine inlet must turn sharply past
the inlet vane (shown in the lowered position). Particles heavier than air
are carried straight through, by their own inertia, into the bypass duct and
dumped overboard.
The aft radial inlet design provides many advantages such as superior
anti-icing utilizing the principle of inertial separation, low noise levels and
unequalled protection from FOD.
The aft radial inlet design provides many advantages such as superior
anti-icing utilizing the principle of inertial separation, low noise levels and
unequalled protection from FOD.
17
BYPASS (ICING)
POSITION
BYPASS (ICING)
POSITION
NORMAL
POSITION
NORMAL
POSITION
17
Fuel System
Fuel System
The fuel system is designed to deliver clean fuel to the engine at the
pressure and flow that are necessary for all engine operating conditions.
The fuel system is designed to deliver clean fuel to the engine at the
pressure and flow that are necessary for all engine operating conditions.
The airframe fuel system contains the necessary boost pumps, transfer
pumps, selector/shutoff valves, strainers and filters required to supply fuel
to the engine(s) and to manage the fuel load distribution in the airplane.
The airframe fuel system contains the necessary boost pumps, transfer
pumps, selector/shutoff valves, strainers and filters required to supply fuel
to the engine(s) and to manage the fuel load distribution in the airplane.
The engine is equipped with a fuel system which consists of a fuel heater,
high-pressure fuel pump, fuel filter, fuel control unit, start control or flow
divider unit and a manifold with fuel injection nozzles.
The engine is equipped with a fuel system which consists of a fuel heater,
high-pressure fuel pump, fuel filter, fuel control unit, start control or flow
divider unit and a manifold with fuel injection nozzles.
The fuel control unit is either a hydro-pneumatic or a hydro-mechanical
system which meters the correct amount of fuel to the engine to maintain
the gas generator speed selected by the pilot via the power control lever. It
also controls fuel flow scheduling during engine starting, acceleration and
deceleration.
The fuel control unit is either a hydro-pneumatic or a hydro-mechanical
system which meters the correct amount of fuel to the engine to maintain
the gas generator speed selected by the pilot via the power control lever. It
also controls fuel flow scheduling during engine starting, acceleration and
deceleration.
The PT6A engine is approved for operation with all commercial jet fuels,
JP-4, JP-5 and for a maximum of 150 hours during any overhaul period with
all grades of aviation gasoline. Specific grades of diesel fuel are approved
as alternate fuels for restricted use. No engine adjustments are required
in changing from one fuel to another, nor is it necessary to purge the fuel
system when changing fuels, except when using alternate fuels.
The PT6A engine is approved for operation with all commercial jet fuels,
JP-4, JP-5 and for a maximum of 150 hours during any overhaul period with
all grades of aviation gasoline. Specific grades of diesel fuel are approved
as alternate fuels for restricted use. No engine adjustments are required
in changing from one fuel to another, nor is it necessary to purge the fuel
system when changing fuels, except when using alternate fuels.
For listings of approved fuels and fuel additives refer to the appropriate
Service Bulletins for each PT6A engine model.
For listings of approved fuels and fuel additives refer to the appropriate
Service Bulletins for each PT6A engine model.
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18
Oil System
Oil System
The PT6A engine has a self-contained oil system with the exception of the
oil cooler, air duct and associated plumbing. The oil level should be verified
after engine shutdown and while the oil is still hot, using either a dipstick
or a sightglass.
The PT6A engine has a self-contained oil system with the exception of the
oil cooler, air duct and associated plumbing. The oil level should be verified
after engine shutdown and while the oil is still hot, using either a dipstick
or a sightglass.
For more information related to the oil system, please refer to page 29.
For more information related to the oil system, please refer to page 29.
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19
Typical PT6A Engine Instrumentation
Typical PT6A Engine Instrumentation
Incorporated into the design of the PT6A engine are accurate and reliable
torque and ITT measuring systems that give the pilot an accurate
indication of the primary engine operating parameters.
Incorporated into the design of the PT6A engine are accurate and reliable
torque and ITT measuring systems that give the pilot an accurate
indication of the primary engine operating parameters.
Torque Pressure is sensed by a torque pressure transducer mounted on the
reduction gearbox, to indicate the torque being developed by the engine.
Torque is the primary parameter used to set power for takeoff and cruise
operation for specified propeller speeds.
Torque Pressure is sensed by a torque pressure transducer mounted on the
reduction gearbox, to indicate the torque being developed by the engine.
Torque is the primary parameter used to set power for takeoff and cruise
operation for specified propeller speeds.
ITT is monitored to ensure that combustion gas temperature limits of the
engine are not exceeded.
ITT is monitored to ensure that combustion gas temperature limits of the
engine are not exceeded.
Two tachometer-generators are installed on the engine: one on the
reduction gearbox monitors propeller speed (Np), and the other on the
accessory gearbox monitors gas generator speed, (Ng).
Two tachometer-generators are installed on the engine: one on the
reduction gearbox monitors propeller speed (Np), and the other on the
accessory gearbox monitors gas generator speed, (Ng).
Pressure and temperature gauges monitor the oil system.
Pressure and temperature gauges monitor the oil system.
20
20
Controls
Controls
Cockpit Powerplant Controls
Cockpit Powerplant Controls
PT6A engine applications use the engine power management system
and propeller beta control capability to obtain optimum airplane flight
and ground handling capability. The powerplant functions are typically
commanded from the cockpit by means of three control levers and pushpull cables.
PT6A engine applications use the engine power management system
and propeller beta control capability to obtain optimum airplane flight
and ground handling capability. The powerplant functions are typically
commanded from the cockpit by means of three control levers and pushpull cables.
In some applications where certain powerplant functions are not required,
simplified systems using two or even one cockpit control lever may be used.
In some applications where certain powerplant functions are not required,
simplified systems using two or even one cockpit control lever may be used.
MIN. POWER
TAXI
POWER
RANGE
RANGE
REVERSE
BETA
MIN. POWER
TAXI
POWER
RANGE
RANGE
REVERSE
MAX. POWER
BETA
MIN. RPM
POWER
LEVER
POWER
LEVER
LOW IDLE
HIGH IDLE
SHUT-OFF
FUEL
LEVER
Control
Condition
Power
Propeller
PROPELLER
LEVER
PROPELLER GOVERNOR
CAM ASSY
LOW IDLE
SHUT-OFF
MAX. RPM
FEATHER
PROPELLER
LEVER
PROPELLER GOVERNOR
CAM ASSY
MIN. RPM
MAX. RPM
FEATHER
MAX. POWER
HIGH IDLE
FUEL
LEVER
Location
Fuel control unit
(or start control)
Fuel control unit
Propeller governor
21
Control Function
Fuel cut-off and idle
speed(s)
Gas Generator speed
Prop speed and feathering
Control
Condition
Power
Propeller
Location
Fuel control unit
(or start control)
Fuel control unit
Propeller governor
21
Control Function
Fuel cut-off and idle
speed(s)
Gas Generator speed
Prop speed and feathering
CONTROLS
CONTROLS
Secondary control inputs located on the propeller governor include the beta
valve and the fuel governor reset. These controls are used in conjunction
with the propeller low blade angle feedback system and the engine
propeller reversing control system for propeller beta control and reverse
thrust control. A cambox unit is part of the engine control system and its
purpose is to schedule gas generator speed and propeller angle by means
of linkages to the fuel control power lever and to the propeller governor
beta valve and fuel governor reset controls.
Secondary control inputs located on the propeller governor include the beta
valve and the fuel governor reset. These controls are used in conjunction
with the propeller low blade angle feedback system and the engine
propeller reversing control system for propeller beta control and reverse
thrust control. A cambox unit is part of the engine control system and its
purpose is to schedule gas generator speed and propeller angle by means
of linkages to the fuel control power lever and to the propeller governor
beta valve and fuel governor reset controls.
Propeller Low Blade Angle Reset Systems
Propeller Low Blade Angle Reset Systems
During the development program of an airplane, the most desirable
propeller low pitch limits (primary blade angle) and engine flight idle
settings required for optimum flight handling are determined. In some
cases, certain ground operating requirements such as propeller restricted
speed ranges may dictate a different propeller low pitch limit for ground
operation. Some installations utilize an airframe-supplied propeller low
pitch reset system actuated by means of a switch which senses the weight
of the airplane on the main landing gear. This functionality is integrated
with the engine-supplied propeller beta control system. The system
automatically sets the propeller low pitch limit to either the ground or
light positions.
During the development program of an airplane, the most desirable
propeller low pitch limits (primary blade angle) and engine flight idle
settings required for optimum flight handling are determined. In some
cases, certain ground operating requirements such as propeller restricted
speed ranges may dictate a different propeller low pitch limit for ground
operation. Some installations utilize an airframe-supplied propeller low
pitch reset system actuated by means of a switch which senses the weight
of the airplane on the main landing gear. This functionality is integrated
with the engine-supplied propeller beta control system. The system
automatically sets the propeller low pitch limit to either the ground or
light positions.
Automatic Feathering
Automatic Feathering
Takeoff performance for multi-engine aircraft is based upon having one
engine inoperative. Most multi-engine aircraft are equipped with aircraft
manufacturer provided automatic feathering systems to reduce drag on
the aircraft. However these systems are normally not armed during most
other phases of flight. Automatic feathering is not used in single-engine
PT6A engine applications. Please refer to the applicable AFM for specific
operating instructions.
Takeoff performance for multi-engine aircraft is based upon having one
engine inoperative. Most multi-engine aircraft are equipped with aircraft
manufacturer provided automatic feathering systems to reduce drag on
the aircraft. However these systems are normally not armed during most
other phases of flight. Automatic feathering is not used in single-engine
PT6A engine applications. Please refer to the applicable AFM for specific
operating instructions.
Because the free turbine configuration of the PT6A engine has less rotating
inertia than a fixed turbine engine, an unfeathered propeller creates less
in-flight drag. Therefore, negative torque sensing systems are not required.
Because the free turbine configuration of the PT6A engine has less rotating
inertia than a fixed turbine engine, an unfeathered propeller creates less
in-flight drag. Therefore, negative torque sensing systems are not required.
22
22
CONTROLS
CONTROLS
Propeller Overspeed Governor
Propeller Overspeed Governor
All PT6A turboprop installations are equipped with an airframe-supplied
propeller overspeed governor. This unit has its own dedicated drive from
the engine reduction gearbox and is intended to limit the propeller speed
to a predetermined maximum value in the event of a malfunction of the
primary propeller governor.
All PT6A turboprop installations are equipped with an airframe-supplied
propeller overspeed governor. This unit has its own dedicated drive from
the engine reduction gearbox and is intended to limit the propeller speed
to a predetermined maximum value in the event of a malfunction of the
primary propeller governor.
In most installations which feature an automatic feathering system, the
automatic propeller feathering function is performed by an electricallyactivated propeller servo oil dump valve on the overspeed governor.
In most installations which feature an automatic feathering system, the
automatic propeller feathering function is performed by an electricallyactivated propeller servo oil dump valve on the overspeed governor.
Overtorque Limiter
Overtorque Limiter
On some PT6A engine installations an overtorque limiter is installed
to limit maximum engine output torque to a preset value. This function
has been utilized on applications where the normal power setting and
monitoring procedures cannot be used, such as military trainer aircraft
which are intended to maintain the maximum operational similarity to
high-performance jet aircraft. Other applications with substantially flat
rated PT6A engines utilize an overtorque limiter to prevent inadvertent
excessive power settings by the pilot.
On some PT6A engine installations an overtorque limiter is installed
to limit maximum engine output torque to a preset value. This function
has been utilized on applications where the normal power setting and
monitoring procedures cannot be used, such as military trainer aircraft
which are intended to maintain the maximum operational similarity to
high-performance jet aircraft. Other applications with substantially flat
rated PT6A engines utilize an overtorque limiter to prevent inadvertent
excessive power settings by the pilot.
An electronic limiter system is also installed on some engine models
intended for military trainer aircraft. This system offers both torque and
ITT limiting capability.
An electronic limiter system is also installed on some engine models
intended for military trainer aircraft. This system offers both torque and
ITT limiting capability.
Manual Override
Manual Override
All PT6A engines intended for single-engine aircraft are equipped with a
manual override function installed on the fuel control unit. The manual
override can be connected to an Emergency Power Lever (EPL) in the
cockpit by an airframe-supplied linkage, if required by the aircraft
manufacturer.
All PT6A engines intended for single-engine aircraft are equipped with a
manual override function installed on the fuel control unit. The manual
override can be connected to an Emergency Power Lever (EPL) in the
cockpit by an airframe-supplied linkage, if required by the aircraft
manufacturer.
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23
Emergency power lever
Emergency power lever
Introduction
Introduction
The manual override function, when connected to the EPL, is intended for
use during emergencies or closely monitored training only and must never
be used during normal engine operation.
The manual override function, when connected to the EPL, is intended for
use during emergencies or closely monitored training only and must never
be used during normal engine operation.
This lever should only be used to modulate engine power to allow the pilot
to continue flight to the nearest airport in the event of malfunction in the
fuel control pneumatic system resulting in one of the following conditions:
This lever should only be used to modulate engine power to allow the pilot
to continue flight to the nearest airport in the event of malfunction in the
fuel control pneumatic system resulting in one of the following conditions:
1. Uncommanded power roll back and inability to recover with the
Power Lever Assembly (PLA).
1. U ncommanded power roll back and inability to recover with the
Power Lever Assembly (PLA).
2. No response to PLA movement, when starting from or around idle.
2. No response to PLA movement, when starting from or around idle.
3. PLA becomes stuck at or around idle.
3. PLA becomes stuck at or around idle.
The EPL does not duplicate the function of the PLA and is not to be used as
an optional means of controlling the engine.
The EPL does not duplicate the function of the PLA and is not to be used as
an optional means of controlling the engine.
The EPL overrides all automatic fuel control features and acts directly
on the fuel valve to directly modulate the fuel flow to the engine. Rapid
movements of this lever should not be made for any reason whatsoever.
EPL sensitivity increases with altitude and above 5000 ft., extreme care
should be exercised.
The EPL overrides all automatic fuel control features and acts directly
on the fuel valve to directly modulate the fuel flow to the engine. Rapid
movements of this lever should not be made for any reason whatsoever.
EPL sensitivity increases with altitude and above 5000 ft., extreme care
should be exercised.
Please refer to the applicable AFM or POH for correct operation of the EPL.
Please refer to the applicable AFM or POH for correct operation of the EPL.
CAUTION:
CAUTION:
WHEN USING THE MANUAL OVERRIDE SYSTEM, THE ENGINE RESPONSE
MAY BE MORE RAPID THAN WHEN USING THE POWER LEVER. A RAPID
INCREASE IN EMERGENCY POWER LEVER POSITION TOWARDS MAXIMUM
IS TO BE AVOIDED, AS THIS CAN CAUSE ENGINE SURGE, ENGINE OVERTEMPERATURE, Ng OVER-SPEED OR OVER-TORQUE.
WHEN USING THE MANUAL OVERRIDE SYSTEM, THE ENGINE RESPONSE
MAY BE MORE RAPID THAN WHEN USING THE POWER LEVER. A RAPID
INCREASE IN EMERGENCY POWER LEVER POSITION TOWARDS MAXIMUM
IS TO BE AVOIDED, AS THIS CAN CAUSE ENGINE SURGE, ENGINE OVERTEMPERATURE, Ng OVER-SPEED OR OVER-TORQUE.
Inappropriate use of the EPL will increase maintenance costs and can be a
contributory factor to CT blade fractures.
Inappropriate use of the EPL will increase maintenance costs and can be a
contributory factor to CT blade fractures.
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24
Scheduled Maintenance
Scheduled Maintenance
The following information is intended as an overview of maintenance
practices. For a complete description please refer to the Engine
Maintenance Manual (EMM).
The following information is intended as an overview of maintenance
practices. For a complete description please refer to the Engine
Maintenance Manual (EMM).
Chapter 70-00-00 describes standard practices including servicing the
engine oil system.
Chapter 70-00-00 describes standard practices including servicing the
engine oil system.
Chapter 71-00-00 contains information on maintenance practices,
including adjustment, test and cleaning.
Chapter 71-00-00 contains information on maintenance practices,
including adjustment, test and cleaning.
Chapter 72-00-00 outlines inspection criteria for various sections of the
engine.
Chapter 72-00-00 outlines inspection criteria for various sections of the
engine.
The inspection procedures are considered a normal function of the
operating organization and are intended as a guide for minimum
inspection and maintenance requirements. The aircraft manufacturer
may have additional requirements or suggest different service intervals.
See the airframe maintenance manual for details.
The inspection procedures are considered a normal function of the
operating organization and are intended as a guide for minimum
inspection and maintenance requirements. The aircraft manufacturer
may have additional requirements or suggest different service intervals.
See the airframe maintenance manual for details.
25
25
Engine Inspections
Engine Inspections
Chapter 72-00-00, Table 601, of the EMM contains the minimum
recommendations for regular inspections of the engine. There are two
primary intervals, ROUTINE and MINOR. More precise intervals are used for
specific components when required.
Chapter 72-00-00, Table 601, of the EMM contains the minimum
recommendations for regular inspections of the engine. There are two
primary intervals, ROUTINE and MINOR. More precise intervals are used for
specific components when required.
· ROUTINE inspections coincide with the daily or preflight airframe
inspection.
· ROUTINE inspections coincide with the daily or preflight airframe
inspection.
· MINOR inspections coincide with a typical airframe zone inspection.
· MINOR inspections coincide with a typical airframe zone inspection.
The intervals at which these inspections are performed may be altered
by the aircraft manufacturer’s maintenance program and approved by
the operator’s local airworthiness authority. Engines operating in sandy
or dusty environments or in smog or salt-laden atmospheres should be
subjected to additional inspections for corrosion and compressor erosion.
The intervals at which these inspections are performed may be altered
by the aircraft manufacturer’s maintenance program and approved by
the operator’s local airworthiness authority. Engines operating in sandy
or dusty environments or in smog or salt-laden atmospheres should be
subjected to additional inspections for corrosion and compressor erosion.
The engine maintenance manual quotes recommended intervals, which the
operator can adjust, based upon operating experience. Typical maintenance
actions include:
The engine maintenance manual quotes recommended intervals, which the
operator can adjust, based upon operating experience. Typical maintenance
actions include:
·
Engine washing
- Compressor Desalination Wash
- Compressor Turbine Desalination Wash
- Compressor Performance Recovery Wash
·
Engine washing
- Compressor Desalination Wash
- Compressor Turbine Desalination Wash
- Compressor Performance Recovery Wash
·
Foreign Object Damage (FOD) inspection of the compressor
- Inspection of Compressor Inlet Case for corrosion
- Inspect the fuel system based upon environment and fuel quality
- In-situ fuel nozzle cleaning
- Fuel nozzle inspection, cleaning and tip replacement
- Ignition system
- Oil system flush
- Borescope inspection of combustion chamber, compressor turbine
vane and blades
·
Foreign Object Damage (FOD) inspection of the compressor
- Inspection of Compressor Inlet Case for corrosion
- Inspect the fuel system based upon environment and fuel quality
- In-situ fuel nozzle cleaning
- Fuel nozzle inspection, cleaning and tip replacement
- Ignition system
- Oil system flush
- Borescope inspection of combustion chamber, compressor turbine
vane and blades
Two areas of the PT6A engine have no scheduled maintenance intervals:
· Reduction gearbox
· Propeller control system
26
Two areas of the PT6A engine have no scheduled maintenance intervals:
· Reduction gearbox
· Propeller control system
26
Oil System Inspection and Servicing
Oil System Inspection and Servicing
Oil Level Sightglass
Oil Level Sightglass
Some PT6A engine models are equipped with a sightglass to simplify the
inspection of the engine oil level. The sightglass has a centre green zone
with red on each end. Engine operation is permitted with the oil level at any
point in the green zone. The oil level dipstick must be checked when the oil
level is in either the red zone or is not visible in the sightglass.
Some PT6A engine models are equipped with a sightglass to simplify the
inspection of the engine oil level. The sightglass has a centre green zone
with red on each end. Engine operation is permitted with the oil level at any
point in the green zone. The oil level dipstick must be checked when the oil
level is in either the red zone or is not visible in the sightglass.
Oil Level Check
Oil Level Check
Oil level should be checked regularly and replenished as necessary.
Although consistency is the most important factor when establishing a
schedule for checking the oil level, P&WC recommends this check be done
15 minutes after every shutdown.
Oil level should be checked regularly and replenished as necessary.
Although consistency is the most important factor when establishing a
schedule for checking the oil level, P&WC recommends this check be done
15 minutes after every shutdown.
Oil Replenishment
Oil Replenishment
P&WC recommends that the engine not be filled over the “MAX COLD” level
on the oil level dipstick. This corresponds with the centre of the green band
on the oil level sightglass. A high oil level may result in an increase in
either the oil consumption rate or the amount of oil mist passing through
the engine oil breather. Each engine will seek its own normal operating oil
level.
P&WC recommends that the engine not be filled over the “MAX COLD” level
on the oil level dipstick. This corresponds with the centre of the green band
on the oil level sightglass. A high oil level may result in an increase in
either the oil consumption rate or the amount of oil mist passing through
the engine oil breather. Each engine will seek its own normal operating oil
level.
Space is required in the oil tank for expansion as the oil reaches full
operating temperature. If the oil level is over the “MAX HOT” level, drain
some of the oil. Refer to the EMM for complete instructions.
Space is required in the oil tank for expansion as the oil reaches full
operating temperature. If the oil level is over the “MAX HOT” level, drain
some of the oil. Refer to the EMM for complete instructions.
A listing of approved oils is provided in the appropriate Service Bulletins for
each PT6A model. When switching to another approved oil brand or should
oil of different brands or viscosities become mixed it is necessary to drain
and flush the complete oil system.
A listing of approved oils is provided in the appropriate Service Bulletins for
each PT6A model. When switching to another approved oil brand or should
oil of different brands or viscosities become mixed it is necessary to drain
and flush the complete oil system.
27
27
Oil System Inspection and Servicing
Oil System Inspection and Servicing
Oil Temperature and Colour
Oil Temperature and Colour
High oil temperature will accelerate the accumulation of carbon particles
in the oil and the deterioration of oil additives. Oil colour will darken with
usage and exposure to light. The rate of colour change is dependent upon
the oil manufacturer’s formula. A darkening of the oil does not indicate
deterioration in the lubricity of the base stock. Additives are replenished
with the addition of oil during level servicing.
High oil temperature will accelerate the accumulation of carbon particles
in the oil and the deterioration of oil additives. Oil colour will darken with
usage and exposure to light. The rate of colour change is dependent upon
the oil manufacturer’s formula. A darkening of the oil does not indicate
deterioration in the lubricity of the base stock. Additives are replenished
with the addition of oil during level servicing.
Chip Detectors
Chip Detectors
All PT6A engines are fitted with an RGB chip detector, while some models
also have a chip detector in the AGB housing. AGB chip detectors are not
equipped with a self-closing valve. When the chip detector is removed,
the oil in the accessory gearbox will drain from the engine. During normal
operation, there will be approximately ½ litre (17 oz.) of residual oil.
All PT6A engines are fitted with an RGB chip detector, while some models
also have a chip detector in the AGB housing. AGB chip detectors are not
equipped with a self-closing valve. When the chip detector is removed,
the oil in the accessory gearbox will drain from the engine. During normal
operation, there will be approximately ½ litre (17 oz.) of residual oil.
Chip detectors should be checked regularly for continuity and any foreign
material. If the aircraft is equipped with a cockpit indication of the chip
detector, the whole system should also be checked regularly. Refer to the
applicable maintenance manuals for inspection intervals.
Chip detectors should be checked regularly for continuity and any foreign
material. If the aircraft is equipped with a cockpit indication of the chip
detector, the whole system should also be checked regularly. Refer to the
applicable maintenance manuals for inspection intervals.
Oil Filter Debris Analysis
Oil Filter Debris Analysis
The oil filter must be changed or cleaned at scheduled intervals. At the
same time a visual inspection of the oil filter and chip detectors should
be done. This is a simple and reliable method of assessing the wear of
oil-wetted parts. As an extra step, a solvent may be used to flush trapped
particles from the engine oil filter. The solvent is poured through filter paper
to collect the debris. This is referred to as a filter “patch” check.
The oil filter must be changed or cleaned at scheduled intervals. At the
same time a visual inspection of the oil filter and chip detectors should
be done. This is a simple and reliable method of assessing the wear of
oil-wetted parts. As an extra step, a solvent may be used to flush trapped
particles from the engine oil filter. The solvent is poured through filter paper
to collect the debris. This is referred to as a filter “patch” check.
The filter paper is sent to a laboratory for analysis. Laboratory techniques
can be used to determine the alloy of the particles which helps determine
their source. With successive samples, a wear trend for oil-wetted parts
can be established.
The filter paper is sent to a laboratory for analysis. Laboratory techniques
can be used to determine the alloy of the particles which helps determine
their source. With successive samples, a wear trend for oil-wetted parts
can be established.
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28
Performance Check
Performance Check
Over the life of the PT6A engine, the performance charts have evolved in
name, style and function. Today, a variety of charts can be found. They
may be titled Power Assurance Check, Performance Check or Ground Power
Check charts. The charts allow operators of PT6A engines to monitor the
condition of their engines and the results of maintenance actions.
Over the life of the PT6A engine, the performance charts have evolved in
name, style and function. Today, a variety of charts can be found. They
may be titled Power Assurance Check, Performance Check or Ground Power
Check charts. The charts allow operators of PT6A engines to monitor the
condition of their engines and the results of maintenance actions.
The chart may be used over a wide range of ambient temperature and
altitude.
The chart may be used over a wide range of ambient temperature and
altitude.
The chart is intended to indicate when maintenance action might be
required and the results of the repair when data is recorded before and
after the maintenance action. With regular use, the chart can become a
useful tool for scheduling maintenance.
The chart is intended to indicate when maintenance action might be
required and the results of the repair when data is recorded before and
after the maintenance action. With regular use, the chart can become a
useful tool for scheduling maintenance.
Check charts do not appear in all engine maintenance manuals. Some of
them are published in the airframe maintenance manual.
Check charts do not appear in all engine maintenance manuals. Some of
them are published in the airframe maintenance manual.
The performance check is influenced by the powerplant as a whole, not just
the engine. The effects of poor nacelle seals, bleed air leaks, accessory
drive power and instrumentation errors are all reflected in the recorded
data.
The performance check is influenced by the powerplant as a whole, not just
the engine. The effects of poor nacelle seals, bleed air leaks, accessory
drive power and instrumentation errors are all reflected in the recorded
data.
Do not use the chart to reject engines from service. Engines may remain
in service provided that no operating limits are exceeded at the certified
powers. P&WC recommends that troubleshooting and a flight test be done
at the typical flight altitude to determine engine serviceability and that any
step changes in parameters be investigated.
Do not use the chart to reject engines from service. Engines may remain
in service provided that no operating limits are exceeded at the certified
powers. P&WC recommends that troubleshooting and a flight test be done
at the typical flight altitude to determine engine serviceability and that any
step changes in parameters be investigated.
The performance check charts are based upon estimated “average” engine
performance. Every engine has its own unique characteristics. On certain
types of performance check charts, this will affect the slope of the lines. By
recording data at a few different ambient temperatures, within a short time
of each other, the slope for a particular engine can be determined. P&WC
recommends that this be done soon after aircraft delivery to establish a
baseline for investigating future, performance-related issues.
The performance check charts are based upon estimated “average” engine
performance. Every engine has its own unique characteristics. On certain
types of performance check charts, this will affect the slope of the lines. By
recording data at a few different ambient temperatures, within a short time
of each other, the slope for a particular engine can be determined. P&WC
recommends that this be done soon after aircraft delivery to establish a
baseline for investigating future, performance-related issues.
29
29
Engine Washing
Engine Washing
Atmospheric pollutants may contaminate the engine gas path, leading to
a build up of deposits on airfoils, the initiation of corrosion, sulphidation
or performance deterioration. These effects can be alleviated with engine
washing. Internal engine washes are done while motoring the engine at
10-25% Ng speed for a thorough cleaning.
Atmospheric pollutants may contaminate the engine gas path, leading to
a build up of deposits on airfoils, the initiation of corrosion, sulphidation
or performance deterioration. These effects can be alleviated with engine
washing. Internal engine washes are done while motoring the engine at
10-25% Ng speed for a thorough cleaning.
Compressor Desalination Wash
Compressor Desalination Wash
Used to remove salt deposits which can cause corrosion, however light
dirt deposits may also be removed. Wash fluid is drinking quality water,
provided minimum standards are met. Water is injected into the engine
intake using either an installed compressor wash ring or a hand held
wash wand.
Used to remove salt deposits which can cause corrosion, however light
dirt deposits may also be removed. Wash fluid is drinking quality water,
provided minimum standards are met. Water is injected into the engine
intake using either an installed compressor wash ring or a hand held
wash wand.
Compressor Turbine Desalination Wash
Compressor Turbine Desalination Wash
Used to remove salt deposits from the compressor turbine blades and
stator which can cause sulphidation, a reaction between the salt and
sulphur from the fuel. This wash must be done immediately following a
compressor desalination or performance recovery wash as contaminants
will be transferred from the compressor to the hot section during a
compressor desalination or performance recovery wash. Wash fluid is
drinking quality water, provided minimum standards are met. Water is
injected through a wash tube inserted through one of the ignitor ports.
Used to remove salt deposits from the compressor turbine blades and
stator which can cause sulphidation, a reaction between the salt and
sulphur from the fuel. This wash must be done immediately following a
compressor desalination or performance recovery wash as contaminants
will be transferred from the compressor to the hot section during a
compressor desalination or performance recovery wash. Wash fluid is
drinking quality water, provided minimum standards are met. Water is
injected through a wash tube inserted through one of the ignitor ports.
Compressor Performance Recovery Wash
Compressor Performance Recovery Wash
Used to remove more stubborn deposits which cannot be removed during
normal desalination washes. Wash fluid includes an approved detergent.
This wash should only be done when engine performance loss is noticeable
or trend monitoring dictates. Wash fluid is injected into the engine intake
using either an installed compressor wash ring or a hand held wash wand.
A water rinse of both the compressor and compressor turbine is required
following the detergent wash.
Used to remove more stubborn deposits which cannot be removed during
normal desalination washes. Wash fluid includes an approved detergent.
This wash should only be done when engine performance loss is noticeable
or trend monitoring dictates. Wash fluid is injected into the engine intake
using either an installed compressor wash ring or a hand held wash wand.
A water rinse of both the compressor and compressor turbine is required
following the detergent wash.
30
30
Engine Washing
Engine Washing
External Engine Wash
External Engine Wash
Used as an effective method of tracing oil leaks, as well as removing salt
and other environmental contaminants from the engine external surfaces.
Wash fluid is drinking quality water, provided minimum standards are met.
Used as an effective method of tracing oil leaks, as well as removing salt
and other environmental contaminants from the engine external surfaces.
Wash fluid is drinking quality water, provided minimum standards are met.
Wash Schedule
Wash Schedule
When operating continuously in a salt laden environment (typically within
10 nautical miles from the sea and under 10,000 ft), it is recommended
to perform compressor and compressor turbine desalination washes and
external washes daily, after the last flight of the day to prevent corrosion
from initiating overnight. For occasionally salt laden operation, weekly
desalination washes and external washes are recommended. Performance
recovery washes are only recommended when a noticeable performance
shift is recorded. In all cases, engine washing frequency should be based
on operator experience and regular inspections of engine components to
check for initiation of corrosion.
When operating continuously in a salt laden environment (typically within
10 nautical miles from the sea and under 10,000 ft), it is recommended
to perform compressor and compressor turbine desalination washes and
external washes daily, after the last flight of the day to prevent corrosion
from initiating overnight. For occasionally salt laden operation, weekly
desalination washes and external washes are recommended. Performance
recovery washes are only recommended when a noticeable performance
shift is recorded. In all cases, engine washing frequency should be based
on operator experience and regular inspections of engine components to
check for initiation of corrosion.
Refer to P&WC SIL PT6A-144 for additional information and FAA Advisory
Circular 43-4A for a comprehensive overview of corrosion. On the next page
you will find a map of North America showing areas where environmental
conditions will require particular attention to corrosion. Maps of the rest of
the world can be found in the above mentioned Advisory Circular.
Refer to P&WC SIL PT6A-144 for additional information and FAA Advisory
Circular 43-4A for a comprehensive overview of corrosion. On the next page
you will find a map of North America showing areas where environmental
conditions will require particular attention to corrosion. Maps of the rest of
the world can be found in the above mentioned Advisory Circular.
31
31
Engine Washing
Engine Washing
Fairbanks
Fairbanks
Anchorage
Anchorage
Seattle
Seattle
Montreal
Montreal
Denver
Denver
New York
Los Angeles
Dallas
Houston
New York
Los Angeles
Dallas
Atlanta
Houston
Atlanta
Miami
Havana
Mexico
Miami
Haiti Puerto Rico
Jamaica St. Domingo
Corrosion Severity Zone
Havana
Mexico
Jamaica St. Domingo
Corrosion Severity Zone
Mild
Mild
Moderate
Moderate
Severe
Severe
Haiti Puerto Rico
Figure 1
Figure 1
North American Corrosion Severity Map,
extracted from FAA Advisory Circular 43-4A,
North American Corrosion Severity Map,
extracted from FAA Advisory Circular 43-4A,
32
32
Hot Section Inspection
Hot Section Inspection
A Hot Section Inspection (HSI) is usually done halfway through the basic
TBO interval or when performance loss dictates. This involves splitting the
engine between the compressor and power turbines at “C” Flange. Since it
is generally not necessary to remove the engine from the aircraft during an
HSI, the inspection procedure is both simple and fast.
A Hot Section Inspection (HSI) is usually done halfway through the basic
TBO interval or when performance loss dictates. This involves splitting the
engine between the compressor and power turbines at “C” Flange. Since it
is generally not necessary to remove the engine from the aircraft during an
HSI, the inspection procedure is both simple and fast.
33
33
Overhaul
Overhaul
The basic Time Between Overhaul (TBO) and Hot Section Inspection (HSI)
interval is published in the appropriate Service Bulletin for each PT6A
engine model. Under extreme conditions, maintenance action prior to the
recommended overhaul life may be necessary.
The basic Time Between Overhaul (TBO) and Hot Section Inspection (HSI)
interval is published in the appropriate Service Bulletin for each PT6A
engine model. Under extreme conditions, maintenance action prior to the
recommended overhaul life may be necessary.
The TBO interval depends on the specified operation of the engine.
The interval can be escalated incrementally with the approval of your
airworthiness authority, using an “on-condition” or a sampling program.
The current TBO escalation is limited at 8,000 hours for single-engine
aircraft and 10,000 hr to 12,500 hr, for twin-engine aircraft, depending on
the application.
The TBO interval depends on the specified operation of the engine.
The interval can be escalated incrementally with the approval of your
airworthiness authority, using an “on-condition” or a sampling program.
The current TBO escalation is limited at 8,000 hours for single-engine
aircraft and 10,000 hr to 12,500 hr, for twin-engine aircraft, depending on
the application.
TBO escalation recommendations take into account the average effect
of flight duration, time at a given power level, climate, environment,
maintenance practices, utilization and engine hardware standard.
TBO escalation recommendations take into account the average effect
of flight duration, time at a given power level, climate, environment,
maintenance practices, utilization and engine hardware standard.
34
34
Cycle Counting
Cycle Counting
Certain rotating components of the engine have a limited life based upon
the number of operating cycles they experience. These lives are quoted
in the Rotating Component Lives Service Bulletin for each PT6A engine
model. It is important to continuously record the number of operating cycles
and partial cycles to track rotor lives. Rotor components not supported
by proper documentation are to be removed from service. Prior to engine
servicing, the total cycles and all flights and starts must be recorded in the
appropriate engine logbook.
Certain rotating components of the engine have a limited life based upon
the number of operating cycles they experience. These lives are quoted
in the Rotating Component Lives Service Bulletin for each PT6A engine
model. It is important to continuously record the number of operating cycles
and partial cycles to track rotor lives. Rotor components not supported
by proper documentation are to be removed from service. Prior to engine
servicing, the total cycles and all flights and starts must be recorded in the
appropriate engine logbook.
At engine overhaul, a calculation will be made of the remaining service life
for each rotating component. This calculation is based upon the rate of
cycle accumulation recorded in the engine logbook.
At engine overhaul, a calculation will be made of the remaining service life
for each rotating component. This calculation is based upon the rate of
cycle accumulation recorded in the engine logbook.
35
35
Engine Condition Trend Monitoring®
Engine Condition Trend Monitoring®
ECTM® is a computer software program sold by P&WC that assists in early
detection of potential problems through continuous monitoring of engine
operation. The advantage of using ECTM® is a savings in troubleshooting
time, reduced maintenance costs, the ability to schedule corrective action
and an increased dispatch rate.
ECTM® is a computer software program sold by P&WC that assists in early
detection of potential problems through continuous monitoring of engine
operation. The advantage of using ECTM® is a savings in troubleshooting
time, reduced maintenance costs, the ability to schedule corrective action
and an increased dispatch rate.
The pilot or an on-board monitoring system must record the readings of the
aircraft and engine gauges after the aircraft has been flying at a stable
cruise condition for several minutes. Gauge readings are to be recorded
daily or once per flight. Alternatively, you may send your recorded trend data
to a designated analysis centre for processing and recommendations.
The pilot or an on-board monitoring system must record the readings of the
aircraft and engine gauges after the aircraft has been flying at a stable
cruise condition for several minutes. Gauge readings are to be recorded
daily or once per flight. Alternatively, you may send your recorded trend data
to a designated analysis centre for processing and recommendations.
Accurate and consistent readings are crucial to effective trend monitoring;
the quality of the engine condition evaluation is only as good as the quality
of the data provided.
Accurate and consistent readings are crucial to effective trend monitoring;
the quality of the engine condition evaluation is only as good as the quality
of the data provided.
On-board data recording
On-board data recording
Altair Avionics markets a PT6A engine-mounted data recording system
called TrendCheck Plus+, and the Aircraft Data Acquisition System (ADAS),
an airframe-mounted engine monitor, for a wide variety of PT6A engine
applications. These monitors enhance safety and reduce direct operating
costs through sophisticated aircraft exceedance monitoring and automated
trend sample collection. Operated in conjunction with Altair’s internetbased TurbineTracker™ system, these monitors are a powerful diagnostic
tool and engine health monitor.
Altair Avionics markets a PT6A engine-mounted data recording system
called TrendCheck Plus+, and the Aircraft Data Acquisition System (ADAS),
an airframe-mounted engine monitor, for a wide variety of PT6A engine
applications. These monitors enhance safety and reduce direct operating
costs through sophisticated aircraft exceedance monitoring and automated
trend sample collection. Operated in conjunction with Altair’s internetbased TurbineTracker™ system, these monitors are a powerful diagnostic
tool and engine health monitor.
While both systems monitor the engine parameters of turbine temperature,
gas generator speed, power turbine speed, torque pressure and fuel flow as
well as pressure altitude, aircraft airspeed and ambient temperature each
system has their own unique recording capabilities as well. TrendCheck
Plus+ system records time history into a storage buffer. The ADAS system
provides the ability to monitor the airframe parameters of approach flaps,
landing flaps, gear extended and weight on wheels.
While both systems monitor the engine parameters of turbine temperature,
gas generator speed, power turbine speed, torque pressure and fuel flow as
well as pressure altitude, aircraft airspeed and ambient temperature each
system has their own unique recording capabilities as well. TrendCheck
Plus+ system records time history into a storage buffer. The ADAS system
provides the ability to monitor the airframe parameters of approach flaps,
landing flaps, gear extended and weight on wheels.
36
36
Engine Condition Trend Monitoring®
Engine Condition Trend Monitoring®
Automatic trends can be defined or pilot-initiated samples can be
captured by the push of a button. Data stored in the Altair Internet based
TurbineTracker™ system can be used directly with the ECTM® program.
Additional information on these products can be found at www.altair.aero.
Automatic trends can be defined or pilot-initiated samples can be
captured by the push of a button. Data stored in the Altair Internet based
TurbineTracker™ system can be used directly with the ECTM® program.
Additional information on these products can be found at www.altair.aero.
37
37
Recommended PT6A Engine Power Management
Recommended PT6A Engine Power Management
The PT6A engine power management system has been designed to give
the pilot control of the powerplant thrust over the entire airplane flight and
ground-operating envelope. It is a simple and reliable system, which fully
compliments the inherent operating flexibility of a free turbine engine.
The PT6A engine power management system has been designed to give
the pilot control of the powerplant thrust over the entire airplane flight and
ground-operating envelope. It is a simple and reliable system, which fully
compliments the inherent operating flexibility of a free turbine engine.
Mission
Mission
In conjunction with the Aircraft Manufacturer, a mission profile is
established for every PT6A engine application. This mission is used to
analyze and establish engine component lives and durability factors such
as Low Cycle Fatigue (LCF), Creep, Oxidation and Vibration. Using this data
and taking into consideration airframe influences such as bleed extraction,
accessory loading and inlet efficiency, the power setting information is
established and then published in the POH / AFM.
In conjunction with the Aircraft Manufacturer, a mission profile is
established for every PT6A engine application. This mission is used to
analyze and establish engine component lives and durability factors such
as Low Cycle Fatigue (LCF), Creep, Oxidation and Vibration. Using this data
and taking into consideration airframe influences such as bleed extraction,
accessory loading and inlet efficiency, the power setting information is
established and then published in the POH / AFM.
Take-off
Take-off
Climb
Climb
Cruise
SHP
Cruise
SHP
Descent
Taxi
Descent
Taxi
Taxi
Taxi
TIME
38
TIME
38
Recommended PT6A Engine Power Management
Recommended PT6A Engine Power Management
Rating Philosophy
Rating Philosophy
P&WC’s power rating philosophy is to ensure the maximum likelihood
that your PT6A engine will deliver the power specified in the POH / AFM
throughout its overhaul life. To achieve this, all PT6A engine installations
use torque as the primary power setting parameter. All other engine
parameters are only monitored to verify they are within acceptable limits.
The POH / AFM contains power setting information which must be used
to determine the torque setting for all ratings which vary according to
altitude, ambient temperature and aircraft weight. This is important
because the P&WC rating philosophy is based on the engine being operated
per the POH / AFM and maintained in accordance with the EMM / AMM
including all applicable periodic inspection recommendations by P&WC.
P&WC’s power rating philosophy is to ensure the maximum likelihood
that your PT6A engine will deliver the power specified in the POH / AFM
throughout its overhaul life. To achieve this, all PT6A engine installations
use torque as the primary power setting parameter. All other engine
parameters are only monitored to verify they are within acceptable limits.
The POH / AFM contains power setting information which must be used
to determine the torque setting for all ratings which vary according to
altitude, ambient temperature and aircraft weight. This is important
because the P&WC rating philosophy is based on the engine being operated
per the POH / AFM and maintained in accordance with the EMM / AMM
including all applicable periodic inspection recommendations by P&WC.
Operating the engine in accordance with the POH / AFM will achieve
optimum reliability and durability while minimizing operating costs.
Operating the engine in accordance with the POH / AFM will achieve
optimum reliability and durability while minimizing operating costs.
39
39
Recommended PT6A Engine Power Management
Recommended PT6A Engine Power Management
Performance Margins
Performance Margins
“New Engine” production acceptance limits are designed to allow a
sufficient margin to carry the engine through a desired overhaul period. Any
engine overhauled and put back into service must meet similar standards.
“New Engine” production acceptance limits are designed to allow a
sufficient margin to carry the engine through a desired overhaul period. Any
engine overhauled and put back into service must meet similar standards.
However, with use, the engine performance margins will gradually
reduce characterized by an increase in ITT, Ng and/or fuel flow (Wf) while
maintaining POH / AFM specified power
However, with use, the engine performance margins will gradually
reduce characterized by an increase in ITT, Ng and/or fuel flow (Wf) while
maintaining POH / AFM specified power
Maximum certified operating limit
SPEED
AND TEMP
Deterioration margin
g
ratin
o
i
r
e
t
e de
in
Eng
TIME IN SERVICE - HRS
40
Maximum certified operating limit
SPEED
AND TEMP
Deterioration margin
ine
Eng
TIME IN SERVICE - HRS
40
g
ratin
rio
dete
Recommended PT6A Engine Power Management
Recommended PT6A Engine Power Management
Power Ratings
Power Ratings
The take-off rating is the maximum power certified for takeoff and is time
limited to five minutes.
The take-off rating is the maximum power certified for takeoff and is time
limited to five minutes.
The maximum continuous rating is a certified power setting for in-flight
emergency use only, typically for twin engine applications where one engine
is inoperative.
The maximum continuous rating is a certified power setting for in-flight
emergency use only, typically for twin engine applications where one engine
is inoperative.
Maximum climb and maximum cruise ratings are the maximum powers
approved by P&WC for climb and cruise operation.
Maximum climb and maximum cruise ratings are the maximum powers
approved by P&WC for climb and cruise operation.
TAKE-OFF
MAX.
CONTINUOUS
MAX CLIMB
TAKE-OFF
MAX.
CONTINUOUS
MAX CLIMB
MAX CRUISE
MAX CRUISE
POWER
POWER
41
41
Recommended PT6A Engine Power Management
Recommended PT6A Engine Power Management
Flat Rating
Flat Rating
At constant ITT, PT6A engine power reduces with both increasing ambient
temperature and altitude. This represents the thermal capacity of the
engine or “thermal rating” and is how the engine would perform without
the mechanical limitations of the reduction gearbox.
At constant ITT, PT6A engine power reduces with both increasing ambient
temperature and altitude. This represents the thermal capacity of the
engine or “thermal rating” and is how the engine would perform without
the mechanical limitations of the reduction gearbox.
TAKE-OFF
MAX.
CONTINUOUS
MAX CLIMB
MAX CRUISE
TAKE-OFF
MAX.
CONTINUOUS
MAX CLIMB
MAX CRUISE
POWER
POWER
AMBIENT
TEMPERATURE
AND ALTITUDE
AMBIENT
TEMPERATURE
AND ALTITUDE
42
42
Recommended PT6A Engine Power Management
Recommended PT6A Engine Power Management
It is a general characteristic of aircraft that for a particular gross
weight, the power required for take-off varies comparatively little with
ambient conditions. PT6A engines are typically “flat rated” to allow for
the maximum possible take-off power required by the aircraft over a wide
range of ambient temperatures without having to work the engine harder
than is necessary at any time.
It is a general characteristic of aircraft that for a particular gross
weight, the power required for take-off varies comparatively little with
ambient conditions. PT6A engines are typically “flat rated” to allow for
the maximum possible take-off power required by the aircraft over a wide
range of ambient temperatures without having to work the engine harder
than is necessary at any time.
Take-off
Max.
Continuous
Max Climb
Max Cruise
Take-off
Max.
Continuous
Max Climb
Max Cruise
Gearbox Limit
Gearbox Limit
POWER
POWER
Ambient
Temperature
and Altitude
Ambient
Temperature
and Altitude
The flat-rated power is available up to the thermal capability of the
engine, specified as an ambient temperature and altitude.
The flat-rated power is available up to the thermal capability of the
engine, specified as an ambient temperature and altitude.
43
43
Recommended PT6A Engine Power Management
Recommended PT6A Engine Power Management
Power Settings
Power Settings
All PT6A engine applications use engine output torque as the primary power
setting parameter. The POH / AFM contains power setting information
which must be used to determine the correct torque settings to achieve
take off and cruise in accordance with altitude, ambient temperature and
aircraft weight.
All PT6A engine applications use engine output torque as the primary power
setting parameter. The POH / AFM contains power setting information
which must be used to determine the correct torque settings to achieve
take off and cruise in accordance with altitude, ambient temperature and
aircraft weight.
44
44
Recommended PT6A Engine Power Management
Recommended PT6A Engine Power Management
The power lever should be set to the position which produces the required
torque. Other engine parameters such as ITT and Ng are monitored only
to verify that they are within acceptable limits. Operating the engine in
accordance with the POH / AFM by using torque as the primary power
setting parameter will achieve optimum reliability and durability while
minimizing operating costs.
The power lever should be set to the position which produces the required
torque. Other engine parameters such as ITT and Ng are monitored only
to verify that they are within acceptable limits. Operating the engine in
accordance with the POH / AFM by using torque as the primary power
setting parameter will achieve optimum reliability and durability while
minimizing operating costs.
Maximum fully deteriorated limit
ITT
or
NG
MARGIN REDUCING
POWER
LIFE
45
MARGIN REDUCING
POWER
Torque set as per POH
0
Maximum fully deteriorated limit
ITT
or
NG
100%
Torque set as per POH
0
LIFE
45
100%
Recommended PT6A Engine Power Management
Recommended PT6A Engine Power Management
Operating the engine beyond the recommended power settings specified
in the POH / AFM for a prolonged period will result in accelerated margin
deterioration due to hot section component distress and will affect engine
reliability and durability. This effect is cumulative and will lead to the
engine prematurely reaching an operating limit (usually ITT) before the
recommended power is produced.
Operating the engine beyond the recommended power settings specified
in the POH / AFM for a prolonged period will result in accelerated margin
deterioration due to hot section component distress and will affect engine
reliability and durability. This effect is cumulative and will lead to the
engine prematurely reaching an operating limit (usually ITT) before the
recommended power is produced.
Refer to P&WC SIL PT6A-125 for additional information.
Refer to P&WC SIL PT6A-125 for additional information.
Maximum fully deteriorated limit
ITT
or
NG
POWER SET AT MAX ITT LIMIT
Actua
Maximum fully deteriorated limit
ITT
or
NG
POWER SET AT MAX ITT LIMIT
Actua
l torqu
POWER
l torqu
e
POWER
Normal torque as per POH
0
LIFE
100%
e
Normal torque as per POH
0
LIFE
PREMATURE OVERHAUL
46
PREMATURE OVERHAUL
46
100%
09-1331
P&WC Customer FIRST Centre
P&WC Customer FIRST Centre
Global Customer Service,
24 –hours a day, 7 days a week
Global Customer Service,
24 –hours a day, 7 days a week
In Canada and the United States:
Tel: 1-800-268-8000
In Canada and the United States:
Tel: 1-800-268-8000
International:
Tel: International Access Code + 8000-268-8000
International:
Tel: International Access Code + 8000-268-8000
Other Numbers:
Tel: (450) 647-8000
Other Numbers:
Tel: (450) 647-8000
Fax: (450) 647-2888
Email:
cfirst@pwc.ca
Email:
cfirst@pwc.ca
Visit our website at:
www.pwc.ca
Visit our website at:
www.pwc.ca
09-1331
Fax: (450) 647-2888