FILE ONLY - Release - 08 Aug 2011 14:50:02 MST - Printed on 01 Mar 2013
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Mark V and Mark VII EGPWS Pilot’s Guide
TABLE OF CONTENTS
SECTION 1 INTRODUCTION ................................................................ 1
SECTION 2 SYSTEM DESCRIPTION .................................................... 5
SECTION 3 OPERATIONAL PROCEDURES ...................................... 46
SECTION 4 DEFINITIONS .................................................................... 59
SMARTRUNWAY® PILOT GUIDE ...................................................... 61
SMARTLANDINGTM PILOT GUIDE .................................................... 99
Request for Information ........................................................................ 117
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Table of Contents
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SECTION 1 INTRODUCTION
This Pilot Guide describes the functions and operation of the
MK V and MK VII Enhanced Ground Proximity Warning
System (EGPWS).
The document is divided into four sections:
Section 1 is this introduction and the following brief
description of the EGPWS and its features.
Section 2 provides a functional description of the EGPWS.
This includes descriptions of the various system modes;
Built-In-Test (BIT) and monitoring functions, and system
features.
Section 3 provides general operating procedures to follow
when the system gives a caution or warning alert.
Section 4 provides definitions of terms used in this manual.
This guide does not supersede FAA approved data, Flight
Manuals, individual Operations Manuals, requirements,
or procedures. Pilots should be thoroughly familiar with
their own company policies, system configuration,
requirements, and procedures with respect to the
operation of the aircraft with the EGPWS.
What is the
EGPWS?
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The information in this document is intended as a general
explanation of the Honeywell EGPWS. It contains a general
description of system performance assuming identified
options are active, and highlights deviations in system
performance resulting when a feature is disabled.
The EGPWS is a Terrain Awareness and Alerting system
providing terrain alerting and display functions with
additional features meeting the requirements of TSO C151b
Class A TAWS.
The EGPWS uses aircraft inputs including geographic
position, attitude, altitude, airspeed, and glideslope deviation.
These are used with internal terrain, obstacles, and airport
runway databases to predict a potential conflict between the
aircraft flight path and terrain or an obstacle. A terrain or
obstacle conflict results in the EGPWS providing a visual
and audio caution or warning alert.
Additionally, the EGPWS provides alerts for excessive
glideslope deviation, too low with flaps or gear not in
landing configuration, and optionally provides bank angle
and altitude callouts based on system program pin selection.
Detection of severe windshear conditions is also provided for
selected aircraft types when enabled.
Introduction
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Mark V and Mark VII EGPWS Pilot’s Guide
What is the
EGPWS?
Continued
Introduction
2
The EGPWS incorporates several “enhanced” features:
• Terrain Alerting and Display (TAD) provides a graphic
display of the surrounding terrain on the Weather Radar
Indicator, EFIS, or a dedicated display. Based on the
aircraft’s position and the internal database, the terrain
topography (within the display range selected) that is
above or within 2000 feet below the aircraft altitude is
presented on the system display. This feature is an option,
enabled by program pins during installation.
• “Peaks” is a TAD supplemental feature providing
additional terrain display features for enhanced situational
awareness, independent of the aircraft’s altitude. This
includes digital elevations for the highest and lowest
displayed terrain, additional elevation (color) bands, and a
unique representation of 0 MSL elevation (sea level and
its corresponding shoreline). This feature is an option,
enabled by program pins during installation.
• “Obstacles” is a feature utilizing a database of man-made
objects for obstacle conflict alerting and display.
Additionally, when TAD is enabled, Obstacles are
graphically displayed similar to terrain. This feature is an
option, enabled by program pins during installation.
• Envelope Modulation is a feature utilizing a database of
airport approach and departure profiles to tailor EGPWS
alerts at certain geographic locations to reduce nuisance
alerts and provide added protection.
• A Terrain Clearance Floor (TCF) feature adds an
additional element of protection by alerting the pilot of
possible premature descent. This is intended for nonprecision approaches and is based on the current aircraft
position relative to the nearest runway. This feature is
enabled with the TAD feature.
• The Runway Field Clearance Floor (RFCF) feature is
circular band similar to the TCF feature except that RFCF
is based on the current aircraft position and height above
the destination runway based on Geometric Altitude (see
next page) and only extends 5 NM past the end of the
runway. This provides improved protection at locations
where the destination runway is significantly higher than
the surrounding terrain. (In -210-210 and later versions).
• An Aural Declutter feature reduces the repetition of
warning messages. This feature is optional, and may be
disabled by system program pins during installation.
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What is the
EGPWS?
Continued
• Geometric Altitude, based on GPS altitude, is a
computed pseudo-barometric altitude designed to reduce
or eliminate altitude errors resulting from temperature
extremes, nonstandard pressure altitude conditions, and
altimeter miss-sets. This ensures an optimal EGPWS
alerting and display capability.
• The Runway Awareness & Advisory System (RAAS)
option provides alerts and advisories that increase crew
situational awareness during operations on and around
airports. This feature is an option, enabled by PCMCIA
card, available in -218-218 or later versions.
• The SMARTRUNWAY® option provides alerts and
advisories that increase crew situational awareness during
operations on and around airports; combining the RAAS
functions with added improvements for Taxiway Landing,
Taxiway Takeoff, Short Runway Cautions, Visual
Messaging, and Takeoff Flap Monitor (incorrect takeoff
flap configuration). These features are optional, enabled
by PCMCIA card, available in -230-230 or later versions.
Physical
Description
• The SMARTLANDINGTM option provides visual and aural
annunciations that supplement flight crew awareness of
un-stabilized approaches, altimeter setting problems,
landing long and select RAAS advisories. These features
are optional, enabled by PCMCIA card, available in -230230 or later versions.
Some of these features have been added to the EGPWS as
the system evolved and are not present in all Enhanced
Ground Proximity Warning Computer (EGPWC) part
numbers. For specific effectivity, refer to an applicable
Airplane Flight Manual (AFM) or EGPWS Airplane Flight
Manual Supplement (AFMS) or contact Honeywell for
assistance.
The EGPWC is packaged in a 2 MCU ARINC 600-6 rack
mounted enclosure weighing less than 8 lbs. No special
vibration isolation mounting or forced air-cooling is
required.
115 VAC (400 Hz.) or 28 VDC versions of the EGPWC are
available. Units are also available with an internal GPS
receiver for required GPS data when another GPS source is
not available.
For more detailed descriptions and information, contact
Honeywell.
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Introduction
4
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SECTION 2 SYSTEM DESCRIPTION
Enhanced Ground Proximity Warning System ............................................... 6
EGPWS Database ................................................................................................ 6
Basic Functions:
Mode 1 - Excessive Descent Rate ........................................................................ 8
Mode 2 - Excessive Closure to Terrain ................................................................ 9
Mode 2A .............................................................................................................. 9
Mode 2B ............................................................................................................ 11
Mode 3 - Altitude Loss After Takeoff ............................................................... 13
Mode 4 - Unsafe Terrain Clearance ................................................................... 14
Mode 4A ............................................................................................................ 14
Mode 4B ............................................................................................................ 15
Mode 4C ............................................................................................................ 16
Mode 5 - Excessive Deviation Below Glideslope .............................................. 18
Mode 6 - Advisory Callouts ............................................................................... 19
Mode 7 - Windshear Alerting ............................................................................. 24
Enhanced Functions:
Envelope Modulation ......................................................................................... 26
Terrain Clearance Floor ..................................................................................... 26
Runway Field Clearance Floor .......................................................................... 28
Terrain Look Ahead Alerting ............................................................................ 29
Terrain Alerting and Display ............................................................................. 30
Non-Peaks Display ............................................................................................ 30
Pop-Up and Auto-Range .................................................................................... 33
Peaks Display .................................................................................................... 33
TAD/TCF INOP Annunciator and INHIBIT ....................................................... 37
Geometric Altitude ............................................................................................ 37
Weather Radar Auto-Tilt ................................................................................... 38
Aural Message Priority ...................................................................................... 38
System Inputs ................................................................................................... 40
System Outputs ................................................................................................ 42
Options ............................................................................................................. 42
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System Description
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Mark V and Mark VII EGPWS Pilot’s Guide
Enhanced
Ground
Proximity
Warning
System
The EGPWS incorporates the functions of the basic Ground
Proximity Warning System (GPWS). This includes the
following alerting modes:
Mode 2
Mode 1
Excessive Descent Rate
"Sinkrate"
"Pull Up"
Excessive Terrain Closure
Rate
"Terrain... Terrain"
"Pull Up"
Mode 3
Mode 6
Advisory Callouts
"Bank Angle"
"Minimums"
Selected Altitude Callouts
Altitude Loss After Takeoff
"Don't Sink"
"Don't Sink"
Mode 4
Mode 5
Excessive Deviation
Below Glideslope
"Glideslope"
EGPWS
Database
System Description
6
Unsafe Terrain Clearance
"Too Low Terrain"
"Too Low Gear"
"Too Low Flaps"
Additionally, Windshear alerting (Mode 7) is provided for
specific aircraft types. Mode 7 provides windshear caution
and/or warning alerts when an EGPWS windshear threshold is
exceeded.
The EGPWS adds to these 7 basic functions the ability to
compare the aircraft position to an internal database and
provide additional alerting and display capabilities for
enhanced situational awareness and safety (hence the term
“Enhanced” GPWS).
The EGPWS internal database consists of four sub-sets:
1. A worldwide terrain database of varying degrees of
resolution.
2. An obstacles database containing cataloged man-made
objects 100 feet or greater in height located within North
America, portions of Europe and portions of the Caribbean
(expanding as data is obtained).
3. A worldwide airport database containing information on
runways 3500 feet or longer in length. For a specific list of
the airports included, refer to Honeywell document 0604267-000 or access on the Internet at website
www.egpws.com.
4. An Envelope Modulation database containing information
on airport approach and departure profiles to support the
Envelope Modulation feature.
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EGPWS
Database
Continued
Honeywell is constantly striving to improve the EGPWS
database in content, resolution, and accuracy. Notification of a
database update is accomplished by Service Bulletin.
Database updates are distributed on PCMCIA data cards and
downloaded via a card slot in the front panel of each EGPWC.
Contact Honeywell for additional information.
Because the overwhelming majority of “Controlled Flight Into
Terrain” (CFIT) accidents occur near an airport, and the fact
that aircraft operate in close proximity to terrain near an
airport, and to address prevention of airport runway/taxiway
incursions, the terrain database contains higher resolution
grids for airport areas. Lower resolution grids are used outside
airport areas where aircraft enroute altitude make CFIT
accidents less likely and terrain feature detail is less important
to the flight crew.
With the use of accurate GPS or FMS information, the
EGPWS is provided present position, track, and ground speed.
With this information the EGPWS is able to present a
graphical plan view of the aircraft relative to the terrain and
advise the flight crew of a potential conflict with the terrain or
obstacle. Conflicts are recognized and alerts provided when
terrain violates specific computed envelope boundaries on the
projected flight path of the aircraft. Alerts are provided in the
form of visual light annunciation of a caution or warning,
audio annunciation based on the type of conflict, and color
enhanced visual display of the terrain or obstacle relative to
the forward look of the aircraft. The terrain display is
provided on the Weather Radar Indicator, EFIS display, or a
dedicated EGPWS display and may or may not be displayed
automatically.
Also available with high integrity GPS data is alerting
advisory information to help prevent runway/taxiway
incursions in the form of audio advisory alerts.
The following sections provide functional descriptions of the
EGPWS basic and enhanced functions and features, and
system input and output requirements.
The operator should have a program of continuous
maintenance that checks the system operation
periodically, updates the software to the latest available,
and ensures a policy of updating the runway, terrain and
obstacle databases.
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System Description
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Mark V and Mark VII EGPWS Pilot’s Guide
BASIC FUNCTIONS:
MODE 1
Excessive
Descent
Rate
Mode 1 provides alerts for excessive descent rates with
respect to altitude AGL and is active for all phases of flight.
This mode has inner and outer alert boundaries as illustrated
in the diagram and graph below.
Penetration of the outer boundary activates the EGPWS
caution lights and “SINKRATE, SINKRATE” alert
annunciation. Additional “SINKRATE, SINKRATE”
messages will occur for each 20% degradation in altitude.
During the time that the Sinkrate aural is inhibited and the
alert lamp is ON, the Mode 5 aural “Glideslope” is allowed to
annunciate for excessive glideslope deviation below the beam.
Penetration of the inner boundary activates the EGPWS
warning lights and changes the audio message to “PULL UP”
which repeats continuously until the inner warning boundary
is exited.
Note: “Pull Up” may be preceded by “Whoop, Whoop” in
some configurations based on the audio menu option selected.
System Description
8
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MODE 1
Continued
Glideslope
Deviation
Bias
Envelope
Modulation
Steep
Approach
Bias
MODE 2
Excessive
Closure to
Terrain
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If a valid ILS Glideslope front course is received and the
aircraft is above the glideslope centerline, the outer (sinkrate)
boundary is adjusted to desensitize the sinkrate alerting. This
is to prevent unwanted alerts when the aircraft is safely
capturing the glideslope (or repositioning to the centerline)
from above the beam.
If the Aural Declutter feature is disabled, the Sinkrate alert
boundary remains fixed and the aural message “SINKRATE”
repeats continuously until the outer boundary is exited.
Through Envelope Modulation, both boundaries can be biased
to the right at certain airports to minimize nuisance alerts or
warnings.
The EGPWS offers a Steep Approach option for given aircraft
types that desensitizes the alert boundaries to permit steeper
than normal approaches without unwanted alerts. If Steep
Approach is selected (active) then the cockpit self-test is
inhibited if the aircraft is on the ground.
For Airbus A318/319/320/321 with version -226-226/-003 or
later, when Steep Approach is active Mode 1 is disabled
below 130 ft and no other Mode 1 bias functions are allowed
to operate (Envelope Modulation or above the beam
Glideslope bias).
Mode 2 provides alerts to help protect the aircraft from
impacting the ground when rapidly rising terrain with respect
to the aircraft is detected. Mode 2 is based on Radio Altitude
and on how rapidly Radio Altitude is decreasing (closure
rate). Mode 2 exists in two forms, 2A and 2B.
System Description
9
Mark V and Mark VII EGPWS Pilot’s Guide
MODE 2A
System Description
10
Mode 2A is active during climbout, cruise, and initial
approach (flaps not in the landing configuration and the
aircraft not on glideslope centerline). If the aircraft penetrates
the Mode 2A caution envelope, the aural message
“TERRAIN, TERRAIN” is generated and cockpit EGPWS
caution lights will illuminate. If the aircraft continues to
penetrate the envelope, the EGPWS warning lights will
illuminate and the aural warning message “PULL UP” is
repeated continuously until the warning envelope is exited.
Note: “Pull Up” may be preceded by “Whoop, Whoop” in
some configurations based on the audio menu option selected.
Upon exiting the warning envelope, if terrain clearance
continues to decrease, the aural message “TERRAIN” will be
given until the terrain clearance stops decreasing. In addition,
the visual alert will remain on until the aircraft has gained 300
feet of barometric altitude, 45 seconds has elapsed, or landing
flaps or the flap override switch is activated.
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MODE 2A
Continued
The graph below shows how the upper boundary of the Mode
2 alert envelope varies as a function of the aircraft speed. As
airspeed increases from 220 knots to 310 knots, the boundary
expands to provide increased alert times at higher airspeeds.
With version -210-210 and later models, the Mode 2A upper
limit is reduced to 1250 feet (950 feet with version -218-218
and later) for all airspeeds when the Terrain Alerting and
Display (TAD) function is enabled and available. This is due
to the enhanced alerting capability provided with TAD,
resulting from high integrity GPS Altitude and Geometric
Altitude data. The Mode 2A envelope is lowered in order to
reduce the potential for nuisance alerts during an approach.
This modification allows EGPWS operation to be compatible
with RADAR vectoring minimum terrain clearances.
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MODE 2B
Mode 2B provides a desensitized alerting envelope to permit
normal landing approach maneuvers close to terrain without
unwanted alerts. Mode 2B is automatically selected with flaps
in the landing configuration (landing flaps or flap over-ride
selected) or when making an ILS approach with Glideslope
and Localizer deviation less than 2 dots. It is also active during
the first 60 seconds after takeoff.
With version -210-210 and later models, Mode 2B is selected
when the aircraft is within 5 NM (10 NM with version -218218 and later) and 3500 feet of the destination airport
(independent of configuration) and the Terrain Alerting and
Display (TAD) function is enabled and available. This is due
to the enhanced alerting capability provided with TAD,
resulting from high integrity GPS Altitude and Geometric
Altitude data. The Mode 2B envelope is selected in order to
reduce the potential for nuisance alerts during an approach.
The graph above shows the Mode 2B envelope.
System Description
12
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MODE 2B
Continued
MODE 3
Altitude
Loss After
TakeOff
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During an approach, if the aircraft penetrates the Mode 2B
envelope with either the gear or flaps not in the landing
configuration, the aural message “TERRAIN, TERRAIN” is
generated and the EGPWS caution lights illuminate. If the
aircraft continues to penetrate the envelope, the EGPWS
warning lights illuminate and the aural message “PULL UP”
is repeated continuously until the warning envelope is exited.
If the aircraft penetrates the Mode 2B envelope with both gear
and flaps in the landing configuration, the aural “PULL UP”
messages are suppressed and the aural message “TERRAIN”
is repeated until the envelope is exited.
Mode 3 provides alerts for significant altitude loss after
takeoff or low altitude go-around (less than 245 feet AGL or
150 feet, depending on aircraft type) with gear or flaps not in
the landing configuration. The amount of altitude loss that is
permitted before an alert is given is a function of the height of
the aircraft above the terrain as shown below. This protection
is available until the EGPWS determines that the aircraft has
gained sufficient altitude or that it is no longer in the takeoff
phase of flight. Significant altitude loss after takeoff or during
a low altitude go-around activates the EGPWS caution lights
and the aural message “DON’T SINK, DON’T SINK”.
System Description
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MODE 3
Continued
MODE 4
Unsafe
Terrain
Clearance
MODE 4A
System Description
14
The aural message is enunciated twice for each 20%
degradation in altitude. Upon establishing a positive rate of
climb, the EGPWS caution lights extinguish and the aural
alert will cease.
If the Aural Declutter feature is disabled, the warning is
enunciated continuously until positive climb is established.
Mode 4 provides alerts for insufficient terrain clearance with
respect to phase of flight, configuration, and speed. Mode 4
exists in three forms, 4A, 4B, and 4C.
• Mode 4A is active during cruise and approach with the gear
and flaps not in the landing configuration.
• Mode 4B is active during cruise and approach with the gear
in the landing configuration and flaps not in the landing
configuration.
• Mode 4C is active during the takeoff phase of flight with
either the gear or flaps not in the landing configuration.
Mode 4 alerts activate the EGPWS caution lights and aural
messages.
To reduce nuisance alerts caused by over-flying another
aircraft, the upper limit of the Mode 4A/B alerting curve can
be reduced (from 1000) to 800 feet. This occurs if the airplane
is above 250 knots with gear and flaps not in landing
configuration and a sudden change in Radio Altitude is
detected. This is intended to eliminate nuisance alerts while
flying a holding pattern and an aircraft over-flight occurs
(with 1000 foot separation).
With version -210-210 and later models, Mode 4 airspeed
expansion is disabled (upper limit held at lowest airspeed
limit) when the Terrain Alerting and Display (TAD) function
is enabled and available. This is due to the enhanced alerting
capability provided with TAD, resulting from high integrity
GPS Altitude and Geometric Altitude data. This change to the
Mode 4 envelopes reduces the potential for nuisance alerts
when the aircraft is not in the landing configuration.
Mode 4A is active during cruise and approach with gear and
flaps up. This provides alerting during cruise for inadvertent
flight into terrain where terrain is not rising significantly, or
the aircraft is not descending excessively. It also provides
alerting for protection against an unintentional gear-up
landing.
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MODE 4A
Continued
MODE 4B
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Below 1000 feet AGL and above 190 knots airspeed, the
Mode 4A aural alert is “TOO LOW TERRAIN”. This alert
is dependent on aircraft speed such that the alert threshold is
ramped between 500 feet at 190 knots to 1000 feet at 250
knots.
Below 500 feet AGL and less than 190 knots airspeed, the
Mode 4A aural alert is “TOO LOW GEAR”.
For either Mode 4A alert, subsequent alert messages occur for
each 20% degradation in altitude. EGPWS caution lights
extinguish and aural messages cease when the Mode 4A alert
envelope is exited.
If the Aural Declutter feature is disabled, mode 4A alert
messages are repeated continuously until the Mode 4A
envelope is exited.
Mode 4B is active during cruise and approach, with gear
down and flaps not in the landing configuration.
Below 1000 feet AGL and above 159 knots (185 knots for
Boeing 747-8) airspeed, the Mode 4B aural alert is “TOO
LOW TERRAIN”. This alert is dependent on aircraft speed
such that the alert threshold is ramped between 245 feet at 159
knots (185 knots for Boeing 747-8) to 1000 feet at 250 knots.
System Description
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Mark V and Mark VII EGPWS Pilot’s Guide
MODE 4B
Continued
Below 245 feet AGL and less than 159 knots (185 knots for
Boeing 747-8) airspeed, the Mode 4B aural alert is “TOO
LOW FLAPS”. For turboprop and selected turbofan aircraft,
the “TOO LOW FLAPS” warning curve is lowered to 150
feet AGL and less than 148 knots.
If desired, the pilot may disable the “TOO LOW FLAPS”
alert by engaging the Flap Override switch (if installed). This
precludes or silences the Mode 4B flap alert until reset by the
pilot.
If the aircraft’s Radio Altitude decreases to the value of the
Minimum Terrain Clearance (MTC), the EGPWS caution
illuminates and the aural message “TOO LOW TERRAIN”
is enunciated.
For either Mode 4B alert, subsequent alert messages occur for
each 20% degradation in altitude. EGPWS caution lights
extinguish and aural messages cease when the Mode 4B alert
envelope is exited.
If the Aural Declutter
feature is disabled, mode
4B alert messages are
repeated
continuously
until the Mode 4B
envelope is exited.
MODE 4C
System Description
16
The Mode 4C alert is intended to prevent inadvertent
controlled flight into the ground during takeoff climb into
terrain that produces insufficient closure rate for a Mode 2
alert. After takeoff, Mode 4A and 4B provide this protection.
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MODE 4C
Continued
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Mode 4C is based on an EGPWS computed Minimum Terrain
Clearance (MTC) floor that increases with Radio Altitude. It
is active after takeoff when the gear or flaps are not in the
landing configuration. It is also active during a low altitude
go-around if the aircraft has descended below 245 feet AGL
(or 150 feet depending on aircraft type).
At takeoff the Minimum Terrain Clearance (MTC) is zero
feet. As the aircraft ascends the MTC is increased to 75% of
the aircraft’s Radio Altitude (averaged over the previous 15
seconds).
This value is not allowed to decrease and is limited to 500 feet
AGL for airspeed less than 190 knots. Beginning at 190 knots,
the MTC increases linearly to the limit of 1000 feet at 250
knots.
If the aircraft’s Radio Altitude decreases to the value of the
MTC, the EGPWS caution illuminates and the aural message
“TOO LOW TERRAIN” is enunciated.
EGPWS caution lights extinguish and aural messages cease
when the Mode 4C alert envelope is exited.
If the Aural Declutter feature is disabled, mode 4C alert
messages are repeated continuously until the Mode 4C
envelope is exited.
System Description
17
Mark V and Mark VII EGPWS Pilot’s Guide
MODE 5
Excessive
Deviation
Below
Glideslope
Mode 5 provides two levels of alerting for when the aircraft
descends below glideslope, resulting in activation of EGPWS
caution lights and aural messages.
The first level alert occurs when below 1000 feet Radio
Altitude and the aircraft is 1.3 dots or greater below the beam.
This turns on the caution lights and is called a “soft” alert
because the audio message “GLIDESLOPE” is enunciated at
half volume. 20% increases in the below glideslope deviation
cause additional “GLIDESLOPE” messages enunciated at a
progressively faster rate.
The second level alert occurs when below 300 feet Radio
Altitude with 2 dots or greater glideslope deviation. This is
called a “hard” alert because a louder “GLIDESLOPE,
GLIDESLOPE” message is enunciated every 3 seconds
continuing until the “hard” envelope is exited. The caution
lights remain on until a glideslope deviation less than 1.3 dots
is achieved.
To avoid unwanted Below Glideslope alerts when capturing
the localizer between 500 and 1000 feet AGL, alerting is
varied in the following ways:
• Below Glideslope alerts are enabled only if the localizer is
within 2 dots, landing gear and flaps are selected,
Glideslope Cancel is not active, and a front course
approach is determined.
System Description
18
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MODE 5
Continued
MODE 6
Advisory
Callouts
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• The upper altitude limit for the alert is modulated with
vertical speed. For descent rates above 500 FPM, the upper
limit is set to the normal 1000 feet AGL. For descent rates
lower than 500 FPM, the upper limit is desensitized
(reduced) to a minimum of 500 feet AGL.
Additionally, both alert levels are desensitized below 150 feet
AGL, to allow for normal beam variations nearer the ground,
and reduce the possibility of nuisance alerts.
If the Aural Declutter feature is disabled, messages are
repeated continuously until the Mode 5 envelope is exited.
Mode 5 alerts can be canceled by pressing the Glideslope
Cancel switch (if installed). The EGPWS will interpret this
switch one of two ways depending on the installation
configuration.
• A standard glideslope cancel switch allows for manually
canceling Mode 5 alerting any time below 2000 feet AGL.
This is automatically reset when the aircraft descends
below 50 feet or climbs above 2000 feet AGL (1000 feet
AGL for current Boeing production aircraft).
• An alternate glideslope cancel switch allows for manually
canceling Mode 5 alerting at any time and any altitude. The
cancel is reset by again pressing the cancel switch, or
automatically if gear or flaps are raised, or the aircraft is on
the ground. Due to the nature of the alternate cancel switch,
this method requires that there be a cockpit annunciation
that glideslope cancel is in effect (this configuration is
currently not allowed on aircraft operating under FAA part
121 rules).
EGPWS Mode 5 alerts are inhibited during backcourse
approaches to prevent nuisance alerts due to false fly up lobes
from the Glideslope. The EGPWC determines a backcourse
approach if either: 1) the aircraft’s magnetic track is greater
than 90 degrees from the runways approach course, or 2) a
glideslope inhibit discrete is set.
Mode 6 provides EGPWS advisory callouts based on the
menu-selected option established at installation (set by
program pin configuration). These callouts consist of
predefined Radio Altitude based voice callouts or tones and an
excessive bank angle advisory. There is no visual alerting
provided with these callouts.
System Description
19
Mark V and Mark VII EGPWS Pilot’s Guide
MODE 6
Continued
Altitude
Callouts
The following is a list of each of the possible altitude callouts
or tones:
CALLOUT
Occurs at (feet AGL)
“RADIO ALTIMETER” ............................................ 2500
“TWENTY FIVE HUNDRED” ................................ 2500
“ONE THOUSAND” ................................................ 1000 a
“EIGHT HUNDRED” ................................................. 800 a
“FIVE HUNDRED” .................................................... 500 a
Five Hundred Tone (2 second 960 Hz) ....................... 500
“FOUR HUNDRED” .................................................. 400
“THREE HUNDRED” ................................................ 300
“TWO HUNDRED” ................................................... 200
“APPROACHING MINIMUMS” ......................... DH+80 b
“APPROACHING DECISION HEIGHT” ......... DH+100 b
“PLUS HUNDRED” ........................................... DH+100 b
“FIFTY ABOVE” ................................................. DH+50 b
“MINIMUM” .............................................................. DH b
“MINIMUMS” ............................................................ DH b
“MINIMUMS - MINIMUMS” ................................... DH b
“DECISION HEIGHT” ............................................... DH b
“DECIDE” .................................................................. DH b
“ONE HUNDRED” .................................................... 100
One Hundred Tone (2 second 700 Hz) ........................ 100
“EIGHTY” .................................................................... 80
“SIXTY” ....................................................................... 60
“FIFTY” ........................................................................ 50
“FORTY” ...................................................................... 40
“THIRTY FIVE” .......................................................... 35
Thirty Five Tone (1 second 1400 Hz) ........................... 35
“THIRTY” .................................................................... 30
“TWENTY” .................................................................. 20
Twenty Tone (1/2 second 2800 Hz) .............................. 20
“TEN” ............................................................................ 10
“FIVE” ............................................................................. 5
a. May be Barometric Altitude above the field elevation for some aircraft types.
b. May be MDA or DH for some aircraft types.
System Description
20
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Mark V and Mark VII EGPWS Pilot’s Guide
MODE 6
Continued
Smart
500 Foot
Callout
060-4241-000
Rev H, August 2011
In some cases a callout is stated twice (e.g., “MINIMUMS,
MINIMUMS”) but in all cases a given altitude callout is only
annunciated once per approach.
Decision Height (DH) based callouts (Approaching
Minimums, Minimums, etc.) require the landing gear to be
down and occur when descending through the Radio Altitude
corresponding to the selected DH. These also have priority
over other altitude callouts when overlapping. For example, if
DH is set to 200 and both “TWO HUNDRED” and
MINIMUMS” are valid callouts, then only “MINIMUMS”
will be called out at 200 feet AGL.
DH plus based callouts (e.g., Approaching Minimums) are
only applicable for aircraft providing a Decision Height
altitude to the EGPWS. Consequently, not all EGPWS
installations can utilize these callout options.
Due to the variety of altitude callout choices available, it is
not possible to identify every combination in this guide. Refer
to an appropriate Airplane Flight Manual or EGPWS Airplane
Flight Manual Supplement for callout identification in a
specific application or contact Honeywell.
Another feature available in the Altitude Callouts (options) is
a “Smart 500” foot callout. When selected, this callout assists
pilots during a non-precision approach by enunciating “FIVE
HUNDRED” feet in addition to any other altitude callout
discussed above. The EGPWS determines a non-precision
approach when Glideslope or Localizer is greater than 2 dots
deviation (valid or not) or a back-course approach is detected
or Glideslope Cancel is selected.
This feature has the distinction of adding the 500-foot callout
during non-precision approaches and removing the 500-foot
callout on precision approaches when part of the callout
option.
System Description
21
Mark V and Mark VII EGPWS Pilot’s Guide
MODE 6
Continued
Bank Angle
Callout
Business
Bank Angle
System Description
22
The callout “BANK ANGLE, BANK ANGLE” advises of
an excessive roll angle. The EGPWS provides several
excessive bank angle envelopes supporting Air Transport,
Business, or Military aircraft types (only Air Transport and
Business aircraft types are addressed below).
One envelope is defined for turbo-prop and business jet
aircraft (see graph below). Bank angles in excess of:
• ±10° between 5 and 30 feet,
• ±10 to 40° between 30 and 150 feet,
• ±40 to 55° between 150 and 2450 feet,
• 55° above 2450 feet
produce the bank angle advisory (shaded area). Bank angle
advisories are inhibited below 5 feet.
060-4241-000
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Mark V and Mark VII EGPWS Pilot’s Guide
MODE 6
Air Transport
Bank Angle
Three envelopes are defined for Air Transport aircraft. These
are identified as Basic Bank Angle, Bank Angle Option 1, and
Bank Angle Option 2 advisories.
The Air Transport Basic Bank Angle limits are similar to the
Business Aircraft Bank Angle limits except above 150 feet the
bank limit remains at 40 as shown below.
Bank Angle Option 1 provides bank angle advisory thresholds
at 35, 40, and 45 independent of altitude. In this case, an
advisory at 35 is provided and another is not given unless 40
is exceeded and then again only if 45 is exceeded. If the roll
rate exceeds the audio callout time, then the bypassed limit is
not indicated.
Also, when any one of the thresholds is exceeded, the bank
angle must reduce below 30 for the process to reset before
additional Bank Angle Advisories can be provided.
For example, if greater than 40 is obtained before the 35
callout is complete, another callout is provided only if 45 is
obtained or the bank angle is reduced to less than 30 and then
again increases to 35.
Bank Angle Option 2 provides a combination of the Basic
Bank Angle and Bank angle Option 1. The Basic Bank Angle
limits are provided below 130 feet, and Bank Angle Option 1
is provided above 130 feet.
Any one of these three Bank Angle limits can be selected by
program pin if the aircraft type is defined as an Air Transport
aircraft.
060-4241-000
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System Description
23
Mark V and Mark VII EGPWS Pilot’s Guide
MODE 7
Windshear
Alerting
Windshear
Caution
Windshear
Warning
System Description
24
Mode 7 is designed to provide alerts if the aircraft encounters
windshear. Two alerting envelopes provide either a
Windshear Caution alert or a Windshear Warning alert each
with distinctive aural and visual indications to the flight crew.
EGPWS windshear is provided for certain (not all) aircraft
types and is a function of certain additionally required input
signals and enabled internal detection algorithms. These are
established during the initial installation and addressed in the
appropriate Airplane Flight Manual (AFM) or EGPWS
Airplane Flight Manual Supplement (AFMS).
Windshear Caution alerts are given if an increasing headwind
(or decreasing tailwind) and/or a severe updraft exceeds the
defined threshold. These are characteristic of conditions
preceding an encounter with a microburst.
A Windshear Caution (if enabled) results in illumination of
amber Windshear Caution lights and may (if separately
enabled) also be accompanied by the aural message
“CAUTION, WINDSHEAR”. The lights remain on for as
long as the aircraft is exposed to conditions in excess of the
caution alert threshold. The Windshear Caution envelope is
illustrated in the figure below.
The Windshear Caution alerting can be disabled by EGPWS
program pin selection so that only Windshear Warning alerts
are provided.
Windshear Warning alerts are given if a decreasing headwind
(or increasing tailwind) and/or a severe downdraft exceeds the
defined threshold. These are characteristic of conditions
within or exiting an encounter with a microburst.
060-4241-000
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Mark V and Mark VII EGPWS Pilot’s Guide
MODE 7
Continued
Windshear
Warning
Windshear Warning results in illumination of red Windshear
Warning lights and an aural siren followed by the message
“WINDSHEAR, WINDSHEAR, WINDSHEAR”. The
lights remain on for as long as the aircraft is exposed to
conditions in excess of the warning alert threshold. The aural
message will not repeat unless another separate windshear
event is encountered. The threshold is adjusted as a function
of available climb performance, flight path angle, airspeeds
significantly different from normal approach speeds, and
unusual fluctuations in Static Air Temperature (typically
associated with the leading edge of a microburst). The
Windshear Warning envelope is illustrated in the figure
shown on page 25.
Mode 7 Windshear alerting is active under the following
conditions:
• During takeoff; from rotation until an altitude of 1500 feet
AGL is reached,
• During approach; From an altitude of 1500 feet down to 10
feet AGL,
• During a missed approach; until an altitude of 1500 feet
AGL is reached.
060-4241-000
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System Description
25
Mark V and Mark VII EGPWS Pilot’s Guide
ENHANCED FUNCTIONS:
Envelope
Modulation
Terrain
Clearance
Floor
Due to terrain features at or near certain specific airports
around the world, normal operations have resulted in nuisance
or missed alerts at these locations in the past. With the
introduction of accurate position information and a terrain and
airport database, it is possible to identify these areas and
adjust the normal alerting process to compensate for the
condition.
The EGPWS Envelope Modulation feature provides improved
alert protection and expanded alerting margins at identified
key locations throughout the world. This feature is automatic
and requires no flight crew action.
Modes 4, 5, and 6 are expanded at certain locations to provide
alerting protection consistent with normal approaches. Modes
1, 2, and 4 are desensitized at other locations to prevent
nuisance alerts that result from unusual terrain or approach
procedures. In all cases, very specific information is used to
correlate the aircraft position and phase of flight prior to
modulating the envelopes.
The Terrain Clearance Floor (TCF) function (enabled with
TAD) enhances the basic GPWS Modes by alerting the pilot
of descent below a defined “Terrain Clearance Floor”
regardless of the aircraft configuration. The TCF alert is a
function of the aircraft’s Radio Altitude and distance
(calculated from latitude/longitude position) relative to the
center of the nearest runway in the database (all runways
greater than 3500 feet in length). The TCF envelope is defined
for all runways as illustrated below and extends to infinity, or
until it meets the envelope of another runway. The envelope
bias factor is typically 1/2 to 2 nm and varies as a function of
position accuracy.
1/2 Runway Length
Envelope Bias Factor
15 NM
12 NM
4 NM
400'
700'
30'
TCF Alert Envelope
System Description
26
060-4241-000
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Mark V and Mark VII EGPWS Pilot’s Guide
Terrain
Clearance
Floor
Continued
In -210-210 and later versions, the TCF alert envelope and
Envelope Bias Factor are improved. The alert envelope is
limited to a minimum of 245 feet AGL adjacent to the runway
as illustrated in the following diagrams. The Envelope Bias
Factor is reduced (moved closer to the runway) when higher
accuracy aircraft position and runway position information is
available.
This is typically 1/3 to 1 nm providing greater protection
against landing short events. With version -218-218 and later
models, the envelope bias factor is reduced to 1/4 nm if
runway and position data is of high integrity.
700' AGL
*
Terrain
400' AGL
4 NM
Terrain
12 NM
15 NM
*245 foot curve expansion on runway
sides only applicable to -210-210 and on.
245 FT
CONVENTIONAL TCF
RUNWAY
ENVELOPE BIAS FACTOR
CONVENTIONAL TCF
ENVELOPE BIAS FACTOR
45°
245 FT
Also in -210-210 and later versions, runway selection logic is
improved to better identify the destination runway.
Comprehensive aircraft position and navigation information is
used to evaluate proximate runways and determine the most
likely destination runway for all alerting purposes.
060-4241-000
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System Description
27
Mark V and Mark VII EGPWS Pilot’s Guide
Runway
Field
Clearance
Floor
In -210-210 and later versions, a Runway Field Clearance
Floor feature is included. This is similar to the TCF feature
except that RFCF is based on the current aircraft position and
height above the destination runway, using Geometric
Altitude (in lieu of Radio Altitude). This provides improved
protection at locations where the runway is significantly
higher than the surrounding terrain as illustrated below.
With version -218-218 and later models, the RFCF envelope
is moved from 1nm to 1/2nm if runway and position data is of
high integrity.
5.0 nm
(Outer Limit)
(1.5 + Krf) nm
Minimum Runway Field Clearance, ft
RFCF Ceiling (300 ft above field)
Krf
RFCF
Alert Area
Field
Elevation
Runway
End
(No Lower Limit)
RFCF Alert Envelope
5500
5000
Altitude / Elevation (ft)
4500
4000
RWY
3500
RFCF Alert Envelope
3000
2500
2000
TCF Alert Envelope
1500
-2
-1
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
Distance to Center of Runway (nm)
TCF and RFCF alerts result in illumination of the EGPWS
caution lights and the aural message “TOO LOW
TERRAIN”. The audio message is provided once when
initial envelope penetration occurs and again only for
additional 20% decreases in Radio Altitude. The EGPWS
caution lights will remain on until the TCF and RFCF
envelopes are exited.
System Description
28
060-4241-000
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Mark V and Mark VII EGPWS Pilot’s Guide
Terrain
Look Ahead
Alerting
060-4241-000
Rev H, August 2011
Another enhancement provided by the internal terrain
database, is the ability to look ahead of the aircraft and detect
terrain or obstacle conflicts with greater alerting time.
This is accomplished (when enabled) based on aircraft
position, flight path angle, track, and speed relative to the
terrain database image forward the aircraft.
Through sophisticated look ahead algorithms, both caution
and warning alerts are generated if terrain or an obstacle
conflict with “ribbons” projected forward of the aircraft (see
following illustration). These ribbons project down, forward,
then up from the aircraft with a width starting at 1/4 nm and
extending out at ±3º laterally, more if turning. The look-down
and up angles are a function of the aircraft flight path angle,
and the look-down distance a function of the aircraft’s altitude
with respect to the nearest or destination runway. This
relationship prevents undesired alerts when taking off or
landing. The look-ahead distance is a function of the aircraft’s
speed, and distance to the nearest runway.
A terrain conflict intruding into the caution ribbon activates
EGPWS caution lights and the aural message “CAUTION
TERRAIN, CAUTION TERRAIN” or “TERRAIN
AHEAD, TERRAIN AHEAD”. An obstacle conflict
provides a “CAUTION OBSTACLE, CAUTION
OBSTACLE” or “OBSTACLE AHEAD, OBSTACLE
AHEAD” message. The caution alert is given typically 60
seconds ahead of the terrain/obstacle conflict and is repeated
every seven seconds as long as the conflict remains within the
caution area. When the warning ribbon is intruded (typically
30 seconds prior to the terrain/obstacle conflict), EGPWS
warning lights activate and the aural message “TERRAIN,
TERRAIN, PULL UP” or “OBSTACLE, OBSTACLE,
PULL UP” is enunciated with “PULL UP” repeating
continuously while the conflict is within the warning area.
System Description
29
Mark V and Mark VII EGPWS Pilot’s Guide
Terrain
Look Ahead
Alerting
Continued
Terrain
Alerting
and Display
Non-Peaks
Display
System Description
30
In -210-210 and later versions, the look-ahead alerting
algorithms are improved at higher airspeeds (about 300 knots
or greater). The look-ahead distance is designed to provide a
60-second warning alert up to 8 nm look-ahead (as opposed to
30-seconds or up to 4 nm). With version -218-218 and later,
the look-ahead distance is increased by 12.5%, and the
allowed terrain clearance height is increased for descents at
high speeds to improve alerting times.
The specific aural message provided is established during the
initial installation of the EGPWS as a function of whether or
not the terrain and obstacles features are enabled and the
selected audio menu (via program pin selection).
Refer to an applicable AFM or EGPWS AFMS for specific
application information or contact Honeywell for additional
information.
When a compatible Weather Radar, EFIS, or other display is
available and enabled, the EGPWS Terrain Alerting and
Display (TAD) feature provides an image of the surrounding
terrain represented in various colors and intensities.
There are two types of TAD displays depending on the
options selected. The original type provides a terrain image
only when the aircraft is 2000 feet or less above the terrain. A
second type called “Peaks” enhances the display
characteristics to provide a higher degree of terrain awareness
independent of the aircraft’s altitude (available for selected
display types in version -206-206 with additional displays
added in later versions). In either case, terrain and obstacles
(if enabled) forward of the aircraft are displayed. Obstacles
are presented on the cockpit display as terrain, employing the
same display-coloring scheme. TAD, Peaks and Obstacle
functions are enabled by EGPWS program pin selection.
Note: With respect to Non-Peaks or Peaks display, terrain and
or obstacle presentation is always based on (and scaled for)
the geographic area available for display. Consequently,
terrain and/or obstacles outside of the selected display range
and defined display sweep do not have any effect on the
displayed image.
The Non-Peaks display provides a graphical plan-view image
of the surrounding terrain as varying density patterns of green,
yellow, and red as illustrated in the following graphics. The
selected display range is also indicated on the display, and an
indication that TAD is active is either indicated on the display
(i.e., “TERR”) or by an adjacent indicator.
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Mark V and Mark VII EGPWS Pilot’s Guide
Non-Peaks
Display
Continued
TERRAIN IS SHOWN
IN SHADES OF GREEN,
YELLOW AND RED
Each specific color and intensity represents terrain (and
obstacles) below, at, or above the aircraft’s altitude based on
the aircraft’s position with respect to the terrain in the
database. If no terrain data is available in the terrain database,
then this area is displayed in a low-density magenta color.
Terrain more than 2000 feet below the aircraft, or within 400
(vertical) feet of the nearest runway elevation, is not displayed
(black). With version -218-218 or later, the transition to black
may occur below 400 feet based on runway and terrain
database integrity for a given area.
When a caution alert is triggered, the terrain (or obstacle) that
created the alert is changed to solid yellow (100% density) as
illustrated below.
060-4241-000
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System Description
31
Mark V and Mark VII EGPWS Pilot’s Guide
Non-Peaks
Display
Continued
60 SECONDS FROM
PROJECTED IMPACT
"CAUTION TERRAIN!"
CAUTION TERRAIN IS
SOLID YELLOW
When a warning alert is triggered, the terrain (or obstacle) that
created the alert is changed to solid red (100% density) as
illustrated below.
Note: When a TAD caution or warning alert is active, the
display image (cells) surrounding the target are enlarged
(surrounding cells are illuminated). This allows a smaller
terrain or obstacle (e.g., a single tower) to be better seen on
the display.
The transition between green and yellow is below the aircraft
in order to account for altimetry and/or terrain/obstacle height
errors. Also, the transition altitudes between colors are biased
upward proportional to the descent rate when greater than
1000 feet per minute. This provides approximately a 30
second advance display of terrain.
Essentially, pilots should note that any yellow or red painted
terrain is at, or above the aircraft’s altitude and appropriate
terrain clearance needs to be provided.
System Description
32
060-4241-000
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Mark V and Mark VII EGPWS Pilot’s Guide
“Pop-Up” and
“Auto-Range”
PEAKS
DISPLAY
060-4241-000
Rev H, August 2011
Based on the display system used, there may be additional
terrain display features. These are defined as installation
options and allow for:
• Automatic display of terrain on the cockpit display (“TAD
pop-up”) in the event that a caution or warning alert is
triggered as described in Terrain Look Ahead Alerting. In
some cases, an active display mode must be selected first.
• “Auto-range” when Pop-up occurs. This provides for the
automatic range presentation for terrain as defined for the
display system configuration (typically 10 nm). In some
cases, if the terrain auto-range is different than the display
system selected range, the displayed range value on the
cockpit display is flashed or changes color until the range is
manually reselected or terrain display is deselected.
Peaks Display has all the characteristics of the Non-Peaks
Display but with additional terrain display features for
enhanced situational awareness independent of the aircraft’s
altitude. The principle additions are:
• The digital display of the highest and lowest
terrain/obstacle elevations currently displayed.
• The display of additional solid or lower density color
bands, including the addition of the graphic representation
of sea level (0 feet MSL).
With Terrain Display selected on, digital values representing
the highest terrain/obstacle elevation and the elevation for the
bottom of the lowest color band are displayed. These are
based on the range selected (terrain in view).
The location of the digital values can vary somewhat for the
display used, but for this guide will be shown in the upper left
of the display. These elevations are expressed in hundreds of
feet above sea level (e.g., 125 is 12,500 feet MSL) with the
highest elevation on top and the lowest on the bottom.
However, in the event that there is no appreciable difference
in the terrain/obstacle elevations (flat terrain), only the highest
value is displayed. Additionally, the color of the elevation
value is presented the same as the color of the terrain display
containing that elevation (i.e., red if the terrain/obstacle with
that elevation is depicted as red in the terrain plan view,
yellow if yellow, etc.). The color of the Peaks elevations does
not change during a warning. If, during a warning, there is no
terrain displayed >2000 ft above the aircraft then the upper
peaks elevations will not be colored red.
System Description
33
Mark V and Mark VII EGPWS Pilot’s Guide
PEAKS
DISPLAY
Continued
System Description
34
When the aircraft is 500 feet (250 with gear down) or less
above the terrain in view (yellow or red is displayed), the
Peaks color scheme is identical to the standard display, with
the exception of the addition of sea level when supported by
the display.
Note: some displays do not support cyan (blue) and will not
display sea level in this case.
Note: Differences may exist between the highest
terrain/obstacle being displayed and the digital elevation
value/color of the "Peaks" numbers at or near the top and
sides of the display.
The following illustrate the Peaks display at a low relative
altitude.
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Mark V and Mark VII EGPWS Pilot’s Guide
PEAKS
DISPLAY
The following illustrate the Peaks display at a high relative
altitude.
Continued
060-4241-000
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System Description
35
Mark V and Mark VII EGPWS Pilot’s Guide
PEAKS
DISPLAY
Continued
Color
Solid Red
Solid Yellow
High Density
Red Fill
High Density
Yellow Fill
Low Density
Yellow Fill
Solid Green
(Peaks only)
High Density
Green Fill
(Peaks only)
Low Density
Green Fill
(Peaks only)
Black
Low Density
Cyan Fill
(Peaks only)
Magenta Fill
Note:
System Description
36
When the aircraft is greater than 500 feet (250 with gear
down) above the terrain in view, additional (green) color
bands are presented. These added bands are computed and
displayed as a function of the highest and lowest elevations in
view.
The following table indicates the TAD colors and elevations
(Non-Peaks and Peaks).
Indication
Terrain/Obstacle Threat Area – Warning.
Terrain/Obstacle Threat Area – Caution.
Terrain/Obstacle that is more than 2000 feet above aircraft
altitude.
Terrain/Obstacle that is between 1000 and 2000 feet above
aircraft altitude.
Terrain/Obstacle that is 500 (250 with gear down) feet
below to 1000 feet above aircraft altitude.
Highest terrain not within 500 (250 with gear down) feet of
aircraft altitude. May appear with dotted yellow terrain
when the aircraft altitude is within 500 feet (250 feet with
gear down) of terrain. Top 5% of Range.
Terrain/Obstacle that is 500 (250 with gear down) feet
below to 1000 below aircraft altitude.
Terrain/Obstacle that is the middle elevation band. 1000 ft
Below A/C Top 35% of Range, or Top 5 Percentile
Terrain/Obstacle that is 1000 to 2000 feet below aircraft
altitude.
Terrain/Obstacle that is the lower elevation band. 2000 ft
Below A/C Top Half of Range, Top 15th Percentile.
No significant Terrain/Obstacle.
Water at sea level elevation (0 feet MSL).
Unknown terrain. No terrain data in the database for the
magenta area shown.
Magenta may be displayed at or near the South and North
Poles dependent upon the airplane flight path and location.
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Mark V and Mark VII EGPWS Pilot’s Guide
TCF/TAD
INOP and
INHIBIT
Geometric
Altitude
The EGPWS TCF and TAD functions are available when all
required data is present and acceptable. Aircraft position and
numerous other parameters are monitored and verified for
adequacy in order to perform these functions. If determined
invalid or unavailable, the system will display Terrain
inoperative or unavailable annunciations and discontinue the
terrain display if active.
TAD/TCF functions may be inhibited by manual selection of
a cockpit Terrain Inhibit switch. Neither loss nor inhibiting
TAD/TCF affects the basic GPWS functions (modes 1-6) or
windshear.
If Peaks display mode is not active and TAD becomes
unavailable due to position error, terrain inoperative or
unavailable is not indicated if the aircraft is greater than 8000
feet above the highest terrain or obstacle within a 320nm
radius. If indicated below the 8000 foot threshold, it is
extinguished when the aircraft climbs above, and is again
displayed once the aircraft descends below the 8000 foot
threshold. This eliminates potentially long-term illumination
of the condition during the high enroute phase of flight.
Based on GPS altitude, geometric altitude is a computed
pseudo-barometric altitude (Above Sea Level - ASL) designed
to reduce or eliminate errors potentially induced in Corrected
Barometric Altitude by temperature extremes, non-standard
pressure altitude conditions, and altimeter miss-sets. This
ensures an optimal EGPWS Terrain Alerting and Display
capability. Geometric Altitude also allows EGPWS operations
in QFE environments without custom inputs or special
operational procedures.
Geometric Altitude requires GPS Altitude input with its
associated Vertical Figure Of Merit (VFOM) and Receiver
Autonomous Integrity Monitoring (RAIM) failure indication,
standard (uncorrected) altitude, Radio Altitude, Ground Speed,
Roll Angle, and aircraft position (Latitude and Longitude).
Additionally, corrected Barometric Altitude, Static Air
Temperature (SAT), GPS mode, and the number of satellites
tracked are used if available.
The Geometric Altitude is computed by blending a calculated
Non-Standard Altitude, Runway Calibrated Altitude (determined
during takeoff), GPS Calibrated Altitude, Radio Altitude
Calibrated Altitude (determined during approach), and
Barometric Altitude (if available). Estimates of the VFOM for
each of these are determined and applied in order to determine its
weight in the final altitude.
060-4241-000
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System Description
37
Mark V and Mark VII EGPWS Pilot’s Guide
Geometric
Altitude
Continued
Weather
Radar
Auto-Tilt
Aural
Message
Priority
The blending algorithm gives the most weight to altitudes
with a higher estimated accuracy, reducing the effect of less
accurate altitudes.
Each component altitude is also checked for reasonableness
using a window monitor computed from GPS Altitude and its
VFOM. Altitudes that are invalid, not available, or fall outside
the reasonableness window are not included in the final
Geometric Altitude value.
The Geometric Altitude algorithm is designed to allow
continued operation when one or more of the altitude
components are not available. If all component altitudes are
invalid or unreasonable, the GPS Altitude is used directly. If
GPS Altitude fails or is not present, then the EGPWS reverts
to using Corrected Barometric Altitude alone.
The Geometric Altitude function is fully automatic and
requires no pilot action.
In -210-210 and later versions, the EGPWC computes a
optimum Weather Radar tilt angle based on the aircraft
altitude (ASL) and the terrain elevation ahead of the aircraft.
This is output and available to a compatible Weather Radar
system so that the tilt angle may be automatically set for
optimum operation.
Two or more alert envelopes may be opened simultaneously,
so a message priority has been established. The following
table reflects the priority for these message callouts. Messages
at the top of the list will start before or immediately override a
lower priority message even if it is already in progress. Only
one message may be generated at a time.
MESSAGE
MODE
“Windshear, Windshear, Windshear” d, j ...............................................................................7
“Pull Up” k ................................................................................................................................................... 1, 2
“Terrain, Terrain” ............................................................................... 2
“V1” c ........................................................................................... ANN
“Engine Fail” c .............................................................................. ANN
“Terrain, Terrain Pull Up” h, k ................................................................................................... TA
“Obstacle, Obstacle Pull Up” c, i, k ........................................................................................ TA
“Terrain” ............................................................................................ 2
“Minimums” a, c ............................................................................................................................................. 6
“Caution Terrain, Caution Terrain” c, f ............................................................................. TA
“Caution Obstacle, Caution Obstacle” c, g ..................................................................... TA
“Too Low Terrain” .................................................................... 4, TCF
System Description
38
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Mark V and Mark VII EGPWS Pilot’s Guide
Aural
Message
Priority
MESSAGE
MODE
Altitude Callouts c ...................................................................................................................................... 6
“Speed Brake, Speed Brake” c ............................................................ 6
“Too Low Gear” .............................................................................. 4A
Continued
“Too Low Flaps” ............................................................................. 4B
“Sink Rate, Sink Rate” ....................................................................... 1
“Don’t Sink, Don’t Sink” ................................................................... 3
“Glideslope” ....................................................................................... 5
“Approaching Minimums” b, c ......................................................................................................... 6
“Bank Angle, Bank Angle” c ............................................................................................................ 6
“Caution Windshear” c, d, e .................................................................................................................. 7
“Autopilot” c ....................................................................................... 6
“Airspeed Low, Airspeed Low” c ................................................................................... MON
“Flaps, Flaps” c ................................................................................... 6
“Too High, Too High” ................................................................. MON
“Too Fast, Too Fast” ................................................................... MON
“Flaps (pause) Flaps” or “Flaps, Flaps” ...................................... MON
“Unstable, Unstable” ................................................................... MON
“Altimeter Setting, Altimeter Setting” ...................................................................... MON
RAAS Advisories ...................................................................... RAAS
RAAS Distance Remaining Callouts ......................................... RAAS
Notes:
a) May also be "Minimum", "Minimums, Minimums", "Decision Height" or "Decide".
b) May also be "Approaching Decision Height", "Fifty Above", "Plus Hundred".
c) Message is dependent on aircraft type or option selected.
d) Windshear detection alerts provided for some aircraft types.
e) Audio alert may or may not be enabled.
f) May also be "Terrain Ahead, Terrain Ahead".
g) May also be "Obstacle Ahead, Obstacle Ahead"
h) May also be "Terrain Ahead Pull Up"
i) May also be "Obstacle Ahead Pull Up"
j) May be preceded by siren.
k) "Pull Up" voice may be preceded by "Whoop, Whoop"
TA = Terrain Look-Ahead Alert
TCF = Terrain Clearance Floor
RAAS = Runway Awareness and Advisory System (including Long Landing
and Takeoff Flap Configuration Monitors)
MON = Stabilized Approach Monitor, Altimeter Monitor, Takeoff Flap
Configuration Monitor, Long Landing Monitor, Corrected Altitude Monitor,
Low Airspeed Monitor
ANN = EGPWS annunciated alert generated by another aircraft system.
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System Description
39
Mark V and Mark VII EGPWS Pilot’s Guide
System
Inputs
The EGPWS uses various input signals from other on-board
systems. The full complement of these other systems is
dependent on the EGPWS configuration and options selected.
Systems providing Altitude, Airspeed, Attitude, Glideslope,
and position are required for basic and enhanced functions.
Accelerations, Angle-of-Attack (AOA), and Flap position is
required for Windshear. Inputs are also required for discrete
signal and control input.
AUDIO ALERT
MESSAGES
GPWS
ALGORITHMS
AIRCRAFT
SENSORS
AND
SYSTEMS
AIRCRAFT
PARAMETERS
I
N
P
U
T
P
R
O
C
E
S
S
I
N
G
TERRAIN
AWARENESS &
OBSTACLE
ALERTING AND
DISPLAY
ALGORITHMS
TERRAIN
CLEARANCE
FLOOR
ALGORITHMS
WINDSHEAR
DETECTION
AND ALERTING
ALGORITHMS
OPTIONAL NON-TSO
FUNCTIONS
• ALTITUDE CALLOUTS
• RUNWAY
AWARENESS
• APPROACH MONITOR
• ALTIMETER MONITOR
• TAKEOFF FLAP
MONITOR
• LONG LANDING
MONITOR
O
U
T
P
U
T
P
R
O
C
E
S
S
I
N
G
FLIGHT DECK
SPEAKERS AND
INTERPHONE
VISUAL ALERT
MESSAGES
TERRAIN DISPLAY
DATA AND VISUAL
ALERT MESSAGES
RASTER TEXT
ALERT LAMPS
AND EFIS
DISPLAY
EFIS NAV
DISPLAY OR
Wx RADAR
INDICATOR
EGPWC
Air Data
Radio
Altitude
System Description
40
The EGPWS utilizes signals from the following systems:
Uncorrected and corrected Barometric Altitude, Altitude rate,
Computed Airspeed, True Airspeed, and Static Air
Temperature are provided by Air Data system.
Radio Altitude is provided by a Radio Altimeter system. Decision
Height or Decision Height Altitude is provided by a Radio
Altimeter system or ancillary system.
In -210-210 and later versions, the EGPWC performs Radio
Altitude reasonableness checks based on the Computed Terrain
Clearance (pseudo-radio altitude). Computed Terrain Clearance is
computed by subtracting the elevation of the (database) terrain
below the aircraft from Geometric Altitude (ASL). Radio Altitude
is considered unreasonable when it indicates a terrain clearance
that is less than the Computed Terrain Clearance by more than
2000 feet (1500 feet with version -218-218 or later). For example,
if the Computed Terrain Clearance is 10,000 feet and the Radio
Altitude is any value (0-2500) then the Radio Altitude is
considered unreasonable.
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Mark V and Mark VII EGPWS Pilot’s Guide
Radio
Altitude
Continued
FMS, IRS,
AHRS
Global
Positioning
System
(GPS)
VHF Nav
Receiver
Terrain
Display
System
AOA Vane or
Stall Warning
Discretes
This is only performed if TAD is enabled, high integrity
terrain and position data is available (based on GPS/
Geometric Altitude), and the Computed Terrain Clearance is
greater than 4000 feet (2500 feet with version -218-218 or
later). This feature reduces the potential for nuisance alerts
caused by false tracking of the Radio Altimeter.
Pitch and Roll Attitude, Latitude and Longitude Position,
Body Normal and Longitudinal Accelerations, Magnetic and
True Track Angles, Magnetic and True Heading, Inertial
Altitude, Groundspeed, and Attitude Mode.
Latitude and Longitude Position, True Track Angle, GPS
Altitude, Groundspeed, Horizontal and Vertical Figure of
Merit (VFOM/HFOM), Horizontal and Vertical Dilution of
Precision (HDOP/VDOP), Horizontal Integrity Limit (HIL),
and sensor status.
Note: Runway Awareness and Advisory System (RAAS),
Stabilized Approach Monitor, Takeoff Flap Configuration
Monitor, and Long Landing monitor functions require a GPS
source capable of providing Latitude (fine) and Longitude
(fine) data.
Glideslope, Localizer, ILS Tuned, Selected Runway Heading.
Display range, and if available the Hazard Bus from a
Predictive Windshear System (PWS). If EFIS, the EFIS
display mode is used in some configurations.
AOA, Stick Shaker Margin.
Discrete inputs are used for system configuration,
signal/status input, and control input functions.
EGPWS program pins are utilized to tell the system the type
of aircraft and interface that it is in. These are defined and
established during the EGPWS installation. EGPWS output
functions are consequently the result of the program pin state
read each time the EGPWS is powered on.
Signal/status discretes include signals such as Decision
Height, Landing Flaps selected or Flap Position discretes,
Landing Gear selected, Terrain Display Range, and status
discretes such as Glideslope Valid, Localizer Valid, Radio
Altitude Valid associated with analog signal inputs.
Control discretes control EGPWS functions. These include
EGPWS Test, Glideslope Cancel, Glideslope Inhibit or
Glideslope Backcourse, Terrain (display) select, Terrain Inhibit,
Flap Override, Audio Inhibit, Altitude Callout Enable, Steep
Approach Enable, and ILS Tuned discretes.
060-4241-000
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System Description
41
Mark V and Mark VII EGPWS Pilot’s Guide
System
Outputs
The EGPWS provides both audio and visual outputs.
Audio outputs are provided as specific alert phrases, and
altitude callouts or tones provided by an EGPWS speaker and
via the cockpit Interphone system for headset usage. Several
audio output levels are available. They are established during
the installation of the EGPWS. These EGPWS audio outputs
can be inhibited by other systems having higher priority (i.e.,
windshear) or cockpit switches in some cases. The EGPWS
also has the ability to inhibit other system audio outputs such
as TCAS.
Visual outputs provide discrete alert and status annunciations,
and display terrain video when a compatible display system is
available and enabled. The discrete visual alerts coincide with
audio caution and warning alerts to achieve an optimum
terrain alerting capability. Status annunciations provide
information to the flight crew about the status of the EGPWS
(e.g., GPWS INOP) or activation of selected functions.
Terrain video is generated by the EGPWC based on the
aircraft’s current position relative to the surrounding terrain.
This video is presented to a Weather Radar indicator, EFIS
display, or a dedicated display unit.
Options
The EGPWC uses program pin discrete inputs to define the
installation configuration and option selection. Software upgrades
(Reloadable Customer Definitions (RCD)) are also available for
RAAS and SMARTLANDINGTM functions. The EGPWS has
been designed for maximum flexibility while being tailored to
specific aircraft equipment, sensors, and displays. The following
list summarizes available Operator options (excluding sensor and
equipment configuration options):
• RAAS – Provides audio-only advisories and caution alerts of
position during ground operations and approach to landing. In
-230-230 software, an option was added to overlay RAAS
Visual messages on the dedicated Terrain display.
• Flashing Lamps – When selected causes alert annunciators to
flash when active.
• TAD and TCF Disable – Suppresses all TAD and TCF
alerting and display functions.
• Altitude Callouts – Selects desired altitude callouts from a
menu of options.
• Audio Output Level – Selects desired audio output level
High, Medium, or Low.
• Alternate Mode 6 Volume – Selects reduced Mode 6 volume
(-3 dB).
System Description
42
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Options
Continued
060-4241-000
Rev H, August 2011
• Obstacle Awareness Enabled – Enables obstacle alerting
and display.
• TAD Alternate Pop Up – If TRUE, disables (or enables)
automatic terrain display when TAD or Obstacle alert is
active, dependent on aircraft/display type.
• Mode 6 Volume Reduction – Selects reduced Mode 6
volume (-6 dB).
• Smart Callout Enable – Enables the 500-foot smart
callout. “Five Hundred” is called out at 500 feet Radio
Altitude during non-precision approaches. If 500’ is part of
the altitude callout option selected, this callout is not given
on precision approaches.
• Bank Angle Enable – Enables Bank Angle alerts.
• Windshear Caution Voice Disable – Disables Windshear
Caution voice alerts providing visual alerts only.
• Audio Declutter Disable – Disables the Audio Declutter
function so that audio alerts are constant.
• Audio Alerting Voice Select – Selects the type(s) of voice
that are used for audio alerts.
• Lamp Format – One of two lamp formats are available.
• Lamp Format 1 provides only Mode 5 “Glideslope”
alerts to the caution (amber) lamp output and all other
alerts (except Windshear and Mode 6 callouts) to the
warning (red) lamp output.
• Lamp Format 2 provides all “Pull Up” warning alerts to
the warning (red) lamp output and all caution alerts to
the caution (amber) lamp output (FAA requirement for
new installations).
Note: Windshear annunciations are provided by separate
outputs and indications and are not affected by lamp
format. Mode 6 advisories do not effect any annunciation
and are not affected by lamp format.
• Peaks Enable – Adds additional density patterns and level
thresholds to the Standard Display Mode, allowing display
of highest and lowest terrain/obstacle to increase situational
awareness.
• Stabilized Approach Monitor – Enables Landing Flap,
Excessive Speed, Excessive Approach Angle, and UnStabilized Approach monitor and issues annunciations if
the monitor criteria are not met. Visual messages can be
overlaid on the Terrain display.
• Takeoff Flap Configuration Monitor – issues
annunciations if the Flap handle setting is not proper for
takeoff.
System Description
43
Mark V and Mark VII EGPWS Pilot’s Guide
Options
Continued
System Description
44
• Altimeter Monitor – issues annunciations if the altimeter
setting is improper.
• Long Landing Monitor – issues annunciations if the
aircraft does not touchdown within an operator defined
distance from the runway threshold.
• Low Airspeed Monitor – (basic function for Boeing
737NG aircraft only) issues annunciations when airspeed
decreases below 70% of the amber band on the PFD Speed
tape.
Additional input discretes are used to control or define
EGPWS operations:
• EGPWS Self-Test – Cockpit switch initiates EGPWS SelfTest on the ground. Typically part of EGPWS warning
(red) lamp.
• Glideslope Cancel – Cockpit switch cancels Mode 5
Glideslope alerting. Typically part of EGPWS caution
(amber) lamp.
• Glideslope Inhibit – Inhibits Mode 5 Glideslope alerting.
Normally used for backcourse approaches.
• Altitude Callout Enable – Enables Mode 6 Callouts.
• Mode 6 Low Volume – Reduces Mode 6 volume (an
additional) 6 dB. This is typically hardwired or connected
to an external switch.
• TAD and TCF Inhibit – Cockpit switch to disable all
TAD and TCF functions. (FAA requirement)
• Audio Inhibit – disables all EGPWS audio outputs.
• Steep Approach Enable – Enables Steep Approach (Mode
1 Excessive Descent Rate) alerts biasing.
• Steep Approach Select – Selects (activates) Steep
Approach (Mode 1 Excessive Descent Rate) alerts biasing
to reduce nuisance alerts.
• Flap Over-Ride – Cockpit switch to select landing flaps
when not in the landing flap configuration.
• Gear Over-Ride – Cockpit switch to select gear down
when not in the gear down configuration.
• PLI Select/Deselect – Used for displaying or deselecting
the display of EGPWS derived Pitch Limit Indicator (PLI)
signals when a Windshear warning occurs.
• RAAS/MON Inhibit/Enable – Inhibits or Enables RAAS
and/or Stabilized Approach, Takeoff Flap Configuration,
and Long Landing monitor functions.
For additional options information contact Honeywell.
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Mark V and Mark VII EGPWS Pilot’s Guide
Blank Page
060-4241-000
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System Description
45
Mark V and Mark VII EGPWS Pilot’s Guide
SECTION 3
OPERATIONAL PROCEDURES
System Constraints ..........................................................................................
System Activation ............................................................................................
EGPWS Self-Test .............................................................................................
Normal Procedures ..........................................................................................
Caution Alerts ..............................................................................................
Warning Alerts .............................................................................................
Glideslope Alerts ..........................................................................................
Advisory Callouts .........................................................................................
Windshear Caution .......................................................................................
Windshear Warning ......................................................................................
Abnormal Procedures .....................................................................................
Emergency Procedures ....................................................................................
Operational Procedure
46
46
48
49
53
55
55
56
56
56
56
57
58
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Mark V and Mark VII EGPWS Pilot’s Guide
System
Constraints
060-4241-000
Rev H, August 2011
System constraints for the EGPWS are:
• If terrain data is unavailable for a particular area, then
Terrain and Obstacle alerting and display is not available
for that area and the affected display area is colored
MAGENTA (normally only displayed at or near North and
South Poles dependent upon airplane flight path and
location).
• The display of terrain and obstacle information is intended
to serve as a situational awareness tool. It does not provide
the accuracy and/or fidelity to be the sole source for
deciding terrain or obstacle avoidance. Navigation must not
be predicated upon the use of the EGPWS terrain/Obstacle
display.
• If there is no source of aircraft position data meeting the
accuracy requirements for the TAD and TCF functions,
then these enhanced functions are automatically inhibited
with a resultant Terrain inoperative or unavailable
indication.
• TAD/TCF functions should be manually inhibited:
• Within 15 nm on approach to an airport or runway that is
not in the airport/runway database to avoid unwanted
alerts.
• During QFE operations if GPS data is unavailable or
inoperative.
• When the TAD/TCF functions are inhibited and the
EGPWS is otherwise functional, the EGPWS reverts to
providing basic GPWS functions (Modes 1 to 6 and
Windshear). In this state, the EGPWS may give little or no
advance warning time for flight into precipitous terrain
where there are few or no preceding obstructions. This
particularly applies if:
• The aircraft is in the landing configuration.
• The aircraft is in a stabilized descent at a normal
approach descent rate.
• There is no ILS Glideslope signal being received by the
EGPWS (not tuned, not available, or inoperative).
• Terrain clearance or descent rates that are not compatible
with required minimum regulatory standards for Ground
Proximity Warning equipment may cause unwanted alerts.
Operational Procedure
47
Mark V and Mark VII EGPWS Pilot’s Guide
System
Constraints
Continued
System
Activation
• If enabled, the EGPWS uses onboard measurement of air
mass parameters and aircraft acceleration for detection of
windshear. This is a reactive system and cannot predict
windshear, which may be ahead of the aircraft.
• The EGPWS terrain/obstacle database includes cataloged
man-made obstructions 100 feet high or greater within
North America and portions of Europe, Asia and the
Caribbean. The database is not all-inclusive and newer,
smaller, or unknown obstructions could be encountered.
Refer to an appropriate AFM or EGPWS AFMS for specific
system limitations and procedures.
The EGPWS is fully active when the following systems are
powered and functioning normally:
• EGPWS
• Radio Altimeter
• Air Data
• ILS or Glideslope Receiver
• IRS, AHRS, VG (attitude)
• GPS, FMS, or IRS (position)
• Landing gear
• Landing flaps
• Stall warning or AOA (windshear only)
• Weather Radar, EFIS, or a dedicated terrain display
(if terrain/obstacle display enabled)
In the event that required data for a particular function is not
available, then that function is automatically inhibited and
annunciated (e.g., if position data is not available or
determined unacceptable, TAD and TCF is inhibited, any
active terrain display is removed, and “TERR INOP”, “TERR
UNAVAIL” (or equivalent) is indicated).
Some installations utilize redundant systems so that if the
primary source of data fails, the EGPWS continues on the
secondary source.
EGPWS status annunciations are provided for GPWS
inoperative (mode 1-6 functions), Terrain inoperative
(TAD/TCF functions), and windshear inoperative.
RAAS status messages are provided on the dedicated Terrain
display and can be configured to be shown on a separate
cockpit indicator.
Operational Procedure
48
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Mark V and Mark VII EGPWS Pilot’s Guide
EGPWS
Self-Test
Level 1
Self-Test
060-4241-000
Rev H, August 2011
Monitor functions which provide Caution annunciations can
be configured to activate the existing GPWS inoperative
indicator if the function is inoperative.
Refer to an appropriate AFM or EGPWS AFMS for specific
system and status requirements.
The EGPWS provides a Self-Test capability for verifying and
indicating intended functions. This Self-Test capability
consists of six levels to aid in testing and troubleshooting the
EGPWS.
These six levels are:
Level 1 – Go/No Go Test provides an overview of the current
operational functions and an indication of their
status.
Level 2 – Current Faults provides a list of the internal and
external faults currently detected by the EGPWC.
Level 3 – EGPWS Configuration indicates the current
configuration by listing the EGPWS hardware,
software, databases, and program pin inputs
detected by the EGPWC.
Level 4 – Fault History provides an historical record of the
internal and external faults detected by the
EGPWC.
Level 5 – Warning History provides an historical record of
the alerts given by the EGPWS.
Level 6 – Discrete Test provides audible indication of any
change to a discrete input state.
A level 1 Go/No Go Test is normally performed by flight
crews as part of preflight checks. All other levels are typically
used for installation checkout and maintenance operations.
Level 1 Self-Test is used to verify proper operation of the
EGPWS on the ground as follows:
1. Ensure that adequate aircraft power is available and the
EGPWS and associated systems are powered.
2. Ensure that any EGPWS inhibiting switches are in the
normal (non-inhibiting) position.
3. Verify that EGPWS inoperative annunciations are
extinguished. If an inoperative annunciation is indicated,
perform the EGPWS Self-Test (below) and then seek
corrective action if the inoperative condition persists.
4. If a terrain display is enabled, select terrain to be
displayed.
5. Momentarily depress the EGPWS Self-Test switch.
Operational Procedure
49
Mark V and Mark VII EGPWS Pilot’s Guide
Level 1
Self-Test
Continued
When a Self-Test is initiated, the EGPWC first checks for any
configuration (installation or database) errors. If any are
detected it is audibly enunciated and the test is terminated. If
none detected, the test continues through a sequence resulting
in turning on and off all system annunciators, enunciating
specific audio messages, and if enabled, displaying a video
test pattern on the terrain display (see illustration below). Any
functions determined inoperative are also enunciated (e.g.,
“GLIDESLOPE INOP”). The Self-Test terminates
automatically at its conclusion.
The following is a description of the expected results of a
typical Level 1 Self-Test. Actual annunciation nomenclature
and sequence may differ depending on the installation.
• GPWS INOP, W/S INOP, and TERR INOP annunciators
turn on.
• Amber caution (“BELOW G/S” or “GPWS”) annunciators
turn on.
• “GLIDESLOPE” is announced over speaker.
• Amber annunciators turn off.
• G/S CANCEL annunciators turn on (if installed).
• G/S CANCEL annunciators turn off.
• Red warning (“PULL UP” or “GPWS”) annunciators turn
on.
• “PULL UP” is announced over speaker.
• Red warning annunciators turn off.
• Red Windshear warning annunciators turn on.
• (Siren) “WINDSHEAR, WINDSHEAR, WINDSHEAR” is
announced over speaker.
• Red Windshear warning annunciators turn off.
• Amber Windshear caution annunciators turn on (if installed
and enabled).
• Amber Windshear caution annunciators turn off.
• Red warning (“PULL UP” or “GPWS”) Terrain Awareness
annunciators turn on.
• “TERRAIN, TERRAIN, PULL UP” is announced over
speaker.
• Red warning Terrain Awareness annunciators turn off.
• Amber alert Terrain Awareness annunciators momentarily
turn on, then off.
Operational Procedure
50
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• Terrain test pattern is displayed (RCD XXXXX indicates
loaded Reloadable Customer Definitions (RCD) and is
shown only in RCD enabled installations, TDB XXX
indicates loaded Terrain Database (TDB) and is shown
only in -218-218 or later versions).
• If RAAS and/or Long Landing Monitor and/or Takeoff Flap
Configuration Monitor is enabled “RUNWAY AWARENESS
OKAY FEET” (or “METERS”) is announced over the
speaker.
• If RAAS, Long Landing Monitor, Takeoff Flap Configuration
Monitor, and/or Approach Monitor are INOP or Inhibited the
following message may be announced over the speaker:
• “RUNWAY AWARENESS INOP”
• “APPROACH MONITOR INOP”
• “FLAP MONITOR INOP”
• “ALTIMETER MONITOR INOP”
• If Low Airspeed Monitor is enabled the following message
may be announced over the speaker:
• “AIRSPEED LOW”
• “AIRSPEED LOW INHIBITED”
• “AIRSPEED LOW INOP”
• GPWS INOP, W/S INOP, and TERR INOP annunciators turn
off.
• Terrain test pattern is turned off.
6. Verify expected indications and annunciations during test,
repeating as necessary noting any erroneous conditions.
A successful test is accomplished if all expected indications are
observed and no inoperative functions or display anomalies are
060-4241-000
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Operational Procedure
51
Mark V and Mark VII EGPWS Pilot’s Guide
indicated or observed.
For more specific information, refer to an applicable AFM or
EGPWS AFMS, or contact Honeywell.
Operational Procedure
52
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Mark V and Mark VII EGPWS Pilot’s Guide
Normal
Procedures
060-4241-000
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The EGPWS provides visual and/or audio alerts for detected:
• Potentially dangerous terrain conditions (modes 1 – 4,
TCF, TAD),
• Below glideslope conditions (mode 5),
• Descent below predefined altitudes or excessive bank angle
(mode 6),
• Severe windshear conditions (mode 7)
• Runway Awareness and Advisory System (RAAS)
• Unstable approaches (MON)
• Altimeter mis-settings (MON)
• Incorrect takeoff flap settings (MON)
• Landing Long (MON)
• Low Airspeed (MON)
These consist of warning, caution, and advisory alerts based
on the detection alert threshold penetration. The following list
identifies the various alerts by type and mode:
Operational Procedure
53
Mark V and Mark VII EGPWS Pilot’s Guide
ALERT
WARN
(SIREN) “WINDSHEAR (3x)”
7
Any “PULL UP”
1,2,TA
CAUT.
“CAUTION WINDSHEAR”
7
“TERRAIN, TERRAIN”
2, TA
“OBSTACLE, OBSTACLE”
TA
“TERRAIN”
2
ADV.
“APPROACHING MINIMUMS”
6
“MINIMUMS”
6
“CAUTION TERRAIN”
TA
“CAUTION OBSTACLE”
TA
“TOO LOW TERRAIN”
4, TCF
“TOO LOW GEAR or FLAPS”
4
Altitude callouts
6
“SINK RATE”
1
“DON’T SINK”
3
“GLIDESLOPE”
5
“BANK ANGLE”
6
“FLAPS (pause) FLAPS” or
“FLAPS, FLAPS”
“TOO HIGH, TOO HIGH”
MON
“TOO FAST, TOO FAST”
MON
“UNSTABLE, UNSTABLE”
MON
MON
“ALTIMETER SETTING”
MON
“AIRSPEED LOW”
MON
“FLAPS, FLAPS”
MON1
“LONG LANDING, LONG LANDING” or
“DEEP LANDING, DEEP LANDING”
MON
“CAUTION TAXIWAY, CAUTION
TAXIWAY”
“CAUTION SHORT RUNWAY, SHORT
RUNWAY”
RAAS
“CAUTION ON TAXIWAY, ON TAXIWAY”
RAAS
Any RAAS Advisories
1
RAAS
RAAS
“Flaps, Flaps” caution is for the Takeoff Flaps Configuration monitor.
Operational Procedure
54
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Caution
Alerts
Warning
Alerts
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Note: Visual and audio indications may vary and procedures
provided are representative. Refer to an applicable AFM or
EGPWS AFMS for specific implementation.
Recommended response to EGPWS alerts are as follows:
1. Stop any descent and climb as necessary to eliminate the
alert. Analyze all available instruments and information to
determine best course of action.
2. Advise ATC of situation as necessary.
1. Aggressively position throttles for maximum rated thrust.
Apply maximum available power as determined by
emergency need. The pilot not flying (if applicable) should
set power and ensure that TO/GA power and modes are set.
2. If engaged, disengage the autopilot and smoothly but
aggressively increase pitch toward “stick shaker” or Pitch
Limit Indicators (PLI) to obtain maximum climb
performance.
3. Continue climbing until the warning is eliminated and safe
flight is assured.
4. Advise ATC of situation.
Note: Climbing is the only recommended response unless
operating in visual conditions and/or pilot determines, based
on all available information, that turning in addition to the
climbing is the safest course of action. Follow established
operating procedures.
Operational Procedure
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Mark V and Mark VII EGPWS Pilot’s Guide
Warning
Alerts
Glideslope
Alerts
Advisory
Callouts
Windshear
Caution
Windshear
Warning
Note: Navigation must not be based on the use of the Terrain
Awareness and Alerting Display (TAD).
Below Glideslope alerts consist of “soft” and “hard” alerts
based on the degree of glideslope deviation and altitude.
Respond to these alerts as necessary to correct the aircraft’s
flightpath back to the Glideslope centerline or perform a
missed approach.
Advisory callouts being advisory in nature are used to
announce an event or condition (e.g., “Minimums”,
"RunwayXX" - if RAAS enabled).
Response to these callouts should be in accordance with
standard operating procedures.
This alert generally occurs due to increasing performance
windshear conditions (i.e., increasing headwind, decreasing
tailwind, and/or updraft). This alert is generally considered
advisory in that the crew response is to be alert to the
possibility of subsequent significant airspeed loss and down
draft conditions. Coupled with other weather factors, the
Windshear Caution should be considered in determining the
advisability of performing a go-around.
Wind and gust allowances should be added to the approach
speed, increasing thrust if necessary. It may be necessary to
disengage autopilot or auto-throttle. Avoid getting low on the
approach glidepath or reducing the throttles to idle.
When a Windshear warning occurs, the following procedures
should be followed:
1. Immediately initiate the Windshear escape maneuver in
accordance with established Windshear procedures.
2. Aggressively apply maximum rated thrust, disengage
autopilot and/or auto-throttle if necessary.
3. Rotate smoothly to the go-around/take-off pitch attitude,
allowing airspeed to decrease if necessary. Maintain wings
level. Do not retract flaps or landing gear.
4. If the aircraft continues to descend, increase pitch attitude
smoothly and in small increments, bleeding air speed as
necessary to stop descent. Use Stall Warning onset (stick
shaker) as the upper limit of pitch attitude.
5. Maintain escape attitude and thrust and delay retracting
flaps or landing gear until safe climb-out is assured.
Note: Engine overboost should be avoided unless the
airplane continues to descend and airplane safety is in doubt.
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Abnormal
Procedures
Mode 1
Excessive
Descent
Rates
Mode 2
Excessive
Closure to
Terrain
Mode 4
Unsafe
Terrain
Clearance
Mode 5
Descent
Below
Glideslope
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If overboost is required, adjust throttles back to maximum
rated thrust as soon as safety has been assured.
Overboosting engines while at high angle of attack near
airplane stall may cause engine stall, surge, or flameout.
Maintain escape attitude and thrust and delay retracting flaps
or landing gear until safe climb-out is assured.
Partial system deactivation or compensation can be
accomplished for abnormal procedures as follows:
If steep approaches are to be performed (4º or greater)
EGPWS STEEP APPROACH should be enabled and selected
for these operations. This may be accomplished automatically
by on-board systems or manually selected by a cockpit switch.
When active, Mode 1 alerts are desensitized to compensate for
normally higher descent rates for these types of operation,
eliminating related unwanted alerts. If implemented with a
cockpit switch, this requires manual deactivation.
When required to operate in close proximity to terrain (less
than 2500’ above), Mode 2 alerts can be desensitize or
overridden by activating the FLAP OVER-RIDE switch to
eliminate related unwanted alerts. This requires manual
deactivation.
Mode 4 alerts can be reduced by activation of the FLAP
OVER-RIDE switch, or GEAR OVER-RIDE. This is
generally recommended when performing approaches with
less than normal landing flaps selected, or landing gear not
down. This requires manual deactivation.
Mode 5 Glideslope alerts can be manually canceled when
below 2000 feet Radio Altitude (or 1000 feet dependant on
aircraft type) by pressing the G/S Cancel switch (commonly
part of the amber caution annunciators “BELOW G/S” or
“GPWS”). This is typically selected when an unreliable
Glideslope is expected or when maneuvering is required
during ILS final approach. The G/S Cancel is automatically
reset following landing or if the aircraft climbs above the
2000 or 1000 feet dependant on aircraft type.
In some cases, an Alternate G/S Cancel is available. This
allows the Mode 5 alerting to be canceled at any time and any
altitude. In this configuration, which is defined only for
certain aircraft types or by program pin, pressing the G/S
Cancel switch in the cockpit has the effect of inhibiting Mode
5 alerting. It can be manually reset by again pressing the G/S
Cancel switch, or it is automatically reset following landing, if
flap or gear state changes (i.e., down to up), or when the
Operational Procedure
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Mark V and Mark VII EGPWS Pilot’s Guide
Terrain
Alerting and
Clearance
Floor
Emergency
Procedures
aircraft climbs above a predetermined altitude (defined for the
aircraft type). Because of the nature of this type of G/S
Cancel, a cockpit indication of its activation is required.
Some aircraft may be configured with a G/S inhibit switch.
This switch is separate from the one discussed above but also
results in inhibiting Mode 5 alerting. This switch is intended
for selection during back course approaches to eliminate
unwanted alerts that may result. If a discrete back course
signal is available from another system, this input to the
EGPWC may be connected to that system for automatic Mode
5 inhibiting.
Note: Implementation of the Glideslope Cancel and/or
Inhibit inputs to the EGPWS varies. Verify a particular
application to determine the implementation used.
Pressing the Terrain Inhibit switch inhibits TAD and TCF
alerting and display, including Obstacles and Peaks when
enabled. This is used when position accuracy is inadequate or
when operating at airports or runways not in the terrain
database. Selection of Terrain Inhibit does not cause the
Terrain Inoperative annunciation unless the aircraft is wired
for this to occur. Terrain Inhibit requires manual deactivation.
The EGPWS Flap or Gear Over-ride, TAD/TCF Inhibit, or
other switches (as installed) may be used as required for an
emergency situation (e.g., landing gear up).
For additional information refer to an applicable AFM or
EGPWS AFMS or contact Honeywell.
Operational Procedure
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SECTION 4 DEFINITIONS
Acronyms shall be interpreted as shown:
AFE
AFM
AFMS
AGL
AHRS
ANN
AOA
ASL
ATC
BIT
CFIT
CTC
dB
DH
EFIS
EGPWC/S
FAA
FMS
FPM
F/W
GPS
GPWS
G/S
HDOP
HFOM
HIL
Hz
ICD
ILS
INOP
IRS
IVS
MCP
MCU
MFD
MLS
MON
MSL
MTC
NM
PCMCIA
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Above Field Elevation
Airplane Flight Manual
Airplane Flight Manual Supplement
Above Ground Level
Attitude/Heading Reference System
EGPWS annunciated alert generated by another
aircraft system
Angle of Attack
Above Sea Level
Air Traffic Control
Built In Test
Controlled Flight into Terrain
Computed Terrain Clearance
Decibels
Decision Height
Electronic Flight Instrument System
Enhanced Ground Proximity Warning
Computer/System
Federal Aviation Administration
Flight Management System
Feet Per Minute
Fail Warning
Global Positioning System
Ground Proximity Warning System
Glideslope
Horizontal Dilution of Precision
Horizontal Figure of Merit
Horizontal Integrity Limit
Hertz (cps)
Interface Control Document
Instrument Landing System
Inoperative
Inertial Reference System
Inertial Vertical Speed
Mode Control Panel
Modular Concept Unit
Multi Function Display
Microwave Landing System
SMARTRUNWAY® and SMARTLANDINGTM
monitors
Mean Sea Level
Minimum Terrain Clearance
Nautical Mile
Personal Computer Memory Card Industry
Association
Definitions
59
Mark V and Mark VII EGPWS Pilot’s Guide
PLI
PPI
PWS
QFE
Pitch Limit Indicator
Plan Position Indicator
Predictive Windshear System
A method of setting the altimeter to compensate
for changes in barometric pressure and runway
elevation. Pilot receives information from airfield
and adjusts his altimeter accordingly and it will
read zero altitude at touchdown on the runway.
QNE
The method of setting the altimeter to the
standard atmosphere datum -29.92 inches of
mercury (1,013.25 mb). This setting is used in the
United States airspace by all aircraft above
FL180.
QNH
The more common method of setting the
altimeter to compensate for changes in barometric
pressure. Pilot receives information from airfield,
adjusts his altimeter accordingly and the altimeter
will read airfield elevation at touchdown.
RAAS
Runway Awareness and Advisory System
RAIM
Receiver Autonomous Integrity Monitoring
RCD
Reloadable Customer Definition
RFCF
Runway Field Clearance Floor
SAT
Static Air Temperature
TA
Terrain Awareness
TAD
Terrain Alerting and Display
TCAS
Traffic Collision Avoidance System
TCF
Terrain Clearance Floor
TERR
Terrain
TO/GA
Takeoff/Go-Around
VDOP
Vertical Dilution of Precision
VFOM
Vertical Figure of Merit
VFR
Visual Flight Rules
VG
Vertical Gyro
VHF
Very High Frequency
WS
Windshear
Definitions
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SMARTRUNWAY® PILOT GUIDE
RUNWAY AWARENESS AND ADVISORY SYSTEM (RAAS)
TABLE OF CONTENTS
SECTION 1 Introduction ..................................................................... 62
SECTION 2 RAAS Quick Reference .................................................. 67
SECTION 3 System Operation Description ........................................ 74
SECTION 4 RAAS Options ................................................................ 92
SECTION 5 Audio Levels ................................................................... 93
SECTION 6 Operational Availability .................................................. 94
SECTION 7 Frequently Asked Questions ........................................... 96
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SECTION 1
Introduction
Why RAAS?
Smart Runway ®
62
This Pilot Guide section describes the functions and operation
of the MKV and MKVII EGPWS Runway Awareness and
Advisory System (RAAS).
The document is divided into the following sections:
• Section 1 – An introduction to the RAAS;
• Section 2 – A Quick Reference guide to the operation of the
RAAS;
• Section 3 – A detailed description of the operation of
RAAS;
• Section 4 – A summary of the options available to operators
to configure RAAS;
• Section 5 – Overview of the three audio levels employed for
RAAS;
• Section 6 – Means for the flight crew to check the
operational availability of RAAS.
• Section 7 – Frequently Asked Questions
This guide does not supersede FAA approved data,
Flight Manuals, individual Operations Manuals,
requirements, or procedures. Pilots should be
thoroughly familiar with their own company policies,
system configuration, requirements, and procedures
with respect to the operation of aircraft with the
EGPWS and RAAS.
The information in this document is intended as a general
explanation of the Honeywell RAAS. It contains a description
of system performance assuming the identified options are
active.
It is well recognized that runway incursions and overruns are
a high-profile operational safety issue worldwide. For
example, the USA is currently experiencing at least one
runway incursion per day at towered airports alone. Safety
data indicate that lack of flight crew position awareness
during ground operations and on approach have contributed to
such occurrences worldwide. Recent industry safety
recommendations advocate the need for new flight deck
runway incursion prevention systems. Honeywell has
developed the RAAS as a practical and low-cost system with
significant input from hundreds of pilots. Extensive human
factors evaluations confirm the positive operational safety
benefits of RAAS: increased position awareness; enhanced
crew decision making; reduced crew workload; and superior
detection of position errors leading to runway incursions.
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What is
RAAS?
The purpose of the Honeywell RAAS is to provide the flight
crew with supplemental information of aircraft position
relative to runways during surface operations and on final
approach. In -218, RAAS is an aural-only advisory function,
and therefore, a visual display of the information is not
provided. In -230 some additional functions are available
which provide caution alerts. Visual annunciations are
available for all RAAS aurals, typically the system will be
configured so that the GPWS lamp will be illuminated for
caution alerts. RAAS provides timely aural advisory messages
to the flight crew in a significant number of scenarios that
have led to runway incursions. It should be noted that RAAS
is not intended for navigation purposes, e.g., to guide an
aircraft in or around the terminal area.
RAAS is integrated with the EGPWS. EGPWS protection and
operation is unaltered by the addition of RAAS. Note that
RAAS advisories have a lower priority than any EGPWS
terrain-related alerts, including radio altitude call-outs.
The RAAS uses aircraft inputs within the EGPWS such as
How Does
RAAS Work? GPS position, heading, groundspeed and a runway database to
generate the aural annunciations shown in the tables below.
Note that GPS availability is a requirement for the operation
of RAAS. Aircraft position is referenced to the GPS antenna
position. RAAS does not have knowledge of taxiways,
Automatic Terminal Information Service (ATIS) & Notice to
Airmen (NOTAM) information, other traffic, pilot intent,
ATC clearance, ground markings and signage. Crews should
be cognizant of the prevailing ATIS and any NOTAMs.
RAAS operates automatically, without any action required
from the flight crew.
Summary of Routine Advisories
Routine Advisory
Purpose
Approaching Runway - On Ground
Awareness of a runway being approached by the aircraft
during ground operations (e.g., "Approaching one-one").
On Runway
Awareness of which runway the aircraft is lined-up with
during ground operations (e.g., "On runway three-four left").
Approaching Runway - In Air
Awareness of which runway the aircraft is tracking on final
approach (e.g., "Approaching one-six right").
Landing Distance Remaining
Awareness of aircraft position relative to the runway end
(e.g., "One-thousand remaining").
Runway End
Awareness of the position of the aircraft relative to the
runway end (e.g., "One-hundred remaining").
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How Does
RAAS Work?
Continued
Summary of Non-Routine Advisories/ Cautions
Non-Routine Advisory
Purpose
Taxiway Take-off
Awareness of excessive taxi speeds or a take-off on
a taxiway ("On Taxiway! On Taxiway!"). 1 If caution
is enabled aural is changed to "Caution On Taxiway!
On Taxiway! ".
Insufficient Runway Length – On
Ground
Awareness of which runway the aircraft is lined-up with,
and that the runway length available for takeoff is less than
a defined nominal take-off runway length (e.g., "On runway
three-four left, six-hundred remaining"). 1 If caution is
enabled additional aural is "Caution Short Runway Short
Runway".
Extended Holding on Runway
Awareness of an extended holding period on the
runway (e.g., "On runway three-four left, On
runway three-four left").
Distance Remaining – Rejected
Take-off
Awareness of aircraft position during a Rejected
Take-off (RTO) (e.g., "Two-thousand remaining").
Approaching Short Runway - In
Air
Awareness of runway the aircraft is tracking, and that the
runway length available for landing is less than a defined
nominal landing runway length (e.g., " Approaching threefour right, three-thousand remaining"). 1 If caution is
enabled additional aural is "Caution Short Runway Short
Runway".
Taxiway Landing 1
Awareness that the aircraft is determined to be on
Approach and is not aligned with a runway (“Caution
Taxiway!, Caution Taxiway!”).
Take-off Flap Monitor 1
Awareness of improper flap setting when the aircraft is
lined up on a runway in advance of take-off.
1
Added in -230-230 and equivalent and later software.
Note that during normal operations, the crew would only be
exposed to the five routine advisories for the entire period
between push-back at the departure airport and taxi-in at the
destination airport. The five advisories alone have the
potential to address many classic runway incursion scenarios.
RAAS annunciations are heard over the same aircraft audio
systems that presently provide EGPWS audio caution and
warning alerts in the flight deck. The volume of RAAS
messages is controlled by the EGPWS and the RAAS
message volume level is based on the expected flight
operation for each message.
As mentioned above, RAAS operates automatically, without
any action required from the flight crew. The EGPWS circuitbreaker disables all EGPWS functionality including RAAS.
The EGPWS Self-Test push-button (if available) allows the
crew to verify the operational availability of all EGPWS
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functions, including the RAAS. An optional RAAS Audio
How Does
RAAS Work? Inhibit Switch may be installed. A single push of the Audio
Inhibit Switch inhibits all RAAS annunciations. Depressing
Continued
the switch reactivates all RAAS annunciations. In software
version -224-224 a change was made to provide an immediate
inhibit of any RAAS voice in progress and prevent issuing of
non-current RAAS advisories.
It is important to note that some RAAS features are optional
and may not be active in a given installation. Therefore you
will need to check the options selected by your company.
Refer to an applicable Airplane Flight Manual (AFM) or
EGPWS Airplane Flight Manual Supplement (AFMS) for
details. Alternatively contact Honeywell for assistance.
The default setting for the RAAS aurals is a female voice.
Aurals that include runway length in the annunciation may be
annunciated in feet or metres. The default setting for these
aurals is feet. These options are discussed in detail in the
“RAAS Options” section of this Pilot Guide.
Appropriate flight crew actions to RAAS advisories are:
If in doubt, stop, VERIFY POSITION,
and contact ATC for assistance if
necessary. Do not hesitate to request
progressive taxi instructions.
If the advisory is in conflict with
expectations,
VERIFY
POSITION,
contact ATC for assistance if necessary.
Consideration should be given to a go-around in accordance
with company SOPs.
Information contained herein or provided by a RAAS
annunciation does not supersede any operator Standard
Operating Procedure (SOP). Pilots should be thoroughly
familiar with regulatory, company, and other approved
operational procedures as required by their aircraft and type
of operation. Operators should also include RAAS in their
training curriculum.
RAAS provides annunciations during surface operations and on
Where And
final approach. RAAS is operationally available anytime the
When Does
RAAS Work? EGPWS is powered and the following conditions are met:
• The software for the RAAS functions have been loaded into
an EGPWS and enabled;
• The aircraft is on or approaching an airport in the RAAS
runway database; and
• RAAS is functional (e.g., all external signals are available and
not faulted, GPS position accuracy meets minimum
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Mark V and Mark VII EGPWS Pilot’s Guide
RAAS requirements and there are no internal EGPWS faults).
Where And
When Does The RAAS runway database is included as part of the
RAAS Work? installed terrain/ obstacle/runway database, and is updated
periodically. Operators should ensure that they are using the
most recent RAAS runway database. Further details of the
Continued
specific airports included in the RAAS database and
procedures for operators to acquire the latest RAAS database
are provided on the Internet at www.egpws.com.
Alternatively contact Honeywell for further assistance. The
crew can verify the RAAS runway database in use for their
installation by viewing the terrain display test pattern during a
Go/No Go self-test.
RAAS operational availability is integrated into the existing
EGPWS fault monitoring and self-test functions. Consistent
with approved EGPWS self-test design, the loss of RAAS
functions is indicated on-ground only during a self-test. There
is no automatic annunciation of the loss of RAAS
functionality. RAAS status can also be displayed on the
terrain display. This is active only when the aircraft is on the
ground. RAAS Inoperative, Inhibit, and Not available
conditions are shown immediately on the display. For other
status messages see page 91. The procedure requires the flight
crew to select the terrain display followed by a change in the
displayed range (to a higher or lower range). RAAS status is
annunciated for two sweeps of the terrain display. This
feature is available on all aircraft, but is primarily intended
for those aircraft where the flight crew does not perform a
self-test. The various self-test messages are presented later in
the “Operational Availability” section.
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SECTION 2
RAAS Quick
Reference
Taxiway Take-off
“On Taxiway ! On Taxiway ! ”
Taxi Operations
OR
“Caution On Taxiway ! On Taxiway ! ”
11
34L
16R
29
34R
16L
Conditions for advisory/caution:
· Aircraft not on runway
· Groundspeed exceeds 40 kts
Approaching Runway – On Ground
Taxi Operations
“Approaching One-One”
11
34L
29
34R
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16L
16R
Conditions for advisory:
· Advisory depends on aircraft
groundspeed, heading and
nearest runway end
· Earlier call-out at higher speeds
· Inhibited above 40 knots
· No distraction during take-off
/landing ground roll
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RAAS Quick
Reference
Continued
On Runway – On Ground
“On Runway Three-Four Left”
11
34L
Runway Entry
16R
29
34R
16L
Conditions for advisory:
· Aircraft enters onto a runway
· Within 20 deg. Of runway heading
Intersection Departure / Insufficient Rwy
“On Runway Three-Four Left,
Six-Hundred Remaining”
Runway Entry
Example in metres
11
34L
29
34R
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68
16L
16R
Conditions for advisory:
· Aircraft enters onto a runway
· Within 20 deg. Of runway heading
· Runway length available is less
than nominal take-off runway length
Operator defined nominal runway
length in metres or feet, confirm units
using EGPWS self- test
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RAAS Quick
Reference
Continued
Insufficient Runway / Caution
“On Runway Three-Four Left,
Six-Hundred Remaining”
“Caution Short Runway, Short Runway”
Runway Entry
11
34L
29
34R
16L
16R
Conditions for caution:
· All conditions for a non-routine
Insufficient Runway advisory are
satisfied; and
· Runway length available is less
than nominal take-off runway length
· Aircraft groundspeed > 40 knots
Extended Holding On Runway
“On Runway Three-Four Left,
On Runway Three-Four Left”
11
34L
29
34R
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16L
Runway Occupancy
16R
Conditions for advisory:
· Aircraft on runway
· Within 20 deg. Of runway heading
· Waiting in position for extended
period that is operator defined
e.g. 90 seconds
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RAAS Quick
Reference
Continued
RTO
ini
ng
”
00
R
em
“1
00
a
Re inin
g
ma
ini ”
ng
”
“3
“6
00
Re
Re
00
16R
Conditions for advisory:
· Aircraft on last half of runway or
a specified distance from Rwy end
· Groundspeed exceeds 40 kts
· RTO is initiated (7 kts loss of
groundspeed from maximum
value achieved)
Operator defined units in metres or
feet, confirm units using EGPWS
self-test
29
34R
“9
“1
34L
ma
ma
em
0R
20
Example in metres
ini
ain
ng
”
ing
”
Distance Remaining - Rejected Take-off
16L
Approaching Runway – In Air
“Approaching Three-Four Left”
11
34L
29
34R
Smart Runway ®
70
16L
Approach
16R
Conditions for advisory:
· Between 750 and 300 feet above Field Elevation (AFE);
· Within 3 nautical miles of the approach end of runway;
· Track aligned within 20 deg. of runway heading; and
· Within 200 feet, plus runway width, of runway centerline.
· Advisory suppressed between 550-450 feet AFE to
allow crew (and/or radio) altitude call-outs**. Message
annunciated when aircraft descends below 450 ft
· Advisory not available below 300 ft AFE
· All EGPWS aurals have priority over this advisory
** Suppression zone is 450-350 feet AFE for Airbus
aircraft
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RAAS Quick
Reference
Continued
Approaching Short Runway – In Air
“Approaching Three-Four Right,
Three-Thousand Feet Available”
Approach
Example in feet
11
34L
29
34R
16L
16R
Conditions for advisory:
· All Approaching Runway – In Air criteria
· Runway length is less than nominal
landing runway length
Operator defined nominal runway length
in metres or feet, RCD option to
annunciate unit of measurement selected
Approaching Runway – In Air / Caution
“Approaching Three-Four Right,
Three-Thousand Available”
“Caution Short Runway, Short Runway”
11
34L
29
34R
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16L
Approach
16R
Conditions for caution:
· All conditions for a non-routine
Approaching Short Runway – In Air are
satisfied; and
· Aligned runway is shorter than a nominal
length; and
· Aircraft is between 450 and 300 feet AFE.
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RAAS Quick
Reference
Continued
Taxiway Landing
Approach
“Caution Taxiway! Caution Taxiway!”
11
34L
29
34R
16L
16R
Conditions for caution:
· Aircraft not lined up with a runway
· Aircraft between 250-150 AGL
· Aircraft ascent rate less than 450 fpm
Distance Remaining – Landing and Roll-out
34R
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16L
ng
ng
R
em
ai
ni
ni
ai
em
00
R
16R
“5
0
00
“1
”
”
”
ng
ni
ai
ni
R
em
0
00
“2
00
0
R
em
0
29
“3
00
“4
34L
R
em
ai
Example in feet
ai
ni
ng
ng
”
”
Landing
Conditions for advisory:
· Aircraft on/above last half of
runway or a specified distance
from runway end
· Groundspeed exceeds 40 kts
· Call suppressed during go-around,
above 100 ft radio altitude, or climb
rate greater than 450 fpm
Operator defined units in metres or
feet, confirm units using EGPWS
self-test
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Mark V and Mark VII EGPWS Pilot’s Guide
RAAS Quick
Reference
Continued
Runway End
Landing
Example in feet
“100 Remaining”
11
34L
29
34R
16L
16R
Conditions for advisory:
· Aircraft on a runway
· Within 20 deg. Of runway heading
· 100 feet (or 30 m) of runway remaining
· Groundspeed below 40 kts
Operator defined units in metres or feet,
confirm units using EGPWS self-test
Take-off Flap Monitor
“On Runway Three-Four Left”
“Flaps, Flaps”
11
34L
29
34R
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16L
Runway Entry
16R
Conditions for advisory:
· Aircraft enters onto a runway
· Within 20 deg. Of runway heading
· Flap handle not in a valid takeoff
flap setting
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Mark V and Mark VII EGPWS Pilot’s Guide
SECTION 3
System
Operation
Description
Taxi
Operations
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74
The RAAS uses aircraft inputs from the EGPWS such as GPS
position, heading, groundspeed and a runway database to
generate the runway awareness aural advisories. Note that
GPS availability is a requirement for the operation of RAAS.
Aircraft position is referenced to the GPS antenna position.
RAAS does not have knowledge of taxiways, ATIS &
NOTAM information, other traffic, pilot intent, ATC
clearance, ground markings and signage. Crews should be
cognizant of the prevailing ATIS and any NOTAMs.
(Similarly, data on newly constructed runways or changes to
length of existing runways may not necessarily be included in
the RAAS runway database). RAAS operates automatically,
without any action required from the flight crew.
The RAAS advisories are presented below for the relevant
flight phases. Note that all RAAS advisories have a lower
priority than any existing EGPWS alert, including radio
altitude call-outs.
Taxiway Take-Off Advisory
A Honeywell runway incursion study indicates that 7% of
incidents during takeoffs and landings were from/onto a
taxiway. The purpose of the Taxiway Take-Off Advisory is to
enhance crew awareness of excessive taxi speeds or a take-off
on a taxiway.
This advisory is provided for each of the following
conditions:
• Inadvertent taxiway take-off or excessive taxi speeds; and
• Approved take-off operations on a taxiway (e.g., at airports
with a single runway that is closed for surface repairs).
The advisory “On Taxiway! On Taxiway!” is provided once if:
• Groundspeed of the aircraft exceeds 40 Kts; and
• Aircraft is on a surface other than a runway.
Note: RAAS functions are based on a database of runway
locations. The system does not have knowledge of the
location of taxiways, ramp areas, grass surfaces, etc.
If groundspeed reduces below 40 knots after an advisory is
provided (i.e., corrective pilot action taken), the system will
generate a single advisory again if the conditions above are
met.
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Mark V and Mark VII EGPWS Pilot’s Guide
Taxi
Operations
Continued
Note that there are situations where a runway may be closed
(e.g., for construction) and take-off and landing operations
authorized on a taxiway. In that case, this advisory serves to
confirm a non-normal operation.
The advisory would also be activated at RAAS-enabled
airports for take-offs on runways that are not yet included in
the RAAS database, for example in the case of newly
constructed runways. It is recommended that the take-off
briefing include reference to this advisory.
The aural message “On Taxiway! On Taxiway!” is
annunciated once each time the advisory is generated. For
example, the advisory would not be heard continuously during
an authorized take-off on a taxiway.
If a caution instead of advisory is enabled, the aural message
is “Caution On Taxiway! On Taxiway!”.
Approaching Runway On-Ground Advisory
Safety data show that lack of position awareness has resulted
in flight crews lining-up with both the wrong runway and a
taxiway for take-off. In addition, in some cases crews failed to
hold-short (58% of ground operations occurrences) and/or
inadvertently entered an active runway. In many of these latter
cases crews were unaware of their position relative to a
proximate runway edge.
The purpose of the Approaching Runway On-Ground
Advisory is to provide the crew with awareness of a
proximate runway edge being approached by the aircraft
during taxi operations.
This advisory depends upon aircraft groundspeed, current
heading and closest runway end and is provided if:
• Aircraft is on the ground; and
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Mark V and Mark VII EGPWS Pilot’s Guide
Taxi
Operations
Continued
• Aircraft groundspeed is less than 40 knots; and
• Aircraft is within a specified distance from the runway
edge.
This distance depends on aircraft groundspeed and closure
angle with the runway. Approaching the runway at relatively
higher groundspeeds results in an earlier advisory. The
advisory is not intended to guarantee stopping the aircraft
short of the runway edge.
The annunciation is inhibited above groundspeeds in excess of
40 knots. For example, the advisory would not be heard
during the high-speed regime on take-off or landing – this
reduces potential distraction in the flight deck. A runway
crossing can be encountered below 40 knots, for example
during an intersection departure. Therefore it is recommended
that crews reference an anticipated low speed (below 40
knots) Approaching Runway Advisory in the take-off
briefing.
The aural message consists of the word “Approaching”
followed by the runway identifier of the nearest runway end.
For example, “Approaching one-one”. This advisory is issued
once each time the aircraft approaches a runway. For
example, for an aircraft approaching a 9000-foot runway
(34L / 16R) at a distance of 5000 feet from the 34L end of the
runway, the advisory is “Approaching one-six-right”.
If more than one runway meets the qualifying conditions
above (e.g., two runways with headings within 20 degrees of
each other), then the message “Approaching runways” is
provided.
Note after landing on a parallel runway, ATC may clear the
aircraft to cross the parallel runway at the far end of the
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Taxi
Operations
Continued
Runway
Entry and
Occupancy
060-4241-000
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landing runway. In this case the ATC clearance to cross the
parallel runway would refer to the same landing direction but
other runway, and the RAAS Approaching Runway Advisory
would refer to the closest runway threshold. For example,
consider an aircraft that has landed on runway 08 right, and
then cleared to cross runway 08 left after roll-out. The RAAS
advisory generated as the aircraft approaches runway 08 Left
is “Approaching two-six-right.” This is normal and consistent
with the runway markings at the threshold of runway 26R.
On Runway Advisory
Runway incursion data indicate that
• 44% of incursions involved poor crew position awareness;
• 12% of all take-off incursions were from the incorrect
runway; and
• 7% of take-off and landing incursions were from/onto a
taxiway.
The purpose of the On Runway Advisory is to provide the
crew with awareness of which runway the aircraft is lined-up
with during ground operations.
The On Runway Advisory is generated when the following
conditions are met:
• Aircraft enters onto a runway; and
• Aircraft heading is within 20 degrees of the runway
heading.
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Runway
Entry and
Occupancy
Continued
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78
This advisory is inhibited above a 40-knot groundspeed. The
annunciation “On runway” followed by the runway identifier
is provided as the aircraft lines-up on the runway.
For example, "On runway three-four-left." Note that for
additional emphasis, the use of the word "runway" is strictly
reserved for this case where the aircraft is on the runway. The
advisory is presented once each time the aircraft enters a
runway.
Insufficient Runway Length - On-Ground Advisory
Safety data indicate that loss of situational awareness on the
airport surface resulted in 12% of all take-off runway
incursions being conducted from the incorrect runway. In
some of those cases the take-off distance available was less
than that required. Data also indicates that 24% of runway
incursion take-offs involved an intersection departure. While
not as common, there have been instances where crews have
turned the wrong direction while lining-up on a runway for an
intersection departure (i.e., heading error of 180°). This
situation not only creates a conflict with any aircraft on shortfinal, but the runway distance available may be insufficient
for a safe take-off.
The purpose of the Insufficient Runway Length - On-Ground
Advisory is to provide the crew with awareness of which
runway the aircraft is lined-up with, and that the runway
length available for takeoff is less than a defined nominal
take-off runway length. The “nominal” runway distance for
take-off is aircraft type specific and is set by an operator.
Note: it cannot be changed by the flight crew.
This advisory is provided when the following conditions are
met:
• All conditions for a routine On-Runway Advisory are
satisfied;
and
• Available distance for takeoff is less than the defined
nominal runway length.
This advisory does not take into account prevailing conditions
such as aircraft weight, wind, runway condition & slope, air
temperature and altitude of airport. If the operator does not
specify the nominal runway length, the advisory is defaulted
to off, unless the operator has chosen to always advise the
runway length available for takeoff.
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Mark V and Mark VII EGPWS Pilot’s Guide
Runway
Entry and
Occupancy
Continued
RAAS does not account for operational data such as
NOTAMs that refer to areas of runway that are not available
(e.g., due construction, snow removal, etc.). Crews should be
cognizant of any NOTAMs and other published restrictions in
effect.
The routine “On runway” message advisory is appended by
runway length remaining in either feet or metres, e.g., “On
runway three-four-left, two-thousand remaining”. The
"remaining" element of the message refers to the runway
distance remaining in the EGPWS database to the nearest 100
feet (or 100 metres for a metric option). Note that the unit
(feet or metres) is not annunciated. The unit of length used by
RAAS can be confirmed by performing an EGPWS self-test
(See “Operational Availability” section).
If caution is enabled, “Caution Short Runway, Short Runway”
is heard after the existing aural when groundspeed exceeds 40
knots.
Dissimilar references to the runway heading during the
Approaching Runway and the On Runway advisories are a cue to
a potentially unusual situation. In this example assume that the
aircraft is cleared for an intersection departure at Alpha 2 for
runway 16R. The "Approaching-one-six right" advisory is
provided as the aircraft approaches the runway at Alpha 2.
However, an inadvertent turn on to runway 34L (as opposed to
16R) implies that runway identifier for the Insufficient Runway
Length Advisory is runway "34L". If the crew correctly turns
onto runway 16R, the runway identifier for the routine On
Runway Advisory is "16R". Note that a third reference to the
"intended" runway for departure, in this example, is a clearance
for take-off from runway "16R" from ATC.
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Mark V and Mark VII EGPWS Pilot’s Guide
Runway
Entry and
Occupancy
Continued
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80
During a back-taxi scenario, the Insufficient Runway Length
Advisory would aid as a confirmation of pilot intent to backtaxi.
Extended Holding On Runway
Safety data show that 17% of runway incursions involved the
poor use of a line-up-and-wait clearance (or a taxi-intoposition-and-hold clearance [TIPH]). The typical scenario
involved Tower ATC clearing an aircraft into position-andhold on to the departure runway. Factors such as distractions
in the Tower, handling multiple frequencies, high workload
and memory lapses have resulted in the tower controller
simultaneously clearing other traffic to land on the occupied
runway. In some cases crews issued with the TIPH clearance
were holding-in-position for an unusually extended period.
Industry safety recommendations suggest that flight crews
holding-in-position on an active runway for an unexpected
extended period should contact tower to confirm the extended
holding clearance. Timely crew intervention could potentially
reduce the risk of a runway incursion.
The purpose of the Extended Holding On Runway Advisory is
to provide crew awareness of an extended holding period on
the runway.
The aural advisory is given if the following criteria are met:
• Aircraft must be on a runway; and
• Aircraft heading is within 20 degrees of runway heading;
and
• Aircraft remains in position for a time period considered to
be an extended holding period.
The extended holding period time is set in the RCD and it
cannot be changed by the flight crew. The time period can be
configured for 60, 90, 120, 180, 240, or 300 seconds.
The aircraft heading must be within 20 degrees of runway
heading and the aircraft must not move more than 100 ft along
the runway for this advisory to be activated.
Note that if the aircraft continues to hold for a period in
excess of the initial extended holding period, the advisory
may be set to repeat for the same or different holding interval.
The repeat advisory time may also be configured to be off.
These options are set in the RCD and cannot be changed by
the flight crew.
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Mark V and Mark VII EGPWS Pilot’s Guide
Runway
Entry and
Occupancy
Continued
Rejected
Take-Off
060-4241-000
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The Extended Holding On Runway Advisory is suppressed
after a Rejected Take-Off (RTO). The advisory is reset and
available again once the aircraft exits the current runway.
After the specified extended holding period has elapsed,
RAAS provides an aural message that is a double repetition of
the On Runway Advisory. For example, if an aircraft has been
holding-in-position on runway 34 left for an extended period
(e.g., 90 seconds), the system will annunciate “On runway
three-four left, on runway three-four left.”
Distance Remaining - Rejected Take-Off Advisory
The purpose of the Rejected Take-Off Distance Remaining
Advisory is to provide the flight crew with position awareness
information during a RTO.
The advisory is generated if the following conditions are
satisfied:
• Aircraft is on the last half of the runway or a specified distance
from the runway end;
• Groundspeed is greater than 40 knots; and
• An RTO is initiated (RTO status is assumed if groundspeed
during the take-off roll decreases by 7 knots from the
maximum value achieved).
The advisory terminates once the groundspeed decreases below
40 knots during the RTO. The Extended Holding On Runway
Advisory is not provided during the period following the RTO.
The advisories are generated at whole thousand-foot intervals if
RAAS is configured in “feet”, except that the last possible
advisory occurs at 500 feet. For example, the following advisories
would be generated during a RTO on a 9000-foot runway:
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Mark V and Mark VII EGPWS Pilot’s Guide
Rejected
Take-Off
Continued
Approach to
Runway
Smart Runway ®
82
• “Four-thousand remaining”;
• “Three-thousand remaining”;
• “Two-thousand remaining”;
• “One-thousand remaining”; and
• “Five-hundred remaining”.
The metric distance advisories are generated at 300-metre
intervals, except that the last possible advisory occurs at 100
metres. For example, the following advisories would be
provided during a RTO on a 3000-metre runway:
• “One-thousand-two-hundred remaining”;
• “Nine-hundred remaining”;
• “Six-hundred remaining”;
• “Three-hundred remaining”; and
• “One-hundred remaining”.
If the option to annunciate the “unit of measurement” is
enabled, “feet” or “meters” is included in the phrase for the
first distance remaining callout. Example “Four-thousand feet
remaining” followed by “Three-thousand remaining”.
Note that message content is identical to that for the Landing
Roll-Out Distance Remaining Advisory.
Approaching Runway - In-Air Advisory
Safety data indicate that poor spatial awareness on approach
(lining-up and/or landing on the incorrect runway) is a
significant factor in runway incursions. The purpose of the
Approaching Runway In-Air Advisory is to provide the crew
with awareness of which runway the aircraft is tracking on
final approach.
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Mark V and Mark VII EGPWS Pilot’s Guide
Approach to
Runway
Continued
060-4241-000
Rev H, August 2011
This advisory is provided when:
• Aircraft is between 750 feet and 300 feet Above Field
Elevation (AFE);
• Aircraft is within approximately 3 nautical miles of the
approach end of the runway;
• Aircraft lateral position is within approximately 200 feet,
plus runway width, from the runway centerline; and
• Aircraft track is aligned within 20 degrees of runway
heading.
All current EGPWS alerts have a higher priority than this
RAAS advisory. The Approaching Runway In-Air Advisory
is suppressed between 550 feet and 450 feet above runway
elevation to allow the normal 500-foot radio altitude call-out
and/or crew procedures without conflict. There is an option to
select an alternative suppression zone of 450 – 350 feet AFE
to allow the 400-foot altitude call-out in Airbus aircraft.
The advisory is not provided below 300 feet AFE. This
reduces potential distraction during high workload conditions.
This advisory is annunciated once for each runway alignment
when the conditions noted above are satisfied. The advisory
message consists of the word “approaching” followed by the
runway identifier, for example, “Approaching three-four-left.”
An aircraft that is required to side-step to an alternative
runway while on short-final could potentially be provided
with two Approaching Runway Advisory messages; one callout for the original runway and another as the aircraft aligns
with the second runway. The advisory conditions above would
have to be satisfied for each runway call-out.
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Mark V and Mark VII EGPWS Pilot’s Guide
Approach to
Runway
Continued
For some approaches more than one runway could meet the
qualifying conditions above, e.g., two closely spaced runways
with headings that are within 20 degrees of each other. The
message “Approaching Runways” is provided in such cases.
Approaching Short Runway - In-Air Advisory
Safety data indicate that loss of position awareness on
approach is a factor in runway incursions – lining up and/or
landing on the wrong runway. In some cases the landing
distance available (on the incorrect runway) was less than that
required.
The purpose of the Approaching Short Runway - In-Air
Advisory is to provide the crew with awareness of which
runway the aircraft is tracking, and that the runway length
available for landing is less than a defined nominal landing
runway length. The “nominal” runway distance for landing is
aircraft type specific and is set by an operator. Note that it
cannot be changed by the flight crew.
This advisory is provided when the following conditions are
met:
• All conditions for a routine Approaching In-Air Advisory
are satisfied (see previous section for details); and
• The aligned runway is shorter than a nominal landing
runway length.
The system uses the same altitude zones to suppress this
advisory that are used for the routine Approaching Runway
In-Air Advisory.
Note that this advisory does not take into account prevailing
conditions such as aircraft weight, wind, runway condition &
slope, air temperature and altitude of airport. If the operator
does not specify the nominal runway length, the advisory is
defaulted to off, unless the operator has chosen to always
advise the runway length available for landing.
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Mark V and Mark VII EGPWS Pilot’s Guide
Approach to
Runway
Continued
Landing
Roll-Out
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RAAS does not account for operational data such as
NOTAMs that refer to areas of runway that are not available
(e.g., due construction, snow removal, etc). Crews should be
cognizant of any NOTAMs and other published restrictions in
effect.
The Routine Approaching Runway In-Air Advisory message
is appended with available runway length information, for
example “Approaching three-four-right, three-thousandavailable”. The "available" element of the message refers to
the runway distance in the EGPWS database to the nearest
100-ft (or 100 m for the metric option). Note that the unit (feet
or metres) is not annunciated.
The unit of length used by RAAS can be confirmed by
performing an EGPWS self-test (See “Operational
Availability” section). This advisory occurs once for each
runway alignment based on the conditions specified above.
If caution is enabled “Caution Short Runway, Short Runway”
is heard after the existing aural when the aircraft has
descended between 450 and 300 feet AFE.
Distance Remaining - Landing and Roll-Out Advisory
The purpose of the Distance Remaining Advisory is to enhance
crew awareness of aircraft position relative to the runway end.
The Distance Remaining Advisory is provided when the
following conditions are met:
• Aircraft is within 100 feet of the ground, over the last half of
the runway or a specified distance from the runway end; or
• Aircraft is on the ground, over the last half of the runway or a
specified distance from the runway end; and
• Aircraft groundspeed is above 40 knots.
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Mark V and Mark VII EGPWS Pilot’s Guide
Landing
Roll-Out
Continued
If the crew decides to go-around after the Distance Remaining
Advisory is triggered, the call-outs continue to be annunciated at
the appropriate distances along the runway. The advisories are
inhibited once the aircraft attains a Radio Altitude of 100 feet or a
climb rate of 450 feet-per-minute.
The advisories are generated at whole thousand-foot intervals if
RAAS is configured in “feet”, except that the last possible
advisory occurs at 500 feet. For example, the following advisories
would be generated during a landing on a 9000-foot runway:
• “Four-thousand remaining”; 1
• “Three-thousand remaining”;
• “Two-thousand remaining”;
• “One-thousand remaining”; and
• “Five-hundred remaining”.
”
”
0
“4
R
0
00
“3
”
ng
ni
ai
0
00
“2
em
R
0
00
“1
”
ng
ni
ai
em
R
”
ng
ni
ai
em
em
00
34L
ng
ni
ai
Example in feet
R
ng
ni
ai
em
R
0
50
“16R
29
34R
16L
Example of a Landing and Roll-Out Advisory in Feet
The metric distance advisories are generated at 300-metre
intervals, except that the last possible advisory occurs at 100
metres. For example, the following advisories would be generated
during a landing on a 3000-metre runway:
• “One-thousand-two-hundred remaining”; 1
• “Nine-hundred remaining”;
• “Six-hundred remaining”;
• “Three-hundred remaining”; and
• “One-hundred remaining”.
Note that message content is identical to that for the Rejected
Take-Off Distance Remaining Advisory.
1
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86
If the option to annunciate the unit of measure is enabled,
“feet” or “meters” are included in the first distance remaining
call.
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Mark V and Mark VII EGPWS Pilot’s Guide
Landing
Roll-Out
Continued
Runway End Advisory
The purpose of the Runway End Advisory is to improve flight
crew awareness of the position of the aircraft relative to the
runway end during low visibility conditions. Note that the
advisory is not intended to prevent a landing overrun. The
Runway End Advisory is provided to the flight crew when:
• Aircraft is on a runway and aligned within 20 degrees of
runway heading;
• Aircraft approaches within 100 feet (or 30 metres for the
metric option) of the runway end; and
• Aircraft groundspeed is below 40 knots.
The aural message is “One-hundred remaining” for systems
configured in feet and “Thirty remaining” for a metric
configuration.
If the option to annunciate the “unit of measurement” is enabled,
“Feet” or “Meters” is included in the phrase. For example “100
Feet Remaining”.
Example in feet
“100 Remaining”
11
34L
16R
29
34R
16L
Example of runway End Advisory in feet
Taxiway
Landing
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Taxiway Landing Caution
The purpose of the Taxiway Landing Caution is to enhance crew
awareness that the aircraft is not aligned with a runway.
The Taxiway Landing Caution is provided when the following
conditions are met:
• Aircraft is in the air; and
• Aircraft is between 250 and 150 AGL; and
• Aircraft is not aligned with the runway; and
• Aircraft climb rate is less than or equal to 450 FPM.
The typical aural message is “Caution Taxiway, Caution
Taxiway”. The annunciation is re-armed when the aircraft is
more than 400 feet AGL.
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Mark V and Mark VII EGPWS Pilot’s Guide
Taxiway
Landing
Continued
Crew briefing for approved landing on a taxiway should
include the expected Caution Taxiway alert and appropriate
use of inhibit control if available.
Takeoff Flap
Configuration
Monitor
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88
The Takeoff Flap Configuration Monitor function offers a
significant safety advancement to provide the flight crew with
awareness of improper Flap setting when the aircraft is linedup on a runway in advance of takeoff. With the benefit of a
“virtual” box around the EGPWS runway data, the alert is
provided well before thrust levers are advanced for runway
takeoff.
The Takeoff Flap Configuration Monitor uses GPS position
data and the Runway Database to provide aural and visual
annunciations that supplement flight crew awareness of flap
setting during ground operations.
The Takeoff Flap Configuration annunciation is generated
when the following conditions are met:
• Flap handle is not within the valid takeoff flap setting;
• Aircraft enters a runway;
• Aircraft heading is within ±20 degrees of the runway
heading.
The aural message consists of the phrase “Flaps Flaps”. This
caution message is annunciated once each time the aircraft
enters, and is aligned with, a runway. No further calls are
provided unless the flap handle is adjusted and, after 5
seconds of settling time, the flaps are still not set within the
valid takeoff flap setting. Should the pilot adjust the flaps
after the first caution but fails to set takeoff flaps, an
additional “Flaps Flaps” message is provided. Each time a
new flap setting is made the caution will be provided if not
within the takeoff flaps range.
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Mark V and Mark VII EGPWS Pilot’s Guide
If RAAS On Runway advisory is enabled, “Flaps Flaps” is
appended to the end of the On Runway callout. For example,
“On Runway Two-Four, Flaps Flaps”. This alert message is
annunciated once each time the aircraft enters a runway
unless a new flap setting is made as explained above. In this
case, the “Flaps Flaps” message will be annunciated without a
RAAS advisory.
The Takeoff Flap Configuration Monitor function is enabled
using the RCD. This function requires that RAAS be enabled.
None of the Advisories or cautions need be enabled, but the
RAAS processing must be running. When enabled, the
Takeoff Flap Configuration Monitor operates automatically,
without any action required from the flight crew.
In addition to the aural annunciations provided, the GPWS
lamp will be illuminated. Visual text annunciations can also
be overlaid on the terrain display for a period of time when
the monitor condition is entered. The visual annunciation may
be enabled or disabled via the RCD. If configured to do so,
the EGPWS presents the text string “FLAPS” overlaid on top
of the terrain image upon activation of the aural. The text is
centered on the display. The text will remain on the display
until any one of the following conditions exists: configured
timer expires (typically 16 seconds), range on the terrain
display is changed, a new voice with associated visual
annunciation is issued, or a Terrain/Obstacle caution or
warning condition exists.
Inhibit of the Takeoff Flap Configuration Monitor function
via an external cockpit selection may be configured.
System inoperative messages may be indicated as required
using existing inoperative indications. The Takeoff Flap
Configuration Monitor inoperative status will be indicated
during the EGPWS Self-Test if the monitor is enabled via the
RCD and the status indicates the function is inoperative.
Crew briefing for taxiing on a runway that is not the departure
runway should include the potential Flaps Flaps alert if a
takeoff flap has not been set by the Standard Operating
Procedure (SOP).
Simultaneous onset of Takeoff Configuration Warning
System (TOCWS) horn and the Takeoff Flap Configuration
Monitor Flaps Flaps alert could occur. It should be noted that
multiple aircraft configuration errors could cause a TOCWS
horn, including Takeoff Flap Configuration. E.g., Once the
flap anomaly is resolved, the TOCWS horn will persist for
other configuration errors. The flight crew should perform
their normal cross-checks to verify aircraft configuration.
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Mark V and Mark VII EGPWS Pilot’s Guide
RAAS Display
Messages
RAAS advisory/caution visual messages can also be displayed
on the Terrain Display. RAAS visual messages are shown for
two sweeps of the Terrain Display. This feature is available on
all aircraft, but may not Pop-up on some displays unless the
terrain image is selected. The displayed visual messages are as
follows (and an option exists to only display the cautions).
Displayed Message
Conditions
APP 34L (green)
Approaching runway 34L (example). APP with runway ID
appended. In air the runway ID will be the aligned runway. On
ground the runway ID will be the crossing runway.
APP RWYS (green)
Approaching runway with indeterminate runway. In air the
reference runways will be the aligned runways. On ground the
reference runways will be the crossing runways.
ON 34L (green)
On runway 34L (example). ON with runway ID appended. This
message will also appear with Extended Holding advisories.
ON RWYS (green)
On runways with indeterminate aligned runway.
APP 34R 3000 (amber)
Approaching runway 34R with 3000 feet length. APP with
runway ID and runway length appended. The Approaching
Short Runway in air advisory will reference the aligned runway.
SHORT RUNWAY (amber)
Short runway alert (in air or on ground) associated with audio
message “Caution Short Runway, Short Runway”.
ON 34R 3000 (amber)
On runway 34R with 3000 feet available length. APP with
runway ID and remaining runway length appended. The
Insufficient Short Runway on ground advisory will reference the
aligned runway.
ON TAXIWAY (amber)
Aircraft groundspeed is greater than 40 knots on a taxiway.
TAXIWAY (amber)
RAAS has detected an inadvertent landing on a Taxiway. The
message will appear for the period of the in air condition.
FLAPS (amber)
The Takeoff Flap Configuration Monitor has detected an
improper Flap setting when the aircraft is lined-up on a runway
in advance of takeoff.
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Summary of Pilot Response to Non-Routine Advisories/Cautions
Non-Routine
Advisory/Cautions
Purpose
Runway Awareness and Advisory System
Approaching Short Runway in air
Advisory
Confirm aircraft position and initiate go-around if
appropriate.
(eg. "Approaching 34R 3000
Available")
Approaching Short Runway in air
Caution
Confirm aircraft position and initiate go-around if
appropriate.
(eg. "Approaching 34R 3000
Available Caution Short Runway,
Short Runway")
Insufficient Runway on ground
Advisory
Confirm aircraft position and that sufficient runway is
available for takeoff.
(eg. "On 34R 3000 Remaining")
Insufficient Runway on ground
Caution
Confirm aircraft position and discontinue takeoff if
appropriate.
(eg. "On 34R 3000 Remaining
Caution Short Runway, Short
Runway")
Taxiway Landing Caution
("Caution Taxiway! Caution
Taxiway!")
On Taxiway Advisory
("On Taxiway! On Taxiway!")
On Taxiway Caution
("Caution On Taxiway! On
Taxiway!")
Take-off Flap Caution
Confirm aircraft position and initiate go-around if
appropriate.
Confirm aircraft position and speed. Take necessary action
as required (eg. Abort, slow down or continue in case of
approved taxiway takeoff).
Confirm aircraft position and speed, discontinue takeoff if
appropriate.
Verify Flap setting and configure as necessary for Take-off.
(“Flaps, Flaps”)
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SECTION 4
RAAS
Options
The options listed below are set in the RCD and setup during
the installation of RAAS. The flight crew cannot configure
them.
RAAS Options:
Configurable Feature
Option
Distance Unit of Measurement
Feet or Metres
Voice Gender
Female or Male
GPS Antenna Location
Customer-selected location based on aircraft
installation
Taxiway Takeoff
Off or On
Caution Taxiway Takeoff
Off or On
Insufficient Runway Length - On Ground
(Takeoff)
Off or On using customer - selected nominal
runway length based on aircraft type, or always
On
Caution Short Runway – On Ground (Takeoff)
Extended Holding - On Runway
Distance Remaining - Rejected Takeoff
Off or On
INITIAL: 60, 90, 120, 180, 240, 300, Off
REPEAT: 30, 60, 90, 120, 180, 240, 300, Off
Off or On (50% of runway) or with -224 or later
software selected distances 1000 (300), 2000
(600), 3000 (900), 4000 (1200) or 5000 (1500)
Feet (meters)
Approaching Runway - In Air
Off or On
Advisory suppression zone
550 - 450 feet AFE or 450 - 350 feet AFE
Approaching Short Runway - In Air (Landing)
Off or On using customer - selected nominal
runway length based on aircraft type, or always
On
Caution Short Runway – In Air (Landing)
Off or On
Distance Remaining - Landing
Off or On (50% of runway) or with -224 or later
software selected distances 1000 (300), 2000
(600), 3000 (900), 4000 (1200) or 5000 (1500)
Feet (meters)
Runway End Callout
Off or On
Taxiway Landing
Off or On
Take-off Flap
Off or On
Male or Female voice
Inhibit control
Minimum and Maximum Flap setting
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SECTION 5
Audio
Levels
RAAS advisories are heard over the same aircraft audio
systems that presently provide EGPWS audio caution and
warning alerts in the flight deck. The volume of RAAS
advisories is controlled by the EGPWS - the RAAS message
volume level is based on the expected flight operation for
each advisory. RAAS employs three relative audio volume
levels:
Audio Levels:
Audio Level
Advisory / Caution
High
The Taxiway Take-Off Advisory is issued at the
EGPWS caution and warning alert volume level plus
3 dB.
Medium
Distance Remaining advisories and cautions are
issued at the same volume level as EGPWS
cautions and warnings.
Low
All other in-air and on-ground advisories (excludes
Distance
Remaining
and Taxiway
Takeoff
Advisories) are issued at the same volume level as
the EGPWS cautions and warnings volume level
minus 6 dB. *
* other volumes levels selectable by RAAS configuration
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SECTION 6
Operational
Availability
RAAS is operationally available anytime the EGPWS is
powered and the following conditions are met:
• The software for the RAAS functions have been loaded and
enabled into an EGPWS (with a minimum of software
version -218-218 (or later) and Terrain Database 435). For
RAAS with software version -230-230 (or later) Terrain
Database 454 (or later) is required;
• The aircraft is on or approaching an airport in the RAAS
runway database; and
• RAAS is functional ( e.g., all external signals are available
and not faulted, GPS position accuracy meets minimum
RAAS requirements, there are no internal EGPWS faults).
RAAS operational availability is integrated into the existing
EGPWS fault monitoring and self-test functions. Consistent
with approved EGPWS self-test design, the loss of RAAS
functions is indicated on-ground only during an EGPWS selftest. There is no automatic annunciation of the loss of RAAS
functionality on most aircraft. The audio self-test messages
are as follows.
RAAS Self-Test Audio Messages:
Audio Message
“Runway Awareness
OK Feet”
Conditions
RAAS software enabled, functioning, has good position
information, and is at a validated airport. Feet will be
annunciated in the gender voice option (male or female)
selected for RAAS.
“Runway Awareness
OK Metres”
RAAS software enabled, functioning, has good position
information, and is at a validated airport. Metres will be
annunciated in the gender voice option (male or female)
selected for RAAS.
“Runway Awareness
Not Available”
RAAS software enabled, but the system either has no
position information, the accuracy of the position
information is insufficient to allow RAAS to function, or
the aircraft is at an airport that has not been validated
for RAAS in the EGPWS Terrain Database.
“Runway Awareness
Inhibited”
RAAS software enabled, but the advisories have been
inhibited with the activation of an external discrete.
“Runway Awareness
R-T-O”
RAAS software enabled and functioning, but RAAS has
detected a Rejected Take-Off condition. To clear this
message, the aircraft must be taxied off the runway
area.
“Runway Awareness
INOP”
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RAAS software enabled but function is inoperative.
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“Flap Monitor INOP”
Take-off Flap Configuration Monitor is enabled but the
function is inoperative. Annunciated on ground during
Level 1 Self-Test.
RAAS status can also be displayed on the Terrain
Display. This is active only when the aircraft is on the
ground. If the INOP, Inhibit or Not available conditions
exist, the status is immediately shown on the Terrain
display and can be cleared by a range change. For all
other status messages, the procedure requires the flight
crew to select the terrain display followed by a change
in the displayed range (to a higher or lower range).
RAAS status is annunciated for two sweeps of the
Terrain Display. This feature is available on all aircraft,
but is primarily intended for those aircraft where the
flight crew does not perform an EGPWS self-test. The
displayed status messages are as follows.
RAAS Status Display Messages
Displayed Message
RAAS OK FT (green)
Conditions
RAAS software enabled, functioning, has good position
information, and is at a validated airport. Distances
annunciated in feet.
RAAS OK M (green)
RAAS software enabled, functioning, has good position
information, and is at a validated airport. Distances
annunciated in metres.
RAAS N/AVBL (amber)
RAAS software enabled, but the system either has no
position information or the accuracy of the position
information is insufficient to allow RAAS to function.
RAAS NA X (amber)
RAAS software enabled, but the location airport has
not been validated for RAAS in the EGPWS Terrain
Database. X = the location airport designator. For
example RAAS-NA-KSBP for San Luis Obispo Co.
Regional Airport. Added in -230-230 software version.
RAAS INH (amber)
RAAS software enabled, but the advisories have been
inhibited with the activation of an external discrete.
RAAS RTO (green)
RAAS software enabled and functioning, but RAAS has
detected a Rejected Take-Off condition. To clear this
message, the aircraft must be taxied off the runway
area.
RAAS INOP (amber)
RAAS software enabled but function is inoperative.
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SECTION 7
Frequently
Asked
Questions
Q. How do I know that the RAAS is enabled?
A. Perform an EGPWS self-test or select the Terrain Display
followed by a change in the displayed range (to a higher or
lower range). RAAS status is annunciated for two sweeps of
the Terrain Display. These functions available only when
aircraft is on the ground.
Q. How can the flight crew determine which RAAS database
is currently loaded in the EGPWS computer?
A. The RAAS status message on the Terrain Display during
the EGPWS self-test (see last question) also displays the
version of the currently installed database.
Q. How can the flight crew determine if RAAS will work at
the destination airport upon arrival?
A. RAAS status can be displayed on the Terrain Display only
when the aircraft is on the ground. The crew should check in
advance if the destination airport is included in the RAAS
database – see answer to the next question. Once on the
ground at the destination airport, RAAS status can be
displayed on the Terrain Display.
Q. How can the flight crew determine what airports are
enabled for RAAS?
A. Details of the specific airports included in the RAAS
database and procedures for operators to acquire the latest
RAAS database are provided on the Internet at
www.egpws.com. A telephone number for voice contact is
included as well.
Q. Who do I contact for help with a RAAS database issue
(such as adding an airport to the RAAS database), or a
problem encountered in the operation of RAAS at a particular
airport?
A. An online form for RAAS discrepancies is provided on the
Internet at www.egpws.com. A telephone number for voice
contact is included as well.
877-436-2005 (In U.S.)
602-436-2005 (Outside U.S.)
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Frequently
Asked
Questions
Continued
Q. How do I know what units are being used for the
RAAS distance related advisories?
A. This information is provided during the EGPWS self-test
audio message or on the RAAS status message on the
terrain display.
Q. How does RAAS account for temporary runway closures?
A. RAAS does not include knowledge of prevailing
Notice to Airmen (NOTAM) and therefore factors
such as closure of runways is not reflected by
advisories. Crews are assumed to be cognizant of
prevailing NOTAM and Automatic Terminal
Information Service (ATIS) data. Similarly, data on
newly constructed runways or changes to length of
existing runways may not necessarily be included in
the RAAS runway database.
Q. Why does RAAS provide an On Taxiway advisory on
some runways?
A. The runway is not yet in the RAAS database, Crews are
always required to use conventional means to ascertain
and confirm position of runways.
Q. Why doesn’t RAAS always provide an approaching
runway advisory when I am at the hold-short line?
A. The Advisory is always provided at a fixed distance from
the runway edge at groundspeeds below 10 knots, and in
some cases the hold-short lines are not painted at positions
that correspond to ICAO standards. RAAS does not have
knowledge of ground markings. In RAAS RCDs with part
numbers ending -400 or later, a Pilot Point of View
(PPoV) distance compensation was added between the
nose of the aircraft and the runway edge.
Q. I received a Flaps Flaps alert while taxing on a runway
to my exit ramp, what caused this?
A. The Takeoff Flap Configuration Monitor will provide a
Flaps Flaps alert if aligned with the runway and Flaps
are not in takeoff configuration, 5 minutes after landing.
Abbreviations
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AFE
Above Field Elevation [ft]
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ATC
EGPWS
GPWS
NOTAM
RAAS
RCD
PPOV
RTO
TIPH
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98
Air Traffic Control
Enhanced Ground Proximity Warning System
Ground Proximity Warning System
Notice to Airmen
Runway Awareness and Advisory System
Reloadable Customer Definition
Pilot Point Of View
Rejected Take-Off
Taxi-Into-Position-and-Hold
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SMARTLANDINGTM PILOT GUIDE
TABLE OF CONTENTS
SECTION 1 Introduction ................................................................... 102
SECTION 2 System Operation Description ...................................... 104
SECTION 3 Monitor Options ............................................................ 114
SECTION 4 Operational Availability ............................................... 115
SECTION 5 Frequently Asked Questions ......................................... 116
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SECTION 1
Introduction
Why SMART
TM
LANDING
functions?
Stabilized
Approach
Monitor
Smart Landing TM
100
This Pilot Guide section describes the functions and
operation of the MKV and MKVII EGPWS
SMARTLANDINGTM functions added in -230-230 software
version and equivalent and later.
The document is divided into the following sections:
• Section 1 – An introduction to the SMARTLANDINGTM
functions;
• Section 2 – A detailed description of the operation of
SMARTLANDINGTM functions;
• Section 3 – A summary of the options available to
operators to configure SMARTLANDINGTM
functions;
• Section 4 – Means for the flight crew to check the
operational availability of SMARTLANDINGTM
functions.
This guide does not supersede FAA approved data,
Flight Manuals, individual Operations Manuals,
requirements, or procedures. Pilots should be
thoroughly familiar with their own company policies,
system configuration, requirements, and procedures
with respect to the operation of aircraft with the
EGPWS and RAAS.
The information in this document is intended as a general
explanation of the Honeywell Monitor Functions. It contains
a description of system performance assuming the identified
options are active.
The intended function of the Monitor Functions is to
supplement the existing approved flight crew standard
operating procedures. Existing EGPWS protection and
operation is unaltered by the addition of the new non-TSO
Monitor Functions.
New Flight Safety Functions Hosted in EGPWS
•
Stabilized Approach Monitor
•
Altimeter Monitor
•
Long Landing Monitor
The Stabilized Approach Monitor function offers a
significant safety advancement to supplement flight crew
awareness of unstabilized approaches as described below.
The Stabilized Approach Monitor uses the inputs described
below and the Honeywell EGPWS Terrain Database to
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Stabilized
Approach
Monitor
Continued
Altimeter
Monitor
Long
Landing
Monitor
provide visual and aural annunciations that supplement flight
crew awareness of unstabilized approaches.
An unstabilized approach can lead to a runway overrun
accident as a result of long touchdown and/or insufficient
runway length left to stop. Many airlines are viewing an
unstabilized approach as one of the biggest remaining safety
issues. They have created “approach gates” in their Standard
Operating Procedures (SOP) to help pilots decide whether a
go-around action needs to be taken. The gates are typically at
1,000 feet and 500 feet above field elevation (AFE). A typical
SOP states that the aircraft should be stabilized by 1,000ft
AFE, and must be stabilized by 450ft AFE. A go-around must
be initiated if the stabilized approach criteria are not satisfied.
The stabilized approach criteria can vary from operator to
operator, and also on the type of approach (precision approach
vs. non-precision approach, for example).
The Altimeter Monitor function offers a significant safety
advancement to provide the flight crew with awareness of
problems with the pressure altitude system.
The Altimeter Monitor uses existing altitude sources and the
Honeywell EGPWS Terrain Database to provide aural and
visual annunciations as described below.
The Altimeter Monitor continuously monitors the existing
altitude inputs to the EGPWS and alerts the crew if an error in
the altitude is detected. The Altimeter Monitor provides
protection against incorrectly set or erroneous altimeter
settings and can help ensure a proper altitude reference is
being used, especially for RNP or VNAV based approach
procedures with undetected altimetry errors from incorrect
altimeter settings
The Long Landing Monitor function offers pilot increased
runway awareness and complements the RAAS Distance
Remaining callouts. The function advises the crew of their
position during a landing when the aircraft has not touched
down in a nominal amount of time and/or distance.
The Long Landing Monitor adds two new distance remaining
annunciations to enhance crew awareness of aircraft alongtrack position relative to the runway end. One provides
annunciations if the aircraft has not touched down before a
configurable threshold and the second provides airborne only
aural annunciations of current distance from aircraft to the
runway end.
Summary of Non-Routine Advisories/Cautions
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Non-Routine
Advisory/Cautions
Purpose
Stabilized Approach Monitor
Flaps not in landing configuration
Awareness of unstabilized approach due to improper flap
position for landing ("Flaps, Flaps").
Excessive approach angle
Awareness of unstabilized approach due to steep
approach angle ("Too High, Too High").
Excessive approach speed
Awareness of unstabilized approach due to
excessive approach speed ("Too Fast, Too Fast").
Unstable approach
Awareness of unstabilized approach due to proximity to
runway and not meeting other stabilized approach criteria
("Unstable, Unstable").
Altimeter setting
Awareness of improper altimeter setting ("Altimeter
Setting").
Altimeter Monitor
Long Landing Monitor
Long landing
Awareness of position beyond threshold
before touchdown ("Long Landing, Long
Landing").
Long landing distance remaining
Awareness of runway distance remaining before
touchdown (ex: "five-thousand remaining").
Summary of Pilot Response to Non-Routine Advisories/Cautions
Non-Routine
Advisory/Cautions
Purpose
Stabilized Approach Monitor
Flaps not in landing configuration
Verify flap position and select flap as required.
("Flaps, Flaps")
Excessive approach angle
Verify vertical position, apply corrections as required.
("Too High, Too High")
Excessive approach speed
Verify airspeed and adjust as necessary.
("Too Fast, Too Fast")
Unstable approach
("Unstable, Unstable")
Verify whether approach parameters are as
expected/briefed and take appropriate action if necessary.
Altimeter Monitor
Above Transition Altitude,
Altimeter setting
Check altimeter setting and procedure altitude, request
ATC assistance as necessary.
("Altimeter Setting")
Below Transition Altitude,
Altimeter setting
Check the Flight deck (Baro setting) and request an
updated Altimeter setting from ATC controller.
("Altimeter Setting")
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Long Landing Monitor
Long landing
("Long Landing, Long Landing")
Long landing distance remaining
(eg. "five-thousand remaining").
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Confirm aircraft position and initiate go-around if
appropriate.
Confirm aircraft position and initiate go-around if
appropriate.
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SECTION 2
System
Operation
Description
Stabilized
Approach
Monitor
The SMARTLANDINGTM functions use aircraft inputs from the
EGPWS such as GPS position, heading, groundspeed and a
runway database to generate the aural advisories/cautions. Note
that GPS availability is a requirement for the operation of these
SMARTLANDINGTM functions. Aircraft position is referenced
to the GPS antenna position. The SMARTLANDINGTM
functions do not have knowledge of taxiways, ATIS & NOTAM
information, other traffic, pilot intent, ATC clearance, ground
markings and signage. Crews should be cognizant of the
prevailing ATIS and any NOTAMs. (Similarly, data on newly
constructed runways or changes to length of existing runways
may not necessarily be included in the runway database). The
SMARTLANDINGTM functions operate automatically, without
any action required from the flight crew.
Note that all SMARTLANDINGTM function annunciations have
a lower priority than existing EGPWS alerts, including radio
altitude call-outs.
Stabilized Approach Monitor is armed when the aircraft
climbs more than 1,450 ft AFE. Each monitoring function is
then separately enabled at different altitudes during the final
approach when the aircraft is descending more than 400 fpm
at less than 5 NM from the destination runway.
The criteria for a stabilized approach for air transport category
aircraft is typically:
• Landing Gear down
• Landing Flaps set
• Aircraft Speed within the final approach speed +10 knots /
-5 knots
• Vertical Speed less than -1,000 fpm
• Aircraft on approach profile (Glideslope and Localizer
captured)
The Stabilized Approach Monitor observes these parameters
during
the
approach
and
automatically
issues
advisories/cautions if the stabilized approach criteria are not
met. No advisory/caution is issued by Stabilized Approach
Monitor during normal approach.
The aircraft is stabilized during the final approach if the
aircraft is fully configured to land and the aircraft energy is
properly managed. If the aircraft is not configured properly at
certain gates or is flown with excessive energy, the Stabilized
Approach Monitor issues an annunciation indicating which
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Stabilized
Approach
Monitor
Continued
parameter needs attention giving the pilot a chance to correct
the problem. When the aircraft reaches the final “gate”, which
is typically 450’ AFE and the problem(s) still exists, an
“Unstable Unstable” caution is issued.
The Stabilized Approach Monitor specifically has the
following four monitoring functions:
• Landing Flap Monitor – Issues “Flaps (pause) Flaps” or
“Flaps Flaps” aural if the landing flaps are not set.
• Excessive Speed Monitor – Issues “Too Fast – Too Fast”
aural if the aircraft speed becomes excessive compared to
the final approach speed (VREF or VAPP).
• Excessive Approach Angle Monitor – Issues “Too High –
Too High” aural if the aircraft approach angle to the
runway threshold becomes too steep.
• Unstable Monitor – Issues “Unstable - Unstable” aural if
the aircraft has not been stabilized at 450’ AFE Gate.
The annunciations generated from all the approach monitors
except Unstable are classified as advisory level as crew
awareness is required and may require subsequent flight crew
response. The annunciation generated from the Unstable
monitor is classified as caution level as crew awareness and
subsequent flight crew response is required.
Each Stabilized Approach Monitor function is independently
enabled using the Reloadable Customer Definitions file called
the RCD. When enabled, the Stabilized Approach Monitors
operate automatically, without any action required from the
flight crew.
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Stabilized
Approach
Monitor
Continued
By default, the aural message is generated at the EGPWS
Warning volume, but the audio level may be adjusted to a
different level using the RCD.
In addition to the aural annunciations provided, visual text
annunciations can also be overlaid on the terrain display for a
period of time when the monitor condition is entered. The
visual annunciation may be enabled or disabled via the RCD.
If configured to do so, the EGPWS presents the following text
strings overlaid on top of the terrain image upon activation of
the aural. The text is centered on the display. The text will
remain on the display until any one of the following
conditions exists: configured timer expires (typically 16
seconds), range on the terrain display is changed, a new voice
with associated visual annunciation is issued, a
Terrain/Obstacle caution or warning condition exists, or the
Height Above Field Elevation is less than or equal to 300 feet.
Displayed Message
Approach Monitor Aural
FLAPS (amber)
“Flaps (pause) Flaps” or
“Flaps Flaps” aural
TOO FAST (amber)
“Too Fast – Too Fast” aural
TOO HIGH (amber)
“Too High – Too High” aural
UNSTABLE (amber)
“Unstable – Unstable” aural
The following is an example of the visual terrain display message
associated with the Flaps aural.
Inhibit of the Stabilized Approach Monitor annunciations via an
external cockpit switch or existing cockpit switches may be
configured.
System inoperative messages may be indicated as required using
existing inoperative indications. The Stabilized Approach
Monitor inoperative status will be indicated during the EGPWS
Self test if any one of the monitors is enabled via the RCD and
the status indicates the function is inoperative.
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Landing
Flaps
Monitor
Excessive
Speed
Monitor
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The Landing Flaps monitor provides the flight crew with
awareness of possible unstabilized approach due to flaps not
in landing configuration. This function, if enabled, provides a
“Flaps (pause) Flaps” callout if the landing flaps are not set
at 950ft AFE (typical upper Flap gate). A “Flaps Flaps” (no
pause in between) call is provided if the aircraft is aligned
with the runway and the landing flaps are still not set at 600ft
AFE (typical lower Flap gate). Note that there is an effective
450 foot lower limit where the “Unstable” voice would take
precedence.
According to pilots from several major airlines who fly large
air transport jets in the U.S., Europe and Asia, the landing
flaps are typically set before the aircraft reaches 1,000ft AGL
except during a circling approach. The landing flaps are not
set until the aircraft is on base during a circling approach.
Since Stabilized Approach Monitor does not know the
destination runway set in the FMS, Stabilized Approach
Monitor can issue a “Flaps-Flaps” callout during a circling
approach, most likely on downwind leg. If this becomes an
issue, the function can be disabled by the RCD.
Although the existing EGPWS Mode 4 envelope is already
covering the landing flaps callout (i.e., “Too Low Flaps”
callout at 245ft radio altitude), some operators commented
that pilots need to be advised at much higher altitude from a
stabilized approach point of view. Therefore, Stabilized
Approach Monitor is designed to provide a landing flaps
callout independent from Mode 4.
Crew briefing for an engine-out approach without normal
landing flaps set should include the potential Flaps Flaps alert
and appropriate use of Flap over-ride or inhibit control if
available.
Crew briefing for a circling approach with a low circling minima
(e.g., <1000 ft) should include the potential Flaps Flaps alert
before the circling procedure begins and appropriate use of Flap
over-ride or inhibit control if available.
The Excessive Speed monitor provides the flight crew with
awareness of possible unstabilized approach due to excessive
approach speeds. This function, if enabled, provides a “Too Fast
– Too Fast” callout if the aircraft approach speed becomes too
fast compared to the target approach speed (VREF or VAPP). Since
pilots are often asked by ATC to maintain high speed during the
final approach, the excessive speed envelope is designed to allow
greater deviation from the target approach speed at higher
altitude.
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Excessive
Speed
Monitor
Continued
Excessive
Approach
Angle
Monitor
Unstable
Approach
Monitor
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When a circling approach is flown, the aircraft speed remains
high on the downwind leg. Therefore, Excessive Speed
Monitor is not enabled until 600 ft AFE (typical gate) unless
the aircraft is fully configured to land, which indicates the
aircraft is committed to land.
VREF is typically the stall speed multiplied by 1.3. For an
Airbus FMGC, VAPP is VLS (Airbus equivalent of VREF) plus
additional factors such as wind. Because VAPP on Airbus
already has wind factors added, the Excessive Speed Monitor
Envelope for Airbus aircraft will be different from one for
Boeing aircraft using VREF, and can be set more sensitive.
There is a potential association between the Stabilized
Approach Monitor Too Fast and a Windshear condition. The
windshear will have alert priority over the Excessive Speed.
Crew action should be focused on the windshear escape.
The Excessive Approach Angle monitor provides the flight
crew with awareness of a possible unstabilized approach if the
approach angle to the destination runway becomes too steep.
This function, if enabled, provides a “Too High – Too High”
callout if the approach angle to the destination runway
becomes too steep.
The aircraft must be lined up with the destination runway on
final approach to enable this function. When a circling
approach is flown, the aircraft can fly over the runway on
downwind leg, which makes computed angle to the runway
very large. Therefore, Excessive Approach Angle Monitor is
not enabled until 600 ft AFE (minimum circling minima)
unless the aircraft is fully configured to land. The destination
runway must be identified with very high likelihood and the
runway location must be accurate for this function to work
properly. The aircraft position must also be accurate (requires
a Direct-GPS).
Crew briefing for side-step approach and approach to a
runway with a temporary displaced threshold should include
the potential Too High and/or Unstable alert and appropriate
use of inhibit control if available.
The Unstable Approach monitor provides the flight crew with
awareness of a possible unstabilized approach. This function
provides an “Unstable – Unstable” callout and illuminates the
GPWS lamp if the aircraft has not reached the 450 ft AFE
gate in a stabilized condition. Annunciation of one of the
previously discussed monitors must have been activated
before the Unstable annunciation is provided so the crew has
an indication of why the aircraft is considered unstable.
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Altimeter
Monitor
Below
Transition
Altitude
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The Altimeter Monitor function provides the flight crew with
two advisories that inform of improper altimeter setting. The
Below Transition Altitude monitor provides the flight crew
with awareness of an anomaly in the pressure altitude system
while the aircraft is operating below the transition altitude.
The Above Transition Altitude monitor provides the flight
crew with awareness of an anomaly in the pressure altitude
system if the altimeter has not been set to the standard altitude
when the aircraft is operating above the transition altitude.
The annunciations generated from this monitor are classified
as advisory level as crew awareness may be required and crew
response is not necessarily imminent.
The Below Transition Altitude - Altimeter monitor compares
Corrected Altitude from the Air Data Computer (ADC) with
the Global Positioning System (GPS) Altitude from the GPS
receiver. If the difference between the two altitudes exceeds a
computed threshold value an Altimeter Setting aural message
and an optional visual annunciation are generated. Note that
the EGPWS does not perform a cross check of both Air Data
inputs, on some aircraft a function external to the EGPWS
provides an indication to the crew. Therefore the EGPWS
compares Corrected Altitude with GPS Altitude from the
Captain’s side data only. The advisory threshold is
dynamically computed based on estimated errors due to nonstandard atmospheric conditions, current GPS accuracy, and
Air Data system errors. Since the threshold is dynamic, the
size of the error that can be detected varies with the current
aircraft state and sensor conditions. The figure below shows
the size of errors that can be detected for typical conditions as
function of the aircraft height above field for different ISA
temperature deviations.
The Altimeter Monitor includes a cross check on the GPS
Altitude to prevent nuisance advisories caused by erroneous
GPS Altitude values. The cross-check compares GPS Altitude
with aircraft altitude computed using radio altitude and the
terrain elevation from the terrain database. This difference
between these altitudes is compared against a dynamically
computed threshold based on the current GPS accuracy, radio
altitude accuracy, and the estimated terrain database accuracy.
If the cross-check fails, then the Below Transition Altitude Altimeter Monitor is disabled to prevent nuisance
annunciations caused by erroneous GPS Altitude values.
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Detectable Error for Various Temp Deviations
20000
Height Above Field (Ft)
18000
16000
14000
ISA
12000
ISA +/- 10
10000
ISA +/- 20
8000
ISA +/-30
6000
4000
2000
0
0
500
1000
1500
2000
Size of Detected Error (Ft)
Below
Transition
Altitude
Continued
The Altimeter Monitor uses the following inputs: GPS data
(including Altitude, Vertical Figure of Merit, Non-Isolatable
Satellite Failure (NISF), Operating Mode, Horizontal Integrity
Limit, Number of Satellites) and ADC data (Corrected
Barometric Altitude, Pressure Altitude, and Static Air
Temperature).
The Below Transition Altitude - Altimeter Monitor
annunciation is generated when the following conditions are
met:
• GPS Altitude and Vertical Figure of Merit (VFOM) are
valid and have passed internal reasonableness checks
• GPS is not in altitude aiding mode, the number of
satellites tracked is 5 or greater, a non-isolatable satellite
failure (NISF) does not exist, and GPS Horizontal
Integrity Limit (HIL) is valid
• Corrected Barometric Altitude and Static Air Temperature
are valid
• EGPWS Runway Database is valid
• Aircraft Altitude is less than the Transition Altitude for
more than 30 seconds OR Height Above Field is less than
1500 feet. The transition altitude is obtained from the
EGPWS runway database for the destination runway.
• Aircraft is within 20 nautical miles of the EGPWS
Selected destination runway
• Height above field is less than 5000 feet
• Airport is not indicated as QFE, altimeter setting is not
QFE, and QFE program pin is not selected
• Radio Height is greater than 600 feet
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Below
Transition
Altitude
Continued
Above
Transition
Altitude
Message
content,
Audio &
Visuals
060-4241-000
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The filtered difference between Corrected Altitude and GPS
Altitude exceeds a computed threshold based on the current
estimated altimetry system errors.
The there are two selectable options for the Above Transition
Altitude - Altimeter monitor. The first option compares
Corrected Barometric Altitude with Uncorrected Altitude and
generates an annunciation if the difference is greater than the
specified threshold after the aircraft has climbed above the
transition altitude. This option is applicable to Boeing
installations and other aircraft, except Airbus, where the
corrected altitude output from the ADC (typically label 204)
equals uncorrected altitude when the barometric reference is
set to standard.
The second option is applicable to Airbus installations where
the Corrected Altitude output from the ADC is not set to
standard setting when the barometric reference is set to
Standard. In these installations, the barometric reference
setting is directly received by the EGPWS. An advisory will
be generated if the barometric reference is not set to standard
after passing through the transition altitude.
The Above Transition Altitude - Altimeter Monitor advisory
is generated when the following conditions are met:
• Corrected Barometric Altitude, Uncorrected Barometric
Altitude, and Runway Database are valid.
• The aircraft has been above the transition altitude for
more than 30 seconds and not more than 5 minutes.
The difference between Corrected Altitude and Uncorrected
Altitude is less than the fixed threshold or the Barometric
Altitude Reference does not equal standard, depending on the
selected monitor option.
The aural message consists of the phrase “Altimeter Setting”.
This aural message is issued once when the altimeter error is first
detected and will repeat once, 8 seconds later. After two
messages, no additional message will be generated.
The monitor will be re-armed if the enable logic goes false and
then true or after a change in the altimeter setting is detected by
the EGPWS.
By default, the aural message is generated at the EGPWS
Warning volume, but the audio level may be adjusted to a
different level using the RCD.
In addition to the aural annunciations provided, visual text
annunciations can also be overlaid on the terrain display for a
period of time when the monitor condition is entered.
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The visual annunciation may be enabled or disabled via the
RCD. If configured to do so, the EGPWS presents the text
string “ALTM SETTING” overlaid on top of the terrain
image upon activation of the aural. The text is centered on the
display. The text will remain on the display until any one of
the following conditions exists: configured timer expires
(typically 16 seconds), range on the terrain display is
changed, a new voice with associated visual annunciation is
issued, a Terrain/Obstacle caution or warning condition
exists, or the aircraft is above the transition altitude for the
Below Transition Altitude Monitor or below the transition
altitude for the Above Transition Altitude Monitor.
Altimeter There is not an option to inhibit the Altimeter Monitor
Monitor annunciations.
Inhibit & The Altimeter Monitor inoperative status will be indicated
Inop during the EGPWS Self test if any one of the monitors is
enabled via the RCD and the status indicates the function is
inoperative.
Long Landing The Long Landing Monitor provides two new distance
Monitor remaining annunciations to the flight crew with awareness
that the aircraft has not touched down within a defined alongtrack distance from the runway threshold or the end of the
runway, depending on how it has been configured.
The Long Landing Monitor uses GPS position data and the
Honeywell EGPWS Terrain Database to provide aural and
visual annunciations that supplement flight crew awareness of
aircraft position in relation to the runway.
The annunciation generated from this monitor is classified as
caution level as crew awareness and immediate and
subsequent crew response is required.
If the aircraft has not touched down before a configurable
threshold, the EGPWS will issue the default aural “Long
Landing – Long Landing”. The message can be configured to
“Deep Landing – Deep Landing”. In addition, airborne only
aural annunciations of current distance from aircraft to the
runway end can be enabled.
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“5000 Remaining”
“3000 Remaining”
“6000 Remaining”
“2000 Remaining”
“Deep Landing”
“1000 Remaining”
28
L
10
L
Touchdown Zone
Specified in RCD
Deep Landing Distance
Remaining Callouts
Regular Distance Remaining
Callouts
i.e., 2000’ or 25% runway length
from runway approach end
Long
Landing
Monitor
Continued
The new Long Landing and airborne only Distance Remaining
alerts are generated when the following conditions are met:
• Aircraft is within 100 feet AGL, over a customer specified
distance from the runway end;
• Aircraft is airborne above 5 feet AGL, or weight on
wheels is false
The Long Landing Monitor function is enabled using the
RCD. This function requires that RAAS be enabled. None of
the Advisories or cautions need be enabled, but the RAAS
processing must be running. When enabled, the Long Landing
Monitor function operates automatically, without any action
required from the flight crew.
In addition to the aural annunciations provided, visual text
annunciations can also be overlaid on the terrain display for a
period of time when the monitor condition is entered. The visual
annunciation may be enabled or disabled via the RCD. If
configured to do so, the EGPWS presents the text string “LONG
LANDING” or “DEEP LANDING” overlaid on top of the terrain
image upon activation of the aural. The text is centered on the
display. The text will remain on the display until any one of the
following conditions exists: configured timer expires (typically
16 seconds), range on the terrain display is changed, a new voice
with associated visual annunciation is issued, or a
Terrain/Obstacle caution or warning condition exists.
Inhibit of the Long Landing Monitor function via an external
cockpit selection may be configured.
System inoperative messages may be indicated as required using
existing inoperative indications. The Long Landing Monitor
inoperative status will be indicated during the EGPWS Self-Test
if the monitor is enabled via the RCD and the status indicates the
function is inoperative.
Crew briefing for landing on a runway with a temporary
displaced threshold should include the potential Long Landing
alert and appropriate use of inhibit control if available. Note, use
of inhibit control will also inhibit the Long Landing Distance
Remaining callouts.
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SECTION 3
MONITOR
Options
The options listed below are set in the RCD and setup during
the installation of Stabilized Approach Monitor, Altimeter
Monitor, and Long Landing Monitor. The flight crew cannot
configure them.
Monitor Options:
Configurable Feature
Option
Distance Unit of Measurement
Feet or Metres
GPS Antenna Location
Customer-selected location based on aircraft
installation
Enable/Inhibit Discrete
Takeoff Flap and Long Landing monitors use the
same discrete as Runway Awareness
Stabilized Approach Monitor
Off or On
Voice Gender
Female or Male
Enable/Inhibit Discrete
Off or On; or use the same discrete as Takeoff Flap,
Long Landing and Runway Awareness
Landing Flap Monitor
Off or On
Upper Flap Gate Alert; Altitude
Off or On; 500 ft. to 1400 ft., typically 950 ft.
Lower Flap Gate Alert; Altitude
Off or On; 500 ft. to 1000 ft., typically 600 ft.
Excessive Approach Angle Monitor
Off or On
Excessive Approach Speed Monitor
Off or On; Boeing or Airbus alert curve
Altimeter Monitor
Off or On
Voice Gender
Female or Male
Below Transition Altitude Enable
Off or On
Above Transition Altitude Enable
Off or On
Long Landing Monitor
Off or On
Voice Gender
Female or Male
Configure Callout
“Long Landing” or “Deep Landing”
Long Landing Distance
Distance from the selected end to trigger alert
Long Landing Percentage
Off or On; Percentage of runway remaining to
trigger alert
Long Landing Distance Remaining
Off or On; Distance from the selected end to trigger
distance remaining alert
Long Landing Percentage Remaining
Off or On; Percentage of runway remaining to
trigger distance remaining alert
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SECTION 4
Operational
Availability
Monitors are operationally available anytime the EGPWS is
powered and the following conditions are met:
• The software for the Monitor functions have been loaded
and enabled into an EGPWS (with software version -230230 (or later) and a minimum of Terrain Database version
454 if RAAS or any of the Stabilized Approach Monitors
are enabled, otherwise Terrain Database Version 435 or
later is required);
• The aircraft is on or approaching an airport in the runway
database; and
• Monitors are functional (e.g., all external signals are
available and not faulted, GPS position accuracy meets
minimum requirements, there are no internal EGPWS
faults).
Monitor operational availability is integrated into the existing
EGPWS fault monitoring and self-test functions. Consistent
with approved EGPWS self-test design, the loss of Monitor
functions is indicated on-ground only during an EGPWS selftest. There is no automatic annunciation of the loss of Monitor
functionality. The audio self-test messages are as follows.
Monitor Self-Test Audio Messages:
Audio Message
Conditions
"Altimeter Monitor INOP"
Altimeter Monitor is enabled but the function is
inoperative. Annunciated on ground during
Level 1 Self-Test.
“Approach Monitor INOP”
Stabilized Approach Monitor is enabled but the
function is inoperative. Annunciated on ground
during Level 1 Self-Test.
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SECTION 5
Frequently
Asked
Questions
Q. Will a Side-Step Approach cause a Stabilized Approach
Monitor alerts?
A. A potential Stabilized Approach Monitor – Excessive
Approach Angle Too High callout and Unstable alert
may occur during the side-step maneuver if the
approach becomes too high.
Q. Will a Temporary Displaced Threshold cause a
Stabilized Approach Monitor alerts?
A. A potential Stabilized Approach Monitor – Excessive
Approach Angle Too High callout and Unstable alert
may occur during the approach to a temporary displaced
threshold runway. Also, a potential Long Landing
callout may occur during the approach to a temporary
displaced threshold runway.
Q. Do I need to select TERR ON to activate Visual Text
Messages?
A. The visual alerts are only provided if the Terrain display
is selected ON. They do not pop-up on the Terrain
display, if the Terrain display is OFF.
Q. How does the Altitude Monitor know that the transition
altitude is different in Europe than in the U.S.?
A. The transition altitude is stored in the Runway database,
and aircraft position determines the location.
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Dear Honeywell EGPWS Customer:
This form is a request for information that will allow Honeywell to notify you
of future updates to your Enhanced Ground Proximity Warning System. Please
complete the information below and fax the information sheet to Honeywell at
425-885-8722 or return via U.S. mail to:
Honeywell International, Inc.
Attn: Sandra Slick
Technical Publications
P.O. Box 97001
Redmond, WA 98073-9701
Please detach and send back to Honeywell
Customer Information:
Customer Contact: _______________________________________________
Company Name: _________________________________________________
Shipping Address: ________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
Phone Number: __________________________________________________
Fax Number: ____________________________________________________
E-mail Address: _________________________________________________
Aircraft Information:
Aircraft Model __________________________________________________
EGPWS Part Number
EGPWS Serial # _______________
Aircraft Model __________________________________________________
EGPWS Part Number
EGPWS Serial # _______________
Aircraft Model __________________________________________________
EGPWS Part Number
EGPWS Serial # _______________
060-4241-000
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Mark V and Mark VII EGPWS Pilot’s Guide
118
060-4241-000
Rev H, August 2011
Honeywell International Inc.
15001 N.E. 36th Street - P.O. Box 97001
Redmond, Washington USA 98073-9701
Telephone: (425) 885-8367
http://www51.honeywell.com/aero/Products-Services/
Avionics-Electronics/EGPWS-Home.html
OR:
Honeywell Global Customer Care
Telephone: 800-601-3099 (U.S.A./Canada)
Telephone: 602-365-3099 (International)
FAX: (602) 822-7272
http://portal.honeywell.com/wps/portal/aero
060-4241-000
Rev H, August 2011
Copyright © 2011 Honeywell International Inc.