Campbell Update, First Quarter 2002

A newsletter for the customers of
Campbell Scientific, Inc.
January, 2002
www.campbellsci.com
Volume 13, Issue 1
LoggerNet 2.0 to replace PC208W
New version will serve
as primary datalogger
support software
Early in 2002, we will release
LoggerNet 2.0 as our primary datalogger support software. LoggerNet is 32bit software that provides many new
features, including support for our
Table-based dataloggers. We will continue to offer the 16-bit PC208W at its
current revision level through the end of
2002. After 2002, we will no longer
sell PC208W, but we will provide technical support.
LoggerNet 2.0 retains the significant
functions of PC208W software, such as
support for array-based dataloggers,
telecommunications options, and scheduled data retrieval. LoggerNet includes
32-bit versions of Edlog (datalogger
program editor), Split (processing data
files and creating reports), View (graphing and viewing data files) and SMS
(storage module support software). The
files created by earlier versions of these
programs are forward compatible;
LoggerNet includes a software utility to
convert PC208W network setups to
LoggerNet network setups.
Additionally, new applications in
LoggerNet, such as CRBasic Editor
LoggerNet 2.0 retains much of the look and feel of our PC208W software, but offers
significant new functionality.
(CR5000 and CR9000 program editor)
and RTMC, provide new functionality.
LoggerNet runs from a simple
"PC208W-like" toolbar that controls
both a server and its clients. You don't
have to manage the log-ins, log-outs,
and client-server communications.
Most PC208W users will find
LoggerNet both familiar and easy to
use. You can customize the toolbar to
provide easy access to the LoggerNet
applications of your choice.
See LOGGERNET on Page 3
Expanded price lists now include systems and WR products
Our 2002 price lists are now available.
The US and International Price Lists now
include the Bowen ratio system, the Time
Domain Reflectometry system (TDR), the
ET106 Evapotranspiration Station, and
many Water Resources products (primarily sensors and datalogger operating sys-
tems). Price lists for the Trace Gas
Analyzer, specialized Water Resources
products, the MetData1 Weather Station,
and products available on GSA contract
will continue to be published as separate
documents.
We expect additions to our product line
throughout the year.
To review changes to our price lists,
visit www.campbellsci.com/new.html
periodically.
Please note our wire transfer instructions have changed; contact our Order
Entry Department for details.
Page 2
Message from the President
It’s time to enjoy the Olympic Winter Games
By Paul Campbell
This issue of The
Campbell Update
should be in your
hands within a few
weeks of the 2002
Olympic Winter
Games, hosted by
Salt Lake City. An
article on Pages 7
and 8 gives an
overview of weather
monitoring at the
Utah venues. Since
hosting the games is
probably a once in a
lifetime event, I
would like to share
some of my thoughts about it.
The early groundwork to prepare a bid
started on a shoestring budget. Campbell
Scientific was approached to provide
equipment to monitor weather at potential
ski jumping, bobsledding, and cross-country skiing venues in Summit County, east
of Salt Lake City. We entered into a
good-faith agreement so equipment could
be placed in the field immediately, then
subsequently paid for as funding was
approved by the state legislature. So
beginning in January, 1990, critical, sitespecific winter weather measurements
were recorded. We viewed the business
risk as doing our part to support Utah's
Olympic bid effort.
Campbell Scientific is located in
Cache Valley, Utah, about 90 miles (150
km) north of Salt Lake City. Our winter
weather is similar to that of the skiing
venues. As Utahns, we wondered a little
about the effort that was put into gathering and presenting weather data because
the temperature and precipitation can vary
quite a lot from year to year. But if the
winter weather data proved encouraging,
and Utah was selected, who could argue
with success?
Having been supportive of Utah's
Olympic proposal, I was chagrined when
it was reported that the bid was awarded
perhaps not so much on merit as on
favors for International Olympic
Committee members. Like most Utahns,
I was offended by the improprieties. I
appreciated the leadership of Utah's governor, who declared that even though the
graft did not begin with the Salt Lake
Organizing Committee (SLOC) bid, it
should end with it. Personnel changes,
among other things, were made. In the
end, it appears that criminal prosecution
of former SLOC members has been
dropped, so those who claimed they didn't
break the law may have been right. But I
hope that future bids will not be tainted
with the kind of personal gifts and favors
found in pre-bid SLOC activities.
As I write this article in December, we
have the prospect of great snow conditions. After more than a year of wellbelow-average precipitation, several
storms during the past several weeks have
provided a good base of snow. Hopefully,
this winter weather will continue through
the end of February.
The events of September 11 have influenced the Olympic Winter Games. The
Governor has announced the activation of
1900 members of the Utah National
Guard to assist law enforcement agencies
with security during the Olympics. There
are a couple of employees at Campbell
Scientific who are in the Guard, so the
rest of us will work a little more to cover
for them while they take care of their military duties. We do it willingly and with
appreciation for their service.
The Bridgerland Ice Arena, Cache
Valley's new year-round skating rink, will
open the first of January, just in time to
host practices for some Olympic athletes.
We are pleased to have the Swiss hockey
team, Chinese speed skaters, and the
Russian and French figure skaters visit
our local community for practice sessions
and exhibitions.
If all goes well, I'm sure we will all
enjoy the Olympics. We at Campbell
Scientific join other Utahns in stating that
we are pleased to host the Games. We
hope that you will enjoy the Games too.
A newsletter for the customers
of Campbell Scientific, Inc.
Executive Editor: Bert Tanner
Managing Editor: Jeff Goalen
Assistant Editors and Update Design:
Tracy Weber Davidson
Linda Worlton
Jared Thayne
Contributing Writers:
Mike Adams
Steve Bailey, CSA
Jim Bilskie
Betsy Dastrup
Tracy W. Davidson
Bryan Dixon
Jeff Goalen
Tim Jeppsen
Shashi Kalaskar
Linda Worlton
Brian Ulrich
Graphics/Photography:
Brian Ulrich
Hoa Pham
Intrepid Campbell Scientific employees install a meteorological tower in preparation for Salt Lake
City’s Olympic Winter Games bid (winter 1990/91).
Jared Thayne
www.campbellsci.com
Copyright © 2002
Printed January, 2002
Page 3
LoggerNet
Continued from Page 1
PC208W owners can upgrade to
LoggerNet for roughly 50 percent of
the LoggerNet list price. Free "withinversion" patches will be offered from
our Web site as they are released (e.g.,
from LoggerNet 2.0 to 2.1).
Use VisualWeather to program and display
data from your preconfigured weather station.
VisualWeather:
Your data in just
a few minutes
VisualWeatherTM software is for customers who want reliable, real-time
weather data without worrying about
technical details, such as programming
the weather station, using client-server
technology, or maintaining databases.
VisualWeather helps customers set up
and use our preconfigured weather stations—the ET106 or MetData1—in just a
few minutes. Each station's program is
automatically generated as you select the
sensors, scan interval, output interval, and
communication path. VisualWeather supports five modes of communication:
direct, short haul, phone, phone-to-RF,
and RF.
VisualWeather supports multiple
weather stations, allowing customers to
connect to any ET106 or MetData1 station set up using VisualWeather. Data can
be collected manually or by setting the
software to make scheduled calls. VisualWeather stores the retrieved data in a
database, which is transparent to the user.
The data can be exported in comma-separated ASCII format for storage or data
processing.
You can create daily, 24 hour, 7-day, or
30-day reports for any station currently in
the network. Historical reports can be
generated for active stations or for stations that have been removed from the
network. Evapotranspiration (ETo), crop
water needs, and growing-degree-days
can be obtained by entering a few parameters, such as station elevation, latitude,
and longitude. Each report contains a
graph as well as tabular data in metric or
US units. You can also plot custom
graphs including wind roses, wind chill,
or heat units. These features, combined
with a simple user interface, make
VisualWeather a powerful software package for novices and experts.
Client-Server Power
LoggerNet consists of a server
application and several client applications. The server application is the
heart of LoggerNet communications.
Client applications connect to the server to change its settings, use its features, and extract data. One example
of client/server architecture is email.
When you send email, you're working
with a client application on your PC
(e.g., Outlook, Eudora, Pegasus). The
client application sends messages to a
server. The server connects with the
Internet to send and receive email messages for you and others. You can
instruct your client email program to
connect to the server and retrieve any
email message stored on the server for
you.
Similarly, the LoggerNet server is
the program that runs on the main PC,
which uses TCP/IP to communicate
with client applications. You set up the
network to use phone modems, telephony devices, RF modems, TCP/IP
sockets and other devices to communicate with the dataloggers. The server
stores the data in ASCII files. Both
client and server applications can run
on the same PC providing the "one
computer feel" of PC208W. Alternatively, any PC can "talk to" to the
server via TCP/IP allowing the client
PCs to be anywhere. Client applications set or change the network, request
real-time connections to dataloggers
(for setting the clock, sending programs, monitoring, etc.), or create new
ASCII files. For LoggerNet 2.0, this
only benefits those who use RTMC to
view data from another PC. In future
versions, other client applications will
be able to use this function.
One of LoggerNet's new applications is the Real Time Monitoring and
Control Client (RTMC). RTMC allows
users to configure their screens to display and set input locations, flags and
ports as well as view final storage data.
It provides digital, tabular, graphical,
and binary data objects, and alarms.
RTMC can display data from any number of dataloggers in the network and
organize the data on multi-tabbed displays. It offers a variety of background
graphics, but allows you to supply your
own graphics to customize your screen.
RTMC saves forms that can be displayed on a run-time basis.
We're excited about the versatility
and power that LoggerNet 2.0 brings to
our customers. Combining the functionality of PC208W, LoggerNet 1.0,
and RTMS into LoggerNet 2.0 provides the ability to mix and match dataloggers and data acquisition needs on
a common software platform.
LoggerNet 2.0 is poised to take advantage of the new communications protocols now available, providing easy
access to TCP/IP protocols and third
party software programs.
New LoggerNet handles both data file formats
The standard operating systems of our
CR510, CR10X, CR23X, and CR7 dataloggers store data in an array-based format. The standard operating systems of
our CR5000 and CR9000 store data in the
table-based format. While PC208W only
supports dataloggers with array-based
data format and LoggerNet 1.x only supports table-based data format, LoggerNet
2.0 can support both data file formats,
allowing dataloggers with either operating
system to be in the same network. As a
result, we've added the table-data operating systems to our US price list.
AM16/32 replaces AM416 Multiplexer
CR23X memory boosted
The AM416 Multiplexer has been retired, but
technical support and repair will continue to be
available. The AM16/32 replaces the AM416,
and offers several design improvements including a smaller footprint, break before make
relays, and the ability to manually switch
between "2 x 32" and "4 x 16" modes.
The onboard memory
contained in the standard
CR23X has increased from 1
to 2 megabytes. Despite the
doubling of memory storage
capacity, the price of the
CR23X remains the same.
Page 4
Water content reflectometer gives improved accuracy
A new version of the Water Content
Reflectometer, the CS616, is available
from Campbell Scientific. The CS616
improves upon the measurement accuracy
of the CS615 while matching its resolution and precision. New features include
improved electrostatic discharge protection and reduced measurement time and
sensitivity to signal attenuation. The
improvements come from a refined circuit
The CS616 water content reflectometer (shown
with the CR10X) improves upon the measurement accuracy of the CS615 while matching
its resolution and precision.
View data without
opening enclosure
with the CD294
Campbell Scientific Australia’s CD294
“DataView” is a two-line, 32-character
LCD that displays a datalogger’s real-time
input location value, its description, and
measurement units. Two buttons allow
you to scroll through 20 selected input
locations. The CD294 is synchronized to
the datalogger's Table 1 execution interval, so measurements can be displayed as
they are made.
To conserve power, the DataView goes
into a low power mode that draws only 12
microamps if a button has not been
pressed within two minutes. The CD294
is designed to mount into the lid of an
environmental enclosure; a template for
an enclosure cutout, mounting screws, and
O-rings are provided. The DataView is
easily programmed using PC294W software and a PC programming cable, both
of which are included.
design and use of new surface-mount
electronic components that provide better
high-frequency performance. The CS616
can be ordered with lead lengths up to
1000 feet.
Like the CS615, the CS616 consists of
two 30 cm stainless steel rods that connect to an epoxy-encapsulated printed circuit board. The differentially driven rods
form a transmission line with a wave
propagation velocity that is dependent on
the dielectric permittivity of the medium
surrounding the rods. Nanosecond risetimes produce waveform reflections characteristic of an open-ended transmission
line.
The return of the reflection from the
rod ends triggers a logic state change that
initiates propagation of a new wavefront.
Since water has a dielectric permittivity
significantly larger than other soil constituents, the resulting oscillation frequency is dependent upon the average water
content of the medium surrounding the
rods.
The megahertz oscillation frequency is
scaled down and easily read by Campbell
Scientific's CR510, CR10X, CR23X or
CR5000 dataloggers. The probe rods can
be inserted from the surface or buried at
any orientation to the surface.
Each CS616 requires a single-ended
input channel along with a control port to
enable the probe. Multiple probes can use
a single control port. Instruction 138 has
been developed to measure the CS616
with the CR510, CR10X, and CR23X;
measurement time is approximately
0.5 milliseconds. The period averaging
instruction, 27, can also be used with the
CR510, CR10X, and CR23X dataloggers.
The CR5000 uses the PortSet and
PeriodAvg instructions to measure the
probe. Consult our product literature for
versions of PC208W, LoggerNet, and datalogger OS that support Instruction 138.
Operating specifications (VWC =
volumetric water content)
• probe-to-probe variability: ±0.5%
VWC in dry soil, ±1.5% VWC in
typical saturated soil
• accuracy ±2% VWC using standard
calibration with bulk electrical
conductivity ≤ 0.5 deciSiemen
meter-1 in the 0% to 50% VWC
measurement range
• precision 0.05% VWC
• resolution 0.1% VWC
Assess duff moisture on-site
Campbell Scientific and the USFS
Rocky Mountain Research Station
have collaborated in the development
of a duff moisture meter. Foresters
and other land managers can use the
DMM600 to make decisions for prescribed burns and fire fighting.
The water content of duff is an
important factor in the propagation of
fires (duff is decaying leaves and other
forest litter that covers the forest
floor.). Historically, duff water content
was determined by collecting field
samples in plastic bags and transporting the samples to a laboratory for
analysis. The DMM600 allows quick
and accurate on-site measurements
using circuitry similar to our water
content reflectometers.
To begin the measurement
process, duff is placed in the
measurement chamber of the
DMM600. The crank is turned
by hand to compress the sample
to the measurement density, and
the reading is automatically taken.
Volumetric water content measurements derived from a standard calibration and one user-defined calibration is
alternately displayed until the sample
is removed. The time required to
determine water content is essentially
the time required to load the sample.
The actual measurement time is only
tens of milliseconds.
Powered by a single 9-volt battery,
the DMM600 is portable and robust
enough for field use. It has a 3.5 inch
diameter, is 10 inches long, and
weighs approximately 3.7 pounds.
The DMM600 will be available in
March, 2002.
Avoid the time delay and expense of lab
analyses with the DMM600.
Page 5
Access new Raven II via the Internet
Cellular modem efficient, rugged
Automate leaf and soil surface temperature measurements using the compact
IRTS-P. (Inset photos show recessed
lens and mount.)
New infra-red
sensor measures
temperatures
By Bruce Bugbee
Apogee Instruments, Inc.
Accurate measurement of leaf
and soil surface temperature has
long been important to plant and
soil scientists. Infra-red thermometers make this measurement based
on the emitted radiation from the
surface of an object. The unique,
self-powered Precision Infra-red
Thermocouple Sensor (IRTS-P)
from Apogee Instruments measures
emitted radiation and provides the
surface temperatures as a type-K
thermocouple output. The detector
is custom built for Apogee by
Exergen Corporation. The detector
is modified to improve measurement accuracy with Campbell
Scientific dataloggers. An aluminum body stabilizes the reference
temperature, and a second thermocouple output measures sensor body
temperature.
Accuracy is further enhanced by
the precision thermocouple measurements that can be made with
Campbell Scientific dataloggers.
Each sensor is supplied with a 12instruction datalogger program that
adjusts for the effect of sensor body
temperature on target temperature.
The sensor is designed to make
continuous measurements in field
conditions. A threaded hole facilitates mounting to a standard camera
tripod or weather station tower.
Complete specifications are
available at www.apogee-inst.com
Our 2002 price list includes a new cellular modem/transceiver, the Raven II.
Manufactured by AirLink, the Raven II is
a full-duplex unit that supports telecommunications via a cellular digital packet
data (CDPD) network. CDPD modems
are IP based, requiring an Internet address
assigned by your service provider. By
using the Internet to access your modem,
you can eliminate long distance charges
and dial-up time, pay for data throughput
instead of airtime, and realize faster data
throughput. Operating costs, initial
equipment investment, and current drain
are lower than analog cellular systems.
The Raven II is a rugged, lightweight
modem that operates over -30° to +70°C
and 5% to 95% RH. The data transmission rate is up to 19.2 Kbps via TCP/IP.
Dialing delays are not required, allowing
quick response for data communication.
Built-in encryption maintains security of
the data while transmitting.
The Raven II is a 600 mW modem
with a typical current drain of 50 mA
while receiving and 280 mA during transmission. A power cable included with the
modem connects to the datalogger's 12 V
or switched 12 V terminal. Connection to
the switched 12 V terminal allows the datalogger to switch power to the modem
The Raven II allows you to shift from
analog to digital cellular technology.
during scheduled transmission intervals,
thereby conserving power. If this method
is used, the modem can be powered with
a BP12 battery and an MSX10 solar
panel.
Components required are a Campbell
Scientific datalogger, serial interface,
Raven II modem, antenna, power supply,
environmental enclosure, and instrument
mount. Two antennas are available: a
compact 2 dB whip antenna and an 8 dB
Yagi antenna. If the site is near the edge
of the CDPD coverage, you may need the
Yagi. Contact your local cellular company to verify CDPD service is available at
your site.
CSBUOY: Floating data, minimal setup
The CSBUOY is a wireless, floating,
self-contained package that can be
deployed with a minimal amount of setup.
It offers a fish farmer or water resource
manager the ability to monitor critical
water quality parameters from the convenience of their office.
The CSBUOY monitor/transmitter is
housed in a protective polyurethane buoy.
It is powered by a 7 Ahr, 12 Vdc
rechargeable battery continuously charged
by a 5 W solar panel mounted on the
buoy. Deployed anywhere in the pond,
the CSBUOY transmits data back to the
pond-side monitoring and control system
via spread spectrum radio, thus eliminating the cost and inconvenience of burying
cable. In typical applications, the
CSBUOY can transmit up to three miles.
Where greater distances are needed, a
higher gain 3 dB antenna with a clear
line-of-site can transmit over 10 miles.
This wireless method also allows the
option of moving the buoy from pond
to pond. Two CSBUOY models are
available.
Completely self-contained, the CSBUOY measures water quality parameters in fresh water.
The CSBUOY-DT is preprogrammed
and includes water temperature and dissolved oxygen probes. An agitator brush
attached to the dissolved oxygen probe
cleans the membrane to eliminate biological fouling.
The CSBUOY-NS is a platform without probes. A variety of water quality
probes, including SDI-12 models, are
compatible with this buoy. Custom programming is required.
Page 6
Kipp & Zonen
sensors measure
solar radiation
New Pyranometer
Kipp & Zonen's SP-LITE
Pyranometer has been added to our
2002 price list. The SP-LITE measures incoming solar radiation for
the spectral range of 400 to 1100
nm. The sensor uses a photodiode
to measure radiation, and includes a
shunt resistor to convert the output
signal to mV. All SP-LITE sensors
have a sensitivity of 10 µV/(W m-2).
The 14282 leveling fixture is used to
mount the SP-LITE to the 015ARM
or 025STAND.
NR-LITE Net Radiometer
The NR-LITE Net Radiometer
measures net radiation in the 0 to
100 µm spectral range. It includes
two black conical absorbers, one
facing up, the other facing down.
The absorbers are coated in Teflon®
making them resistant to weather
without requiring a fragile plastic
dome. The 14264 bracket is used to
mount the NR-LITE directly to a
vertical pipe or to a UT018 Tower
Mounting Bracket and Crossarm.
CNR1 Radiometer
The CNR1 Net Radiometer is
for applications requiring researchgrade solar radiation measurements.
The CNR1 consists of four radiation
sensors—two pyranometers measure
short-wave radiation, two pyrgeometers measure far infrared radiation.
One upward-facing pyranometer/
pyrgeometer pair measures incoming radiation while a complementary, downward-facing pair measures
reflected radiation. The CNR1 also
includes an RTD to measure the
internal temperature and a heater to
prevent condensation. A Campbell
Scientific 4WPB100 100 Ohm FourWire PRT Bridge Module is included to interface the RTD to our dataloggers. The 14264 bracket is used
to mount the CNR1 directly to a
vertical pipe or to a UT018 Tower
Mounting Bracket and Crossarm.
CR9000 analog modules
now include Easy Connectors
Our CR9050E, CR9052DC, and
CR9055E now include a corresponding
"Easy Connector" module. Sensor leads
wire directly into an easy connector modUSA
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Additional easy connector modules can be
purchased, allowing the sensors and the
easy connector module to be left in place.
These complementary modules allow
sensor wiring to stay intact, yet free the
datalogger for other purposes such as:
taking it to another site, installing it into
another test vehicle, storing it in a safe
location until further testing is required
(hotel rooms at night), moving it to other
test cells for similar tests, or relocating it
to another monitoring location on a large
structure.
The Easy Connector module (above left) allows sensor wiring
to stay intact while the analog input module (lower left) and
CR9000 are used elsewhere.
Campbell Scientific Calendar
Date
Event
Location
January
27-30
Aquaculture America
San Diego, CA
February
4-7
6-8
7-9
14, 15
26-March 1
IMAC-XX
Fish Farming Trade Show
GCSAA Golf Course Mtg. and Show
Data 2002
Utah Rural Water Assoc. Annual Conf.
March
4-7
12, 14
26-28
SAE International Expo
Data 2002
TRWA Texas Rural Water
April
2-5
8-10
Texas Water 2002
American Water Resources Association
San Antonio, TX
Soldotna, AK
May
7-10
20-23
20-24
21-23
ALERT Conf. on Flood Warning Systems
Western Snow Conference
Conference on Ag and Forest Meteorology
Nat’l Water Quality Monitoring Conf.
Santa Barbara, CA
Granby, CO
Norfolk, VA
Madison, WI
June
17-20
23-27
Northeast Forest Fire Supervisors
A&WMA Exhibit
Gettysburg, PA
Baltimore, MD
Los Angeles, CA
Greenville, MS
Orlando, FL
Richardson, Ft. Worth TX
St. George, UT
Detroit, MI
Clearwater, Cape Canaveral, FL
Corpus Christi, TX
visit our website for additional listings and training class schedules
www.campbellsci.com
Photography by Dan Judd
AP No. 022: Olympic Winter Games Weather
Poised on Mt. Ogden overlooking the Snow Basin venue, a Campbell Scientific weather station shares space with a
communications tower. Snow Basin will host a variety of alpine skiing events.
APPLICATION
AT A GLANCE
Application type:
Meteorological monitoring
Project area:
Olympic venues, northern Utah,
USA
Author:
Dr. John Horel, et. al.,
University of Utah
Contracting agencies:
State of Utah
Datalogger(s):
Campbell Scientific CR10(X)
Communication links:
UHF radio, telephone,
phone-to-RF
Measured parameters:
Temperature, RH, wind speed,
wind direction, precipitation,
snow depth, snow temperature
Multi-agency forecasting team relies on
CSI stations to provide venue-specific data
Weather support vital for
Olympic Winter Games
W
hen Salt Lake City opens its doors to the
world for the 2002 Winter Olympic and
Paralympic Games this winter, adverse
weather will be more than a casual concern.
Not only could weather delay sporting events, it could
also leave surface streets and highways encrusted in
snow and ice, impeding venue access for athletes,
Olympic officials, international media and spectators.
The effects of snowstorms and other large-scale
weather systems are widespread throughout northern
Utah. Hazardous winter weather including lake-effect
snowstorms, ice fog, gap winds, downslope windstorms and low visibility over mountain passes are
often related to local terrain features, the Wasatch
Mountains and Great Salt Lake being the most prominent. As such, planning for a weather support system
began in 1995, shortly after the International Olympic
Committee designated Salt Lake City as host for the
2002 Games.
Managed by the Salt Lake Organizing Committee
Continued on next page
A station stands at Soldier
Hollow Stadium, venue for the
biathlon, all cross-country skiing
events and the nordic combined.
(Left) Red triangles mark
the location of 278 weather
stations (most of which are
Campbell Scientific equipment)
throughout northern Utah.
Continued from previous page
(SLOC), the system, which includes
Campbell Scientific automated weather
stations, relies upon meteorologists from
the public, private, and academic sectors
of the atmospheric science community.
It spans the network of indoor Olympic
venues along the Wasatch Front (the metropolitan corridor west of the Wasatch
Mountains that is home to the bulk of
Utah's population and runs 110 km at
~1,300 m in elevation) and outdoor
venues on the eastern flanks of the
Wasatch Mountains which range in
elevation from 2,826 m (9,270 ft) at
the top of the men's downhill course, to
1,670 m (5,480 ft) at the cross country/
biathlon course. The variations in weather and climate from venue to venue are
tremendous.
Forecasting responsibilities are likewise varied. Olympic weather support
has traditionally been led by the host
country's primary weather agency. But
weather forecasting duties for the 2002
Winter Games will be shared by forecasters from the National Weather Service
and KSL, Salt Lake City's National
Broadcasting Company (NBC) affiliate.
Individuals from other agencies, including
the NWS Salt Lake Weather Forecast
Office, the NOAA Cooperative Institute
for Regional Prediction (CIRP), the NWS
Western Region Scientific Services
Division, the Aviation Security Operations
Center (ASOC) at Hill Air Force Base,
and the Utah Avalanche Center will provide data, resources and forecasts for specific Olympic-related applications. The
SLOC weather support group also
includes weather volunteers, including
undergraduate and graduate students from
the University of Utah and other local residents. Close coordination of all groups
involved, therefore, will be vital if consistent forecasts are to be ensured.
The KSL team consists of 13 privatesector meteorologists charged with providing detailed microscale weather forecasts for the five outdoor venues.
Assembled by Mark Eubank, KSL chief
meteorologist, the venue forecast team
has extensive experience forecasting
northern Utah weather. Venue forecasters
will have on-site access to the latest
weather observations, graphics, and
model data. Weather forecasts will be
issued three times daily with updates
issued as needed. Forecast fields include:
sky cover, precipitation type and amount,
(Below) Four PCs at the
NWS office in Salt Lake City
use PC208W to call remote
stations.
(Bottom) Shooting Star Jump
Station on the downhill course.
air temperature, wind direction, wind
speed, wind gusts, wind chill, visibility,
humidity, and snow temperature. A joint
weather phone conference will be conducted each morning between forecasters
at the venues, the NWS Salt Lake field
office, and the ASOC. Official manual
weather observations will be started one
hour before each outdoor event begins
and will continue at 15-minute intervals
throughout the event.
Since documentation of weather conditions prior to the Olympics was required
for planning (and during the Games for
operations) weather equipment was
installed at venues and other key locations
in northern Utah beginning in 1996.
Portable weather stations manufactured
by Campbell Scientific, Inc., that were
deployed by the NWS Southern Region
for the 1996 Atlanta Summer Olympic
Games, were made available to the NWS
Western Region after the summer games
were completed. Also during 1996, the
NWS Western Region and the National
Severe Storms Laboratory began a
research project in the vicinity of Salt
Lake City to validate WSR-88D radar
algorithms in regions of complex terrain.
In support of that project, weather equipment was deployed at eight locations
(four within the Wasatch Front and four at
Olympic venues).
Forecasting and weather-data recording
in preparation for the 2002 Olympic
Winter Games have allowed a unique
partnership to evolve since 1996, with
government, commercial, and research
communities sharing weather information
in northern Utah and throughout the western United States. Initially referred to as
the Utah Mesonet, the collection of data
outside of Utah led to its redesignation as
MesoWest in January 2000. Now, during
February and March 2002, weather observations will be available from over 278
locations in the northern Utah region.
This article was derived from a
manuscript submitted to the Bulletin
of the American Meteorological Society.
The full text is available at
http://www.met.utah.edu/olympics/
AP No. 022
Copyright © 2002
Campbell Scientific, Inc.
Printed January 2002