BENDIX ATR-2 ANTILOCK TRACTION VALVE Troubleshooting guide

The Air Brake Handbook
©2004 Bendix Commercial Vehicle Systems LLC • All Rights Reserved
The Air Brake Handbook
©2004 Bendix Commercial Vehicle Systems LLC • All Rights Reserved
www.bendix.com
1-800-AIR-BRAKE (1-800-247-2725)
1
Device Index
Device Index
F
A
™
A-18 Controller Assy. . . . . . . . . . .
Actuators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
AD-2™ Air Dryer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
AD-4™ Air Dryer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
AD-9™ Air Dryer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
AD-IP™ Air Dryer . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
AD-IS™ Air Dryer Module . . . . . . . .
AD-SP™ Air Dryer . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
AF-3™ In-line Air Filter . . . . . . . . . .
Air Disc Brakes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
ASA-5™ Automatic Slack Adjuster .
42
17
12
12
12
12
12
13
13
20
18
B
BA-922™ Air Compressor . . . . . . . . . . 8
BA-921™ Air Compressor . . . . . . . 8, 9
BA-922™ Air Compressor . . . . . . . . . . 9
BASIC™ Test Kit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
Bendix Modules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
BP-1™ Brake Proportioning Valve . . 22
BP-R1™ Bobtail Proportioning
Relay Valve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
BVA-85™ Brake Valve Actuator . . . . 46
BX-2150™ Air Compressor . . . . . . . . . 8
C
Converter Dolly Brakes . . . . . . . . . 33
Cyclone DuraDrain™ Trailer
Water Separator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
D
D-2™ Governor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
DC-4™ Double Check Valve . . . . . . 14
DD3® Safety Actuator . . . . . . . . . . . 17
Dryer Reservoir Module . . . . . . . . . 12
DS-2™ Double Check and Stop
Light Switch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
DuraFlo™ 596 Air Compressor . . . 8, 9
E
E-10™ Brake Valve . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
E-10P™ Brake Valve . . . . . . . . . . . . .
E-10PR™ Brake Valve . . . . . . . . . . . .
E-10PR™ Retarder Control
Brake Valve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
E-12™, E-15™ Brake Valves . . . . . . . .
E-14™ Brake Valve . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
E-6™ Brake Valve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
E-7™ Brake Valve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
E-8P™ Brake Valve . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
EC-30™ ABS/ATC Controller . . . . .
EC-60™ ABS/ATC Controller . . . . .
ESP® Functionality . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
ET-S™ and ET-S2™ Electronic
Throttle/Treadles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
EverFlow™ Module . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2
15
15
15
16
15
15
15
15
15
36
36
39
46
13
S
™
FD-3 Fan Clutch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
FD-l™ Fan Clutch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
M-32™ and M-32QR™ Modulators . 35
MC-30™ Controller Assy. . . . . . . . . 42
MV-3™ Dash Control Module . . . . . 29
S-Cam Brakes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
SB-1™ Spring Brake Actuator . . . . .
SC-3™Single Check Valve . . . . . . . . .
SC-PR™ Valve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
SD-3™ Roto Safety Actuator . . . . . .
SL-4™ and SL-5™ Stop Lamp
Switches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Spring Brake Actuators . . . . . . . . . .
SR-2™ Spring Brake Valve . . . . . . . . .
SR-4™ Spring Brake Valve . . . . . . . . .
SR-5™ Spring Brake Valve . . . . . . . . .
ST-1™, ST- 3™ and ST-4™
Safety Valves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
SureStroke™ Indicator . . . . . . . . . . .
SV-1™ Synchro Valve . . . . . . . . . . 27,
SV-4™ Trailer Release Valve . . . . . . .
System-Guard® Trailer Air Dryer . .
P
T
I
Inlet Check Valve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
Inlet Regulating Valve . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
L
LP-2™ and LP-3™ Low Pressure
Indicators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
LQ-4™ Ratio Valve . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
LQ-4™ Ratio Valve . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
LQ-4™ Valve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
LQ-5™ Bobtail Ratio Valve . . . . . . . .
11
21
21
21
22
M
PE-4™ Control Valve . . . . . . . . . . . . .
PP-1™ and PP-2™ Valves . . . . . . . . . .
PP-1™ Control Valve . . . . . . . . . . . . .
PP-3™ Control Valve . . . . . . . . . . . . .
PP-5™ Push-Pull Control Valve . . . .
PP-7™ Control Valve . . . . . . . . . . . . .
PP-8™ Control Valve . . . . . . . . . . . . .
PP-DC™ Park Control Valve . . . . . .
PR-3™ Reservoir Control Valve . . . .
PR-4™ Pressure Protection Valve . .
PuraGuard® QC™ Oil
Coalescing Filter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
32
24
34
24
27
24
24
28
34
14
13
Q
QR-1™ Quick Release Valve . . . . . .
QR-1C™ Quick Release Valve . . . . .
QR-L™ Inline Quick Release Valve .
QRN-2™ Quick Release Valve . . . . .
QRV™ Quick Release Valve . . . . . . .
21
26
21
21
21
19
17
11
13
17
26
17
31
31
31
10
18
34
34
13
TC-2™ Trailer Control Valve . . . . . . 29
TC-6™ Trailer Control Valve . . . . . . 29
TE-1™ Trailer Emergency Stop Light 32
TP-3™ Tractor Protection Valve . . . . 30
TP-3DC™ Tractor Protection Valve . 30
TP-4™ Tractor Protection Valve . . . . 30
TP-5™ Tractor Protection Valve . . . . 30
TR-2™ Valve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
TR-3™ Valve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
TR-5™ Lock Line Control Valve . . . . 32
Trailer Control (TC) Valves . . . . . . . 29
Tu-Flo® 550 Air Compressor . . . . . 8, 9
Tu-Flo® 750 Air Compressor . . . . . 8, 9
TW-1™, TW-3™ and TW-6™
Control Valves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
TW-11™ Valve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
V
Vision Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
W
R
R-12DC™ Relay Valve . . . . . . . . . . . .
R-12P™ Relay Valve . . . . . . . . . . . 23,
R-12™ Relay Valve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
R-14™ Relay Valve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
R-6™ Relay Valve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
R-7™ Modulating Valve . . . . . . . . . . .
R-8P™ Relay Valve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
R-8™ Relay Valve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
RD-3™ Control Valve . . . . . . . . . . . .
RDU™ (Remote Diagnostic Unit) . .
RE-6NC™ Relay Emergency Valve . .
Reservoirs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
RV-1™ Pressure Reducing Valve . . . .
23
34
23
23
23
23
23
23
27
44
34
11
14
WS-24™ Wheel Speed Sensors . . . . 35
Y
Yaw Stability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
www.bendix.com
1-800-AIR-BRAKE (1-800-247-2725)
Handbook Section Index
How to use the Air Brake Handbook
This nine-section handbook provides an introduction to the use and
operation of Bendix air brake systems and devices.
Components are introduced and shown with typical system diagrams
to show where they are used. As new components are introduced and
their function explained, they gradually build up to a complete
functioning air brake system.
Partial system-drawings, throughout the manual, assist in explaining of
the use of the components. See the front inside cover for an example
of a tractor system schematic in color.
Device Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
Air Brake System General Precautions . . . . . . . . . 4
General Precautions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
Section One: A One-Page Introduction to
Air Brake Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
Section Two: The Charging System . . . . 6-14
Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
Compressors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-8
Compressor Maintenance Guidelines . . . . . . . . . . . 9
Governors and Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
Reservoirs and Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
Air Dryers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
Air Dryers and Filters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
Miscellaneous Charging System Related
Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
Section Three: The Control System . . . . 17-32
Dual Circuit Brake Valves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-16
Actuators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
Slack Adjusters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
Foundation Brakes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19-20
Quick Release, Ratio Valves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
Ratio, Proportioning Valves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
Relay Valves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
Push-Pull Valves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
Spring Brake Valves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
Lever Operated Control Valves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
Miscellaneous Control Valves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
Section Four: Tractor/Trailer Parking
and Emergency Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28-32
Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28-29
Dash Control Modules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
Tractor Protection Valves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
Trailer Spring Brake Valves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31-32
Section Five: Trailers/Converter
Dolly Brakes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .33-34
www.bendix.com
1-800-AIR-BRAKE (1-800-247-2725)
Section Six:
Antilock Braking Systems (ABS) . . . . 35 - 48
ABS Components,Truck and
Tractor ABS Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35-36
Truck and Tractor ABS Operation, ATC . . . . . . . 37
Straight Truck Sample Schematic . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
Advanced ABS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
Advanced ABS Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
Advanced ABS Features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40-41
Trailer ABS Components and Operation . . . . . . . 42
Trailer ABS Operation and Features,
PLC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
Troubleshooting ABS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43-44
Section Seven: Miscellaneous commercial
vehicle products from Bendix . . . . . . . . .45-46
Section Eight:
Air Brake System Fundamentals . . . . . . . . 47
Braking Force . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
Leverage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49-50
Deceleration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50-51
Compressed Air . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51-53
Compressed Air Brakes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
S-Cam and Air Disc Brakes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
Air Brake System Balance: Pneumatic Systems . . 56
Air Brake System Balance: Mechanical Systems . 57
Section Nine: Air Brake System
Troubleshooting Tests . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58-60
Bendix Videos and Literature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61-62
List of Service Data Sheets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
Sample Schematic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . inside front cover
DIN symbols are used in this handbook.
3
General Precautions
IMPORTANT
The systems presented in this manual are intended for illustrative
purposes only and are not intended to be used for actual vehicle piping.
Air Brake System General Precautions
WARNING! PLEASE READ AND FOLLOW THESE
INSTRUCTIONS TO AVOID PERSONAL INJURY
OR DEATH:
When working on or around a vehicle, the following general
precautions should be observed at all times.
1. Park the vehicle on a level surface, apply the
parking brakes, and always block the wheels.
Always wear safety glasses.
2. Stop the engine and remove ignition key when
working under or around the vehicle. When
working in the engine compartment, the engine
should be shut off and the ignition key should
be removed.Where circumstances require that
the engine be in operation, EXTREME
CAUTION should be used to prevent personal
injury resulting from contact with moving,
rotating, leaking, heated or electrically charged
components.
3. Do not attempt to install, remove, disassemble
or assemble a component until you have read
and thoroughly understand the recommended
procedures. Use only the proper tools and
observe all precautions pertaining to use of
those tools.
4. If the work is being performed on the vehicle’s
air brake system, or any auxiliary pressurized
air systems, make certain to drain the air
pressure from all reservoirs before beginning
ANY work on the vehicle. If the vehicle is
equipped with an AD-IS™ air dryer system or
a dryer reservoir module, be sure to drain the
purge reservoir.
5. Following the vehicle manufacturer’s
recommended procedures, deactivate the
electrical system in a manner that safely
removes all electrical power from the vehicle.
4
6. Never exceed manufacturer’s recommended
pressures.
7. Never connect or disconnect a hose or line
containing pressure; it may whip. Never remove
a component or plug unless you are certain all
system pressure has been depleted.
8. Use only genuine Bendix® replacement parts,
components and kits. Replacement hardware,
tubing, hose, fittings, etc. must be of equivalent
size, type and strength as original equipment
and be designed specifically for such
applications and systems.
9. Components with stripped threads or damaged
parts should be replaced rather than repaired.
Do not attempt repairs requiring machining or
welding unless specifically stated and approved
by the vehicle and component manufacturer.
10. Prior to returning the vehicle to service, make
certain all components and systems are
restored to their proper operating condition.
11. For vehicles with Antilock Traction Control
(ATC), the ATC function must be disabled (ATC
indicator lamp should be ON) prior to
performing any vehicle maintenance where one
or more wheels on a drive axle are lifted off
the ground and moving.
www.bendix.com
1-800-AIR-BRAKE (1-800-247-2725)
Introduction
Section 1: One-Page Introduction
Air Supply
The vehicle’s compressor takes in filtered air, either at
atmospheric pressure from the outside (or already at
an increased pressure, from the engine turbocharger
in some cases), and compresses it. The compressed
air is delivered to the air dryer where water and a small
amount of oil is removed. The air then travels into the
air reservoirs (“air tanks”) - typically delivered to a
rear brake system reservoir and a front brake system
reservoir as well as any attached trailer reservoirs. For
each system, the air pressurizes the reservoir and the
air hoses all the way to the next control valve, where
the air pressure remains, ready to be used.
A vehicle may use compressed air for many tasks. Some
examples are: to provide force for braking, to deliver
air to a particular component, to off-load bulk goods,
etc.
Normal Braking
When the driver applies the foot brake, a plunger within
the foot brake valve moves, opening channels within
the valve that allow the air pressure waiting there to
pass through and be delivered to the rear and front
brake systems. The pressure quickly increases in the
brake chambers and applies force to the push rod,
transferring the force to the S-Cam or air disc brake.
(See page 22 for more about foundation brakes.)
Frictional forces slow the wheels and the vehicle comes
to a stop. When the brakes are released, the air in the
brake chambers is able to be quickly released and enable
the driver to drive away.
Vehicle Parking
Vehicles are parked using powerful springs which are
part of the spring brake assembly, to engage the brakes
and hold the vehicle in position. When the driver
prepares to move away and releases the parking brake,
the spring force is countered by the introduction of air
pressure. Anti-compounding valve features in the
system design help prevent the application of both the
spring and service brakes together.
Antilock Braking Systems (ABS)
Most commercial vehicles use electronic Antilock
Braking System (ABS) to help improve braking when
excessive wheel slip, or wheel lock-up, is detected.
Bendix® Electronic Control Units (ECUs) use patented
technology to monitor wheel speeds (on all wheels
equipped with speed sensors) and use ABS modulator
valves to adjust or pulse the braking force being applied
and released, many times per second, during an ABS
event. ABS typically improves stability and steerability,
and also reduces stopping distances on most surfaces.
In addition to the ABS features above, some recent
model ECUs have a drag torque control feature which
reduces driven-axle wheel slip (due to driveline inertia)
by communicating with the engine’s controller and
increasing the engine torque.
Antilock Traction Control
In addition to the ABS function, some Bendix ECU
models provide an Automatic Traction Control (ATC)
feature which can help improve vehicle stability and
traction during vehicle acceleration (at low speeds),
and lateral stability while driving through curves.
Electronic Stability Program (ESP®*)
Recent Bendix® ABS advances include ESP® which has
the ability to apply brakes to individual wheel ends, and
the trailer, to counteract the trailer “push” during
maneuvers that may lead to loss of control or jackknifes
on low to high friction surfaces (snow, rain, asphalt,
concrete, etc.)
Roll Stability Program (RSP)
The Bendix Roll Stability Program (RSP), is an all-axle
ABS solution that helps reduce vehicle speed by applying
all vehicle brakes as needed, reducing the tendency to
roll over. RSP focuses on reducing the vehicle’s speed
below the critical roll threshold during directionchanging maneuvers such as exit ramps and obstacle
avoidance on dry, high friction surfaces.
Emergency Braking
In emergency situations where system air pressure is
reduced or lost, government regulations require
vehicles to meet specified stopping distances. As an
example, some straight truck system designs use
modulated parking-brake applications to bring the
vehicle to a stop.
Vision Systems
Bendix offers video camera systems that help drivers
back vehicles up safely, assist drivers with viewing what
is in their blind spots around their vehicles, as well as
infrared XVision® night vision camera systems that
provide drivers advanced warning of obstacles in their
pathway at night by seeing 3 to 5 times further than
their standard headlights. All of our camera systems
can be purchased individually to meet drivers’ specific
needs or can be purchased as a total system to provide
a complete 360 degree 24/7 video camera system for
drivers.
*ESP is a registered trademark of Daimler Chrysler.
www.bendix.com
1-800-AIR-BRAKE (1-800-247-2725)
5
Overview
Section 2: The Charging System
The charging system consists of:
• An air compressor
• A governor, to control when the compressor
needs to build, or stop building, air for the system
and also to control the air dryer purge cycle
• An air dryer, to remove water and oil droplets
from the air
• Reservoirs (or “air tanks”) to store air to be used
for vehicle braking, etc.
•
Safety valves to protect against excessive pressure
in the system in the event that a charging system
component malfunction occurs, e.g. a line blockage
Single check valves to maintain a one-way flow
of air into the reservoirs. This arrangement protects
the contents from being drained in the event of an
upstream loss of pressure
Low pressure indicators to alert the driver
whenever a reservoir has less than a pre-set amount
of air available
•
•
Secondary
Reservoir
Low Pressure Indicator
Check Valve
Safety
Valve
Air Dryer
Check Valve
Governor
Purge
Valve
Air Compressor
Drain Valve
Primary
Reservoir
Safety Valve
Supply
Reservoir
Note: Although a typical
three-reservoir system is
shown here, some system
designs do not use a
Supply reservoir.
Bendix Air Compressors
The air compressor is the source of energy for the air
brake system.
Usually driven by the vehicle engine, the air compressor
builds the air pressure for the air brake system. The air
compressor is typically cooled by the engine coolant
system and lubricated by the engine oil supply. (Certain
models have self-lubricated and/or air-cooled versions
available.) Note: Air compressor shafts can rotate in
either direction.
The vehicle’s compressor draws in filtered air, either
at atmospheric pressure from the outside (or already
at an increased pressure, from the engine turbocharger
where permitted), and compresses it.
6
The brake system needs a supply of compressed air
between a preset maximum and minimum. The
governor (along with a synchro valve for the Bendix®
DuraFlo ™ 596 air compressor) monitors the air
pressure in the supply reservoir and controls when
the compressor needs to pump air into the air system
(also known as the “air build cycle” - the compressor
is “running loaded”) and when the compressor should
simply turn over without building pressure (“running
unloaded”). When the air pressure becomes greater
than that of the preset “cut-out”, the governor controls
the unloader mechanism of the compressor to stop
the compressor from building air and also causes the
air dryer to purge. As the service reservoir air pressure
www.bendix.com
1-800-AIR-BRAKE (1-800-247-2725)
Compressors
drops to the “cut-in” setting of the governor, the
governor returns the compressor back to building air
and the air dryer to air drying mode.
As the atmospheric air is compressed, all the water
vapor originally in the air is carried along into the air
system, as well as a small amount of the compressor
lubricating oil as vapor.
The duty cycle is the ratio of time the compressor
spends building air to the total engine running time.
Air compressors are designed to build air (run “loaded”)
up to 25% of the time. Higher duty cycles cause
conditions (such as higher compressor head
temperatures) that affect air brake charging system
performance. These conditions may require additional
maintenance and lead to a higher amount of oil vapor
droplets being passed along into the air brake system.
Factors that add to the duty cycle are: air suspension,
additional air accessories, use of an undersized
compressor, frequent stops, excessive leakage from
fittings, connections, lines, chambers or valves, etc. See
page 9 for compressor maintenance and usage
guidelines. Use the BASIC™ test (p/n 5013711) where
the amount of oil present in the air brake system is
suspected to be above normal.
The discharge line allows the air, water-vapor and oilvapor mixture to cool between the compressor and
air dryer. The typical size of a vehicle's discharge line,
(see table on page 9) assumes a compressor with a
normal (less than 25%) duty cycle, operating in a
temperate climate. See Bendix and/or vehicle or air
dryer manufacturer guidelines as needed.
When the temperature of the compressed air that
enters the air dryer is within the normal range, the air
dryer can remove most of the charging system oil. If
the temperature of the compressed air is above the
normal range, oil as oil-vapor is able to pass through
the air dryer and into the air system. Air dryer inlet
temperatures play a key role in air system cleanliness
and air dryer performance. Larger diameter discharge
lines and/or longer discharge line lengths can help
reduce the temperature.
The discharge line must maintain a constant slope down
from the compressor to the air dryer inlet fitting to
avoid low points where ice may form and block the
www.bendix.com
1-800-AIR-BRAKE (1-800-247-2725)
Optional Bendix®
PuraGuard® QC™ Oil
Coalescing Filter
Discharge Line
Air Dryer
Safety
Valve
Governor
Air
Compressor
Safety
Valve
Purge
Valve
Supply Reservoir
Drain Valve
flow. If, instead, ice blockages occur at the air dryer
inlet, insulation may be added here, or if the inlet fitting
is a typical 90 degree fitting, it may be changed to a
straight or 45 degree fitting. For more information on
how to help prevent discharge line freeze-ups, see
Bendix Bulletins TCH-08-21 and TCH-08-22. Shorter
discharge line lengths or insulation may be required in
cold climates.
The air dryer contains a filter that collects oil droplets,
and a desiccant bed that removes almost all of the
remaining water vapor. The compressed air is then
passed to the air brake service (supply) reservoir. The
oil droplets and the water collected are automatically
purged at the dryer when the governor reaches its “cutout” setting.
For vehicles with accessories that are sensitive to small
amounts of oil, we recommend installation, downstream
of the air dryer, of a Bendix® PuraGuard® QC™ oil
coalescing filter to minimize the amount of oil present.
See the Bendix Advanced Compressor Troubleshooting
Guide (BW1971) or the compressor’s Service Data
sheet, available online at www.bendix.com for more
information.
7
Compressors
Single-Cylinder Compressors
Two-Cylinder Compressors
BX-2150™
air
compressor
Tu-Flo® 700 air
compressor
Tu-Flo® 501 air
compressor
Tu-Flo® 500 air
compressor
Tu-Flo® 400 air
compressor
BA-921™ air
compressor
nd
lu En ers
br g
i
Tu icat ne/
rb ed se
lf
o
in ava le
i
t l.?
co Wa opt
ol te ion
ed r/ ?
av airail
.?
D
isp
@ lace
12 m
50 en
0 t
C RP CF
yli M M
Tu-Flo® 550 air
compressor
or Tu-Flo® 750
air compressor
(exterior view
is the same)
Compressor
Comparison by
Displacement
Tu-Flo® 400
Compressor
BX-2150™
Compressor
Tu-Flo® 500
Compressor
Tu-Flo® 501
Compressor
Tu-Flo® 550
Compressor
Tu-Flo® 700
Compressor
BA-921™
Compressor
Tu-Flo® 750
Compressor
Tu-Flo® 1000
Compressor*
DuraFlo™ 596
Compressor
BA-922™
Compressor
Tu-Flo® 1400
Compressor*
8
7.25
2
Both
Y
9.5
1
Eng. Y** Water
12
2
Eng.
Y Water
12
2
Both
Y
13.2
2
Eng.
Y Water
15.5
2
Eng.
Y Water
15.8
1
Eng. Y** Water
16.5
2
Eng.
Y Water
24
4
Both
Y
27
2
Eng.
N Water
31.6
2
Eng.
N Water
32
4
Eng.
Y*** Water
DuraFlo™ 596 air
compressor or BA-922™ air
compressor (exterior view is
very similar)
Four-Cylinder Compressors
Both
Tu-Flo® 1000
air
compressor
Both
*Special use.
e.g. Tank trailer
pump-off
Tu-Flo® 1400 air
compressor
**Uses Inlet
Check Valve
***Uses Inlet
Regulating
Valve
Both
For compressor Service Data Sheet directory see pages 63-64.
www.bendix.com
1-800-AIR-BRAKE (1-800-247-2725)
Compressor Maintenance Guidelines
Maintenance Schedule and Usage Guidelines
Regularly scheduled maintenance is the single most
important factor in maintaining the air brake charging
system. The table below is an introduction to the
maintenance intervals for air brake charging systems. See
your compressor and/or air dryer Service Data sheet for
more information.
If you are concerned that a compressor may be passing
oil, use the BASIC™ Test Kit: Order Bendix P/N 5013711.
Low Air Use
Low Air Use
e.g. Line haul single
trailer without air
suspension, air over
hydraulic brakes.
Compressor with less than
15% duty cycle
(builds air pressure 15% or less
of the engine running time.)
(5 or less axles)
e.g. Line haul single
trailer with air
suspension,
schoolbus.
2 Discharge Line Length
4 Air Dryer
Maintenance Schedule
3
Reservoir
Draining
1 Air Compressor Spec’d
High Air Use
High Air Use
e.g. Double/triple trailer,
open highway coach/RV,
(most) pick-up & delivery,
yard or terminal jockey,
off-highway, construction,
loggers, concrete mixer,
dump truck, fire truck.
e.g. City transit bus,
refuse, bulk unloaders,
low boys, urban region
coach, central tire
inflation.
Compressor with up to
25% duty cycle
Compressor with up to 25%
duty cycle
(builds air pressure up to 25%
of the engine running time.)
(5 or less axles)
1 Examples of Typical Compressors Spec’d
a
Compressor with up to
25% duty cycle
(8 or less axles)
(12 or less axles)
Bendix® Tu-Flo® 750 air compressor
Bendix® BA-921™ air compressor
Bendix® Tu-Flo® 550 air compressor
Bendix® BA-922™ air compressor
DuraFlo™ 596 air compressor
Discharge line: 6 ft. @
2 ½ in. I.D. (oil carry-over
control suggested
upgradeb: 9ft. @ 5/8 in.)
Discharge line: 9 ft. @
½ in. I.D. (oil carry-over
control suggested
upgradeb: 12ft. @ 5/8 in.)
3
Drain Reservoirs Every Month - 90 Days
4
Replace Air Dryer Cartridge Every 3 Yearsc
Oil
Passing
Concerns?
Use the BASIC™ Test Kit:
Order Bendix P/N 5013711
BASIC™ test acceptable range:
3 oil units per month.
a. Note: Compressor and/or air dryer upgrades are recommended
in cases where duty cycle is greater than the normal range (for
the examples above). For certain vehicles/applications, where
turbo-charged inlet air is used, a smaller size compressor may
be permissible.
b. To counter above normal temperatures at the air dryer inlet,
(and resultant oil-vapor passing upstream in the air system)
replace the discharge line with one of a larger diameter and/or
longer length. This helps reduce the air's temperature. If
www.bendix.com
1-800-AIR-BRAKE (1-800-247-2725)
Discharge line: 12 ft.
@ ½ in. I.D. (oil carryover control suggested
upgradeb: 15ft. @ 5/8 in.)
Discharge line: 15 ft.
@ 5/8 in. I.D. (oil carryover control suggested
upgradeb: 15ft. @ ¾ in.)
Drain Reservoirs Every Month
Replace Every 2 Yearsc
Replace Every Yearc
Use the BASIC™ Test Kit:
Order Bendix P/N 5013711
BASIC™ test acceptable range:
5 oil units per month.
sufficient cooling occurs, the oil-vapor condenses and can be
removed by the air dryer. Discharge line upgrades are not
covered under warranty. Note: To help prevent discharge line
freeze-ups, shorter discharge line lengths or insulation may be
required in cold climates. See Bendix Bulletins TCH-08-21 and
TCH-08-22, for more information.
c. With increased air demand the air dr yer cartridge needs to be
replaced more often.
9
Governors and Components
Governors and Components
The Governor monitors the air pressure in the supply
reservoir and operates the compressor unloading
mechanism to control whether the compressor builds
air pressure or not.
The Bendix® D-2™ governor is an adjustable pistontype valve available preset to a choice of pressure
settings.
Exhaust Port
Governors
Shown with
breather valve
installed
D-2™
Governor
D-2A™
Governor
The pressure range between the cut-in and cut-out
pressure is designed into the governor and is not
adjustable. The D-2™ governor may be direct-mounted
to the compressor or remote-mounted as desired.
Specialized governors are available for vehicles needing
a governor adapted to abnormally high or low
temperatures, as well as a “weatherproof” model.
The D-2A™ governor is a non-adjustable version of the
D-2™ governor.
D-2™/SV-1™
Governor
Module
The D-2™/SV-1 ™ governor module is a special
combination device used with the Bendix® DuraFlo™
596 air compressor to provide the fast-rising unloader
signal needed by this compressor.
Safety Valves are used in an air brake system to
protect against excessive air pressure buildup and to
sound an audible alert. Safety valves are available in
both adjustable (e.g. the Bendix® ST-1™ valve) and nonadjustable (e.g. ST-3™, ST-4™ valve) styles, in various
pressure settings, and for various port sizes. Maximum
service system air pressure allowed by government
regulation is typically 150 psi. Various safety valve
settings are used at different points in the charging and
treatment system.
Specifically designed for use in compressors, ST-4™
safety valves are installed in an extra compressor head
discharge port, if available, or in the discharge line near
the compressor, to prevent compressor damage in the
event of discharge line blockage.
An Inlet Regulating Valve (or “IRV”) is typically used
on multi-cylinder compressors which receive their input
air supply from the pressurized side of the engine
turbocharger. The IRV, which is generally mounted to
the compressor inlet, is designed to regulate
compressor inlet pressure to 10 PSI or less. The outlet
flange of the IRV can be mounted to all Bendix ®
Tu-Flo® compressors except the Bendix® Tu-Flo® 300
compressor. The IRV may not be used in conjunction
with single cylinder compressors.
10
ST-1™, ST- 3™ and ST-4™
Safety Valves
Inlet
Regulating
Valve
Inlet
Check
Valves
Inlet Check Valves (or “ICV”) are used on naturally
aspirated compressors to prevent oil mist from entering
the inlet line during the unloaded cycle. The inlet check
valve either mounts to the intake side of the
compressor (and must be used in conjunction with an
inlet valve stop or inlet adapter), or may be mounted
remotely.
www.bendix.com
1-800-AIR-BRAKE (1-800-247-2725)
Reservoirs and Components
Reservoirs (or “air tanks”) serve the air brake system
as a storage tank for compressed air. The reservoir
size is selected by the vehicle manufacturer to provide
an adequate amount of air for use by the braking system
and other control devices.
Bendix reservoirs are built in accordance with SAE
specifications and are available in various sizes in both
single and double compartment design configurations,
and are certified to comply with government regulations
(such as FMVSS 121).
Reservoir draining devices are installed in air brake
reservoirs, and allow liquid contaminants collected to
be drained off. Vehicles without air dryers are normally
drained each day. Vehicles which have Bendix desiccant
air dryers should be drained every 30-90 days. [Tip:
The presence of water may indicate that the air dryer
cartridge may need to be replaced. Other potential
sources of water in the reservoirs are: when shop air
has been used to fill the system, an excessive duty cycle,
or excessive air leakage.]
Manual draining devices consist of drain cocks which
require manual operation at the point at which they
are installed. Drain cocks are available in various styles
and pipe thread sizes. [Tip: Always drain contents
slowly for best results.]
The Bendix® DV-2™ automatic reservoir drain valve is
a completely automatic draining device. It is installed
directly into the end or bottom drain port of the
reservoir and does not require any additional control
lines. It is available in either an end-port or bottomport version, and with or without a (12v or 24v) heater.
These are most suitable for systems without a desiccant
air dryer.
Reservoirs
are available
in many
configurations.
Drain
Cock
DV-2™Automatic Drain Valve
SC-3™
Single
Check
Valves
LP-2™ Low
Pressure
Indicator
LP-3™ Low
Pressure
Indicator
Single Check Valves
The in-line single check valve allows air flow in one
direction only. Several sizes and configurations are
available to accommodate various piping arrangements.
Single check valves are used in air brake systems to
prevent loss of remaining system pressure if another
reservoir, or hose etc. upstream in the system fails.
For double check valves and pressure protection valves,
see page 14.
www.bendix.com
1-800-AIR-BRAKE (1-800-247-2725)
Low Pressure Indicators
Low pressure indicators are pressure-operated electropneumatic switches that are designed to complete an
electrical circuit and actuate a warning light and buzzer
for the driver in the event air pressure in the service
brake system is below a minimum level for normal
operation. The low pressure indicator is available in
various pressure settings, is not adjustable, and is
generally used in conjunction with a dash mounted
warning lamp or warning buzzer or both.
11
Air Dryers
Air Dryers
The air dryer is an in-line filtration system that removes
both water vapor and oil droplets from the compressor
discharge air after it leaves the compressor. This results
in cleaner, drier air being supplied to the air brake
system, and aids in the prevention of air line and
component freeze-ups in winter weather.
Air dryers typically use a replaceable cartridge
containing a desiccant material and an oil separator.
Most of the oil droplets are removed by the oil
separator as the air passes into the air dryer. The air
then moves through the desiccant material which
removes most of the water vapor.
AD-4™ Air
Dryer
(only
available
reman.)
AD-2™
Air
Dryer
When the air pressure in the supply air tank reaches
the required level, the governor makes the compressor
stop building air and allows the air dryer’s “purge cycle”
to begin. During the purge cycle the desiccant material
is regenerated (its ability to remove water is renewed)
by a reversal of the saturation process. A small amount
of dry air passes back through the desiccant material
and the water that has been collected, as well as any oil
droplets collected by the oil separator, are purged out
through the base of the dryer. It is normal to see a
small amount of oil around the purge valve.
AD-IS™
Air
Dryer
Module
The air dryer end cover is typically equipped with an
(12 or 24 volt) integral heating element.
AD-9™
Air
Dryer
The AD-2™, AD-4™, AD-9™ and AD-IP™ air dryers
are designed with an internal storage (“purge volume”)
of dry air for the purge cycle.
The AD-IS™ air dryer is an integral purge air dryer
module, which includes a spin-on desiccant cartridge,
governor, reservoir and charging valve components in
a module. These have been designed as an integrated
air supply system. The DRM™ module includes an
AD-IS ™ integrated solution air dryer, a reservoir
(including a separate purge reservoir section), a
governor, and four pressure protection valves as an
integrated air supply system.
“Extended Purge” air dryers are designed with an
extra amount of air storage internally that is used to
assist in the purge cycle. An example is the AD-IP™
EP air dryer.
Several Bendix air dryers are available in specialized
“Drop-in” versions designed especially for air systems
that use either the Holset (Cummins) Type E or QE air
compressor. These Holset compressors utilize an
unusual unloading system that requires that air pressure
remain in the discharge line during the entire unloaded
cycle of the compressor. For example, the AD-IP™
“Drop-in” version is shown here.
12
Dryer
Reservoir
Module
AD-IP™
Air
Dryer
AD-IP™
Air
Dryer
(“Drop-in”
version)
Feedback
Line
Special Discharge Port
Fitting w/Feedback Line
Connection
www.bendix.com
1-800-AIR-BRAKE (1-800-247-2725)
Air Dryers and Filters
AD-SP™ Air
Dryer
SC-PR™
Valve
(installation
uses SC-PR™
valve)
The AD-SP™ air dryer uses a small amount of air
from the supply and front axle (secondary) reservoirs
to perform the purge function. Because of this
difference, the AD-SP™ air dryer is smaller and lighter
than air dryers that have their purge volume within the
dryer canister. An SC-PR ™ Single Check
Protection Valve is used in conjunction with the
AD-SP™ air dryer. The SC-PR™ single check protection
valve is a combination of two separate devices, a single
check valve and a pressure protection valve that allows
limited flow in the opposite direction. It serves as a
means of protecting the air pressure in the front axle
service reservoir, since it will only allow its air supply
to be used to help purge the AD-SP™ air dryer if the
pressure is above a certain preset level.
EverFlow™
Module
System-Guard®
Trailer Air
Dryer
Trailer Products
Cyclone
DuraDrain™
Trailer Water
Separator
System-Guard® Trailer
Air Dryer
AF-3™
In-line Air Filter
place of a dryer normally located on the power unit,
but acts as a buffer to remove moisture during wet
times and gives up moisture during dry times.
PuraGuard®
system filter
(obsolete)
PuraGuard®
QC™ oil
coalescing
filter
PuraGuard® Filters
EverFlow™ Module
The EverFlow™ air dryer module is used for air dryer
systems where a vehicle needs a continuous flow of
air, such as for bulk unloaders and central tire inflation.
As stated earlier, air dryers need to go through a purge
cycle periodically to refresh the moisture-removing
desiccant material. EverFlow™ air dryer modules have
two air dryers plumbed in parallel that take turns
supplying air, resulting in a continuous, uninterrupted
supply.
System-Guard® Trailer Air Dryer
The System-Guard® trailer air dryer removes moisture
and contaminates from the trailer air system. It is
designed to protect the trailer air brake system when,
for short periods of time, the trailer is pulled by vehicles
without an air dryer or during times when the trailer is
disconnected from the tractor. It does not take the
www.bendix.com
1-800-AIR-BRAKE (1-800-247-2725)
The PuraGuard ® QC™ oil coalescing filter (and its
predecessor PuraGuard® system filter) are for high air
use vehicles such as transit buses and refuse trucks.
Installed downstream of the air dryer, these filters use
a replaceable filter element mounted within a sump
housing to remove oil aerosols before they can enter
the air system. A drain valve allows periodic
maintenance.
Cyclone DuraDrain™ Trailer Water Separator
The Cyclone DuraDrain™ trailer water separator is
installed in the trailer control and/or supply lines near
the gladhands. It self-purges liquid contaminates,
contains solid contaminants and improves the life of
the trailer system components.
AF-3™ In-line Air Filter
The AF-3™ in-line air filter screens out foreign material
from trailer air lines.
13
Miscellaneous Charging System Related Components
A double check valve is used in the air system when
a single function or component must receive air from,
or be controlled by, the higher of two sources of
pressure. An internal disc or shuttle moves in response
to the higher air pressure and allows that air source to
flow out of the delivery port. It is recommended that
double check valves be mounted so that the shuttle
(or disc) operates horizontally.
DC-4™
Double
Check
Valve
While not strictly part of the charging system, the
DS-2™ double check valve and stop light switch
(shown on this page) performs the function of both a
stop lamp switch and a double check valve. In some
vehicle brake systems, it is used to detect air pressure
from either brake circuit source, and will operate the
stop lamp switch, lighting the stop lamps.
DS-2™
Double Check
and Stop Light
Switch
Pressure
Protection
Valve
Auxiliary Systems
Vehicle auxiliary components and systems (air actuated
wipers, suspension, etc.) requiring compressed air must
wait until the reservoirs in the charging system have
reached a predefined minimum pressure, sufficient for
braking purposes. Once the system has reached the
preset minimum, pressure protection valves open to
supply auxiliary systems.
PR-4™
Pressure
Protection
Valve
Auxiliary
Pressure Protection Valves
The pressure protection valve is a normally-closed
pressure sensitive control valve. These valves can be
used in many different applications but are typically used
to protect or isolate one reservoir from another, by
closing automatically at a preset pressure. The valve is
also commonly used to delay the filling of auxiliary
reservoirs until a preset pressure is achieved in the
primary or braking reservoirs. Pressure protection
valves allow air to be "shared" between two reservoirs
above the closing setting of the valve. The sharing
ceases when pressure drops below the closing pressure
of the valve and the reservoirs are then isolated from
each other.
RV-1™
Pressure
Reducing
Valve
The PR-2™ pressure protection valve is externally
adjustable, while the PR-4™ pressure protection
valve (shown) has a fixed setting. Both valves are
available in various factory preset pressure settings. The
PR-3™ pressure protection valve differs from the
two previously mentioned since its design includes a
check valve preventing air return.
Pressure Reducing Valves
The pressure reducing valve is used in various
applications where a constant set air pressure lower
than supply pressure is required. A typical application
is an air operated accessory that requires less than
system pressure for operation. The RV-1™ pressure
14
reducing valve (shown) is available in a wide range of
pressure settings and can be manually adjusted. The
RV-3™ pressure reducing valve is available with
factory preset pressure settings only and cannot be
manually adjusted.
www.bendix.com
1-800-AIR-BRAKE (1-800-247-2725)
Dual Circuit Brake Valves
Section 3: The Control System
The control system typically consists of:
• Vehicle parking using push-pull hand operated
• A foot brake valve and often an additional handoperated trailer brake control valve
valves and spring brakes,
• Anti-compounding system design to prevent both
• Brake actuators or rotochambers, to change
the applied air pressure into a push-rod force which
operates the foundation brakes (air disc, S-Cam, etc.)
the service brakes and the parking brakes being
applied at the same time, and
• Proportioning valves to adjust braking when a
• Quick release valves to assist in releasing the
tractor is not pulling a trailer
brakes quickly
Miscellaneous Charging System Related Components
See the inside front cover for a sample system schematic. The primary (rear) brake circuit
is shown in green and the secondary (front) brake circuit is shown in orange.
™
E-6
Brake
Valve
Note: Brake valve
replacements are
typically ordered
without the foot pedal
components. For illustration,
full assemblies are shown here.
E-10™
Brake
Valve
E-10P™
Brake
Valve
E-8P™
Brake
Valve
E-10PR™
Brake
Valve
Dual Circuit Brake Valves
When the driver applies the service brakes using the
brake pedal/treadle, a two-part plunger within the brake
valve moves, closing the valve’s exhaust and opening
passages within the valve that allow the air pressure
waiting there to pass through and be delivered to the
rear and front brake systems. The pressure quickly
increases in the brake chambers and applies force to
the push rod, transferring the force to the S-Cam or
air disc brake. Frictional forces slow the wheels and
www.bendix.com
1-800-AIR-BRAKE (1-800-247-2725)
E-12™
E-15™
Brake
Valves
E-7™
Brake
Valve
E-14™
Brake
Valve
the vehicle comes to a stop. When the driver removes
all force from the brake valve the internal return springs
move back to their original position and allow air in
the valve and delivery lines to vent to atmosphere
through the exhaust port.
The Bendix® E-6™, E-8P™, E-10™, E-10P™, E-12™ and
E-15™ dual brake valves are typically floor mounted
and treadle operated, while the Bendix® E-7™ and E-14™
dual brake valves are bulkhead mounted, suspended
pedal valves.
15
Dual Circuit Brake Valves, continued
(See ABS section
for more about
modulators)
Mostly used in the transit (buses/coaches) industry, the
E-10PR™ retarder control brake valve has circuitry
that is used to communicate with retarder systems
installed on automatic transmission vehicles - extending
the life of brake system components.
Hand-operated Brake Valves
For information on trailer control hand-operated valves,
see page 29.
Vehicle Parking
For vehicle parking, rear brake actuators are designed
with large internal springs that, when engaged, hold a
parked vehicle in position. When the driver prepares
to move away and releases the parking brake, the spring
force is countered by the introduction of air pressure
into a chamber within the spring brake portion of the
actuator. A feature called anti-compounding helps
prevent the application of both the spring and service
brakes together.
Take Air Brake Training with the Experts
Bendix is proud to offer its Air Brake Training School.
The three-day training is tailored to both new and experienced technicians and
provides students with valuable technical knowledge.
Beginning with the fundamentals of compressed air, classes cover the description,
operation and service of major Bendix air brake components of dual air brake
systems, as well as antilock braking.
To enroll, visit www.bendix.com and visit our training school pages to see the
dates of classes offered in your area. Simply download and complete a registration
form, or call 1-800-AIR-BRAKE (1-800-247-2725) and select option 5.
16
www.bendix.com
1-800-AIR-BRAKE (1-800-247-2725)
Actuators
Actuators
Brake Chamber
Actuators convert the air pressure being applied into a
mechanical push-rod force acting on the foundation
brakes. Air enters the actuator and pressurizes a
chamber containing a rubber diaphragm. The air pushes
against the diaphragm, pushing against the return spring
and moving the push-plate (and push-rod) forward.
Some different types of actuators used in air brake
systems are: brake chambers, rotochambers (with
longer push-rod stroke travel), spring brake actuators
(for rear brake axles) and safety actuators (with internal
locking mechanisms).
Diaphragms
Rotochamber
Spring Brake
Chamber
Brake chambers are available in many sizes, providing
a wide range of output forces and strokes. Different
size brake chambers are identified by numbers which
specify the effective area of the diaphragm: a "type 30"
brake chamber has 30 square inches of effective area.
Some brake chambers with extended push-rod stroke
travel are available.
Rotochambers are also available in several sizes,
providing a wide range of output forces. The rolling
type diaphragm used in rotochambers provides long
life and gives a constant output force throughout the
entire stroke. Rotochambers are frequently used in
industrial applications.
Spring brake actuators are composed of separate
air and mechanical actuators in a single housing.
Mounted at the wheel of the axle it serves, it functions
as a service, parking and emergency brake. Connected
to the service brake valve, the air applied portion of
the actuator functions as the service brake. The
mechanical portion of the actuator contains a powerful
spring which is compressed by adding air pressure or
released by removing air pressure. The spring brake
therefore contains two actuators which use air pressure
in opposite ways. The service actuator requires air
pressure to apply the brakes, while the park or
emergency actuator uses air pressure to release the
brakes.
The SB-1™ spring brake actuator is a pull type,
remote-mounted air cylinder that is used as a parking
brake. Pressurized air in the chamber compresses the
springs when the brake is released. When the air is
exhausted, the spring force applies the brake.
The SD-3 ™ roto safety actuator is basically a
rotochamber with mechanical roller locking mechanism
similar to that of the DD3® actuator. The SD-3™
actuator is generally used on off-highway vehicles, and
is piped in various ways to provide service, emergency,
www.bendix.com
1-800-AIR-BRAKE (1-800-247-2725)
Brake Chamber
Parking
Spring
Yoke
Return
Springs
SD-3™ Roto
Safety Actuator
Spring Brake Chamber
SB-1™ Spring Brake
and parking brake functions. It is available in type 36
and 50 sizes.
Rarely used today, the DD3® safety actuator (not
shown) was a dual diaphragm brake actuator with three
functions; service braking, emergency braking and
parking. The DD3® actuator featured a mechanical
roller locking mechanism for parking and was used
extensively on transit and innercity buses. Because of
its unique locking roller mechanism, the DD3® actuator
required the use of special control valves such as the
TR-2™ inversion valve.
See page 54 for more about actuators.
17
Slack Adjusters
Slack Adjusters
The slack adjuster is the link between a brake chamber or
actuator and the S-Cam brake camshaft. Its arm is fastened
to the push rod with a yoke and its spline is installed on
the foundation brake cam shaft. It transforms and multiplies
the force developed by the chamber into a torque which
applies the brakes via the brake camshaft.
Manual Slack
Adjuster
Adjustment
Mechanism
ASA-5™ Automatic
Slack Adjuster
Yoke
Manual Slack Adjusters
To compensate for the gradual wear on the brake block
lining, slack adjusters are equipped with an adjusting
mechanism, which provides a means of adjusting for
brake lining wear. Slack adjuster models are designated
by a number which represents its maximum torque
rating (e.g. a type 20 unit is rated for a maximum of
20,000 inch-pounds of torque). Slack adjusters are
available in various arm configurations, lengths and
spline types.
The entire slack adjuster operates as a unit, rotating as
a lever with the brake cam shaft as the brakes are
applied or released. The most efficient braking action
is obtained when the slack adjuster arm travel is
approximately 90 degrees and in the recommended
range of the chamber. Therefore, it is important that
brake adjustments are made as often as necessary.
Automatic Slack Adjusters
Automatic slack adjusters perform the same function
as the standard unit, except that it automatically adjusts
for lining wear. The Bendix "sure stroke" unique design
monitors brake lining to brake drum clearance, thus
eliminating the possibility of over adjustment.
The automatic slack adjuster does not require periodic
manual adjustment, however, the unit does provide for
manual adjustment. All Bendix slack adjusters
incorporate a grease fitting and/or a tapped hole for a
lube fitting.
Lube
Fitting
Spline
Off-set and
Straight Arm
Styles
Clamp Pin
Style
Clevis Pin
Style
Bendix offers the SureStroke™
Indicator to help slack adjuster
inspection and maintenance.
X Inches
Ideal ASA-5™ Slack Adjuster Installation
The brake chamber push rod and arm of the slack
adjuster should reach approximately 90 degrees at 1/2
the available stroke (mid-stroke) of the chamber. The
chart to the right shows the ASA-5™ slack adjuster
installation tolerance.
18
Arm Length
Slack
Arm
Length
X"
5.00"
5.50"
6.00"
0.75" to 2.00"
0.75" to 2.00"
0.00" to 2.00"
www.bendix.com
ASA-5™ Slack
Adjuster Installation
Tolerance
1-800-AIR-BRAKE (1-800-247-2725)
Foundation Brakes
Brake Chamber
Spider
Slack Adjuster
Axle
AIR DISC BRAKE
Brake
Drum
CAM
Rotor
Shoe
S-CAM BRAKE
Friction Material
Foundation Brakes
The foundation brake is the actual braking mechanism
located at each end of the axle. It generally consists of
an air or spring brake chamber (with slack adjuster for
S-Cam), and a mechanical brake mechanism including
the friction material.
S-Cam Brakes
In a cam type foundation brake the pneumatic system
is linked to the foundation brakes by the slack adjuster.
The arm of the slack adjuster is fastened to the push
rod of the chamber with a yoke. The spline of the
slack adjuster is installed on the brake cam shaft. The
slack adjuster is a lever, converting linear force of the
chamber push rod into a torsional or twisting force
needed to apply the brakes.
When torque is applied to the cam shaft, the "S" shaped
cam spreads the brake shoes, forcing the brake lining
into contact with the brake drum stopping the vehicle.
Cam brakes are offered in various diameters to meet
vehicle braking requirements, with the most commonly
encountered being 16 1/2". The cam brake has a
"leading-trailing" shoe design with fixed anchor points
for each shoe, opposite the cam end of the shoe.
S-Cam Brake Block and Lining
When S-Cam brakes are applied, the friction material
contacts the brake drum, producing heat energy. For
www.bendix.com
1-800-AIR-BRAKE (1-800-247-2725)
Brake
Chamber
Brake Pad Friction
Material
optimal performance the heat that is generated must
dissipate rapidly to prevent damage to the friction
material. Therefore the friction material used in the
brake must have the capability of withstanding the heat
until dissipated through the drum. It takes the right
combination of ingredients to formulate the friction
material that provides all the desirable characteristics,
including long life.
All friction material is identified by a stencil on its edge.
This identification code consists of the name of the
manufacturer, the formula identification and the friction
class. The friction class is indicated by two letters.
The first letter represents the normal coefficient of
friction, and the second represents the hot coefficient
of friction. The numerical range is shown on page 20.
Friction material selection is dependent upon how the
driver uses the brakes, the terrain, vehicle load, etc.
The various formulations of material are designed to
meet the needs of these conditions. For example, a
vehicle performing heavy duty operations on rugged
terrain may benefit by using a "premium" material
designed for high heat situations instead of a "standard"
material designed for lighter duty operations.
19
Foundation Brakes, continued
Brake lining and block differ in that
it takes two brake blocks to line one
shoe while a single brake lining
segment is all that is required to do
the same job. Block is generally 3/4"
thick and used on class 8 vehicles
while lining is 1/2" thick and
generally used on smaller vehicles.
While it is recommended that a
matching set of lining be used on
each wheel, under some conditions
a combination of different lining
materials may be desirable. If a
brake system is marginal, for
example, a full step up to a higher
grade lining may give an excessively
large capacity. In this event using a
combination of blocks should be
considered.
Brake Block
Brake Lining
FRICTION CODE CHART
Letter
Numerical Range
D
over 0.150, but less than 0.250
E
0.250 to 0.350
F
0.351 to 0.450
G
0.451 to 0.550
H
Over 0.550
The friction class is
indicated by two letters
(e.g. DF). The first
letter represents the
normal coefficient of
friction, and the second
represents the hot
coefficient of friction.
Air Disc Brakes
Bendix air disc brakes are a “floating caliper” design
for use as a foundation brake on all axles of heavy
commercial vehicles and trailers. In terms of
performance and ease of service, Bendix air disc brakes
compared favorably to traditional S-Cam brakes. They
are available in models with or without a combination
spring brake chamber. Optional wear sensors and wear
diagnostic equipment are available on some models.
Air Disc Brake
Cut-away View
Actuator
Rod
Supply Port
Lever
Bendix air disc brakes convert air pressure into braking
force. When the foot brake is applied, air from the
vehicle brake system enters the service brake chamber
through the supply port, applying pressure to the
diaphragm. The pressure pushes the diaphragm, moving
the pressure plate and pushrod against a cup in the
lever. The lever pivots on an eccentric bearing and
transfers motion to the actuating beam. Moving against
return spring force, the actuating beam moves two
threaded tubes and tappets, which force the inner brake
pad into contact with the brake rotor. Further
movement of the actuating beam forces the caliper,
sliding on two stationary guide pins, away from the
rotor, which pulls the outer brake pad into the rotor.
The clamping action of the brake pads on the rotor
applies braking force to the wheel.
adjuster mechanism that turns threaded tubes to set a
gap (running clearance) between the rotor and the
brake pads. When operated manually with the adjuster
shaft, the adjuster mechanism sets the system’s nonbraked position. The adjuster mechanism also operates
automatically, whenever the brakes are activated, to
compensate for rotor and brake pad wear and keep
the running clearance constant.
Releasing the foot brake releases pressure in the service
brake chamber. With no pressure in the service brake
chamber, return springs force the air disc brakes into
a neutral, non-braked position. The non-braked
position is mechanically controlled by a brake adjuster
mechanism in the caliper. The caliper contains a brake
The rotor-friction couple is carefully designed for
optimal performance and durability. It is recommended
that only approved replacement disc pads or rotors be
used to prevent damage to disc brake components (e.g.
cracked rotors) or premature or uneven pad wear,
which can adversely affect braking performance.
20
Outer
Brake Pad
Actuating
Inner
Beam
Brake Pad
Eccentric
Bearing
Rotor
www.bendix.com
1-800-AIR-BRAKE (1-800-247-2725)
Quick Release, Ratio Valves
Quick Release Valves
The function of the quick release valve is to speed
up the exhaust of air from the air chambers. It is
mounted close to the chambers it serves. In its standard
configuration, the valve is designed to deliver within
one psi of control pressure to the controlled device;
however, for special applications the valve is available
with greater differential pressure designed into the
valve.
Several styles of quick release valves are available and
are functionally the same. The QRV™ quick release
valve is the oldest design and utilizes a die cast metal
body with an internal diaphragm, spring and spring seat.
The QR-1™ quick release valve also has a die cast
body and diaphragm, but does not employ a spring or
spring seat. The (non-serviceable) QRN-2™ quick
release valve is a nonmetallic version of the QR-1™
quick release valve. The QR-L™ quick release
valve is an inline device.
QR-1™ Quick
Release Valve
QRN-2™ Quick
Release Valve
QRV™ Quick
Release Valve
QR-L™ Inline
Quick
Release Valve
Ratio Valves
The LQ-4™ ratio valve was designed to replace the
LQ-2™ limiting and quick release valve in the front axle
delivery line of vehicles meeting government
regulations, such as FMVSS 121. During normal service
brake applications, the LQ-4™ ratio valve automatically
reduces application pressure to the front axle brakes,
however, as brake application pressure is increased the
percentage of reduction is decreased until at
approximately 60 psi (depending upon valve design) full
LQ-4™
Valve
LQ-4™
Ratio
Valve
pressure is delivered. The valve is available with several
different "hold-off" pressures which prevent the front
brakes from operating until the "hold-off" pressure is
exceeded.
The obsolete LQ-3™ ratio valve appears identical to
the LQ-4™ ratio valve with minor differences in porting
size.
www.bendix.com
1-800-AIR-BRAKE (1-800-247-2725)
21
Ratio, Proportioning Valves
Bobtail Ratio Valves
The LQ-5™ bobtail ratio valve is used on the front
(steering) axle of tractor air brake systems to reduce
brake application pressure during normal tractor-trailer
operation. During bobtail mode (when the tractor is
not pulling a trailer), tractor braking performance is
improved because the LQ-5™ bobtail ratio valve delivers
full brake pressure to the steering axle.
The LQ-5™ bobtail ratio valve is designed for tractor
systems only, and it replaces the existing front axle
limiting valve.
LQ-5™
Bobtail Ratio
Valve
PP-7™
Valve
Air Brake Proportioning Valves
The BP-1 ™ brake proportioning valves are
incorporated into the air systems to improve the
controllability and reduce the stopping distance of
bobtail operated tractors during braking. The TR-3™
valve senses the lack of trailer supply line pressure
during bobtail operation, and controls the BP-1™
FRONT and REAR valves. The BP-1™ FRONT valve
reduces application pressure to the front brakes during
tractor trailer operation and returns to full application
pressure during bobtail operation. The BP-1™ REAR
valve delivers full pressure during tractor trailer
operation and reduces application pressure during
botail operation. Treadle application force, during
bobtail operation, resembles treadle application force,
during tractor operation with a loaded trailer.
Both the BP-1™ FRONT and REAR valve are identical
in appearance to the LQ-5™ valve, however they are
not interchangeable. A metal tag identifies the BP-1™
valve.
LQ-5™
Valve
Brake Proportioning Relay Valves
The BP-R1™ bobtail proportioning relay valve is
a combination of two valves in a single housing. The
lower portion contains a "standard" service brake relay
valve, which functions as a relay station to speed up
brake application and release. The upper portion
houses a brake proportioning valve which reduces
normal service brake application pressure when the
tractor is not towing a trailer (bobtail operation). The
control port on the BP-R1™ valve is connected to the
trailer supply valve delivery and signals bobtail
operation.
BP-R1™ Valve
BP-1™ Valve
Tag Indicates Valve
Name and Usage
22
www.bendix.com
1-800-AIR-BRAKE (1-800-247-2725)
Relay Valves
Relay Valves
Relay valves are primarily used on vehicles to apply
and release rear axle(s) service or parking brakes.
When the driver applies the brakes, air travels through
the delivery (in this case signal) line to the relay valve
and moves an internal piston down. This closes the
exhaust and opens the delivery of air to the brakes.
The primary benefits of using a relay valve is that the
high capacity of air needed for braking is delivered
directly and does not have to travel up to the brake
valve and then all the way to the brakes. The brake
force is adjustable and when released the relay valve
exhausts to atmosphere. Relay valves are generally
mounted close to the chambers they serve and are
available in both remote and reservoir mount designs.
The inlet/exhaust valve cartridge can be replaced
without line removal.
In order to design braking systems with good brake
timing, that is, where brake application occurs in the
correct sequence, some models of relay valves are
available in multiple “crack pressures”. The crack
pressure value for a particular valve is varied by the
use of different strength return springs within the valve
which the air pressure signal must overcome before
air begins to be delivered to the brake chambers.
™
™
The R-8 and R-14 relay valves both incorporate
an integral double check valve with a balance port
connection which provides both an anti-compounding
or quick exhaust feature depending upon vehicle
application. The anti-compound feature is used when
these valves are used to control spring actuated parking
features.
R-12™
Relay Valve
R-12DC™
Relay Valve
(Straight
trucks)
R-12P™
Relay Valve
(0 crack pressure for
long wheelbase trailers
and dollies)
R-8™
Relay Valve
(Anti-compounding,
frame or reservoir mounted)
R-8P™
Relay Valve
(0 crack pressure for
long wheelbase trailers
and dollies)
R-6™
Relay Valve
R-14™
Relay Valve
(Anticompounding)
R-7™ Modulating Valve
Spring Brake Actuator
R-7™
Valve
Park
Control
Valve
www.bendix.com
1-800-AIR-BRAKE (1-800-247-2725)
The R-7™ Modulating Valve is used in dual circuit
brake systems and performs four functions; during
normal operation, it limits hold-off pressure to the spring
brakes, provides quick release of air
pressure from the spring cavity of
the spring brake actuator allowing
a fast application of the spring brake
actuators, modulates spring brake
actuator application should a failure
occur in the service brake system
and prevents compounding of
R-7™
service and spring forces.
Valve
23
Push-Pull Valves
Push-Pull Control Valves
Push-pull control valves are most often mounted
on the vehicle dash board and are used for a variety of
control applications. The PP-1™ and PP-2™ valves are
pressure sensitive, normally closed, on/off control
valves which automatically return to the exhaust
(button out) position when supply pressure is below
the required minimum. They may be manually operated
to either position when pressure is above the required
minimum. Pressure settings and button configuration
and wording may vary, depending on application.
The PP-1™ control valve is commonly used to control
parking and emergency brakes. This valve was also
used in conjunction with the TP-2™ tractor protection
valve in pre-FMVSS 121 single circuit tractor air systems.
PP-1™
Control
Valve
PP-3™
Control
Valve
PP-8™
Control
Valve
PP-7™
Control
Valve
Unlike most other push-pull control valves, the PP-8™
is nonautomatic, and will remain in the applied (button
in) position regardless of delivery or supply pressure.
The PP-8™ control valve is commonly used to control
the tractor brakes only in the (FMVSS 121-compliant)
dual system.
The PP-3™ control valve is primarily used to control
the TP-3™ tractor protection valve in pre-FMVSS 121
tractor systems. It features a tripper piston which
prevents manual override of the emergency application
of trailer brakes.
Trailer Supply Valve (Tractor Protection
Control)
The PP-7™ push-pull control valve is a pressure
sensitive, on/off control valve which will automatically
return to the exhaust (button out) position when supply
pressure is below the required minimum. It may be
RD-3™ Valve
(See Page 27)
D
S
PP-1™
Valve
E
D
S
E
24
Spring
Brakes
manually operated to either position when
pressure is above the required minimum. Button
configuration and wording may vary depending
on application. The automatic exhaust pressure
is 40 psi.
The PP-7™ valve is used to control the tractor
protection system and is generally identified as
the trailer air supply valve. The valve employs an
air operated interlock in the lower body which
will apply the trailer brakes when the tractor
spring applied parking brakes are applied. The
interlock insures that the tractor parking brake
can not be applied without the trailer parking
brakes also being applied. Normally this action
will not affect the position of the PP-7™ valve
button. The interlock of tractor and trailer
parking is a requirement of government
regulations (e.g. FMVSS 121).
www.bendix.com
1-800-AIR-BRAKE (1-800-247-2725)
Spring Brake Valves
Spring Brake Valves
The SR-1™ spring brake valve is used in dual circuit
brake systems and serves two functions; during normal
operation, it limits hold-off pressure to the spring brakes
to 90 or 95 psi. If a loss of pressure occurs in the rear
service brake service supply, the valve will provide a
modulated spring brake application, proportional to the
driver’s service braking pressure delivered to the front
axle.
SR-1™ Spring
Brake Valve
The Bendix® SR-7™ spring brake modulating valve
is used in dual air brake systems with spring brake
actuators. It provides a rapid application of the spring
brake actuator when parking, modulates the spring
brake actuator application (using the dual brake valve
should a primary failure occur in the service brake
system) and prevents compounding of service and
spring forces.
SR-7™ Spring
Brake Valve
Simple Spring Brake Anti-compound System
General Operation
Brake compounding can occur in a spring brake parking
system due to the direct in-line arrangement of both
the spring chamber and brake chamber. It occurs in
unprotected systems when parking AND service brake
applications are made at the same time. An example
of this situation occurs when a vehicle is parked on a
steep incline; the driver holds the service brakes applied
(preventing the vehicle from rolling backward), then
actuates the park control which "sets" or applies the
spring brakes. For a brief time, the air applied service
brakes and the mechanical spring brakes both exert a
braking force on the slack adjusters and foundation
brakes. The forces of the spring and air applications
are additive and can cause damage to the foundation
brake components (cam shaft splines, shoes, drum, etc.)
and/or slack adjuster. An anti-compounding system is
especially important in protecting the adjusting
mechanism of automatic slack adjusters from damage
caused by over-torque that occurs during a
compounded application of the brakes.
Anti-compounding prevents the simultaneous
application of both the air and spring brakes by directing
application air to the spring brakes when both are
applied at once. In the simple anti-compounding
schematic shown here, the double check valve allows
service application air to apply the service brakes AND
move into the spring cavity if they are also applied (no
air pressure and springs are also applying brakes).
www.bendix.com
1-800-AIR-BRAKE (1-800-247-2725)
Spring Brake
Parking Quick
Release Valve
Park Control
Valve
Service
Brake
Valve
Service Quick
Release Valve
Double
Check
Valve
The anti-compounding function of the double check
valve is built into several air brake devices such as the
SR-7™, R-7™, R-8™, R-14™ and QR-1C™ valves. When
these devices are used in the system, a separate double
check valve for anti-compounding is not needed.
It is recommended that the service connection to the
anti-compounding device (double check valve) come
from a point between the service brake chamber and
the first "upstream" service device (in this case a quick
release valve).
25
Lever Operated Control Valves
Lever Operated Control Valves
The TW-2 ™ and TH-3 ™ valves are identical in
appearance (and similar to the TW-1™, TW-3™ and
TW-4™) except they have two control valves housed
in a single body. These two valves differ by the internal
cammed control lever, which for the TW-2™ control
valve has two lever positions, while the TH-3™ valve
has three.
The TW-1™, TW-3™ and TW-6™ series control valves
are manually operated, non-modulating (on - off)
control valves used in a wide variety of control
functions. The TW-1™ and TW-3™ are dash-mounted,
lever-controlled valves.
TW-1™ Valve
TW-2™,
TH-3™ Valve
TW-3™ Valve
TW-11™
Valve
The TW-4™ is a manually operated momentary nonmodulating control valve commonly used in conjunction
with air starter systems.
A momentary push-type control valve, the TW-5™ will
deliver air pressure when the plunger is pushed in and
exhaust delivered air when the plunger load is released.
A typical application is for control of a differential lockout.
Stop Lamp Switches
The SL-4™ and SL-5™ stop lamp switches are pressuresensitive electro-pneumatic switches installed in the
service application system. They operate the vehicle
stop lamps by completing an electrical circuit and
lighting the stop lamps each time a brake application is
made.
See page 14 for the DS-2™ double check and stop light
switch.
SL-5™ Switch
Dual Function Quick Release Valve
The QR-1C™ valve has a dual function. It works as a
quick release valve for rapid park brake actuation and
also provides anti-compounding, since its double check
valve prevents simultaneous service and emergency
spring brake applications.
Relay Valve
QR-1C™
Quick
Release
Valve
QR-1C™ Quick
Release Valve
26
www.bendix.com
1-800-AIR-BRAKE (1-800-247-2725)
Miscellaneous Control Valves
Miscellaneous Control Valves
Inversion valves are air operated control valves, and
unlike most control valves are normally open, i.e.
without control pressure the supply is common to the
delivery. The inversion valve is closed by using air
pressure from another source and is primarily used in
emergency or parking brake systems which operate
with air from an isolated reservoir. The valve is also
used in interlocking and sequencing applications, where
the operation of components must take place in specific
sequence.
The TR-2™ valve was designed primarily for use in
early DD3® safety actuator installations. It is equipped
with a threaded body and nut for mounting. Now used
extensively in DD3® actuator systems, it is also used in
interlocking applications. Two mounting holes are
provided.
TR-2™
Valve
TR-3™
Valve
SV-1™
Synchro
Valve
PP-5™
Push-Pull
Control
Valve
The TR-3™ valve is similar in function to the TR-2™
valve. A specialized version of the TR-3™ valve is
available with an internal channel connecting supply
pressure to control, typically with the external control
port plugged.
The SV-1™ synchro valve is an air signal-operated,
non-graduating (on-off) control valve offered in a variety
of pressure settings and is used to delay or sequence
the action of other pneumatic devices.
When used in non-automatic applications it controls a
separate air system circuit.
The SV-1™ valve can also be used as an automatic
controller (when its supply and control are connected).
The valve will open, close and exhaust automatically as
the control and supply pressures rise or fall.
RD-3™
Control
Valve
The PP-5™ push pull control valve is a pressure
sensitive, on - off control valve. It is used in conjunction
with vehicle torque converter systems, engine speed
control systems and some parking brake systems. In
addition to automatic exhaust and manual control, the
PP-5 ™ valve employs a pilot air release feature
(interlock) which will allow the valve to be exhausted
by applying a low pressure signal from another control
valve to the PP-5™ control port.
The RD-3™ is a manually operated on-off control valve.
The valve is spring loaded and will remain in the exhaust
(button out) position. Constant manual force is
required to cause the valve to deliver air. The RD-3™
control valve is primarily used as an emergency brake
release control valve.
www.bendix.com
1-800-AIR-BRAKE (1-800-247-2725)
27
Tractor/Trailer Parking and Emergency Systems
Section 4: Tractor Parking,Trailer Charging/Parking and
Emergency Systems
The tractor/trailer parking and emergency system
typically consists of:
• The tractor parking control system
• The trailer parking and emergency system, and
• The tractor protection system
Miscellaneous
Charging
System
Components
See the inside front cover for system
schematic. The
primary (rear)
brake Related
circuit is shown
in green
and the secondary (front) brake circuit is shown in orange.
Park Control Valves
The PP-DC™ park control double check valve is a
push-pull, manually operable on/off valve with an integral
double check. It is dashboard mounted and provides
in-cab control of truck or bus parking brakes. Manually
pushing or pulling the button will release or apply the
parking brakes. The integral double check valve allows
the PP-DC™ valve to receive supply air pressure from
either, or both, the front or rear axle service reservoirs.
The valve is pressure sensitive and automatically moves
from the applied (over the road position) to the exhaust
position (thus applying the parking brakes) if total
system pressure (both front and rear axle reservoirs)
drops below 20 to 30 psi.
PP-DC™ Park
Control Valve
SR-1™ Spring
Brake Valve
PP-DC™ Park
Control Valve
Service Relay
Valve
28
www.bendix.com
QR-1C™
Quick
Release
Valve
1-800-AIR-BRAKE (1-800-247-2725)
Dash Control Modules
The MV-3™ dash control module combines the
functions of a PP-1™ control valve and a PP-7™ trailer
supply valve together into a unified device.
Tractor Service
Reservoir #1
Exhaust
Port
Supply
#1
Auxiliary
Delivery
Port
Delivery
The Bendix® MV-3™ dash control module is a twobutton, push-pull control valve housed in a single body
which includes a dual circuit supply valve and a check
valve. The MV-3™ valve can duplicate the functions of
any existing two or three valve push-pull system and
has the advantage of reduced plumbing.
The MV-3™ module body, plungers and spools are made
out of a non-metallic, non-corrosive material. All air
connections are at the back of the module with the
exception of the optional auxiliary port.
The MV-3™ module provides the following functions:
• Tractor Protection Control.
Trailer Control (TC) valves are hand-operated,
graduated control valves. The most common use of
trailer control valves is for independent control of
trailer service brakes, however, the valve can be used
for any application where graduated application
pressure is required.
These valves use a cam and spring mechanism to control
delivery air pressure and are available with several
different styles of body, clamp and handles. Some
models are available with self-returning handles. Trailer
control valves are often used to hold the vehicle while
the vehicle’s clutch and accelerator are co-ordinated.
The trailer control valve should never be used for
parking.
www.bendix.com
1-800-AIR-BRAKE (1-800-247-2725)
Tractor
Protection
Valve
Supply
#2
Tractor
Service
Reservoir #2
Delivery
Tractor
Spring
Brakes
• System Park.
• Trailer Park Only.
• Trailer Charge with Tractor Spring Brakes Applied
(Tractor Park Only).
• Supply Reservoir Selection.
• Primary & Secondary Reservoir Connections.
TC-2™
Trailer
Control
Valve
TC-6™
Trailer
Control
Valve
29
Tractor Protection Valves
Tractor Protection Valves
The primary function of tractor protection valves (e.g.
the TP-3™ tractor protection valve) is to protect
the tractor air brake system under trailer breakaway
conditions and/or conditions where severe air leakage
develops in the tractor or trailer. In addition, in
everyday use, the valve is used to shut off the trailer
service and supply lines before disconnecting the tractor
from the trailer. The valve is usually mounted at the
rear of the tractor cab and a dash mounted control
valve.
The TP-3DC™ tractor protection valve integrates
the functions of the TP-3™ valve and one double check
valve. A stop light switch port is provided and is
connected to the delivery of the internal double check
valve. It also has an internal single check valve that
prevents air pressure from being trapped in the trailer
service line, which prevents brake compounding and
minimizes roll away conditions.
™
TP-3DC™
Tractor
Protection
Valve
TP-3™
Tractor
Protection
Valve
TP-4™ Tractor
Protection Valve
TP-5™ Tractor
Protection Valve
with a control valve, it opens and closes the trailer
service and supply lines in the same manner as a tractor
protection valve. The valves also incorporate porting
for the installation of the service stop lamp switch.
™
The TP-4 and TP-5 tractor protection valves
are designed to incorporate several pneumatic control
functions within a common housing, thereby eliminating
considerable interconnection piping.
The TP-4™ tractor protection valve, used solely on Ford
"L" model tractors, incorporates porting for a front
axle limiting control on pre-FMVSS 121 vehicles.
The TP-5™ tractor protection valve also incorporates
a quick release valve for the trailer service line.
These include a combination of two double check valves
and a tractor protection valve. With these valves, either
brake circuit on the vehicle can be used to apply the
trailer brakes. In addition, when used in conjunction
SL-5™ Stop Light Switch
™
TP-5 Tractor Protection
Hose Couplings
Service Hose to Trailer
™
PP-7 Trailer Supply
D
Supply Hose to Trailer
Dummy Hose
Coupling
C
D
To the Tractor Spring Brakes
Existing Park Control
From Double Check (Supplied by Front & Rear Service Reservoir)
Front Axle Delivery
Rear Axle Delivery
From Rear Axle Service Reservoir
From Front Axle Service Reservoir
Existing Brake Valve
30
www.bendix.com
1-800-AIR-BRAKE (1-800-247-2725)
Trailer Spring Brake Valves
SR-2™ Spring
Brake Valve
Trailer Spring Brake Valves
Trailer spring brake valves are designed for use in trailer
air brake systems.
The SR-4™ trailer spring brake valve was an earlier
design that used a dedicated spring brake reservoir for
release of the trailer spring brakes. Note: This valve is
available for service only, due to changes made in
FMVSS 121 (superceded by SR-5™). All other Bendix
spring brake valves use service reservoir air for trailer
spring brake release.
Mounted on one of the trailer reservoirs, these valves
control both the parking and emergency brake functions
of the spring brakes and use internal pressure
protection and check valves to isolate reservoir failures
to prevent automatic application of the trailer spring
brakes. An anti-compound feature is part of these
valves.
With later government regulations allowing simplified
system plumbing, Bendix developed the SR-5™ trailer
spring brake valve. It also mounts to a reservoir on
the trailer and, like the SR-2™ & SR-4™ trailer spring
brake valves, it controls the trailer spring brakes, but
unlike these valves, the SR-5™ trailer spring brake valve
uses supply line pressure to release the trailer spring
brakes. Because dedicated or isolated reservoir
pressure is no longer required by law for spring brake
release, the SR-5™ trailer spring brake valve system
needs only a one reservoir for service volume on single
axle trailers. Two reservoirs are generally required
for service volume requirements on tandem axle
SR-4™ Spring
Brake Valve
(Original Design)
Look for
drilled hole
SR-5™ Spring Brake Valve
trailers. An integral anti-compound feature is part of
the SR-5™ trailer spring brake valve. The SR-5™ is a
"spring brake priority" trailer valve.
Typical SR-2™
Trailer Spring
Brake Valve
Tandem Axle
Trailer Air
System
Service
Reservoir
ABS
Controller/
Relay
Assembly
SR-4™ Spring
Brake Valve
(Revised Design)
Note: The SR-5™ trailer spring brake
valve looks very similar to the
original design of the SR-2™ valve.
Look for a hole drilled into the flat
surface between the pressure
protection valve and the body for
positive SR-5™ trailer spring brake
valve identification.
Service
Reservoir
Spring Brake
Reservoir
SR-2™ Spring
Brake Valve
www.bendix.com
1-800-AIR-BRAKE (1-800-247-2725)
31
Trailer Spring Brake Valves, continued
Service
Reservoir
Typical SR-5™
Trailer Spring
Brake Valve
Tandem Axle
Trailer Air
System
(Note simplified
system plumbing)
ABS Controller/
Relay Assembly
The TE-1™ trailer
emergency stop light
switch is a pressuresensitive switch to operate
the stop lights in the event
of emergency trailer brake
application.
Service
Reservoir
SR-5™ Trailer
Spring Brake Valve
Some System
Designs Use a
Single TwoCompartment
Reservoir
The TR-5™ lock line control valve is a specialized,
pilot operated, non-automatic, on - off control valve,
designed primarily for use in off-highway parking and
emergency brake systems. It is almost identical in
appearance to the SV-1™ control valve. Unlike the
SV-1™ control valve, the TR-5™ control valve reacts to
control pressure from two different sources and does
not have an exhaust.
TR-5™
Control
Valve
The PE-4™ control valve is most often used as the
control for off highway emergency/park brake systems.
It is essentially a variation of the TH-3™ valve which
incorporates two TW-1™ type valves in a single body.
A common air supply is provided for the two valves
and a single, cammed lever is used which has three
operating positions and "Z" shift pattern.
32
PE-4™
Control
Valve
www.bendix.com
1-800-AIR-BRAKE (1-800-247-2725)
Trailer/Converter Dolly Brakes
Section 5: Converter Dolly Brakes
Typical components found in a converter dolly brake
system are shown in this section.
See the inside front page for full system schematic.
System Schematic
(Without ABS. ABS
currently required for
most applications.)
R-8P™ or R-12P™
Relay Valve
PR-3™
Reservoir
Control
Module
RE-6NC™ Relay
Emergency Valve
Service Line
Check Valve
Supply Line
Convertor Dolly
System Schematic
(With Bendix®
TABS6™ ABS)
PP-1™
Control
Valve
SV-1™ Control
Valve
WS Sensor
"SR"
A
B
C
D
E
Brake Light Power
Ignition Power
NC
Warning Lamp
Ground
D
C
A
Coupling - Control
E
B
CONTROL
LINE
SC-3™ valve
Trailer
Chassis Harness
Trailer ABS
Pigtail Harness
DC-4™
valve
R-12P™ valve
TABS
7-PIN
CONNECTOR
5-PIN
CONNECTOR
Ground
PR-3™
valve
SUPPLY
LINE
TABS6™
MOD1
SV-4™
valve
Ignition
Power
TR-3™
Valve
Brake Light
Power
Dolly
Coupling - Supply
ABS
ABS Indicator Light
WS Sensor
"SL"
www.bendix.com
1-800-AIR-BRAKE (1-800-247-2725)
33
Trailer/Converter Dolly Brakes
Typical Converter Dolly Components
The R-8P™ and R-12P™ pilot relay valves are special
purpose relays designed specifically for use on trailers
and converter dollies. These 0 p.s.i. crack and
differential relays speed up brake application signals to
provide an equal or balanced pressure signal to all trailer
and dolly brakes on double and triple trailer
combinations. By maintaining the same application
signal across the entire train of trailers these pilot
operated relay valves aid in achieving overall vehicle
brake balance and stability.
The SV-1™ synchro valve is a remote mounted air
operated, ON-OFF control valve. It is used to control
air from a remote supply, has a set opening and closing
pressure and can be used to delay or sequence the
action of other pneumatic devices. Use of the SV-1™
valve in dolly or towing trailer system prevents
automatic application of the towing (lead) trailer or
dolly emergency brakes in the event a breakaway occurs
with the towed (rear) trailer. The SV-4™ synchro
valves work similarly to the SV-1™ synchro valves, and
are used on trailer converter dollies to minimize the
possibility of false charging.
The RE-6NC™ relay emergency (non-charging)
valve is used in Dolly Systems and replaces the
conventional RE-6™ valve. The RE-6NC™ valve is similar
to the RE-6™ valve but is designed to prevent direct
filling of the dolly reservoir through the RE-6NC™ valve.
It is generally used in conjunction with the PR-3™
pressure protection and single check valve to provide
rapid dolly brake release.
The PR-3 ™ reservoir control valve is the
combination of a PR-4™ pressure protection valve and
a single check valve. This valve may be used in a variety
of applications, however the most common is in the
converter dolly brake system where it functions to delay
filling of the reservoir until pressure in the supply air
line exceeds 75 psi and to prevent pressure loss due
to a failure in the trailer being towed.
The PP-1™ control valve is commonly mounted to
the frame and used as a brake release valve. Pushing in
the PP-1™ valve releases the dolly’s parking brake and
allows it to be moved. Since the dolly uses its own
supply air to park, once it’s moved, pulling out the
PP-1™ valve button re-parks the dolly.
34
R-12P™
Relay Valve
R-8P™
Relay Valve
SV-1™
Synchro Valve
SV-4™ Trailer
Release
Valve
RE-6NC™ Relay
Emergency Valve
PR-3™ Reservoir
Control Valve
PP-1™
Control
Valve
Converter Dolly systems also widely use
DC-4™ double-check valves (see page 14),
and TR-3™ inversion valves (see page 27).
www.bendix.com
1-800-AIR-BRAKE (1-800-247-2725)
Antilock Braking Systems
Section 6: Antilock Braking Systems
Bendix ® Antilock Braking Systems (ABS) use
wheel speed sensors, ABS pressure modulator valves,
and an Electronic Control Unit (ECU) to control
either four or six wheels of a vehicle. Bendix ECUs
are able to optimize slip between the tire and the road
surface by monitoring individual wheel turning motion
during braking, and adjust or pulse the brake pressure
at the wheel end. When excessive wheel slip, or wheel
lock-up, is detected, the ECU will activate the Pressure
Modulator Valves similar to a driver pumping the brakes.
The ECU, however, is able to pump the brakes on
individual wheels (or pairs of wheels), independently,
and with greater speed and accuracy than a driver.
In addition to the ABS function, premium models of
the ECUs provide an Automatic Traction Control
(ATC) feature. Bendix ATC can improve vehicle
traction during acceleration, and lateral stability while
driving through curves. ATC utilizes Engine Torque
Limiting where the ECU communicates with the
engine’s controller and/or Differential Braking
where individual wheel brake applications are used to
improve vehicle traction.
Premium ECUs have a drag torque control feature
which reduces driven-axle wheel slip (due to driveline
inertia) by communicating with the engine’s controller
and increasing the engine torque.
Electronic Stability Program (ESP)
Recent Bendix ABS advances include ESP® functionality
which has the ability to apply brakes to individual wheel
ends, and the trailer, to counteract the trailer “push”
during maneuvers that may lead to loss of control or
jackknifes on low to high friction surfaces (snow, rain,
asphalt, concrete, etc.)
Roll Stability Program (RSP)
The Bendix Roll Stability Program (RSP), is an all-axle
ABS solution that helps reduce vehicle speed by applying
all vehicle brakes as needed, reducing the tendency to
roll over. RSP focuses on reducing the vehicle’s speed
below the critical roll threshold during directionchanging maneuvers such as exit ramps and obstacle
avoidance on dry, high friction surfaces.
Trailer ABS
See page 42 for more information on trailer ABS
systems and components.
ABS Components
Typical ABS components (for trucks and tractors) are:
• Wheel speed sensors (such as the Bendix® WS-24™
wheel speed sensors shown on this page). Each
sensor is installed with a Bendix Sensor Clamping
Sleeve. Vehicles have an exciter ring (or “tone ring”)
as part of the wheel assembly, and as the wheel
turns, the teeth of the exciter ring pass the wheel
speed sensor, generating an alternating current (AC)
signal, which varies in voltage and frequency as the
wheel speed changes. The ECU receives the AC
signal and can then monitor how fast the wheel is
turning.
• Pressure Modulator Valves (PMV) (such as the
Bendix® M-32™ or M-32QR™ pressure modulator
valves - shown on this page). PMVs use solenoids
with the ability to apply, hold, or release the air
pressure being delivered to the brakes to optimize
brake performance. Four, five, or six of these valves
may be used depending on ECU model and vehicle
configuration.
www.bendix.com
1-800-AIR-BRAKE (1-800-247-2725)
Sensor
Clamping
Sleeve
90° Speed
Sensors
Straight Speed
Sensors
Bendix® WS-24™
Wheel Speed Sensors
Bendix® M-32™ and
M-32QR™ Modulators
Supply
Delivery
Supply
™
M-32QR
Modulator
Electrical
Connector
Exhaust
M-32™
Modulator
35
ABS Components Continued; Truck and Tractor ABS Operation
ABS Components continued ...
Dash-mounted tractor ABS Indicator Lamp
Service brake relay valve
Dash-mounted trailer ABS Indicator Lamp (used on
all towing vehicles manufactured after March 1,
2001)
• Optional blink code activation switch
• Optional ABS off-road switch. (Off-road feature is
not typically available on all models)
Some “Premium” Bendix ABS systems utilize additional
components, such as traction control valves, a dashmounted ATC status/indicator lamp, serial
communication to the engine control module, a stop
lamp switch input, and optional ATC off-road switch.
With advanced ABS, the roll stability and ESP features
require additional components including vehicle sensors
to detect vehicle motion (lateral and yaw-rate sensors,
and pressure sensors for load estimation) and driver
intention (by monitoring the turning of the steering
wheel).
Bendix®
EC-30™ ABS/
ATC
Controller
•
•
•
Bendix® EC-60™ ABS/ATC Controllers
(left: Frame mount, and right: Cab Mount.)
Advanced Bendix®
ABS uses yaw and
steering wheel
sensors to monitor
the vehicle motion.
See pages 39 and 40.
All Bendix ECUs feature digital electronics with self
test and diagnostic circuitry that continuously monitors
operation of the entire antilock system including wiring
continuity. A history of all diagnostic trouble codes
are stored in the controller's memory and are not
cleared by loss of power to the unit.
Speed Sensor
Mounting
Block
ECU controllers are typically available in framemounted and cab-mounted models.
S-Cam Brake
100 Tooth (typical)
Speed Sensor
Exciter Ring
(“tone” ring)
Truck and Tractor ABS Operation
As described in the introduction to this section, Bendix
ABS uses wheel speed sensors, modulator valves, and
an ECU. By monitoring individual wheel turning motion
during braking, the ECU is able to optimize slip between
the tire and the road surface by pumping the brakes on
individual wheels (or pairs of wheels), independently.
Steer Axle Control
Although both wheels of the steer axle have their own
wheel speed sensor and pressure modulator valve, the
ECU blends the applied braking force between the two
steering axle brakes. A Bendix patented brake
application control, called Modified Individual Regulation
(MIR), has been designed to help reduce steering wheel
pull during an ABS event on road surfaces with poor
traction (or areas of poor traction, e.g. asphalt road
surfaces with patches of ice).
36
WS-24™ Speed
Sensor (90 Deg.)
Hub
Assembly
Vehicle Configurations
Depending on the number of drive axles, various
numbers of sensors and modulators may be used for
an ABS system. For example, a 4 sensor/4 modulator
(4S/4M) system would typically be used for a single drive
axle vehicle. System configurations are available for
4S/4M, 6S/6M, and 6S/5M (with the additional axle, a
non-driven rear axle, having two sensors, but only one
pressure modulator valve). In the case of a 6S/5M
arrangement, the PMV controls both wheels on the
additional axle. The additional axle wheels would
receive equal brake pressure, based on the wheel that
is currently experiencing the most wheel slip.
www.bendix.com
1-800-AIR-BRAKE (1-800-247-2725)
Truck and Tractor ABS Operation; ATC
All-Wheel Drive (AWD) Vehicles
Right Steer
Axle
Right Drive
Axle
Right Additional
Axle
Driver
Left Steer
Axle
Left Drive
Axle
Left Additional
Axle
AWD vehicles with an engaged interaxle differential
(steer axle to rear axle)/AWD transfer case may have
negative effects on ABS performance. Optimum ABS
performance is achieved when the lockable differentials
are disengaged, allowing individual wheel control.
Premium ECUs can be programmed specifically for this
configuration to control the differential lock/unlock
solenoid in the AWD transfer case. When programmed
to do so, the ECU will disengage the locked interaxle/
AWD transfer case during an ABS event and reengage
it once the ABS event has ended.
ATC Operation
Normal Braking
During normal braking, air brake pressure is delivered
through the ABS PMV and into the brake chamber. If
the ECU does not detect excessive wheel slip, it will
not activate ABS control, and the vehicle stops with
normal braking.
Retarder Brake System Control
On surfaces with low traction, application of the
retarder can lead to high levels of wheel slip at the
drive axle wheels, which can adversely affect vehicle
stability. To avoid this, some Bendix ECU controllers
are designed to switch off the retarder as soon as a
lock-up is detected at one (or more) of the drive axle
wheels. In these cases, when the ECU is placed in the
ABS off-road mode, it will switch off the retarder only
when ABS is active on a steer axle wheel and a drive
axle wheel.
Optional ABS Off-Road Mode
When used on some off-road surfaces, (for example,
loose gravel), ABS provides superior vehicle steerability
and stability, however there is the potential for stopping
distances to be longer than without ABS. This is because
locked-up wheels on gravel, etc. tend to plow up the
road surface in front of the tires.
ATC Functional Overview
Just as ABS improves vehicle stability during braking,
ABS systems with ATC improve vehicle stability and
traction during vehicle acceleration. The ATC function
uses the same wheel speed information and modulator
control as the ABS function. The ECU detects excessive
drive wheel speed, compares the speed of the front,
non-driven wheels, and reacts to help bring the wheel
spin under control. The ECU can be configured to use
engine torque limiting and/or differential braking to
control wheel spin. For optimal ATC performance,
both methods are recommended.
Differential Braking
Differential braking is automatically activated when drive
wheel(s) on one side of the vehicle are spinning, which
typically occur on asphalt road surfaces with patches
of ice. The traction system will then lightly apply the
brake to the drive wheel(s) that are spinning. The
vehicle differential will then drive the wheels on the
other side of the vehicle. Differential braking is available
at vehicle speeds up to 25 MPH.
Bendix Premium ECUs have an optional ABS off-road
control mode that more effectively accommodates
these soft road conditions and shortens stopping
distances while maintaining optimal vehicle steerability
and stability. Care must be taken, however, not to use
the ABS off-road mode on normal, paved road surfaces
(since vehicle stability and steerability may be reduced),
so the ABS Indicator Lamp flashes to show the driver
that the ABS off-road mode is being used.
www.bendix.com
1-800-AIR-BRAKE (1-800-247-2725)
37
38
www.bendix.com
Modulator
Quick
Release
Valve
Modulator
Single Check
Valve
Front Axle
Service
Reservoir
Service Brake
Valve
Low Pressure Warning Indicator
Supply
Reservoir
Compressor
Air Dryer
Brake
Chamber
Engine ECU
©2004 Bendix Commercial Vehicle Systems LLC • All Rights Reserved
Tone Ring
Wheel
Speed
Sensor
Wheel
Speed
Sensor
Rear Axle
Service
Reservoir
Gauge
DC-4™
Double
Check
Valve
Modulator
ABS
ECU
Tone Ring
Spring Brakes
R-12DC™
Relay
Valve
Anti-Compound
Line
AntiCompounding Spring
Brake
Relay
Valve
Spring Brakes
Modulator
STRAIGHT TRUCK WITH STANDARD ABS SYSTEM SCHEMATIC (ABS COMPONENTS HIGHLIGHTED)
ABS/Traction Warning
Diagnostic
Indicator Lamps
SR-1™ Spring
Wheel Speed
Connection
Tone
Parking
Brake Valve
Sensor
Ring
Valve
Tone Ring
ABS: Straight Truck Sample Schematic
1-800-AIR-BRAKE (1-800-247-2725)
Advanced ABS
Advanced ABS
Yaw Stability
Yaw stability counteracts the tendency of a vehicle to
spin about its vertical axis. During operation, if the
friction at the tires is not sufficient to oppose lateral
(side) forces, one or more of the tires can slide, causing
the truck/tractor to spin. These are referred to as
under-steer or over-steer situations. Generally, shorter
wheelbase vehicles (tractors, for instance) have less
yaw stability, while longer wheelbase vehicles (straight
trucks) have greater natural yaw stability. Factors that
influence yaw stability are: wheelbase, suspension,
steering geometry, weight distribution front to rear,
and vehicle tracking.
Stability Systems
During operation, the ECU of the Bendix Advanced
ABS system constantly compares performance models
to the vehicle’s actual movement, using the wheel speed
sensors of the ABS system, as well as lateral, yaw, and
steering angle sensors. If the vehicle shows a tendency
to leave an appropriate travel path, or if critical
threshold values are approached, the system will
intervene to assist the driver.
The Bendix ESP system
The ESP® functionality of the Bendix Advanced ABS
system responds to a wide range of low- to high-friction
surface scenarios including rollover, jackknife and loss
of control. It is the recommended system for all power
vehicles and especially critical for tractors pulling
trailers. In the case of vehicle slide (over-steer or understeer situations), the system will remove the throttle
and then brake one or more of the “four corners of
vehicle” (in addition to potentially braking the trailer),
thus applying a counter-force to better align the vehicle
with an appropriate path of travel. For example, in an
over-steer situation, the system applies the “outside”
front brake; while in an under-steer condition, the
“inside” rear brake is applied.
Driving Scenario:
Driving speed exceeds the threshold,
creating a situation where the vehicle
is prone to rollover on higher-friction
surfaces.
Action by Bendix Stability Solutions:
System applies all brakes to reduce
speed, thereby reducing the
tendency to roll over.
www.bendix.com
1-800-AIR-BRAKE (1-800-247-2725)
39
Advanced ABS Operation, Features
The Bendix RSP (Roll Stability Program)
Bendix Advanced ABS RSP, an element of the overall
ESP system, addresses only rollover conditions and is
an alternative for longer wheelbase, higher center of
gravity straight trucks. Because of their longer
wheelbase these vehicles are less likely to yaw than
shorter wheelbase trucks or tractors. In the case of a
potential roll event, the system will remove the throttle
and quickly apply brake pressure at all wheel ends to
slow the vehicle combination below the threshold.
With the addition of a steering angle sensor, the
performance of the ESP system in a rollover scenario
can be enhanced due to the potential for earlier system
intervention. Correspondingly, a roll stability system
without a steering angle sensor would intervene later,
potentially resulting in a reduced stability margin.
Steering Angle Sensors
The sensor enables the Bendix Advanced stability
system to capture the driver’s steering input and
intervene if a yaw correction is indicated. The sensor
also provides the earliest indication of an increase in
lateral acceleration leading to a potential roll event,
resulting in much higher stability margin when a vehicle
is equipped with a steering angle sensor.
Brake Demand Sensors
Bendix Advanced stability system was designed to
supplement the drivers actions. By directly measuring
driver brake demand, the system can accurately
transition between driver-intended and systemintended braking pressure seamlessly. For example, if
in a certain maneuver, the system calculates that 40 psi
is needed and the driver is only applying 20 psi, the
system compensates automatically to deliver the
needed 40 psi. If, however, during the same maneuver
the driver steps on the brake pedal quickly to apply a
higher (above 40 psi) braking level the driver’s braking
input overrides the temporary change made by the
system.
Driving Scenario:
Driving speed exceeds the
threshold, and the resulting lateral
force causes the vehicle to slide or
jackknife on lower-friction surfaces.
Action by Bendix Stability Solutions:
System applies the appropriate
brakes to reduce speed and properly
align the vehicle, thereby reducing the
tendency to slide or jackknife.
40
www.bendix.com
1-800-AIR-BRAKE (1-800-247-2725)
Advanced ABS Features
Stability System Effectiveness
Bendix Bendix
RSP ESP®
Sense Situation Quickly and Completely
Speed
Vehicle velocity
Lateral Acceleration
Measure tendency to roll
Steering
First indication, capture driver intent
Brake Demand
Accurately supplement driver
Yaw Rate
Vehicle spin, correlate to steering
Reaction Time and Robustness
Multi-Level Sensing
Leading indicators aid reaction
Cross checking - false interventions
Tuning
Match to vehicle configuration and handling
Braking Control
All Axle
Maximize potential to recover
Individual Wheel
Correct vehicle orientation
Next, during high-speed maneuvers in potential rollover
situations, the tandem tires of the tractor and trailer
can lift off the ground. If that occurs, the steer axle
brakes contribute a much larger percentage of available
braking capacity because the wheels that are no longer
in contact with the road surface cannot provide braking
force.
Third, the ability to apply steer axle brakes individually
is a fundamental requirement for yaw (spin) control.
By applying brakes at any one or all of a vehicle’s “Four
Corners,” the stability system may be able to correct
the vehicle’s orientation, mitigating the potential for a
jackknife, spin out or slide.
ABS / stability system interaction
With Bendix Advanced ABS, the ABS system is given
“priority” at the wheel ends to manage wheel slip for
optimal braking. The ABS system functions similarly
whether the stability system or the driver applies the
brakes.
How do I find out more about Advanced ABS?
Visit the Electronics area of www.bendix.com, or call
1-800-AIR-BRAKE (1-800-247-2725).
Finally, with the potential regulatory requirements for
larger front brakes in the future, the steer axle’s braking
contribution to a vehicle’s overall braking capacity and
potential stability margin is expected to increase.
www.bendix.com
1-800-AIR-BRAKE (1-800-247-2725)
41
Trailer ABS Components and Operation
Trailer ABS Components
Typical Trailer ABS components are:
•
•
•
•
•
Bendix Electronic Control Units (ECUs) such as
the MC-30™, A-18™, or TABS6™ Trailer ABS
Controllers
Wheel Speed Sensors (see page 35)
A-18™
Controller
Assy.
MC-30™
Controller
Assy.
Pressure Modulator Valves (also see page 35)
ABS Indicator Lamps
Harnesses
TABS6™
Controller
Assy.
Trailer ABS Operation
Examples of trailer ABS systems are:
Normal braking (operates as a standard relay valve)
Dolly-axle control (2S/1M), which uses the wheel
behavior monitored by two wheel speed sensors
to modulate the braking of one (or two) axles in
an ABS event
See page 35 for
wheel speed sensors
and pressure
modulator valves
ABS
Harness
ABS Lamp
Example of 4S/2M ABS Trailer Schematic
WS Sensor
"SAR"
Ground
A Brake Light Power
B Ignition Power
C NC
D Indicator Lamp
E Ground
D
WS Sensor
"SR"
C
A
E
B
Ignition
Power
Brake Light
Power
CONTROL
LINE
Trailer
Chassis Harness
5-PIN
CONNECTOR
Trailer ABS
Pigtail Harness
7-PIN
CONNECTOR
MOD2
SUPPLY
LINE
TABS
•
•
SR-5™
valve
TABS6™
MOD1
Full Trailer
ABS
ABS Indicator Lamp
WS Sensor
"SAL"
WS Sensor
"SL"
©2004 Bendix Commercial Vehicle Systems LLC • All Rights Reserved
42
www.bendix.com
1-800-AIR-BRAKE (1-800-247-2725)
Trailer ABS Operation and Features, PLC,Troubleshooting
Trailer ABS Operation Continued
• Axle Control Mode uses a single ABS modulator
•
Trailer ABS Features
to control both sides of a given axle or axles
The latest releases of trailer ABS feature:
Side control uses ABS modulators to control each
side of a vehicle separately. The modulator may
control one or more wheels
•
•
Fail Safe Mode reverts the system to non-ABS
braking in the event of a system malfunction
Note: The ABS indicator lamp (mandated by government regulations) is illuminated whenever there is an
active diagnostic trouble code. This lamp will remain
illuminated (whenever the power is on) until the
condition is cleared. The lamp may also be used to
display diagnostic blink codes when troubleshooting.
•
•
•
Auxiliary Design Language (ADL) which allows
customized trailer features to communicate via the
ABS ECU with the tractor. Potential examples
are: weight, lift axle position, tire temperature and
inflation status, slider pin position, refrigeration
temperature, load presence, and proximity/
reverse alarm.
Auto-configuration at power-up.
Customer-defined data storage
Odometer functionality, including total, trip and
service interval tracking
Controllers with PLC
Since March 1, 2001, all towing vehicles must have an
in-cab trailer ABS Indicator Lamp. Trailers transmit
the status of the trailer ABS over the power line to
the tractor using a Power Line Carrier (PLC) signal
(see right panel). Typically the signal is broadcast by
the trailer ABS ECU. The application of PLC technology
for the heavy vehicle industry is known as
“PLC4Trucks.”
POWER LINE WITHOUT PLC SIGNAL
POWER LINE WITH PLC SIGNAL
Troubleshooting Truck,Tractor
and Trailer ABS
Bendix ECU controllers contain self-testing diagnostic
circuitry that continuously checks for the normal
operation of internal components and circuitry, as well
as external ABS components and wiring. See the Service
Data Sheet for the ABS controller for full
troubleshooting information.
Diagnostic Trouble Codes: General
When an erroneous system condition is detected, the
ECU controllers:
1. Illuminates the appropriate indicator lamp(s) and
disengages part or all of the ABS and ATC functions.
2. Places the appropriate trouble code information in
the ECU memory.
3. Communicates the appropriate trouble code
information over the serial communications
diagnostic link as required.
www.bendix.com
1-800-AIR-BRAKE (1-800-247-2725)
Typical Vehicle Diagnostic Connector Locations
Located on
Dash Panel
Or
Located Under
Dash Panel
Depending on the ECU, the diagnostic trouble codes
may be retrieved using “blink codes” (using the dash
or trailer ABS indicator lamp), by attaching to the
vehicle diagnostic connector (see above) a hand-held
diagnostic tool such as the Bendix Remote Diagnostic
Unit (RDU™), or a PC-based diagnostic tool such as
the Bendix® ACom™ Diagnostics program, or by reading
the LEDs on the front of the ECU (such as on the
EC-30™ controller).
43
Troubleshooting ABS, continued
Troubleshooting ABS continued.
Bendix® Remote Diagnostic Unit
Bendix® RDU™ (Remote Diagnostic Unit) for
Trucks and Tractors*
LED Lights
Illuminate
Diagnostic
Trouble
Codes
The Bendix® RDU™ tool provides the technician with a
visual indication of ABS component Diagnostic
Trouble Code (DTC) information. The RDU™ tool
is specifically designed for use with Bendix ABS systems
and allows the technician to:
• Troubleshoot ABS system component problems
using Diagnostic Trouble Code reporting via LEDs.
• Reset Diagnostic Trouble Codes on Bendix ABS
ECUs by holding a magnet over the reset in center
of RDU™ tool for less than 6 seconds.
• Enter the Self-Configuration Mode used by Bendix
ABS ECUs by holding a magnet over the reset area
for greater than 6 seconds but less than 30 seconds.
*A trailer version of the RDU™ tool is being developed
- check you local Bendix parts outlet for availability.
Nexiq Bendix Application Card
Nexiq provides a Bendix application card for use with
the ProLink tool. It can also be used to diagnose most
Bendix ABS Controllers. For more information on the
Bendix application card visit www.bendix.com, Nexiq
at www.nexiq.com, or your local authorized Bendix
parts outlet.
PC-based Bendix® ACom™ Diagnostics tool
NEXIQ (MPSI) Pro-Link Tool
Bendix® ACom™ Diagnostics 3.0 Software
Bendix ® ACom ™ Diagnostics tool is a PC-based
software program and is designed to meet RP-1210
industry standards. This software provides the
technician with access to all the available ECU diagnostic
information and configuration capability, including: ECU
information, diagnostic trouble codes and repair
information, configuration (ABS, ATC, and more),
wheel speed information, etc.
Pro-Link
Heavy Duty
Multi Protocol
Cartridge
PC Card MPSI
Part Number
805013
For more information on ACom™ Diagnostics software
or RP-1210 compliant tools, go to www.bendix.com
or visit your local authorized Bendix parts outlet.
44
www.bendix.com
1-800-AIR-BRAKE (1-800-247-2725)
Miscellaneous Systems and Components
Section 7: Micellaneous Commercial Vehicle Components and Modules
from Bendix
Bendix today supplies more than brakes and braking
systems, it also provides many other products and
systems used on commercial vehicles.
Vision Systems
Bendix has the industry’s most complete line of
vehicle-mounted vision solutions for commercial
vehicles, with many configurations from which to
choose. Any selection of the cameras and displays
can be combined to create an individual system.
Extended Visibility Day and Night
Bendix XVision® thermal imaging (infrared light)
cameras help drivers see 3 to 5 times further than
the range of their headlights. Bendix also has
cameras that will help drivers minimize blind spots
around their vehicle and also help drivers back up
their vehicles more safely.
Vision Systems
Family of Products
Night Vision Display
Bendix Modules
Beyond component and systems engineering,
Bendix develops and manages integrated vehicle
solutions by partnering with vehicle manufacturers.
These joint development projects use program
management and engineering expertise at Bendix
to help our customers develop new vehicle designs
and shorten the time taken to bring these vehicles
to the marketplace.
For more information, contact Bendix at:
info@bendix.com
www.bendix.com
1-800-AIR-BRAKE (1-800-247-2725)
45
Miscellaneous Systems and Components (continued)
Pre-Trip Safety Inspections
®
™
The Bendix BVA-85 brake valve actuator
enables pre-trip brake inspections safely and
easily with only one person. It uses air from
the trailer supply of the Bendix® MV-3™ valve
to keep the foot pedal applied at an accurate
85 psi service brake application.
BVA-85™ Brake
Valve Actuator
This valve is also used as a work brake for
unique systems, e.g. to apply the service
brakes for door interlock systems for transit
and school bus applications, refuse interlock
systems, and other severe service vehicle
interlock systems including paving and
construction.
Fan Clutches
Fan clutches are air-operated, normally engaged,
on-off clutches that control the engine cooling fan.
The fan clutch senses the engine coolant
temperature and maintains engine temperature by
engaging or disengaging the cooling fan. Using a
fan clutch helps conserve fuel and engine efficiency,
and it leads to faster warm-ups and a quieter
vehicle. Bendix recommends snap-action
electronic fan clutch controls for both performance
and reliability.
FD-l™
Fan Clutch
The FD-L™ and FD-3™ fan clutches are designed to
be fail safe. Both models feature spring engagement
and air disengagement.
Most later model vehicle/engine combinations are
available in kit form and contain all the necessary
parts for installation. Control kits are also available,
including those for shutter-equipped and airconditioned vehicles.
FD-3™
Fan
Clutch
Caution: Fan bolts must not
enter the fan plate more than
½" or less than 3/8".
Electronic Throttles
ET-S2™
Electronic
Throttle
46
The ET-S™ and ET-S2™ electronic throttles
are installed on vehicles with electronically
controlled, fuel management systems on newer
diesel engines. The electronic throttle replaces
the mechanical accelerator pedal and linkage found
on conventional diesel engine, fuel management
systems. It provides graduated throttle control by
communicating with the Electronic Control Module
(ECM) controlling the engine.
www.bendix.com
ET-S™
Electronic
Throttle
1-800-AIR-BRAKE (1-800-247-2725)
Air Brake System Fundamentals
Section 8: The Fundamentals of Air Braking
Friction
Air brakes are mechanical devices that use friction to slow
or stop vehicles. An understanding of the laws of friction
will be a useful introduction to the concepts behind brake
design and maintenance.
Coefficient of Friction
Friction is the resistance to relative motion between any
two bodies in contact, and it varies not only with different
materials, but also with the condition of the materials.
The amount of friction developed by any two bodies in
contact is referred as their coefficient of friction, which is
the amount of force required to move the one body while
it remains in contact with the other.
(a)
Heat is always present where friction is being developed.
For example, when a bearing is not properly lubricated,
the lack of lubrication causes a rise in the coefficient of
friction with a resultant rise in the heat produced. The
heat may reach a point where the bearing fails.
Energy of Motion Becomes Heat Energy
Since friction is the resistance to relative motion between
two bodies in contact and since friction results in heat, a
more complete definition of a brake would be that it is a
mechanical device for retarding the motion of a vehicle by
means of friction, thereby changing the energy of motion
into heat energy.
Stated another way, when the speed of a vehicle is reduced
by applying the brakes, the energy of motion is actually
changed into heat energy, and the brakes must dissipate
or absorb the heat developed.
Braking Force
It is difficult to appreciate the tremendous forces involved
in stopping a modern commercial vehicle, particularly from
the higher speeds.
(b)
(c)
FIGURE 1 - Coefficient of Friction
The coefficient of friction is expressed by the relation of
the amount of force divided by the weight of the moving
body. Let's look at three examples:
In Figure 1, example (a), if the moving body weighs 100
pounds, and a force of 60 pounds is required to keep it
moving while it remains in contact with another body,
then the coefficient of friction between the two bodies is
60% or 0.6. For (b), if 50 pounds force is necessary to
keep it moving, the coefficient of friction is 50% or 0.5.
For (c), if only 35 pounds force is required, the coefficient
of friction is 35% or 0.35.
The coefficient of friction between any two surfaces
changes with any variation in the condition of one or both
surfaces. As an example, the introduction of oil or grease
between two dry, flat metal surfaces will greatly reduce
the friction between them, which demonstrates that the
condition of these surfaces plays a great part in the actual
friction they develop. This possible variation in the
coefficient of friction is always present when any factor
contributing to the frictional value of any material is subject
to change either permanently or temporarily.
www.bendix.com
1-800-AIR-BRAKE (1-800-247-2725)
A simple method of explaining this is to make a comparison
between the horsepower required to accelerate a vehicle
and the horsepower required to stop it. A truck with an
engine capable of developing 100 horsepower will require
about one minute to accelerate to 60 miles per hour. The
same vehicle should be capable of easily stopping from 60
miles per hour in not more than six seconds. Ignoring the
unknown quantities, such as rolling friction and wind
resistance which play a part in all stops, the brakes must
develop the same energy in six seconds as the engine
develops in 60 seconds; in other words, the brakes do the
same amount of work as the engine in one-tenth the time
and must develop approximately 1,000 horsepower during
the stop.
FIGURE 2 - Forces Involved in Braking
47
Braking Force
(Note: For illustration the Figure above shows horses; however in this case we are illustrating the effect of forces, not horsepower amounts, as in Figure 2.)
FIGURE 3 Effect of Weight and Speed on Braking Force Required
Effect of Weight and Speed
Other factors to be considered are the effects on braking
when the weight and speed of a vehicle are increased. If
the weight of the vehicle is doubled, the energy of motion
to be changed into heat energy is also doubled. If the
brake cannot properly dissipate and absorb the increased
heat caused by the vehicle weight (in excess of the vehicle
design spec’s), poor braking performance will result. Brake
systems are designed to properly control a vehicle loaded
up to its gross vehicle weight (GVW). Never exceed the
GVW for a vehicle.
The effect of higher speeds on braking is much more
significant. Comparing stops from a speed of 20 miles per
hour with stops from a speed of 40 miles per hour,
engineering calculations show there is actually four times
as much energy of motion to be changed to heat energy
during a stop from 40 miles per hour as there is during a
stop from 20 miles per hour. Thus, if the speed is doubled,
four times as much stopping power must be developed,
and the brakes must absorb or dissipate four times as
much heat. If the speed is three times higher, the stopping
power needed is nine times higher.
It naturally follows that if both the weight and speed
of a vehicle are doubled, the stopping power must
be increased eight times and the brakes must absorb
or dissipate eight times as much heat.
Another way of illustrating the effect of speed on stopping
ability is to compare the stopping distance if the speed is
increased without increasing the weight.
48
In Figure 4, the vehicle shown stops from 20 miles per
hour in 30 feet. At 40 miles per hour it would typically
require 120 feet to stop, and 60 miles per hour it would
typically need 270 feet to stop.
FIGURE 4 - Effect of Speed on Stopping Distances
Introducing both weight and speed into the comparison
again, a 10,000 pound vehicle traveling 60 miles per hour
has 18 times as much energy of motion as a 5,000 pound
vehicle traveling at 20 miles per hour. If the same stopping
power is used, a 5,000 pound vehicle which stops from 20
miles per hour in 30 feet, when loaded to 10,000 pounds
and is traveling at 60 miles per hour will require 18 times
(540 feet), or more, to stop. Note: Many other factors,
including the road surface, brake friction material and tire
condition, etc. would also affect the stopping distance.
www.bendix.com
1-800-AIR-BRAKE (1-800-247-2725)
Leverage
Leverage
5(a)
Having reviewed the forces involved in braking a vehicle,
consideration must also be given to how these forces are
developed and directed to do the braking work. Almost
all braking systems make use of one of the oldest
mechanical devices governing the transmission and
modification of force and motion, the lever.
5(b)
A lever is defined as an inflexible rod or beam capable of
motion about a fixed point called a fulcrum, and it is used
to transmit and modify force and motion.
Figure 5 illustrates three simple types of levers; the only
difference in them being the location of the fulcrum in
relation to the applied force and the delivered force. All
shapes and sizes of levers used in a typical brake system
are one of these three types.
The simple law of levers is that the applied force multiplied
by the perpendicular distance between the line of force
and the fulcrum always equals the delivered force multiplied
by the perpendicular distance between the fulcrum and
the line of force. Thus, with a leverage arrangement as
shown in view 5(a), an applied force of 100 pounds two
feet from the fulcrum will give a delivered force of 200
pounds at a point one foot from the fulcrum. With a
leverage arrangement as shown in Figure 5(b), an applied
force of 100 pounds three feet from the fulcrum will lift
300 pounds at a point one foot from the fulcrum.
Note that in both cases the delivered force exceeds the
applied force because the applied force is farther from
the fulcrum than the delivered force. With a leverage
arrangement as shown in Figure 5(c), the delivered force
is the farthest from the fulcrum; therefore, it is less than
the applied force. If the applied force in this case is 300
pounds at a point two feet from the fulcrum, the delivered
force at a point three feet from the fulcrum will be 200
pounds.
The delivered force of any lever is determined by
multiplying the applied force by the distance it is from the
fulcrum and then dividing this answer by the distance the
delivered force is from the fulcrum.
In determining the distance at which any force is acting on
a lever, the true length of the lever arm is the perpendicular
distance from the force to the fulcrum, regardless of the
shape of the lever. The lever arm is always measured at
right angles to the direction of the force.
The product of the force acting on a lever, multiplied by
the distance the force is from the fulcrum, is called the
turning moment, and when this relates to a shaft, it is
www.bendix.com
1-800-AIR-BRAKE (1-800-247-2725)
5(c)
FIGURE 5 - Leverage
called torque. The turning moment or torque is usually
expressed in inch-pounds, foot-pounds, foot-tons, etc.,
depending upon whether the force is measured in pounds
or tons and whether the distance is measured in inches or
feet. As an example – a force of 100 pounds acting on a
lever arm five inches long would result in a turning moment
or torque of 500 inch pounds.
The most easily recognized lever in an air brake system is
the slack adjuster. The length of the lever arm of a slack
adjuster is always the perpendicular distance between the
center line of the brake camshaft opening and the center
line of the clevis pin.
Another form of lever – not always recognized – is the
brake cam. All brake cams are levers and are used to
transmit and modify the torque and turning motion of the
brake camshaft in such a way that the brake shoes are
spread and forced against the brake drum, not only in the
proper direction but also with the proper force. Spreading
the shoes in the proper direction, of course, depends on
the proper location of the cam in respect to the location
of the brake shoes. The transmission of the proper force
is partially determined by the effective lever length of the
cam. If the effective lever length of the cam is too long or
too short, the brake shoe force will be correspondingly
too little or too much.
It is also important that the effective lever length of the
cam remains constant as the lining wears and the shoes
have to be spread further; otherwise, the brake
performance would vary as the lining wears.
49
Leverage (continued), Deceleration
Another form of lever found in drum-brake forms of
braking systems is the brake shoe. This is one of the
simpler forms because it is easily recognized as a beam,
fulcrumed at one end on the hinge pin, which forces the
brake lining against the drum when the brake cam force is
applied to the other end.
Perhaps the least easily recognized lever in a drum brake
system is the relation of the brake drum diameter to the
tire diameter. In order to understand this fully it must be
remembered that although the brakes stop the brake
drums and wheels, it is always the tires and road surface
that stop the vehicle. This is clearly demonstrated when
quick stops are attempted on wet or icy roads. Under
these conditions the brake equipment may still be as
efficient as ever in stopping the wheels, but its ability to
stop the vehicle quickly diminishes because there is not
sufficient friction between the tire and road to develop
the necessary retarding force.
Returning to the principles of leverage involved in the
relation of the tire and brake drum size, the retarding
force developed by the brake shoes acting against the drum
is working on an effective lever length of the brake drum
radius. Counteracting this is the retarding force developed
between the tire and the road, working on an effective
lever length of the rolling radius of the tire. Since it is not
practical to have brake drums as large as the tires, the
principles of leverage require development of a greater
retarding force between the brake shoes and the drums
than between the tire and the road. Also, since a rubber
tire on a smooth, dry road surface has a higher coefficient
of friction than brake lining against a brake drum, it is
necessary to develop additional retarding force between
the brake shoes and brake drum in order to overcome
the difference in friction.
Deceleration
In discussing brakes, the term deceleration is often used.
This term expresses the actual rate at which vehicle speed
is reduced and usually denotes the speed being reduced
each second, in terms of miles per hour or feet per second.
As an example as shown in Figure 6 - if a vehicle is moving
at the rate of 20 miles per hour, and one second later its
speed is only 18 miles per hour, the vehicle has reduced
its speed by two miles per hour during one second, its
deceleration rate is two miles per hour per second.
In the same way, if a vehicle is moving at a rate of 30 feet
per second, and one second later its speed is only 20 feet
50
Deceleration Rate 2 miles per Hour per Second
Deceleration Rate 10 ft. per Second per Second
FIGURE 6 - Deceleration
per second, then it is decelerating at the rate of ten feet
per second per second.
Therefore, the change in the rate of speed of a vehicle
during a slowdown or stop is expressed by first stating
the rate of speed being lost, such as miles per hour or feet
per second, and then by stating the time required for this
rate of speed to be lost.
Thus, in examining the expression covering a deceleration
rate of say, "ten feet per second per second," the first
part – "ten feet per second" – is the rate of speed being
lost, and the second part – "per second" – is the time in
which the loss of ten feet per second takes place.
If a vehicle is moving at a known rate, and is decelerating
at a known rate, the stopping time will be the initial speed
divided by the deceleration rate, provided both the rate
of speed and the deceleration rate are expressed on the
same basis. As an example – if a vehicle is moving at the
rate of 30 feet per second and is decelerating at the rate
of ten feet per second, the stopping time will be the initial
speed of 30 feet per second divided by the deceleration
rate of ten feet per second per second, or a stopping time
of three seconds.
This perhaps can be more easily understood if explained
in the following manner; if a vehicle is moving at the rate
of 30 feet per second and begins to decelerate at the rate
of ten feet per second per second, at the end of the first
second it will be traveling 20 feet per second; at the end
of the second second, it will be traveling ten feet per
second, and at the end of the third second, it will be
stopped. Thus, by losing speed at the rate of ten feet per
second per second, it would lose its initial speed of 30
feet per second in three seconds.
www.bendix.com
1-800-AIR-BRAKE (1-800-247-2725)
Deceleration (continued), Compressed Air
or 25%, the actual stopping distance is reduced by 30 feet
or 40%.
FIGURE 7 - Deceleration at 10 feet per second per second
Similarly, if the initial speed is 20 miles per hour and the
deceleration rate is two miles per hour per second, the
stopping time will be ten seconds.
One important thing to remember in respect to stopping
vehicles is the fact that while the deceleration rate may be
constant for each second during the stop, the distance
the vehicle travels each second during the stop varies
greatly as the speed decreases.
This is illustrated in Figure 7 which also shows a vehicle
decelerating at the rate of ten feet per second per second
from an initial speed of 30 feet per second, but the positions
of the vehicles are shown in relation to the distance
traveled each second during the stop. This shows that
although the rate of deceleration remains constant
throughout the stop, the vehicle actually travels 25 feet
during the first second after the brakes were applied, 15
feet during the second second, and only five feet during
the third second.
The distance being traveled each second during the stop
is always greater at the beginning of the stop. To keep
stopping distance as short as possible, it is important that
the brakes become fully effective when the pedal is
depressed by the driver.
Any time lost between the instant the brake pedal is
depressed and the instant actual deceleration begins is
important because the vehicle continues to travel at close
to its initial speed. In this case, the loss of only one second
between the instant the driver depresses the brake pedal
and the point where the brakes are really applied will result
in lengthening the actual stopping distance by 30 feet. Thus,
if four seconds instead of three elapse between the instant
the driver depresses the brake pedal and the instant the
vehicle stops, the actual stopping distance will be increased
from 45 feet to 75 feet. In other words, by reducing the
stopping time under these conditions by only one second
www.bendix.com
1-800-AIR-BRAKE (1-800-247-2725)
It is this part of brake fundamentals which is not often
considered in evaluating brake performance, particularly
when different forms of brakes are involved. A common
method of testing brakes is by the use of a decelerometer–
a device that determines the maximum rate of deceleration
developed during a stop and which shows a calculated
stopping distance from a speed of 20 miles per hour based
on the maximum rate of deceleration developed during a
stop. Such instruments do not, however, make allowances
for lost time before the braking system develops full power
and therefore are not suitable for analyzing time lag factors
in brake performance.
The true performance of any type of brake system in terms
of stopping time or stopping distance can only be
determined by actually measuring the time and distance
the vehicle travels from the instant the driver depresses
the brake pedal to the point where the vehicle actually
stops. Such tests can, of course, be made comparative
only by using instruments to determine accurately the
speed of the vehicle at the instant the brake pedal is
depressed.
In so far as brakes are concerned, a driver is mainly
interested in the amount of time and the distance required
to bring the vehicle safely to a stop under emergency
conditions as measured from the instant he or she
depresses the brake pedal. Any lag in the time between
the instant the brake pedal is depressed, and the instant
the brakes apply, affects stopping distance.
The Fundamentals of Compressed Air
Compressed air is air which has been forced into a smaller
space than that which it would ordinarily occupy in its
free or atmospheric state.
Free air which we breathe – or atmosphere – is normally
always under pressure because of the weight of the air
above it. This pressure amounts to 14.7 pounds per square
inch at sea level, and it decreases as the altitude increases.
The normal atmospheric pressure of 14.7 pounds per
square inch is usually ignored and the atmosphere is
considered as being free air under no pressure. Thus, the
pressure of compressed air is commonly indicated by
stating the amount the pressure, in pounds per square
inch, is above the atmosphere. This is the reason air
pressure gauges register zero when connected only to
atmosphere.
51
Properties of Compressed Air
FREE SPRING – FREE AIR
The energy of compressed air is best compared to the
energy of a coiled spring. Figure 8 shows a coiled spring in
its free position and air in its free or atmospheric state.
COMPRESSED SPRING – COMPRESSED AIR
When the spring is compressed, as shown in Figure 9,
energy is stored in it. Similarly when free air is compressed,
energy is stored in the air. This energy can be used to do
work, and due to the flexibility of air such energy can be
stored in a relatively small space.
FIGURE 10 - Free Spring / Free Air
See Figure 10. If two reservoirs are connected and one
contains air above atmospheric pressure and the other
contains air at only atmospheric pressure, air will flow
from the reservoir with the higher pressure until the
pressures in both reservoirs equalize or until the flow is
interrupted by some outside force, such as the closing of
a valve in the connecting line. This is similar to the action
of liquids, except that pressure is the controlling medium,
whereas, the force of gravity would ordinarily be the
controlling medium in the case of liquids.
FIGURE 8 - Free Spring / Free Air
We saw earlier that normal atmospheric air is really at a
pressure of 14.7 pounds per square inch. In Figure 11,
the reservoir on the right has a volume of six cubic feet.
When another six cubic feet of air is added into it, the
gauge pressure of the air in the reservoir, which originally
read zero, will rise to 14.7 pounds. It follows that each
time a quantity of free air equal to the volume of the
reservoir is forced into it, the gauge pressure will rise
another 14.7 pounds per square inch.
FIGURE 9 - Compressed Spring / Compressed Air
FIGURE 11 - Free Spring / Free Air
52
www.bendix.com
1-800-AIR-BRAKE (1-800-247-2725)
Properties of Compressed Air (continued)
FIGURE 12 - Fundamentals of Compressed Air
In Figure 12, we see a piston with an air-tight chamber
behind it. When compressed air enters the chamber it
will cause the piston to move until it encounters a
resistance equal to the force developed by the compressed
air. Because the air pressure is based on pounds per
square inch, it follows that the compressed air will develop
a force in pounds on the movable object equal to the
product of the air pressure multiplied by the effective area
of the movable object. If a piston or a flexible diaphragm
in a brake chamber has an area of ten square inches and
air at five pounds per square inch pressure is acting on the
piston or diaphragm, the developed force will be 50
pounds. Similarly, if air at a pressure of ten pounds per
square inch is acting upon it, a force of 100 pounds will be
developed.
opposite side, and the opposing force may be compressed
air or it may be mechanical. If the opposing forces are
equal, a balanced condition is reached and there is no
movement of the piston or diaphragm. If the opposing
forces are not equal, the piston or diaphragm will move, if
possible, to assume a position where the opposing forces
are equal. See Figure 13.
This law of balanced pressures and forces is the basic
principle governing the design and operation of the control
and actuating devices in an air brake system.
One point to be remembered is that the quantity of air
acting on the piston or diaphragm does not affect the force
developed. The only factors involved are the air pressure
and the area of the piston or diaphragm on which the air
pressure is acting. This means that we can control the
force applied by the braking system by controlling the air
pressure.
The pressure exerted by compressed air is not only
developed in all directions, but it is also equal in all
directions. The compressed air in a reservoir exerts
pressure equally in all directions against the entire inside
surface of the reservoir (the pressure of the compressed
air being overcome by the mechanical strength of the
reservoir walls). Similarly, the force developed by the air
pressure acting on one side of a piston or a diaphragm
may be overcome by an opposing force acting on the
www.bendix.com
1-800-AIR-BRAKE (1-800-247-2725)
Where Supply A
pressure is the same as
Supply B pressure
Where Supply B
pressure is greater than
Supply A pressure
FIGURE 13 - Fundamentals of Compressed Air
53
Compressed Air Brakes
The Fundamentals of
Compressed Air Brakes
Compressor, Reservoir and Brake Valve
In an air brake system, the compressor supplies the
compressed air for brake operation by taking free air and
compressing it to 100-120 P.S.I. (Maximum pressure in an
air brake system is generally 150 P.S.I.)
The compressed air passes from the compressor into the
reservoir and the air brake system where it (and its energy)
are stored until needed by the driver for a brake
application.
Typical 'Type-24'
Brake Chamber
Having An Effective
Diaphragm Area
Of 24 Square
Inches.
Air Pressure 5
10 20
30
40
60
80
100
(PSI)
Developed 120 240 480 720 960 1440 1920 2400
Force (PSI)
FIGURE 14 - Braking Forces-Effect of Air Pressure
Service Brake System
When the brake valve is operated by the driver, air flows
to the chambers where its energy is transformed into the
mechanical force and motion necessary to apply the brakes.
Braking Forces - Effect of Air Pressure
This control of the braking force by controlling the air
pressure in the chambers is illustrated in Figure 14. It
shows the resulting forces in pounds of various air
pressures with a chamber having an effective diaphragm
area of 24 square inches.
The important point is that the air pressure in a brake
chamber can be controlled so the brake chamber will
develop the required force.
Braking Forces - Effect of Brake Chamber Size
Different sizes of vehicles and different axles of the same
vehicle may require different braking forces, depending
on the weight of the vehicle or the weight distribution
between axles of the same vehicle. These variations in
the braking force are design variations because the
maximum and minimum force required must be properly
provided before good performance can be obtained
throughout the entire braking range. [Note:
Rotochambers are larger, heavier style of brake chamber
typically used on heavier, off-road equipment where their
constant output and longer push-rod stroke is useful.]
Figure 15 illustrates the developed force in pounds of each
of several different sizes of brake and rotochambers when
supplied with air pressure at 60 pounds per square inch.
The effective area of the different brake chambers generally
varies from six square inches to 36 square inches and their
developed force at 60 pounds air pressure generally varies
from 360 pounds to 2,160 pounds. This permits the choice
of a chamber size suitable for properly operating any size
or type of foundation brake.
Force Developed by Various Size Brake
and Rotochambers at 30 and 60 psi.
Clamp Ring Brake Chamber
or Rotochamber
6
9
12
16
20
24
30
36
50*
Effective Area of
Diaphragm (square in.)
6
9
12
16
20
24
30
36
50
Pounds of Force
Developed @ 30 psi
180 270
360
480 600
720
900
1090
1500
Pounds of Force
Developed @ 60 psi
360 540
720
960 1200 1440
1800
2160
3000
* Rotochamber only
FIGURE 15 - Braking Forces-Effect of Brake Chamber Size
54
www.bendix.com
1-800-AIR-BRAKE (1-800-247-2725)
S-Cam and Air Disc Brakes
Braking Forces - Effect of Slack Adjuster Arm
Length
Figure 16 illustrates how the principles of leverage apply
when a brake chamber and slack adjuster combination is
being selected to meet specific requirements.
With the same brake chamber force of 1,000 pounds, the
torque on the brake camshaft can be increased from 4,000
inch pounds to 6,000 inch pounds merely by using a slack
adjuster with a 6" arm instead of one with a 4" arm.
In an S-Cam foundation brake, the full range of braking
forces for any vehicle is provided by the use of different
sizes of brake chambers and slack adjusters.
A term which is used to express the relation of the brake
chamber size and slack adjuster arm length is “AL” factor.
The “AL” factor differs from torque or turning moment
in that only the variable factors which determine the force
are expressed. The reason for this is that an air pressure
of 60 pounds is generally used in calculating air braking
forces and therefore, is considered constant. The length
of the slack adjuster lever arm and the size or effective
area of the brake chamber acting on the slack adjuster are
the two variables altered to meet braking requirements.
The product of the effective area of the brake chamber
and the length of the slack adjuster arm is expressed as
the “AL” factor, which, when multiplied by the 60 pounds
air pressure used in making brake calculations, determines
the torque on the brake camshaft. As an example: If a
brake chamber having an effective area of 16 square inches
is acting on a slack adjuster having an arm length of five
inches, the “AL” factor is 80. The actual torque on the
brake camshaft is therefore the “AL” factor (80) multiplied
by the air pressure used in making brake calculations (60),
or 4,800 inch pounds.
Torque On Brake
Camshaft 6000 Inch
Pounds With Slack
Adjuster Arm 6
Inches Long.
Torque On Brake
Camshaft 4000 Inch
Pounds With Slack
Adjuster Arm 4
Inches Long.
FIGURE 16 - Braking Forces-Effect of Slack Adjuster Arm
Length
push rod outwards. The push rod exerts force on the
lever (see Figure 17) and this force is transferred and
multiplied as it turns around the eccentric bearing. The
bearing and the connected actuating beam move outward,
overcoming the force of the two return springs. The force
is then transferred to the two threaded tubes, tappets
and finally to the inner and outer brake pads.
Supply
Port
Diaphragm
Actuator Push Rod
Return Springs
Lever
Bendix Air Disc Brakes
Bendix Air Disc Brakes (ADB) are “floating caliper”
pneumatic disc brakes for use as the foundation braking
on all axles of heavy commercial vehicles and trailers. Air
Disc Brakes are easier to service than traditional S-Cam
brakes. Air Disc Brakes are available in models with or
without spring brakes.
The function of the ADB is to convert the air pressure
applied when the driver applies the brakes into braking
force against the rotor on the vehicle wheel. This is done
by the application of air from the foot brake or relay valve
entering the brake chamber causing the plate to move the
Actuating
Beam
Inner Brake Pad
Outer
Brake Pad
Brake
Chamber
Eccentric
Bearing
Rotor
FIGURE 17 - Air Disc Brake - Cut-away View
www.bendix.com
1-800-AIR-BRAKE (1-800-247-2725)
55
Air Brake System Balance: Pneumatic Systems
Air Brake System Balance
The air brake system is one of the most important safety
system on a vehicle. Air brake systems are carefully
designed with valves, tubing or hoses, etc., selected to
result in balanced vehicle braking performance - one
where all the brakes apply as close to simultaneously
as possible and with the desired amount of force.
Proper vehicle maintenance will result in the original
performance being retained and so component
replacement and general brake system maintenance are
very important. Routine system maintenance
operations should be performed with this in mind.
Valving
Two major areas that we cover here are:
When replacing valves in the air brake system, be sure
that the function of the replacement valve is comparable
with the valve being replaced. Wherever possible, we
recommend genuine Bendix parts be used. Then you
can ensure that the new valve is equal in performance
to the original. Bendix adheres to an industry
recommendation which requires that, for some valves,
the valve type and some of its critical characteristics
are identified by a metal tag or washer to help select
the correct replacement. (For example: relay valve
crack pressures.)
I. Pneumatic (Air) and II. Mechanical.
Air System Contamination
I. Pneumatic (Air) Systems
Air brake systems need clean air to function at their
best. Almost all vehicles with air brakes now use an air
dryer to remove contaminants from the air before it
enters the system.
General
An ideal or balanced braking system is one in which
the braking pressure reaches each actuator as close to
simultaneously as possible and at the same pressure
level (and at an appropriate level to achieve torque
balance with respect to the axle’s loading).
Transmission Time
Vehicle manufacturers must comply with the air system
timing requirements of Government regulations (e.g.
U.S. FMVSS 121, Canadian CMVSS 121). In establishing
this performance, vehicle manufacturers carefully select
tubing and hose sizes. Air application and release
performance is partially dependent upon the size and
volume of chambers, vehicle weights and locations of
the valves and chambers, or distance the air must travel.
Performance is engineered into the vehicle by the
manufacturer; the role of the vehicle owner and/or
mechanic is to preserve that pneumatic performance.
Here are a few tips to assist in that effort.
Tubing
When replacing tubing or hose, always replace with
DOT or SAE approved tubing of the same size. These
sizes have been determined by the vehicle manufacturer
to obtain desired performance. If copper tubing is used,
always make sure to ream and de-burr the tubing after
cutting. Check carefully for restrictions such as kinking
or bending, and make sure tubing and hoses are
properly supported. Use the proper size fittings and
make certain they are not restricted. As a rule, do not
replace straight fittings with elbows. Note: it takes as
much time for air to flow through an elbow fitting as
through 6-7 feet of tubing or hose.
56
A properly maintained desiccant-type air dryer will
remove almost all the water vapor and oil droplets
present in the compressed air arriving from the air
compressor.
Typically, air dryer cartridge replacement intervals are:
• Every 3 years/300,000 miles for a low air use vehicle
(e.g. line haul, single trailer, with 5 or less axles) or,
• Every year/100,000 miles for a high air use vehicle
(e.g. refuse truck, transit bus, bulk unloader, or line
haul with 6 or more axles.)
A properly maintained air dryer will substantially reduce
the potential for freeze-ups in the system.
If for some reason an air dryer is not in use, daily
reservoir draining can help reduce the amount of
contamination in the system. While reservoir draining
can not eliminate valve contamination, it can reduce
the amount.
Trailer Air System Contamination
Contamination by insects, fibrous material, etc. can
affect trailer air brake systems. The Cyclone
DuraDrain ™ trailer water separator installed in the
trailer control and/or supply lines near the gladhands
where it self-purges liquid contaminates, contains solid
contaminants and improves the life of the trailer system
components. Other Bendix products that work to help
trailer air system are: the AF-3™ in-line air filter screens
out foreign material from trailer air lines; and the
System-Guard ® trailer air dryer which removes
moisture and contaminates from the trailer air system.
www.bendix.com
1-800-AIR-BRAKE (1-800-247-2725)
Air Brake System Balance: Mechanical Systems
II. Mechanical Systems
General
Vehicle manufacturers must also comply with Government
regulations for braking performance (e.g. U.S. FMVSS 121,
Canadian CMVSS121). As with the air or pneumatic side
of the system, the vehicle manufacturer must carefully
design the brake geometry, size and power of the
foundation brake components to achieve the desired
vehicle performance. Maintenance personnel must likewise
strive to maintain this performance.
Actuators
Brake chambers convert air pressure into mechanical force.
Always maintain the chambers to their original
performance condition. If chamber return springs need
replacement, the springs should be replaced with springs
of the proper spring load. When replacing, remember
the chamber return spring affects the net force delivered
by the chamber, and is especially important in low service
brake applications. For this reason always replace the
return spring on both chambers on an axle.
Chamber diaphragm life will vary according to the type of
service and the diaphragm environment. Experience will
generally dictate replacement frequency, and it is good
practice to replace all diaphragms on the vehicle at the
same time.
Also, in the case of S-Cam brakes, make sure the chamber
push rods are in line with the slack adjusters. If misaligned,
the chamber rod can rub on the chamber's non-pressure
plate and cause a dragging brake.
Another factor that influences the brake chamber output
force is the chamber push rod length. Ideally, the push
rod length should be adjusted so that when the chamber
reaches half its maximum stroke a 90 degree angle
(approximately) is formed between the slack adjuster and
chamber push rod.
Foundation Brakes
Braking torque is established by the vehicle manufacturer
and is determined by the designed axle weight. Brake size
(diameter), brake block or pad characteristics and the
foundation brake design (S-Cam, air disc, etc.) influence
brake torque. In the case of S-Cam brakes, the torque is
carefully evaluated in relation to drum capacity, drum area,
and lining area and in the case of air disc brakes, rotor/pad
specifications. It is recommended that you consult the
vehicle manufacturer before attempting any changes that
would affect brake torque.
www.bendix.com
1-800-AIR-BRAKE (1-800-247-2725)
Mechanical friction within the foundation brake can affect
brake output torque. The components of the foundation
brake are subject to high forces and should be periodically
checked and lubricated as necessary.
Friction material (e.g. brake block and lining segments, etc.)
affect vehicle stopping performance and are a factor in
wear balance from front to rear. Replacement material
should be chosen for its stopping performance as well as
wear characteristics. At a minimum, always replace friction
material on both ends of an axle whenever one side is
being serviced. For rear axles, it is recommended that
friction material on all axles be replaced at one time.
With air disc brakes, the rotor-friction couple is carefully
designed and validated for optimal performance. When
replacing air disc brake pads, always select replacement
pads that have been validated to perform with the rotor
used, in order to prevent premature or uneven pad wear
or damage to critical disc brake components (e.g. cracked
rotors) which can adversely affect braking performance.
Brake Adjustment
One of the most important factors in obtaining maximum
mechanical output of the chamber is proper brake
adjustment. All chamber strokes should be adjusted to
approximately the same stroke, and the adjustment should
be made so that the chamber stroke is as short as possible
without the brakes dragging. Improperly adjusted brakes
waste air, reduce leverage and contribute to poor brake
performance. In many cases, complaints of poor or
insufficient braking power can be taken care of by proper
brake adjustment.
Brake System Maintenance
Because no two vehicles operate under identical
conditions, maintenance and maintenance intervals will
vary. Experience is a valuable guide in determining the best
maintenance interval for any one particular vehicle.
In Section 9, Air Brake System Troubleshooting, you will
find some suggested tests for determining the overall
condition of the air brake system and to help quickly locate
problem areas. The tests check both leakage and device
function. Performing these tests on a quarterly basis and
recording the results of the tests in the vehicle maintenance
records would provide a valuable basis for performance
comparisons/trends and assist in deciding maintenance
intervals.
57
Air Brake System Troubleshooting Tests
Section 9: Air Brake System Troubleshooting Tests
Please follow all standard safety precautions,
including, but not limited to, the general
precautions listed on page 4 of this handbook.
TEST ONE
In this test we check the low pressure warnings,
pressure buildup and governor cut-out and cut-in.
Park the vehicle and chock the wheels.
1. Drain all reservoirs (air tanks) to 0 PSI.
2. Start the engine and run it at fast idle. Is the
low pressure indicator buzzer working?
OK
Not OK
Observe the low pressure warning dash warning light does it switch off at or above 60 PSI?
OK
Not OK
Note: Some vehicles have alternate indicator devices.
Also, on vehicles with antilock, the ABS indicator lamp
will also come on momentarily when ignition is turned
on.
Troubleshooting: If the low pressure warning light
or buzzer doesn't come on: (a) Check the wiring and/
or bulb, (b) Repair or replace the wiring, buzzer, bulb
or low pressure indicator switch(es) as needed.
3. Time how long it takes to build air pressure
from 85 PSI up to 100 PSI. Does this take
less than 40 seconds?
OK
Not OK
Troubleshooting: If build up time exceeds 40
seconds:
(a) Examine the compressor air strainer and clean or
replace as needed.
(b) Check for a restricted inlet line if the compressor
does not have a strainer, repair or replace as necessary.
(c) Check compressor discharge port and line for
excessive carbon (more than 1/16" coating). Clean or
replace as necessary.
58
(d) With the air brake system charged, engine off and
governor compressor in unloaded mode, listen for
leakage at the compressor inlet. If leakage can be
heard, apply a small amount of oil around the unloader
pistons. If no leakage is indicated, then the leakage is
through the compressor discharger valves.
(e) Check the compressor drive for slippage.
4. Check vehicle manufacturer’s recommendation for full air tank pressure. Does the
governor cut-out at the correct pressure?
(Typically between 100-130 PSI)
OK
Not OK
Troubleshooting: If the governor cut-out is higher
or lower than specified by the vehicle manual:
(a) For adjustable governors, adjust using a temporarilyinstalled gauge of known accuracy. If the vehicle has a
non-adjustable governor, replace it.
(b) See the Service Data sheet for the compressor to
verify that the unloader mechanism is operating
correctly before replacing governor.
5. Reduce reservoir (air tank) pressure by
repeatedly applying the service brakes until
the governor cut-in. Is the difference
between cut-in and cut-out pressure 25 PSI
or less?
OK
Not OK
Troubleshooting: A difference of less than 25 psi
indicates a malfunctioning governor. Replace the
governor.
Retest to check out all items repaired or
replaced.
Make all necessary repairs before proceeding to
Test Two.
www.bendix.com
1-800-AIR-BRAKE (1-800-247-2725)
Air Brake System Troubleshooting Tests (continued)
TEST TWO
TEST THREE
Air Leakage
Brake chamber push rod travel
Inspect for air leaks when working on a vehicle and
repair them promptly.
Check brake chamber push rod travel.
Park the vehicle on level ground and chock wheels.
Build system pressure to governor cut-out and allow
the pressure to stabilize for one minute.
Step 1: Observe the dash gauges for two additional
minutes without the service brakes applied.
Step 2: Apply the service brakes and allow the pressure
to stabilize. Continue holding for two minutes (you
may use a block of wood to hold the pedal in position.)
Observe the dash gauges. (Note: The Bendix® BVA-85™
brake valve actuator enables pre-trip brake inspections
safely and easily with only one person. See page 46 for
more details.)
If you see a decrease of the dash air gauge readings of
more than:
• 4 psi for either service reservoir,
• 6 psi for a tractor/trailer combination,
• 8 psi for a tractor with two trailers,
during either two minute test, repair leaks and repeat
this test to confirm that the air leaks have been repaired.
NOTE: (A leak detector or soap solution will aid in
locating the leak.)
Air leaks can also be found in the charging system,
parking brakes, and/or other components (e.g. supply
lines and fittings, low pressure indicator(s), relay valves,
antilock modulators, dual brake valve, trailer control
valve, park control valve, tractor protection valve,
spring brake actuators, safety valve in supply reservoir,
governor, compressor discharge valves) - inspect and
repair as necessary.
Retest to check out all items repaired or
replaced.
Make all necessary repairs before proceeding to
Test Three.
www.bendix.com
1-800-AIR-BRAKE (1-800-247-2725)
(Refer to chart for allowable tolerances)
Brake
Maximum Stroke
Chamber
Before
Size
Readjustment
12 . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 1/8"
16 . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 3/4"
20 . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 3/4"
24 . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 3/4"
30 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2"
The angle formed between the brake chamber push
rod and the slack adjuster arm should be approximately
90° with an 80-90 psi brake application (as measured
with a test gauge either at the control gladhand or at
the brake valve primary delivery). If the angle between
the brake chamber push rod and the slack adjuster arm
is not approximately 90° then adjust slack adjuster arm
to obtain desired setting. If the brake chamber push
rod travel exceeds the allowable tolerance, then adjust
the adjuster arm to obtain the desired setting.
Retest to check out all items repaired or
replaced.
Make all necessary repairs before proceeding
to Test Four.
TEST FOUR
Parking Brake Application
Check with air system at full pressure, engine
idling between 600-900 RPM
1. Manually operate the park control valve and note
that parking brakes apply and release promptly as
the control valve button is pulled out and pushed
in.
For Tractor/Trailer Combinations:
(Do not use this test for a straight truck, buses, and
bobtail tractors:)
1. Manually operate the tractor protection control
valve (trailer supply valve usually red octagonal
button). Note that the trailer brakes apply and
release promptly as the control button is pulled out
and pushed in.
59
Air Brake System Troubleshooting Tests (continued)
2. Manually operate the system park control (usually
yellow diamond button) and note all parking brakes
(tractor and trailer) apply promptly.
If sluggish performance is noted in either test, check
for:
1. Dented or kinked lines
2. Improperly installed hose fitting
3. A faulty relay emergency valve
4. A faulty modulator(s)
If the trailer brakes do not actuate and the trailer supply
line remains charged, check the:
1. Tractor protection control
2. Trailer spring brake valve
B.
C.
Slowly drain the rear axle reservoir pressure.
5.
Close drain cocks, recharge the system and drain
the rear axle reservoir to 0 PSI.
A. Front axle reservoir should not lose pressure
B.
Make all necessary repairs before proceeding to
Test Five.
Automatic Emergency System
Check with air system at full pressure, with the
engine stopped.
1.
Drain front axle reservoir to 0 PSI.
A. Rear axle reservoir should not lose pressure
B.
On combination vehicles, the trailer air system
should remain charged
C. Tractor and trailer brakes should not apply
automatically
2.
6.
On combination vehicles the trailer air system
should remain charged
With no air pressure in the rear axle reservoir,
make a brake application.
A.
The front axle brakes should apply and release
B.
On combination vehicles the trailer brakes
should also apply and release
If the vehicle is equipped with an inverting relay
spring brake control valve, the rear axle brakes
should also apply and release
C.
If the vehicle fails to pass the tests above, then
check the following components for leakage and
proper operation:
1. Fittings
With no air pressure in the front axle reservoir
make a brake application.
A. Rear axle brakes should apply and release
2. Check for kinked hoses or tubing
3. Single check valves
B.
5. Tractor protection valve
On combination vehicles the trailer brakes
should also apply and release
C. The stop lamps should illuminate
3.
Trailer brakes should apply after tractor
protection closes
4.
Retest to check out all items repaired or
replaced.
TEST FIVE
drop below 100 psi. Repeat the test for
decreasing primary service reservoir pressure.
Build each supply source to 120 psi. Then
decrease both supply pressures to below 20
to 30 psi. The button should automatically
"pop" out when pressure drops within that
range.
The tractor protection valve should close
between 45 PSI and 20 PSI and the trailer
supply hose should be exhausted
Slowly drain rear axle reservoir pressure.
A.
60
With the button out, supply either supply port
with 120 psi of air. Then push the button in.
The air pressure should rise in the delivery
volume equivalent to supply pressure. Pull the
button out. The delivery pressure should
exhaust to 0 psi. Build each supply source to
120 psi and decrease supply pressure at the
secondary service reservoir supply port at a
rate of 10 psi per second. Primary supply
pressure and delivery pressure should not
4. Double check valves
6. Tractor protection control valve
7. Parking control valve
8. Relay valves (antilock modulators)
9. Trailer spring brake control valve
10. Inverting relay spring brake control valve (optional
on straight trucks and buses)
Retest to check out all items repaired or
replaced.
www.bendix.com
1-800-AIR-BRAKE (1-800-247-2725)
Bendix Videos and Literature Available
Audio Visual Programs
Number Description
Package
Cost $
Format
to Order
Quantity
Per Item
Air Brake Systems
BW1673
Four-part Video System Training with Workbooks . . 1 set . . . . . . . . . 30.00 . . . . . . . . VHS/Book
BW1678
Workbook for BW1673 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 . . . . . . . . . . 2.00 . . . . . . . . . . . . . Book
BW1957
Four-part Video only . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 . . . . . . . . . 15.00 . . . . . . . . . . . . . VHS
BW2219
Vision systems installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 . . . . . . . . . . 5.00 . . . . . . . . . . . . . VHS
BW2324
Air Leakage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 . . . . . . . . . 10.00 . . . . . . . . . . . . . VHS
Brochures & Product Sheets
Actuating Devices
BW2116
Spring Brake . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
Air Dryers
BW2023
AD-IP™ System-Guard® Air Dryer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
BW2075
PuraGuard® System Filter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
BW2076
EverFlow™ Air Dryer Control Module . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
BW2088
AD-9™ System-Guard® Air Dryer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
BW2213
AD-IS™ Air Dryer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
Air Disc Brakes
BW2015
Air Disc Brakes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
AntiLock
BW2019
Truck/Tractor/Bus AntiLock Braking Systems . . . . . . . . . 25
BW2020
Trailer AntiLock Braking Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
Hydraulics
BW1399
Troubleshooting the Vacuum Hydraulic Brake System . . 25
Modules
BW2096
Dryer Reservoir Module . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
BW2132
Autobrake Product Sheet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
Slack Adjusters
BW1268
ASA-5™ Automatic Slack Adjuster . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
BW1641
ASA-5™ Installation Template . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
BW2216
SureStroke™ Indicator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
Valves
BW2047
Genuine Bendix Valves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
BW2197
BVA-85™ Brake Valve Actuator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
BW2215
Coreless™ Valves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
Vision
BW2245
Vision . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
BW2246
Vision . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
Catalogs/Service Manuals/CDs
BW1114
Quick Reference . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
BW1419
FMSI Book . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
BW2231
Truck Products Catalog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
BW9000
Air & Hydraulic Catalog Complete . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
BW9001
Air & Hydraulic Complete Catalog w/o Binder . . . . . . . . . 1
BW9100
Air Parts Catalog Only . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
BW9200
Hydraulic Parts Catalog Only . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
Service Information
BW2031
Service Manual - CD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
BW5057
Air Brake Handbook . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
BW9600
Service Data Manual Complete . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
www.bendix.com
1-800-AIR-BRAKE (1-800-247-2725)
. . . . . . . . . . 0 . . . . . . . Product Sheet
..........
..........
..........
..........
..........
0
0
0
0
0
.......
.......
.......
.......
.......
Product Sheet
Product Sheet
Product Sheet
Product Sheet
Product Sheet
. . . . . . . . . . 0 . . . . . . . . . . . Brochure
. . . . . . . . . . 0 . . . . . . . Product Sheet
. . . . . . . . . . 0 . . . . . . . Product Sheet
. . . . . . . . . . 0 . . . . . . . . . . . Brochure
. . . . . . . . . . 0 . . . . . . . Product Sheet
. . . . . . . . . . 0 . . . . . . . Product Sheet
. . . . . . . . . . 0 . . . . . . . . . . . Brochure
. . . . . . . . . . 0 . . . . . . . . . . . Template
. . . . . . . . . . 0 . . . . . . . Product Sheet
. . . . . . . . . . 0 . . . . . . . Product Sheet
. . . . . . . . . . 0 . . . . . . . Product Sheet
. . . . . . . . . . 0 . . . . . . . Product Sheet
. . . . . . . . . . 0 . . . . . . . . . . . Brochure
. . . . . . . . . . 0 . . . . . . . Product Sheet
. . . . . . . . . . 0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . Catalog
. . . . . . . . . . 1.25 . . . . . . . . . . . Catalog
. . . . . . . . . . 0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . Catalog
. . . . . . . . . 15.00 . . . . . . . . . . . Catalog
. . . . . . . . . 12.00 . . . . . . . . . . . Catalog
. . . . . . . . . 10.00 . . . . . . . . . . . Catalog
. . . . . . . . . 10.00 . . . . . . . . . . . Catalog
. . . . . . . . . . 5.00 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CD
. . . . . . . . . . 0 . . . . . . . . . . Handbook
. . . . . . . . . 15.00 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SD
61
Bendix Videos and Literature Available (continued)
Number
to Order
Binders
BW1532
Description
Package
Quantity
Cost $
Per Item
Format
Empty Binder for Catalog, Service Manual & Bulletins . . . 1 . . . . . . . . . . 5.00 . . . . . . . . . . . Catalog
Troubleshooting Cards & Wall Charts
Systems-Air
BW902
Bus System Wall Chart . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
BW1555
Air Pressure Balance Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
BW1231
Dual Systems Wallchart . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
BW1396
Dual Systems Troubleshooting Card . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
BW1397
Coach w/DD-3™ Park System & Coach w/Spring Brake
Park System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
BW1779
Troubleshooting Charging & Air Supply Systems . . . . . . 25
Systems-Hydraulic
BW1398
Vacuum Hydraulic Wall Chart . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
BW1611
Power Hyd. Brake Systems Wall Chart . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
BW1705
Hydraulic Brake Booster System Card
w/Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
AntiLock
BW1742
MC-12™ Trailer AntiLock System Troubleshooting Card 25
BW1959
MC-12™ Trailer ABS - Troubleshooting Card . . . . . . . . . 50
BW1982
EC-17™ Troubleshooting Card . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
BW2175
EC-30™ Troubleshooting Card . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
BW2187
MC-30™ Troubleshooting Card . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
Cores
BW1299
Core Group . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
BW1330
Mini Core Chart . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
..........
..........
..........
..........
1.25 . . . . . . . . Wall Chart
0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Card
1.25 . . . . . . . . . . . . . Card
1.25 . . . . . . . . . . . . . Card
. . . . . . . . . . 1.25 . . . . . . . . . . . . . Card
. . . . . . . . . . 1.25 . . . . . . . . . . . . . Card
. . . . . . . . . . 1.25 . . . . . . . . Wall Chart
. . . . . . . . . . 1.25 . . . . . . . . Wall Chart
. . . . . . . . . . 1.25 . . . . . . . . . . . . . Card
..........
..........
..........
..........
..........
1.25
2.50
2.50
1.25
1.25
. . . . . . . . . . . . . Card
. . . . . . . . . . . . . Card
. . . . . . . . . . . . . Card
. . . . . . . . . . . . . Card
. . . . . . . . . . . . . Card
. . . . . . . . . . 0 . . . . . . . . . . Wall Chart
. . . . . . . . . . 0 . . . . . . . . . . Wall Chart
Bendix reserves the right to limit quantities
and cannot guarantee availability.
62
www.bendix.com
1-800-AIR-BRAKE (1-800-247-2725)
Service Data Sheet Index
Service Data Sheets
Download from www.bendix.com, order (like parts) by BW number,
or order the complete Service Data Catalog (BW9600)
Device . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SD number . . . (BW #)
Device . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SD number . . . (BW #)
A-18™ Trailer ABS
EC-14 ™ Antilock Controller Assy . . . . . . . . SD-13-4784 . . (BW1670)
™
™
(Gen 4 and Gen 5 ABS) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SD-13-4757 . . (BW2262)
™
EC-15 ™ Antilock Controller Assy . . . . . . . . SD-13-4785 . . (BW1663)
A2LS Hydraulic Drum Brakes
EC-16 ™ Antilock Traction ECU . . . . . . . . . . SD-13-4787 . . (BW1726)
With Parking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SD-20-6608 . . (BW1601)
EC-17 ™ Antilock Traction ECU . . . . . . . . . . SD-13-4788 . . (BW1910)
™
™
AD-1 & AD-2 Air Dryers . . . . . . . . . . . . . SD-08-2403 . . (BW1597)
EC-30 ™ Antilock Traction ECU . . . . . . . . . . SD-13-4815 . . (BW2160)
™
EC-60 ™ ABS/ATC Controllers . . . . . . . . . . . SD-13-4863 . . (BW2428)
™
ET-2 ™ Electronic Throttle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SD-15-4106 . . (BW1650)
AD-4 Air Dryer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SD-08-2407 . . (BW1450)
AD-9 Air Dryer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SD-08-2412 . . (BW1627)
™
ET-S ™ & ET-S2™ Suspended
™
AD-IS Air Dryer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SD-08-2418 . . (BW2234)
Electronic Treadles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SD-15-4111 . . (BW1837)
AD-SP™ Air Dryer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SD-08-2415 . . (BW1777)
FD-1 ™ Fan Clutch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SD-09-8501 . . (BW1451)
AD-IP Air Dryer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SD-08-2414 . . (BW1811)
™
AF-3 In-line Filter Assembly . . . . . . . . . . . . SD-08-2401 . . (BW2263)
™
AH-1B Air Hydraulic Intensifier . . . . . . . . . SD-11-1326 . . (BW1599)
™
FD-2 ™ Fan Clutch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SD-09-8503 . . (BW1598)
FD-3 ™ TorqueMaster Fan Clutch . . . . . . . . . SD-09-8504 . . (BW1452)
AH-4 Air Hydraulic Intensifier . . . . . . . . . . SD-11-1357 . . (BW1455)
FD-L ™ Fan Clutch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SD-09-8505 . . (BW1603)
Air Disc Brake . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SD-23-7550 . . (BW2000)
Gen 4 ™ and Gen 5™ ABS for
Air Horns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SD-06-130 . . (BW1592)
Trucks, Tractors, and Buses . . . . . . . . . . . . . SD-13-4746 . . (BW2261)
AR-1 ™ Antilock Relay Valve . . . . . . . . . . . . . SD-13-4795 . . (BW1665)
Hydro-Max Power Brake System . . . . . . . . . SD-20-6602 . . (BW1485)
AR-2 ™ Antilock Relay Valve . . . . . . . . . . . . . SD-13-4796 . . (BW1672)
IRV ™ Inlet Regulating Valve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SD-01-3408 . . (BW1552)
™
ASA-5 Automatic Slack Adjuster . . . . . . . . SD-05-1269 . . (BW1602)
™
LP-2™ & LP-3 ™ Low Pressure
ATR-1DC Antilock Traction
Indicators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SD-06-1600 . . (BW1447)
Relay Valve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SD-13-4811A . . (BW1969)
LQ-2™ Valve & TW-1™ Control
™
ATR-1 Antilock Traction
Valve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SD-03-950 . . (BW1439)
Relay Valve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SD-13-4811 . . (BW1794)
LQ-3™ & LQ-4 ™ Front Axle Ratio
™
ATR-2 Antilock Traction
Valves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SD-03-951 . . (BW1573)
Relay Valve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SD-13-4812 . . (BW1791)
LQ-5™ Bobtail Ratio Valve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SD-03-953 . . (BW1625)
™
BP-1 Brake Proportioning Valve . . . . . . . . . . SD-03-952 . . (BW1554)
™
M-12™ Antilock Modulator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SD-13-4772 . . (BW1669)
BP-R1 Bobtail Proportioning
M-21™ Antilock Modulator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SD-13-4793 . . (BW1664)
Relay Valve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SD-03-1067 . . (BW1624)
M-30™ Antilock Modulator Assy . . . . . . . . . . SD-13-4830 . . (BW2085)
™
BX-2150 Compressor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SD-01-331 . . (BW1424)
™
M-32™ and M-32QR ™ Antilock
C-5 Cut-Out Cock . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SD-07-2601 . . (BW1596)
Modulator Assemblies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SD-13-4870 . . (BW2335)
D-2 ™ Governor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SD-01-503 . . (BW1425)
Manual Slack Adjuster . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SD-05-1200 . . (BW1453)
DD3® & SD-3™ Safety Actuators . . . . . . . . . SD-02-4600 . . (BW1563)
MC-11 ™ Trailer Antilock . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SD-13-4761 . . (BW1671)
Double Anchor Pin Cam Brakes . . . . . . . . . . SD-22-3260 . . (BW1459)
MC-12 ™ Trailer Antilock . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SD-13-4762 . . (BW1667)
Double Check Valves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SD-03-2202 . . (BW1846)
MC-30 ™ Trailer ABS Controller Assy . . . . . SD-13-4834 . . (BW2189)
™
DRM Dryer Reservoir Module . . . . . . . . . . SD-98-9808 . . (BW1948)
™
DuraFlo 596 Compressor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SD-01-670 . . (BW1845)
™
MV-2 ™ Module Control Module . . . . . . . . . . SD-03-3412 . . (BW1584)
MV-3 ™ Module Dash Control Module . . . . . SD-03-3415 . . (BW1613)
DV-2 Automatic Reservoir
Piggyback Spring Brake . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SD-02-4500 . . (BW2106)
Drain Valve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SD-03-2501 . . (BW1457)
PP-1 ™, PP-2 ™, PP-5 ™, PP-8™, &
™
E-10PR Retarder Control
RD-3 ™ Push-Pull Type Control Valves . . . . . SD-03-3611 . . (BW1578)
Brake Valve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SD-03-832 . . (BW2159)
PP-3 ™ Trailer Supply Valve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SD-03-3613 . . (BW1437)
™
™
E-12 & E-15 Dual Brake Valve . . . . . . . . . . SD-03-826 . . (BW1622)
™
E-14 Dual Brake Valve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SD-03-828 . . (BW1666)
™
™
E-2 & E-3 Brake Valve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SD-03-812 . . (BW1564)
™
PP-7 ™ Trailer Supply Valve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SD-03-3617 . . (BW1579)
PP-DC ™ Park Control Valve . . . . . . . . . . . . . SD-03-3619 . . (BW1739)
PR-2 ™, PR-3 ™ & PR-4™ Pressure
E-5 Dual Brake Valve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SD-03-816 . . (BW1565)
Protection Valves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SD-03-2010 . . (BW1440)
E-6 ™ & E-10™ Dual Brake Valve . . . . . . . . . . . SD-03-817 . . (BW1427)
PuraGuard ® QC ™ Oil Coalescing Filter . . . . SD-08-187B . . (BW2396)
™
E-7 Dual Brake Valve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SD-03-818 . . (BW1428)
™
™
E-8P & E-10P Dual Brake Valve . . . . . . . . . SD-03-830 . . (BW2066)
™
EC-13 Antilock Controller Assy . . . . . . . . SD-13-4783 . . (BW1823)
www.bendix.com
1-800-AIR-BRAKE (1-800-247-2725)
PuraGuard ® System Filter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SD-08-187 . . (BW2084)
QR-1C ™ Quick Release Valve
w/Double Check . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SD-03-904 . . (BW1585)
63
Service Data Sheet Index, continued
For the complete Service Data Sheet Catalog, order BW9600
Device . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SD number . . . (BW #)
Device . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SD number . . . (BW #)
QR-L™ Quick Release Valve – Inline . . . . . . . SD-03-906 . . (BW1808)
TC-2™ Trailer Control Brake Valve . . . . . . . . SD-03-813 . . (BW1430)
QRN-2™ Quick Release Valve . . . . . . . . . . . . SD-03-907 . . (BW1786)
TC-4™ Modulating Control Valve . . . . . . . . . SD-03-4503 . . (BW1566)
QR-N™ Quick Release Valve . . . . . . . . . . . . . SD-03-905 . . (BW1586)
TC-6™ Trailer Control Brake Valve . . . . . . . . SD-03-821 . . (BW1567)
QRV™ & QR-1™ Quick Release Valve . . . . . . SD-03-901 . . (BW1442)
TC-7™ Trailer Control Brake Valve . . . . . . . . SD-03-824 . . (BW1568)
R-12DC ™ Relay Valve with Biased
TE-1 ™ Trailer Emergency Stop Light
Double Check . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SD-03-1068 . . (BW1933)
Switch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SD-06-1801 . . (BW1595)
R-12P™ Pilot Relay Valve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SD-03-1063 . . (BW1711)
TP-2 ™ Tractor Protection Valve . . . . . . . . . . SD-03-3651 . . (BW1436)
R-12™ & R-14 ™ Relay Valve . . . . . . . . . . . . . SD-03-1064 . . (BW1431)
TP-3DC ™ Tractor Protection Valve
R-6 ™ Relay Valve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SD-03-1060 . . (BW1432)
w/Double Check . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SD-03-3656 . . (BW1760)
R-7 ™ Modulating Valve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SD-03-4504 . . (BW1445)
TP-3 ™ Tractor Protection Valve . . . . . . . . . . SD-03-3652 . (BW1572)
R-8P ™ Pilot Relay Valve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SD-03-1061A . . (BW1660)
TP-4 ™ Tractor Protection Valve . . . . . . . . . . SD-03-3653 . . (BW1438)
R-8 ™ Relay Valve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SD-03-1061 . . (BW1569)
TP-5 ™ Tractor Protection Valve . . . . . . . . . . SD-03-3655 . . (BW1575)
RE-6™ & RE-6NC™ Relay
TR-2 ™, TR-3 ™ & TR-4™ Inversion
Emergency Valves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SD-03-1151 . . (BW1570)
Valves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SD-03-4650 . . (BW1581)
Reservoirs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SD-04-400 . . (BW1590)
Trailer System-Guard ™ Air Dryer . . . . . . . . SD-08-2416 . . (BW2083)
RV-1™ Pressure Reducing Valve . . . . . . . . . . SD-03-3510 . . (BW1577)
Tu-Flo ® 400, 500 & 1000 Compressors . . . . . SD-01-326 . . (BW1420)
RV-3™ Pressure Reducing Valve . . . . . . . . . . SD-03-3515 . . (BW1587)
Tu-Flo ® 501 Compressor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SD-01-337 . . (BW1421)
RV-4™ Pressure Reducing Valve . . . . . . . . . . SD-03-3520 . . (BW1588)
Tu-Flo ® 550 Compressor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SD-01-333 . . (BW1639)
SC-1™ Single Check Valves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SD-03-2201 . . (BW1441)
Tu-Flo ® 600 Compressor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SD-01-336 . . (BW1560)
SC-3™ In-Line Single Check Valve . . . . . . . . . SD-03-2205 . . (BW1892)
Tu-Flo ® 700 Compressor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SD-01-335 . . (BW1422)
Single Anchor Pin Cam Brake . . . . . . . . . . . . SD-22-3250 . . (BW1458)
Tu-Flo ® 750 Compressor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SD-01-344 . . (BW1637)
SL-3™ & SL-4 ™ Stop Light Switches . . . . . . . . SD-06-1800 . . (BW1593)
TW-1 ™, TW-3 ™, TW-4 ™, TW-5 ™ &
SL-5™ Switch & DS-2 ™ Stop Light
TW-6 ™ Two Way Control Valves . . . . . . . . SD-03-3602 . . (BW1580)
Switch & Combined Stop Light Switch &
TW-N ™ Two Way Control Valve . . . . . . . . SD-03-3672 . . (BW1444)
Double Check Valves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SD-06-1804 . . (BW1594)
Type 9, 12, 16, 20, 24 & 36 Brake
SR-1™ Spring Brake Valve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SD-03-4508 . . (BW1589)
Chambers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SD-02-1302 . . (BW1426)
SR-2™ Trailer Spring Brake Valve . . . . . . . . . SD-03-4510 . . (BW1435)
Type 9, 12, 16, 20, 24, 36 & 50
SR-4™ Spring Brake Control Valve . . . . . . . . SD-03-4514 . . (BW1571)
Rotochambers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SD-02-1336 . . (BW1561)
SR-5™ Trailer Spring Brake Valve . . . . . . . . . SD-03-4516 . . (BW1680)
WS-20 ™ Antilock Wheel Speed Sensor . . . . SD-13-4754 . . (BW1662)
SR-7™ Spring Brake Modulating Valve . . . . . SD-03-9043 . . (BW2271)
WS-24 ™ Antilock Wheel Speed Sensor . . . . SD-13-4860 . . (BW2364)
ST-1™ & ST-3™ Safety Valves . . . . . . . . . . . . SD-03-1901 . . (BW1583)
XVision ® Vision System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SD-19-5160 . . (BW2212)
SV-1™, SV-3 ™ & SV-4™ Synchro Valve &
Trailer Release Valves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SD-03-4020 . . (BW1574)
Contact Bendix
For questions about troubleshooting, part number cross-reference, etc. call
the Tech Team at 1-800-AIR-BRAKE or e-mail to TBS.TechTeam@bendix.com
See the Contacts area of www.bendix.com for contact information for Bendix
dealers and distributors, Service Engineers, and Account Managers.
For ABS questions, please e-mail to ABS@Bendix.com.
For all other inquiries, please e-mail to info@bendix.com.
64
www.bendix.com
1-800-AIR-BRAKE (1-800-247-2725)
About Bendix Commercial Vehicle Systems LLC
We supply air brake charging and control
systems and components, vehicle modules, and
leading-edge safety technologies under the Bendix®
brand name for medium- and heavy-duty trucks,
tractors, trailers, buses and other commercial
vehicles in North America, Europe and Australia.
Employing more than 1,800 people, Bendix is
headquartered in Elyria, Ohio, with manufacturing
plants in the U.S. and Mexico.
We are part of a global organization with
technical and manufacturing centers worldwide, and
remain on the leading edge of new product
development and applications engineering.
Bendix products are backed by our TechTeam
- a team of air brake experts who staff our
1-800-AIR-BRAKE (1-800-247-2725) hotline.
We also invite you to visit www.bendix.com
for all the latest information on our products.
Our Service Engineers provide on- and off-site
technical training. See the Training area of
bendix.com for a list of current dates and locations.
A Brief History of Bendix Commercial Vehicle Systems LLC
1869: Westinghouse Air Brake Company established in
Wilmerding, Pa., to manufacture air brakes invented by
George Westinghouse.
1924: Westinghouse air brake system (including Broussouse
compressor) applied to International Harvester Coach
in Akron, Oh.
1927: Bendix Corporation formed by automotive engineer
Vincent Bendix. Company produces "Safety Servo"
vacuum brake under the Braggs-Kliesrath name.
1930: Bendix-Westinghouse Automotive Air Brake Company
established following the merger of Bendix Corp. and
Westinghouse Automotive Air Brake. Headquarters
located in Wilmerding, Pa.
1934: Bendix-Westinghouse takes automotive air brake
worldwide by establishing licensing agreements with
Westinghouse companies in France, Germany, Italy and
England.
1941: Bendix-Westinghouse establishes new headquarters
in Elyria, Oh.
1949: WWII accelerates developments, and air braking
becomes standard on all heavy trucks, tractor-trailers,
buses, fire trucks and off-highway vehicles.
1960: Automatic slack adjusters, air dryers, dual brake valves
and first generation antilock braking systems are under
development.
1969: Bendix Corporation acquires 100 percent ownership
of Bendix-Westinghouse.
1973: Bendix-Westinghouse becomes Bendix Heavy Vehicle
Systems Group, a division of Bendix Corporation.
1975: Bendix dual air brake system becomes standard for
the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration's
Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard (FMVSS) 121.
1980: Bendix establishes worldwide parts distribution center
and remanufacturing operation in Huntington, In.
1982: Bendix Corporation merges with Allied Corporation
and the division becomes an operating unit of Allied
Automotive, an independent supplier to the
worldwide automotive industry under the brand
names of Bendix®, Fram® and Autolite®.
1986: The Bendix Heavy Vehicle Systems Group of Allied
merges with Bendix Limited European truck air brake
operation establishing Bendix Heavy Vehicle Systems
Group-Europe. Allied Corporation acquires Signal
operations establishing AlliedSignal Inc. as the division's
parent company.
1989: Bendix Heavy Vehicle Systems Group-Europe acquires
truck air brake operation of Magneti Marelli,
strengthening European operations.
1999: AlliedSignal merges with Honeywell International. The
new company continues to offer Bendix® brand name
air brake and control systems and components under
its Honeywell Commercial Vehicle Systems unit.
Honeywell operates Honeywell Commercial Vehicle
Systems as a joint venture with Knorr-Bremse AG of
Munich, Germany. Honeywell owns 65 percent of
the unit. Knorr-Bremse owns 35 percent.
2002: Knorr-Bremse assumes 100 percent ownership of
Honeywell Commercial Vehicle Systems from
Honeywell International Inc. The company changes its
legal name to Bendix Commercial Vehicle Systems LLC.