Owner’s Manual
E-MU PCIe Digital Audio Systems
1
E-MU 1616m / 1212m PCIe
Digital Audio System
Owner’s Manual
© 2009 E-MU Systems
All Rights Reserved
Software Version: 2.20
E-MU World Headquarters
E-MU Systems
1500 Green Hills Road
Scotts Valley, CA 95066
USA
Europe
E-MU Japan
Creative Labs
Creative Media K K
Ballycoolin Business Park
Kanda Eight Bldg., 3F
Blanchardstown
4-6-7 Soto-Kanda
Dublin 15
Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 101-0021
IRELAND
2
JAPAN
Creative Professional
Table of Contents
1- Introduction ................................................................. 9
Welcome! ............................................................................................................... 9
Both Systems Include: ....................................................................................... 11
E-MU 1212m System ......................................................................................... 11
E-MU 1616m System ......................................................................................... 11
Sync Daughter Card .......................................................................................... 11
PatchMIx DSP .................................................................................................... 12
Notes, Tips and Warnings .............................................................................. 12
2 - Installation ................................................................ 13
Setting Up the Digital Audio System ...................................................................... 13
Notes for Installation ..................................................................................... 13
System Requirements ..................................................................................... 13
Safety First! .................................................................................................... 14
Connector Types ............................................................................................... 14
Installing the E-MU 1010 PCIe Card....................................................................... 15
1212m Owners - Install the 0202 Daughter Card .................................................. 16
Connecting the MicroDock ................................................................................... 16
WARNING: E-MU 0202 & MicroDock .............................................................. 17
Software Installation ............................................................................................. 18
Installing the E-MU 1010 PatchMix Software and Drivers ................................ 18
Windows XP, Windows XP x64, Windows Vista, Windows Vista x64 .............. 18
Uninstalling all Audio Drivers and Applications ............................................... 18
Note About Windows Logo Testing ............................................................... 18
3 - PCIe Card & Interfaces ................................................ 19
The E-MU 1010 PCIe Card..................................................................................... 19
Important ...................................................................................................... 19
Connections ..................................................................................................... 19
EDI Connector ............................................................................................... 19
S/PDIF Digital Audio Input & Output .............................................................. 19
ADAT Optical Digital Input & Output .............................................................. 19
The 0202 Daughter Card...................................................................................... 20
Connections ..................................................................................................... 20
Analog Inputs and Outputs ........................................................................... 20
MIDI In/Out ................................................................................................... 20
E-MU PCIe Digital Audio Systems
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The MicroDock ..................................................................................................... 21
Front Panel Connections ................................................................................... 22
Preamp Section ............................................................................................. 22
S/PDIF Digital Audio Input & Output .............................................................. 22
ADAT Optical Digital Input & Output .............................................................. 23
Headphone Output & Volume Control .......................................................... 23
Rear Panel Connections .................................................................................... 25
Line Level Analog Inputs ................................................................................ 25
Phono Inputs & Ground Lug .......................................................................... 25
Line Level Analog Outputs ............................................................................. 25
Computer Speaker Analog Outputs ................................................................ 26
MIDI 1 & 2 In/Outs ........................................................................................ 26
EDI Connector (Card) .................................................................................... 26
1212m System Connections.................................................................................. 28
Output Connections ......................................................................................... 28
4 - The PatchMix DSP Mixer ............................................. 29
PatchMix DSP ....................................................................................................... 29
Overview of the Mixer .......................................................................................... 29
Mixer Window .................................................................................................. 30
Mixer Block Diagram ......................................................................................... 30
Pre Fader or Post Fader ................................................................................. 30
E-MU Icon in the Windows Taskbar ....................................................................... 31
The Toolbar .......................................................................................................... 31
The Session .......................................................................................................... 32
New Session ..................................................................................................... 32
Open Session .................................................................................................... 33
Save Session ..................................................................................................... 33
Session Settings ................................................................................................ 33
System Settings .............................................................................................. 33
Using External Clock ...................................................................................... 34
I/O Settings ................................................................................................... 34
Input Mixer Strips.................................................................................................. 36
Input Type ..................................................................................................... 36
Mixer Strip Creation .............................................................................................. 37
Multichannel WAVE Files ................................................................................... 38
Windows Media Player/DVD/Surround Sound Playback ................................. 38
Insert Section .................................................................................................... 39
Working with Inserts ...................................................................................... 39
The Insert Menu ............................................................................................ 40
ASIO Direct Monitor Send/Return ................................................................... 41
Meter Inserts ................................................................................................. 42
To Set the Input Levels of a Strip ........................................................................ 43
Making the Best Possible Recording ............................................................... 43
Trim Pot Insert ............................................................................................... 44
Test Tone/Signal Generator Insert .................................................................. 45
Managing Your Inserts ...................................................................................... 46
Aux Section ....................................................................................................... 47
Sidechain Diagram ........................................................................................ 47
Pre or Post Fader Aux Sends .......................................................................... 48
Level, Pan, Solo & Mute Controls ....................................................................... 49
Main Section......................................................................................................... 50
TV Screen & Selectors ........................................................................................ 51
Effect ............................................................................................................ 51
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Creative Professional
Input ............................................................................................................. 52
Output .......................................................................................................... 52
Auxiliary Effects & Returns ................................................................................. 53
Sidechain Diagram ........................................................................................ 53
Sync/Sample Rate Indicators .............................................................................. 53
Output Section ................................................................................................. 54
Main Inserts ................................................................................................... 54
Main Output Fader ........................................................................................ 54
Output Level Meters ...................................................................................... 54
Monitor Output Level .................................................................................... 54
Monitor Balance Control ................................................................................ 54
Monitor Output Mute .................................................................................... 54
5 - Effects ....................................................................... 55
Overview.............................................................................................................. 55
The Effects Palette................................................................................................. 55
FX Insert Chains ................................................................................................ 56
The Order of Effects .......................................................................................... 57
Creating, Renaming & Deleting Categories or Presets ..................................... 57
Importing and Exporting Core FX Presets and FX Insert Chains ....................... 58
FX Edit Screen ...................................................................................................... 59
User Preset Section ............................................................................................ 60
Core Effects and Effects Presets ......................................................................... 61
List of Core Effects ................................................................................................ 62
DSP Resource Usage ......................................................................................... 62
Core Effects Descriptions....................................................................................... 63
1-Band Para EQ ................................................................................................ 63
1-Band Shelf EQ ................................................................................................ 63
3-Band EQ ........................................................................................................ 64
4-Band EQ ........................................................................................................ 65
Auto-Wah ......................................................................................................... 66
Chorus .............................................................................................................. 67
Compressor ...................................................................................................... 68
Basic Controls ................................................................................................ 68
Distortion .......................................................................................................... 70
Flanger ............................................................................................................. 71
Freq Shifter ....................................................................................................... 72
Leveling Amp .................................................................................................... 73
Lite Reverb ........................................................................................................ 74
Mono Delays - 100, 250, 500, 750, 1500, 3000 ................................................ 75
Phase Shifter ..................................................................................................... 76
Rotary ............................................................................................................... 76
Speaker Simulator ............................................................................................. 77
Stereo Delays - 100, 250, 500, 750, 1500 ......................................................... 78
Vocal Morpher .................................................................................................. 80
Gate ................................................................................................................. 81
Applications ................................................................................................... 81
Parameters .................................................................................................... 82
Threshold ...................................................................................................... 82
Release Time ................................................................................................. 82
Max Gain Reduction ...................................................................................... 82
Lookahead .................................................................................................... 82
Level Meter ................................................................................................... 83
Gain Reduction Meter .................................................................................... 83
E-MU PCIe Digital Audio Systems
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Reshaper .......................................................................................................... 84
Applications ................................................................................................... 84
Multimode EQ .................................................................................................. 87
Applications ................................................................................................... 87
Parameters .................................................................................................... 88
Lowpass ........................................................................................................ 88
Highpass ....................................................................................................... 88
Highpass -> Lowpass ..................................................................................... 89
Highpass || Lowpass ...................................................................................... 89
Band Pass ...................................................................................................... 90
Band Cut ....................................................................................................... 90
RFX Compressor ................................................................................................ 91
Signal Flow ................................................................................................... 91
Parameters .................................................................................................... 92
Threshold ...................................................................................................... 92
Gain Reduction Meter .................................................................................... 92
Ratio ............................................................................................................. 92
Attack ............................................................................................................ 92
Release .......................................................................................................... 92
Gain .............................................................................................................. 93
Advanced Parameters .................................................................................... 93
Soft Knee ....................................................................................................... 93
Gate .............................................................................................................. 95
Comp Lookahead/Delay ................................................................................ 95
Auto-Release .................................................................................................. 96
Max Compression .......................................................................................... 97
Neg Compression .......................................................................................... 97
Input Mode ................................................................................................... 98
Example Settings ........................................................................................... 99
Multimode EQ Settings ................................................................................ 101
Compressor Settings .................................................................................... 101
E-MU PowerFX.................................................................................................... 102
Automating E-MU PowerFX ............................................................................. 104
E-MU PowerFX Resource Availability ................................................................ 104
Rendering Audio with E-MU PowerFX ................................................................. 106
General Tips for Rendering using PowerFX .................................................. 106
Tips for using Freeze Mode on Cubase LE .................................................... 106
Using E-MU PowerFX with WaveLab and SoundForge ..................................... 106
E-MU VST E-Wire................................................................................................. 107
E-Delay Compensator ...................................................................................... 108
E-Delay Compensator Use ............................................................................ 109
E-Delay Units Parameter .............................................................................. 110
Grouping Tracks .......................................................................................... 110
6 - Appendix ................................................................. 111
Using High Sample Rates .................................................................................... 111
Overview ........................................................................................................ 111
WDM Recording and Playback Behavior .......................................................... 113
Getting in Sync ................................................................................................... 114
Useful Information .............................................................................................. 115
Cables - balanced or unbalanced? ................................................................... 115
Balanced Cables .......................................................................................... 115
Unbalanced Cables ...................................................................................... 115
Adapter Cables ............................................................................................... 116
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Creative Professional
1/8” Mini-phone to 1/4” Adapters ................................................................ 116
Cinch (RCA) to 1/4” Adapters ....................................................................... 116
Digital Cables .................................................................................................. 116
AES/EBU to S/PDIF Cable Adapter ................................................................... 116
Grounding ...................................................................................................... 117
Phantom Power .............................................................................................. 117
Appearance Settings in Windows .................................................................... 117
Technical Specifications....................................................................................... 118
Internet References............................................................................................. 124
Forums ........................................................................................................ 124
Index ............................................................................ 127
E-MU PCIe Digital Audio Systems
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Creative Professional
1- Introduction
Welcome!
1- Introduction
Welcome!
Thank you for purchasing the E-MU 1616m PCIe or 1212m PCIe Digital Audio System.
Your computer is about to be transformed into a powerful audio processing
workstation. We’ve designed your E-MU digital audio system to be logical, intuitive
and above all, to provide you with pristine sound quality. These systems offer unprecedented quality and value by providing studio-class, 24-bit/192kHz multi-channel
recording and playback to any PCIe card bus equipped PC.
1616m PCIe System Components
E-MU 1616m PCIe
• E-MU 1010 PCIe Card
• MicroDockm
• EDI (E-MU Digital Interface Cable)
• +48VDC AC Adapter
• MIDI Breakout Cable
• Digital Audio System Software/Driver Installation CD-ROM
• Production Tools Software Bundle CD-ROM
• Quick Start Guide
Inputs & Outputs
(8) Channel ADAT Digital Optical Input
(8) Channel ADAT Digital Optical Output
(2) Channel S/PDIF Digital Input
(2) Channel S/PDIF Digital Output
(2) MIDI Inputs & Outputs (allows 32 MIDI channels)
(4) 24-bit Balanced Line Inputs
(6) 24-bit Balanced Line Outputs
(2) Microphone/Line Preamp Inputs (with +48V phantom power)
(2) Turntable Preamp Inputs (with RIAA equalized preamplifier)
(1) Stereo Headphone Output (with volume control)
(3) Stereo Computer Speaker Outputs (with 1/8” jacks to connect powered speakers)
E-MU PCIe Digital Audio Systems
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1- Introduction
Welcome!
1212m PCIe System Components
E-MU 1212m
• E-MU 1010 PCIe Card
• E-MU 0202 I/O Daughter Card
• 0202 I/O Card Cable
• (2) MIDI Adapter Cables
• Digital Audio System Software/Driver Installation CD-ROM
• Production Tools Software Bundle CD-ROM
• Quick Start Guide
Inputs & Outputs
(8) Channel ADAT Digital Optical Input
(8) Channel ADAT Digital Optical Output
(2) Channel S/PDIF Digital Input
(2) Channel S/PDIF Digital Output
(1) MIDI Input & Output (allows 16 MIDI channels)
(2) 24-bit Balanced Line Inputs
(2) 24-bit Balanced Line Outputs
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Creative Professional
1- Introduction
Welcome!
Both Systems Include:
The E-MU 1010 PCIe Card is the heart of all three systems. Its powerful hardware DSP
processor allows you to use over 16 simultaneous hardware-based effects, which place
minimal load on your computer’s CPU. The E-MU 1010 PCIe Card also provides eightchannels of ADAT® optical digital input and output, as well as a S/PDIF stereo digital
input and output.
The PatchMix DSP mixer application is included in all the systems. PatchMix DSP
delivers unmatched flexibility in routing your audio between physical inputs and
outputs, virtual (ASIO/WAVE) inputs and outputs and internal hardware effects and
buses—no external mixer needed. You can add digital effects, EQs, meters, level
controls and ASIO/WAVE sends anywhere you like in the signal chain.
Because the effects and mixing are hardware-based, they don’t add latency when you
record. You can even record a dry signal while monitoring yourself with effects! (See
“The Order of Effects” on page 57.) Mixer setups can be saved and instantly recalled for
specific purposes such as recording, mixdown, jamming, special effect setups, playing
games, watching DVDs, or general computer use.
E-MU 1212m System
The E-MU 1212m includes the 0202 Daughter Card, which provides 2 line level,
balanced analog inputs, 2 line level, balanced analog outputs, plus MIDI input and
output. This is no-compromise audio interface, using ultra-high performance
24-bit/192kHz A/D - D/A converters to deliver an unbelievable 120dB dynamic range.
E-MU 1616m System
The E-MU 1616m system includes the MicroDockm, a no compromise, mastering-grade
system in a half rack-space, audio interface. The MicroDock adds the following input
and output capabilities to the system: two mic/line inputs with custom low-noise
preamps, 4 balanced line level analog inputs, an RIAA stereo turntable preamp, 6
balanced line level outputs, an assignable headphone output, two sets of MIDI I/O
ports, an additional S/PDIF optical output, and four stereo mini phone jacks for easy
connection to powered speaker systems. The 1616M system utilizes ultra-high performance 24-bit/192kHz A/D - D/A converters with automatic DC blocking to deliver an
incredible 120dB of dynamic range.
S/PDIF and ADAT on
the 1010 PCIe card are
NOT ACTIVE when the
MicroDock is connected.
Sync Daughter Card
The legacy Sync Daughter Card is NOT compatible with the 1010 PCIe card. The Sync
Daughter Card was an option for the original 1010 PCI card and provided Word Clock,
SMPTE and MIDI Time Code output.
E-MU PCIe Digital Audio Systems
11
1- Introduction
Welcome!
PatchMIx DSP
PatchMix DSP offers unmatched flexibility in routing your audio between physical
inputs/outputs, virtual (ASIO/WAVE) inputs/outputs, internal hardware effects and
buses. No external mixer is needed. You can add digital effects, EQs, meters, level
controls and ASIO/WAVE sends anywhere you like in the signal chain.
Because the effects and mixing are hardware-based, you can record using effects with
near zero-latency. You can even record a dry signal while monitoring yourself with
effects! (See “The Order of Effects” on page 57.) Mixer setups can be saved and
instantly recalled for specific purposes such as recording, mixdown, jamming, special
effect setups, playing games, watching DVDs, or general computer use.
You’ll want to keep up with the latest software and options for your E-MU digital audio
system. You can find all of this, plus other helpful information, at the E-MU Website:
http://www.emu.com.
Notes, Tips and Warnings
Items of special interest are presented in this document as notes, tips and warnings.
Notes provide additional information related to the topic being discussed. Often,
notes describe the interaction between the topic and some other aspect of the
system.
Tips describe applications for the topic under discussion.
12
Warnings are especially important, since they help you avoid activities that can
cause damage to your files, your computer or yourself.
Creative Professional
2 - Installation
Setting Up the Digital Audio System
2 - Installation
Setting Up the Digital Audio System
There are six basic steps to installing your E-MU system:
1. Remove any other sound cards you have in your computer. (Once you are sure that
the E-MU card works properly, your old sound card can be reinstalled if desired.)
2. Install the E-MU 1010 PCIe x1 card in your computer. Go there.
3. Install the 0202 Daughter Card (if applicable). Go there.
4. Connect the MicroDock (if applicable).
5. Install the PatchMix DSP software onto your computer.
6. Connect audio, MIDI and synchronization cables between the E-MU system and
your other gear.
7. After Software Installation, click on the E-MU icon
in the Windows SysTray to
open PatchMix DSP, then click the ? in the upper right corner to open the complete
operation manual.
Notes for Installation
• IF AT ANY TIME DURING THIS INSTALLATION YOU SEE NO RESPONSE:
Use the Alt-Tab feature to select other applications. One of them may be the
Microsoft Digital Signature warning. It is possible for this warning to appear
behind the installation screen.
• Make sure you have the latest Windows Service Packs from Microsoft®
(Windows® XP - SP 2 or higher, Vista® - SP 1 or higher).
• Disable onboard sound and uninstall all other sound cards. (If you wish to try
using multiple sound cards in your system, do so after you have confirmed that
your E-MU Digital Audio System is operating normally.)
• InstallShield “IKernel Application Error” on Windows XP: When installing this
software on Windows XP, you may be confronted with a “kernel error” at the
very end of installation. This is an issue with the InstallShield program, which is
what we use to install software on your computer. Please do not be alarmed by
this, as the error is innocuous.
• To read more about this error, and obtain instructions on how to avoid getting
the message, please visit this website:
http://support.installshield.com/kb/view.asp?articleid=q108020
• Multiple Digital Audio System sound cards are not supported.
System Requirements
• Intel® or AMD® processor operating at 1GHz or faster
• Intel, AMD or 100% compatible motherboard and chipset
• Windows XP SP2 or higher, Windows Vista SP1 or higher
• 512 MB RAM
• 500 MB free hard disk space for full installation
• Available PCIe 1.1 compliant slot (1 PCIe and 1 backplane slot required for 1212)
• XVGA Video (1024 x 768)
• CD-ROM drive required for software installation
• Headphones, amplified speakers, or audio sound system
E-MU PCIe Digital Audio Systems
13
2 - Installation
Setting Up the Digital Audio System
Please read the following sections as they apply to your system as you install the E-MU
1010 PCIe, paying special attention to the various warnings they include.
Prior to installing the hardware, take a few moments to write down the 18-digit serial
number, which is located on the back of the box and on the 1010 PCIe Card. This
number can help EMU Customer Service troubleshoot any problems you may
encounter—by writing the number down now, you’ll avoid having to open your
computer to find it later on.
Safety First!
• To avoid possible permanent damage to your hardware, make sure that all connections are made with the host computer’s power off. Unplug the computer’s
power cable to make sure that the computer is not in sleep mode.
• Take care to avoid static damage to any components of your system. Internal
computer surfaces, the E-MU 1010 PCIe board and the interfaces are susceptible to
electrostatic discharge, commonly known as “static.” Electrostatic discharge can
damage or destroy electronic devices. Here are some procedures you can follow
when handling electronic devices in order to minimize the possibility of causing
electrostatic damage:
As you install
hardware components,
observe the following
general precautions to
avoid damage to your
equipment and yourself.
• Avoid any unnecessary movement, such as scuffing your feet when handling
electronic devices, since most movement can generate additional charges of static
electricity.
• Minimize the handling of the PCIe card. Keep it in its static-free package until
needed. Transport or store the board only in its protective package.
• When handling a PCIe card, avoid touching its connector pins. Try to handle the
board by its edges only.
• Before installing a PCIe card into your computer, you should be grounded. Use a
ground strap to discharge any static electric charge built up on your body. The
ground strap attaches to your wrist and any unpainted metal surface within your
computer. If you don’t have a ground strap, you can ground yourself by touching
the metal case of another piece of grounded equipment.
Connector Types
These connector types are used to connect the E-MU 1010 hardware components. They
will be referred to by the name shown in the first column of the following chart:
Name
Description
Connects
Card/External
CAT5 Connector
1010 PCIe card and MicroDock
S/PDIF In
RCA Connector
S/PDIF digital audio devices
S/PDIF Out
RCA Connector
S/PDIF digital audio devices
ADAT Optical In
TOSLINK Optical Connector ADAT digital audio devices (or S/PDIF)
ADAT Optical Out TOSLINK Optical Connector ADAT digital audio devices (or S/PDIF)
ý Warning: Please verify that all cables are connected only to the proper components
before powering up your system.
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Creative Professional
2 - Installation
Installing the E-MU 1010 PCIe Card
Installing the E-MU 1010 PCIe Card
This installation is very simple but if you are not familiar with the installation of
computer peripherals and add-in boards, please contact your authorized E-MU
Systems dealer or an approved computer service center to arrange for the installation.
IMPORTANT: Remove any other audio cards and uninstall the audio card or
motherboard audio software from your PC before installing this card.
Once the Digital Audio System has been successfully installed and is working
properly, you MAY be able to install another audio card if you so desire.
To install the 1010 PCIe card into your computer
1. Make sure that the power switch on your computer is off.
IMPORTANT: Unplug the power cord from the wall outlet!
2. Touch a metal plate on your computer to ground yourself and to discharge any
static electricity.
3. Follow the computer manufacturer’s recommended procedure for opening the
case.
4. Remove the metal bracket from one PCIe x1 slot. (PCIe x1 slots are the smallest of the
PCie slots.) If you have the E-MU 1212M system, you’ll need to remove the bracket
from two slots. Put the screw(s) aside for use later. See figure 1 below.
Figure 1
Figure 2
Note: Some
computer cases don’t use
screws to secure PCIe
cards. In this case, follow
the instructions that came
with your computer.
PC
Ie
I
PC
6
x1
e
6
x1
PC
Ie
x1
s t
ot sen )
Sl re er
I be p put
PCnot com
r
ay ou
(m n y
o
x1
Ie x1
PC Ie
PC
s t
ot sen )
Sl re er
I be p put
PCnot com
r
ay ou
(m n y
o
5. Align the E-MU 1010 PCIe card with the slot and press gently but firmly down into
the slot as shown in figure 2.
6. Do not force the E-MU 1010 PCIe card into the slot. Make sure that the gold finger
connector of the card is aligned with the PCIe x1bus connector on the motherboard before you insert the card into the PCIe slot. If it doesn’t fit properly, gently
remove it and try again.
7. Secure the card into the slot using one of the screws you placed aside earlier.
E-MU PCIe Digital Audio Systems
15
2 - Installation
1212m Owners - Install the 0202 Daughter Card
1212m Owners - Install the 0202 Daughter Card
1. Unwrap the 0202 Daughter Card and get
ready to install it.
Figure 3
2. Connect the provided ribbon cable
between the E-MU 1010 PCIe card and the
0202 Daughter card as shown in figure 3.
The cable is keyed so it cannot be incorrectly inserted. Seat the connectors firmly
in the sockets and arrange the cable neatly.
3. Align the 0202 Daughter Card with the
back panel slot and press gently but firmly
down into the slot as shown in figure 2 on
the preceding page.
4. Do not force the 0202 Daughter Card into
x1
Ie 1
PC e x
I
PC
s
and securely fastened, close the computer
case.
ot
6. After all components have been installed
Sl
the screws you placed aside earlier.
I
5. Secure the card into the slot using one of
PC
the slot. The bottom of the card does not fit
into the PCIe slot. The rear panel mounting
holds it in place.
0202
Daughter Card
7. Connect the supplied network-type cable from the 10 BaseT jack on the E-MU
1010 PCIe card labeled “EDI” to the matching connector labeled “EDI” on the
MicroDock. The cable supplied with the MicroDock is specially shielded to prevent
unwanted RF emissions.
8. Plug the power cord back into the wall outlet and turn on your computer.
Connecting the MicroDock
1. Connect the supplied EDI cable between the 1010 PCIe Card and the MicroDock.
CAUTION: Do not
connect the supplied
CAT5 cable to the
Ethernet or network
connector on your
computer. Doing so may
result in permanent
damage to either your
computer, the E-MU 1010
or both.
2. Connect the supplied +48 volt DC adapter to the +48VDC jack on the rear of the
MicroDock. See the diagram below.
3. Connect your audio inputs and outputs to the MicroDock as shown on page 25.
4. Turn the MicroDock on by turning the Headphone Volume control.
Note: The 1616m
MicroDocks cannot be
used with older 1010 PCI
cards identified by the
1394 FireWire port.
+48V DC Adapter
48VDC
+
-
EDI
The Headphone
Volume Control is
the Power Switch.
1010 PCIe Card
16
Creative Professional
2 - Installation
Connecting the MicroDock
ý Warning: The MicroDock has been designed to use readily available and
inexpensive standard computer system cables. This makes it easy for you to find
replacement cables if your original cable becomes damaged or lost. However, because
these standard cables types are used for other purposes, you must use caution to avoid
connecting the cables incorrectly. DO NOT connect the supplied EDI cable to the
Ethernet or network connector on your computer. Doing so may result in permanent
damage to either your computer, the E-MU 1010 PCIe card, or the MicroDock.
WARNING: E-MU 0202 & MicroDock
If you have both the E-MU 0202 I/O card and the MicroDock, DO NOT connect both
to the E-MU 1010 PCIe card. They cannot be used together.
E-MU PCIe Digital Audio Systems
17
2 - Installation
Software Installation
Software Installation
Installing the E-MU 1010 PatchMix Software and Drivers
The first time you restart your PC after installing the E-MU 1010 PCIe card, you will
need to install the PatchMix DSP software and E-MU 1010 PCIe card drivers.
Windows XP, Windows XP x64, Windows Vista, Windows Vista x64
The software is not compatible with other versions of Windows.
1. After you have installed your Digital Audio System, turn on your computer.
Windows automatically detects the Digital Audio System and searches for device
drivers.
2. When prompted for the audio drivers, click the Cancel button.
3. Insert the E-MU software Installation CD into your CD-ROM drive. If Windows
AutoPlay mode is enabled for your CD-ROM drive, the CD starts running automatically. If not, from your Windows desktop, click Start->Run and type d:\setup.exe
(replace d:\ with the drive letter of your CD-ROM drive). You can also open the
CD and double-click Setup.exe.
Serial Number - During
the registration process,
you will be asked to enter
your 18-digit serial
number. The serial number
is located on the back of
the box and on the 1010
PCIe Card.
4. The installation splash screen appears. Follow the instructions on the screen to
complete the installation.
5. Choose “Continue Anyway” when you encounter the “Windows Logo Testing”
warning screen. See the note below for more information.
6. When prompted, restart your computer.
Uninstalling all Audio Drivers and Applications
At times you may need to uninstall or reinstall some or all of the audio card's applications and device drivers to correct problems, change configurations, or upgrade
outdated drivers or applications. Before you begin, close all audio card applications.
Applications still running during the uninstallation will not be removed.
1. Click Start -> Settings -> Control Panel.
2. Double-click the Add/Remove Programs icon.
3. Click the Install/Uninstall tab (or Change or Remove Programs button).
4. Select the E-MU driver/application entries and then click the Add/Remove (or
Change/Remove) button.
5. In the InstallShield Wizard dialog box, select the Remove option.
6. Click the Yes button. Restart your computer when prompted.
7. You may now re-install existing or updated E-MU 1010 PCIe card device drivers or
applications.
Note About Windows Logo Testing
When you install the 1616M PCIe drivers, you will see a dialog box informing you
either that the driver has not been certified by Windows Hardware Quality Labs
(WHQL), or that the driver is signed by Creative Labs, Inc, and you will be asked if you
would like to continue with the installation.
The 1616m PCIe audio drivers are not certified by WHQL because the product does not
support some of the features that the Microsoft Windows Logo Program requires, most
notably Universal Audio Architecture (UAA) and Digital Rights Management (DRM).
Despite this, the 1616M PCIe audio drivers have been rigorously tested using the same
test procedures that a WHQL qualified driver requires, and it passes in all of the other
important categories, including those that measure the relative stability of the driver.
So, it is perfectly safe to install these drivers on your computer.
18
Creative Professional
3 - PCIe Card & Interfaces
The E-MU 1010 PCIe Card
3 - PCIe Card & Interfaces
The E-MU 1010 PCIe Card
The E-MU 1010 PCIe card is the heart of the system and contains E-MU’s powerful
E-DSP chip. The powerful hardware DSP on this card leaves more power free on your
CPU for additional software plug-ins and other tasks.
Important
When the MicroDock is connected to the 1010 PCIe card, the digital I/O on the PCIe
card is disabled. Use the digital I/O on the MicroDock.
Connections
EDI Connector
(',
Connects to
MicroDock
via EDI Cable
S/PDIF
In/Out
ADAT
or S/PDIF
Optical
In/Out
Connects to the MicroDock using the supplied EDI
cable. This cable provides a a two-way data link
between the E-MU 1010 and the MicroDock as well
as supplying power to the MicroDock.
S/PDIF Digital Audio Input & Output
RCA phono jacks are standard connectors used for
S/PDIF (Sony/Philips Digital InterFace) connections.
Each jack carries two channels of digital audio.
The E-MU 1010 receives digital audio data with word
lengths of up to 24-bits. Data is always transmitted at
24-bits.
S/PDIF digital I/O can be used for the reception and/
or transmission of digital data from external digital
devices such as a DAT external analog-to-digital
converter or an external signal processor equipped
with digital inputs and outputs.
The S/PDIF out can be configured in either Professional or Consumer mode in the Session Settings
menu. The 1010 PCIe card can also send and receive
AES/EBU digital audio through the use of a cable
adapter. See “AES/EBU to S/PDIF Cable Adapter” for
details.
S/PDIF and ADAT on
the 1010 PCIe card are
NOT ACTIVE when the
MicroDock is connected.
The S/PDIF input and outputs are usable at the
44.1kHz, 48kHz 88.2kHz and 96kHz sample rates,
but are disabled for 176.4kHz and 192kHz. The
word clock contained in the input data stream can be
used as a word clock source. See “System Settings”.
ADAT Optical Digital Input & Output
The ADAT optical connectors transmit and receive 8 channels of 24-bit audio using the
ADAT type 1 & 2 formats. The word clock contained in the input data stream can be
used as a word clock source. See “System Settings”. Optical connections have certain
advantages such as immunity to electrical interference and ground loops. Make sure to
use high quality glass fiber light pipes for connections longer than 1.5 meters.
E-MU PCIe Digital Audio Systems
Important: When
using any type of digital
I/O such as S/PDIF or
ADAT, you MUST sample
sync the two devices or
clicks and pops in the
audio will result.
19
3 - PCIe Card & Interfaces
The 0202 Daughter Card
At the 96kHz or 192kHz sample rates, the industry standard S/MUX interleaving
scheme is used for ADAT input and output. S/MUX uses additional ADAT channels to
achieve the required bandwidth. See the chart below or go here for additional information.
Sample Rate
Number of Audio Channels
44kHz/48kHz
8 channels of 24-bit audio
88.2kHz/96kHz
4 channels of 24-bit audio, using S/MUX standard
176.4kHz/192kHz 2 channels of 24-bit audio, using S/MUX standard
The 0202 Daughter Card
The 0202 Daughter card is the companion card for E-MU 1010 systems which don’t
include the MicroDock. The 0202 Daughter card provides one pair of 24-bit balanced
analog inputs and one pair of 24-bit balanced analog outputs, plus MIDI in and out.
Connections
Analog Inputs and Outputs
Left / Right
Line Inputs
Left / Right
Line Outputs
MIDI
In/Out
The 0202 Daughter Card provides two balanced,
analog inputs and two balanced, line level analog
outputs. The inputs can be connected to any line level
stereo signal from keyboards, CD-players, cassette
decks, etc. The analog inputs are assigned to a mixer
strip in the mixer application.
The outputs can feed any line level input such as a
mixing board, the auxiliary input on your stereo or a
set of powered speakers. The line outputs are NOT
designed to drive headphones directly. Connect the
line outputs to a stereo receiver or mixer with a
headphone jack to obtain the proper current drive.
Either TRS (tip-ring-sleeve) balanced or TS unbalanced cables can be used. Balanced cables provide
better noise immunity and +6dB higher signal level.
The output line level can be set to accommodate the
consumer -10dBV standard, or the pro audio +4 dBu
standard in the I/O screen of the Session Settings
dialog box. See “I/O Settings”.
MIDI In/Out
The MIDI input and output port can be assigned in your specific MIDI application.
Connect the MIDI adapter cable that came with your 0202 Daughter card to the miniDIN connectors on the card. The adapter cables convert the mini-DIN to standard DIN
connectors used on most keyboards and synthesizers. Connect MIDI Out to the MIDI
In port of your synthesizer and MIDI Out of your synth to MIDI In of the 0202
Daughter Card.
20
Creative Professional
3 - PCIe Card & Interfaces
The MicroDock
The MicroDock
The MicroDock connects to the E-MU 1010 PCIe card via the EDI cable.
The MicroDock provides (4) balanced analog inputs, (2) microphone preamp inputs,
(6) balanced line-level analog outputs, (3) stereo 1/8” outputs for connecting powered
computer speakers, (2) MIDI inputs, (2) MIDI outputs, a stereo headphone output,
and a RIAA equalized turntable preamp section which is “normalled” into line input 2L
and 2R, 8 channels of ADAT digital input/output, and stereo S/PDIF digital input/
output.
A Line
B Line
Mic
Clip
SL
Mic
Clip
-3
-6
-12
-20
SL
S/PDIF
48V
-3
-6
-12
-20
Out
In
Line Mic -
1L
1R
+50
+65
-15
0
2L
+50
+65
-15
0
2R
The MicroDock is
completely “hot
pluggable”— It’s OK to
plug or unplug the
MicroDock while the
computer is turned on.
2L Phono 2R
O
MIDI Cable
Gnd
48VDC
+
-
In
It’s a good idea to mute
MicroDock inputs 2 in the
PatchMix DSP mixer when
nothing is plugged in,
since the turntable preamp
has a very high gain
(60dB) and could
contribute extra noise to
your mix/monitor bus.
Out
1
2
3
EDI
Out
1L
1R
2L
2R
3L
3R
The inputs are configured as follows:
(2)
mono microphone/line inputs (2 inputs)
(2)
stereo pairs of line level inputs (4 inputs)
(1)
stereo pair of S/PDIF/AES digital inputs (2 inputs)
(4)
stereo pairs of ADAT channels on the ADAT optical input (8 inputs)
(1)
RIAA equalized turntable preamp input allows you to connect a turntable
without using an expensive external preamp. Note: These inputs are automatically disconnected when plugs are inserted into inputs 2L & 2R.
(2)
MIDI input ports using the supplied breakout cable
The outputs are configured as:
(3)
Stereo pairs of line level outputs
(1)
Stereo pair driving a stereo headphone jack (Share the same routing as Line
Outs 1L/1R)
(1)
Stereo pair of S/PDIF/AES digital outputs
(4)
Stereo pairs of ADAT channels on the ADAT optical output
(3)
Stereo 1/8” computer speaker outputs. These outputs carry the same signals as
the 3 stereo line level outputs and are provided as a convenience for connecting
computer or powered speaker systems.
(2)
MIDI output ports using the supplied breakout cable
E-MU PCIe Digital Audio Systems
21
3 - PCIe Card & Interfaces
The MicroDock
Front Panel Connections
Preamp Section
The front panel mono Mic/Line inputs A & B can be used as balanced microphone
inputs, hi-Z guitar pickup inputs, or line level inputs. The Neutrik combination jack
accepts microphones using a standard XLR connector or line level/hi-Z inputs (such as
an electric guitar) using a standard 1/4 inch TRS/TS connector.
Each preamp has a level control which sets the preamp gain from 0dB to +65dB for the
XLR input and from -15dB to +50dB for the Hi-Z line input. The line markings around
the knobs are calibrated in 10dB increments. The heavy hash marks on the gain
controls indicate unity analog gain to the converter inputs (~5dBV input = 0dBFS
output).
Phantom Power
Caution: Some
microphones (notably
ribbon types) cannot
tolerate phantom power
and may be damaged.
Check the specifications
and requirements of your
microphone before using
phantom power.
A phantom power switch enables +48 volt phantom power supplied to both microphones. A red LED illuminates to indicate phantom power is enabled. The audio mutes
for a second when phantom power is turned on. After turning phantom power off, wait
two full minutes before recording to allow the DC bias to drain. See “Phantom Power”
for additional information.
Each microphone input has its own input level meters and clipping indicators. The
LED meters indicate signal presence. Adjust the input gain so that the yellow LEDs are
illuminated. The red Clip LED indicates that the gain is set too high and the signal is
clipping the input. These LEDs monitor the signal directly at the analog-to-digital
converters and before any processing by the rest of the system. When setting the levels
for signals being sent into the MicroDock, the red clip indicator should never flash.
S/PDIF Digital Audio Input & Output
RCA phono jacks are standard connectors used for coaxial S/PDIF (Sony/Philips
Digital InterFace) connections. Each jack carries two channels of digital audio. The
MicroDock sends or receives digital audio data at 44.1k, 48k, 88.2k, 96k, 176.4k or
192k sample rates. Data is always transmitted at 24-bits, but lower word widths can be
read. The word clock contained in the input data stream can be used as a word clock
source. See “System Settings”.
S/PDIF digital I/O can be used for the reception and/ or transmission of digital data
from external digital devices such as a DAT, external analog-to-digital converter or an
external signal processor equipped with digital inputs and outputs.
The S/PDIF out can be configured in either Professional or Consumer mode in the
Session Settings menu. The MicroDock can also send and receive AES/EBU digital
audio through the use of a cable adapter. See “Cables - balanced or unbalanced?” for
details.
22
Creative Professional
3 - PCIe Card & Interfaces
The MicroDock
ADAT Optical Digital Input & Output
The ADAT optical connectors transmit and receive 8 channels of 24-bit audio using the
ADAT type 1 & 2 formats. The word clock contained in the input data stream can be
used as a word clock source. See “System Settings”. Optical connections have certain
advantages such as immunity to electrical interference and ground loops. Make sure to
use high quality glass fiber light pipes for connections longer than 1.5 meters.
At the 88.2k, 96k, 176.4k or 192k sample rates, the industry standard S/MUX interleaving scheme is used for ADAT input and output. S/MUX uses additional ADAT
channels to gain additional bandwidth on the existing interface. See the chart below or
go here for additional information.
Sample Rate
Important: When
using any type of digital
I/O such as S/PDIF or
ADAT, you MUST sample
sync the two devices or
clicks and pops in the
audio will result.
Number of Audio Channels
44kHz/48kHz
8 channels of 24-bit audio
88kHz or 96kHz 4 channels of 24-bit audio, using S/MUX standard interleaving
176kHz or 192kHz 2 channels of 24-bit audio, using S/MUX standard interleaving
The ADAT inputs and outputs can be configured in the System Settings (page 33) to
send and receive S./PDIF optical data at 44.1k, 48k, 88.2k, or 96k sample rates.
S/PDIF Optical is not supported at 176.4k or 196k.
Headphone Output & Volume Control
The headphone output drives standard stereo headphones and the adjacent volume
control sets the listening level. The headphone amplifier can drive headphones with
impedance as low as 24 ohms. The headphone output uses a high-current version of
the high-quality output amplifiers used on the other channels. For this reason it has a
very clean signal that can be used as another stereo output if you need it.
E-MU PCIe Digital Audio Systems
Note: PatchMix DSP
does not support AC3
passthrough at this time.
23
3 - PCIe Card & Interfaces
The MicroDock
Front Panel
Analog Connections
Mic
Use the 3-pin XLR jack
for Low Impedance
microphones.
A Line
B Line
Mic
Clip
SL
Mic
Clip
-3
-6
-12
-20
SL
S/PDIF
48V
-3
-6
-12
-20
Out
In
Line Mic -
+50
+65
-15
0
-15
0
+50
+65
On/Off
O
& Phone Volume
Use the center
Phone Jack for
High Impedance
instruments such
as electric guitar
or bass.
Stereo
Headphones
Instrument
Digital Connections
Out
External A/D - D/A Converter
1
Optical
ADAT
(Optical)
In
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
(8 more analog inputs & outputs)
In
DAT or CD
Digital Audio Device with S/PDIF
Out
Out
S/PDIF
(Coax)
In
Out
Coaxial
In
Audio Outs
MIDI Out MIDI Keyboard
R E A L T I M E C O N T R O L L E R S
A S S I G N A B L E K E Y S
P R E S E T
L E V E L
EXIT
ENTER
S A M P L E
PA G E
In
MIDI 1
Out
S E Q U E N C E R
P R E S E TS E L E C T
1
2
3
4
5
6
RETURN
7
8
9
0
.
EMULATOR
MIDI In
Audio Outs
MIDI Sound Module
In
MIDI 2
Out
24
SAMPLE
I
TRANSPOSE
MASTER/GLOBAL
SAMPLE MANAGEMENT
MULTIMODE
PRESET MANAGEMENT
PRESET DEFINITION
TRIGGERS
DIGITAL PROCESSING
INC/YES
ABC
1
O
DEC/NO
PRESET
DYNAMIC PROCESING
ENTER
VOLUME
DRIVE SELECT
LOAD
SAVE
AUDITION
TRIGGER MODE
ESCAPE
GHI
DEF
2
3
JKL
MNO
4
5
6
PRS
TUV
WXY
7
8
9
QZ
0
MIDI
MIDI In
Creative Professional
3 - PCIe Card & Interfaces
The MicroDock
Rear Panel Connections
4 Balanced Line Level Inputs
Turntable Inputs
(configured as 2 stereo pairs)
(tied to line input 2)
1L
1R
2L
2R
2L Phono 2R
Turntable
Ground
MIDI Port
Connector
48 Volt DC
Power Input
MIDI Cable
Gnd
48VDC
+
-
In
Out
1
2
3
EDI
Out
1L
1R
2L
2R
3L
6 Balanced Line Level Outputs
(configured as 3 stereo pairs)
3R
Alternate Outputs
(same as outputs 1-3)
Connect to
E-MU 1010 PCIe Card
Line Level Analog Inputs
4 balanced 24-bit, line-level, analog inputs are provided (1L-1R, 2L-2R). These can be
used to input any line level signal from keyboards, CD-players, cassette decks, etc. The
analog inputs are assigned to mixer strips in the mixer application. The line level inputs
can be set to accommodate the consumer -10dBV standard, or the pro audio +4 dBu
standard in the I/O screen of the Session Settings dialog box. See “I/O Settings”.
The maximum input level is 18dBV (=20.2dBu).
Either TRS balanced or TS unbalanced cables can be used. The line-level inputs are all
servo-balanced, enabling them to convert unbalanced signals to balanced signals
internally to reduce noise. See page 115 for additional information about unbalanced
cables and connectors.
Phono Inputs & Ground Lug
The RCA Phono inputs feed an RIAA equalized preamp designed for moving magnet
type phono cartridges with 60 dB of gain. Connect the ground lead from your turntable
to the ground lug to prevent hum.
The phono inputs SHARE line level inputs 2L and 2R. Inserting a plug into Line Input 2
disconnects the turntable preamp from that channel. Do NOT leave your turntable
connected when using inputs 2L and 2R, since this can cause a ground loop.
Important: Do NOT plug in line level signals to the turntable inputs. The turntable
inputs are designed to accept the extremely low-level signal from a phonograph
cartridge. Use RCA to 1/4” adapters to connect line level signals to the line level analog
inputs.
Important!
It’s a good idea to MUTE
the Dock In strip 2L/2R in
the PatchMix DSP mixer if
nothing is plugged in to
these jacks. The turntable
preamp has a very high
gain (60dB) and can add
extra noise to your mix/
monitor bus.
Line Level Analog Outputs
Six balanced 24-bit, line-level, analog outputs are provided (1-3). Output pair 1 is
designated as the Monitor Output and is fed by the monitor bus of the PatchMix DSP
mixer application. We suggest that you plug your speakers in here. Special anti-pop
circuitry mutes the analog outputs when power is turned on or off.
Like the analog line inputs, either TRS balanced or TS unbalanced cables can be used.
Balanced cables provide better noise immunity and +6dB higher signal level. The
output line level can be set to accommodate the consumer -10dBV standard, or the pro
audio +4 dBu standard in the I/O screen of the Session Settings dialog box. See “I/O
Settings”.
The maximum input and output line levels are matched when the input and output
settings are set to the same mode (pro or consumer) in the I/O preferences screen.
E-MU PCIe Digital Audio Systems
Balanced Cables:
You should ONLY use
balanced (TRS) cables if
BOTH pieces of
equipment use balanced
connections. Connecting
balanced cables between
balanced outputs and
unbalanced inputs can
actually increase noise
and introduce hum.
25
3 - PCIe Card & Interfaces
The MicroDock
Computer Speaker Analog Outputs
These stereo mini-phone (3.5mm) jacks duplicate line level outputs 1-3 with a lower
output level to accommodate consumer speakers. These line level outputs are designed
to interface easily with powered speakers.
Computer Speaker Output
Duplicates Line Level Output
1 L/R
2 L/R
3 L/R
Tip = 1L Ring = 1R
Tip = 2L Ring = 2R
Tip = 3L Ring = 3R
MIDI 1 & 2 In/Outs
MIDI input and output ports allow you to interface any type of MIDI equipment such
as keyboards, effect units, drum or guitar controllers (anything with MIDI). The MIDI
drivers were installed when you installed your PatchMix DSP software and the MIDI
ports will appear in your system control panel under “Sounds and Audio Devices.”
There are two completely independent sets of MIDI input and output ports on the
MicroDock, which can be assigned in your specific MIDI applications.
Connect the MIDI breakout cable to the D-connector on the MicroDock. Connect
MIDI Out to the MIDI In port of your synthesizer and MIDI Out of your synth to MIDI
In of the MicroDock MIDI cable.
EDI Connector (Card)
Connects the MicroDock to the E-MU 1010 PCIe card using a CAT5-type computer
cable. The cable supplied with the MicroDock is specially shielded to prevent
unwanted RF emissions.
Basic
Connections
MIDI Synthesizer
Out
MIDI In
Turntable
MIDI 1
MIDI Out
In
Audio
from
Synthesizer
1L
1R
*
*
2L
2R
2L Phono 2R
MIDI Cable
Gnd
48VDC
+
-
In
AC Adapter
Out
1
2
3
EDI
Out
1L
1R
2L
2R
3L
1010 PCIe
Card
3R
Connect
Desktop
Speakers to
1/8" jacks
Audio
to
Monitors
Powered
Desktop
Speakers
Stereo
Mixer
&
Speakers
* NOTE: Line Inputs 2L/2R and Phono 2L/2R cannot be used at the same time.
26
Creative Professional
3 - PCIe Card & Interfaces
The MicroDock
5.1 Surround Speaker Connections
Center
Left
Front
1L
1R
2L
2R
2L Phono 2R
MIDI Cable
Gnd
48VDC
+
-
In
Right
Front
Out
1
2
3
EDI
Out
1L
1R
2L
2R
3L
3R
Left
Rear
Right
Rear
Front
Rear Ctr/Sub
Sub-Woofer
(with built-in power amps)
The 1/8” stereo jacks make it easy to connect to powered surround sound speakers.
Only three stereo cables are necessary with many speaker systems (see above). The 1/8”
jacks duplicate the 1/4” outputs. The 1/8” jacks and the 1/4” jacks can be used simultaneously.
You can connect the 1/8” stereo jacks to your surround speakers and connect the 1/4”
outputs to your other gear for music creation. (Yes, they can both be connected at the same
time.) When you want to monitor in surround, simply open the 5.1 Session and turn
on your surround speakers.
The chart below shows how to connect the outputs for 5.1 surround sound playback.
Multichannel WAVE to Surround Sound Speaker Channels
(using the factory 5.1 DVD Playback Session)
WAVE Strip
Surround Channels
1/4” Outputs
1/8” Outputs
E-DSP WAVE 1/2 Front Left/Front Right 1L = FL 1R = FR
1 (Tip = FL Ring = FR)
E-DSP WAVE 3/4 Center/Subwoofer
3L = C 3R = Sub
3 (Tip = C Ring = Sub)
E-DSP WAVE 5/6 Rear Left/Rear Right
2L = RL 2R = RR
2 (Tip = RL Ring = RR)
E-DSP WAVE 7/8 Side Left/Side Right
N/A
N/A
Choose one of the DVD 5.1 Sessions, then set up your DVD application to use multichannel WAV for audio.
E-MU PCIe Digital Audio Systems
27
3 - PCIe Card & Interfaces
1212m System Connections
1212m System Connections
The 1212M System uses line level inputs and outputs. Microphones and unpowered
instruments require a preamp since they generate signals much lower than line level.
The diagram below shows how to connect to a mixer. If you don’t own a mixer, you
can connect powered speakers directly to the L/R Outputs and use PatchMix as your
mixer.
1212M Analog Connections
Microphone
(must be pre-amped)
L/R
Input
Main
Outs
Electronic Keyboard
R E A L T I M E C O N T R O L L E R S
A S S I G N A B L E K E Y S
P R E S E T
L E V E L
EXIT
ENTER
S A M P L E
PA G E
S E Q U E N C E R
P R E S E TS E L E C T
1
2
3
4
5
6
RETURN
7
8
9
0
.
EMULATOR
Input
Strips
L/R
Output
Use either Balanced
or Unbalanced cables
Mixer (with pre-amp)
Electric Instrument
(must be pre-amped)
Instr. Preamp
Output Connections
This diagram shows the various types of cable adapters needed to connect to various
types of equipment. The diagram is applicable to either the 1616M or1212M.
1212M Analog Output Connections
To Mixer
Inputs
L
Mixer &
Powered Speakers
1/4" male to 1/4" male
(balanced or unbalanced)
or...
R
Aux Inputs
Mono 1/4" male to
male Cinch (RCA) adapter
Integrated
Amp & Speakers
or...
Powered
Desktop
Speakers
Stereo
Mono 1/4" male to
Stereo 1/8" female adapter
28
Creative Professional
4 - The PatchMix DSP Mixer
PatchMix DSP
4 - The PatchMix DSP Mixer
PatchMix DSP
The PatchMix DSP Mixer is a virtual console which performs all of the functions of a
typical hardware mixer and a multi-point patch bay. With PatchMix, you may not even
need a hardware mixer. PatchMix DSP performs many audio operations such as ASIO/
WAVE routing, volume control, stereo panning, equalization, effect processing, effect
send/return routing, main mix and monitor control and allows you to store and recall
these “Sessions” at will.
To Invoke the PatchMix DSP Mixer
on the Windows System Tray. The PatchMix
DSP mixer window appears.
1. Left-click once on the E-MU icon
Overview of the Mixer
Add New
Strip
Physical Input Strips
ASIO Input Strip
Click on the buttons
and knobs in the mixer
screen below to jump to
the description of the
control.
Toolbar
Display
Select
Buttons
Delete
Strip
“TV”
Screen
Channel
Insert
Section
Pan
Controls
Aux
Effects
Section
Aux
Sends
Sync/
Sample
Rate
Indicators
Volume
Fader
Solo/Mute
Buttons
User
Definable
Scribble Strip
Monitor
Volume/Balance
/Mute Controls
WAVE Strip
Controls Windows Source Audio
(Direct Sound, Windows Media, etc.)
E-MU PCIe Digital Audio Systems
Main
Inserts
Current
Session
Name
Main Mix
Output Volume
& Meters
29
4 - The PatchMix DSP Mixer
Overview of the Mixer
Mixer Window
The Mixer consists of four main sections.
Application Toolbar Lets you manage sessions and show/hide the various views.
Main Section
Controls all the main levels, aux buses, and their inserts. This section also has a “TV”
which shows parameters for the currently selected effect and the input/output
patching. It also shows the session’s current sample rate and whether it’s set to
internal or external clock.
Mixer Strips
This section is located to the left of the Main Section and shows all the currently
instantiated mixer strips. Mixer strips can represent Physical analog/digital inputs, or
Host inputs such as ASIO or Direct Sound. Mixer strips can be added or deleted as
necessary. This section can be resized by dragging the left edge of the frame.
Effects Palette
This popup window is invoked by pressing the FX button in the toolbar. Iconic
representations of all effects presets are shown here, organized by category. From
this window, you can drag and drop effect presets into the insert slots available on
the mixer strips and main section aux buses and main inserts.
A simplified diagram of the mixer is shown below.
IMPORTANT: Study this diagram to understand how the PatchMix DSP Mixer works.
Input
Input
Post-Fader Strip
Pre-Fader Strip
Insert
Section
Insert
Section
Mixer Block Diagram
Panning
Fader
Meter
MUTE
Aux 1
Aux 2
Aux
Bus 1
Aux
Bus 2
Aux 1
Send
Amount
Aux
Effects
Return
Amount
Insert
Section
Aux 2
Fader
MUTE
Main Bus
Send
Amount
Monitor
Out
Return
Amount
Insert
Section
MUTE
Main Bus
Effects
Insert
Section
Output 1L/1R
& Headphones
Monitor
Level
Main
Level
Main
Out
Pre Fader or Post Fader
When creating a new Mixer Strip, you have the option for the Aux Sends to be placed
Post Fader (both Aux Sends come after the channel fader) or Pre Fader (both Aux
Sends come before the channel fader). The Pre-fader option allows you to use either
Aux Send as another mix bus, which is unaffected by the channel fader.
More Information.
30
Creative Professional
4 - The PatchMix DSP Mixer
E-MU Icon in the Windows Taskbar
E-MU Icon in the Windows Taskbar
Right-clicking on the E-MU icon in the Windows taskbar calls the following window.
Right-Click Here
Opens the PatchMix DSP Mixer.
Calls the PatchMix DSP help system.
Disables the splash screen that appears at
boot-up.
When unchecked, FX are not loaded until
needed, resulting in faster computer boot.
Restores the default PatchMix DSP and
driver settings.
Closes the PatchMix DSP background
program, disabling use of all audio I/O
from the E-MU hardware. Open the PatchMix DSP application to start audio again.
Restore Defaults: Always
try this option first if
PatchMix is crashing or if
you are having any other
strange audio problems.
The Toolbar
New
Session
Save
Session
Open
Session
“About”
PatchMix DSP
Session
Settings
Show/Hide
Effects
HELP
Global
Prefs
New Session
Calls up the “New Session” dialog box. New Session.
Open Session
Calls up the standard “Open” dialog box, allowing you to
open a saved Session.
Save Session
Calls up the standard “Save” or “Save As…”þdialog boxes,
allowing you to save the current Session.
Show/Hide Effects
Toggle button that shows or hides the FX palette.
Session Settings
Calls up the Sessions Settings window. Session Settings.
Global Preferences
Calls up the Global Preferences window.
About PatchMix
DSP
Right-Click on the E-MU logo to view the “About PatchMix
DSP” screen, which provides the software and firmware
version numbers and other information.
E-MU PCIe Digital Audio Systems
Click the buttons in the
toolbar to learn about
their function.
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4 - The PatchMix DSP Mixer
The Session
The Session
The current state of the PatchMix DSP mixer (fader settings, effects routings…everything!) can be saved as a Session. Whenever you create or modify a mixer setup, all you
have to do is Save it to be able to recall it at a later time.
Before you begin using PatchMix DSP, you need to set it up to be compatible with the
other software applications you may be running. The most important consideration is
your system sample rate. PatchMix DSP and any applications or other digital gear you
are using must be set to the same sample rate. PatchMix DSP can run at 44.1kHz,
48kHz, 88kHz, 96kHz, 176.4 kHz or 192kHz, but its complete set of features are only
available at 44.1kHz or 48kHz. See “Using High Sample Rates” on page 111 for details.
Once the sample rate is set, you can only easily switch between 44.1k and 48k. You
cannot switch between 44/48k and 88k/96k/176k/192k. With a change to these
higher sample rates, you must start a new session.
You can also set up an external sync source, thereby obtaining the sample rate from
some other device or application. External sync can be obtained from the ADAT input
or S/PDIF input. If the session is set at 44.1kHz or 48kHz and the external source is
coming in at a higher rate (such as 96k), the Sync Indicator will be extinguished (off),
but PatchMix will attempt to receive the external data. The two units are NOT sample
locked however, and you should correct this condition to avoid intermittent clicks in
the audio. Always check for the presence of the LOCKED indicator whenever you are
using a digital interface.
Important: When
using any form of digital
input, you MUST
synchronize the Digital
Audio System to the
external digital device
(S/PDIF/ADAT).
PatchMix DSP comes with several session templates to choose from so when you create
a new session you can either create a “blank” session based around a designated
sample rate, or select from a list of template starting points.
In a PatchMix DSP session the number of strips in the mixer is dynamically configurable. This allows you to create only those strips you need up to a maximum number
determined by available DSP resources and available inputs.
New Session
You create a new session by clicking the “New Session” button in the PatchMix DSP
main Toolbar. The following dialog box appears.
Select a Template or new
Session at the desired
sample rate
Session Description
Add your own comment
or note about the Session
Check this if you want to
edit the New Session.
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The Session
You can now select one of the factory template sessions. The factory templates are preprogrammed with specific setups such as audio recording or mixing. The selector tabs
categorize Template Sessions into three groups based on sample rate, 44.1k/48k, 88k/
96k, or 176k/192k.
You can create your own templates by simply copying or saving sessions into the
“Session Templates” folder (Program Files\Creative Professional\E-MU PatchMix
DSP\Session Templates).
There is also a Comment area that you can use to give yourself some clue as to what
you were thinking when you created the session.
Selecting a Session at 176.4kHZ or 192kHz
When operating at 176.4k or 192k sample rates, the number of I/O channels are
slightly reduced. At these high sample rates you must select one of three types of
sessions each containing a different I/O configuration. Please see page 111 for details.
Open Session
To Open a saved session, click on the Open Session button. A dialog box appears
allowing you to choose one of your saved Sessions to open. Choose one of your saved
sessions and click on the Open button.
Save Session
To Save a session, click on the Save Session button. A Save dialog box appears allowing
you to choose a location in which to save the current Session. The “My Sessions” folder
is chosen by default.
Get in the habit of saving the session whenever you have created a special mixer setup.
This will make your life much easier as you can recall a setup for many different audio
modes such as: recording, mixing, special ASIO routings, etc.
Session Settings
System Settings
Pressing the Session Settings button on the toolbar brings up the System Settings
window shown below. Click the tabs to select System or I/O options.
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4 - The PatchMix DSP Mixer
The Session
The System Settings include the following:
• Internal/External Clock Selects between internal or external word clock source
as the master clock source for the system
• Sample Rate
Selects the sample rate when using internal clock.
Your choices are: 44.1kHz, 48kHz, 88.2kHz, 96kHz,
176.4kHz, 192kHz.
• External Clock Source
(ext. clock only)
Select from: ADAT, or S/PDIF as an external sample
clock source.
Note: if set to
“External” without an
external clock present,
PatchMix DSP defaults to
the internal 48kHz clock
rate.
Using External Clock
Whenever you are using any digital I/O such as ADAT or S/PDIF, one of the digital
devices MUST supply the master clock to the others. This master clock runs at the
system sample rate and can be embedded into a data stream such as S/PDIF or ADAT.
Common symptoms of unsynced digital audio include, random clicks or pops in the
audio or failure of the digital stream to be recognized. Always check for the presence
of the “LOCKED” indicator whenever you are using a digital interface.
If an External Clock is interrupted or switched after the Session has been created
(except between 44.1k <-> 48k), the “LOCKED” indicator will be extinguished and
PatchMix will attempt to receive the external data. The two units are NOT sample
locked however, and you should correct this condition to avoid intermittent clicks in
the audio.
I/O Settings
You can set the level (-10dBV or +4 dBu) for each pair of analog outputs and the input
gain setting for each pair of analog inputs.
An output setting of +4 provides the most output and is compatible with professional
audio gear. Balanced output cables also provide a +6dB hotter signal than unbalanced
cables when used with balanced inputs. Do NOT use balanced cables unless your
other gear has balanced inputs. See “Cables - balanced or unbalanced?” in the
Appendix for more information.
Comparison of -10dBV & +4dBu Signal Levels
0 dBV = 1V RMS
0dBu = .777V RMS
An input setting of -10 is compatible with consumer audio gear and works best with
low level signals. (-10dBV is approximately 12dB lower than +4dBu.) Choose the
setting that allows you to send or receive a full scale signal without clipping.
Input too weak?
Use -10 Input setting.
Setting correct input and output levels is important! You can measure the level of an
input by inserting a meter into the first effect location in the strip. Adjust your external
equipment outputs for the optimum signal level. See “To Set the Input Levels of a
Strip” for details.
Output too weak?
Use +4 Output setting
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4 - The PatchMix DSP Mixer
The Session
Input Level
Settings
Optical
Input
Select
Mic Soft
Limiting
On/Off
Output Level
Settings
Optical
Output
Select
S/PDIF
Output
Format
• Inputs +4 or -10
Selects between Consumer level (-10dBV) or
Professional level (+4dBu) inputs.
(Use the -10dBV setting if your input is too weak.)
• Outputs +4 or -10
Selects between Consumer level (-10dBV) or
Professional level (+4dBu) outputs.
(The +4 dBu setting outputs a hotter level.)
• Optical Input Select
Selects between ADAT or optical S/PDIF for the
MicroDock ADAT Input. The coaxial S/PDIF input is
disabled when S/PDIF optical is selected.
• Microphone Input
Soft Limiting
The Mic/Hi-Z inputs have built-in, analog “soft limiters”
which automatically turn down the gain before the
signal overloads the A/D converters. The soft limiters
allow you to record a hotter signal without fear of
clipping.
This control turns the soft limiters On or Off.
See “Making the Best Possible Recording” for additional
information about the soft limiters.
• Optical Output Select
Selects between ADAT or optical S/PDIF for the
MicroDock ADAT Output. The coaxial S/PDIF Output is
disabled when S/PDIF optical is selected.
• S/PDIF Output Format
Selects between S/PDIF or AES/EBU format for S/PDIF.
This sets the S/PDIF-AES status bit, but does not affect
the signal level.
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4 - The PatchMix DSP Mixer
Input Mixer Strips
Input Mixer Strips
PatchMix DSP Input Mixer Strips are stereo except for the MicroDock Mic/Line inputs.
Each input mixer strip can be divided into four basic sections.
• Insert Section
Effects, EQ, External/Host Sends & Returns can be inserted into the signal path.
• Pan Controls
These controls position the signal in the stereo sound field.
• Aux Sends
Used to send the signal to sidechain effects or to create separate mixes.
• Volume Control
Controls the output level of the channel.
Mono/Stereo
Input Type
Input Type
The very top of the strip is labeled
mono or stereo and displays the type of
the assigned input. Input mixer strips
can be added as desired and can be
configured to input the following:
The Input Type will turn
RED if the input is not
available. (The MicroDock
may be disconnected.)
• Physical Input = Hardware
(Analog/SPDIF/ADAT).
Physical input strips are
shown with BLUE text.
• Host Input = Software
(Direct Sound, WAV, ASIO source)
Host input strips are
shown with WHITE text.
Insert Section
Inserts
You can drag and drop effects from the
Effects Palette or Right-click to insert a
Physical or ASIO Send or Send/Return
A Peak Meter, Trim Control or Test
Pan Controls Signal can also be inserted by Rightclicking on the Insert section.
The signal flows
through the Insert Section
from TOP to BOTTOM.
Pan Controls
Aux Sends
Channel
Volume
Control
Mute/Solo
Buttons
Scribble
Strip
This screen shows a mono strip on the left and
a stereo strip on the right.
36
These controls allow to you position
the channel in the stereo sound field.
Dual controls on stereo strips allow you
to position each side independently.
Aux Sends
These controls send the signal to
sidechain effect processors such as
reverb and delay. They can also be used
to create separate mixes for the artist or
for recording.
Volume Control
Controls the output level of the strip
into the main/monitor mix bus.
Mute/Solo Buttons
These convenient buttons allow you to
solo or mute selected channels.
Scribble Strips
Click inside the scribble strip and type a
name of up to eight characters.
Creative Professional
4 - The PatchMix DSP Mixer
Mixer Strip Creation
Mixer Strip Creation
PatchMix DSP is a dynamically configurable mixer. Each mixer session can contain an
arbitrary number of strips up to a limit set by the number of available input sources
and available DSP resources.
You must create a strip for each mono or stereo audio input, and for each ASIO stream
you wish to use in your software application. This is important because outputs will
not appear in your software application until you have created ASIO strips in PatchMix.
Tip: Adding or deleting
a strip “defragments” the
effect/DSP resources. If any
effect you wish to add is
unavailable (greyed-out),
try deleting an unused
strip to free up resources.
• Host refers to a computer application such as Cubase.
• Physical refers to a hardware input or output such as an output jack.
To Add a New Strip:
1. Click on the New Mixer Strip button. See “Overview of the Mixer”. The New Mixer
Strip Input Dialog appears:
Physical
Sources
ASIO
Sources
2. Select the desired input to the mixer strip from the following choices:
• Physical Source: Analog or digital input (Analog, ADAT, S/PDIF)
• Host - ASIO Source input: Streaming audio from an ASIO software application.
• Host - WAVE input: Window sound sources — WAVE, WDM, CD
PHYSICAL SOURCE
Function
Physical: Dock Mic/Line
24-bit mono or stereo analog inputs on the MicroDock.
Physical: Dock In
24-bit mono or stereo analog inputs on the MicroDock.
Physical: Dock S/PDIF
2 channel digital audio from the S/PDIF input on the
MicroDock.
Physical: Dock ADAT
2 channel (x4 strips) digital audio from the ADAT input on the
MicroDock.
HOST SOURCE
Function
Host ASIO Output Source
From software application
Mono or stereo digital audio from an ASIO source (i.e recording
or other software app). ASIO Out 1-16, ASIO Out 1/2, 3/4, etc.
Host Windows Source
From Windows
Direct Sound, WDM, Windows Media
(Sound generated or handled by Windows.)
WAVE 1/2 - Default stereo source such as game sound, CD
player, beep sounds, etc.
WAVE 3/4, WAVE 5/6, WAVE 7/8 - Additional WDM channels
E-MU PCIe Digital Audio Systems
CDs & MP3s: The
WAVE 1/2 strip is used to
playback CDs, Windows
Media Player, and Direct
Sound.
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4 - The PatchMix DSP Mixer
Mixer Strip Creation
3. Select Pre-Fader Aux Sends or leave the box unchecked for Post-Fader Aux Sends.
4. Click OK to create a new strip or Cancel to cancel the operation.
See “Pre or Post Fader
Aux Sends” on page 48.
To Delete a Mixer Strip:
1. Click the top of the mixer strip you wish to delete. A red border appears around
the strip, indicating that it is selected.
2. Click on the Delete Mixer Strip button, or right-click and choose Delete, or use the
Delete key on the PC keyboard. See “Overview of the Mixer”.
Multichannel WAVE Files
The 1616m supports 2 channels of WAVE recording and 8 channels of multichannel
WAVE playback. The WAVE channels are available for the following types of WDM
devices:
• Classic MME
• DirectSound
• Direct WDM / Kernel Streaming (KS)
DirectSound and the WDM/KS interfaces allow up to 8 channels of Wave Out while
the classic MME interface only exposes 2 channels.
The WAVE channels operate at all sample rates. For additional information about
WDM behavior at high sample rates, see page 113.
192kHz/96kHz DVD-Audio disks are protected against digital copying. Most DVDAudio disks contain duplicate 48kHz audio tracks which will play back on the 1616.
Windows Media Player/DVD/Surround Sound Playback
Select DirectSound as the output format when using Windows Media Player and other
DVD player applications.
Eight channel WAVE playback supports either 5.1, 6.1 or 7.1 surround audio. However,
the 1616M is best suited to play 5.1 surround, since it only has 6 analog outputs. (You
could play back 7.1 surround audio by using an external S/PDIF to Analog Converter.
Create a 7/8 WAVE strip and insert a Send to S/PDIF Out.)
The chart below shows how to connect the outputs for 5.1 surround sound playback.
Multichannel WAVE to Surround Sound Speaker Channels
(using the factory 5.1 DVD Playback Session)
WAVE Strip
Surround Channels
1/4” Outputs
1/8” Outputs
E-DSP WAVE 1/2
Front Left / Front Right
1L = FL 1R = FR
1 (Tip = FL Ring = FR)
E-DSP WAVE 3/4
Center / Subwoofer
3L = C 3R = Sub
3 (Tip = C Ring = Sub)
E-DSP WAVE 5/6
Rear Left / Rear Right
2L = RL 2R = RR
2 (Tip = RL Ring = RR)
E-DSP WAVE 7/8
Side Left / Side Right
N/A
N/A
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Creative Professional
4 - The PatchMix DSP Mixer
Mixer Strip Creation
Insert Section
The Insert Section is next in line. PatchMix DSP effects can be selected from the Effects
Palette and dropped into the insert locations. See “The Effects Palette”. Any number of
effects can be inserted in series. The signal flows through the inserts from top to
bottom. If a Send is below a DSP effect, the effect will be applied to that Send. If the
Send is placed above the DSP effect, the Send will be Dry (without effects).
The Inserts are also used to patch your audio inputs into ASIO/WAVE and external
equipment. ASIO/WAVE Sends, External Sends and External Send/Returns can be
dropped into the insert section to route the signal anywhere you want.
The Insert/Patch Bay is incredibly flexible. Want to send the input of the strip to your
software recording software? Just insert a HOST ASIO Send into the insert section of
the strip. That input is now available in your ASIO software.
Suppose you wanted to record a submix of several inputs. Simply place a HOST ASIO
SEND into the Aux Insert section and turn up the Aux sends on the input channels you
want in the mix (as shown in the Mixer Overview on page 29). Note that Mic/Line A
and B are routed to Aux Send 1, which has a HOST ASIO SEND insert to the recording
application.
You have to create an
ASIO strip or ASIO Send in
order to activate these
ASIO channels in your
software.
The following types of inserts can be selected.
Hardware Effect Reverb, EQ, Compressor, Flanger, etc. using PatchMix DSP’s effects
which do not load your CPU.
Host ASIO Send
Splits off the signal and sends it to an ASIO host input such as a
software audio recorder or anything that uses ASIO.
ASIO Direct
Monitor
Sends the signal to a selected ASIO host input, then returns a
selected ASIO host output to the chain.
Ext. Send/Return Sends signal to a selected external output, then returns it to the
chain via a external input.
External Send
Sends the signal to an external output. See “To Add a Send Insert:”.
Peak Meter
Peak meters allow you to monitor the signal level anywhere in the
chain. See “Meter Inserts”.
Trim Pot
You can insert a gain control with up to 30 dB of gain or attenuation. A peak level meter and phase inverter are also included.
See “Trim Pot Insert”.
Test Tone
This special insert outputs a calibrated sine wave or noise source,
which can be used to track down audio problems.
See “Test Tone/Signal Generator Insert”.
Working with Inserts
The Inserts are one of most powerful features of the PatchMix DSP system as they allow
you to configure the mixer for a wide variety of applications.
To Add an Effect to an Insert Location:
1. Press the FX button. The effects palette appears.
2. The effects are organized into categories. Click on a folder to open it.
3. Select the effect you want, drag it over the insert section, then drop it into an insert
location. The signal flows from top to bottom in the inserts.
4. The order of effects can completely change how the effects sound. To rearrange the
order of effects or inserts, simply drag and drop them into the desired order.
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Mixer Strip Creation
The Insert Menu
Right-Clicking over the insert section brings up a pop-up selection box containing
various insert options to help you control and manage your inserts.
From MIc/Line A
To
Recording
Application
To connect an input to your recording
software: Add a Host ASIO Insert.
To Add a Send Insert:
This type of insert send splits the signal at the insert point and sends it out to the
selected destination. (An “ASIO Send” becomes an input on your recording application, a “Physical Out” goes to a pair of output jacks. the signal also continues down
the strip to the Aux Sends and main mixer outputs.)
1. Right-Click over the Insert section. A pop-up dialog box appears.
2. Select Insert Send (to ASIO/WAVE or physical output) from the list of options. The
following dialog box appears.
Input
To ASIO, WAV or
Physical Output
Insert
Send
Panning
Fader
Aux 1 Bus
Aux 2 Bus
Main Output Bus
3. Choose one of the Send Outputs. Click on a destination to select it.
4. Click OK to select the output or Cancel to cancel the operation.
To Add a Send/Return Insert:
This type of insert send breaks the signal at the insert point and sends it out to the
selected destination such as an external effect processor. A return source signal is also
selected which returns the signal to the channel strip after processing.
1. Right-Click over the Insert section. A pop-up dialog box appears.
2. Select “Insert Send/Return (Physical Output and Input)” from the list of options.
The following dialog box appears.
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Creative Professional
4 - The PatchMix DSP Mixer
Mixer Strip Creation
Input
To Physical Output
From Physical Input
Insert
Send/Return
Panning
Fader
If the source or
destination you want to
use is not available in the
list, they are probably
already being used
elsewhere. Check the
input Strips, Inserts and
Output Assignments.
Aux 1 Bus
Aux 2 Bus
Main Output Bus
3. Choose one of the Send Outputs. Click on a destination to select it.
4. Choose one of the Return Inputs. Click on a source to select it.
5. Click OK to select the Send and Return, or Cancel to cancel the operation.
ASIO Direct Monitor Send/Return
This type of insert send breaks the signal at the insert point and sends it out to the
selected ASIO Host Input destination (such as Cubase or Sonar). A return source signal
is also selected which returns the signal to the channel strip from an ASIO Host Output.
The ASIO Direct Monitor Send/Return is unique in that it utilizes ASIO 2.0 zero-latency
monitoring. In order to utilize this feature, Direct Monitoring must be enabled in
the audio recording application.
While recording, the Direct Monitor Send/Return routes the signal to the recording
application, but monitors directly from the input to eliminate latency. During
playback, the recording application automatically switches the Direct Monitor Send/
Return to monitor the recorded track.
Input
Direct Mon
Recording
Input
Recording
Software
Direct Mon
Recording
Software
Playback
The Direct Monitor Send/Return also allows the recording application to control
volume and pan. Normally when using direct monitor recording you’ll want to control
the volume and pan from the recording application. In this case, set the PatchMix DSP
stereo pan controls hard left and right, mono pan controls to center, and the fader to
0dB.
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4 - The PatchMix DSP Mixer
Mixer Strip Creation
To Add an ASIO Direct Monitor Send/Return:
1. Right-Click over the Insert section. A pop-up dialog box appears.
2. Select Insert ASIO Direct Monitor from the list of options. The following dialog
box appears.
3. Choose one of the Send Outputs. Click on a destination to select it.
4. Choose one of the Return Inputs. Click on a source to select it.
5. Click OK to select the Send and Return, or Cancel to cancel the operation.
Meter Inserts
Keeping track of signal levels is important in any audio system, be it analog or digital.
You want to keep the signal levels running as close to maximum in order to achieve
high resolution and low noise. On the other hand, you don’t want the signal level so
high as to cause clipping. To help you maintain optimum signal levels, we have
included Peak Level Meters, which can be dropped into any insert location.
The insert meters are of the “peak hold” type. The topmost bar in the meter holds its
highest level for a second to let you see transients that would otherwise be too quick for
the eye.
The peak meters are also color-coded to indicate the signal strength. The chart below
outlines the meanings of the colors. Avoid lighting the topmost red bar, as this
indicates distortion of the signal. Click on the clip indicator to turn it off.
Meter Color
Indicates
Red
Indicates signal clipping.
Yellow
Good strong signal level.
Green
Signal is present.
One of the most obvious uses of the insert meters is to set input levels. On the analog
inputs, the analog-to-digital converter (ADC) is one of the most critical points in the
signal path. You want the input signal level to drive the 24-bit ADCs into their
optimum range without clipping. A reading of 0dB on an input meter indicates signal
clipping.
Level
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
--12dB
Each bar of the meter equals 1dB. The yellow bars begin at -12dB below full scale.
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Creative Professional
4 - The PatchMix DSP Mixer
Mixer Strip Creation
The insert meters are also useful to monitor incoming digital signals such as ADAT,
ASIO or S/PDIF to make sure the mixer is receiving a proper signal level. They’re also
great for troubleshooting, since you can place them virtually anywhere in the mixer.
To Insert a Meter
1. Right-Click on an Insert location of the mixer strip. A pop-up dialog box appears.
2. Select Insert Peak Meter. A stereo peak meter appears in the insert location.
3. Select Effect in the Main Section. The meters are now shown in high resolution in
the TV screen.
To Set the Input Levels of a Strip
1. Select the topmost Insert location on a mixer strip and insert a meter (see above).
2. Left-click on the meter insert to see the meter in the TV screen.
3. Feed your audio signal to the input of the mixer strip. The meter should now show
the signal level.
4. Adjust the output level of the external device (synthesizer, instrument, preamp,
Input too weak?
Use -10 Input setting.
Output too weak?
Use +4 Output setting
etc.) feeding the MicroDock. The meter should be in the yellow region most of the
time with occasional forays into the red. If the clip indicator ever comes on, reduce
the signal level.
5. Each analog input pair has its own Input Pad (-10dBV or +4dBu) which controls
the input signal range. Changing the I/O settings can add or subtract 12dB. Check
these settings if you cannot set the proper input level. See “I/O Settings”.
Making the Best Possible Recording
Making a good digital recording is easier than ever thanks to the high resolution 24-bit
A-D converters on your Digital Audio System. These converters are much more
forgiving than the 12-bit or 16-bit converters of the past. Even so, to get the best performance possible, you'll need to follow a few basic guidelines.
First, whenever you input an analog signal to the Digital Audio System, make sure that
you're feeding the A-D converters with an optimum signal level. The quality of a digital
recording is directly related to the signal level you feed into the A-D converters. If the
analog input level is set too low, you lose resolution—if it's set too high, the A-D
converters will clip.
To measure the input level, simply add an insert meter to the channel strip in PatchMix
DSP. These meters are accurately calibrated to display 1dB for each bar on the meter.
You can enlarge the meter view by clicking on the insert meter in a strip and selecting
the “Effect” button at the top of the TV screen.
The “I/O Settings” in the Digital Audio System allow you to set the input levels to
-10dBV (consumer equipment level) or +4dBu (professional equipment level) for each
analog input. This control sets the overall input level to match your other gear, but to
get the best possible recording you need to fine tune the level further.
In order to supply the correct input level, you’ll need to adjust the output of your
analog source (electric instrument or preamp) so that the input level comes close to
0dB without ever going over.
Play your input source signal while watching the insert meter in the strip. The signal
should go into the yellow area frequently, but never into the red. Adjust the level of
your source until you have a good level. If the signal is way too strong or too weak, you
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4 - The PatchMix DSP Mixer
Mixer Strip Creation
may have to go back and adjust the I/O Settings. Choose “-10” if the input signal is too
weak and “+4” if the signal is too strong.
Digital audio has NO headroom past 0dBFS (FS = Full Scale) and will “hard clip” if the
signal exceeds 0dBFS. Hard clipping sounds bad and will ruin your recording. Hard
clipping occurs because at 0dBFS, all 24 bits are turned on and the A-D cannot measure
any higher level. Analog tape, unlike digital, can be driven past 0dB, with some degradation of the signal.
The MicroDock includes a pair of analog Soft Limiters on the preamp inputs, which
can be turned on or off for each channel in the I/O Settings. The soft limiters automatically turn down the gain whenever the signal level exceeds -6dB below Full Scale.
Below this level, the limiters are completely out of the circuit. The soft limiters allow
you to encode a hotter signal without fear of hard clipping the input. This provides
increased resolution and a better recording. When recording drums, piano and vocals,
occasional peak transients can be tamed by the soft limiters, allowing you to supply the
best possible signal into the MicroDock’s ultra-high-quality A-D converters.
The Digital Audio System includes Insert “Trim Pot” controls, but since they adjust the
signal level AFTER the signal has been digitized, this will not recover any lost
resolution. It’s far better to set the input level correctly in the first place. Trim Pots can
be used in emergency situations if there's no other way to get a hot signal in. They are
designed to optimize the signal levels feeding effect plug-ins.
Trim Pot Insert
The Trim Pot Insert allows you to adjust the level of a signal in an insert location. The
trim pot provides up to ±30dB of gain or attenuation and a phase inverter. The trim pot
also has a built-in stereo peak meter after the control.
Gain/Attenuation
Phase Invert
Meters
You might use a trim pot to boost or attenuate a send or return from an external effect,
or to drive an effect device. Certain effects such as the Compressor, Distortion, and
Auto-Wah are very level dependent and like to see a good, strong input signal. If you
are working with a weak signal, you can improve the performance of these effects
inserting a trim pot and boosting the gain.
Trim pots can be used to boost the level of analog line level inputs in a pinch, but it’s
much better to boost the signal level before the A/D converters in order to get maximum
resolution and signal-to-noise ratio from the converters.
The phase invert switch inverts the polarity of the signal. It is generally used to correct
for balanced lines and mics that are wired backwards.
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Creative Professional
4 - The PatchMix DSP Mixer
Mixer Strip Creation
To Add a Trim Pot Insert
1. Right-Click over any of the Insert sections. A pop-up dialog box appears.
2. Select Insert Trim Control from the list of options. A Trim Pot insert appears in the
insert location.
3. Click on the Trim Pot insert to view and adjust the controls in the TV screen.
4. To move the Trim Pot to another location, simply drag and drop it into the desired
position.
Test Tone/Signal Generator Insert
The test tone/signal generator insert is a handy troubleshooting aid which outputs a
calibrated sine wave, white noise or pink noise. This tool, in combination with an
insert meter, allows you to accurately measure the signal gain or attenuation of an
internal or external device. The test tone can also be quite handy for tuning up musical
instruments.
Musical Note
Frequencies
A = 440 Hz
B = 493.88 Hz
C = 523.25 Hz
D = 587.33 Hz
E = 659.26 Hz
F = 698.46 Hz
G = 783.99 Hz
Signal Type
(Sine wave, White or Pink Noise)
Sine Wave Oscillator Frequency
Test Signal Output Level
The Sine Wave Oscillator frequency is variable from 20Hz-20kHz. The level is variable
from off to +30dB.
White Noise is a mixture of all frequencies in the audio spectrum at the same average
level (analogous to white light in the visible spectrum).
Pink Noise provides equal power distribution per octave. (White noise has more
power in the higher octaves.) Pink noise and white noise are both useful as wideband
sound sources for measuring speaker response.
Using the Test Tone and Meter Inserts for Troubleshooting
Sometimes it’s useful to have a continuous tone to verify that you have the signal
path routed correctly in hardware or software. First insert a Test Tone and/or a
Meter(s) into a strip, then follow the tone through the system by ear or by moving
the meter. A test tone is quite handy when first setting up your recording software.
1. Right-Click over the Insert section in question. A pop-up dialog box appears.
2. Select Insert Test Tone/Signal Generator from the list of options. A Test Tone
insert appears in the insert location.
3. Click on the Test Tone insert to view and adjust the controls in the TV screen.
4. To move the Test Tone to another location, simply drag and drop it into the
desired position.
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4 - The PatchMix DSP Mixer
Mixer Strip Creation
Managing Your Inserts
To Delete an Insert:
1. Right-Click over the Insert you wish to delete. A yellow line around the insert
location indicates that it is selected. A pop-up dialog box appears.
2. Select Delete Insert to remove the selected insert or select Delete All Inserts to
remove all inserts.
Tip: Select the Insert
and press the Delete key
to delete the plug-in from
the strip.
3. The insert(s) are deleted from the insert chain.
To Bypass an Insert:
Inserts can be bypassed if you want to temporarily hear the audio without the effect or
insert. Bypass can also be used to turn off a Send Insert.
Method #1
1. Click on the Effect (in the Insert section) and select Effect in the TV display.
2. Click the Bypass button.
Method #2
1. Right-Click over the Effect you want to bypass (in the Insert section). A pop-up
dialog box appears.
2. Select Bypass Insert from the list of options.
To Bypass All Inserts:
All Inserts in a strip can also be bypassed with a single command.
1. Right-Click over the Effect you want to bypass (in the Insert section). A pop-up
dialog box appears.
2. Select Bypass All Inserts from the list of options.
To Solo an Insert:
Inserts can also be soloed. Solo bypasses all the other inserts in the strip and allows you
to hear only the soloed effect. This feature is very useful when adjusting the effect
parameters.
Method #1
1. Click on the Effect (in the Insert section) and select Effect in the TV display.
2. Click the Solo button.
Method #2
1. Right-Click over the Effect you want to Solo (in the Insert section). A pop-up dialog
box appears.
2. Select Solo Insert from the list of options.
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Creative Professional
4 - The PatchMix DSP Mixer
Mixer Strip Creation
Aux Section
The Auxiliary Sends tap the signal from the channel strips and sum them together
before sending the mix to the Auxiliary Effects section. In a traditional mixing console,
aux sends are used to send part of the signal to outboard effect devices, then return the
effected signal back into the mix using the effect returns. This is called a Sidechain
Routing because the aux signal takes a detour through the effects before being summed
back into the main mix. Sidechain effects are usually effects that you might want
applied to several channels, such as reverb.
Incidentally, the wet/dry mix of effects in the Aux Sends should normally be set to
100% wet. This is because you will be adjusting the effect amount using the Aux Return
control instead. If you have more than one effect in an Aux Bus, ignore the preceding
advice as the wet/dry controls can be used to mix the amounts of your multiple effects.
Input
Aux Send and Return
values can also be
changed by typing directly
into the displays.
Sidechain Diagram
(Post-Fader Aux Sends)
Pan
Fader
Mute
Send
Amount
Amt
Aux Bus 1
Return
Amount
Side
Chain
Send
Amount
Amt
Aux Bus 2
Return
Amount
Side
Chain
Main / Monitor Bus
Output
Submixing
The Aux 1 & 2 buses can also be used as additional submix output buses just like the
main output. Simply drop an ASIO or External Send Insert into the chain and the
stereo bus is sent. Turn off the Return Amount if you don’t want the submix to be
combined into the main mix.
You can think of the Aux Sends as two extra mixing buses because that’s exactly what
they are. These two mixes can be routed anywhere, such as to a physical output or an
ASIO pair. You could route one of the Aux buses to the Monitor out to create a monitor
mix while sending the main mix off to your audio recording software.
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4 - The PatchMix DSP Mixer
Mixer Strip Creation
Pre or Post Fader Aux Sends
When you create a New Mixer Strip you have the option to place both Aux Sends after
the channel volume fader and mute control or you can place them before the fader and
mute. Post-Fader turns down the send level as you lower the volume of the strip. With
Pre-Fader selected, you may still hear the effected signal returning from one of the Aux
Buses with the volume fader turned down.
With the Pre-Fader box selected, the Aux Send levels are completely unaffected by the
Level Fader and Mute settings. The Pre-Fader setting allows you to create two
completely different mixes using the Aux Buses since the signal levels of this mix won’t
be affected by the fader settings.
Input
Pre-Fader Aux Send
Volume Fader & Mute does NOT affect Send Levels
Pan
Send
Amount
Aux Bus 1
Send
Amount
Return
Amount
Side
Chain
Aux Bus 2
Fader
Return
Amount
Side
Chain
Amt
Amt
In order to change a
strip from pre-fader to
post-fader or vice-versa,
you have to delete the
strip and create a new
one.
Mute
Main / Monitor Bus
Input
Output
Post-Fader Aux Send
Volume Fader & Mute affects both Aux Send Levels
Pan
Fader
Mute
Send
Amount
Amt
Aux Bus 1
Return
Amount
Side
Chain
Send
Amount
Amt
Aux Bus 2
Return
Amount
Side
Chain
Main / Monitor Bus
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Creative Professional
4 - The PatchMix DSP Mixer
Mixer Strip Creation
Level, Pan, Solo & Mute Controls
Pan Controls
Aux Send
Amount
Controls
The Pan control comes before the Level Control
and Aux Sends in the signal flow. On stereo strips
we use an unconventional pan section with two
pan pots – one for the left part of the signal and
one for the right part of the signal. This feature
allows you to independently position both sides
of the stereo signal. A conventional stereo balance
control only allows you to turn down one side or
the other.
The Mute button does just what you would
expect—press the button and the sound from that
channel is cut off. Pressing the Solo button while
the Mute button is pressed allows you to hear the
channel until solo is turned off.
Level Control
Mute & Solo
Buttons
Scribble Strip
E-MU PCIe Digital Audio Systems
The Solo button allows you to listen to only that
channel while muting the rest of the inputs. If
multiple solo buttons are pressed, you will hear all
soloed channels and the non-soloed channels will
all be muted.
The mute status is remembered if a muted channel
is soloed. When the channel solo is turned off, the
channel reverts to being muted.
The Level Control for the strip is an attenuation
control that can also provide up to +12dB of gain.
0db is the unity gain setting. You can also type
numeric values into the displays to set the level.
At the very bottom is the Scribble Strip text area,
into which you can type any short piece of text,
thus naming the strip, i.e. “vocals”, “bass”,
“drums” and so on.
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4 - The PatchMix DSP Mixer
Main Section
Main Section
Physical/Host
Select Buttons
View
Selection
Buttons
“TV” Screen
Aux
Insert
Section
Master
Aux Send
Amounts
Main
Insert
Section
Master Aux
Return
Amounts
Sync &
Sample Rate
Indicators
Monitor Controls
Output
Fader &
Meters
Session Name
The main section contains all controls for controlling the main mix elements as well as
a “TV screen” for viewing the input/output routing or parameters of the selected insert.
The three buttons across the top of the main section select what is shown on the TV
display. Input and output routings are graphically displayed. When an insert is selected
(by clicking on the insert), the screen shows the available parameters for the currently
selected insert.
Below the TV screen is the Aux Bus section where effects, effects chains or other inserts
can be assigned to the two aux buses. Send and return levels can be individually
controlled for each of the two Aux Buses.
The Aux 1 and Aux 2 buses are fed by the two Aux Sends on each mixer strip. The
Master Send Level control on Aux bus 1 and 2 can be used to attenuate or boost the
signal going into the Auxiliary Inserts. There is also a Master Return Level to control the
amount of the effected signal that will be returned into the main mix.
The Main Bus can also have a chain of effects inserted. (You might put an EQ here to
equalize your entire mix or add an ASIO or WAVE send to record the mix.) Note that
the Main Output level control comes before the Monitor Level so that you can control
the monitor level without affecting the level of your recording mix or main mix. There
is a stereo peak meter that indicates the signal strength for the main mix.
The Monitor section has a volume, balance, and a mute control to cut off the monitor
output.
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Creative Professional
4 - The PatchMix DSP Mixer
Main Section
TV Screen & Selectors
The “TV screen” at the top of the main section is a multi-function display and control
center for the input and output routings and effect controls. The three buttons at the
top of the display select the current function of the display—Effect, Inputs or Outputs.
Effect
Select the Effect display view in the main section, then click on an Effect Insert to
display the effect parameters. If an insert effect is not selected, the display will read “No
Insert.”
Most effects have a wet/dry mix parameter to control the ratio of effect to plain signal.
The wet/dry setting is stored with the effect preset. The parameter set varies with the
type of effect. See “List of Core Effects” for detailed information about the individual
effects.
Effect Display
View Button
Note: Effects have to
be placed into an insert
location before you can
program them.
Effect Location
Effect Bypass &
Solo Buttons
Wet/Dry Mix Control
Effect Parameters
User Preset Section
When a Send or a Send/Return insert is selected with the effects display enabled, the TV
screen shows you where the Send is going and where the Return is coming from. The
bypass or solo buttons at the top of the display are available for Send/Return type
inserts only.
Send Destination
Return Source
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4 - The PatchMix DSP Mixer
Main Section
Input
Selecting the Input display view shows a graphic representation of the PatchMix DSP
Mixer inputs. This screen is only a display, unlike the Effects and Outputs screens,
which allow you to make routing changes. Input routing changes are made by adding
mixer strips. See “Mixer Strip Creation”.
The input routings are divided into two categories: Physical Inputs and Host Inputs.
Select either category by clicking on the Physical or Host button.
Physical Input Display
Host Input Display
The Input and Output
displays make it much
easier to understand the
signal routings of a
complex mixer setup.
Tip: Clicking on any
of the input routings in
the TV display highlights
the corresponding mixer
strip.
Output
Selecting the Output display view shows a graphic representation of the PatchMix DSP
Mixer outputs. The output routings are divided into two categories: Physical Outputs
and Host Outputs. Select either category by clicking on the Physical or Host button.
Physical Output Display
Host Output Display
The Host Output display shows all the Insert Routings in addition to the Main Mix and Monitor
out routings. Click on the desired row to make or break a physical output connection.
The Physical Output screen displays and allows you to connect the Main and Monitor
outputs of the mixer to “physical” analog or digital outputs. Click on the box in the mix
or monitor area to make (or break) a connection.
The Host Output screen displays and allows you to view the Host (ASIO or WAVE)
outputs of the mixer. See “Insert Section” for information on how to connect the
inserts.
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Creative Professional
4 - The PatchMix DSP Mixer
Main Section
Auxiliary Effects & Returns
The section immediately below the TV Screen is where you assign the Auxiliary Effects.
In a traditional mixing console, auxiliary effects sends are used to send part of the
signal to outboard effect devices, then return the effected signal back into the mix using
the effect returns. This is called a sidechain routing because the aux signal takes a
detour through the effects before being summed back into the main mix.
Sidechain effects are usually effects that you might want applied to several channels,
such as reverb. Effects such as EQ and compressors are usually NOT used as sidechain
effects because they can cause unpredictable results when returned to the main bus.
Send
Amount
Signal Flow
Return
Amount
Input
Input
The Wet/Dry mix
setting in the effect should
normally be set to 100%
when the effect is inserted
as a sidechain effect. This
is because the Aux Return
Amount will control the
wet/dry mix.
Sidechain Diagram
(Post-Fader Aux Sends)
Pan
Fader
Mute
Aux
Amt
Sidechain
Effects
Aux
Amt
Send
Amount
Aux Bus
Return
Amount
Side
Chain
Main Bus
Output
You can also use the Auxiliary Sends as two extra mix buses. By turning the Aux Return
amount all the way down and dropping an Insert Send into the chain, you can send the
Auxiliary bus to any output you wish. See “Insert Section” for more information.‚
Sync/Sample Rate Indicators
The Sync/Sample rate Indicators show the current
session’s sample rate and whether it is internal or slaving
to an external source. The display indicates which
sample rate is currently in effect. If an external source is
being used, the Source display reads “EXTERNAL.”
When slaving to an external master source, the clock
may drift slightly or change dramatically (i.e. abrupt
sample rate change or unplugging of physical master
source). PatchMix DSP is tolerant to minor drifting
within the supported rates of 44.1k, 48k, 88.2k, 96k,
176.4k and 192k, but if the sample rate drifts out of this
range the “LOCKED” LED will extinguish.
If the external clock source makes a radical sample rate change from the lower rates of
44.1k/48k to a higher rate or between any of the higher rates, the hardware automatically switches to internal 48kHz clock until the proper external clock is restored. The
“LOCKED” LED will be off and the two units are NOT synchronized. Always check the
“LOCKED” LED when using an external clock source to make sure you are samplelocked.
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4 - The PatchMix DSP Mixer
Main Section
Output Section
Clip Indicators
Main Output Level Fader
Sync/Sample
Rate Indicators
Main
Insert
Section
Monitor
Mute
Monitor
Balance
Output Level
Meters
Monitor
Volume
Main Inserts
The main inserts allow you to apply effects to the main stereo signal coming out of the
mixer (both mains and monitor). You might want to apply EQ or a compressor here.
These inserts work just like the other insert locations—just drag and drop effects from
the palette or right-click and add Sends, Sends/Returns. etc. Refer to the Mixer Block
Diagram
Main Output Fader
The main output fader controls the level of the main output (and the Monitor output
as well since it is downstream from this control). The normal setting for this control is
at unity or 0dB, but the control allows you to add up to +12dB of gain. High output
levels may cause clipping on outboard amplifiers or other equipment.
Output Level Meters
This stereo bar-graph meter reflects the digital level at the output of the mixer. The
topmost red bar represents 0 dB or a full-scale digital signal. The peaks hold for a
moment so that short transients can be monitored. Each bar = 1dB.
MAIN MIX
0dB
10
10
20
20
30
30
40
40
50
50
L
R
-12dB
Monitor Output Level
This control adjusts the monitor output level. Keep in mind that since the monitor level
control comes after the Main Output Fader, nothing will be heard from your monitors
if the main level is turned down.
Monitor Balance Control
This control sets the relative volume of the stereo monitor outputs and works just like
the balance control on your home music system. This control is primarily used to make
the volume from each speaker sound equal if you are not sitting exactly in the center of
the two speakers.
Hot Tip!
The System Volume
Control on your Mac or PC
can be used to control the
Monitor Output Level on
PatchMix.
Monitor Output Mute
This button completely cuts off the monitor output and provides a convenient way to
instantly kill all sound without having to re-adjust the monitor level later. When the
telephone rings, just hit the monitor mute to cut the noise.
54
Creative Professional
5 - Effects
Overview
5 - Effects
Overview
PatchMix DSP comes complete with a host of great core DSP effects including
Compressors, Delays, Choruses, Flangers and Reverb. Each 32-bit effect has various
parameters for editing, as well as factory presets. You can also create and save as many
of your own effect presets as you wish.
Since the effects are implemented in hardware, they don’t place any load on your host
computer. This allows your valuable CPU cycles to be used for other applications or
software plug-ins. The effects are only available at the 44.1 and 48kHz sample rates.
There is a finite limit to how many effects you can use at the same time. As you use up
the PatchMix DSP resources, certain effects will appear “grayed out” and cannot be
added to the mixer. Complex effects such as reverb use more DSP resources than say a
1-Band EQ. If you continue to add effects, all of the DSP resources will eventually be
used up. For more detailed information, see “DSP Resource Usage” on page 62.
Saving a session
“defragments” the effect/
DSP resources. If you have
used all your effects and
need another, try saving
the session.
The Effects Palette
Click the FX button on the toolbar to bring up the Effects Palette. The Effects Palette
contains two types of folders. The “Core Effects” folder contains the effect algorithms
themselves. This folder cannot be modified. The other folders contain “Effects Chains”,
consisting of two or more effects grouped together. You can also add, delete, or modify
Effects Chains and the folders that contain them. For more information on Effects
Chains, see “FX Insert Chains” on page 56.
New Folder button
Import/Export FX Button
Effect Categories
Core Effects
(Single Effect)
Multi-Effects
(Effect Combinations)
Distortion Lo-fi
Drums & Percussion
Environment
Equalization
Guitar
Multi Effects
Reverb
Synths & Keys
Vocal
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5 - Effects
The Effects Palette
To Select an Effect
1. Click the FX button to bring up the Effects Palette. The effect palette contains
numerous folders containing effects presets. Click on any folder to open it.
2. Select the effect you wish to use by clicking on it with the left mouse button and
while continuing to hold the mouse button, drag the effect into the desired
location on the PatchMix DSP mixer screen and release the mouse button. Multi
effects contain several effects along with their parameter settings.
3. If you want to change the order of effects, simply Left-click and drag the effect to
the desired location. Drag the effect to the area above or below the final destination and release the mouse button to move the effect.
The order of effects in a
chain can have a big effect
on the sound.
This icon will
appear when you drag an
effect to a new location.
To Edit an Effect
1. Click on the Insert Location containing the effect you wish to edit. The effect
controls now appear on the TV screen.
2. Edit the effect parameters as desired.
To Delete an Effect
1. Right-click on the Insert location containing the effect you wish to delete and a
pop-up list appears.
2. Select “Delete Insert(s)” from the top of the list. The effect will be deleted.
FX Insert Chains
FX Insert Chains can be used to save several effects and their settings into a single
multi-effect. When an effects chain is selected and dropped into an insert location, all
the effects with control settings are copied as a single entity. Once dropped into an
insert location, the effects are totally separate just as if you had placed them individually.
To Save FX Insert Chains
1. Select two or more effects and place them into any consecutive insert locations.
2. Set the effect parameters the way you want them, including wet/dry mix settings.
3. Right-click to bring up the list of options.
4. Select “Save FX Insert Chain.” The New FX preset dialog box appears.
Trim pots, peak meters
and test tone generators
will also be included in the
FX chain.
5. Select a category folder where your preset will be placed, and enter a new preset
name for your FX Chain.
6. Select a folder where your new preset will be placed, then type in a new preset
name and click OK. Your preset is now saved.
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Creative Professional
5 - Effects
The Effects Palette
The Order of Effects
PatchMix DSP allows you to record your tracks without effects (dry) and monitor with
effects enabled (wet). It works like this: If the effect is inserted BEFORE the ASIO send
in the signal path, it will get recorded; if the effect is inserted AFTER the ASIO send, it
will not be recorded.
Recording dry allows you to
hear your performance with
effect (to get the proper
feel), but gives you the flexibility to add or modify
effects later during
mixdown. This way if you
don’t like the way the effect
sounds, you can change or
modify the effect without
having to perform the part
again.
Input
1L/1R
If you want Effects
to be recorded,
insert them Above
the ASIO Send.
ASIO
Send
To ASIO
To monitor Effects,
but not record them,
insert them Below
the ASIO Send or
in a Sidechain.
Panning
Fader
Send
Amount
Aux 1 Bus
Return
Amount
Reverb
Output
Main Output Bus
To Monitor Speakers
Creating, Renaming & Deleting Categories or Presets
There are several utilities to help you organize your effects presets.
To Create a New Preset Category
You can create your own category folders to help organize your effects presets.
1. Left-click on the New Folder icon at the top of the Effects Palette. A pop-up dialog
box appears asking you to “Enter the Name of the New Category.”
• Alternatively, you can Right-click over an Effects Folder, which calls a pop-up
dialog box with the option to “Create New Category.”
2. Type in a name for your new folder.
3. Click OK to create a new folder or Cancel to cancel the operation.
To Delete an Effect Category or Preset
1. Right-click on the category folder you wish to delete. A pop-up selection box
appears.
2. Select “Delete Category.” A popup dialog box appears warning you that this action
will delete all presets in the folder.
3. Click OK to delete the folder or Cancel to cancel the operation.
To Rename an Effects Category
1. Right-click on the category folder you wish to rename. A pop-up selection box
appears.
2. Select “Rename Category.” A pop-up dialog box appears, asking you to “Enter New
Category Name.”
3. Click OK to rename the folder or Cancel to cancel the operation.
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5 - Effects
The Effects Palette
Importing and Exporting Core FX Presets and FX Insert Chains
These utilities make it easy to import or export your FX Presets and FX Insert Chains.
You can share presets with your friends or download new presets from the Internet.
To Import Core FX Presets
This option imports complete folders of Core FX presets into the E-MU PatchMix DSP
folder (normally located here: “C:\Program Files\Creative Professional\E-MU
PatchMix DSP\Core Effects”). If the name of an imported FX preset exactly matches a
preset you already have, a number will be appended to end of the imported preset
name.
1. Click the Import/Export FX Library button
from the FX Palette.
2. Select Import FX Library. The “Browse for Folder” window appears.
3. Choose the folder where the Core FX presets you wish to import are located.
4. The selected folder of Core FX presets will be copied into the Core Effects folder of
PatchMix DSP.
To Import FX Category Folders
This option imports complete category folders of FX Chains into the E-MU PatchMix
DSP folder (normally located here: “C:\Program Files\Creative Professional\E-MU
PatchMix DSP\Effect Presets”). If the name of an imported FX preset exactly matches a
preset you already have, a number will be appended to end of the imported preset
name.
1. Click the Import/Export FX Library button
from the FX Palette.
2. Select Import FX Category. The “Browse for Folder” window appears.
3. Choose the folder where the FX Chains you wish to import are located.
4. The selected folder of FX Chains will be copied into the Effect Presets folder of
PatchMix DSP.
To Export your Core FX Presets
This option exports your Core FX presets to a folder of your choice.
1. Click the Import/Export FX Library button
from the FX Palette.
2. Select Export FX Library. The “Browse for Folder” window appears.
3. Choose a destination location for the Core FX presets, then press OK.
4. The Core FX presets will be copied to the selected destination.
To Export your FX Category Folders
This option exports a single category of FX chains to a folder of your choice.
1. Click the Import/Export FX Library button
from the FX Palette.
2. Select Export FX Category. A pop-up dialog box appears asking you to “Choose
the FX Category to be exported.”
3. Choose the desired FX Category to export. Press OK to continue or Cancel to
cancel the operation.
4. The “Browse for Folder” window appears. Choose a destination location for the
Core FX presets, then press OK.
5. The FX Chains will be copied to the selected destination.
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Creative Professional
5 - Effects
FX Edit Screen
FX Edit Screen
Click on an FX Insert to display the parameters for that effect. If an insert effect is not
selected, the FX display will read “No Insert.”
Most effects have a wet/dry mix parameter to control the ratio of effect-to-plain signal.
The wet/dry setting is stored with the FX preset. The effect parameters vary with the type
of effect. Generally if an effect is placed in an Aux Send, the wet/dry mix in the effect
should be set to 100% wet since the Aux Return amount controls how much effect is
applied.
Note: Effects have to
be placed into an insert
location before you can
program them.
The User Preset section is located at the bottom of the FX Edit screen. User presets are
variations of the main effect and can be edited, deleted, renamed or overwritten as you
wish.
Effects Display
View Button
Effect Location
Effect Bypass &
Solo Buttons
Wet/Dry Mix Control
Effect Parameters
User Preset Section
To Bypass an Insert:
Inserts can be bypassed if you want to temporarily hear the audio without the effect or
insert. Bypass can also be used to turn off a Send Insert.
Method #1
1. Click on the Effect (in the Insert section)
2. Click the Bypass button in the TV display.
Method #2
1. Right-click over the Insert you want to bypass (in the Insert section). A pop-up
menu appears.
2. Select “Bypass Insert” from the list of options. The insert effect name will “gray-
out” to indicate that the insert effect is bypassed.
To Solo an Insert:
Inserts can also be soloed. Solo bypasses all the other inserts in the strip and allows you
to hear only the soloed effect. This feature is very useful when adjusting the effect
parameters.
Method #1
1. Click on the Insert Effect (in the Insert section).
2. Click the Solo button in the TV display.
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5 - Effects
FX Edit Screen
Method #2
1. Right-click over the Insert Effect you want to Solo (in the Insert section). A pop-up
menu appears.
2. Select “Solo Insert” from the list of options. The other Insert Effect names in the
strip will “gray-out” to indicate that they are bypassed.
To Bypass ALL
All the inserts in a strip can be bypassed with a single command.
1. Right-click over any Effect in the Insert section. A pop-up menu appears.
2. Select “Bypass All Inserts” from the list of options. All the insert names will be
“grayed-out” to indicate that they are bypassed.
To Un-Bypass ALL
All the inserts in a strip can also be un-bypassed with a single command. This
command works even if only some of the effects are bypassed.
1. Right-click over any Effect in the Insert section. A pop-up menu appears.
2. Select “Un-Bypass All Inserts” from the list of options. All the insert names will
light to indicate that they are active.
User Preset Section
Each core effect has a set of User Presets, that you can use to store your favorite effect
parameter settings. We’ve included a good collection of user presets to get you started.
The user presets are accessed from the bar at the bottom of the TV screen. The user
preset edit menu allows you to select stored presets, create new presets, rename or
delete existing presets, or overwrite existing presets with your modified settings. User
presets stay with the Mixer application regardless of which Session is open.
To copy or share User
Presets, you must save
them as FX Palette effects.
Click here for Edit Menu
Click here to Select Presets
To Select a User Preset
1. Select the FX display in the TV screen.
2. Select the desired insert effect, highlighting it. The effect parameters appear in the
TV screen.
3. Click on the
icon on the preset menu. A drop-down preset list appears.
4. Select a preset from the list.
To Create a New User Preset
1. Select the FX display in the TV screen.
2. Select the desired insert effect, highlighting it. The effect parameters appear in the
TV screen.
3. Click on the Edit button. A pop-up menu appears.
4. Select New. A pop-up dialog box appears asking you to name the new preset.
5. Name the preset and click OK. Your new preset is now saved.
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FX Edit Screen
To Delete a User Preset
1. Select the user preset you wish to delete from the user preset menu.
2. Click on the Edit button. A pop-up menu appears.
3. Select Delete. A pop-up dialog box appears asking you to confirm your action.
4. Click OK to delete the preset or No or Cancel to cancel the operation.
To Rename a User Preset
1. Select the user preset you wish to rename from the user preset menu.
2. Click on the Edit button. A pop-up menu appears.
3. Select Rename. A pop-up dialog box appears asking you to rename the preset.
4. Type in the new preset name, then click OK to rename the preset or Cancel to
cancel the operation.
To Overwrite or Save a User Preset
This operation allows you to overwrite an existing preset with a newer version.
1. Select the user preset you wish to modify from the user preset menu and make any
changes you wish.
2. Click on the Edit button. A pop-up menu appears.
3. Select Overwrite/Save. The current preset will be overwritten with the new settings.
Core Effects and Effects Presets
The Core Effects cannot be removed or copied. Effect presets (stored in “C:\Program
Files\Creative Professional\E-MU 1616\E-MU PatchMix DSP\Effect Presets”) can be
copied, e-mailed or shared like any other computer file.
E-MU PCIe Digital Audio Systems
Hint: You can open
the effects presets with
“NotePad” or other word
processor to view and edit
the name and parameters.
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List of Core Effects
List of Core Effects
Stereo Reverb
Rotary
Mono Delay 250
Lite Reverb
Phase Shifter
Mono Delay 500
RFX Compressor
Frequency Shifter
Mono Delay 750
Compressor
Auto-Wah
Mono Delay 1500
Reshaper
Vocal Morpher
Mono Delay 3000
Gate
1-Band Para EQ
Stereo Delay 100
Leveling Amp
1-Band Shelf EQ
Stereo Delay 250
Chorus
3-Band EQ
Stereo Delay 500
Flanger
4-Band EQ
Stereo Delay 750
Distortion
Multimode EQ
Stereo Delay 1500
Speaker Sim
Mono Delay 100
DSP Resource Usage
There are two main factors which determine the total number of effects available for
use at any given time: Tank Memory and DSP Instructions. Using too much of either
resource will cause effects to be unavailable (grayed out) in the FX menu. In addition,
the strips themselves use DSP Instructions, so only create strips that you actually need.
Tank memory is the memory used by delay-based effects such as reverb and digital
delays. All the reverbs and delays aside from the Mono Delay 100 and Stereo Delay 100
use varying amounts of tank memory.
The DSP instructions are used by all the effects. Effects with multiple stages, such as
multi-band EQs or the speaker simulator use more DSP instructions than a 1-Band EQ.
Tip: Saving a session
“defragments” the effect/
DSP resources. If you have
used all your effects and
need another, try saving
the session.
Delay memory tends to get used first, and so we’ve provided many delay line effects to
allow maximum conservation of this precious resource. Use only the longest delay you
actually need.
The chart below shows three possible effects combinations. These were created by
using up the reverb resources first. Even more simultaneous effects are possible if fewer
reverbs and shorter delays are used.
Examples of Effects Usage (with a WAVE, ASIO Return & 2 Inputs)
Example 1
No.
Example 2
No.
Stereo Reverb
2
Lite Reverb
5
Stereo Reverb
1
4-Band EQ
4
3-Band EQ
5
Lite Reverb
2
3-Band EQ
2
1-Band EQ
4
Stereo Delay 1500
1
1-Band EQ
6
Compressor
1
Mono Delay 250
1
Compressor
6
Mono Delay 1500
1
Compressor
6
Chorus
1
Mono Delay 250
1
Chorus
2
Mono Delay 1500
1
Auto-Wah
1
Flanger
2
4-Band EQ
3
3-Band EQ
3
Total Effects
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22
Total Effects
18
Example 3
Total Effects
No.
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Core Effects Descriptions
Core Effects Descriptions
1-Band Para EQ
This single band parametric equalizer is useful
when you just want to boost or cut a single
range of frequencies. For example, if you just
want to brighten up the lead vocal a bit, you
might choose this EQ. This EQ offers up to
±15dB cut or boost.
+15dB
Boost
Width
Gain
+
Cut
-15dB
Center
Frequency
Parameter
Description
Gain
Sets the amount of cut (-) or boost (+) of the selected frequency
band. Range: -15dB to +15dB
Center Frequency
Sets the range of frequencies to be cut or boosted with the Gain
control. Range: 80Hz to 16kHz
Bandwidth
Sets the width of the frequency range for the Center Frequency
band that will be cut or boosted by the Gain control.
Range: 1semitone to 36 semitones
1-Band Shelf EQ
This single band shelving equalizer is useful when you just want to boost or cut a single
range of frequencies at the high or low end of the spectrum. For example, if you just
want to add a little more bass, there’s no need to waste a 3-band EQ. Just choose low
shelf, then adjust the gain and frequency. This EQ offers up to ±15dB cut or boost.
Low Shelf
Corner
Freq
Boost
+
Cut
+15dB
Gain
or…
-
-15dB
High Shelf
Corner
Freq
Frequency
Parameter
Description
Shelf Type
Allows you to choose either low shelving or high shelving EQ.
Gain
Sets the amount of cut (-) or boost (+) of the shelf.
Range: -15dB to +15dB
Corner Frequency Sets the frequency where the signal begins getting cut or boosted
with the Gain control. Range: 80Hz to 16kHz
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Core Effects Descriptions
3-Band EQ
This versatile equalizer provides two shelving filters at the high and low ends of the
frequency range and a fully parametric band in the center. Up to ±24 dB of boost or cut
is provided for each band.
Low Shelf
Corner
Freq.
Boost
+
Cut
+24dB
Gain
Mid Band
-
High Shelf
Corner
Freq.
Note: The Wet/Dry
Mix control on an
equalizer should normally
be set to 100% wet or
unpredictable results may
occur.
Width
Center
-24dB
Frequency
Setting up a Parametric EQ
1. Turn up the gain on the band you are working with. This allows you to easily hear
the effect of the filter.
2. Reduce the bandwidth if you are working with a mid-band.
3. Adjust the Center Frequency to “zero-in” on the frequencies you wish to boost/cut.
4. Set the Gain to a positive value to boost frequencies or to a negative value to cut
out frequencies.
5. Widen the Bandwidth to create a more natural sound.
6. Adjust and tweak as needed.
Parameter
Description
High Shelf Gain
Sets the amount of cut (-) or boost (+) of the high frequency shelf.
Range: -24dB to +24dB
High Corner Freq. Sets the frequency where the signal begins getting cut or boosted
with the High Gain control. Range: 4kHz to 16kHz
Mid Gain
Sets the amount of cut (-) or boost (+) of the mid frequency band.
Range: -24dB to +24dB
Mid Freq. 1
Sets the range of frequencies to be cut or boosted with the Mid
Gain control. Range: 200Hz to 3kHz
Mid Bandwidth
Sets the width of the frequency range for the Mid Center
Frequency band that will be cut or boosted by the Mid Gain
control. Range: 1 semitone to 1 octave
Low Shelf Gain
Sets the amount of cut (-) or boost (+) of the low frequency shelf.
Range: -24dB to +24dB
Low Corner Freq. Sets the frequency where the signal begins getting cut or boosted
with the Low Gain control. Range: 50Hz to 800Hz
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Core Effects Descriptions
4-Band EQ
This 4-band equalizer provides two shelving filters at the high and low ends of the
frequency range and two fully parametric bands in the center. Up to ±24 dB of boost or
cut is provided for each band.
Note: The Wet/Dry Mix control on an equalizer should normally be set to 100% wet
or unpredictable results may occur.
For more information about setting up a parametric EQ, see page 64.
Low-Shelf
Mid 1-Band
Mid 2-Band
Corner
Frequency
Boost
Cut
Gain
Corner
Frequency
+
-
High-Shelf
Width
Width
Center
Frequency
Center
Frequency
Frequency
Parameter
Description
High Shelf Gain
Sets the amount of cut (-) or boost (+) of the high frequency shelf.
Range: -24dB to +24dB
High Corner Freq.
Sets the frequency where the signal begins getting cut or
boosted with the High Gain control. Range: 4kHz to 16kHz
Mid 2 Gain
Sets the amount of cut (-) or boost (+) of the Mid 2 Frequency
band. Range: -24dB to +24dB
Mid 2 Center Freq.
Sets the range of frequencies to be cut or boosted with the Mid 2
Gain control. Range: 1kHz to 8kHz
Mid 2 Bandwidth
Sets the width of the frequency range for the Mid 2 Center
Frequency band that will be cut or boosted by the Mid 2 Gain
control. Range: .01 octave to 1 octave
Mid 1 Gain
Sets the amount of cut (-) or boost (+) of the Mid 1 Frequency
band. Range: -24dB to +24dB
Mid 1 Center Freq.
Sets the range of frequencies to be cut or boosted with the Mid 1
Gain control. Range: 200Hz to 3kHz
Mid 1 Bandwidth
Sets the width of the frequency range for the Mid 1 Center
Frequency band that will be cut or boosted by the Mid 1 Gain
control. Range: .01 octave to 1 octave
Low Shelf Gain
Sets the amount of cut (-) or boost (+) of the low frequency shelf.
Range: -24dB to +24dB
Low Corner Freq.
Sets the frequency where the signal begins getting cut or
boosted with the Low Gain control. Range: 50Hz to 800Hz
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Core Effects Descriptions
Auto-Wah
This effect creates the sound of a guitar wah-wah pedal. The “Wah” filter sweep is
automatically triggered from the amplitude envelope of the input sound. Auto-wah
works well with percussive sounds such as guitar or bass.
The Auto-Wah is a bandpass filter whose frequency can be swept up or down by an
envelope follower, which extracts the volume contour of the input signal. The
Envelope Sensitivity setting allows you to properly set up the envelope follower to
receive a wide variety of input signals. This “envelope”, or volume contour, controls the
frequency of the bandpass filter so that it sweeps up and down with each new note. The
Attack controls the rate of the note-on sweep. As the input sound fades away, the filter
sweeps back at a rate determined by the Release setting.
The wah direction allows the filter to be swept either up or down in frequency. Use a
higher Center Frequency setting when the wah direction is down.
Auto-Wah Filter
Center
Frequency
Bandwidth
Envelope
Sensitivity
Sweep Range
Input
Wave
Attack
Release
Envelope Follower
Parameter
Description
Wah Direction
Allows you to sweep the wah up or down.
Env. Sensitivity
Controls how closely the wah sweep follows the input signal.
Range: -12dB to +18dB
Env. Attack Time
Sets the starting rate of the “wah” sweep.
Range: 0ms to 500ms
Env. Release Time
Sets the ending or release rate of the “wah” sweep.
Range: 10ms to 1000ms
Sweep Range
Controls the amount of “wah” sweep. Range: 0% to 100%
Center Frequency
Sets the initial bandpass filter frequency.
Range: 80Hz to 2400Hz
Bandwidth
Sets the width of the bandpass filter. Range: 1Hz to 800Hz
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Core Effects Descriptions
Chorus
An audio delay in the range of 15-20 milliseconds is too short to be an echo, but is
perceived by the ear as a distinctly separate sound. If we now vary the delay time in this
range, an effect called chorus is created, which gives the illusion of multiple sound
sources. A slight amount of feedback serves to increase the effect. A very slow LFO rate
is usually best for a realistic effect, but a faster LFO rate can also be useful with minimal
LFO depth (.2). Since this is a stereo chorus, an LFO phase parameter is included which
can be used to widen the stereo image.
Parameter
Description
Delay
Sets the length of the delay. Range: 0ms to 20ms.
Feedback
Sets the amount of delayed signal that will be recirculated through
the delay line. Range: 0% to 100%
LFO Rate
Sets the frequency of the low frequency oscillator.
Range: .01Hz to 10Hz
LFO Depth
Sets how much the LFO affects the delay time. Increases the
animation and amount of the chorus effect. Range: 0% to 100%
LFO Waveform
Selectable between Sine or Triangle wave.
LFO L/R Phase
Controls the stereo width by adjusting the phase difference of the LFO
waveform between left and right channels. Range: -180° to +180°
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5 - Effects
Core Effects Descriptions
Compressor
In its simplest form, an audio compressor is just an automatic gain control. When the
volume gets too loud, the compressor automatically turns it down. Compressors are
useful in musical applications because they allow you to record a “hotter” signal
without overloading the recording device.
Since the compressor turns down the gain of the signal, you might wonder how can it
make the signal level stronger. A Post Gain control allows you to boost the output gain
of the compressor in order to make up for the gain reduction. The overall level is higher
and only turned down when the signal level gets too loud. This level is called the
Threshold, which just happens to be the most important control on the compressor.
In
Signal path = Stereo
Delay
VCA
Out
Level
Control
Threshold
Ratio
Post Gain
Attack Release
Basic Controls
The three main controls of a compressor are the Ratio control, the Threshold control and
the Gain control.
If the signal falls below the Threshold, no processing will take place. Signals exceeding
the Threshold will have gain reduction applied as set by the ratio control. This
important control allows you to dial in the range of amplitudes you want to tame. For
example, if you’re trying to trim off just the loudest peaks, set the threshold so the gain
reduction meter only shows compression during these peaks. One of the biggest
mistakes in using a compressor is having the threshold set too low. This adds noise as
the compressor will always be reducing the volume.
The Ratio control determines how strongly the compressor will affect the signal. The
higher the ratio, the more reduction will be applied. If the ratio is high enough, (above
10:1) the signal will effectively be prevented from getting any louder. In this situation,
the compressor will be acting as a Limiter, placing an upper limit on the signal level. In
general, ratios from 2:1 to 6:1 are considered compression and higher ratios above
10:1 are considered limiting.
The Post Gain control amplifies the signal after it has been compressed to bring it back
up in volume. If you don’t increase the gain, the compressed signal will be much lower
in volume.
Two other important controls are Attack and Release. Attack controls how quickly the
gain is turned down after the signal exceeds the threshold. Release controls how fast
the gain is returned to its normal setting after the signal has fallen below the threshold
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Core Effects Descriptions
again. An attack setting of about 10 milliseconds will delay the onset of compression
long enough to preserve the attack transients in guitar, bass or drums while allowing
the sustain portion of the sound to be compressed. Longer release times are generally
used to reduce the so called “pumping” effect as the compressor turns on and off.
Don’t make the release time too long, however, or the compressor won’t have time to
recover for the next pluck or hit. In general, the attack and release controls are used to
smooth out the action of the compressor, but they can also be used to create special
effects.
The Pre-Delay parameter lets the level detector “look into the future” up to 4 milliseconds in order to anticipate upcoming peaks in the signal. This is accomplished of
course, by inserting delay into the signal path. This lookahead technique allows the use
of slower attack times without missing signal peaks. This parameter is especially
effective on drums and percussion.
The Input Meter allows you to monitor the strength of your input signal. Always try to
boost the signal before the compressor if you can.
The Compression Meter shows the amount of gain reduction being applied. Since this
meter displays how much the gain is being turned down, the meter moves from right to
left, instead of left to right like a normal meter.
Parameter
Description
Threshold
Threshold sets the input signal level above which dynamic range
compression takes place. Everything above the threshold will be
brought down in volume. Range: -60dB to +12dB
Ratio
Sets the ratio of input signal level to output signal level, or
“how much” compression will be applied. Range: 1:1 to ×:1
Post Gain
Amplifies the signal after it has been compressed to bring up the
volume. Range -60dB to +60dB
Attack Time
Controls how quickly the gain is turned down after the signal
exceeds the threshold. Range .1ms to 500ms
Release Time
Controls how fast the gain is returned to its normal setting after the
signal has fallen below the threshold.
Range: 50ms to 3000ms
Pre-Delay
Allows the use of slower attack times without missing signal peaks.
Range: 0ms to 3 ms
Input Meter
Allows you to monitor the strength of the input signal.
Gain Reduction Meter
Shows the amount of gain reduction being applied.
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5 - Effects
Core Effects Descriptions
Distortion
Most audio processors aim to provide low distortion, but not this one! The sole
purpose of this effect is to add distortion, and lots of it. This effect provides “fuzz box”
style, clipping distortion which is particularly effective on guitar, bass, organs, electric
pianos or whatever.
The input signal first passes through a lowpass filter. The Lowpass Filter Cutoff
Frequency allows you to control the number of new harmonics that will be generated
by the distortion element. The distortion element has an Edge control which controls
“how much” distortion will be added. A bandpass filter follows the distortion
generator. The EQ Center control lets you select a particular band of frequencies to be
output. The EQ Bandwidth controls the width of the center frequency band. Finally, a
gain control allows you to make up for any gain loss through the effect.
Use the Wet/Dry mix control in conjunction with the Edge control to reduce the
amount of distortion, or go wild and turn everything to 11!
Lowpass
Filter
Bandpass
Filter
Distortion
In
Out
Signal path = Stereo
LP Filter
Cutoff
Edge
EQ BW
Gain
EQ Center
Parameter
Description
Pre EQ LP Cutoff
Controls the amount of high frequency audio admitted to
the distortion. Range: 80Hz to 24kHz
Edge
Sets the amount of distortion and new harmonics
generated. Range: 0-100
Gain
Sets the output volume of the effect. Range: -60dB to 0dB
Post EQ Center Freq.
Sets the frequency of the output bandpass filter.
Range: 80Hz to 24kHz
Post EQ Bandwidth
Sets the width of the output bandpass filter.
Range: 80Hz to 24kHz
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Core Effects Descriptions
Flanger
A flanger is a very short delay line whose output is mixed back together with the
original sound. Mixing the original and delayed signals results in multiple frequency
cancellations known as a comb filter. Since the flanger is a type of filter, it works best
with harmonically rich sounds.
A low frequency oscillator is included to slowly change the delay time. This creates a
rich, sweeping effect as the notches move up and down across the frequency range. The
amount of feedback deepens the notches, intensifying the effect. You can invert the
feedback signal by choosing a negative feedback value. Inverting the feedback signal
creates peaks in the notch filter and deepens the effect.
Feedback
In
Flanger
Out
Signal path = Stereo
Delay
LFO
Phase
Waveform
Parameter
Description
Delay
Sets the initial delay of the flanger in .01 millisecond increments.
This parameter allows you to “tune” the flanger to a specific
frequency range. Range: .01ms to 4ms
Feedback
Controls how much signal is recirculated through the delay line
and increases resonance. Negative values can produce intense
flanging with some signals. Range 0% to 100%
LFO Rate
Sets the speed of the flanger sweep. Range: .01 Hz to 10Hz
LFO Depth
Sets how much the LFO affects the delay time. Increases the
animation and amount of the flanging effect. Range 05 to 100%
LFO Waveform
Selectable between Sine or Triangle wave.
LFO L/R Phase
Controls the stereo width by adjusting the phase difference
between the left and right sweeps. Range: -180° to +180°
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Core Effects Descriptions
Freq Shifter
This unusual effect is sometimes called “spectrum shifting” or “single sideband
modulation.” Frequency shifting shifts every frequency in the signal by a fixed number
of Hz which causes the harmonics to lose their normal relationship. The more
common pitch shifter, in contrast, preserves the harmonic relationships of the signal
and so is better suited to creating “musical” harmonies.
This isn’t to say that the frequency shifter can’t be used musically. Small intervals of
frequency shifting (1 Hz and below) can produce a wonderful, lush chorusing or
phasing effect. For bizarre frequency shifting effects, simply crank up the frequency
knob. Frequencies can be shifted up or down by any specified amount from .1 Hz to 24
kHz. You can also shift pitch up on one side and down on the other if you wish.
You can also type in
exact frequencies to a
resolution of 1/10 Hz.
Comparison between Pitch and Frequency Shifting
Original
(Hz)
Pitch Shifted
(100 Hz)
Frequency Shifted
(100 Hz)
1
200
300
300
2
400
600
500
3
600
900
700
4
800
1200
900
5
1000
1500
1100
6
1200
1800
1300
7
1400
2100
1500
8
1600
2400
1700
Harmonic
Parameter
Description
Frequency
Sets the number of Hz that will be added or subtracted with every
harmonic in the signal. Range: .01Hz to 24kHz
Left Direction
Sets pitch shift up or down for the left channel.
Right Direction
Sets pitch shift up or down for the right channel.
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Core Effects Descriptions
Leveling Amp
The first compressors developed in the 1950’s were based on a slow-acting optical gain
cells which were able to control the signal level in a very subtle and musical way. This
effect is a digital recreation of the leveling amps of yesteryear.
The leveling amp uses a large amount of “lookahead delay” to apply gentle gain
reduction. Because of this delay, the leveling amp is not suitable for applications which
require realtime monitoring of the signal. This smooth and gentle compressor is
designed to be used in situations where delay does not pose a problem, such as
mastering a mix or compressing prerecorded stereo material.
Post Gain is the only control on the leveling amp. This control is used to make up the
volume lost by the compression. The Compression Ratio is fixed at about 2.5:1. If a
large peak is detected, the effect will automatically increase the compression ratio to
keep the audio output controlled.
The gain reduction meter shows you how much gain reduction is being applied. Since
the gain reduction meter displays how much the gain is being turned down, the meter
moves from right to left, instead of left to right like most meters.
Post Gain
E-MU PCIe Digital Audio Systems
Amplifies the signal after it has been compressed to
bring up the volume. Range 0dB to 36dB
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Core Effects Descriptions
Lite Reverb
Reverberation is a simulation of a natural space such as a room or hall. The Lite Reverb
algorithm is designed to simulate various rooms and reverberation plates while using
fewer DSP resources than the Stereo Reverb. Up to five Lite Reverbs can be used at
once.
Decay time defines the time it takes for the reflected sound from the room to decay or
die away. The diagram below shows a generalized reverberation envelope.
Early Reflections
Late Reverb
Time
After a short pre-delay period, the echoes from the closest walls or ceiling are heard.
These first echoes, or Early Reflections, vary greatly depending on the type of room.
Some time after the early reflection cluster ends, the actual Reverberation (a dense cloud
of complex wall reflections) begins and decays according to the time set by the Decay
Time parameter. The Reverberance parameter controls the density and smearing of
both the early reflections and the reverberation cloud.
High frequency energy tends to fade away first as a sound is dissipated in a room. The
High Frequency Decay Factor adjusts the time it takes for the high frequency energy to
die away and thus changes the characteristics of the room. Rooms with smooth, hard
surfaces are more reflective and have less high frequency damping. Rooms filled with
sound absorbing materials, such as curtains or people, have more high frequency
damping.
The Low Frequency Decay Factor parameter adjusts the time it takes for the low
frequencies to die away. This control adjusts the “boominess” of the room.
Parameter
Description
Decay Time
Sets the reverb decay time. Range: 0% to 100%
HF Decay Factor
Sets the rate at which high frequencies die away. The high
frequencies last longer as the percentage is increased.
Range: 0% to 100%
LF Decay Factor
Sets the rate at which low frequencies die away. The low
frequencies last longer as the percentage is increased.
Range: 0% to 100%
Early Reflections
Sets the volume of the initial wall reflections.
Range: 0% to 100%
Reverberance
Sets the amount of scattering of the early reflections and
the reverberation cloud. Range: 0% to 100%
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Mono Delays - 100, 250, 500, 750, 1500, 3000
A delay line makes a copy of the incoming audio, holds it in memory, then plays it
back after a predetermined time. The delay number refers to the maximum delay time
that can be produced by the delay line. The six lengths, from 100 ms to 3 seconds,
allow you to make the most efficient use of the effect memory resource.
Long delays produce echoes, short delays can be used for doubling or slapback effects.
Very short delays can be used to produce resonant flanging and comb filter effects or
create monotone robotic-sounding effects (Hint: use feedback). Stereo signals are
summed together before entering the Mono Delay.
There is also a feedback path to send the delayed audio back through the delay line.
When creating echo effects, the feedback controls how many echoes will be produced.
With short delays, the feedback control acts as a resonance control, increasing the
amount of comb filtering produced by the delay line. Comb filtering: See page 71.
A High Frequency Rolloff filter in the feedback path cuts some of the high frequency
energy each time the audio goes through the delay line. This simulates the natural
absorption of high frequencies in a room and can also be used to simulate tape-based
echo units.
The Wet/Dry mix controls how loud the echoes are in relation to the original signal.
Feedback
HF
Rolloff
L Out
L In
Delay
R In
R Out
Delay Time
Parameter
Description
Delay Time
Sets the length of the delay in milliseconds.
(.01ms. minimum increment between settings)
Mono Delay 100 Range: 1 millisecond to 100 milliseconds
Mono Delay 250 Range: 1 millisecond to 250 milliseconds
Mono Delay 500 Range: 1 millisecond to 500 milliseconds
Mono Delay 750 Range: 1 millisecond to 750 milliseconds
Mono Delay 1500 Range: 1 millisecond to 1.5 seconds
Mono Delay 3000 Range: 1 millisecond to 3 seconds
Feedback
Sets the amount of delayed signal that will be recirculated through
the delay line. Range: 0% to 100%
High Freq. Rolloff
Damps high frequencies in the feedback path.
Range: 0% to 100%
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Phase Shifter
A phase shifter produces a fixed number of peaks and notches in the audio spectrum
which can be swept up and down in frequency with a low frequency oscillator (LFO).
This creates a swirly, ethereal sound with harmonically rich sound sources of a type of
pitch shift with simpler sounds. The phase shifter was invented in the 1970’s and the
characteristic sound of this device evokes emotions of that musical era.
By setting the LFO Depth to zero and tuning the LFO Center, a fixed multi-notch filter
is created.
Feedback
In
Phase
Shifter
Signal path = Stereo
LFO Center
Out
LFO
LFO Rate
Parameter
Description
LFO Center
Sets the initial offset of the LFO and changes the position of the
peaks and notches. Range: 0% to 100%
Feedback
Increases the depth of the notches and height of the peaks.
Range: 0% to 100%
LFO Rate
Controls the sweep rate of the Low Frequency Oscillator.
Range: .01Hz to 10Hz
LFO Depth
Controls how much the Center Frequency is swept by the LFO.
Range: 0% to 100%
Waveform
Selects a Sine or Triangle wave for the LFO
LFO L/R Phase
Controls the stereo width by adjusting the phase difference
between the left and right sweeps. Range: -180° to +180°
Rotary
This is a simulation of a rotating speaker used on organs. The rotating speaker was
invented to give static organ tones a pipe organ type of animation, but this distinctive
sound became a legend in its own right. Spinning a sound around the room creates a
doppler pitch shift along with many other complex and musically pleasing sonic
effects.
The Rotary incorporates acceleration and deceleration as you switch between the two
speeds.
Parameter
Description
Speed
Switches between slow or fast rotor speeds with
acceleration and deceleration as the speed changes.
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Speaker Simulator
The Speaker Simulator provides realistic guitar speaker responses and is designed for
use with guitar, bass or synthesizer. Twelve popular guitar amp speaker cabinets are
modeled.
There is only one parameter on this effect. Just select the speaker you want and listen.
Normally this effect should be used with the Mix control set to 100%.
Speaker Type
Description
British Stack 1 & 2
Modeled from a British 8-speaker high power amplifier stack.
British Combo 1-3
Modeled from a British 2-speaker combo amplifier.
Tweed Combo 1-3
Modeled from an American, 1950’s era, 2-speaker combo amplifier.
2 x 12 Combo
Modeled from an American, 1960’s era, 2-speaker combo amplifier.
4 x 12 Combo
Modeled from an American, 1960’s era, 4-speaker amplifier set.
Metal Stack 1 & 2
Modeled from a modern era, power amplifier stack.
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Stereo Delays - 100, 250, 500, 750, 1500
The Stereo Delays are true stereo delay lines in that the left and right channels are kept
entirely separate from each other. The delay number refers to the maximum delay time
that can be produced by the delay lines. The five different lengths, from 100 ms to 1.5
seconds, allow you to make the most efficient use of the effect memory resource.
Because the left and right channels can have different delay times, you can create a
panning effect by setting one delay long and the other short. Very short delay times
combined with a high feedback amount can be used to create monotone roboticsounding effects. Using the longer stereo delays, you can “overdub” musical lines one
on top of the other with the feedback control turned up.
Feedback
HF
Rolloff
In
Delay
Out
Signal path = Stereo
L Delay R Delay
Time
Time
Parameter
Description
Left Delay Time
Sets the length of the delay for the left channel in milliseconds.
Right Delay Time
Sets the length of the delay for the right channel in milliseconds.
Delay Time (L & R)
Stereo Delay 100
Stereo Delay 250
Stereo Delay 500
Stereo Delay 750
Stereo Delay 1500
(.01ms. minimum increment between settings)
Range: 1 millisecond to 100 milliseconds
Range: 1 millisecond to 250 milliseconds
Range: 1 millisecond to 500 milliseconds
Range: 1 millisecond to 750 milliseconds
Range: 1 millisecond to 1.5 seconds
Feedback
Sets the amount of delayed signal that will be recirculated through
the delay line. Range: 0% to 100%
High Freq. Rolloff
Damps high frequencies in the feedback path. Range: 0% to 100%
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Stereo Reverb
Reverberation is a simulation of a natural space such as a room or hall. The stereo
reverb algorithm is designed to simulate various halls, rooms and reverberation plates.
Decay time defines the time it takes for the reflected sound from the room to decay or
die away. The diagram below shows a generalized reverberation envelope.
Early Reflections
Late Reverb
Time
After a short pre-delay period, the echoes from the closest walls or ceiling are heard.
These first echoes, or early reflections, vary greatly depending on the type of room.
Some time after the early reflection cluster ends (late reverb delay), the late reverberation (a dense cloud of complex wall reflections) begins and decays according to the
time set by the Decay Time parameter.
Diffusion is the amount of scattering and density of the late reverberation cloud.
Rooms with many complex surfaces have more diffusion than bare rooms.
High frequency energy tends to fade away first as a sound is dissipated in a room. The
High Frequency Damping parameter adjusts the time it takes for the high frequency
energy to die away and thus changes the characteristics of the room. Rooms with
smooth, hard surfaces are more reflective and have less high frequency damping.
Rooms filled with sound absorbing materials, such as curtains or people, have more
high frequency damping.
The Low Frequency Damping parameter adjusts the time it takes for the low
frequencies to die away. This control adjusts the “boominess” of the room.
Parameter
Description
Decay Time
Sets the length of the Late Reverb. Range 1.5 to 30 seconds
Early Reflections Level
Sets the volume of the initial wall reflections.
Range: 0% to 100%
Early/Late Reverb Bal
Adjusts the balance between early refections and late reverb.
Range: 0% to 100%
Late Reverb Delay
Sets the time between early reflections and the onset of the late
reverb cloud. Range: 1ms to 350ms
Diffusion
Sets the amount of scattering of the late reverb cloud.
Range: 0% to 100%
High Freq. Damping
Sets the rate at which high frequencies die away.
Range: -10.0 to +3.0 damping factor
Low Freq. Damping
Sets the rate at which low frequencies die away.
Range: -10.0 to +3.0 damping factor
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Vocal Morpher
This unique effect allows you to select two vocal phonemes and morph between them
using an LFO. Phonemes are the consonants and vowels we use in articulating speech
sounds and these sounds are very distinctive and evocative. 30 different phonemes are
available and these can be shifted up or down in pitch for even more effects.
To use the Vocal Morpher, you just select Phoneme A and Phoneme B from the list of
thirty. Now the LFO automatically morphs back and forth between the two selected
phonemes, creating interesting vocal articulations. The rate of the LFO is adjustable
and you can select between Sine, Triangle or Sawtooth waveforms. The sine and
triangle waves fade smoothly. The sawtooth wave gradually fades, then jumps abruptly
back.
When the frequency of the A or B Phonemes is shifted up or down, entirely new effects
can be produced. These frequency controls can also be used to tune the phoneme
frequencies to the range of audio you are processing.
Phoneme B
Frequ
Tim
e
ency
Phoneme A
List of Available Phonemes
A
E
I
O
U
AA
AE
AH
AO
EH
ER
IH
IY
UH
UW
B
D
F
G
J
K
L
M
N
P
R
S
T
V
Z
Parameter
Description
Phoneme A
Select any of the available Phonemes for Phoneme A.
Phoneme A
Tuning
Adjusts the frequency of Phoneme A up or down 2 octaves in
semitone intervals. Range: -24 semitones to +24 semitones
Phoneme B
Select any of the available Phonemes for Phoneme B.
Phoneme B
Tuning
Adjusts the frequency of Phoneme B up or down 2 octaves in
semitone intervals. Range: -24 semitones to +24 semitones
LFO Rate
Controls how fast the phonemes morph back and forth.
Range: .01Hz to 10Hz
LFO Waveform
Selects the waveform for the morph: Sinusoid, Triangle, Sawtooth
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Gate
This stereo noise gate is useful both for background noise reduction applications and
also for special effects.
The gate uses an envelope follower and threshold detector to turn on its output when
the input signal is above the turn-on threshold, and shut down its output when the
signal falls below the shut-off threshold. When ”turned on” the Gate passes the input
signal through to the output at unity gain and when “shut off” the Gate silences the
output or attenuates it by an adjustable gain factor. While the Gate is a stereo effect, the
left and right signals are gated in unison, with the envelope follower defaulting to the
louder of the two signals.
In normal operating mode, Gate turn-on is nearly instantaneous when the input signal
exceeds the Threshold level, while Gate Release time is an adjustable parameter. The
effect of the fast turn-on can be enhanced by using an optional 1 millisecond
lookahead in the Gate's envelope detector.
Together with the Threshold setting, tuning the Release time parameter is very useful in
order to achieve the least-obtrusive, most natural-sounding gating effect, which is
highly dependent on the specific program material being processed.
The gate does not offer an adjustable wet/dry mix parameter but does supply a Bypass
switch for effectively removing the effect from the signal path.
Applications
• Basic Gating - reduce background noise during periods of low signal level
• Re-Enveloping - extreme release time/attenuation can be used to re-sculpt the
signal envelope
• Drum Gating - Drum tracks can be altered by adjusting the Threshold to ignore
all but the hardest hits.
• Punch Enhancement - high threshold+fast shuttoff+modest attenuation
perform an expander-like function that accentuates transients
In
1mS
Delay
Signal path = Stereo
Gate
Out
Lookahead
Envelope Follower/
Threshold Detector
Release
Threshold
Max Gain
Reduction
The Gate behaves exactly as a straight wire except when activated by a signal level below the
Threshold (with Lookahead Off).
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Parameters
Threshold
When the input signal rises above the level set by the Threshold parameter, the Gate is
triggered to turn on and go from its maximum gain reduction level up to 0dB gain. The
turn-on threshold is adjustable anywhere between -70dB and 0dB (below the PatchMix
nominal operating point of -12dBFS.)
One of the keys to the smooth operation of the Gate is that the input Threshold level
that turns on the Gate is always higher than the level that shuts off the gate. This means
that the input signal level must descend substantially below the Threshold in order
to turn off again.
This difference between turn-on and shut-off levels, or the hysteresis, is 10dB. That
means that if the Threshold is -30dB, the signal level must fall to -40dB before the Gate
will begin to shut off.
Release Time
This parameter controls the time, in milliseconds, that is required for the Gate to shut
off. More specifically, this is the time that will be required for the Gate control signal to
go from unity gain at 0dB down to the Max Gain Reduction level.
The optimum value for the Release time is dependent on the program material as well
as the effect you're trying to achieve. Optimum Release time is also highly dependent
upon the settings of the Threshold and Max Gain Reduction parameters.
In general, times less than about 10 msec are prone to cause clicks in the output, while
times longer than 30 msec may make the gating effect obvious if the background signal
being gated out is very noisy.
Max Gain Reduction
This parameter sets the attenuation that will be applied to the signal when the Gate is
shut off. The Gate control signal will swing between 0dB and this value as the Gate
turns on and shuts off.
To perform a strict “gating” operation, Max Gain Reduction would normally be set to infinity in order to completely silence the output of the Gate.
However, there are good reasons to set Max Gain Reduction to something less drastic
than infinite attenuation. Sometimes the silence between gated signals is “too quiet” especially when the signal represents a solo vocal or instrument, where the complete
lack of any sound between voiced segments sounds unnatural. For these applications,
setting Max Gain Reduction somewhere between -20dB and -40dB is more appropriate.
In tandem with a high Threshold, Max Gain Reduction can also be set to very modest
values like -5 or -10dB in order to add a subtle “punch” enhancement to transients.
This has an effect similar to an expander, where the attack transients which exceed the
Threshold stand out by 5 or 10dB above the normal signal (you can make up for that 5
or 10dB attenuation by using a trim pot or boosting the channel strip gain after the
Gate.)
Lookahead
By default, the Gate effect uses a fixed 1 millisecond lookahead to avoid clipping off
the leading edge of signal transients when the Gate turns on. However, this is actually
implemented by adding a 1 millisecond delay to the signal through the gate. For applications where this additional 1 millisecond latency is a problem, the Lookahead can be
turned Off.
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Level Meter
This meter represents the input signal level in dB, and is in fact the output of the Gate's
envelope follower. Since the envelope follower is driven by the greater of the left or
right channel, this monophonic meter represents the greater of the two input signals.
Gain Reduction Meter
This meter shows the value in dB of the gate control signal which is used to boost or
attenuate the input signal. Its most-rightward maximum value of 0dB represents a
unity gain path through the Gate in its turn-on state. Except for the possibility of the 1
millisecond lookahead latency, the Gate behaves exactly as a straight wire in this
turned-on state. Values less than 0dB represent the amount by which the input signal is
being attenuated as the Gate shuts off.
The most-leftward gain shutoff value achieved by the Gain meter is set by the Max Gain
Reduction parameter (values from -70dB to -infinity are off the meter.) The speed with
which the Gain signal decays from 0dB to the shutoff value can be observed to change
according to the Release time parameter.
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Core Effects Descriptions
Reshaper
The Reshaper effect is a special purpose dynamics modification program, designed to
“resculpt” the amplitude envelope of an audio signal. The effect uses an envelope
follower and threshold detector to drive an ADSR-type gain stage, which can impose
new attack, decay, sustain and release profiles on the signal's original envelope.
Applications
• “Punch” Reducer - slow turn-on with added lookahead trims attacks off signals
• “Punch” Enhancement - fast turn on with high thresholds and release gain
expands signal attack transients
• Auto Volume Pedal - long attack times with Attack Retrigger can automatically
simulate use of a guitar volume pedal for gently fading in each note.
• Ambience Reduction - can be used like a gate to suppress ambient reverberations that below a certain threshold.
When the input signal exceeds an adjustable Threshold, the Attack phase begins and
continues until the gain reaches unity (0dB). After the Attack peaks, the gain stage
immediately transitions into the Decay phase, which continues until the gain falls to
the Sustain level. During the Sustain phase, the gain stage holds a constant level until
the input signal passes below the Release Threshold. During the Release Phase, the gain
returns to the Release Level where it remains until the another input transient triggers
the next Attack phase.
0 dB
Threshold
Release Threshold
Original
Waveform
0 dB
Sustain
Level
Release
Level
Attack
Time
Decay
Time
Hold Release
Time Time
Reshaped
Waveform
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Attack, Decay and Release times are all adjustable, and the shape of each of these
segments is selectable between exponential, linear, or logarithmic. An additional Hold
Time can be used to extend the Sustain phase past the point where the signal has
passed the Release Threshold.
If the Sustain Level is set the same as the Release Level, then the Reshaper effectively
becomes a two-phase “transient catcher” where the Release Threshold, Hold Time and
Release Time are ignored.
While the peak Attack gain level is always fully turned on, note that the Release Level is
not necessarily completely off, but can be adjusted upward so that the Reshaper retains
a nominal minimum gain. This allows the Reshaper to resculpt only the louder
transients of a signal while maintain a nominal output signal level the rest of the time.
The Release Threshold is always expressed relative to the Attack Threshold so that they
will automatically track each other when the Attack Threshold is adjusted.
Parameter
Description
Attack
Threshold
When the input signal rises above the level set by the Attack
Threshold parameter, Reshaper's ADSR engine begins the Attack
phase. The turn-on threshold is adjustable anywhere between
-40dB and 0dB (below the PatchMix nominal operating point of
-12dBFS.)
Attack Time
This parameter controls the time, in milliseconds, that is required
during the Attack phase for the gain rise from its quiescent Release
Level to unity gain, or 0dB.
Decay Time
This parameter controls the time, in milliseconds, that is required for
the gain to fall from 0dB down to the attenuated Sustain Level.
Note that if the Sustain Level is set to 0dB this decay time becomes
simply a delay before entering the Sustain phase.
Release Time
This parameter controls the time, in milliseconds, that is required for
the gain to fall from the Sustain Level down to the Release Level.
Level Meter
This meter represents the input signal level in dB, and is in fact the
output of the Gate's envelope follower. Since the envelope follower
is driven by the greater of the left or right channel, this
monophonic meter represents the greater of the two input signals.
Sustain Level
This sets the gain level applied to the input signal when the ADSR
engine is in the Sustain phase.
Release Level
This sets the final gain level applied to the input signal when the
Release phase is fully decayed. When set to the minimum (-70dB)
the effective Release Level is -infinity, i.e., fully turned-off.
Hold Time
This parameter allows additional time to be added onto the Sustain
phase after the input signal falls below the Release Threshold before
transitioning to the Release phase. This extension of the Sustain
phase is useful for altering the tail dynamics of the sound.
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Parameter
Description
Attack
Lookahead/
Delay
This parameter is adjustable in milliseconds to allow the Reshaper to
either “look ahead” and advance (negative values) or “delay”
(positive values) the response of the envelope detector relative to
the dynamics of the input signal.
For example, negative lookahead values can cause the envelope
detector to start the ADSR's Attack phase before the actual attack of
the signal so as not to miss any audible transients. Likewise, positive
delay values can be used to start the Attack “late”, so that signal
transients are intentionally missed by the Attack.
Release
Threshold
This parameter controls the level in dB below the Attack Threshold
at which the Release phase of the ADSR will begin.
Attack
Retrigger
By default, when the value of this parameter is Disabled, the
Reshaper's ADSR engine will wait until at least the Release phase of
a cycle before restarting a new Attack phase.
By setting Attack Retrigger to Enabled, however, the Reshaper
becomes sensitive to new input signal transients during any phase
of the ADSR cycle. In addition, enabling this parameter will also
cause the attack to restart at the Release Level instead of whatever
gain was being applied when the new attack arrived.
Attack Curve
This parameter allows the gain during the Attack phase to follow
one of 3 curves: linear, logarithmic, or exponential. Because the
ADSR computes gain using linear coefficients, the exponential curve
comes the closest to being a “constant in dB” gain ramp. A linear
curve provides a somewhat more immediate turn-on, while the
logarithmic curve presents a very abrupt turn-on.
Release Curve
This parameter selects gain curves exactly as for the Attack Curve
parameter, except that the selected curves apply to both the Decay
and Release phases of the ADSR.
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Core Effects Descriptions
Multimode EQ
The Multimode EQ is a flexible stereo filter that is capable of implementing a range of
powerful filter topologies. It is useful both for utility EQ applications and also for
special effects.
The Multimode EQ is built from an array of filter sections that can be configured to
support:
• Lowpass filters with up to 48dB/octave rolloff
• Highpass filters with up to 48dB/octave rolloff
• Highpass + Lowpass series or parallel combination with up to
24dB/octave rolloff
• Bandpass filters with up to 24dB/octave rolloff
• Bandcut filters with up to 24dB/octave rolloff
In addition to cutoff or center frequency parameters, each of the above filter types also
has a switchable rolloff rate and adjustable resonance.
A Filter Edit parameter controls whether the Multimode EQ operates in Stereo, where
filter parameters are adjusted identically for both channels, or split Left and Right,
where the left and right channels support completely independent filter types and
parameter values.
In addition to a standard Bypass switch, the effect offers an adjustable wet/dry mix
parameter. While not normally found on EQ sections, adjustable wet/dry mixtures can
be useful for generating phase cancellation and other special effects.
Applications
• Basic Tone Control - for fidelity enhancement
• Rumble Filter - use the highpass configuration with 48dB/octave rolloff below
50Hz.
• Subwoofer Support - use the lowpass configuration with 48dB/octave rolloff
below 100Hz.
• Lo-Fi Effect (telephone, walkie-talkie, guitar mini-amp, distance simulation)
• Extreme Spectral Shaping - use Highpass+Lowpass, Bandpass or Bandcut with
independent hi/lo resonance
• Pseudo-stereo Effect - apply slightly different EQ to left and right channels to
broaden the spread of a mono signal
• Cross-over - left and right channels split a mono signal between highpass and
lowpass with a sharp transition region.
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Core Effects Descriptions
Parameters
While the Multimode EQ has many parameters applicable to the various possible
configurations of channels and filters, it selectively enables or hides parameters
depending on their applicability to the current configuration. As a result, not all of the
parameters listed below appear on-screen at the same time.
Parameter
Description
Filter Edit
This parameter controls whether the filter editing parameters apply
to both left and right channels in tandem (Stereo), only to the left
channel (Left) or only to the right channel (Right).
Filter Mode
This parameter selects one of 5 different filter types: Lowpass,
Highpass, Lowpass+Highpass, Band Pass or Band Cut.
Lowpass
The frequency response of the lowpass filter looks something like the diagram below:
In this mode, the Lowpass filter can have up to a 48dB/octave rolloff slope. In this
mode the Lowpass Rolloff, Lowpass Frequency and Lowpass Resonance parameters are
available for editing the filter response.
Highpass
The frequency response of the highpass filter looks something like the diagram below:
In this mode, the Highpass filter can have up to a 48dB/octave rolloff slope. The
Highpass Rolloff, Highpass Frequency and Highpass Resonance parameters are
available for editing the filter response.
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Highpass -> Lowpass
In this mode, the Lowpass and Highpass filters are connected in series and both sets of
Lowpass and Highpass parameters are exposed and independently editable to create
the overall filter response. The maximum rolloff slope of each filter is limited to 24dB/
octave in this mode.
In Highpass -> Lowpass mode, the effect does not place any limitations on the
Frequency parameters of one filter relative to the other. In normal use, the Highpass
Freq parameter will be less than the Lowpass Freq parameter, creating a bandpass-type
response:
However, if the Highpass Freq parameter is greater than the Lowpass Frequency
parameter, the passband effectively disappears, since the part of the spectrum which is
above the highpass and below the lowpass is non-existent. As a result, you'll hear a
rapidly attenuating bandpass response as the corner frequencies diverge.
Note that while the Highpass -> Lowpass combination appears the same as the Band
Pass filter, this mode is different in several important respects:
• The rolloff points are independently adjustable as individual frequencies rather
than specified as a combination of center frequency and bandwidth.
• The rolloff slope of each High and Low filter can be specified separately while
the Bandpass and Band Cut filters use the same slope.
• The Resonance of each High and Low filter can be specified separately while the
Bandpass filter uses the same Resonance at high and low corner frequencies.
Highpass || Lowpass
In this mode, the Lowpass and Highpass filters are connected either in parallel, and
both sets of Lowpass and Highpass parameters are exposed and independently editable
to create the overall filter response. The maximum rolloff slope of each filter is limited
to 24dB/octave in this mode.
In Highpass || Lowpass mode, the effect does not place any limitations on the Freq
parameters of one filter relative to the other. In normal use, the Highpass Freq
parameter will be higher than the Lowpass Freq parameter, creating a bandcut-type
response:
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However, when the Highpass Freq parameter is lower than the Lowpass Freq
parameter, the combined filter response is basically flat, since the passbands of each
filter combine to admit the entire spectrum. An exception occurs when there is
resonance added to the filters - you'll hear the resonant peaks as increased gain above
the otherwise flat spectral response.
Note that while the Highpass || Lowpass combination appears the same as the Band
Cut filter, this mode is different in several important respects:
• The rolloff points are independently adjustable as individual frequencies rather
than specified as a combination of center frequency and bandwidth.
• The rolloff slope of each High and Low filter can be specified separately while
each side of the Band Cut filter uses the same slope.
• The Resonance of each High and Low filter can be specified separately while the
Band Cut filter uses the same Resonance at high and low corner frequencies.
Band Pass
In this mode, the Lowpass and Highpass filters are connected in series to form a
bandpass filter, whose Center Freq and Bandwidth parameters are used to generate the
rolloff frequencies for the underlying Lowpass and Highpass filters. In this mode the
rolloff slope on the high and low sides of the passband is symmetrical and is limited to
a maximum of 24dB/octave. The Resonance is also common to both filter sections .
12 6dB
dB /o
/
c
18d oct t
B/o
ct
24dB
/oct
Resonance = 0
Band Cut
In this mode, the Lowpass and Highpass filters are connected in parallel to form a
band-cut filter, whose Center Freq and Bandwidth parameters are used to generate the
rolloff frequencies for the underlying Lowpass and Highpass filters. In this mode the
rolloff slope on the high and low sides of the cut-band is symmetrical and is limited to
a maximum of 24dB/octave.The Resonance is also common to both filter sections .
6
12 dB/
dB oc
/ t
18d oct
B/o
ct
24dB
/oct
Resonance = 0
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Core Effects Descriptions
RFX Compressor
The RFX Compressor is a full-featured stereo compressor effect which features the
standard parameters available on most compressors as well as a collection of
additional advanced parameters that are useful for more sophisticated applications and
special effects:
• Threshold, Ratio, Attack and Release w/gain metering
• Auto-makeup gain
• Adjustable soft knee
• Adjustable lookahead/delay
• Noise gate (downward expander)
• Compressor “tail” expansion
• Program-dependent release
• Negative compression ratios
Signal Flow
The block diagram of the RFX Compressor is shown below.
Input
Mode
Gain
Cells
In L
Out
L
Compressor
Lookahead
0-100mS
In R
R
Out
(& Sidechain)
SIGNAL PATH
Threshold
Compressor
Delay
Compressor
Delay
0-50mS
Level
Detector
Attack
SIDECHAIN
Release
Ratio
Gain
Gain
Control
Soft Max. Neg. Gate
Knee Comp. Comp.
Auto Release
Note that the effect is split between a signal path and a sidechain path that contains the
compressor's level detectors and gain computation. The signal path of the RFX
Compressor is very close to a “straight wire”, with only a delay line and one gain
control element inserted in it. The sidechain contains the bulk of the compressor
algorithm and is responsible for computing the gain control signal. Signal multiplexers
at the front of the signal path and sidechain allow linked stereo compression or split
signal path/sidechain processing.
The RFX Compressor does not have the input gain control that is found on some
compressors. These are typically used to align the input signal range to the
compression threshold. Instead, we've allowed the RFX Compressor's Threshold
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parameter to operate over an exceptionally large range of 0-60dB so that it can be
“steered” to the appropriate range of the input signal. The output Gain parameter also
operates - either manually or automatically - over the unusually large range of -60dB to
+60dB in order to renormalize the compressor's output for the next stage of the signal
path.
The wide dynamic range of the RFX Compressor aside, it's generally a good idea to
maintain the hottest signal levels possible without clipping at the input to any audio
processor.
Parameters
Threshold
Threshold sets the input signal level above which dynamic range compression takes
place. Everything above the threshold will be brought down in volume. The
compression threshold ranges from -0 to -60dB, relative to full scale (0dBFS) input.
Setting the Threshold to 0dB disables normal compression, since no signal can exceed
the maximum possible input level. A Threshold setting of 0dB is still useful, however,
when using soft-knee compression or gating, since these actions occur below (and their
thresholds are set relative to) the Threshold parameter.
Gain Reduction Meter
As input signals exceed the Threshold, the rightness character in the bargraph is lit, and
successive characters are lit for each approximately 3dB in gain reduction imposed by
the compressor on the input signal. Because this is a compression meter and not a level
meter, the same input signal level will show widely varying meter readings depending
on the setting of the Ratio parameter.
Ratio
Sets the ratio of output signal to input
signal levels, selectable in 16 steps
from 1:1.1 to 1:INFINITY.
1.1:1
-30dB
1.5:1
2:1
3:1
10:1
:1
Threshold: -30dB
8
When Neg Compression is set to
Enabled, the range of compression
ratios extends beyond INFINITY to
encompass negative compression
ratios from 1:-100 down to 1:-1,
which can be useful for applications
like ducking and other special effects.
See the discussion of the Neg
Compression parameter on page 97.
0dB
Tip: A ratio of Infinity:1
combined with high
threshold and fast attack/
release results in an
effective peak limiter.
-80dB
Attack
Sets the amount of time that the compressor's level detector will take to respond to an
increase in signal level. The Attack range is adjustable from Instantaneous (essentially a
peak detector that follows individual samples) to 10 seconds (useful for long-term
leveling or automatic mixing applications.)
Release
Sets the amount of time that the compressor's level detector will take to respond to a
decrease in signal level. The fastest Release time is 100 microseconds, useful for some
special effects but highly prone to distortion; more typical release times are in the range
of 70 milliseconds to 1 second. Release times up to 10 seconds are available for longterm leveling or automatic mixing applications.
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When the Auto-release parameter is in its signal-dependent settings, the Release time
shown represents the shortest possible release time. In Auto-release modes the
displayed Release time will be automatically extended depending on the dynamics of
the input signal.
Gain
Sets the compressor's output gain in dB, from +60dB boost to-60dB cut. This control
follows all of the other elements in the compressor's signal path, so positive gain boost
can be used to make up for the gain reduction normally applied to signals above the
compression threshold. Alternatively, negative gain cut can be used to make up for the
gain increase that is applied to signals below the threshold in Soft Knee mode.
Auto Makeup Mode: When adjusted downward past the -60dB cut, the Gain
parameter begins operating in Auto Makeup mode. Auto Makeup mode is used to
compensate for the drop in output level normally resulting from the gain reduction
actions of the Threshold and Ratio parameters. Auto Makeup makes it much easier to
adjust these parameters since there is no need to switch back and forth to the Gain
parameter in order to perform the gain compensation manually.
Auto Makeup looks at the gain reduction implied by the setting of the Threshold and
Ratio parameters and automatically applies a complementary gain increase so that an
ideal 0dB input signal results in a 0dB - or lower - output signal. In this mode, indicated
the Gain parameter adjusts the output level
by the Threshold legend,
from that 0dB input signal to fall anywhere in the range of 0dB down to -60dB.
Advanced Parameters
Caution! The Gain
control can increase the
signal level to the point of
clipping. Excessive signal
levels can damage
speakers as well as your
ears!
Auto Makeup should
not be used when in
negative compression
ranges (see the Neg
Compression parameter
on page 97. Use manual
Gain control instead.
This parameter controls whether the “Advanced Parameters” listed in this section are
hidden or exposed on the screen. For simple applications, quick edits or for novice
users, these advanced parameters can be hidden to minimize screen clutter and
preclude erroneous operation. For special and exotic applications and for experienced
users, these parameters can be exposed to allow access to all the gory details of the
compressor's operation.
Note that even when this parameter is set to “Off”, the settings of the advanced parameters are still active; the only effect of this parameter is to hide them from the screen.
Soft Knee
This parameter sets the depth of the compression transition region, giving an
adjustable hard or soft “knee” to the compressor's gain curve. Setting the depth of this
region results in a knee shape that can be varied from a sharp transition to one that is
imperceptibly gradual.
With the default value of Off, the Soft Knee parameter causes the gain curve to switch
immediately at the Threshold point from no compression (1:1) to full compression
(1:Ratio), representing the hard knee effect. By adjusting the parameter value, an
additional knee threshold can be created 1dB to 60dB below the regular compression
Threshold. Between these two thresholds the effective compression ratio increases
smoothly along the curve of a circular arc, from 1:1 at the lower knee threshold to the
full compression of 1:Ratio at the upper Threshold. Both the Soft Knee depth and the
Ratio will affect the particular shape of the knee: shallower depths and higher Ratios
will create a sharper knee, while greater depths and lower ratios create a softer knee.
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Soft Knee
(Varying the Soft Knee Threshold)
0dB
Threshold: -20dB
Ratio = 4:1
-20dB
Knee
Threshold -10dB
Threshold -20dB
Threshold -30dB
-80dB
This diagram shows the effect of varying the Soft Knee Threshold. Compression is 1:1 (no compression) at the Knee Threshold and smoothly transforms into the
selected compression ratio at the Compression Threshold. The upward arrow shows
the additional gain added to signals below the Threshold.
Soft Knee
(Varying the Compression Ratio)
0dB
-20dB
-35dB
Ratio = 1.5:1
Ratio = 4:1
Ratio = 10:1
Threshold: -20dB
Soft Knee:
Threshold -15dB
-80dB
This diagram shows the effect of varying the Compression Ratio with a
fixed Soft Knee Threshold. The knee transforms from a linear slope to the slope of
the compression ratio over the Soft Knee Threshold area. The upward arrow
shows the additional gain added to signals below the Threshold.
In the region between the lower knee and upper Threshold, a variable amount of gain
reduction is applied depending on the signal level and Ratio setting. To keep this gain
reduction from “dragging down” the signal levels at the Threshold point, a complementary gain boost is automatically applied to all signal levels below the Threshold
when the Soft Knee is enabled. This gain increase with depth and Ratio is illustrated by
the upward arrows in the diagrams, and is similar to the action of the Auto Makeup
Gain parameter. Thus signal levels below the Threshold increase as the Soft Knee depth
and/or Ratio is increased (but see the Gate parameter, below.)
94
Tip: Setting a high
Ratio with the Threshold at
0dB and the Soft Knee at 60dB creates a compressor
whose ratio varies
smoothly from gentle
compression at lower
signal levels to peak
limiting at maximum signal
level
Creative Professional
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Core Effects Descriptions
Gate
This parameter enables automatic gain reduction on signals that fall from 1 to 120dB
below the Threshold point (or Soft Knee threshold, if enabled.) This can act effectively
as a “noise gate” on low-level signals that have been boosted by the action of the Gain
or Soft Knee parameters. The gating action follows a somewhat soft-kneed contour of
its own so that turn-on and turn-off at the gate threshold is not too abrupt.
Gate
0dB
-10dB
-20dB
Threshold: -20dB
Ratio = 4:1
Gain = +15dB
Gate
Threshold
-30dB
-30dB
-40dB
-50dB
-60dB
-70dB
-80dB
In this example, the Gain has been boosted by +15dB. The Gate cancels out the +15dB Gain
boost below the Gate Threshold. Signal levels above the Gate Threshold will be boosted; signal
levels below this point will not be boosted and will be 15dB lower in volume.
Note that, strictly speaking, the term “gate” is a misnomer in this context, since the
action of this parameter is simply to cancel out gain increases that resulted from the
settings of other parameters. This can be seen by the arrows in the diagram as the gain
is reduced below the Gate threshold back down to the dotted line representing unity
gain. The result is that if the Gain parameter is set negative or the Soft Knee parameter
is disabled, the Gate parameter will have no effect.
Comp Lookahead/Delay
This parameter controls compressor
lookahead or delay by setting the
relative time offset, in milliseconds,
between the compressor's signal path
and its sidechain path.
At negative values, this parameter lets
the level detector in the compressor's
sidechain “look into the future” up to
100 milliseconds in order to anticipate upcoming peaks in the signal accomplished of course, by inserting
delay into the signal path. This
lookahead technique allows the use
of slower attack times without
missing signal peaks.
Lookahead
Delay
Sharp waveform peak is missed by compressor.
Add Lookahead (neg values) to compress peak.
Add Delay (pos values) to allow peak through.
At positive values, the signal path delay is zero; instead, a delay of up to 50 milliseconds is inserted into the sidechain path containing the level detector. This delay can
be used intentionally to cause the compressor to miss signal peaks, retaining the
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“punch” and “bite” of signal attacks while subsequently compressing the sustained
portions of the sound.
In general, both positive and negative values of this parameter are useful for applications where the normal envelope of a signal is being creatively manipulated to achieve
special effects.
Auto-Release
This parameter causes the effective Release time to be extended automatically based on
the dynamics of the input signal. This parameter emulates the program-dependent
release characteristics found on some classic analog compressor/limiters.
When not set “Off”, the Auto-release parameter treats the Release parameter value as a
minimum release time, extending it by as much as a factor of 10 depending on
different, selectable characteristics of the input signal:
In Program-dependent mode, release times are increased depending on how often,
how long and by how much the input signal (“program material”) exceeds the
Threshold. Release times increase slowly under sustained excursions of the input over
the Threshold, and typically return back to normal within a few seconds after the signal
level has fallen below it. This emulates the signal “memory effect” exhibited by some
electro-optical compressors.
In Compression-dependent mode, the release extension characteristics are similar, but
in addition depend on the amount of gain reduction being applied to the signal. Thus
the same signal will cause more release-time extension at higher compression Ratio
settings than at lower ones.
Uncompressed Waveform
Short Release
Longer Release
Program-Dependent Release
With Auto-release turned on, the release time becomes longer after an extended
period of compression.
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Max Compression
This parameter is used to limit the amount of gain reduction that the compressor can
apply. The limit is set as a maximum number of dB of gain reduction, from 3dB to
UNLIMITED.
Max. Compression
0dB
Max. Comp. = 6dB
Max. Comp. = 15dB
-30dB
Max. Comp. = 24dB
Threshold: -30dB
Ratio = 4:1
-80dB
This feature emulates the phenomenon of the compression “tail” found in the gain
curves of some classic analog compressor/limiters. The phenomenon results from the
inability of these devices to apply more than a certain amount of compression to the
input signal. When the device “runs out” of enough gain reduction to compress a very
high level signal, it resumes a 1:1 gain curve again. This “deficiency” has the
unexpected sonic benefit of restoring some dynamics to the compressed signal - but
only on the highest input peaks - thus adding some “life” back into otherwise overcompressed signals.
Unlike analog compressors, the Max Compression parameter allows you to adjust the
amount of gain reduction before the compressor returns to a 1:1 gain curve. The
diagram shows three settings of the Max Compression parameter; the compressor
“gives up” and returns to 1:1 after 6, 15 and 24dB of compression have been
exhausted, respectively.
The parameter is most useful at higher compression ratios, allowing the gain curve to
be carefully tailored to the dynamics of the signal as well as the Threshold and Ratio
parameters. The limit set by the Max Compression parameter does not apply to gain
reduction performed in the Soft Knee region of the gain curve.
Note: You may need
to use the Gain parameter
to keep these restored
peaks from clipping the
compressor output since
Auto Makeup gain doesn't
automatically take the
compressor tail into
account.
Neg Compression
When the Neg Compression
parameter is Enabled, the range
of compression values available
to the Ratio parameter extends
beyond INFINITE to encompass
negative compression ratios from
1:-100 down to 1:-1. Using
negative compression ratios
results in an output signal that
actually gets quieter as the input
signal rises above the threshold.
This action can be useful for
applications like ducking and for
other special effects.
E-MU PCIe Digital Audio Systems
0dB
Threshold: -30dB
Neg. Comp: Enabled
-30dB
Ratio
-10:1
-5:1
-3:1
-2:1
-1.5:1
-1:1
-80dB
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The diagram above shows the gain curves using a Threshold at -30dB and a range of
negative compression ratios.
At just past 1:INFINITE, the setting of 1:-100 causes input signals approaching 0dB to
be only slightly decreased below -30dB. In contrast, the compression ratio of 1:-1
causes a 2dB gain reduction for each 1dB of additional input signal level, resulting in
an output signal level that is folded down over the Threshold.
Create a Ducker
To create a ducker, in which a background signal's level is reduced in the presence of a
foreground signal, first set the Input Mode parameter to L In/R Sidechain. Then send
feeds from the background signal to the left input, and from the foreground signal to
the right side input. Set the Ratio parameter to -1:1 (or lower for less background
reduction), and dial in a low Threshold such as -50, so any foreground signal above 50dB will cause gain reduction in the background signal. This technique works best
with slow Attack and Release times — use a liberal amount of Compression Lookahead
to keep the background from masking the beginning of foreground sounds.
Creating a Ducker
Ducker
Background Signal
Pan -90 (L)
L
L
Gain
Cell
Stereo Strip
Foreground Signal
Pan +90 (R)
R
Out
R
Sidechain
Input Mode
The Input Mode parameter allows the compressor signal path and sidechain to be
driven in common or by separate inputs. This is a feature of many compressors and is
useful for a range of applications and special effects.
By default, the Input Mode of the compressor is Stereo. In this mode the two
independent left and right signal paths are gain controlled by a parallel sidechain path
common to both inputs that contains the compressor's level detector. This single level
detector works on the higher of the two input signal levels, so that signal peaks are
properly compressed and no L/R image shift results from compression operations.
When the Input Mode is set to L In/R Sidechain, the signal path is fed exclusively from
the left channel and the sidechain is fed exclusively from the right channel. This allows
dynamics control between two completely independent signals. In this mode both the
compressor's left and right outputs are fed by the mono signal from the left input
channel's signal path.
Splitting the signal path and sidechain makes possible applications where the two
signals may be completely unrelated, such as ducking. Other split-sidechain applications result from situations where a stereo input signal has had different processing
applied between left and right channels. One example would be to place a stereo
equalizer ahead of the compressor in order to implement a version of de-essing or
“de-booming.” See page 101.
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Example Settings
Here we have provided a few examples to show the varied uses of this useful tool. Bear
in mind that these examples are simply starting points and that you will undoubtedly
need to fine tune the parameters to fit the program material and to suit your own taste.
Increase Drum Punch:
Adjust the Threshold control to control the amount of compression.
• Threshold: Adjust so that all hits are being compressed.
• Ratio: 4:1
• Attack: 8 msec (Increase the time to hear more “stick” sound.)
• Release: 60 msec (Adjust according to the tempo of song.)
• Gain: Adjust to make up for lost volume.
• Soft Knee: Adjust as desired.
• Comp. Lookahead: This can be used instead of the Attack control.
• Max. Compression: Unlimited
Smoothing out the Bass Guitar Level:
This setup evens out the volume and prevents the bass guitar from wandering in and
out of the mix.
• Threshold: -24dB (adjust according to the sound)
• Ratio: 4:1
• Attack: 8 msec
• Release: 70 msec
• Gain: +4dB (adjust according to the sound)
• Soft Knee: Threshold -8dB
• Gate: Off
• Comp. Lookahead: 0 msec
• Auto-release: Comp-dependent
• Max. Compression: 18dB
Peak Limiting:
This setup trims only the very loudest peaks, leaving most of the signal intact.
• Threshold: -37dB (adjust according to the sound)
• Ratio: 2:1 or 3:1
• Attack: Instantaneous
• Release: 30 msec
• Gain: 0dB
• Soft Knee: Off
• Gate: Off
• Comp. Lookahead: -5 msec
• Max. Compression: Unlimited
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Vocal Compression/Spoken Word:
This setup compresses the entire dynamic range of the vocal. Whenever there is a signal
present, there is some compression taking place.
• Threshold: Adjust so that the first bar of the meter comes on even on soft
passages.
• Ratio: 2:1
• Attack: 0.1 msec
• Release: 100 msec
• Gain: Set to compensate for lost gain.
• Soft Knee: Off
• Gate: Off
• Comp. Lookahead: 0 msec
• Auto-release: Off
• Max. Compression: 12dB
Backwards Drums & Cymbals:
This is a special effect which reverses the volume envelope of cymbals and drums.
• Threshold: -37dB (adjust according to the sound)
• Ratio: -1:1 (Neg. Compression enabled)
• Attack: Instantaneous
• Release: 200 msec
• Gain: +19dB
• Soft Knee: Off
• Gate: Off
• Comp. Lookahead: -24 msec
• Auto-release: Off
• Max. Compression: Unlimited
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Creating a De-esser:
A de-esser reduces the sibilance or “sss” sound in a vocal part. The sidechain feature of
the RFX Compressor makes it possible to create a effective de-esser using the
compressor andthe Multimode EQ. The Wet/Dry mix on each effect should be set to
100%.
Creating a De-esser
Multimode
EQ
Compressor
Flat
Response
Gain
Cell
L
Mono
Strip In
L
Out
R
Sidechain
R
Hi Pass
Multimode EQ Settings
The left channel is set flat (no EQ). The right channel boosts hi-frequencies.
• Left Channel: Lowpass mode, Lowpass Rolloff = Off
• Right Channel: Highpass mode, 24dB/oct, HP Frequency = 8173Hz,
HP Resonance = 36%
You can boost the low
frequencies in the right
channel to create a “deboomer.”
Compressor Settings
Lookahead gives the compressor time to react to the vocal sibilance.
• Input Mode: L In/R Sidechain
• Threshold: -32dB (adjust to control amount of de-essing)
• Ratio: 2.5:1
• Attack: Instantaneous
• Release: 40 msec
• Gain: 0dB
• Soft Knee: Off
• Gate: Off
• Comp. Lookahead: -20 msec
• Auto-release: Off
• Max. Compression: Unlimited
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E-MU PowerFX
E-MU PowerFX
The hardware-accelerated effects of the E-MU Digital Audio System can also be used as
VST inserts in Cubase. E-MU PowerFX allow you to use PatchMix DSP effects from
within Cubase with minimal load on your CPU.
Note: PowerFX is not supported in Vista. While many users are able to use E-MU
PowerFX with Vista with little to no problems, we are unable to offer support for
using PowerFX with Vista.
E-MU PowerFX are
not available at 88.2kHz,
96kHz, 176.4kHz and
192kHz sample rates.
E-MU PowerFX incorporate smart time alignment technology which automatically
compensates for system latencies and ensures proper synchronization of audio
throughout the VST chain (if the host application supports this feature).
E-MU PowerFX On/Off
FX Palette
FX Inserts
Input Signal Present
Output Signal Present
Preferences
FX Parameters
FX Presets
Preset Editing
Parameter
Description
PowerFX On/Off
Enables or bypasses E-MU PowerFX.
FX Palette
Select from a single “Core” effect or a Multi -Effect.
FX Inserts
Drop Effects from the FX Palette here.
Signal Present LEDs
These indicators turn blue to show the presence of input and
output signals.
FX Parameters
Select the desired effect in the center insert section, then adjust
the wet/dry mix and parameters for the effect.
FX Presets
Select from the list of preprogrammed effect presets here.
Preset Editing
Click here to Save, Delete, Rename or Overwrite a User Preset.
See the “User Preset Section” for more information
102
Cubase SX/SL 2.0,
Nuendo and Sonar (using
the Cakewalk VST adapter
4.4.1) implement VST 2.X
auto delay compensation.
Creative Professional
5 - Effects
E-MU PowerFX
Parameter
Description
Preferences
The Preferences menu allows you to:
• Toggle the Tooltips On or Off
• Extra Buffers - Check this box if excessive stuttering occurs when
using E-MU PowerFX in your VST Host application. This box
should be checked when using Fruity Loops.
• Render Mode - Induces realtime rendering in applications
which do not support realtime rendering (WaveLab, SoundForge).
To Setup & Use E-MU PowerFX:
Setup Cubase or Cubasis
1. Launch Cubase or Cubasis.
2. Instantiate E-MU PowerFX in an Insert or Aux Send location within Cubase.
3. Press the Insert Edit button
in Cubase to bring up the E-MU PowerFX plug-in
window shown on the previous page.
Using any driver
other than “E-MU ASIO”
may produce undesirable
results when using E-MU
PowerFX.
Setup E-MU PowerFX
4. Make sure the blue button
is illuminated, indicating that E-MU Power FX is
on. The blue “Signal Present” indicators will be illuminated if E-MU PowerFX is
properly patched into a signal path.
5. Drag the desired effects from the Effects Palette to the center Insert strip.
6. Click on the Effect you wish to edit in the center Insert Strip (it will highlight in
yellow), then adjust the effects parameters in the right section of the window.
7. You can also select or edit User Presets from the section below the FX parameters.
See the “User Preset Section” for more information.
Add Delay Compensation (if needed)
If you are using Cubase VST 5.1, you will have to insert an E-Delay Compensator into
any other audio tracks to keep them time-aligned.
8. Simply insert an E-Delay Compensator plug-in into the same insert location you
used for E-MU PowerFX on any other audio tracks. That’s it.
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E-MU PowerFX
Automating E-MU PowerFX
E-MU PowerFX can be automated in Cubase LE (or other recording host) just like any
other VST effect. When “Write Automation” is activated in Cubase, control changes
made in the PowerFX window during playback will be recorded on a special
“Automation Subtrack.” When “Automation Read” is activated, the recorded control
changes will be played back.
Steinberg Cubasis
does not have the control
automation feature.
To Record E-MU PowerFX parameter changes in Cubase LE
1. Add E-MU PowerFX as a Channel Insert.
2. Rewind the song and enable “Automation Write” by pressing the WRITE button
on, illuminating it. (Refers to Cubase LE. If you are using another application, refer to the documentation.)
3. Bring the E-MU PowerFX window to the front and select the Effect you want to
automate. The effect parameters appear in the TV screen. Make sure the blue “On”
button is lit.
4. Press the Play button on the Cubase Transport control. The song begins playing.
5. Adjust the E-MU PowerFX controls to achieve the effect you want. Rewind the song
when finished.
6. Disable “Automation Write” and enable “Automation Read”
. Playback the
song to hear and view your changes.
7. To edit Automation, first enable both “Automation Write” and “Automation Read”
and press Play. Cubase LE begins overwriting as soon as you change a control.
8. If you don’t like the results and want to try again, select Show Used Automation
from the Project menu. The Automation Subtrack appears. Next, click in the
Parameter Display and select Remove Parameter.
Note: This only erases one automation parameter from the Automation Subtrack.
To erase multiple control edits, repeat the procedure above. See the Cubase LE
manual for more specific information about automation editing.
Once you have
recorded or drawn
automation, do not
delete or move effects
from the Insert Strip.
Doing so will result in
unpredictable behavior.
E-MU PowerFX Resource Availability
Because different collections of VST plug-ins and PatchMix Sessions can be run simultaneously, it is possible to load a Cubase Song or PatchMix Session for which resources
are not available. If DSP resources are NOT available for an existing setup:
• E-MU PowerFX loads a Hardware I/O Path and simply passes audio through
without any effects. The effects insert slot(s) in E-MU PowerFX will be “redded
out.”
• If no Hardware I/O Paths are available, the plug-in will be disabled and run in a
soft pass-through mode. The effects insert slot(s) in E-MU PowerFX will be
“grayed out.”
• If DSP resources ARE available, but no Hardware I/O Paths are available, the
plug-in will run in soft pass-through mode.
• If the sample rate is changed in the middle of a E-MU PowerFX session, E-MU
PowerFX plug-ins will be bypassed, since the hardware effects cannot operate at
88kHz, 96kHz, 176.4kHz or 192kHz.
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E-MU PowerFX
E-MU PowerFX Compatibility Chart
Application Name
Compatible?
Note
Render
Extra
Buffers
Steinberg Cubase VST 5.1
Yes
Off
Off
Steinberg Cubase SX 1
Yes
Off
Off
Steinberg Cubase SX 2
Yes
Off
Off
Steinberg Cubase LE
Yes
Off
Off
Steinberg Cubase SL
Yes
Off
Off
Steinberg WaveLab 4
Yes
On
Off
Steinberg WaveLab Lite (ver 4)
Yes
On
Off
Steinberg WaveLab 5
No
On
Either
Sony Acid 4
Yes
On
Off
Sony Vegas 5
Yes
On
Off
Sony SoundForge 7
No
Power FX
crashes when
launched.
On
Off
Adobe Audition 1.5
No
Audio
distortion &
immediate
lockup.
Any
Any
FruityLoops Studio 4.5
Yes
Off
On
Ableton Live 3.5
No
On
Off
Cakewalk Sonar 3
Yes
Off
Off
E-MU PCIe Digital Audio Systems
Instrument
Freeze triggers
error if not in
render mode.
Pops & clicks
may occur.
(Try 8 buffers at
1024)
Distortion
when FX
parameters are
changed.
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Rendering Audio with E-MU PowerFX
Rendering Audio with E-MU PowerFX
Rendering (sometimes called Export) is a mixdown process performed by the host
application, which creates a new digital audio file from a multitrack song. Rendering
allows a virtually unlimited number of VST effects to be used because the audio
processing is performed out of realtime.
E-MU PowerFX and the PatchMix DSP effects are strictly realtime processes. When EMU PowerFX are used while rendering audio, the rendering process must proceed at
realtime rate. Some host applications are not designed to handle realtime rendering
and this can cause problems. E-MU PowerFX can be used with these applications if you
are willing to follow certain guidelines.
General Tips for Rendering using PowerFX
• If an error message occurs, increase the “ASIO Buffer Latency” setting located in
the device Setup dialog box. Depending on your setup, you may have to
increase or decrease the Buffer Latency settings to find the setting that works.
• Instead of rendering with E-MU PowerFX, bounce the E-MU PowerFX processed
tracks to another track in realtime.
• Check “Realtime Render” in the Render dialog box when using Cubase LE,
Cubase SX2 or Cubase SL2. This setting will give the best results.
Tips for using Freeze Mode on Cubase LE
• Make the project length as short as possible. Freeze always renders the entire
project length, even if the MIDI track being rendered is shorter.
• Great Tip: Temporarily bypass E-MU PowerFX (and any other effects) even
when “Freezing” another track. This will allow the track to Freeze faster than
realtime.
Using E-MU PowerFX with WaveLab and SoundForge
Stuttering in the audio can occur when rendering with SoundForge or any version of
Steinberg WaveLab. This problem is caused by discontinuities in the first few audio
buffers as they are fed by WaveLab to E-MU PowerFX. The problem can be eliminated
by following these guidelines.
• Check “Render Mode” box in the E-MU PowerFX preferences. See page 103.
• We recommend that you only use the MME/WAVE E-DSP Wave [xxxx] drivers.
• Reduce the “Buffer Size” in the WaveLab, Audio Preferences dialog box. This
moves the stuttering to beginning of the file.
• Pad the beginning (and/or end) of your audio file with silence (.5 to several
seconds depending on the file). This action causes the buffer discontinuities to
occur before the song begins.
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E-MU VST E-Wire
E-MU VST E-Wire
E-Wire is a special VST/ASIO Bridge which allows you to route digital audio via ASIO to
PatchMix and back again.
E-Wire VST incorporates smart time alignment technology that automatically compensates for system latencies and ensures proper synchronization of audio throughout the
VST chain. In addition, E-Wire also allows you to insert outboard audio gear into the
VST environment.
E-Wire has three main components:
• A VST plug-in which handles the audio routing to PatchMix DSP.
• An ASIO mixer strip in PatchMix DSP configured to route audio to the E-Wire
plug-in. You simply drop the effects you want to use into this strip.
• For hosts that don’t support automatic delay compensation, a manual delaycompensation plug-in can be inserted in Cubase tracks or channels that don’t
use E-Wire to compensate for ASIO delay.
The diagram below may give you a better idea of how E-Wire works:
E-Wire VST plug-in
Note: It’s easier to use
E-MU PowerFX instead of
E-Wire if you just want to
use the hardware effects.
(E-Wire was the precursor
to E-MU PowerFX.)
However, E-Wire can be
quite useful in its own
right because it allows you
to route VST inserts or
Sends to Physical Inputs
and Outputs via PatchMix
DSP.
Send to Strip
Stereo Reverb
Return to VST
ASIO Send
PatchMix DSP
Strip configured
for E-Wire
E-Wire bridges the gap between hardware I/O and the VST world. The E-Wire VST plug-in sends
audio to a strip containing the desired effect. An ASIO Send routes the audio back to E-Wire VST.
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5 - Effects
E-MU VST E-Wire
To Setup and use E-Wire:
Setup PatchMix DSP
1. Open PatchMix DSP application.
2. Insert an ASIO Input mixer strip into PatchMix DSP. (Alternately, you can select
“New Session”, select “E-Wire Example” and skip to step 6.)
3. Mute the strip or turn the Fader all the way down.
4. Insert an ASIO Send plug-in into one of the inserts on your ASIO strip.
5. Name your ASIO strip as an E-Wire strip.
6. Insert the desired PatchMix DSP effects into slots above the ASIO Send.
7. Save the Session.
Setup Cubase
8. Launch Cubase.
9. Instantiate E-Wire VST in an Insert or Aux Send location within Cubase.
10. Edit the E-Wire plug-in and activate the plug-in by pressing the blue button.
11. Set the ASIO Send and Return on the E-Wire plug-in to match the strip you set up
for E-Wire.
12. Done.
E-Delay Compensation
An E-Delay Compensator must be inserted into any other audio tracks that are not
using E-Wire in order to keep them time-aligned.
13. Simply insert an E-Delay Compensator plug-in into the same insert location you
used for E-Wire on any other audio tracks. That’s it.
E-Delay Compensator
As audio is transferred back and forth between the VST host application and the E-MU
sound hardware, a delay in the audio stream is incurred. Normally this delay is
compensated for automatically by the host application, but not all VST host applications support this automatic compensation.
A host will support PowerFX and E-Wire’s plug-in delay compensation if it supports
the SetInitialDelay feature of the VST 2.0 specification.
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E-MU VST E-Wire
Currently automatic delay compensation is supported by the Steinberg 2.0 family
(Nuendo 2.x, Cubase SX 2.0), Magix Samplitude 7.x, and Sonar (using the Cakewalk
VST adapter 4.4.1), but not, unfortunately, by Steinberg Cubase VST 5.1, Cubase LE
and Cubasis.
The E-Delay Compensator utility plug-in is used to manually compensate for the
transfer delay for hosts that DO NOT support plug-in delay compensation.
The E-Delay Compensator plug-in is used to delay the “dry” tracks (tracks without a
PowerFX or E-Wire as an insert effect) or auxiliary (send) channels. For each dry track
or send, add an E-Delay Compensator plug-in to re-align the track. The E-Delay
Compensator is automatic and requires no user interaction to operate.
For example, consider a Cubase VST session with two audio tracks. If PowerFX or EWire is applied as an insert effect to the first audio track, but not to the second, the first
track will be delayed in relation to the second track. The E-Delay Compensator should
be added as an insert effect on the second track in order to provide delay compensation.
Cubase VST or Cubasis
Track 1
Track 2
Track 3
Insert
Insert
Insert
E-Wire
E-Delay
E-Delay
E-Delay Compensator Use
PatchMix
DSP
For host applications that don’t support
automatic delay compensation.
1. An E-Delay Compensator should be used
when unprocessed audio tracks are played
alongside tracks using a PowerFX or E-Wire
plug-in.
2. Simply insert an E-Delay Compensator into
each track that doesn’t use a PowerFX or
E-Wire send.
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E-MU VST E-Wire
E-Delay Units Parameter
The Units value in the E-Delay dialog box should be set for the number of times you
send ASIO down to the PatchMix DSP mixer and back in a single track. A single
PowerFX insert chain with any number of effects only requires one delay unit because
there was only one trip to the hardware and back. If you use two Cubase inserts in
series on a track both using PowerFX or E-Wire, you would set the number parameter
to 2 on all other audio tracks. Each trip down to PatchMix DSP and back to Cubase
equals one unit.
In practical use, however, you’ll probably never need to use more than one E-Wire VST
on a single track since PowerFX effects can be placed in series. We have included this
feature “just in case” you need it.
Here’s one more example of how to use the E-Delay Compensator with different
numbers of PowerFX/E-Wire sends on each track. The delay compensation on each
track must equal the track with the maximum number of PowerFX/E-Wire sends. See
the diagram below.
Cubase VST or Cubasis
Track 1
Track 2
Track 3
Insert
Insert
Insert
Insert
Insert
PowerFX
or E-Wire
PowerFX
or E-Wire
PowerFX
or E-Wire
E-Delay
1
E-Delay
2
PatchMix
DSP
Since track 1 uses two PowerFX/E-Wire inserts, the delay of all the other tracks must
equal two. Track 2 has one PowerFX/E-Wire insert and so adding one unit of E-Delay
keeps it time aligned. Track 3 doesn’t use a PowerFX/E-Wire insert and so it needs two
E-Delay Units to remain in alignment.
Grouping Tracks
When several tracks require E-Delay Compensation, you can send the output of each
track to a group or bus and use a single E-Delay Compensator on the output of the
group or bus.
• E-MU Digital Audio System and PatchMix DSP must be installed.
• E-Wire is compatible with Cubase SX/SL/LE, Cubase VST, Wavelab, and
Cakewalk Sonar (via DirectX-VST adapter) among others.
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Using High Sample Rates
6 - Appendix
Using High Sample Rates
Overview
When operating at 176.4k or 192k sample rates, the mixer functionality and number of
I/O channels are slightly reduced. The number of ADAT channels also decreases at the
88k/96k and 176/192k sample rates (due to the bandwidth limitations of the optical
components).
When using 88.2kHz, 96kHz, 176.4kHz or 196kHz sample rates:
• Effect processors are disabled. (Output sends & returns are still available.)
• ADAT is reduced to 4 channels at 88k/96k, and 2 channels at
176k/192kHz.
• ASIO channels are reduced to 8 ASIO (4 stereo) channels at 88k/96k,
and 4 ASIO (2 stereo) channels at 176k/192kHz.
• At the 176.4kHz & 192kHz sample rates, the number of physical
inputs and outputs is reduced.
• At the 176.4kHz & 192kHz sample rates, S/PDIF optical is disabled
The ADAT optical interface was originally designed to carry 8 channels at a 48kHz
sample rate. We use the Sonorus® S/MUX™ standard to encode audio with higher
sample rates onto the ADAT light pipe. In this multiplexing scheme, two ADAT
channels are used to carry one 88.2k or 96k stream and four ADAT channels are used
to carry one 176k or 192k audio stream. In order to use the ADAT interface at these
higher sample rates, you must have other equipment that supports the Sonorus S/MUX
standard.
Selecting a 176/192k Session
The three possible input configurations are selected by choosing a session template
containing the desired I/O from the New Session window. Once you have selected one
of the three session types, you will not be able to change to another type without
starting a new session.
Select the Type of Session you need
Product Default Session
1. Select New Session from the PatchMix
DSP toolbar.
2. Choose the 176k/192k tab.
3. Select the Template that meets your
requirements and click OK.
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Using High Sample Rates
&
or...
&
or...
&
At the 192kHz sample rate, you may choose one of these three options:
1. Keep all Analog I/O, but lose S/PDIF
3. Keep S/PDIF & ADAT, but lose
2. Keep all Analog I/O, but lose ADAT
Line Inputs 2L/2R & Line Outputs 3L/3R
E-MU 1616m Hardware Inputs & Outputs at 176.4k or 192k
Source
Input
Analog &
SPDIF
Output
Analog &
SPDIF
Input
SPDIF &
ADAT
Output
SPDIF &
ADAT
Input
Analog &
ADAT
Output
Analog &
ADAT
ADAT
0
0
2
2
2
2
Microphone
2
--------
2
--------
2
--------
Line 1
2
2
2
2
2
2
Line 2
2
2
0
2
2
2
Line 3 (output) - - - - - - - -
2
--------
2
--------
2
S/PDIF
2
2
2
2
0
0
Total
8
8
8
8
8
8
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Using High Sample Rates
WDM Recording and Playback Behavior
WDM recording and playback is supported at all PatchMix sample rates. The behavior
of the driver with respect to PatchMix sample rate is described below.
When PatchMix and the WDM audio content (.WAV file format, playback and record
settings in WaveLab. etc.) are both running at the same sample rate, and when a Wave
strip or send is present in the PatchMix mixer configuration, WDM audio will be played
or recorded “bit accurate” without sample rate conversion or bit truncation.
When running PatchMix at 44kHz/48kHz, if there is a mismatch between the WDM
playback audio content and the PatchMix sample rate, sample rate conversion is
performed, so that WDM audio will always be heard or recorded. Also, such nonnative-sample-rate audio is truncated to 16-bits.
When running PatchMix at the higher sample rates of 88.2kHz, 96kHz, 176.4kHz or
192kHz, WDM record or playback audio content must be running at the same sample
rate as PatchMix. If the sample rates are mismatched, NO AUDIO will be produced or
recorded. In other words, the WDM driver does not perform sample rate conversion of
any kind when PatchMix is running at 88.2kHz, 96kHz, 176.4kHz or 192kHz.
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6 - Appendix
Getting in Sync
Getting in Sync
Whenever you connect external digital audio devices together, you need to be aware of
how they are synchronized to each other. Simply connecting digital out to digital in
doesn’t guarantee that two digital devices are synced, even if audio is being passed.
Unless you have set one to be the Master and the other a Slave, they are probably NOT
synchronized and the quality of your audio will suffer.
S/PDIF and ADAT are two commonly used digital audio formats. Both these digital
formats carry an embedded word clock which can be used to synchronize the digital
equipment. You must enable “External Clock” on the slave device to have clock sync!
The diagrams below show two ways to synchronize an external A/D - D/A converter to
the E-MU Digital Audio System using the ADAT lightpipe connection.
In the first example, only the A/D converters on the external device are being used.
Only one lightpipe is needed as long as PatchMix is set to receive its word clock signal
from the external device. The external A/D is the Master and the E-MU DAS is the Slave.
(;7(51$/
External Device supplies Master Clock
(via ADAT)
The lightpipe carries eight
channels of audio data and
an embedded clock.
ADAT Out
1
2
Master
3
4
5
6
7
8
External A/D - D/A Converter
Set PatchMix DSP to receive:
External ADAT Sync
When the MicroDock
is connected to the 1010
PCIe card, the digital I/O
on the PCIe card is
disabled. Use the digital
I/O on the MicroDock.
Slave
(;7(51$/
PatchMix DSP supplies Master Clock
(via ADAT)
This lightpipe carries eight
channels of audio data.
Set External Device to receive:
External ADAT Sync
ADAT Out
1
2
Slave
Master
3
ADAT In
4
5
6
7
8
External A/D - D/A Converter
This lightpipe carries an
embedded clock signal
& eight channels of audio.
In the second example a second lightpipe is used to supply “embedded word clock”, as
well as eight channels of audio to the external A/D - D/A. The external device MUST be
set to receive external clock via ADAT or the units will not be synchronized. The E-MU
Digital Audio System is the Master and the external A/D - D/A is the Slave.
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Useful Information
Useful Information
Cables - balanced or unbalanced?
All inputs and outputs on the E-MU Digital Audio System are designed to use either
balanced or unbalanced cables. Balanced signals provide an additional +6dB of gain
on the inputs and are recommended for best audio performance, although unbalanced
cables are fine for most applications. If you’re having problems with hum and noise or
just want the best possible performance, use balanced cables.
Balanced Cables
Balanced cables are used in professional studios because they cancel out noise and
interference. Connector plugs used on balanced cables are XLR (3-prong mic
connector) or TRS (Tip, Ring, Sleeve) 1/4" phone plugs.
Balanced XLR
Connectors
WARNING:
Do NOT use balanced
audio cables when
connecting balanced
outputs to unbalanced
inputs. Doing so can
actually increase noise
level and introduce hum.
Use balanced
(3-conductor) cables
ONLY if you are
connecting balanced
inputs to balanced
outputs.
Balanced 1/4”
TRS Connectors
Unbalanced 1/4”
Connectors
Balanced cables have one ground (shield) connection and two signal-carrying
conductors of equal potential but opposite polarity. There is one “hot” or positive lead,
and a “cold” or negative lead. At any point in time, both conductors are equal in
voltage but opposite in polarity. Both leads may pick up interference, but because it is
present both in and out of phase, this interference cancels out at the balanced input
connection.
Unbalanced Cables
Unbalanced cables have one conductor and one ground (shield) and usually connect
via unbalanced 1/4" phone plugs or RCA phono plugs. The shield stays at a constant
ground potential while the signal in the center conductor varies in positive and
negative voltage. The shield completely surrounds the center “hot” conductor and is
connected to ground in order to intercept most of the electrical interference encountered by the cable. Unbalanced cables are more prone to hum and interference than
balanced cables, but the shorter the cable, the less hum and noise is introduced into
the system.
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Useful Information
Adapter Cables
1/8” Mini-phone to 1/4” Adapters
To connect headphones with an 1/8” (mini-phone) plug to the headphone jack on the
MicroDock, you need a 1/8” to 1/4” adapter. These handy devices are available at
electronic department stores everywhere.
Cinch (RCA) to 1/4” Adapters
Equipment (such as consumer audio gear) which uses Cinch/RCA type connectors can
be connected to the MicroDock using readily available adapter cables. These adapters
can be found at most stores that sell audio equipment.
Digital Cables
Don’t cheap out! Use high quality optical fiber Toslink (ADAT) cables. It’s also a good
idea to keep digital cabling as short as possible (1.5 meters for plastic light pipes; 5
meters for high quality glass fiber light pipes).
Use low-capacitance, video-grade cable for coaxial S/PDIF to avoid data corruption.
AES/EBU to S/PDIF Cable Adapter
This simple adapter cable allows you to receive AES/EBU digital audio via the S/PDIF
input on the E-MU 1010 PCIe card or MicroDock. This cable may also work to connect
S/PDIF out from the 1010 PCIe card (or MicroDock) to the AES/EBU input of other
digital equipment.
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Useful Information
Grounding
In order to obtain best results and lowest noise levels, make sure that your computer
and any external audio devices are grounded to the same reference. This usually means
that you should be using grounded AC cables on both systems and make sure that both
systems are connected to the same grounded outlet. Failure to observe this common
practice can result in a ground loop. 60 cycle hum in the audio signal is almost always
caused by a ground loop.
Phantom Power
Phantom power is a dc voltage (+48 volts) which is normally used to power the preamplifier of a condenser microphone. Some direct boxes also use phantom power.
Pins 2 and 3 of the MicroDock microphone inputs each carry +48 volts dc referenced to
pin 1. Pins 2 and 3 also carry the audio signal which “rides” on top of the constant 48
volts DC. Coupling capacitors at the input of the MicroDock block the +48 volt DC
component before the signal is converted into digital form. The audio mutes for a
second when phantom power is turned on.
After turning phantom power off, wait two full minutes before recording to allow the
DC bias to drain from the coupling capacitors since the bias could affect the audio
headroom.
1
2
(grd)
Balanced dynamic microphones are not adversely affected by
phantom power. An unbalanced dynamic microphone may
not work properly, but will probably not be damaged if
phantom power is left on.
Ribbon microphones should NOT be used with phantom
power on. Doing so can seriously damage the ribbon element.
Since ribbon microphones are fairly specialized and generally
expensive, you’ll know if you own one. Most microphones are either of dynamic or
condenser type and these are not harmed by phantom power.
3
+48V
Appearance Settings in Windows
Adjusting the “Performance Options”in Windows will improve the screen appearance
when moving the mixer around on the screen.
To Improve the Appearance Settings:
1. Open the Windows Control Panel. (Start, Settings, Control Panel).
2. Select System. Select the Advanced Settings tab.
3. Under Visual Effects, select Adjust for Best Performance. Click OK.
E-MU PCIe Digital Audio Systems
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Technical Specifications
Technical Specifications
Specifications: 1616m PCIe
GENERAL
Sample Rates
44.1 kHz. 48 kHz, 96 kHz, 192 kHz from internal crystal
or externally supplied clock (no sample rate conversion)
Bit Depth
24-bit I/O, 32-bit processing
PCIe Specification
• PCIe base specification 1.1 compliiant
• Form Factor: Universal Keyed, PCIe x1Card
• 3.3V I/O
• PCIe Bus-Mastering DMA subsystem reduces CPU use
Hardware DSP
• 100MIPs custom 32-bit audio DSP with 67-bit
accumulator. (double precision, with 3 headroom bits)
• Zero-latency direct hardware monitoring with effects
OpAmps
NJM2068M, NJM2122, NJM2082 (JRC)
Drivers
• ASIO2. WDM/MME/DirectSound. x64 Drivers
• WDM: 2-in/8-out at 44.1kHz, 48kHz, 88.2kHz, 96kHz
• WDM: 2-in/4-out at 176.4kHz & 192kHz
EDI (E-MU Digital Interface)
Proprietary 64-channel audio link over CAT-5 cable
Anti-Pop Protection
Anti-pop speaker protection minimizes noise during
power-up
ULTRA-LOW JITTER CLOCK
SUBSYSTEM
(Measured via Audio Precision 2)
SRSync SourceRMS jitter in picoseconds
44.1 kHz Internal Crystal 596ps
44.1 kHz Optical Input
795ps
MicroDockm Power Use
.32A @ +48VDC
ANALOG LINE INPUTS
(4)
Type
Servo-balanced, DC-coupled, low-noise input circuitry
A/D Converter
AK5394A
Level (software selectable)
Professional: +4 dBu nominal, 20 dBu maximum
(balanced)
15.4 Watts
Consumer: -10 dBV nominal, 6 dBV maximum
(unbalanced)
Frequency Response
(20Hz - 20kHz): +0.0/-0.03 db
Dynamic Range
(1kHz, A-weighted): 120 dB
Signal-to-Noise Ratio
(A-weighted): 120 dB
THD + N
(1kHz at -1dBFS): -110 dB (.0003%)
Channel Crosstalk
(1kHz at -1dBFS): -120 dB
Common-mode Rejection
Input Impedance
118
-79 dB at 60Hz
10K ohm
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6 - Appendix
Technical Specifications
Specifications: 1616m PCIe
ANALOG LINE OUTPUTS
(6)
Type
Balanced, low-noise, 2-pole low-pass differential filter,
AC-coupled
D/A Converter
CS4398
Level (software selectable)
Professional: +4dBu nominal, 20 dBu maximum
(balanced)
Consumer: -10 dBV nominal, 6 dBV maximum
(unbalanced)
Frequency Response
(20 Hz - 20 kHz): +0.0/-0.06 dB
Dynamic Range
(1kHz, A-weighted): 120 dB
Signal-To-Noise Ratio
(A-weighted): 120 dB
THD + N
(1kHz at -1dBFS): -105 dB (.0006%)
Stereo Crosstalk
(1kHz at -1dBFS): < -115 dB
Output Impedance
560 ohms
MIC PREAMP/LINE INPUT (2)
Type:
E-MU XTC combo mic preamp & Hi-Z line input w/ soft
limiter
Gain Range:
+60 dB
Frequency Response:
(min. gain, 20Hz - 20kHz) +0.0/-0.1dB
Stereo Crosstalk:
(1kHz, min. gain, -1dBFS), -115 dB
HI-Z LINE INPUT
Input Impedance:
1M ohm
Max Level:
+18 dbV (20.2 dBu)
Dynamic Range:
(A-weighted, 1kHz, min. gain: 118 dB
SNR:
(A-weighted, min. gain): 118 dB
THD+N:
(1kHz at-1dBFS): -105 dB (.0006%)
MICROPHONE PREAMP
Input Impedance:
1.5 Kohm
Max Level:
+6 dbV (8.2dBu)
EIN:
(20Hz-20kHz, 150 ohm, unweighted): -129.5 dBu
Signal-To-Noise Ratio:
(A-weighted, min. gain): 119 dB
THD+N:
(1kHz at -1dBFS, min gain): -110dB (.0003%)
Frequency Response:
(20Hz - 20kHz, gain +40dB): ±0.08 dB
Phantom Power:
+48V
Soft Limiter:
5dB max compression (software selectable)
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Technical Specifications
Specifications: 1616m PCIe
HEADPHONE AMP
Linear power amplifier
D/A Converter:
CS4398
Gain Range:
85 dB
Maximum Output Power:
50 mW
Output Impedance:
22 ohms
Frequency Response:
(20Hz - 20kHz): +0.0/-0.07 dB
Dynamic Range:
(A-weighted): 118.5 dB
Signal-To-Noise Ratio:
(A-weighted): 118 dB
THD+N:
(1kHz, max. gain, 600 ohm load): -96 dB (0.0015%)
Stereo Crosstalk:
(1kHz at -1dBFS, 600 ohm load): < -100 dB
PHONO INPUT
RIAA equalized phono input
Maximum Level:
Professional: 60 mV RMS
Consumer: 15 mV RMS
Input Impedance:
47K ohm
Frequency Response:
(20 Hz - 20 kHz): +0.1/-0.3 dB
Dynamic Range:
(A-weighted): 96 dB
Signal-To-Noise Ratio:
(15mV RMS unbalanced input, A-weighted): 96 dB
THD+N:
(1kHz, 15 mV RMS input): -90 dB (.003%)
Stereo Crosstalk:
(1kHz at -1dBFS): < -80 dB
Deviation from RIAA
+0.2/-0.3 dB (50Hz to 15kHz)
Input Capacitance:
220 pF
DIGITAL I/O
S/PDIF
• 2 in/2 out coaxial (transformer coupled)
• 2 in/2 out optical (software switchable with ADAT)
• AES/EBU or S/PDIF (switchable under software control)
ADAT
• 8 channels, 24-bit @ 44.1/48 kHz
• 4 channels, 24-bit @ 96 kHz (S-MUX compatible)
• 2 channels, 24-bit @ 192 kHz
MIDI
• 2 MIDI in, 2 MIDI out
SYNCHRONIZATION
Internal Crystal Sync:
44.1kHz, 48 kHz, 88.2kHz, 96 kHz, 176.4kHz, 192 kHz
External Sample Rate Sync:
ADAT (44.1kHz - 192kHz)
Optical S/PDIF (44.1kHz - 96kHz)
Coaxial S/PDIF (44.1kHz - 192kHz)
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Technical Specifications
Specifications: 1212m
GENERAL
Sample Rates
44.1 kHz. 48 kHz, 88.2 kHz, 96 kHz, 176.4kHz, &
192 kHz from internal crystal or externally supplied
clock (no sample rate conversion)
Bit Depth
24-bit I/O, 32-bit processing
PCIe Specification
• PCIe base specification 1.1 compliiant
• Form Factor: Universal Keyed, PCIe x1Card
• 3.3V I/O
• PCIe Bus-Mastering DMA subsystem reduces CPU use
Hardware DSP
• 100MIPs custom 32-bit audio DSP with 67-bit
accumulator. (double precision, with 3 headroom bits)
• Zero-latency direct hardware monitoring with effects
OpAmps
NJM2068M (JRC)
Drivers
• ASIO2. WDM/MME/DirectSound. x64 Drivers
• WDM: 2-in/8-out at 44.1kHz, 48kHz, 88.2kHz, 96kHz
• WDM: 2-in/4-out at 176.4kHz & 192kHz
EDI (E-MU Digital Interface)
Proprietary 64-channel audio link over CAT-5 cable
Anti-Pop Protection
Anti-pop speaker protection minimizes noise during
power-up
ULTRA-LOW JITTER CLOCK
SUBSYSTEM
(Measured via Audio Precision 2)
SRSync SourceRMS jitter in picoseconds
44.1 kHz Internal Crystal 596ps
44.1 kHz Optical Input
795ps
ANALOG LINE INPUTS
(2)
Type
Servo-balanced, DC-coupled, low-noise input circuitry
A/D Converter
AK5394A
Level (software selectable)
Professional: +4 dBu nominal, 20 dBu maximum
(balanced)
Consumer: -10 dBV nominal, 6 dBV maximum
(unbalanced)
Frequency Response
(20Hz - 20kHz): +/- 0.05 db
Dynamic Range
(1kHz, A-weighted): 120 dB
Signal-to-Noise Ratio
(A-weighted): 120 dB
THD + N
(1kHz at -1dBFS): -110 dB (.0003%)
Channel Crosstalk
(1kHz at -1dBFS): -115 dB
Input Impedance
10K ohm
E-MU PCIe Digital Audio Systems
121
6 - Appendix
Technical Specifications
Specifications: 1212m
ANALOG LINE OUTPUTS
(2)
Type
Balanced, low-noise, 3-pole low-pass differential filter,
AC-coupled
D/A Converter
CS4398
Level (software selectable)
Professional: +4dBu nominal, 20 dBu maximum
(balanced)
Consumer: -10 dBV nominal, 6 dBV maximum
(unbalanced)
Frequency Response
(20 Hz - 20 kHz): +0.0/-0.35 dB
Dynamic Range
(1kHz, A-weighted): 120 dB
Signal-To-Noise Ratio
(A-weighted): 120 dB
THD + N
(1kHz at -1dBFS): -105 dB (.0006%)
Stereo Crosstalk
(1kHz at -1dBFS): < -115 dB
Output Impedance
560 ohms
DIGITAL I/O
S/PDIF
• 2 in/2 out coaxial (transformer coupled)
• 2 in/3 out optical (software switchable with ADAT)
• AES/EBU or S/PDIF (switchable under software
control)
ADAT
• 8 channels, 24-bit @ 44.1/48 kHz
• 4 channels, 24-bit @ 96 kHz (S-MUX compatible)
• 2 channels, 24-bit @ 192 kHz
MIDI
• 1 MIDI in, 1 MIDI out (16 channels)
SYNCHRONIZATION
Internal Crystal Sync:
44.1kHz, 48 kHz, 88.2kHz, 96 kHz, 176.4kHz, 192 kHz
ADAT (44.1kHz - 192kHz)
External Sample Rate Sync: Optical S/PDIF (44.1kHz - 96kHz)
Coaxial S/PDIF (44.1kHz - 192kHz)
122
Creative Professional
6 - Appendix
Technical Specifications
Dimensions & Weight
MicroDock
MicroDock Weight:
2.27 lb / 1.03 kg
Dimensions:
L: 7.75" L: 196 mm
W: 7.25" W: 184 mm
H: 1.625" H: 41 mm
1010 PCIe Card
Weight:
0.30lb / 0.14kg
Dimensions:
L: 6.5" / 165 mm
H: 4.0" / 102 mm
0202 Daughter Card
Weight:
0.25lb / 0.10kg
Dimensions:
L: 5.04" / 128mm
E-MU PCIe Digital Audio Systems
123
6 - Appendix
Internet References
Internet References
The internet contains vast resources for the computer musician. A few useful sites are
listed here, but there are plenty more. Check it out.
Software Updates, Tips & Tutorials............... http://www.emu.com
Setting up a PC for Digital Audio.................. http://www.musicxp.net
MIDI Basics ....................................................... Search for “MIDI Basics” (many sites)
MIDI & Audio Recording ................................ http://www.midiworld.com
MIDI & Audio Recording ................................ http://www.synthzone.com
ASIO, Cubase & Digital Audio ....................... http://www.steinberg.net
ASIO, Cubase & Digital Audio ....................... http://www.steinbergusers.com/
cubasele/le_support.php
Cubase Users Group........................................ http://www.groups.yahoo.com/group/
cubase/messages
Forums
Unofficial E-MU Forum ........................... http://www.productionforums.com/emu/
KVR Forum ............................................. http://www.kvr-vst.com/forum/
Driver Heaven Forum............................. http://www.driverheaven.net/search.php?s
MIDI Addict Forum ................................ http://forum.midiaddict.com/search.php
Home Recording Forum ........................ http://homerecording.com/bbs/
search.php?s=d866b60193933eb726660e7b
d90dfb27
Sound-On-Sound Forum ....................... http://soundonsound.com/forum/
Studio-Central Cafe Forum.................... http://studio-central.com/phpbb/search.php
Sound Card Benchmarking.................... http://audio.rightmark.org
124
Creative Professional
6 - Appendix
Internet References
Declaration of Conformity
Trade Name:
E-MU Systems
Model No.:
EM8850
EM8870
EM8871
Responsible Party:
E-MU Systems
Address:
1500 Green Hills Road,
Scotts Valley, CA 95066 U.S.A.
This device complies with Part 15 of the FCC rules. Operation is subject to the
following two conditions: (1) This device may not cause harmful interference, and (2)
this device must accept any interference received, including interference that may cause
undesired operation.
CAUTION
You are cautioned that any changes or modifications not expressly approved in this
manual could void your authority to operate this equipment.
Note:
This equipment has been tested and found to comply with the limits for a Class B
digital device, pursuant to Part 15 of the FCC Rules. These limits are designed to
provide reasonable protection against harmful interference in a residential installation.
This equipment generates, uses, and can radiate radio frequency energy and, if not
installed and used in accordance with the instructions, may cause harmful interference
to radio communications. However, there is no guarantee that interference to radio or
television reception, which can be determined by turning the equipment off and on,
the user is encouraged to try to correct the interference by one or more of the following
measures:
• Reorient or relocate the receiving antenna.
• Increase the separation between the equipment and receiver.
• Connect the equipment into an outlet on a circuit different from that to which
the receiver is connected.
• Consult the dealer or an experienced radio/TV technician for help.
The supplied interface cables must be used with the equipment in order to comply with
the limits for a digital device pursuant to Subpart B of Part 15 of FCC Rules.
E-MU PCIe Digital Audio Systems
125
6 - Appendix
Internet References
Compliance Information
United States Compliance Information
FCC Part 15 Subpart B Class B using:
CISPR 22 (1997) Class B
ANSI C63.4 (1992) method
FCC Site No.90479
Canada Compliance Information
ICES-0003 Class B using:
CISPR 22 (1997) Class B
ANSI C63.4 (1992) method
Industry of Canada File No.IC 3171-B
European Union Compliance Information
EN55024 (1998)
EN55022 (1998) Class B
EN61000-3-2 (2001)
EN61000-3-3 (1995 w/A1:98)
Australia/New Zealand Compliance Information
AS/NZS 3548(1995 w/A1 & A2:97) Class B
EN55022 (1998) Class B
Japan Compliance Information
VCCI (April 2000) Class B using:
CISPR 22(1997) Class B
VCCI Acceptance Nos. R-1233 & C-1297
Attention for the Customers in Europe
This product has been tested and found compliant with the limits set out in the EMC
Directive for using connection cables shorter than 3 meters (9.8 feet).
Notice
If static electricity or electromagnetism causes data transfer to discontinue midway
(fail), restart the application or disconnect and connect the Firewire cable again.
126
Creative Professional
Index
Numerics
Index
Auto-Release, RFX compressor 96
Auto-Wah 66
Aux Bus 47
Auxiliary Effects Assignment 53
Auxiliary Returns 53
Auxiliary Sends 47
used as extra mix busses 53
B
Numerics
0202 Daughter Card 20
1010 PCIe Card 19
1-Band Para EQ 63
1-Band Shelf EQ 63
3-Band EQ 64
48 Volt DC Adapter 16
48 Volt Phantom Power 22, 117
4-Band EQ 65
5.1 Surround Connections 27
5.1/7.1 Surround 38
88kHz/96kHz Sample Rate 111
A
A/D Converter
1212M 121
1616M 118
AC3 Passthrough 23
ADAT Optical
at 96kHz & 192kHz 111
connection example 114
input/output connector 19, 23
ADSR, reshaper effect 85
Advanced Parameters, RFX compressor 93
AES/EBU to S/PDIF Adapter 116
Ambience Reduction, using reshaper effect 84
Analog I/O
0202 Daughter Card 20
MicroDock 25
Anti-Pop Protection 118, 121
Appearance, improving 117
ASIO
direct monitor 41
send 39
Attack
basic compressor 68
curve, reshaper 86
threshold, reshaper 85
Auto Makeup, RFX compressor 93
Auto Volume Pedal, using reshaper effect 84
Automating PowerFX 104
E-MU PCIe Digital Audio Systems
Background program, disabling 31
Backward Cymbal Effect 100
Balance Control, monitor 54
Balanced Cables 25, 115
Band Cut Filter 90
Band Pass Filter 90
Bit Depth 118
Block Diagram, mixer 30
Bypass
effect insert 59
insert 46
send/return insert 51
C
Category
create new preset 57
delete effects 57
rename effects 57
CDs, playing 37
Chorus 67
using freq. shifter 72
Clicks & Pops, in the audio 19, 23
Clipping Indicators 22
Clock, external 34
Comb Filter 71
Compressor
basic 68
RFX 91
Connecting, MicroDock 16
Connection Diagrams 24, 26
Connections
5.1 surround 27
ADAT optical 23
EDI cable 16
front panel 22
rear panel 25
S/PDIF 22
Connectors, interface 14
Core Effects
descriptions 63
listing 62
Core FX Presets, importing/exporting 58
Cross-over, creating with multimode filter 87
127
Index
D
D
D/A Converter
1212M 122
1616M 119
Damping, high frequency 74, 79
Decay Time, lite reverb 74
Decay Time, reverb 79
De-esser, creating 101
Delete
folder 57
FX user preset 61
mixer strip 38
Diffusion 79
Digital Cables 116
Digital I/O Specs 120
Digital Interface, S/PDIF 19, 22
Direct Sound Source 37
Distortion 70
Doppler, effect using Rotary 76
Drivers 118, 121
Drivers, installing 18
Drum Punch 99
Ducker 98
DVD, playing in 5.1/7.1 surround 38
Dynamic Range 119, 122
E
Echo, creating 75
E-Delay Compensator 108
Edge, distortion 70
EDI 118, 121
EDI Cable 16
EDI Connector 19, 26
Effects
1-band para EQ 63
1-band shelf EQ 63
3-band EQ 64
4-band EQ 65
auto wah 66
chorus 67
compressor 68
create new folder 57
creating robot voice 75
descriptions 63
display screen 51
distortion 70
edit 56
flanger 71
frequency shifter 72
gate 81
leveling amp 73
lite reverb 74
mono delays 75
multimode eq 87
order of 57
128
overview 55
palette 55
phase shifter 76
placing into an insert location 39
preset
create new 60
delete 61
overwrite 61
rename 61
recording 57
reshaper 84
RFX compressor 91
rotary 76
selecting 56
stereo delays 78
stereo reverb 79
using in VST host application 102
vocal morpher 80
E-MU 0202 Daughter Card, description 20, 28
E-MU 1010 PCIe Card
description 19
installing 15
E-MU Icon, in taskbar 31
Envelope, reverberation 74, 79
E-Wire 107
Exit PatchMix DSP Services 31
Exporting Core FX & FX Insert Chains 58
External Clock 34, 114
External Sync Source 34
Extra Buffers 103
F
Factory Templates 33
Flanger 71
Frequency Shifter 72
Front Panel Connections, MicroDock 22
FX Edit Screen 59
FX Insert Chains 56
importing/exporting 58
G
Gain Reduction Meter, gate effect 83
Gain, compressor 68
Gate
effect 81
RFX compressor 95
Ground Loop, preventing 117
Ground Lug, turntable 25
Grounding 117
H
Hardware DSP 118, 121
Headphone Amp Specs 120
Headphone Output 23
Creative Professional
Index
I
Headphones, using with the 0202 20
Help System 31
High Frequency Damping, stereo reverb 79
High Frequency Decay Factor, lite reverb 74
High Frequency Rolloff
mono delays 75
stereo delays 78
Highpass Filter 88
Hold Time, reshaper effect 85
Host Input Display 52
Host Output Display 52
Hum, in the audio 117
I
Importing Core FX & FX Insert Chains 58
Increase Drum Punch 99
Input
display 52
level
line 25
setting 43
specs 118, 121
type
mixer strip 36
red color 36
Insert
add effect 39
add send 40
add send/return 40, 41
bypass 46, 59
delete 46
menu 40
meter 43
mixer strip 39
signal flow 36, 39
solo 46, 59
types 39
Installing
E-MU 0202 daughter card 16
E-MU 1010 PCIe card 15
Interface
ADAT 20, 23
EDI 26
MIDI 20, 26
required cable 17
S/PDIF 19, 22
Invert, polarity 44
J
Jitter Spec
1212M system 121
1616M system 118
E-MU PCIe Digital Audio Systems
L
Label, scribble strip 49
Latency, monitoring without 41
LED indicators 22
Level Fader 49
Level Meter, gate effect 83
Leveling Amp 73
Levels, setting input 43
LFO
flanger 71
phase shifter 76
vocal morpher 80
Limiter 68
Limiting Peaks 99
Line Level I/O
0202 daughter card 20
MicroDock 25
Lite Reverb 74
Lookahead
gate effect 82
reshaper effect 86
RFX compressor 95
Low Frequency Damping 79
Low Frequency Decay Factor, lite reverb 74
Lowpass Filter 88
M
Main
bus 50
inserts 54
output fader 54
section 50
Master
return level 50
send level 50
volume control 54
Max Compression, RFX compressor 97
Max Gain Reduction, gate effect 82
Meter
insert 42
main output 54
setting input levels using 43
MicroDock
connecting 16
inputs/outputs 21
power switch 16
MicroDockM Power Usage 118
Microphone Preamps 22
MIDI
breakout cable 26
I/O jacks
0202 daughter card 20
MicroDock 26
jacks 22
Mini-Phone Outputs 26
129
Index
N
Mixer
block diagram 30
overview 29
strip 36
aux send 47
fader 49
insert 39
label 49
mute button 49
new 37
solo button 49
type 37
viewing 29
Mixer Strip
add new 37
delete 38
type 37
Monitor
balance control 54
mix 50
mute 50
output 25
level control 54
mute 54
Mono Delays 75
Multimode Filter 87
Mute
mixer strip 49
monitor 50
N
Neg Compression, RFX compressor 97
New
mixer strip 37
preset category 57
session 31, 32
at 176k/192k 111
user effect preset 60
Noise Gate 81
Notes, Tips & Warnings 12
O
OpAmps 118
Optical Cables 116
Optical S/PDIF 23, 35
Order of Effects 57
Output
fader, main 54
level
line 25
meters 54
monitor 54
routing display 52
section 54
130
P
Palette, effects 55
Pan 49
Pan Controls 36
Parametric EQ, setting up 64
PatchMix DSP, disabling 31
PCIe Specification 118, 121
Peak Limiter 92
Peak Meters 42
Phantom Power 22
description 117
Phase Invert 44
Phase Shifter 76
Phoneme 80
Phono Input Specs 120
Physical Input/Output Display 52
Pink Noise Generator 45
Playing CDs 37
Post Gain, leveling amp 73
Power Switch, MicroDock 16
PowerFX 102
resource availability 104
under Vista 102
Preamp
microphone 22
turntable 25
Pre-Delay, compressor 69
Pre-Fader Aux Sends 50
Preset
create new 60
delete 61
overwrite effects 61
rename effects 61
select user 60
Punch Enhancement
reshaper effect 84
using gate effect 81
Punch Reducer, using reshaper effect 84
R
Ratio
compressor 68
RFX compressor 92
Recording Effects or Recording Dry 57
Red Strip 36
Reducing Noise 117
Release Curve, reshaper effect 86
Release Time, gate effect 82
Release, compressor 68
Render Mode 103
Requirements for Installation 13
Reshaper 84
Reverb, envelope 74, 79
Reverberation 79
RFX Compressor 91
Creative Professional
Index
S
RJ45 Connector 16
Robot Voice Effects, creating 78
Rotary, effect 76
Rubber Feet, installing on Audio Dock 18
Rumble Filter, using multimode filter 87
S
S/MUX 111
S/PDIF
cables 116
inputs and outputs 19, 22
optical 23
S/PDIF to AES/EBU Adapter 116
Sample Rates 118
setting 32
Save
effect user preset 60, 61
FX Insert Chains 56
session 33
Scribble Strip 49
Send
/return insert 40, 41
bypass or solo 51
auxiliary 47
insert 40
Send/Return Levels 50
Session 32
creating 176k/192k 33, 111
creating new 32
templates 33
at 176k/192k 33, 111
Setting Up the E-MU Digital Audio System 13
Settings
I/O 34
input level 22
system 33
Sibilance, reducing 101
Sidechain
creating a de-esser 101
creating a ducker 98
effects routing 47, 53
Signal Generator Insert 45
Signal Level Indicators
LEDs 22
meters 54
Signal Level, increasing 20, 25
Sine Wave Oscillator 45
Smooth Bass Guitar Level 99
Soft Knee, RFX compressor 93
Soft Limiters 44
Software Installation 18
Solo
button 49
insert 46, 59, 60
send/return insert 51
E-MU PCIe Digital Audio Systems
Specifications
1212M System 121
1616M System 118
Stereo Delays 78
Stereo Reverb 79
Strip
add new 37
input type 36
mixer 36
Submixing 47
Subwoofer Filter, using multimode filter 87
Surround Sound
channel chart 27, 38
connections 27
playback 38
Sync/Sample Rate Indicators 53
Synchronization
ADAT example 114
source 34
System Requirements 13
System Settings 33
T
Templates, session 33
Test Tone Insert 45
Threshold
basic compressor 68
gate effect 82
RFX compressor 92
Toggle Tooltips 103
Toolbar, overview 31
Trim Pot Insert 44
Troubleshooting, using test tone & meter inserts 45
TRS Plugs & Jacks 115
Turntable Inputs 25
Tutorial
Automating PowerFX 104
Getting in Sync 114
Making the Best Possible Recording 43
Setting up & using E-Wire 108
Setting up & using PowerFX 103
TV Screen 50, 51
U
Unbalanced Cables 115
User Preset, effect 60
V
Vista 18
using PowerFX with 102
Vocal Morpher 80
Volume Control 36
131
Index
W
W
Wah-Wah 66
WDM Recording & Playback Behavior 113
Wet/Dry Mix, effects 59
White Noise Generator 45
Window Appearance Settings 117
Windows Media Player 37
multichannel sound playback 38
Windows Taskbar, E-MU icon 31
Windows Vista 18
Windows XP 18
X
XLR Connector 22
Z
Zero-Latency Monitoring 41
132
Creative Professional