NEW!
100% maintenance
free program
Bosch Batteries:
Optimal starting power for all vehicles
The right Bosch battery for most vehicles.
S3: The economical energy source for standard performance requirements
S4: The powerful energy source for every vehicle
S5: The premium energy source for high performance requirements
1
2 Contents
Nationwide Warranty
Page
Bosch batteries are warranted to be of merchantable quality and fit for the purpose for which they have been designed
and ordinarily used under normal use and service.
2
Contents
3
Nationwide warranty
4-5
Bosch battery types
6
S3 battery - features and benefits
7
S4 battery - features and benefits
8-9
S5 battery - features and benefits
10
Strong brand and recycling
11
Development of energy consumption of new cars
12-13
Technical data
14
Product interchange
15
Notes
For further information, please contact your Bosch stockist.
16
1. Introduction
www.bosch.com.au
16
1.1 Safety warnings and standards
16
2. Battery recharging procedures
16
2.1 Battery charging indicators
16
2.2 Steps prior to charging
17
2.3 Recharging with a constant current
17
2.4 Recharging with a constant voltage
17
2.5 Actions during and after recharging
18
3. Battery usage and defects
18
3.1 Jump start
18
3.2 Battery installation and removal
19
3.3 Taking the vehicle out of service
19
3.4 Technical information on battery problems
19
3.4.1 Manufacturing defects
19
3.4.2 Mishandling and warranty exclusion
20
3.4.2 Mishandling and warranty exclusion
21
3.5 Checking for malfunction by load tester
21
4. Inspection, storage and stacking
21
4.1 Inspection on receipt of goods
22
4.2 Storage
22
4.3 Stacking
23
FAQs
24
FAQs
25
FAQs
26
FAQs
27
FAQs
The warranty period commences on the date of purchase. Proof of purchase is required to process a warranty claim. The
warranty period is as follows: Private vehicles - S3 24months, S4 36 months, S5 36 months; Truck/Commercial/Industrial/
Bosch Battery
Program
4x4 - 12 months; Taxis: 3 months.
The warranty is for replacement of the battery only and does not include any labour costs, consequential losses or other
expenses. The warranty is void if a battery fails due to faulty installation, overcharging, deliberate abuse, neglect or
incorrect use, negligence, alterations, accidents or failure to follow instructions. The warranty is provided in addition to any conditions or warranties imposed or implied by any applicable law.
Technical
Information
Frequently Asked
Questions
3
Optimal starting power for all vehicles
The leaders in battery development
Bosch Battery S3 Bosch has been manufacturing batteries since
Maintenance free and provides economical and
1927 when battery ignition for motor vehicles was
reliable power for standard vehicle applications.
first introduced. Since that time the demands on
batteries have increased significantly with the
Bosch Battery S4 introduction of features such as electric windows,
A powerful maintenance free energy source with
air conditioning, ABS and airbags. With unmatched
long service life and low self-discharge. Suitable for
expertise in automotive electrical systems, Bosch
virtually all passenger vehicles.
has kept pace with these developments and now
provides a range of batteries which meet the
Bosch Battery S5 demands of modern vehicles.
Premium maintenance free battery for high
performance. Includes Silver Alloy technology to
Compact program, comprehensive coverage
ensure the highest level of starting power and longer
The Bosch battery program offers comprehensive
service life.
Clear assignment of the Bosch battery types
Reliable performance
Premium performance and value
Maximum performance and extra long life
Product Features
and Benefits
Factory sealed Maintenance Free
Factory sealed Maintenance Free
Factory sealed Maintenance Free
Expanded grid Calcium Calcium technology
provides Long Service Life
High density expanded grid Calcium Calcium
technology provides Longer Service Life
Silver technology further resists heat and
corrosion providing Extra Long Service Life
Nationwide Warranty
for private use
vehicles
24 months
36 months
36 months
Standard vehicles
Standard vehicles with additional electronic
devices eg. Driving lights, reverse sensors etc.
Modern vehicles with many electronic devices
and 4WD’s
Refer to details on page 3
Suitable Applications
market coverage within a compact program. Three
levels of performance are available, each colour
coded to make selecting the right battery easy.
4 5
Powerful start to every journey
Power windows and mirrors
Radio and instrument display
Powerful start to every journey
Electrical seat heating in rear
Cockpit and steering wheel electronics
Bosch Battery S3: Economic power.
Dependable starting
Bosch Battery S4:
Strong power for every vehicle
The Bosch Battery S3 is an economic solution, suitable for a
Advantages of the Bosch Battery S3
Vehicles come in all shapes and sizes, each with varying
Advantages of the Bosch Battery S4
wide range of passenger vehicles, trucks and other commercial
Maintenance free
electrical needs. The Bosch Battery S4 meets the electrical
Maintenance free
vehicles with few energy consuming components. It provides
High performance
demands of a wide range of vehicles, ensuring a dependable
15 % more cold-starting power
dependable starting power and is maintenance free.
Long service life
supply of power to keep the energy consuming components
20 % increased service life with innovative silver
Good, reliable Bosch quality
working properly at all times.
Best solution for conversion of conventional
range
Economic power supply
alloy
Safely ensures the energy supply of medium
convenience features in a vehicle
Permanently meets the high requirements of
Minimised self discharge rate
international auto manufacturers regarding
Strong performance against corrosion
electrical values
Suitable for most passenger vehicles
Quality and reliability
Bosch batteries are built to start in virtually any
outside temperature. Their innovative grid
technology also makes them resistant to high
temperatures inside the engine chamber which
often exceed 100°C. At the same time, acid
consumption and corrosion are minimised. This
translates into minimum self-discharge, tolerance
for short-distance driving and perfect operational
6 safety throughout their entire service life.
7
Bosch Battery S5: Premium energy for
highest performance.
Are your customers looking for the highest starting power? Increased service life
Advantages of the Bosch Battery S5
and safety? Then look no further than the Bosch Battery S5. Specifically
Innovative Bosch Silver Technology
designed with Silver Alloy Technology, the S5 surpasses international standards
set by original equipment manufacturers. Even at extreme temperatures the S5
provides safe and powerful energy supply for highly sophisticated, energy
Maintenance-free Dependable supply of power for vehicles with
additional safety features such as ESP and ABS.
30 % more cold-starting power
Minimal self-discharge
Safe starting also in extreme temperatures
Extreme short-distance tolerance
30 % increased service life
Maximum safety with:
Fulfils and surpasses original equipment
- Leak-proof, patented labyrinth cap
- Double backfire protection
recommendations
consuming components.
Electric seat settings
8 Display-supported setting for seat heating
On-board navigation
On-board tv
9
The Battery Expertise of Bosch:
Safety and Convenience for Every Use
The Quality Battery Program of Bosch
Longer Service Life
The battery program of Bosch, the world’s leading
Today’s enclosed engines are really putting the heat
automotive supplier, has the right battery for most
on car batteries. Whereas 20 years ago, temperatures
automotive applications, covering up to 90 % of
in the engine chamber wouldn’t climb above 50°C,
the market.
today they often exceed 100°C. The employment of
Bosch Silver Technology considerably reduces
Smart Starting and More
corrosion caused by heat, significantly increasing the
With their extremely high capacity and cold-start
service life of batteries.
currents, Bosch batteries provide reliable starting
power in virtually any outside temperature. Their
innovative grid technology makes these energy
packs resistant to high temperatures in the engine
chamber. At the same time, water consumption
and corrosion are significantly reduced. This
translates into minimum self-discharge, extreme
tolerance for short-distance driving and perfect
operational safety throughout their entire service
life.
The development of energy consumption of new cars
Strong Brand, Strong Power
Bosch Battery S5
Bosch technologies are continuously developed in close
Bosch Battery S4
cooperation with car manufacturers. This ensures that
Bosch remains at the cutting-edge of automotive
Bosch Battery S3
technology, delivering products that meet the increasing
Bosch has specific expertise in engine management and
electrical systems and has applied this knowledge in the
development of the new battery program.
The Battery Recycling System of Bosch
Take your old battery back to your local
Bosch battery stockist for disposal.
2000
1990
demands of modern vehicles.
2003
2007
Convenience CD,
features
air conditioning
+Seats, windows, + DVD, navigation, +Auxiliary heating
sunroof
telephone, sen-
sors, seat heating
Safety
features
+ ESP
System
features
ABS
–
–
–
+Braking systems, electromagnetic control systems
–
+Catalytic con-
verter heating, air cooling
Bosch batteries are designed to handle the increasing energy demands of modern vehicles.
The new Bosch battery program
10 11
Technical Data
Bosch
20Ah RC
Part
Rate
Technical Data
CCA CCA
Length Width
Norm (mm)
(mm)
Number
Total
Gross Terminal
Height Wt
(mm)
Terminal Bottom Terminal
Layout
(Kg)
Hold
Layout
Down
S3
Bosch
20Ah RC
CCA CCA
Part
Rate
Length Width
Norm (mm)
(mm)
Number
Total
Gross Terminal
Height Wt
(mm)
Terminal Bottom Terminal
Layout
(Kg)
Hold
Layout
Down
S4 (cont.) 54316
43
70
420
SAE
211
175
175
12.3
STD
(- +)
B3/B4
A
80D23L
70
120
560
BCI
229
172
225
16.7
STD
(- +)
B7
A
55457
54
90
500
SAE
245
175
175
14.10 STD
(- +)
B3
A
80D23R
70
120
560
BCI
229
172
225
16.7
STD
(+ -)
B7
B
55458
54
90
500
SAE
245
175
175
14.10 STD
(+ -)
B3
B
90D26L
75
140
620
BCI
260
172
225
18.8
STD
(- +)
B7
A
56318
63
110
580
SAE
277
175
175
16.50 STD
(- +)
B3/B4
A
90D26R
75
140
620
BCI
260
172
225
18.8
STD
(+ -)
B7
B
56638
66
110
580
SAE
278
175
190
16.80 STD
(- +)
B3
A
DC24
70
120
500
BCI
275
172
229
20.3
MRN
(+ -)
B7
B
56640
66
110
580
SAE
278
175
190
16.80 STD
(+ -)
B3
B
DC27
80
145
570
BCI
320
172
229
23.7
MRN
(+ -)
B7
B
58513
85
140
740
SAE
303
173
225
21.50 STD
(- +)
B0
A
DC31
100
180
625
BCI
330
172
234
27
MRN
CENTRE B0
G
58515
85
140
740
SAE
353
175
175
21.8
STD
(- +)
B3
A
M24
65
115
490
BCI
275
172
229
19.3
MRN
(+ -)
B7
B
115F51
120
230
900
SAE
505
183
240
33.00 STD
(+ -)
B0
D
M27
105
160
570
BCI
320
172
229
24.26 MRN
(+ -)
B7
B
145G51
150
300
1000 SAE
508
222
241
39.00 STD
(+ -)
B0
D
M31
190H52
200
430
1150 SAE
523
279
248
55.00 STD
(+ -)
B0
D
180
440
625
BCI
1300 BCI
330
510
172
275
234
238
26.5
57.5
MRN
STD
CENTRE B0
(- +)
B0
G
D
22F-530
56
95
530
240 174 205 15.0 (- +)
B9
A
100
N200(L) (8D-1300) 210
N200(R) (8D-1300) 210
440
1300 BCI
510
275
238
57.5
STD
(+ -)
B0
E
BCI
STD
22F-530DF
56
95
530
BCI
240 174 211 15.0 DF
(- +)
B9
A
U1-260
26
33
260
JIS
196
126
184
7.8
LUG
(- +)
B0
A
22FR-530
56
95
530
BCI
240 174 205 15.0 STD
(+ -)
B9
B
U1R-260
26
33
260
JIS
196
126
184
7.8
LUG
(+ -)
B0
B
31-930
112
190
930
BCI
330
173
240
26.00 STUD/STD CENTRE B0
B
S5
40B19L
35
49
300
SAE
187
127
226
10.00 SMALL
(- +)
B0
A
22F-680
60
105
680
BCI
240
172
205
15.2
STD
(- +)
B9
A
40B19LS
35
49
300
SAE
187
127
226
10.00 STD
(- +)
B0
A
22FR-680
60
105
680
BCI
240
172
205
15.2
STD
(+ -)
B9
B
40B19R
35
49
300
SAE
187
127
226
10.00 SMALL
(+ -)
B0
B
90D23L
75
125
650
BCI
229
172
225
17.3
STD
(- +)
B7
A
40B19RS
35
49
300
SAE
187
127
226
10.00 STD
(+ -)
B0
B
90D23R
75
125
650
BCI
229
172
225
17.3
STD
(+ -)
B7
B
55B24L
45
80
430
SAE
238
129
225
12.50 SMALL
(- +)
B0
A
110D26L
90
160
680
BCI
260
172
225
20.7
STD
(- +)
B7
A
55B24LS
45
80
430
SAE
238
129
225
12.50 STD
(- +)
B0
A
110D26R
90
160
680
BCI
260
172
225
20.7
STD
(+ -)
B7
B
55B24R
45
80
430
SAE
238
129
225
12.50 SMALL
(+ -)
B0
B
125D31L
92
165
760
BCI
305
172
225
22.3
STD
(- +)
B7
A
55B24RS
45
80
430
SAE
238
129
225
12.50 STD
(+ -)
B0
B
125D31R
92
165
760
BCI
305
172
225
22.3
STD
(+ -)
B7
B
55D23L
60
100
500
SAE
232
173
225
15.80 STD
(- +)
B0
A
55D23R
60
100
500
SAE
232
173
225
15.80 STD
(+ -)
B0
B
55D26L
60
100
500
SAE
260
173
222
16.00 STD
(- +)
B0
A
55D26R
60
100
500
SAE
260
173
222
16.00 STD
(+ -)
B0
B
75D31L
75
120
630
SAE
303
173
225
21.00 STD
(- +)
B0
A
75D31R
75
120
630
SAE
303
173
225
21.00 STD
(+ -)
B0
B
95D31L
90
145
730
SAE
303
173
225
22.00 STD
(- +)
B0
A
95D31R
90
145
730
SAE
303
173
225
22.00 STD
(+ -)
B0
B
95E41
100
180
830
SAE
410
175
235
25.50 STD
(+ -)
B0
B
AU22-530DF
56
95
530
BCI
231 169 211 15.0 DF
(- +)
B0
A
AU22R-530
56
95
530
BCI
231 169 205 15.0 STD
(+ -)
B0
B
U1-230
23
30
230
BCI
197
136
186
7.00
LUG
(+ -)
B0
B
U1R-230
23
30
230
BCI
197
136
186
7.00
LUG
(- +)
B0
A
S4
105D31L
90
160
710
BCI
305
172
225
22.45 STD
(- +)
B7
A
105D31R
90
160
710
BCI
305
172
225
22.45 STD
(+ -)
B7
B
130E41R
110
190
700
BCI
406
172
231
29.2
STD
(+ -)
B0
B
150F51
135
245
1005 BCI
503
182
231
35.4
STD
(- +)
B0
A
165G51
150
300
1050 BCI
507
213
231
42.6
STD
(- +)
B0
A
22F-610
55
90
610
BCI
240
172
205
15.2
STD
(- +)
B9
A
22F-610FD
55
90
610
BCI
240
172
209
15.3
DF
(- +)
B9
A
22FR-610
55
90
610
BCI
240
172
205
15.2
STD
(+ -)
B9
B
22NF-330D
40
60
330
BCI
238
134
204
11.2
DF
CENTRE B9
G
31-901
100
160
900
BCI
330
173
239
25
STD
CENTRE B0
G
42B19LS
38
52
340
BCI
186
129
227
10
STD
(- +)
B0
A
42B19RS
38
52
340
BCI
186
129
227
10
STD
(+ -)
B0
B
12 Abbreviations
B0
No bottom hold down
B1
2 bottom hold-downs 10.5mm high on long sides
B3
4 bottom hold-downs 10.5mm high on all four sides
B4
2 bottom hold-downs 19mm high on long sides
B3/B4 B4 BHD available with adaptor on long sides
B7
2 bottom hold-downs 9.7mm high on long sides
B9
4 bottom hold-downs 10.5mm high on long sides, 29mm on short sides
BN
Bolt nut terminal
DF
Dual fit terminal
SM
Small terminal
STD
Standard terminal
TM
Twin marine
Assembly Layout
A
B
–
D
+
+
E
+
–
C
–
+
–
–
+
F
+
–
G
+
–
13
Product Interchange
Notes
Competitor
Bosch
Competitor
Bosch
Competitor
Bosch
Part Number
Replacement
Part Number
Replacement
Part Number
Replacement
22F530SMF 22F-530
MF40B20DF
40B19R
NS60LS
55B24LS
22F530SMFDF
22F-530DF
MF40B20L
40B19L
NS60RS
55B24RS
22F600SMFDF
22F-610FD
MF43
22NF-330D
NS60S
55B24RS
22FR530SMF
22FR-530
MF50 22FR-610
NS70 55D26R
22FR600SMF
22FR-610
MF50 22FR-530
NS70L
55D26L
41
22NF-330D
MF52
22F-610FD
NS70LX
90D26L
43
22NF-330D
MF52
AU22-530DF
NS70X
90D26R
46
22NF-330D
MF52
22F-530DF
S40B20L
40B19L
47
22NF-330D
MF53
22F-610
S40B20LS
40B19LS
51
22NF-330D
MF53
22F-530
S40B20R
40B19R
53
22NF-330D
MF54
AU22R-530
S40B20RS
40B19RS
55D23L
55D23L
MF55B24LS
55B24LS
S54316
54316
55D23R
55D23R
MF55B24RS
55B24RS
S55457
55457
57
22FR-530
MF75D23L
80D23L
S55458
55458
57EF
AU22R-530
MF75D23R
80D23R
S55B24LS
55B24LS
58
22F-530DF
MF80D26L
90D26L
S55B24RS
55B24RS
58EB
AU22-530DF
MF80D26R
90D26R
S55D23L
55D23L
58VT
22F-530
MF95D31L
95D31L
S55D23R 55D23R
67
22FR-610
MF95D31R
95D31R
S55D26L
55D26L
68
22F-610FD
N70ZZ 75D31R
S55D26R 55D26R
68VT
22F-610
N70ZZ4WD
95D31R
S56318
56318
AU22530SMFDF
AU22-530DF
N70ZZH
95D31R
S56638
56638
AU22R530SMF
AU22R-530
N70ZZL 75D31L
S56640
56640
DIN44
54316
N70ZZL4WD
95D31L
S58515
58515
DIN44LMF
54316
N70ZZLH
95D31L
S70D23L
80D23L
DIN53L
55457
NS40Z
40B19R
S70D23R
80D23R
DIN53LMF
55457
N70ZZX
75D31R
S75D31L 75D31L
DIN53RMF
55458
N70ZZLX
75D31L
S75D31R 75D31R
DIN65L
56318
NS40ZL
40B19L
S80D26L
90D26L
DIN65LMF
56318
NS40ZLS 40B19LS
S80D26R
90D26R
DIN65RMF
56640
NS40ZLSX
42B19LS
S85B60L 22F-610
DIN85L
58515
NS40ZS 40B19RS
S95D31LHD
95D31L
DIN92LMF 58515
NS40ZSX
42B19RS
S95D31RHD
95D31R
Whilst every care has been taken in the preperation of this publication Bosch cannot guarantee the accuracy of
the information. Bosch does not therefore warrant the accuracy or completeness of the information contained
herein. Further, Bosch reserves the right to alter specifications and its product range without notice. To the
extent permitted by law, Bosch excludes all liability including negligence for any loss incurred in reliance on the
contents of this publication. From time to time, Bosch may (in its discretion) issue bulletins containing updates
to this information to which users of this publication should have regard.
14 15
Technical Information
1.
Technical Information
Introduction
This manual provides essential information on
the operation, characteristics, design, handling
and charging of lead-acid batteries as well as
the correct procedures for using, stocking and
maintaining batteries for road vehicles, in addition
to providing information on the main areas of care
needed to be taken for the safety of staff who work
with Bosch batteries, so as to get the most from
our products and for customer satisfaction.
1.1
uu Do not switch on the charger until battery has
been connected. Do not switch off the charger
until charging is complete.
First aid:
uu Drops of acid coming into contact
with eyes should be rinsed for several
minutes using clear water. Then consult
a doctor without delay.
uu Only use batteries with the same capacity and
same state of charge in the same circuit. This
prevents the slightly discharged batteries from
being overcharged when connected to the same
circuit as a battery that needs a longer time to
recharge.
uu If acid is swallowed, drink plenty of
water and consult a doctor immediately.
Warning:
uu The enclosure becomes brittle with time,
therefore: Do not expose batteries to
direct sunlight.
uu It is dangerous to use tools such as
hammers on the battery terminal when
connecting cables.
uu Never rub with dry cloth on the battery
casing. This might produce sparks
because of electrostatic discharges and
can cause an explosion.
Wear eye protection as a precautionary
measure when working on the battery.
uu All of the batteries for recharging should have
their density and/or open voltage checked, so that
the batteries could be grouped (based on state
of charge) for the purpose of placing them in the
right circuit for the recharging process.
Disposal:
uu Dispose old batteries at a battery
collection point.
uu Never dispose old batteries as
household waste.
Keep acid and filled batteries out of reach
of children. Keep out of reach of children
when working on the battery.
uu Do not let electrolyte penetrate into
the sewage system, the soil or into
groundwater.
Corrosive hazard:
uu The item is hazardous according to the
criteria of Work Safe Australia.
uu Avoid short-circuits. Never connect the
positive terminal to the negative terminal
of the same battery because it will
cause a short circuit. A short circuit can
cause burns, fire or the explosion of the
battery.
uu Clean with damp cloth only and wear
appropriate clothing. Dry cleaning cloth
might become electrically charged and
produce sparks.
Danger of explosion:
uu An explosive oxyhydrogen gas mixture
is formed when batteries are charged.
Explosive gases can cause blindness and
injury.
Corrosive hazard:
uu Battery acid is extremely corrosive. The
acid can cause burns and blindness.
Under normal operation conditions,
there should be no contact with the
electrolyte (diluted sulphuric acid).
Please note that when the battery casing
of a battery with fixed electrolyte is
destroyed or damaged, bound electrolyte
in glass fibre mats or jellified electrolyte
is as corrosive as when liquid.
uu Wear protective gloves and goggles.
uu Do not tilt the battery permitting acid to
leak out of vent openings.
2.
2.1
Battery Recharging Procedures
Battery Charging Indicators
Charging of the battery is required when the:
uu Storage period is more than 6 months without
charging.
2.2
The recharging time depends on the state of charge
of the battery.
35-40
41-50
51-65
66-75
76-90
91-110
70%
3X4
4X4
5X4
6X4
6X5
7X5
12.4 12.49
60%
3X6
4X6
5X6
6X6
6X7
7X7
12.3 12.39
50%
3X8
4X8
5X8
6X8
6X9
7X10
12.2 12.29
40%
3X10
4X10
5X10
6X10
6X12
7X12
12.112.19
30%
3X13
4X12
5X12
6X12
6X14
7X15
Below
12.09
20%
3X15
4X14
5X14
6X14
6X16
7X17
uu If the battery has accessible screw-in plugs, check
the electrolyte level in each cell and top up with
distilled water if necessary.
Battery voltage when empty
(volts)
Recharging Time (hours)
12.00 to 12.20
6 to 12
11.80 to 11.99
10 to 16
11.50 to 11.79
16 to 20
11.00 to 11.49
20 to 24
Deeply discharged batteries
24 to 30
Warning: the battery temperature must not exceed
50°C during the recharging process.
2.5
Actions During and After Recharging
uu Electrolyte Temperature
The electrolyte temperature, hence the battery
container temparature must not exceed 50°C.
Battery capacity (20Ah)
12.5 12.59
uu Do not charge damaged or frozen battery.
The battery charging time will vary according to its
state of charge, as shown in the table below:
Example: 45Ah battery.
Recharging Current: 45 x 0.1 = 4.5A (10% of the
nominal capacity of the battery).
Recharging with a Constant Voltage
When using this charging method, the initial
current applied to the battery should be limited to
25A and the voltage to 14.4V.
When recharging the battery with a constant
current, the voltage will increase slowly during the
recharging. Towards the end, the voltage increases
rapidly and the process should be stopped at the
voltage value limit.
uu Battery operating current voltage (OCV) is less than
12.4V.
uu Do not carry out charging near fire or spark.
2.4
Recharging with a Constant Current
State
of
charge
uu Boost charge is not recommended.
16 2.3
OCV in
stable
conditon
uu Wear protective glasses whilst handling the
battery.
uu Some batteries below 12.1V can be hard to recharge due to the long time elapsed since the last
re-charge. It is very difficult to recover its original
performance.
Check that the connections (lugs) make good
contact by twisting them slightly while pressing
them onto the pole.
uu Colour of state of charge (SOC) indicator turns
black.
Steps Prior to Charging
uu Avoid quick charges that are done without
controlling the temperature, current or time.
Warning: Never connect the positive pole to the
negative pole of the same battery or in the same
series, as this will cause a short circuit.
uu If a battery with glass fibre materials
is destroyed or damaged, the released
fibre material must be disposed in line
with the official local regulations.
Fire, sparks, naked flames and smoking
are prohibited:
uu Avoid creating sparks when handling
cables and electrical equipment as
well as those caused by electrostatic
discharge.
uu Always charge the battery according to the amount
of charge needed. Prolonged charging times,
especially with a constant current, could cause
the battery to become overcharged, causing an
unnecessary loss of water in the process.
uu Batteries must always be connected in series,
that is, the positive pole of a battery should be
connected to the negative pole of the neighbouring
battery, thus the positive pole of the first battery
and the negative pole of the last battery will always
be open.
uu Discharged batteries can freeze so store
in a place where they are protected from
frost.
Observe the information on the battery,
the battery’s operating manual and the
vehicle’s operating manual.
uu The above table shows approximate Ah and
charging hours needed for recharging according to
the battery capacity and the OCV under a constant
current charging method. Accordingly, the Ah or
the charging hours may be adjusted depending on
the type and the state of the charged battery.
uu Position the batteries so that there is a space of at
least 20mm between them.
uu Drops of acid on the skin or clothes
should be neutralized immediately using
acid neutralizer or soap suds and rinsed
with plenty of water.
Safety Warnings and Standards
Note:
Warning: The battery temperature must not exceed
50°C during the recharging process.
The recharging process should be stopped if this
temperature is exceeded.
The process may be resumed once all batteries in
the recharging circuit reach 45°C or less.
uu Recharging Time
We recommend waiting approximately 20 minutes
to allow gases to dissipate before removing the
leads from the batteries, as some chargers remain
in a charged state and can generate sparks. Replace
the vent caps and gas tubes if they were removed.
Wash the battery using warm water and dry it.
17
Technical Information
3.
3.1
Technical Information
(2) Donor battery
Battery Usage and Defects
+
Jump Start
When performing a jump start using jumper cables,
there can be bursts of high voltage of hundreds of
volts when connecting the cables. If the vehicle’s
electrical system is not protected against such
surges, they can cause damage to sensitive
electronic components, like the ABS system, the
airbags control units, etc.
Please follow the vehicle
operating instructions!
+
12 V
uu Before giving starting aid, try to figure out the
reason for the battery weakness. If the reason is
a failure in the vehicle electrical system, starting
aid should not be given. The battery or the electric
system of the vehicle giving starting aid might
become damaged.
uu Warning: Always protect your eyes and hands from
the battery.
How to do it: 4 easy steps
1. Turn off both vehicle engines.
2. Connect the positive terminals (1) and (2) and then
connect the charged battery’s negative terminal
(3) with a bare metallic point (4) away from the
battery of the vehicle requiring assistance.
3. Start the engine in the vehicle providing assistance,
followed by the engine in the vehicle requiring
assistance for a maximum of 15 seconds.
4. Disconnect the cables in reverse order (4-3-2-1).
Use only standard jumper cables for connecting
the batteries. Connect only batteries with the
same nominal voltage.
Before performing a jump start, try to find out
what caused the battery failure. If the cause was
a fault in the electrical system, do not jump start.
The battery or the electrical system of the vehicle
providing the jump start could be damaged.
18 Taking the Vehicle out of Service
When a vehicle is taken out of service (for example,
when it is used only seasonally), charge up the
battery and store it in a cool place. If it is necessary
to leave the battery in the vehicle, disconnect the
negative terminal. Check the OCV of the battery
every two months. If the OCV is below 12.4V,
recharge the battery.
–
(3)
(4)
uu Do not attempt to jump start a damaged battery.
uu Only use standardised battery jumper cables. Only
connect batteries of the same nominal voltage.
3.3
12 V
–
manufacturer’s
uu When giving starting aid with jumper cables, high
voltage peaks of several hundred volts can occur
when connecting the cables. If the vehicle electrical
system is not protected from these peaks, they can
damage sensitive electronic components.
7. At least one vent must remain open to avoid the
risk of an explosion.
(1) Weak battery
3.2
Important:
far away from the
battery
3.4
Technical Information on Battery
Problems
3.4.1
Manufacturing Defects
Short Circuit / Dead Cell
Battery Installation and Removal
Modern vehicles are equipped with sensitive
electrical systems such as airbag controllers,
ABS, stability and traction control units, onboard
computers etc. For some vehicles, it is necessary
to follow certain procedures in order to install or
take the battery out of service. For example, the
electrical components may require resetting after
they have been turned off.
If a battery has a service life that is less than 12
months, the problem is usually caused by a dead
cell, that is, one of the cells has a density value that
is much lower than the others. The affected cell
bubbles visibly during the high-discharge test. To
evaluate the density, a high-discharge test should
be carried out. In some cases, the dead cell may
be visible in the form of a sulphated cell.
Please follow the vehicle
operating instructions!
Internal Breakage
manufacturer’s
The battery has good density values, but the voltage
across the terminals cannot be measured.
1. Switch off the engine and all electrical equipment
before installing or removing the battery.
2. Install only batteries that are fully charged and
undamaged.
3. Install the type of battery recommended for the
particular vehicle.
4. Avoid causing short-circuits with tools or cables.
After having installed the battery in the vehicle,
remove the covers from the terminal poles just
before connecting the cables to the terminals.
5. For removing, disconnect the negative terminal (-) first and then the positive terminal (+). Before
installing the battery, clean the surface inside
the vehicle. Fix the battery safely and securely.
If the battery is not securely installed, it will be
subjected to a larger degree of vibration which
can reduce its service life. Friction between the
battery container and the support area can cause
damage and wear to the container. Also, the
container can rupture, causing the electrolyte to
leak out.
6. Clean the battery terminals and its lugs.
Lubricate them lightly with acid-free grease.
When installing, connect the positive terminal (+)
first, then the negative terminal (-). Check that
the terminal lugs are firmly in place. Make use of
the accessories from the previous battery such as
hose connections, terminal supports and covers
for terminals. Use the top-up caps supplied.
3.4.2
Mishandling and Warranty Exclusion
The following technical problems are caused
by mishandling the battery. Such cases are not
subject to warranty.
Low State of Charge
A low state of charge is the first stage of deep
discharge. With a low state of charge, the active
material will not have sustained any damage.
The battery can still be charged with a standard
charger.
The causes of a low state of charge are:
uu A defective alternator.
uu A low voltage output from the regulator.
Deep Discharge
A battery suffers a deep discharge when its
capacity is totally used up. The longer the
battery remains in this state, the greater will
be the damage done to the active material. The
plates begin to suffer sulphation and recharging
becomes impossible. This damage is irreversible.
Possible causes of deep discharge are:
uu See ‘Causes of Low State of Charge’
uu Headlights or other electrical equipment are not
switched off.
A battery in a good state of charge will usually
have a load-free voltage >12.6V. Therefore, the
voltage without charge for each cell is about
2.1V. If there is a short circuit in just a single cell,
this will result in a reduction of about 2.1V of the
terminal voltage, which would be a typical ‘shortcircuit’ voltage of 10.5V. The likelihood of two
cells within the same battery having a short circuit
is very low. In the case of two cells with short
circuits, the OCV drops by 4.2V to a value of 8.4V.
In order to exclude the effects of long shipment
and storage times on the terminal voltage, as well
as the possibility of two cells with short circuits
etc., only batteries with a load-free voltage lower
than 8 volts are regarded as deeply discharged
and a claim on warranty will be rejected.
Sulphation
If a battery is left in a discharged state for an
excessive period of time, there will be a chemical
reaction known as sulphation, which will
certainly compromise its performance. During the
discharge process, lead sulphate is generated on
the positive and negative plates and distributed
evenly among them.
The longer the battery is left in a discharged state,
the more the small sulphate crystals grow into
larger crystals and it becomes very difficult to
convert these back into lead dioxide. Sulphation
can become visible in the form of a white/grey
layer on the plates. In most cases, this damage
is irreversible and the battery cannot be used
anymore.
uu High contact resistances caused by loose cable
connections or dirt on the cable terminals.
uu Slack drive belts.
uu Insufficient engine running time due to short
journey times.
uu Subsequent addition of electrical equipment.
uu Defective
discharge.
equipment
causing
continuous
Figure 1 – Picture of a battery with deep discharge and
sulphation
19
Technical Information
Sulphation can either occur during storage or if
the battery is installed in a vehicle (or equipment)
that is not used for a long period of time. While
in a vehicle, the battery is constantly drained by
the clock, the alarm system, etc., resulting in a
decrease in the level of charge of the battery and,
after a certain period of time, sulphation of the
plates. However, even a disconnected battery
undergoes sulphation due to self-discharge.
Technical Information
3.5
Checking of Appearance
- Damage(Case, Cover, Post)
- Leaking of Acid & ETC..
Figure 2 – Without acid stratification
The causes of sulphation can be summed up as
follows:
Sulphation (lead sulphate) impedes the chemical
reaction between the acid (electrolyte) and the
active material (made up of lead) on the plates
and it prevents normal operation of the battery.
Even after recharging, the voltage will be low
(< 12.4V), but, usually the cells will show equal
values. Sulphation is not a manufacturing defect.
Acid Stratification
Acid stratification is a common cause of battery
failure. In a stratified battery, the electrolyte is
concentrated at the bottom and the top half of
the cell has very little acid. Stratification takes
place when the battery is kept with low charge
(below 80%) and is never fully recharged. Short
journeys that include the use of the windscreen
wipers and electric heaters contribute to this
phenomenon. Acid stratification reduces the
general performance of the battery.
Figure 2 shows a normal battery in which the
acid is distributed evenly from top to bottom.
This battery has good performance because the
correct concentration of acid is distributed evenly
over the plates. Figure 3 shows a stratified battery
in which the acid concentration is light at the top
and heavy at the bottom. A light acid limits the
plate activation, speeds up corrosion and reduces
the performance. On the other hand, high acid
concentration at the bottom artificially increases
the open circuit voltage. The battery seems to be
fully charged, but it delivers low starting power.
High acid concentration also results in sulphation
and further reduces the already low conductivity.
If this condition goes undetected, it will ultimately
result in battery failure.
No Outside Damages
- Check the OCV (not only surface
voltage)
Batteries recommended by Bosch match or exceed
the original equipment specifications. Choosing a
battery of lower capacity or power will result in a
shorter service life and premature battery failure.
Usually, the result is a low charge level together
with the effects described above.
uu An engine starter battery is used for “deep
cycles”. This type of battery is not resistant to
deep discharges.
uu Low electrolyte level: a battery plate exposed to
air starts to experience sulphation immediately.
Figure 4.2 – Picture of a melted battery terminal
Incorrect Application
uu There is an excessive lapse of time between one
recharging and the next.
uu The battery is undercharged or the charging and
adjustment of levels is carried out incorrectly.
Checking for Malfunction by Load
Tester
Figure 3 – With acid stratification
Wear and Tear
Fully recharging or shaking the battery tends to
correct the problem.
During the charging and discharging cycle, the
battery plate material (active material) moves
about due to the electrochemical processes
occurring. Every time that the battery undergoes
a charging or discharging cycle, a small amount of
active material comes loose from the plates. This
normal aging process, caused by the charging and
discharging cycles, results in a loss of battery
capacity and, ultimately, the loss of its capacity
to start the vehicle or power its equipment.
Overcharging
Overcharging is often caused by an unsuitably
high temperature in the engine compartment.
Other than this, a defective voltage regulator is
often another cause of overcharging. A high level
of corrosion, loose particles of positive active
material, damaged active material and high water
consumption are characteristics of overcharging.
A low level of electrolyte and a black layer on the
filler caps are usually evidence for an overcharged
battery. Excessive water consumption leads
to an increase in electrolyte density. Also, a
high temperature results in a lower internal
battery resistance, causing an increase in the
charge current and this increases the effect of
overcharging.
Physical Damage
The battery container and the terminals will
suffer obvious damage if the battery is installed
incorrectly, if the cables are wrongly connected
or if the cables are hammered incorrectly into the
terminals.
In addition, if the terminal poles are melted, this
indicates that the battery has had a short circuit.
(Figure 4.1 and Figure 4.2)
A battery has a finite number of cycles that it
undergoes before losing its capacity. Vehicles
that do a large number of short journeys, such
as taxis, mini-cabs, trucks and buses, reach the
maximum number of cycles in a shorter time than
vehicles that do longer journeys. As a result, the
batteries used in these types of vehicles may
exhibit the above mentioned symptoms earlier
than expected.
OCV is below 12.1(V)
- Replace
- Responsibility:User
OCV is about
12.1-12.5(V)
OCV is above 12.5(V)
Re-Charge
Perform Load Test
Re-Charge
- Can be hard to
re-charge
- Needs low
current & long
charging time
Outside Damages by
User’s Mishandling
- Please refer
to charging
procedure
Testing by Battery Checker (Load Tester)
Apply 150A load for 10sec., then check battery voltage and compare below
Above 9.6 volts
- Good Battery
- Reuse
Below 9.5 volts
- Charge battery and then perform
load test again
* If the battery voltage is still below
9.6V after the second charge and
load test, it should be replaced
4.
4.1
Inspection, Storage and Stacking
Inspection on Receipt of Goods
Before unloading the consignment of batteries,
please check the details on the invoice against the
goods delivered and your order details.
Check:
uu The battery type.
uu The quantities.
uu Damaged batteries, batteries that were not
transported in a horizontal position or those with
leakage of electrolyte, should be rejected and sent
back to the supplier, at the carrier’s expense.
After unloading and before stocking the batteries,
check:
uu The age of the battery, calculating this from its
date of manufacture.
uu The open circuit voltage.
uu Do a visual inspection (container, cover, terminals,
charge indicator, colours, and labels).
Figure 4.1 – Picture of a melted battery terminal
20 21
Technical Information
4.2
The batteries should be stored in a horizontal
position on wooden palettes or racks (not tilted).
Do not place them directly onto the ground,
because small stones or sharp edges on the
concrete floor can damage the battery container
and cause leaks.
Batteries should be stored in a dry place and must
not be exposed to direct sunlight. The storage
temperature should be between 10°C and 35°C.
Storage temperatures that are higher than this will
result in greater water consumption, corrosion
and self-discharge. The storage temperature must
not exceed 35°C. The maximum period for storing
decreases when batteries are stored at high
temperatures.
4.3 FAQs
Storage
Stacking
1
5
Unlike a cell, it is easy to recognize a battery by its
completed container that is equipped with contacts
that are ready for use. Additionally, the container
bears the manufacturer’s name clearly printed on it,
the name of the type, the battery voltage, etc.
2
Always ensure that the instructions for stacking
batteries are followed. Batteries up to 75Ah may
be stacked in up to 5 tiers; batteries above 90Ah
in up to 3 tiers and batteries above 150Ah in a
maximum of 2 tiers. Do not remove the plastic
shrink-wrapping. Use cardboard or polystyrene as
an additional layer between the batteries.
Do not stack batteries with their terminal poles
protruding without taking special measures to
protect these terminals and to ensure that the
stack is stable.
3
What is the electrolyte?
The electrolyte is diluted sulphuric acid that permeates
the pores of the plates and separators. It fills up the
voids in the cells. The sulphuric acid component is
responsible for turning pure water conductive so that
it can be used as electrolyte.
Non-compliance with the FiFo principle is the
biggest cause of excessive storage!
4
An optimum charge voltage is important for charging
a battery. If the voltage is too high, the water will be
electrolysed. This reduces the electrolyte level over a
period of time. If the voltage is too low, the battery
cannot be adequately charged and this can also
reduce its service life.
How is the battery constructed?
A 12V starter battery contains six individually
separated cells that are connected in series in a
polypropylene container. Each cell contains an element
(cell package) that is made up of a set of positive
and negative plates. In turn, these sets comprise
lead plates (lead grid and active material) and microporous insulation material (separators) between the
plates with opposite polarities. The electrolyte is
diluted sulphuric acid. It permeates the pores of the
plates and the separators and fills up the voids in the
cells. The terminals, the cell connectors and the plate
connections are all made of lead. A thermal sealing
process is used to permanently bond the battery to
its container, providing a superior quality seal for the
battery.
What happens
discharged?
when
a
battery
6
What are the consequences of a short circuit in the
battery?
An external short circuit can occur if the battery
terminals are connected by any type of conductive
material. Depending on the battery system, a short
circuit can have serious consequences. Lead-acid
batteries are very powerful and a short circuit can
cause burns, fires or an explosion of the battery.
Never connect the positive pole of the battery to its
negative pole. When installing the battery, or when
attaching the connecting cables to the battery poles,
take all necessary measures to avoid short-circuits
caused by tools or other conductive materials.
7
What does the abbreviation OCV mean and what
does it tell me concerning the battery?
OCV stands for Open Circuit Voltage – the voltage
in an open circuit. Other common terms are ‘offload voltage’ or ‘voltage without load’. As the name
indicates, OCV is the voltage measured between the
two poles of the battery when the battery is not under
load (no current consumption).
becomes
The OCV changes on completion of the charging or
discharging process due to the effects of polarization
and diffusion. The battery should be set aside, in
a state of rest, sometimes up to a few days, until it
reaches a stable state. If the OCV is measured shortly
after a charging or discharging process, it will not
be possible to obtain a correct value for the state of
charge.
If a device (for example, a lamp) is connected to the
terminals of a lead-acid battery, the difference in
power between the poles results in a flow of electrons
leaving the negative pole and flowing through the
device and on to the positive pole.
This flow of electrons transforms the lead dioxide on
the positive plate and the spongy lead on the negative
plate into lead sulphate. This chemical process
consumes the sulphuric acid and yields water. The
specific gravity of the electrolyte is thus decreased
and it is because of this that the state of charge of the
battery can be determined, by measuring the specific
gravity of the electrolyte.
What happens when a battery is charged?
When a battery is being charged, the flow of electrons
and the chemical processes that occur during
discharge are reversed. The result of the charging
process is that the lead sulphate that is formed during
the discharge process is once again converted into
lead dioxide, lead and sulphuric acid and this restores
the necessary chemical energy that will be converted
into electrical power during future use.
The smallest electrochemical unit of a battery is called
a cell. The cell does not have a complete container
or contacts ready for use and is usually connected
to neighbouring battery cells by means of soldered
contacts.
In order to avoid scratches and damage of labels,
do not store unpackaged batteries on top of the
other.
Follow the First in / First out (FiFo) procedure
strictly. Following the FiFo procedure means that
the first battery stored in stock is also the first
battery to leave.
What is the difference between a cell and a
battery?
8
What is meant by battery capacity?
The capacity is the amount of electrical power that
a battery can deliver under specific conditions. It is
the product of the current and the time (ampere-hour,
Ah).
The capacity is not a fixed parameter, but depends,
among other things, on the following factors:
22 23
FAQs
FAQs
uu The level of the discharge current (the larger the
discharge current, the smaller the capacity that
can be used).
output will increase.
uu The age of the battery (due to the loss of active
material from the plates, the Ah capacity decreases
when the battery is coming to the end of its service
life).
For example, according to the SAE J537 Norm, cold
start performance is the maximum amount of current
that a battery can produce for 30 seconds at -18°C
without falling to 7.2V or below.
10
The effects of relative humidity will depend on the
battery system. These play a key role in “open” battery
systems (in contrast with closed battery systems).
What does cold start performance mean?
For a car battery used to supply electrical power
to the starter motor, the starting capacity at low
temperatures is usually more important than the Ah
capacity. Cold start performance is defined according
to different norms in different countries. Its value is
indicated in amperes.
12
13
Even if no consumption device is connected to the
battery, “it is drained” electrically after a certain
period of time since the electrochemical processes
cannot be stopped or avoided, as they are part of any
battery technology. This is not a phenomenon that is
limited only to lead-acid batteries.
What is the effect of temperature on the performance
of a battery in general?
Of all the environmental factors, temperature has
the greatest effect on the charge of the battery
and its discharge behaviour. The reason lies with
the electrochemical reactions that depend on temperatures and occur during the electrodeelectrolyte interface, which are regarded as the very
heart of the battery. If the temperature drops, the
value of the electrode reaction also decreases. If the
battery voltage remains constant but the discharge
current drops, then the battery power output will
also decrease. The opposite effect occurs if the
temperature increases, namely, the battery power
24 14
Why should you not use a starter battery as a power
supply source for long periods of time?
The main task of a starter battery is to supply a high
electrical power output for a short period of time,
which is what is needed to start a combustion engine.
Electrodes with large surface areas are necessary
in order to deliver such high outputs of electrical
current. This is achieved by using a large number of
thin electrodes connected up in parallel.
Performing this cycle on a permanent basis, that
is, with a 60% to 80% charge and discharge of the
nominal capacity with average currents over a long
period of time, can generate strong mechanical forces
within the thin battery plates. Such forces can cause
a separation of the active material from the electrode
grids and result in premature battery wear. Therefore,
for a discharge of 60% to 80% of the nominal battery
capacity, use special batteries that were designed for
the particular type of application.
uu Fix the battery firmly in place. If it is not firmly
fixed in place, it will be affected considerably
by vibrations and this can reduce its service life.
Friction between the battery container and its
support area can result in wear to the container,
causing it to break and the electrolyte to leak out.
The starter motor (an electricity consumer) starts
the engine using electrical power supplied by the
battery. When the engine is running, the generator
converts mechanical energy into electrical energy and,
depending on the revolutions per minute (rpm) of the
generator and the amount of electrical equipment
connected up, under ideal conditions there will be
enough energy to feed all of the consuming devices
and charge the battery. If the load demanded by
the electrical equipment is greater than the current
supplied by the generator, the voltage of the vehicle’s
electrical system will drop below the battery voltage
and cause it to lose its charge.
uu Clean the battery terminals and the connection
terminals. Lubricate them lightly with non-acidic
grease to prevent oxidation.
How does the charging system of a car work?
uu Use the fittings from the old battery, such as the
hose connection, terminal supports and terminal
covers. Use the top-up caps supplied.
uu When installing the battery, connect the positive
terminal (+) first followed by the negative terminal
(-). Check that the terminal connections are firm,
but do not over-tighten them.
The charging system of a modern vehicle comprises
two components:
Can I use a starter battery for other purposes?
They differ one from the other, not just in their external
appearance, but also in their internal technology. For
example, the layout of the positive and negative grid
may differ (thicker/thinner, weaker/stronger grid
structures), different lead alloys may be used for the
positive and negative grids and different separation
materials may be used. So, each battery is optimised
for a particular application and may not give full
performance if used for another purpose.
The self-discharge rate increases at higher
temperatures. Therefore, batteries should be stored
in a place with a low temperature.
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16
uu The alternator: This is a mechanical device that
is driven by a secondary belt from the engine.
It supplies the continuous voltage needed to
recharge the battery while the engine is running.
Each battery should be used only according to what
is recommended for it in order to ensure optimum
performance. There are many types of batteries,
including starter batteries for cars or trucks, batteries
for motorcycles, semi-traction batteries etc.
What does self-discharge mean?
Due to this effect of self-discharge, the state of the
battery should be checked regularly during its storage
period (for example, if you decide not to use your
vehicle over a certain period of time) as the battery
may require recharging and this should be done when
necessary.
What effect does heat have on the battery?
Extreme heat causes the water in the battery
electrolyte to evaporate. Additionally, heat speeds
up the corrosion of the positive battery grid. In the
long term, these conditions will adversely affect the
service life of the battery. Avoid using or storing a
battery at high temperatures.
uu When removing the battery, disconnect the
negative terminal (-) first followed by the positive
terminal (+). Before installing the battery, clean
the surface of the installation location.
What is the electrical system of a vehicle?
Basically, the electrical system of a vehicle comprises
an energy storage device (the battery), a device for
converting (the generator) and several consuming
devices (electrical equipment).
Temperature also affects the speed of the transport
process within the electrolyte and its porous
electrodes. A rise in temperature speeds up the
transport processes and a drop in temperature slows
them down. The charge/discharge performance
of the battery may also be affected. The higher the
temperature, the greater the rate of self-discharge
will be, and vice-versa.
uu The discharge process according to time (the
capacity will be greater if there is a pause during
the discharge than if the discharge process is
continuous).
9
15
18
1. The battery surface areas should be kept clean
and dry. Otherwise, leakages of current may occur,
causing an additional loss of charge. Use only a
damp anti-static cloth to clean the battery. Check
from time to time that the battery and its terminals
are properly in place. Tighten them, if necessary,
but do not use undue force so as not to damage
the battery or the terminal connections.
uu The voltage regulator: This monitors the state of
charge of the battery and adjusts the activity of the
alternator according to what is needed for charging
the vehicle’s battery and supplying the power
needed to operate the vehicle’s accessories.
17
2. Batteries should always be kept with the largest
amount of charge possible so as to prevent
the formation of large lead sulphate crystals.
Never store batteries in a discharged or partially
discharged state!
What do I need to do to install or remove the battery
from the vehicle?
Modern vehicles are equipped with sensitive electrical
systems, such as airbag controllers, ABS, stability and
traction control systems, onboard computers etc.
With some vehicles, it is necessary to follow certain
procedures when installing or removing the battery.
So, be sure to adhere to the vehicle manufacturer’s
instructions!
The following steps need to be taken:
3. Check stored charged batteries regularly and
recharge them when the acid density falls below
1.20 kg/l or if the open circuit voltage (OCV) drops
below 12.4V.
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uu Install the type of battery recommended for the
vehicle.
uu Avoid causing short-circuits with the tools or
cables.
Should I add water to the battery?
No, the Bosch S3, S4 and S5 (100% maintenance-free
batteries), require no water replacement during their
entire service life (thus they are totally sealed).
uu Switch off the engine and all the other electrical
equipment before installing or removing the
battery.
uu Install only batteries that are fully charged and
undamaged.
Tips for extending the life of your battery
20
How often should I replace my battery?
The service life of a battery varies from one vehicle
to another and it depends on many factors. If the
performance of the vehicle’s starting system is poor, or
if a failure is shown on the dashboard instrumentation,
take the vehicle to a workshop to have the electrical
system / starter system checked.
25
FAQs
If you install additional electrical equipment in the
vehicle, such as amplifiers, navigation systems,
electrical window openers, etc., be sure to also install a battery with a larger capacity. The original size of
the battery suggested by the vehicle manufacturer
corresponds to the original equipment of the car.
Additional electrical equipment will use up more
energy from the battery and this will result in a
permanent state of low charge if you do not install
a larger battery. A permanent state of low charge
will result in the reduction of the service life of your
battery.
21
FAQs
Such damage also results from excessive power
consumption by electrical equipment installed
subsequently (for example, sound systems,
portable telephones, stationary heating).
23
It doesn’t seem possible to recharge the discharged
battery.
If a battery is stored for a prolonged period in a state of
low charge, the grids experience sulphation, a process
in which the active material is transformed into white
sulphuric acid (an irreversible state). The longer it is left
in this state, the more difficult it becomes to recharge
the battery. So, recharge any discharged battery as
soon as possible.
uu Strong cyclical use: This is caused by numerous
discharging and recharging deep cycles. Usually,
these charges do not occur under normal
circumstances, unless the starter battery is
frequently activated in congested traffic with lots
of stop-start activity, or when it is used for other
purposes, for example in taxis, to operate loading
platforms on trucks or as a traction battery (there
are special batteries for such applications).
uu Wrong size of battery: Choosing a battery with
an inadequate capacity for a vehicle results in a
larger cyclical charge and damage to the battery.
26 uu Loose connections between the terminals and the
cables.
Perform the following list of steps, one at a time, to
check the state of the battery.
uu Leaving the vehicle parked for long periods of
time.
1. Check the outer surfaces of the battery. Damage
(for example, cracks) to the external surface of the
battery can cause leakage of electrolyte which, in
turn, results in corrosion of the car. A dirty battery
surface can cause discharge. So, keep it as clean
as possible. Use only a damp anti-static cloth for
cleaning.
uu Poor operation of the starting device (ignition),
requiring excessive ignition.
4. Check the battery using a professional battery
testing instrument. Check with the nearest
authorised dealer for more information concerning
the state of the battery.
What kind of problems could arise during use?
uu Overcharging: This is caused by a defective voltage
regulator. Overcharging results in high water
consumption, extreme electrode corrosion and
severe damage to the battery.
How can I do a simple check for poor battery
operation?
3. Measuring the voltage (OCV). Let the car engine
rest for about one hour after switching it off before
measuring the voltage. Based on the measured
value of the voltage, you can work out the state
of charge. The voltage of your battery should be
between 12.2V and 12.8V. A voltage that is lower
or higher may be an indication that there is a
fault in the electrical system of the car or that
the battery is damaged. In these cases, have the
battery checked at an authorized workshop.
Any attempt to charge it using a larger current will
probably damage it and result in its complete discharge.
Recharging a battery with deep discharge using a highpower charger will, at best, have no effect or worse
cause permanent damage to the battery.
uu Low charge level: This is caused by a defective
alternator, extremely short journeys or an excess
of electrical equipment. Dirty terminals can cause
a loss of current. The battery is not fully charged
and parts of the active material have become
inactive (sulphation). The consequences are a loss
of capacity and reduced starting power.
uu Problems with the voltage regulator or with
electrical components.
uu Loose fan belts, which reduces the capacity of the
generator.
uu The wearing of wire insulations in older cars
caused by abrasion, which can cause the current
to leak to other parts of the car.
2. Check the charge indicator. Bosch S5 and S6
starter batteries are fitted with a charge indicator.
It is a fast and convenient way to get a first
impression on the state of charge of the battery.
A battery with deep discharge should be charged with
1/20 of the capacity of the battery. If it does not recharge
under these conditions, you will need to replace it.
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with an excessive use of the air conditioning or
other electrical components.
24
What are some of the causes of battery discharge in
a car?
uu Forgetting to turn off electrical equipment, for
example, fog lights or improperly shut doors that
keep the dome light switched on.
uu The electricity load exceeds the capacity of the
vehicle’s alternator. For example, when the car is
stopped the generator supplies only 10% to 30%
of its capacity. Discharge may occur if there is an
excessive demand for electrical power at such a
time.
uu Spent batteries.
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Can the batteries be recycled?
At present, lead-acid batteries are used in practically
all vehicles.
How is the battery recycled?
uu The acid of the battery is recycled by neutralising
it in water or by converting it into sodium-sulphate
or powdered detergent, or by using it in glass and
textile production.
uu The plastic is recycled by cleaning up the battery
container, melting it down and transforming it into
plastic pellets which will be used once again for
manufacturing batteries.
uu The lead, which accounts for 50% of each battery,
is melted down into bars and refined. The lead
retains all its characteristics after having been
refined and can be used for the production of new
batteries.
What should I do with my old or damaged battery?
Car batteries contain lead and sulphuric acid. These
materials are hazardous if disposed of in regular
refuse or thrown out in the open. Most of the battery
and its materials are recyclable. To help protect the
environment, adhere to the following instructions:
uu Never dispose of spent batteries
components in domestic refuse.
or
their
uu Stores, manufacturers, importers and scrap
dealers take spent batteries and send them on
to secondary foundries for recycling. When you
buy a new battery, hand in the spent one to the
workshop.
uu If a battery is destroyed or damaged, the leaked
electrolyte, lead plates and separators should not
be disposed of in domestic refuse. Place these
materials in an acid-resistant box and return
them as you would do with any other spent or
undamaged battery.
uu The electrolyte and diluted sulphuric acid should
never be emptied [by someone] without specific
technical knowledge. Never allow the electrolyte
to get into the sewer system, the soil or the water
table.
uu An increase in the number of electrical accessories
in the car. The capacity of the generators may not
be adequate for feeding all the accessories.
uu Long journey times at low speed or electrical
overcharging during night trips. For example,
driving in urban traffic, proceeding with many
stops and starts, or on congested roads, together
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Bosch Batteries: Advantages
for your battery business
100% maintenance free
Meets the demands of modern vehicles
All Bosch batteries are totally sealed and require no
Meets the growing demands of modern vehicles with
water replacement during their entire service life.
advanced electrical components.
Fast, reliable starting power
Compact battery program
Safe starting in any weather and resistant to high
Comprehensive market coverage within a compact
engine chamber temperatures.
program for ease of selection and reduced inventory.
Attractive retail packaging
Dependable quality with Bosch Silver Technology
Strong, sturdy packaging protects the product and
Advanced silver technology which significantly
improves its appearance in-store. The packaging also
enhances battery performance.
lists the features and benefits to help your customers
understand the advantages of Bosch batteries.
Strong brand
The most trusted brand in automotive parts, with an
ADV0172A
unparalleled reputation for quality and innovation.
28 Robert Bosch (Australia) Pty. Ltd.
Cnr Centre & McNaughton Roads Clayton Vic 3168
For further information on Bosch Batteries or to find your local Bosch
distributor call the Bosch Customer Service Line on 1300 30 70 40.
Also visit the website at www.bosch.com.au