Configuration of the Linux PCs and the Cisco Routers

Configuration of the Linux PCs and the Cisco
Routers
Version:June 4, 2003
This document provides information on software installations and configurations for the Linux
PCs and the Cisco routers of the Internet Lab. We describe how to install RedHat Linux, how
to install additional Internet Lab Configuration software, and how to set the configuration of
the Cisco routers.
Table of Contents
Table of Contents ...................................................................................................................... 1
General Information .................................................................................................................. 1
Installing RedHat9.0 .................................................................................................................... 2
Installing the Internet Lab Configuration software ...................................................................... 7
Setting up a Cisco Router ........................................................................................................... 9
IOS Configuration of the Cisco Routers.................................................................................... 10
General Information
Licensing Information: All software required for the PCs of the Internet Lab is provided
under the GNU Public License (GPL) or similar licenses. This means that the software can be
obtained without cost, that the software can be installed on any number of PCs, that the
software can be copied and modified, and that there is no restriction on distributing the
software.
Disclaimer: The configuration of PCs in the Internet Lab is not suitable for systems
connected to the Internet. The configuration procedure described in this document will leave
a system highly vulnerable to attacks.
If you use the information in this document for your own equipment, you will do so at your
own risk. We cannot be held responsible for any damage that may result from the instructions
or suggestions in this document.
Installing RedHat9.0
The following are instructions for the installation of RedHat 9.0 and the configuration of
software for the PCs in the Internet Lab. The Internet Lab should work with different Linux
distributions (Debian, SuSE, Slackware), but has been tested only for RedHat Linux.
If you already have RedHat 9.0 installed on your system, proceed to the next section
(“Installing Software Packages for the Internet Lab”). The instructions in this section are
minimal. If you have not installed an operating system before, you may want to seek the help
of a system administrator.
•
If you require more extensive information on installing and running Linux, we
recommend the following source:
Running Linux, Fourth Edition, by Matt Welsh, Lar Kaufman, Matthias K. Dalheimer,
Terry Dawson, O'Reilly & Associates. 4th edition, 2002
•
A good source for detailed, and more basic, information on installing RedHat Linux is
the following book:
Learning Red Hat Linux, 2nd Edition. A Guide to Red Hat Linux for New Users, by Bill
McCarty, 2nd Edition January 2002
•
For information on Linux that covers multiple distributions, we recommend:
Linux Administration Handbook. Evi Nemeth, Garth Snyder, Trent R. Hein, Adam
Boggs, Prentice Hall, 2002.
•
In addition, the Redhat website has a substantial amount of information:
http://www.redhat.com/docs/manuals/linux
The PCs should satisfy the following minimum system requirements:
• 300 Mhz Intel-compatible PC (recommended: 1Ghz)
• 64 MB RAM (recommended: 256 MB)
• 1 CD Rom drive
• 10 GB hard disk
• 1 floppy drive
• 2 Ethernet cards
• 1 DB9 serial port
• a Linux compatible Video card
• mouse and keyboard with PS/2 connectors.
Step 1: Preparing RedHat 9.0 Software.
•
If you have RedHat 9.0 CDs or have already downloaded a CD-ROM distribution
(three CDs) for RedHat 9.0, skip this step and proceed to Step 2.
CONFIGURATION OF PCS AND ROUTERS - PAGE 2
•
Go to the website: http://ftp.redhat.com/pub/redhat/linux/9/en/iso/i386/,
download the following ISO files.
shrike-i386-disc1.iso
shrike-i386-disc2.iso
shrike-i386-disc3.iso
•
Burn each of the files to a separate CD-R, resulting in three CDs. Label the CDs
as Disk1, Disk2, and Disk3.
These CDs contain the files needed for the RedHat 9.0 installation on a PC.
Step 2: Starting the Installation.
•
Insert Disk 1 in the CD-ROM drive. Reboot the machine and enter the BIOS setup
program as soon as the machine starts. The BIOS setup mode is entered by
typing certain keys, which are determined by the manufacturer of the PC, e.g., the
“Del” key. Once you enter the BIOS setup program, select “CDROM” as the 1st
boot device.
•
In the BIOS program, select “Save” and “Exit”. This reboots the PC. When the PC
reboots, it automatically enters the RedHat9.0 installation process. Follow the
instructions on the screen to finish your customized installation step by step.
•
Select installation mode. In the Installation Mode Selection screen, select "Linux
text".
•
Skip the CS media test process. In the CD Found screen, select “skip”. Otherwise,
there is a lengthy process that tests the CD.
•
Select language. In the Language Selection dialog box, select “English”.
•
Select keyboard type. In the Keyboard Selection dialog box, select “US”, or
whatever applies to your keyboard.
•
Select mouse type. In the Mouse Selection dialog box, select “Generic-3 Button
Mouse (PS/2)”.
•
Select installation type. In the Installation Type dialog box, select "Custom".
Step 3: Creating Partitions.
If you are installing Linux on a new PC, allocate and create partitions on the disk for
the Linux operating system. If the PC is not new, you may want to delete existing
partitions.
•
Select disk setup mode. In the Disk Setup dialog box, choose “Disk Druid”, to view,
add, delete and modify the partitions for the Linux system.
In Disk Druid, create a new Linux partition of type “ext 2” and with a size of at least
CONFIGURATION OF PCS AND ROUTERS - PAGE 3
8 GB. Set the mount point of this partition to root directory “/”. This partition will be
used for installing Redhat9.0
•
We recommend to create another partition of type “swap”. The size of this partition
should be twice the size of the RAM. For example, if the PC has 256 MB of RAM,
the size of the “swap” partition should be 512 MB.
•
Delete partitions that are not needed.
•
Press "OK" if the partitioning is finished.
Step 4: Configuring Boot Loader.
•
Select the Boot Loader. In the Boot Loader Configuration dialog box, select "Use
GRUB Boot Loader" (recommended) or “Use LILO Boot Loader”.
•
Don’t type boot options.
•
Unselect “Use a GRUB Password” in the boot loader configuration process.
•
In the Boot Loader Configuration dialog box, change the Boot Label to “RedHat
9.0”. Press "OK".
•
Choose the place where the Boot Loader is running. In the Boot Loader
Configuration dialog box, select "Master Boot Record (MBR)".
Step 5: Network Configuration.
•
Configure network. In the Network Configuration dialog box for eth0 and eth1,
unselect "Use bootp/dhcp”. For eth0 select “Activate on boot”, and for eth1 do not
select “Activate on boot”. Set the hostname to “PC1”, “PC2”, “PC3”, or “PC4 , and
the IP addresses and netmasks as given in the following table.1 Leave the entries
for default gateway, primary nameserver, secondary nameserver and ternary
nameserver blank. Press "OK".
Interface eth0
Hostname
Interface eth1
PC1
IP address
Netmask
10.0.1.11
255.255.255.0
IP address
Netmask
10.0.2.11
255.255.255.0
PC2
IP address
Netmask
10.0.1.12
255.255.255.0
IP address
Netmask
10.0.2.12
255.255.255.0
PC3
IP address
Netmask
10.0.1.13
255.255.255.0
IP address
Netmask
10.0.2.13
255.255.255.0
IP address
10.0.1.14
IP address
10.0.2.14
PC4
1
The hostname and IP addresses are reset by a script from the Internet Lab configuration software. However, the
installation procedure requires that you type an IP address.
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Netmask
•
255.255.255.0
Netmask
255.255.255.0
Select the security level. In the Firewall Configuration dialog box, choose "No
firewall" as the security level.
Step 6: Selecting Language Support and Time Zone.
•
Choose language support. In the Language Support dialog box, select "English
(USA)" or your preferred language.
•
Choose time zone. In the Time Zone Selection dialog box, unselect "Hardware
clock set to GMT?", choose your time zone and press "OK".
Step 7: Setting of Root Password, Setup of User Accounts.
•
Input the root password. In the Root Password dialog box, type the root password
twice. Select the same password on all PCs. Make sure that you memorize
the password.
•
Choose password type. In the Authentication Configuration dialog box, select
"Use Shadow Passwords". Unselect "Enable MD5 Passwords", "Enable NIS",
"Enable LDAP" and "Enable Kerberos". Press "OK".
Note: The directions for the Internet Lab assume that each user logs in as root. The
additional accounts can be added at the first time when the new RedHat9.0 system is
booted.
Step 8: Selecting Packages and Completing RedHat Installation.
The RedHat installation can be customized by installing software packages of the
distribution. For simplicity of the installation, we recommend to install all software
packets. This requires roughly 6 GB of disk space.
•
Select the packages to be installed. In the Package Group Selection dialog box,
select "Everything." This will install all packages. The storage need is 4.85 GB of
hard disk space. Press "OK" if done.
•
In the Installation to begin dialog box, press "OK".
•
Next, the system begins to format the newly created partitions, configure the
systems, and install the selected packages:
•
Formatting: A window, labeled Formatting progress, shows the process of the
formatting of the created partitions.
•
Copying files from the CD-ROM: A window, labeled Copying Files, shows the
progress of the transfer of software from the disk to the hard disk.
CONFIGURATION OF PCS AND ROUTERS - PAGE 5
•
•
Installing packages: Then a window with label “Processing”, shows the
progress of setting up the RPM files. A window, labeled Package Installation,
shows the progress of the installation of the selected packages. Disc 2 and
Disc 3 are needed during the package installation process. The time of the
installation is approximately 90 minutes.
When the installation is complete, you will be asked if you want to create a
bootdisk. Proceed to Step 9.
Step 9: Creating a Bootdisk.
We strongly recommend to create a bootdisk. When the operating system fails to
boot after changing some configuration files, the bootdisk, can be used to start the
system, and correct any settings.
•
In the Boot disk dialog box, choose "Yes".
•
Insert a blank floppy into the floppy drive. Press "OK".
Step 10: Configuring the Monitor and X Windows.
•
In the Video Card Configuration dialog box, press "OK".
•
Next, determine the monitor configuration parameters, such as the type of
monitor and the horizontal and vertical synchronization rates.
•
In the displayed Monitor Configuration dialog box, the monitor will display the type
and the parameters of the monitor detected by the system. Press "Yes" if this is
correct.
•
You can choose "Change" to modify the configuration of the monitor manually.
Note, however, that settings which do not match your monitor may damage
the monitor.
•
Next, the system shows the X Customization dialog box, which is used to
configure the X Windows setting. The system displays the default parameters,
such as the color depth (e.g., High Color, True Color), resolution (e.g., 1024x768),
and the default login (e.g., Graphical, Text).
•
The recommended settings are: color depth=True Color, resolution=1024x768,
and default login=Graphical.
•
You can choose "Change" to modify the configuration of X windows. Press "OK"
if the configuration is completed.
Step 11: Completing the Installation.
•
Next, a dialog box, labeled Complete, is displayed. Pressing "OK" completes the
installation process, and the PC reboots automatically.
CONFIGURATION OF PCS AND ROUTERS - PAGE 6
Installing the Internet Lab Configuration software
After installing and customizing RedHat9.0 Linux, download and install additional software
and configuration files for the PCs of the Internet Lab. This software called “Internet Lab
configuration software” can be downloaded from the website http://www.tcpiplab.net/links/internetlab-software.html.
The software includes:
o
A script that performs configurations of the Linux PCs.
o
Software, which is needed in the Lab, but not part of the RedHat Linux 9.0 software
These are the files included on the Internet Lab configuration software.
Files of the Internet Lab configuration software
README.txt -- Contains a table of contents
Configuration_of_PCs_and_Routers_v1.pdf -- this file
./hosts -- Files in this directory set the hostname and the network configuration files
autoconf_hosts -- a shell script that performs the installation on a Linux PC
host1.tar.gz -- configuration files for host1
host2.tar.gz -- configuration files for host2
host3.tar.gz -- configuration files for host3
host4.tar.gz -- configuration files for host4
./labtools --
Files in this directory install and upgrade packages required by the lab
exercises
autoconf_labtools -- a shell script that performs the installation of packages on a PC
binary.tar.gz
-- binary codes of the following utility tools
- mreceive
- msend
- mtrace
-- Multicast receiver
-- Multicast sender
-- Multicast route trace tool
namedpackage.tar.gz – DNS configurationfiles
RPMinstall
-- The rpm files in this directory install the following software packages
- gbrctl-0.0-1.i386.rpm
- mrouted-3.9b3-1.i386.rpm
-- Linux ethernet bridge software
-- multicast tools
Step 1: Download the software
• Go to URL
http://www.tcpip-lab.net/links/internetlab-software.html
CONFIGURATION OF PCS AND ROUTERS - PAGE 7
This link points to a compressed file (in ZIP format), which contains the needed
software and configuration files. The name of the file is
internetlab-rh90-20030604.zip
or similar. The acronym “rh90” refers to Redhat 9.0, if you have a more recent
version of Linux installed on your system, look for the corresponding file.
•
The size of the file is less than 200 KB. Download the file and copy it to a floppy
disk.
Step 2: Installation
•
On each PC, copy the content of the floppy disk to directory /root/swinstall on the
PC. If the directory /root/swinstall does not exists, create it.:
#mkdir /root/swinstall
#mcopy a:internetlab-rh90-20030604.zip /root/swinstall
•
Install the software and configuration files with the following commands:
#cd /root/swinstall
#unzip internetlab-rh90-20030604.zip
#cd hosts
#./autoconf_hosts
#cd ../labtools
#./autoconf_labtools
These commands will execute scripts that copy modify the configuration of the
Linux setting, and install additional software. Follow the instructions on the
screen. When the installation is complete, reboot the PC.
Step 3: Repeat for other PCs
•
Repeat Steps 1-2 for each PC in the Internet Lab.
CONFIGURATION OF PCS AND ROUTERS - PAGE 8
Note:
Since the installation in Step 2 put the PC to a known state, execute
step 2, whenever you want to reset the configuration of the PCs. You
can edit the
Setting up a Cisco Router
This section discusses the setup for the Cisco routers in the Internet Lab. The Cisco
routers in the lab should run IOS 11.2 or a later version. Each router must have 2
Ethernet interfaces (10 Mbps or 100 Mbps) and one synchronous serial interface.
There are numerous Cisco routers that are suitable for the Internet lab: Cisco 2514, Cisco
2611 with a serial WAN interface card, or Cisco 36xx, Cisco 7xxxx with suitable interface
cards.
Label the routers as Router1, Router2, Router3, and Router4. You may also want to label
the interfaces.
Step 1: Starting a router
A router is started by turning on the power switch. The operating system (IOS) boots from
NVRAM or flash memory. If the router has a slotted chassis, then the interface cards must
be installed in the slots of the router. Insert an Ethernet interface card in slot 0 and a
synchronous serial interface in slot 1.
Step 2: Establishing a serial connection
Connect the console port of the router via a serial cable to the serial port of a PC or a
dumb terminal. The console port of recent Cisco routers have a RJ-45 connector with
rollover cabling.
If you are connecting to the console port from the serial console of a PC, you need a DB-9
to RJ-45 adaptor. Older PCs routers have a DB-25 connector at the console port, and
require different adapters.
Step 3: Accessing the router using Kermit
If you are working on a Linux PC, create a kermit session to establish a command
interface to the router. Instructions can be found in Part 2 of Lab 3. Start kermit by typing.
Here is the sequence of commands:
PC1% kermit
[/root]C-kermit>
[/root]C-kermit> set line /dev/ttyS0 (or /dev/ttyS1)
[/root]C-kermit> set carrier-watch off
[/root]C-kermit> connect
Router1>
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IOS Configuration of the Cisco Routers
The following instructions set the default configuration for the Cisco routers.
New router
If you have a new Cisco Router, and access the router for the first time, the router enters the
initial configuration (“setup”) mode, where IOS asks to type a few configuration settings.
These configurations do not require knowledge of IOS commands. See the Cisco website or
the manual of the router for additional information. If you perform the initial configuration
dialogue, set the following configurations (here shown for Router1):
•
Set the hostname to Router1.
•
Set the required passwords (enable secret, enable password, virtual terminal
password). We suggest selecting all passwords to be identical. Make sure you write
down the password.
•
When asked about configuring a protocol, answer “no” to all questions, except to the
question to configure IP.
•
Eventually, IOS display a list of available interfaces. There should be 2 Ethernet
interfaces (Ethernet0 and Ethernet1, Ethernet0/0 and Ethernet0/1, or FastEthernet0/0
and FastEthernet0/1), and two serial WAN interfaces (Serial0 and Serial1, Serial1/0 and
Serial1/1).
Only configure the IP addresses of the two Ethernet interfaces. Do not configure the
other interfaces. Set the IP addresses and subnet masks, as shown in the table below.
Select the default for other configuration decisions.
Cisco
Router
•
Interface Ethernet1
or Ethernet0/1
or FastEthernet0/1
Interface Ethernet0
or Ethernet0/0
or FastEthernet0/0
Router1
IP address
Netmask
10.0.1.1
255.255.255.0
IP address
Netmask
10.0.2.1
255.255.255.0
Router2
IP address
Netmask
10.0.1.2
255.255.255.0
IP address
Netmask
10.0.2.2
255.255.255.0
Router3
IP address
Netmask
10.0.1.3
255.255.255.0
IP address
Netmask
10.0.2.3
255.255.255.0
Router4
IP address
Netmask
10.0.1.4
255.255.255.0
IP address
Netmask
10.0.2.4
255.255.255.0
Continue with the instructions for used routers.
CONFIGURATION OF PCS AND ROUTERS - PAGE 10
Used router
For a used router, you need to have the enable secret password available. When the router is
new, the enable secrete is chosen in the initial configuration. Otherwise, you must know the
enable secret. If you do not have the password, consult the Cisco website and find
information on resetting the passwords of a router.
If the router is new, and you have set the IP addresses in the initial configuration, only type
the commands in bold.
Below are the commands for Router1. Below the password is set to root.
>enable
# config term
(config)# hostname Router1
(config)# enable secret rootroot
(config)# no ip domain-lookup
(config)# no cdp run
(config)# interface Ethernet 0/0 (or eth0, fast0/0)
(config-if)# ip address 10.0.1.1 255.255.255.0
(config-if)# no shutdown
(config-if)# no cdp enable
(config-if)# interface Ethernet 0/1 (or eth1, fast0/1)
(config-if)# ip address 10.0.2.1 255.255.255.0
(config-if)# no shutdown
(config-if)# no cdp enable
(config-if)# line vty 0 4
(config-line)# login
(config-line)# password rootroot
(config-if)# end
(config)# show interface
(config)# write mem
(config)# exit
Now, when the router is rebooted, it has the IP addresses of the interfaces Ethernet 0/0 and
Ethernet 0/1 already configured. You can view the current configuration by typing:
>enable
# show startup-config
CONFIGURATION OF PCS AND ROUTERS - PAGE 11