Dell 6 series Hardware manual

PS Series Storage Arrays
Group Administration
PS Series Firmware Version 5.0
Copyright 2010 Dell, Inc. All rights reserved.
EqualLogic is a registered trademark of Dell, Inc.
Dell is a trademark of Dell, Inc.
All trademarks and registered trademarks mentioned herein are the property of their respective owners.
Information in this document is subject to change without notice.
Reproduction in any manner whatsoever without written permission is strictly forbidden.
June 2010
Part Number: 110-6027-EN_R1
Table of Contents
Preface .................................................................................................................................................... xiii
Audience.................................................................................................................................................................. xiii
Organization ............................................................................................................................................................ xiii
Conventions..............................................................................................................................................................xiv
Overview of EqualLogic Products ...........................................................................................................................xiv
Technical Support and Customer Service .............................................................................................................. xvii
1 Storage solutions for all enterprises .................................................................................................. 1-1
About PS Series groups........................................................................................................................................... 1-1
How groups work ............................................................................................................................................. 1-1
High-end features in an affordable iSCSI san .................................................................................................. 1-2
Modular hardware............................................................................................................................................. 1-2
Seamless online scalability............................................................................................................................... 1-3
Interoperability ................................................................................................................................................. 1-3
Easy setup and management............................................................................................................................. 1-3
Automatic SAN operation ................................................................................................................................ 1-4
Dynamic load balancing ................................................................................................................................... 1-4
Robust security for group administration ......................................................................................................... 1-4
Robust security for data access......................................................................................................................... 1-4
Advanced functionality at no extra cost ........................................................................................................... 1-5
Host-based applications........................................................................................................................................... 1-6
Part I: Managing Groups
2 Common group tasks.......................................................................................................................... 2-1
Setting the group time ............................................................................................................................................. 2-1
Creating a local administration account .................................................................................................................. 2-1
Setting up event notifications.................................................................................................................................. 2-1
Configuring CHAP for initiator authentication....................................................................................................... 2-2
Configuring SNMP access to the group.................................................................................................................. 2-2
Setting group-wide volume defaults ....................................................................................................................... 2-2
Setting the RAID policy for a member ................................................................................................................... 2-2
Configuring member network interfaces................................................................................................................. 2-2
3 Group Manager user interfaces......................................................................................................... 3-1
About the Group Manager GUI .............................................................................................................................. 3-1
Starting the GUI from a Web browser .................................................................................................................... 3-1
Installing and starting the GUI application ............................................................................................................. 3-1
Uninstalling the GUI application...................................................................................................................... 3-2
Navigating the GUI ................................................................................................................................................. 3-2
Keyboard shortcuts ........................................................................................................................................... 3-3
GUI icons.......................................................................................................................................................... 3-4
Accessing the alarms panel............................................................................................................................... 3-4
Displaying the tools panel ................................................................................................................................ 3-5
Customizing the GUI .............................................................................................................................................. 3-5
Setting general GUI policies............................................................................................................................. 3-5
Setting GUI communication policies ............................................................................................................... 3-6
Setting alarm policies ....................................................................................................................................... 3-6
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Setting advanced policies ................................................................................................................................. 3-6
Using the CLI .......................................................................................................................................................... 3-6
Starting online help for group manager................................................................................................................... 3-7
4 Group security..................................................................................................................................... 4-1
About group security............................................................................................................................................... 4-1
Accessing the GUI or CLI....................................................................................................................................... 4-1
Administration access options .......................................................................................................................... 4-2
Enabling or disabling GUI or CLI access......................................................................................................... 4-2
About administration accounts................................................................................................................................ 4-2
Types of administrator accounts....................................................................................................................... 4-3
Administration account attributes..................................................................................................................... 4-4
Displaying local administration accounts......................................................................................................... 4-5
Creating a local administration account ........................................................................................................... 4-5
Modifying a local administration account ........................................................................................................ 4-6
Deleting a local administration account ........................................................................................................... 4-6
About administration accounts on a RADIUS authentication server...................................................................... 4-7
RADIUS attributes for administration accounts............................................................................................... 4-7
Displaying RADIUS authentication and accounting servers ........................................................................... 4-9
Using RADIUS authentication and accounting servers ................................................................................... 4-9
Prerequisite tasks for RADIUS servers...................................................................................................... 4-9
Procedure for configuring RADIUS servers ............................................................................................ 4-10
Modifying RADIUS server settings ............................................................................................................... 4-10
Deleting a RADIUS server connection .......................................................................................................... 4-11
Disabling use of a RADIUS server in a Group .............................................................................................. 4-11
Displaying and configuring SNMP access to a Group.......................................................................................... 4-11
Host-based application access requirements ......................................................................................................... 4-12
Displaying and configuring Windows service access to a Group......................................................................... 4-12
Adding a VDS/VSS access control record ..................................................................................................... 4-13
Modifying or deleting a VDS/VSS access control record.............................................................................. 4-13
About dedicated management networks (advanced)............................................................................................. 4-13
Configuring a management network ..................................................................................................................... 4-14
Prerequisite tasks for configuring a management network ............................................................................ 4-14
Procedure for configuring a management network ........................................................................................ 4-15
Displaying management network information ............................................................................................... 4-16
Adding a member to a group with a management network............................................................................ 4-17
Modifying the management network configuration ....................................................................................... 4-17
Unconfiguring a management network .......................................................................................................... 4-18
5 Group configuration ........................................................................................................................... 5-1
Displaying the Group summary .............................................................................................................................. 5-1
Displaying the Group configuration........................................................................................................................ 5-2
Group configuration summary panel................................................................................................................ 5-2
Group configuration tabs .................................................................................................................................. 5-3
Modifying the time zone and clock time................................................................................................................. 5-3
Setting the time through an NTP server ........................................................................................................... 5-4
Changing or deleting an NTP server ................................................................................................................ 5-4
Expanding group capacity....................................................................................................................................... 5-4
About group network configuration ................................................................................................................. 5-5
Impact of modifying the group network configuration .................................................................................... 5-5
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Modifying the group IP address or group name ............................................................................................... 5-5
Modifying the group membership password .................................................................................................... 5-6
Shutting down a group...................................................................................................................................... 5-6
Enabling or disabling performance load balancing (advanced) ....................................................................... 5-6
6 Group members .................................................................................................................................. 6-1
Displaying Group members .................................................................................................................................... 6-1
Displaying member details...................................................................................................................................... 6-1
Member status tab............................................................................................................................................. 6-1
Enclosure tab .................................................................................................................................................... 6-2
Controllers tab .................................................................................................................................................. 6-3
Disks tab ........................................................................................................................................................... 6-3
Network tab ...................................................................................................................................................... 6-3
Connections tab ................................................................................................................................................ 6-4
Service tab ........................................................................................................................................................ 6-4
Member RAID policies .................................................................................................................................... 6-4
RAID level characteristics................................................................................................................................ 6-5
Supported RAID policy conversions................................................................................................................ 6-6
Setting the RAID policy and pool for a new member ...................................................................................... 6-6
Converting a RAID policy................................................................................................................................ 6-7
About member network configuration .................................................................................................................... 6-7
Member network requirements and recommendations .................................................................................... 6-8
Configuring redundant network connections ............................................................................................. 6-8
Configuring redundant control modules .................................................................................................... 6-8
Configuring redundant network switches .................................................................................................. 6-9
Displaying the member network configuration ................................................................................................ 6-9
Configuring network interfaces ........................................................................................................................ 6-9
Enabling or disabling a network interface...................................................................................................... 6-10
Unconfiguring a network interface................................................................................................................. 6-10
Modifying the default gateway for a member ................................................................................................ 6-10
Modifying a member name or description ............................................................................................................ 6-11
About write cache operations................................................................................................................................ 6-11
Setting write cache policies ............................................................................................................................ 6-11
Modifying write cache policies ...................................................................................................................... 6-12
About member firmware ....................................................................................................................................... 6-12
Firmware update considerations and prerequisites......................................................................................... 6-13
Updating member firmware............................................................................................................................ 6-13
Procedure for updating firmware ............................................................................................................. 6-13
Disallowing member firmware downgrades ......................................................................................................... 6-14
Removing a member from the group .................................................................................................................... 6-14
Shutting down a member....................................................................................................................................... 6-14
Restarting a member.............................................................................................................................................. 6-15
Part II: Using Group Storage Space
7 Storage pools ....................................................................................................................................... 7-1
About storage pools................................................................................................................................................. 7-1
Configuring a storage pool...................................................................................................................................... 7-1
Creating a storage pool............................................................................................................................................ 7-2
Displaying storage pools ......................................................................................................................................... 7-3
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Displaying storage pool details ............................................................................................................................... 7-3
Storage pool status tab...................................................................................................................................... 7-3
Storage pool volumes tab ................................................................................................................................. 7-4
Moving a member to a pool .................................................................................................................................... 7-4
Moving a volume to a pool ..................................................................................................................................... 7-5
Merging storage pools............................................................................................................................................. 7-5
Modifying a storage pool name or description........................................................................................................ 7-5
Deleting a storage pool............................................................................................................................................ 7-6
8 iSCSI target security........................................................................................................................... 8-1
About iSCSI access requirements ........................................................................................................................... 8-1
About iSCSI target access controls ......................................................................................................................... 8-1
Authenticating initiators through CHAP................................................................................................................. 8-2
Displaying local CHAP accounts ..................................................................................................................... 8-2
Creating a local CHAP account........................................................................................................................ 8-2
Modifying a local CHAP account .................................................................................................................... 8-3
Deleting a local CHAP account........................................................................................................................ 8-3
Using CHAP accounts on a RADIUS authentication server............................................................................ 8-3
Configuring target authentication..................................................................................................................... 8-4
About iSNS servers ................................................................................................................................................. 8-4
Configuring the group to use an iSNS server ................................................................................................... 8-5
Modifying an iSNS server.......................................................................................................................... 8-5
Deleting an iSNS server ............................................................................................................................. 8-6
Preventing the discovery of unauthorized targets ................................................................................................... 8-6
Enable the iSCSI discovery filter ..................................................................................................................... 8-6
Disable the iSCSI discovery filter .................................................................................................................... 8-6
Multi-host access to targets ..................................................................................................................................... 8-6
Connecting initiators to iSCSI targets..................................................................................................................... 8-7
9 Basic volume operations .................................................................................................................... 9-1
About volumes ........................................................................................................................................................ 9-1
About volume types ................................................................................................................................................ 9-1
Displaying the iSCSI target name and alias ............................................................................................................ 9-2
About volume space allocation ............................................................................................................................... 9-2
About volume security and access controls ............................................................................................................ 9-2
About volume data protection ................................................................................................................................. 9-3
Volume attributes .................................................................................................................................................... 9-3
Displaying group-wide default volume settings...................................................................................................... 9-5
Modifying group-wide volume settings ........................................................................................................... 9-5
Creating standard volumes ...................................................................................................................................... 9-5
Displaying volumes................................................................................................................................................. 9-6
Displaying volume details....................................................................................................................................... 9-7
Displaying volume status.................................................................................................................................. 9-7
Displaying access control records .................................................................................................................... 9-8
Displaying volume snapshots ........................................................................................................................... 9-8
Displaying volume replication.......................................................................................................................... 9-9
Displaying volume collections ......................................................................................................................... 9-9
Displaying volume schedules ........................................................................................................................... 9-9
Displaying volume connections...................................................................................................................... 9-10
Displaying thin clones attached to a volume .................................................................................................. 9-10
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Configuring access control records ....................................................................................................................... 9-10
Modifying or deleting an access control record .................................................................................................... 9-11
About cloning volumes ......................................................................................................................................... 9-11
Cloning a volume............................................................................................................................................ 9-11
Modifying a volume name or description ............................................................................................................. 9-12
Modifying a volume alias...................................................................................................................................... 9-13
Modifying the administrator for a volume ............................................................................................................ 9-13
Setting a volume offline or online......................................................................................................................... 9-13
Modifying volume permission .............................................................................................................................. 9-14
Allowing or disallowing multi-host volume access .............................................................................................. 9-14
Enabling or disabling iSNS discovery .................................................................................................................. 9-14
Deleting a volume ................................................................................................................................................. 9-15
10 Advanced volume operations ........................................................................................................ 10-1
About thin provisioning ........................................................................................................................................ 10-1
Thin provisioning space settings .................................................................................................................... 10-2
Enabling thin provisioning on a volume......................................................................................................... 10-3
Disabling thin provisioning on a volume ....................................................................................................... 10-3
Modifying the thin provisioning space settings.............................................................................................. 10-4
About reported volume size .................................................................................................................................. 10-5
Increasing the reported size of a volume ........................................................................................................ 10-5
Decreasing the reported size of a volume....................................................................................................... 10-6
About template volumes and thin clones .............................................................................................................. 10-6
Space considerations for template volumes and thin clones .......................................................................... 10-7
Restrictions on template volumes and thin clones.......................................................................................... 10-8
Converting a standard volume to a template volume ..................................................................................... 10-8
Converting a template volume to a standard volume ..................................................................................... 10-9
Creating a thin clone....................................................................................................................................... 10-9
Detaching a thin clone from a template volume............................................................................................. 10-9
Displaying template volumes and thin clones .............................................................................................. 10-10
About volume collections.................................................................................................................................... 10-10
Creating a volume collection........................................................................................................................ 10-10
Displaying volume collections ..................................................................................................................... 10-11
Displaying details for a volume collection ................................................................................................... 10-11
Status tab....................................................................................................................................................... 10-11
Snapshots tab ................................................................................................................................................ 10-11
Replicas tab................................................................................................................................................... 10-12
Schedules tab ................................................................................................................................................ 10-12
Modifying a volume collection..................................................................................................................... 10-12
Deleting a volume collection........................................................................................................................ 10-13
Scheduling volume operations ............................................................................................................................ 10-13
Schedule attributes........................................................................................................................................ 10-13
Creating a schedule....................................................................................................................................... 10-14
Displaying volume schedules ....................................................................................................................... 10-15
Modifying a schedule ................................................................................................................................... 10-15
Deleting a schedule....................................................................................................................................... 10-15
Enabling and disabling a volume RAID preference............................................................................................ 10-16
Binding and unbinding a volume to a member ................................................................................................... 10-16
Managing a volume or snapshot with lost blocks ............................................................................................... 10-17
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11 Snapshot management.................................................................................................................... 11-1
About snapshots .................................................................................................................................................... 11-1
About snapshot reserve allocation......................................................................................................................... 11-2
About snapshot access controls............................................................................................................................. 11-2
About snapshot reserve settings ............................................................................................................................ 11-2
About snapshot schedules ..................................................................................................................................... 11-3
Modifying snapshot reserve settings for a volume................................................................................................ 11-3
Creating snapshots................................................................................................................................................. 11-3
Displaying snapshots for a volume ....................................................................................................................... 11-4
Displaying snapshot details for a volume ............................................................................................................. 11-4
Displaying details of an individual snapshot......................................................................................................... 11-4
Snapshot status tab.......................................................................................................................................... 11-5
Snapshot access control tab ............................................................................................................................ 11-5
About snapshot collections.................................................................................................................................... 11-5
Creating a snapshot collection........................................................................................................................ 11-6
Displaying snapshot collections ..................................................................................................................... 11-6
Displaying snapshot collection details ........................................................................................................... 11-6
Creating a custom snapshot collection ........................................................................................................... 11-7
Displaying custom snapshot collections......................................................................................................... 11-7
Displaying snapshot collection status............................................................................................................. 11-8
Modifying a snapshot collection name or description.................................................................................... 11-8
Deleting a snapshot collection........................................................................................................................ 11-8
Restoring a volume from a snapshot ..................................................................................................................... 11-9
Cloning a snapshot to create a new volume .......................................................................................................... 11-9
Modifying snapshot properties............................................................................................................................ 11-10
Modifying a snapshot name or description................................................................................................... 11-10
Modifying the snapshot alias........................................................................................................................ 11-10
Setting a snapshot online or offline..................................................................................................................... 11-11
Modifying snapshot permission .......................................................................................................................... 11-11
Allowing or disallowing multi-host snapshot access .......................................................................................... 11-11
Deleting snapshots............................................................................................................................................... 11-12
12 Volume replication.......................................................................................................................... 12-1
About replication................................................................................................................................................... 12-1
About replicas ....................................................................................................................................................... 12-1
How replication works .......................................................................................................................................... 12-2
About manual transfer replication......................................................................................................................... 12-3
Manual Transfer Utility .................................................................................................................................. 12-3
Replication configuration options ......................................................................................................................... 12-4
Replication to one partner............................................................................................................................... 12-4
Replication to multiple partners ..................................................................................................................... 12-4
Reciprocal replication between partners......................................................................................................... 12-5
Centralized replication.................................................................................................................................... 12-5
How volume changes affect replication space ...................................................................................................... 12-6
Best practice for replicating volumes.................................................................................................................... 12-6
About replication space......................................................................................................................................... 12-7
About local replication reserve ............................................................................................................................. 12-8
Guidelines for sizing local replication reserve ............................................................................................... 12-9
Sizing local replication reserve for use during replication ........................................................................... 12-10
Sizing the local replication reserve for the failback snapshot ...................................................................... 12-10
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About delegated space and replica reserve ......................................................................................................... 12-11
Replica volume reserve ................................................................................................................................ 12-12
Replica reserve usage ................................................................................................................................... 12-12
Replica reserve usage – first replication ................................................................................................ 12-13
Replica reserve usage – subsequent replications.................................................................................... 12-13
Guidelines for sizing replica reserve for a volume....................................................................................... 12-14
Guidelines for sizing delegated space .......................................................................................................... 12-15
About replication partners................................................................................................................................... 12-16
Replication partner requirements.................................................................................................................. 12-16
Replication partner attributes........................................................................................................................ 12-17
Configuring replication partners ......................................................................................................................... 12-17
Displaying replication partners ........................................................................................................................... 12-18
Displaying the replication configuration for a partner ................................................................................. 12-19
Modifying replication partner attributes ............................................................................................................. 12-19
Modifying a partner group name or IP address ............................................................................................ 12-19
Modifying partner contact information ........................................................................................................ 12-19
Modifying partner passwords ....................................................................................................................... 12-20
Modifying space delegated to a partner........................................................................................................ 12-20
Deleting a replication partner.............................................................................................................................. 12-20
Displaying inbound and outbound replication .................................................................................................... 12-21
Displaying inbound replica collections .............................................................................................................. 12-21
Displaying all inbound replicas........................................................................................................................... 12-22
Displaying individual inbound replica sets ......................................................................................................... 12-22
Displaying an inbound template replica set ........................................................................................................ 12-22
Template replicas tab.................................................................................................................................... 12-23
Thin clone replica sets tab ............................................................................................................................ 12-23
Displaying all outbound replica collections ........................................................................................................ 12-23
Displaying individual outbound replica collections............................................................................................ 12-23
Displaying all outbound replicas......................................................................................................................... 12-24
Displaying the outbound replication of an individual volume............................................................................ 12-24
Volume replication configuration attributes ....................................................................................................... 12-25
Configuring a volume for replication.................................................................................................................. 12-25
Modifying volume replication configuration settings .................................................................................. 12-26
Configuring a volume collection for replication ................................................................................................. 12-26
Modifying volume collection replication configuration settings ................................................................. 12-27
Disabling replication ........................................................................................................................................... 12-27
Creating a replica ................................................................................................................................................ 12-28
Displaying replication activity and replicas for a volume............................................................................ 12-28
Replicating volume collections ........................................................................................................................... 12-29
Displaying replication activity and replicas for a volume collection ........................................................... 12-29
Using schedules to create replicas....................................................................................................................... 12-30
Pausing and resuming replication of a volume ................................................................................................... 12-30
Pausing and resuming replication to or from a partner ....................................................................................... 12-30
Pausing and resuming outbound replication................................................................................................. 12-30
Pausing and resuming inbound replication................................................................................................... 12-30
Cancelling a volume replication.......................................................................................................................... 12-31
Cloning an inbound replica ................................................................................................................................. 12-31
Deleting outbound replica sets or replicas .......................................................................................................... 12-32
Deleting outbound replica collection sets, replica collections, or replicas ......................................................... 12-32
Deleting inbound replica sets or replicas ............................................................................................................ 12-33
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Deleting inbound replica collection sets, replica collections, or replicas ........................................................... 12-33
13 Data recovery .................................................................................................................................. 13-1
About data recovery .............................................................................................................................................. 13-1
Data recovery procedures...................................................................................................................................... 13-2
Failing over and failing back a volume................................................................................................................. 13-2
Example of failing over and failing back a volume........................................................................................ 13-3
Promoting an inbound replica set to a recovery volume ................................................................................ 13-7
Where to go next ................................................................................................................................ 13-8
Recovery volume restrictions................................................................................................................... 13-9
Replicating a recovery volume to the primary group ..................................................................................... 13-9
Where to go next .............................................................................................................................. 13-10
Moving a failback replica set to a different storage pool ............................................................................. 13-11
Failing back to the primary group ................................................................................................................ 13-11
Making a temporary volume available on the secondary group ......................................................................... 13-12
Permanently switching partner roles ................................................................................................................... 13-12
Making an inbound replica set promotion permanent .................................................................................. 13-13
Where to go next .................................................................................................................................... 13-14
Converting a failback replica set to an inbound replica set.......................................................................... 13-14
Permanently promoting a replica set to a volume ............................................................................................... 13-14
Handling a failed operation ................................................................................................................................. 13-15
Manually performing the replicate to partner operation ..................................................................................... 13-16
Manually performing the failback to primary operation..................................................................................... 13-16
Part III: Troubleshooting
14 Group event logging........................................................................................................................ 14-1
About event messages ........................................................................................................................................... 14-1
Event priorities ...................................................................................................................................................... 14-2
About hardware alarms ......................................................................................................................................... 14-2
Event notification methods.................................................................................................................................... 14-2
Configuring E-Mail notification............................................................................................................................ 14-3
Changing the E-Mail notification configuration ............................................................................................ 14-3
Configuring E-Mail home ..................................................................................................................................... 14-4
Changing the E-Mail home configuration ...................................................................................................... 14-4
Configuring syslog notification............................................................................................................................. 14-5
Changing the syslog notification configuration.............................................................................................. 14-5
Enabling or disabling the display of INFO event messages.................................................................................. 14-5
About SNMP traps ................................................................................................................................................ 14-6
Configuring SNMP trap destinations ............................................................................................................. 14-7
Changing the SNMP trap configuration ......................................................................................................... 14-7
Accessing PS Series array MIBs........................................................................................................................... 14-7
15 Group monitoring ........................................................................................................................... 15-1
About monitoring best practices ........................................................................................................................... 15-1
Getting started with group monitoring .................................................................................................................. 15-2
Monitoring events ................................................................................................................................................. 15-2
Accessing the event log file on a remote computer........................................................................................ 15-3
Accessing events sent to an E-Mail address................................................................................................... 15-3
Monitoring administrative sessions....................................................................................................................... 15-3
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Monitoring iSCSI connections .............................................................................................................................. 15-3
Monitoring snapshot schedules ............................................................................................................................. 15-4
Monitoring replication schedules .......................................................................................................................... 15-4
Monitoring replication........................................................................................................................................... 15-5
Monitoring outbound replication.................................................................................................................... 15-6
Monitoring inbound replication...................................................................................................................... 15-8
Monitoring outbound replication history........................................................................................................ 15-9
Monitoring replication partners............................................................................................................................. 15-9
Monitoring a specific partner ....................................................................................................................... 15-10
Monitoring alarms and operations....................................................................................................................... 15-10
Monitoring alarms ........................................................................................................................................ 15-10
Displaying critical alarms....................................................................................................................... 15-11
Displaying warning alarms..................................................................................................................... 15-12
Monitoring actions........................................................................................................................................ 15-13
Monitoring group operations ........................................................................................................................ 15-14
Monitoring failback operations .................................................................................................................... 15-14
Monitoring storage pool free space .............................................................................................................. 15-15
Monitoring group members................................................................................................................................. 15-15
Monitoring a specific member...................................................................................................................... 15-16
Displaying general member information................................................................................................ 15-16
Displaying member health status ........................................................................................................... 15-16
Displaying member space ...................................................................................................................... 15-17
Using LEDs to identify a member................................................................................................................ 15-17
Monitoring the member enclosure................................................................................................................ 15-17
Monitoring power supplies..................................................................................................................... 15-18
Monitoring cooling and fans .................................................................................................................. 15-18
Monitoring channel cards....................................................................................................................... 15-19
Monitoring the EIP card......................................................................................................................... 15-20
Monitoring control modules ......................................................................................................................... 15-20
Control module status............................................................................................................................. 15-21
Cache battery status................................................................................................................................ 15-21
NVRAM battery status........................................................................................................................... 15-22
Monitoring disk drives.................................................................................................................................. 15-22
Disk drive status ..................................................................................................................................... 15-22
Monitoring network hardware ...................................................................................................................... 15-23
Monitoring iSCSI connections to a member ................................................................................................ 15-24
Monitoring volumes, collections, and snapshots ................................................................................................ 15-24
Monitoring volumes and snapshots .............................................................................................................. 15-25
Volume and snapshot requested status................................................................................................... 15-26
Volume and snapshot current status....................................................................................................... 15-26
Using the Performance Monitor.......................................................................................................................... 15-27
Starting Performance Monitor from the tools menu..................................................................................... 15-27
Starting Performance Monitor from the Group Manager GUI..................................................................... 15-28
Using the Performance Monitor ................................................................................................................... 15-29
Adding, changing, or removing statistics ..................................................................................................... 15-29
Changing how data is displayed ................................................................................................................... 15-30
Displaying data for a specific point in time ........................................................................................... 15-30
Customizing the Performance Monitor ........................................................................................................ 15-31
Changing the display colors ................................................................................................................... 15-31
Changing the data collection values....................................................................................................... 15-32
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Additional monitoring tools ................................................................................................................................ 15-32
Contacting customer support............................................................................................................................... 15-33
Displaying member service information ...................................................................................................... 15-33
Collecting diagnostic information ................................................................................................................ 15-33
Appendix A Legal notices .................................................................................................................... A-1
Glossary ..................................................................................................................................... Glossary-1
Index................................................................................................................................................ Index-1
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Preface
This document describes PS Series group functionality and management operations. It describes how you use the
Group Manager graphical user interface (GUI) to perform tasks.
For information about using the command line interface (CLI) to manage a group, see the CLI Reference manual on
the EqualLogic customer support Website.
Audience
This documentation is for administrators responsible for managing a PS Series group or SAN storage and also for
individuals interested to learn more about group operation. You can manage a PS Series array without extensive
network or storage experience. It is important that understand:
•
Basic networking concepts – IP addresses, network bandwidth, and network interfaces.
•
Current network environment – How your LAN is currently configured such as whether it is organized into
subnets, whether you use an NTP server, and the type of iSCSI initiators that you use.
•
User disk storage requirements – How you intend to assign storage space on the group to your user community
and the kind of service level agreement you maintain for data recovery.
•
RAID configurations – The method of disk-level data security that you want to implement through a RAID
policy
•
Disk storage management – Principles for implementing data security and recovery.
Note: Although this documentation includes examples of PS Series arrays in some common network
configurations, information about setting up a network is beyond the scope of this manual. Go to the
EqualLogic customer support Website to find more information about network requirements.
Organization
Part I: General Group Management:
•
Chapter 1, Storage solutions for all enterprises, includes an introduction to PS Series arrays, group features,
and functionality.
•
Chapter 2, Common group tasks, describes some common post-setup tasks that Dell recommends.
•
Chapter 3, Group Manager user interfaces, describes the user interfaces for managing a group and how to
access online help.
•
Chapter 4, Group security, describes how to use accounts to protect your group from unauthorized access and
how to set up a dedicated management network.
•
Chapter 5, Group configuration, describes how to modify the basic group configuration.
•
Chapter 6, Group members, describes how to set the RAID policy for a member and configure the member
network configuration.
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Part II: Using Group Storage:
•
Chapter 7, Storage pools, describes how to organize storage for a group.
•
Chapter 8, iSCSI target security, describes how to protect volumes and snapshots from unauthorized and
uncoordinated iSCSI initiator access.
•
Chapter 9, Basic volume operations, describes how to create volumes and perform basic volume tasks.
•
Chapter 10, Advanced volume operations, describes thin provisioning, template and thin clone volumes, and
advanced volume management tasks.
•
Chapter 11, Snapshot management, describes how to create and manage volume snapshots.
•
Chapter 12, Volume replication, describes how to create replicas and manage replication.
•
Chapter 13, Data recovery, describes how to recover data from replicas.
Part III: Troubleshooting
•
Chapter 14, Group event logging, describes how the group logs events.
•
Chapter 15, Group monitoring, describes how to monitor events, interpret status, identify and solve problems,
and monitor performance statistics.
In addition, this guide includes a Glossary of terms used in PS Series group management and related product
offerings from EqualLogic.
Conventions
Documentation conventions are shown in the following table.
Document Conventions
Convention
fixed width
group_ip_address
Note: Text . . .
Usage
Command, parameter, output, file name, link, button, field, URL address, or e-mail
address.
Variable. Replace the text in italics with the actual object name or identifier.
Important information that you should read.
Requirement: Text . . .
Information relating to one or more requirements for performing a task.
Recommendation: Text . . .
Information relating to one or more Dell recommendations for performing a task.
Restriction: Text . . .
Information relating to one or more restrictions for performing a task.
Overview of EqualLogic Products
Thank you for your interest in EqualLogic™ PS Series storage products from Dell. We hope you will find them
intuitive and simple to configure and manage.
PS Series arrays optimize resources by automating performance and network load balancing. Additionally, PS
Series arrays offer all-inclusive array management software, host software, and free firmware updates. The features
and products described next are available at no additional cost.
xiv
Group Administration
Preface
PS Series Array Software
•
•
Firmware – Installed on each array, PS Series firmware allows you to manage your storage environment and
provides capabilities such as volume snapshots, cloning, and replication to protect data hosted on the array in
the event of an error or disaster.
–
Group Manager GUI: Provides a graphical user interface for managing a group.
–
Group Manager CLI: Provides a command line interface for managing a group.
Manual Transfer Utility (MTU) – Runs on Windows and Linux systems and enables you to use physical media
to securely transfer large amounts of data to a replication partner, facilitating replication and preventing
network congestion.
Host Software for Windows
•
•
Host Integration Tools:
–
Remote Setup Wizard (RSW): Initializes new PS Series arrays, configures host connections to a group, and
configures and manages multipathing.
–
Multipath I/O Device Specific Module (MPIO DSM): Includes a connection awareness-module that
understands PS Series network load balancing and facilitates host connections to PS Series volumes.
–
VSS and VDS Provider Services: Allows backup software vendors to perform off-host backups.
–
Auto-Snapshot Manager/Microsoft Edition (ASM/ME): Uses PS Series snapshots, cloning, and replication
to provide point-in-time protection of critical data for supported applications, including SQL Server,
Exchange Server, Hyper-V, and NTFS file shares.
SAN HeadQuarters (SANHQ): Provides centralized monitoring, performance trending, and event reporting for
multiple PS Series groups.
Host Software for VMware
•
Storage Replication Adapter for Site Recovery Manager (SRM): Allows SRM to understand and recognize PS
Series replication for full SRM integration.
•
Auto-Snapshot Manager/VMware Edition (ASM/VE): Integrates with VMware Virtual Center and PS Series
snapshots to enable Smart Copy protection of Virtual Center folders, datastores, and virtual machines.
Current Customers: You may not be running the latest versions of the software listed above. If you are under a valid
warranty or support agreement for your PS Series array, you are entitled to obtain the latest updates and new
releases as they become available.
xv
Group Administration
Preface
Related Documentation
For detailed information about PS Series arrays, groups, volumes, array software, and host software, see the
documentation listed in the following figure:
Figure 2-1: PS Series Documentation
xvi
Group Administration
Preface
Technical Support and Customer Service
Dell’s support service is available to answer your questions about PS Series arrays. If you have an Express Service
Code, have it ready when you call. The code helps Dell's automated-support telephone system direct your call more
efficiently.
Contacting Dell
Dell provides several online and telephone-based support and service options. Availability varies by country and
product, and some services might not be available in your area.
For customers in the United States, call 800-945-3355.
Note: If you do not have access to an Internet connection, contact information is printed on your invoice, packing
slip, bill, or Dell product catalog.
Use the following procedure to contact Dell for sales, technical support, or customer service issues:
1. Visit support.dell.com or the Dell support URL specified in information provided with the Dell product.
2. Select your locale. Use the locale menu or click on the link that specifies your country or region.
3. Select the required service. Click the “Contact Us” link, or select the Dell support service from the list of
services provided.
4. Choose your preferred method of contacting Dell support, such as e-mail or telephone
Online Services
You can learn about Dell products and services using the following procedure:
1. Visit www.dell.com (or the URL specified in any Dell product information).
2. Use the locale menu or click on the link that specifies your country or region.
xvii
1 Storage solutions for all enterprises
PS Series storage arrays provide consolidated storage in a self-managing, iSCSI (Internet Small Computer System
Interface) storage area network (SAN). Featuring automated management and fast, flexible scalability, PS Series
arrays can greatly decrease the total cost of storage acquisition and management.
Today, large and small businesses alike are under pressure to manage rapidly-growing storage environments. Some
still use storage directly attached to servers, which can be a a difficult configuration to scale that offers low service
levels. The EqualLogic storage solution provides the benefits of storage consolidation to enterprises of all sizes and
types.
To use storage resources efficiently and economically, you can configure disparate storage configurations so
administration is easier and service levels increase. The EqualLogic storage solution also provides centralized data
provisioning, backups, and disaster recovery features to simplify SAN management.
About PS Series groups
The foundation of the EqualLogic storage solution is the PS Series group, which includes one or more PS Series
arrays (group members) you can connect to an IP network and manage as a single system. Each array has fully
redundant hardware and multiple network connections for high availability and I/O bandwidth.
You can connect multiple PS Series arrays as a group to an IP network and manage them as a single storage system,
while leveraging your current network infrastructure. With PS Series arrays, you can deploy a full-featured iSCSI
SAN. Access to storage requires only an iSCSI initiator, which is available with most operating systems.
Virtualization technology masks the underlying complexity of the storage configuration, saving you time and
effort. Arrays share configuration data and “collaborate” to achieve automatic data provisioning and load
balancing.
Self-managing features of PS Series arrays enable straightforward configurations that do not disrupt running
applications. For example, you can add more arrays to a group to seamlessly increase capacity and performance.
You can automatically replicate data over long distances for a simple, yet robust, disaster recovery strategy.
Integrated virtualization software provides:
•
Group Manager configuration, management, and replication software
•
Automatic RAID and spare disk drive configuration
•
Automatic network, performance, and capacity load balancing
How groups work
You might start with a single-member group and later add arrays to expand capacity and increase performance.
Whether the group is small or large, there is no disruption to users, and management overhead is static. The group
automatically distributes data across member disk drives and network interfaces. Load-balancing, based on
capacity and performance metrics, occurs as needed.
Administration accounts provide security for group management operations. You can set up a dedicated
management network for additional security, if required.
1–1
Group Administration
Storage solutions for all enterprises
By default, a group provides a single pool of storage. If you have multiple members, you can divide group space
into different storage pools and then assign members. Pools help you organize storage according to usage and give
you a way to allocate resources, from a single-system management view.
You create volumes to access storage space in a pool, and you can modify volume size and attributes on-demand.
Cloning a volume enables you to make an exact copy of the volume.
Figure 1-1 shows a three-member group (three network connections on each member), with members and volumes
distributed across two pools, and two servers, with iSCSI initiators accessing the volumes.
Figure 1-1: Three-Member, Two Pool PS Series Group
High-end features in an affordable iSCSI san
To meet the storage requirements of businesses today, a PS Series group offers advanced storage capabilities in a
highly-available, cost-effective iSCSI SAN.
Modular hardware
A PS Series group can easily adjust to workload requirements; therefore, administrators purchase hardware only
when necessary. New product versions fully operate with previous arrays.
Depending on the model, a PS Series storage array provides the following features:
•
Redundant hardware for no single point of failure. Redundant, hot-swappable hardware
components—disks, control modules, fans, and power supplies—offer the highest availability. Component
failover and disk sparing occur automatically without user intervention or disrupting data availability. In
addition, data in each array is kept safe by RAID technology.
•
High-performance control modules. Each control module has multiple Gigabit Ethernet interfaces. You can
configure multiple network interfaces for automatic failover. With dual control modules, the array mirrors data
between battery-backed write-back caches. If one control module fails, the other control module starts
operating—automatically and with no disruption to users.
1–2
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Storage solutions for all enterprises
•
Support for standard Ethernet networks. Only one IP network connection is necessary for array operation.
You can configure all the network interfaces for maximum bandwidth. You do not have to train administrators
in unfamiliar and complex technologies such as Fibre Channel. Also, high-volume production and intense
vendor competition among Ethernet hardware vendors decrease cost of ownership.
•
Easy and online expansion. You can expand SAN capacity with no disruption to users and applications. Old
array models can work in groups with new models, ensuring the viability of your initial purchase.
•
Optional management connectivity through a serial port. If network connectivity is lost, a serial
connection—providing full management capabilities—lets you connect the array to a console, terminal server,
or computer running a terminal emulator and manage the storage.
•
SAS, SATA, and SSD disk drives. A variety of disk drive speeds and capabilities enable you to optimize your
storage environment to meet your business needs.
Seamless online scalability
To increase the capacity of an individual PS Series array, you can install more drives or configure more network
connections. Expand overall group capacity by adding arrays to the group. In all cases, performance scales linearly,
and the new disk and network resources are immediately available for use. The additional control modules also
increase processing power. Meanwhile, volumes stay available with no affect on computers and applications, and
management overhead stays the same.
Interoperability
PS Series arrays are ideal for multi-platform, heterogeneous environments that previously required a different
storage system for each operating system or application. Because a PS Series group provides block-level storage,
computers can use a standards-compliant iSCSI initiator—available for most major operating systems—to access
data. When a computer connects to a volume, it looks like a regular disk that you can format using the normal
operating system utilities.
Easy setup and management
You can quickly configure an array on the network and create a PS Series group. In minutes, you have a
functioning iSCSI SAN. Automation of complex operations like RAID configuration, disk sparing, data
provisioning, and load balancing means that even novices can effectively manage the SAN.
You can configure arrays and groups by using a serial connection to an array and running the setup utility.
Alternately, Windows computers can run the Remote Setup Wizard to configure an array and set up access to the
SAN. See Host-based applications on page 1-6 for more information.
Password-protected management accounts give easy, secure access to the group. Graphical and command-line user
interfaces give you a single-system view of the storage. With the Group Manager graphical user interface (GUI),
creating and managing volumes, configuring security, and setting up event notification are simple and intuitive
operations. You can access the same functionality by using the Group Manager command-line interface (CLI)
through telnet, SSH, or a serial connection.
1–3
Group Administration
Storage solutions for all enterprises
Automatic SAN operation
In contrast to traditional storage management environments involving error-prone, manual tasks, a PS Series group
does complex tasks correctly and without user intervention:
•
Automatic RAID configuration and data provisioning. Administrators do not have to manually create
RAID sets or map data onto disks or individual network interfaces. Whether you are expanding a group or
creating, expanding, or deleting volumes, the group manages storage allocation and load balancing across the
resources in the group. iSCSI access to volumes continues without interruption.
•
Automatic spare disk configuration and use. A PS Series array can include spare disks, which the array
automatically configures and uses in the event of a disk failure, offering “hands-off” storage management.
•
Automatic event notification. A PS Series group uses standard event logging mechanisms and can
automatically notify users of significant events through e-mail, remote syslog servers, or SNMP traps.
Dynamic load balancing
Dynamic load balancing lets the group quickly find and correct bottlenecks as the workload changes, with no user
intervention or application disruption.
A group provides three types of load balancing within the arrays in a storage pool:
•
Capacity load balancing. The group distributes volume data across disks and members, based on capacity.
•
Performance load balancing. The group tries to store volume data on members with a RAID configuration
that is optimal for volume performance, based on internal group performance metrics.
•
Network connection load balancing. The group distributes iSCSI I/O across network interfaces, minimizing
I/O contention and maximizing bandwidth.
Robust security for group administration
The web-based Group Manager GUI and its corresponding CLI enable you to manage a group. You can access the
GUI by using standard Web protocols. For increased security, you can use SSL encrypted Web access. You can
access the CLI by using telnet. For increased security, you can use SSH.
Password-protected administration accounts prevent unauthorized users from accessing the group. The grpadmin
account is the default administration account. You can create additional accounts with a variety of privileges.
You can set up and authenticate administration accounts locally in the group or through a RADIUS (Remote
Authorization Dial-in User Service) server. Environments that want additional security can use a dedicated
management network, which enables you to separate management traffic from iSCSI traffic.
Robust security for data access
Access controls prevent unauthorized users from accessing volume data. The robust security mechanisms of the
iSCSI protocol mean that you do not have to understand complicated security technologies, such as Fibre Channel
Switch Zoning or LUN Masking.
1–4
Group Administration
Storage solutions for all enterprises
You can restrict iSCSI access to volumes according to IP address, iSCSI initiator name, or Challenge Handshake
Authentication Protocol (CHAP) user name. You can set up and authenticate CHAP accounts locally in the group
or through a RADIUS (Remote Authorization Dial-in User Service) server.
Advanced functionality at no extra cost
PS Series arrays match ease-of-use with ease-of-doing-business. Arrays come with basic and advanced software,
so you do not have to purchase expensive add-ons. New features are available through firmware updates and hostbased tools, which are provided at no additional cost to customers with a support contract.
For example, a PS Series group delivers:
•
Online scalability. You can expand array capacity or overall group capacity while online and with no affect on
users or availability. Hot-swappable hardware means that you can replace failed components while data stays
online.
•
Multiple storage pools. In a PS Series group, you can divide storage into multiple pools. This helps you
organize storage according to usage, offering more control over resource allocation, while giving you a single
system management view. You get the advantages of storage consolidation and the ability to easily segregate
different workloads.
•
Thin provisioning. To use storage more efficiently, you can apply thin provisioning to a volume. Thin
provisioning lets you over-allocate group space to satisfy current and future storage requirements. This
functionality can be useful if an operating system or application cannot handle online volume expansion.
To an application or operating system, a thin-provisioned volume is fully allocated. However, the group
initially allocates only a portion of the volume size. As you use the volume, the group automatically allocates
more space, with no disruption in availability.
•
Thin clones. To use storage space efficiently, you can create multiple thin clone volumes that are based on a
template volume. You can write data to each thin clone to make it unique. Only the data that is unique to a thin
clone is consumed from free pool space. Thin clones can be beneficial in storage environments that use
multiple volumes that contain a large amount of common data.
•
Volume collections. You can organize volumes into collections. This lets you perform a snapshot or replication
operation on all the volumes in the collection simultaneously.
•
Scheduled operations. You can set up schedules to create volume snapshots or replicas at a specific time in
the future or on a regular basis.
•
Cloning. Cloning a volume creates a new volume with the same size, contents, and attributes as the original
volume. Cloning is useful when you need a copy of an existing volume, such as when you are deploying copies
of a computer or database. When compared to traditional copy or restore operations, cloning dramatically
decreases the time required to make complete copies of a volume. You can also clone a snapshot or a replica,
creating a new volume with the same contents as the volume at the time you created the snapshot or replica.
•
Snapshots. A snapshot is a point-in-time copy of volume data. Snapshots greatly simplify and increase the
performance of backup and recovery operations. You can create snapshots on-demand and through schedules.
To recover data from a snapshot, you can set the snapshot online, connect to the target, and copy the data. You
can also restore the entire volume from a snapshot or clone a snapshot. Cloning a snapshot creates a volume
containing the same data that was in the volume at the time the snapshot was created.
•
Replication. By replicating volumes from one group to another, you can set up a simple, yet robust disaster
recovery strategy. Groups can be in the same building or a large distance apart.
1–5
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Storage solutions for all enterprises
A replica represents the contents of a volume at a specific point in time. You can create replicas on-demand and
through schedules.
•
Failover and failback. If a volume is destroyed, you can fail over to the recovery group and recover data from
a replica. Users can then resume access to the recovery volume. When the original volume becomes available,
you can failback to the original group.
Host-based applications
Host-based applications facilitate access to PS Series group storage and expand group capabilities at no extra cost.
These applications include user interfaces that provide interaction between the computer and the group. See
Overview of EqualLogic Products on page xiv.
1–6
Part I: Managing Groups
2 Common group tasks
When you use the setup utility or the Remote Setup Wizard to create a new PS Series group with one or more
members, you have a fully functioning group with many features.
Dell recommends you perform the common post-setup tasks listed here. See About the Group Manager GUI on
page 3-1 for information about logging in to the group.
Setting the group time
All members of a group share the same time zone. Each array’s clock is set at the factory, based on GMT. The
default time zone is America/New York, EST (Eastern Standard Time).
Group time is based on the first member’s clock. Each array you add updates its clock to match the group’s date
and time. The group date and time determines the timestamp which is used to identify some objects (snapshots, for
example) you create on the group.
You can change the group time manually (see Modifying the time zone and clock time on page 5-3).
You can also specify that the group use an external Network Time Protocol (NTP) server to automatically set the
same time for all members (see Setting the time through an NTP server on page 5-4).
Creating a local administration account
You configure, manage, and authenticate local administration accounts within the group. Local accounts are
practical when you need only a small number of administration accounts for the group. Dell recommends one
account per administrator. See Creating a local administration account on page 4-5 for more information.
Setting up event notifications
Dell recommends that you configure event notification, so you automatically receive messages when events occur
in the group. Events enable you to track operations and also detect and solve problems before they affect
performance or data availability.
See Group event logging on page 14-1 and select one or more notification methods to automatically receive
notification when events occur:
•
E-mail notification. If an event occurs, the group automatically sends a message to designated e-mail
addresses. See Configuring E-Mail notification on page 14-3.
•
E-Mail Home. If a hardware component fails or if you update firmware, the group automatically notifies
customer support. E-Mail Home is available to all PS Series customers, but response time and assistance is
based on the validity and level of your support contract. See Configuring E-Mail home on page 14-4.
•
Remote server logging. The group logs events to a remote server at the syslog facility. You can also access
events from the syslog server. See Configuring syslog notification on page 14-5.
2–1
Group Administration
Common group tasks
Configuring CHAP for initiator authentication
You can use Challenge Handshake Authentication Protocol (CHAP) for iSCSI authentication to manage access
controls more efficiently. Using a challenge-response mechanism, CHAP restricts target access through user names
and passwords instead of unique IP addresses or iSCSI initiator names. You can use CHAP to authenticate iSCSI
initiators by specifying a CHAP user name in an access control record. To meet this condition, a computer must
supply the user name and its password (or “secret”) in the initiator configuration interface when logging in to the
target.
See Chapter 8, iSCSI target security.
Configuring SNMP access to the group
You can use Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) for read-only group access. In addition, some
monitoring tools (such as SAN HeadQuarters) and the Manual Transfer Utility require SNMP access to the group.
See Displaying and configuring SNMP access to a Group on page 4-11.
Setting group-wide volume defaults
When you create a volume (or enable thin-provisioning for a volume), the group applies default values to volume
settings that control snapshot space, snapshot behavior, thin provisioning space, and iSCSI alias naming.
You can change the default values to meet the needs of your environment.
See Displaying group-wide default volume settings on page 9-5.
Setting the RAID policy for a member
To use the storage in a group member, you must set the member RAID policy.
See Setting the RAID policy and pool for a new member on page 6-6.
Configuring member network interfaces
After you add a member to a group, the member has one configured network interface, typically Ethernet 0. For
best performance and availability, Dell recommends that you configure all the network interfaces that are eligible
for iSCSI traffic.
For network configuration requirements and recommendations, see the Hardware Maintenance manual for your
array model.
To configure member network interfaces, see Configuring network interfaces on page 6-9.
2–2
3 Group Manager user interfaces
PS Series arrays provide simple, yet robust user interfaces for creating, expanding, and managing groups. The
graphical user interface (GUI) and the command-line user interface provide virtually identical functionality.
About the Group Manager GUI
You can run the Group Manager GUI:
•
From a Web browser. In addition to ports 3002 and 3003, the GUI uses the standard HTTP port (80).
•
By installing the GUI on a local computer and running it as a standalone application. See Installing and
starting the GUI application on page 3-1.
See the PS Series Release Notes for the latest information on GUI requirements.
Starting the GUI from a Web browser
1. Enter the group IP address (or the dedicated management network address) in a supported Web browser.
2. At the login prompt, enter a valid group administration account name (for example, the grpadmin account)
and password.
In addition, you can install the Group Manager GUI on a computer and run the GUI as a standalone application.
See Installing and starting the GUI application on page 3-1.
Installing and starting the GUI application
You can install the Group Manager GUI on a computer and run the GUI as a standalone application. You can install
GUIs for more than one group on a computer. You identify GUI applications by group name.
Requirement: Make sure the computer on which you installed the GUI application is running the required Java
version. See the PS Series Storage Arrays Release Notes for details.
Note: See the PS Series Release Notes for the latest information on standalone GUI requirements.
1. Using the computer where you installed the GUI, launch the Group Manager GUI. See Starting the GUI from a
Web browser on page 3-1.
2. Expand Tools in the lower-left portion of the GUI and click Run as application.
3. Confirm you want to install the GUI application. Depending on the Java version, you might be prompted to
create a shortcut on the desktop. After installation, the standalone GUI starts automatically.
4. At the login prompt, enter a valid group administration account name and password.
5. Start the standalone GUI application, using one of the following methods (This sequence might vary,
depending on your operating system):
a. Click the shortcut associated with the group name.
3–1
Group Administration
Group Manager user interfaces
b. Navigate to the Windows Programs menu, and click EqualLogic PS Group, then group_name
Group Manager.
When you install the GUI locally, it automatically updates when you upgrade the PS Series firmware. However,
you must log out of the GUI and then log in again after performing a firmware update to make sure the GUI
displays all the features in the updated firmware.
If you change the IP address of a group for which you are running the GUI locally, or configure a management
network for the group, you must uninstall the GUI application and then install it again.
Uninstalling the GUI application
1. From the Windows Control Panel, click Java.
2. In the General tab, under Temporary Internet Files, click View.
3. Right-click the GUI application for the group and select Delete. The name uses the format: group_name
Group Manager.
Depending on the Java version, the GUI application for a group might have two components--the applet and
the library; both are prefaced with the group name and show EqualLogic as the vendor. Make sure you remove
both components.
Navigating the GUI
The first time you log in to the GUI, the Group Summary window shows an overview of the group configuration
and status. Any alarms are shown in the panel at the bottom of the window. See Figure 5-1 on page 5-1.
Note: The PS Series firmware GUI can also show replication storage objects that originate from other PS Series
groups (replication partners).
The GUI provides a set of view buttons in the bottom left of the window:
•
•
•
Group view (default) - Provides a view of the group, organized as:
–
Group information and group configuration
–
Storage pools
–
Members (physical arrays that are part of this group)
Volumes - Provides a view of storage objects, organized as:
–
Volumes - a hierarchy of storage objects such as standard volumes, template volumes and thin clones and
their associated snapshots.
–
Volume collections - user-specified related sets of storage objects on which you can perform operations
such as creating snapshots.You can also configure a regular schedule to perform operations automatically.
–
Custom snapshot collections - user-specified related sets of snapshots (independent of volume collections).
Replication - Provides a view of the disaster recovery replication configuration for the group, organized as:
–
3–2
Replication partners - other PS Series groups that receive replicated data from this group or are authorized
to send replicated data to the login group. (The term login group describes a group that you are currently
logged into.)
Group Administration
•
Group Manager user interfaces
–
Inbound replica collections - related sets of storage objects located on a partner group, sending replicated
data to the login group.
–
Inbound replicas- individual storage objects located on a partner group, sending replicated data to the login
group.
–
Out bound replica collections - related sets of storage objects located on the login group, sending replicated
data to a partner group.
–
Outbound replicas - individual storage objects located on the login group, sending replicated data to a
partner group.
Monitoring - Provides a view of group information, status, and messages, organized as:
–
Events - The group event log messages, filtered by log event class.
–
Statistics - Events and data relating to administrative login sessions and iSCSI initiator connections.
–
Schedules - Events and data relating to snapshot and replication schedules.
–
Replication - The status of storage objects configured for replication on the login group and on replication
partner groups. This view also provides a cumulative log showing all replication events.
Keyboard shortcuts
Table 3-1 lists keyboard shortcuts you can use to navigate the GUI without using a mouse. The first column lists
the pane in the window and the second pane lists the keyboard shortcut for it.
Note: There are also keyboard shortcuts for individual buttons and fields in the GUI. See the GUI online help for
more information.
Table 3-1: Keyboard Shortcuts
Type
General
Pane
Switch to Group view
Switch to Volumes view
Switch to Replication view
Switch to Monitoring view
Toggle the Tools panel
Cycle backward through panes
Cycle forward through panes
Previous screen
Next screen
Save all changes
Discard all changes
Refresh data
Move to next item
Move to previous item
Open the Help Context menu
Shortcut
Control+Alt+G
Control+Alt+V
Control+Alt+R
Control+Alt+M
Control+Alt+T
Shift+F6
F6
Alt+Left Arrow
Alt+Right
Control+S
Control+Z
Control+R
Tab
Shift+Tab
F1
3–3
Group Administration
Group Manager user interfaces
Table 3-1: Keyboard Shortcuts (Continued)
Type
Table Navigation
Tree Navigation
Tabs
Alarms
Pane
Move to the next row
Move to the previous row
Move to the next cell
Move to the previous cell
Leave table and move to the next item in the pane
Leave table and move to the previous item in the pane
Show context (right-click) menu for current table row
Move to previous tree node
Move to next tree node
Collapse current tree node or move to parent of a collapsed node
Expand current tree node or move to first child of an expanded node
Show context (right-click) menu for selected tree node
Previous Tab
Next Tab
Show/hide Alarms panel
Acknowledge All button
Shortcut
Down Arrow
Up Arrow
Tab
Shift+Tab
Control+Tab
Shit+Control+Tab
Shift+F10
Up Arrow
Down Arrow
Left Arrow
Right Arrow
Shift+F10
Control+Page Up
Control+Page Down
Control+Alt+A
Control+Shift+K
GUI icons
Table 3-2 identifies the icons at the top of the GUI window. The first column lists the icons and the second
describes them.
Table 3-2: GUI Icons
Icon
Description
Keyboard Shortcut
Save changes. Saves and applies any changes you made in a GUI window. If Control+S
you do not save the changes, you are prompted to do so when you close the
window or click another object in the tree.
Discard changes. Discards changes you made in a window.
Control+Z
Refresh data in a window. Refreshes the data that appears in the GUI. Do Control+R
not use the browser refresh button to refresh the data that appears in the GUI.
Navigate the GUI. Moves backward or forward through the GUI windows,
according to the window history.
Alt+Left Arrow
(to go back)
Alt+Right Arrow
(to go forward)
Accessing the alarms panel
The Alarms panel at the bottom of the GUI window shows alarms in the group and tasks that are in progress.
•
Click the Show window icon ( ) or Hide window icon ( ) in the Alarms title bar or click the title bar to
open and close the panel. Each alarm contains a link to the object (member or volume). Click the link for
additional information.
•
Click the Acknowledge all icon (
3–4
) to acknowledge all alarms and stop flashing the Caution icon (
).
Group Administration
Group Manager user interfaces
Displaying the tools panel
If the Tools panel is not showing in the bottom left of the GUI window, click its Show window icon (
the Tools panel. To keep the Tools window open, drag the panel divider bar .
) to open
Table 3-3 shows the Tools panel configuration options and utilities for working in the Group Manager:
Table 3-3: Tools Panel
Option
User preferences
Online help
Customer support
Performance
monitor
Manual transfer
utility
Run as application
Diagnostic reports
Update firmware
Description
Opens the Modify user preferences dialog box that
enables you to:
•
Set General GUI Policies
•
Set General GUI Policies
•
Set Alarm Policies
• Set Data Validation and Debugging Policies
Opens a new browser window displaying topicoriented help on every aspect of using the GUI to
manage a group.
Launches the EqualLogic Customer Support
Website.
Opens the performance monitor.
Opens the Manual Transfer Utility (MTU).
User Actions
See Customizing the GUI on page 3-5
See Starting online help for group manager on
page 3-7
See Contacting customer support on page 15-33
See Using the Performance Monitor on page 1527
See About manual transfer replication on page
12-3
If the GUI is already installed, clicking the link
starts the application.
Installs the Group Manager GUI on the local
computer, enabling it to run as a standalone
application. (If you are currently running the GUI as See Installing and starting the GUI application
an application, this link does not appear.)
on page 3-1
Generates Diagnostic reports that are sent out via e- See Collecting diagnostic information on page
15-33
mail to the address configured for e-mail
notification.
Opens the Update Firmware dialog box.
See About member firmware on page 6-12
Customizing the GUI
The topics that follow describe how you can:
•
Change the look and behavior of the GUI, and the location of online help.
•
Specify what the GUI does when a connection is lost.
•
Change event logging options and how alarms are indicated.
•
Control the GUI response to typed input and debugging.
Setting general GUI policies
To set general GUI policies to control the appearance of the GUI and the location of online help:
1. Click Tools, then User Preferences, then the General tab.
3–5
Group Administration
Group Manager user interfaces
2. In the User Preferences – General dialog box, select your preferences and click OK.
See the online help for information about the options.
Setting GUI communication policies
To manage connections between your workstation and the Group Manager GUI:
1. Click Tools, then User Preferences, then the Communication tab.
2. Select the policies and click OK.
See the online help for information about the options.
Setting alarm policies
To set an alarm which will indicate there is a hardware condition in an array:
1. Click Tools, then User Preferences, then the Alarms tab.
2. In the User Preferences – Alarms dialog box, select policies and click OK.
See the online help for information about the options.
Setting advanced policies
To set data validation and debugging policies:
1. Click Tools, then User Preferences, then the Advanced tab.
2. In the User Preferences – Advanced dialog box, select policies and click OK.
Using the CLI
The Group Manager command-line interface (CLI) provides a comprehensive set of commands for managing a
PS Series group. The CLI also enables you to manage individual PS Series storage arrays for maintenance
purposes.
To access the group to run CLI commands, you can do one of the following:
•
Use a network connection. From a computer, use telnet or SSH to connect to the group (or management) IP
address or—if you are running array management commands on a specific array—connect to an IP address
assigned to a network interface on the array.
•
Use a serial connection. Set up a serial connection to the array, as appropriate for the control module model.
Make the connection to Port 0 on the active control module (the ACT LED is green). Use the serial cable that
shipped with the array. See the Hardware Maintenance manual shipped with your array for more information.
See the CLI Reference manual for more information about using the CLI. You can download documentation from
the EqualLogic Customer Support Website.
3–6
Group Administration
Group Manager user interfaces
Starting online help for group manager
In addition to tooltips and command-line help for the GUI and CLI, online help is available for the Group Manager
GUI. An internet connection is required to use online help, which is served from a Web site in the Dell.com
domain. You have the option to install the help on your local system or a private Web server.
Note: Setting the online help to a local path only applies to users of the local system.
The online help is context-sensitive. Click any of the question mark icons embedded in the Group Manager GUI to
open a specific help topic. You can also open the help in a browser, and use the table of contents or search option to
find information.
To launch online help from the Web site, in the GUI’s far-left panel, expand Tools and click Online Help.
To launch online help locally (from your system):
1. Log on to the Customer Support Web site and navigate to the downloads area.
2. Copy the folder named eqlgmhlpnn (where nn corresponds to the PS Series firmware release, such as 5.0).
3. Save the contents of folder to on a local disk, a network share, or Web server repository. The top-level file in
the help hierarchy in this folder is named groupmanager.htm. For example: c:/eqlgmhlp50.
4. Start the Group Manager GUI.
5. Click Tools, then User Preferences, then General tab.
6. In the User Preferences – General dialog box, enter the new help directory location in the Location of
online help files field and click OK. For example:
file:///c:/eqlgmhlp50
http://servername/eqlgmhlp50
file:///system.directory.company.com/myhelpshare/eqlgmhlp50
7. Click any help icon to test the revised help location.
Depending on your browser choice, and the local internet security settings, you might need to configure browser
access to the help folder. For example, for Internet Explorer, you might need to add the help URL to the list of
trusted sites:
1. Start Internet Explorer and go to Tools, then Internet Options.
2. Select the Security tab and click Trusted Sites, then Sites.
3. Add the group’s IP or management address to the list of trusted sites, using the format: http://
group_ip_address. (Do not select the option to require server verification.)
4. Close both dialog boxes.
3–7
4 Group security
Group security features enable you to control access to the group and the data it contains.
About group security
To access a group for management purposes, an administrator must meet several security conditions. See Table 4-1.
Table 4-1: Access Requirements for Group Administration
Security Condition
Description
Network access
The administrator’s computer must have access to the group network address (group IP
address or dedicated management address).
Group administration access
enabled in the group
To use the GUI, the group must allow administrative access through the web.
Valid group administration
account
To log in to the group, you must have a valid group administration account. Different
account types provide different privileges. The default account, grpadmin, provides all
privileges.
To use the CLI, the group must allow administrative access through telnet or SSH.
In addition to administration account security, Table 4-2 identifies other group security options.
Table 4-2: Group Security Options
Security Option
Description
RADIUS authentication
You can control access to a group and its volumes by using administration accounts to log in
to the group. Using a RADIUS Authentication server enables you to centralize account
management.
SNMP
Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) enables read-only access to the group.
VDS/VSS access control
Enables Windows VDS and VSS access to the group. You must create at least one VDS/VSS
access control record that matches the access control credentials you configure on the
computer by using Remote Setup Wizard or Auto-Snapshot Manager/Microsoft Edition.
Dedicated management network An advanced option enables you to configure a dedicated management network, which
separates group management traffic from iSCSI traffic.
Accessing the GUI or CLI
By default, administrators can access the GUI remotely using a Web browser or a standalone Java application.
Administrators can also manage a group by using the command-line interface (CLI) across a telnet or SSH
connection.
You can disable CLI access, preventing any administrator from logging in to the group or from using CLI
commands.
Note: If you disable all methods of access to the group, you must use a serial connection and the CLI to manage
the group or to re-enable access. See Using the CLI on page 3-6 and your Hardware Maintenance manual
for information about serial connections.
4–1
Group Administration
Group security
Administration access options
Table 4-3 shows the access options and network services.
Table 4-3: Administration Access Options
Field
Description
Shortcut
User Actions
Enable Web access
Whether administrators can access the Group
Manager through the web interface.
Alt+W
See Enabling or disabling GUI or
CLI access on page 4-2
Allow only secure SSL Whether administrators must use an SSL
connections
connection when connecting to the GUI.
Alt+A
See Enabling or disabling GUI or
CLI access on page 4-2
Enable telnet access
Whether the CLI can be accessed through a
telnet connection.
Alt+T
See Enabling or disabling GUI or
CLI access on page 4-2
Enable SSH (secure
shell) access
Whether the CLI can be accessed through an
SSH connection.
Alt+S
See Enabling or disabling GUI or
CLI access on page 4-2
Note: To run Auto-Snapshot Manager/
VMware Edition, you must enable use
of the GUI for group administration.
The CLI provides additional options for managing network services. Using the CLI, you can also enable or disable
SSH V1 protocol support or the ftp service. See the CLI Reference manual.
Enabling or disabling GUI or CLI access
1. Click Group, then Group Configuration, and then the Administration tab.
2. In the Administration Access panel, enable or disable the GUI or CLI access options and network services as
described in Administration access options on page 4-2.
3. Click Save all changes (Control+S).
About administration accounts
Having persons in the role of administrator is important to protect and maintain your group from unauthorized
access. Environments that need additional security might also benefit from a dedicated management network.
To manage or monitor a group, you must log in to an administration account. Administration accounts prevent
unauthorized individuals from accessing a group.
An account can authorize an individual to perform all group operations, perform only operations on a pool (and
optionally monitor the entire group), manage its own volumes within an assigned quota, or only monitor the group,
depending on the type of account.
The default administration account, grpadmin, can perform all group operations. Dell recommends that you set up
an account for each administrator.
Recommendation: Dell recommends one account per user and that the group administrator monitors the activity
of other accounts. See Chapter 15, Group monitoring, for more information.
4–2
Group Administration
Group security
You can manage accounts locally or remotely:
•
Locally in the group – If you have relatively few administration accounts, this method is practical. Account
authentication occurs within the group. The default administration account, grpadmin, is a local account
created automatically when the group is first configured.
See Creating a local administration account on page 4-5.
•
Remotely on an external server – If you have a large number of administration accounts, you can use an
external Remote Authentication Dial-in User Service (RADIUS) server to authenticate and, optionally, manage
administration accounts.
Restriction: To delete a RADIUS account, remove it from Active Directory and then delete it from the group.
A group can use both local accounts and RADIUS-authenticated accounts. However, each account name
must be unique.
See About administration accounts on a RADIUS authentication server on page 4-7.
Types of administrator accounts
Table 4-4 lists administration account types and their privileges, The first column lists account types and the
second column describes them.
Table 4-4: Types of Administrator Accounts
Account Type
Description
grpadmin
Can perform all group management tasks, including managing the group, storage pools, members,
volumes, and accounts. You set the password for the grpadmin account when you create a
group. You cannot delete the grpadmin account.
Only the grpadmin account can update member firmware. You cannot rename, delete, or
change the account type for the grpadmin account.
Group administrator
Can perform the same tasks as the grpadmin account, except cannot update member firmware.
Read-only
Can view information about all group objects, but cannot change the group configuration.
Pool administrator
Can manage the volumes, members, snapshots, and other objects only in the pool or pools for
which the account has authorization. Optionally, pool administrators can view information about
all group objects.
Pool administrators can assign volumes to volume administrators, provided that the pool
administrator has access to the pool containing the volumes, and that the volume administrator has
sufficient free quota space.
Pool administrators cannot change the resources to which they have access.
4–3
Group Administration
Group security
Table 4-4: Types of Administrator Accounts (Continued)
Account Type
Description
Volume administrator
Assigned a quota of storage to manage within one or more pools. They can create and manage
volumes within their quota, and can perform all operations on volumes they own.
Volume administrators can view information only for pools and volumes to which they have
access. For security purposes, the volume administrator has a limited view of group and pool
configuration settings, and cannot view information, such as the SNMP Community Name or
event log, that might enable them to gain additional access.
Group and pool administrators can assign existing volumes to a volume administrator. If a volume
is assigned to another administrator account, the volume administrator can no longer view or
modify it.
Volume administrators cannot exceed their quotas by creating or modifying volumes, and cannot
be assigned volumes by group or pool administrators if the capacity of the volume exceeds the
free space within the quota.
Volume administrators cannot modify their quotas, reassign volumes to other administrators, or
change the pools, volumes, or replication partners to which they have access.
Administrators accounts have these restrictions:
•
You cannot change the name of an administration account. Instead, you must delete the account and then recreate it with the new name.
•
You cannot disable, delete, change the name, or change the type of the grpadmin account.
•
Only group administrator accounts can change the attributes of accounts, with the exception of the grpadmin
account restrictions above.
•
Volume administrator, pool administrator, and read-only accounts can only change the password, description,
and contact information for their accounts.
Administration account attributes
Table 4-5 displays the attributes of administration accounts. The first column lists the attributes, the second column
describes them. Gather this information before creating an account.
Table 4-5: Administration Account Attributes
Attribute
Description
Name
Name of the account, up to 16 alphanumeric characters, including period (.), hyphen (-), and
underscore (_). The first character must be a letter or number. The last character cannot be a period.
Password
Password for the account. The password must be from 3 to 16 alphanumeric characters and is casesensitive. However, validation occurs only for the first 8 characters.
Description
Optional description for the account.
4–4
Group Administration
Group security
Table 4-5: Administration Account Attributes (Continued)
Attribute
Description
Type
Account type:
•
Group administrator – Can change any and all aspects of the group, storage pools, members, and
volumes, except updating member firmware.
•
Pool administrator – Can manage the volumes, members, snapshots, and other objects only in the
pool or pools for which the account has authorization. Optionally, pool administrators can view
information about all group objects.
•
Volume administrator – Can manage the volumes for which the account has authorization.
Additionally, volume administrators can view information about pools to which the account has
access.
•
Read-only – Can view information about all group objects, but cannot change the group.
Managed pools
Pools to which the account has access, and, if the account is a Volume administrator, the storage quota
the account can manage within the selected pool(s). Applies to Pool administrators and Volume
administrators.
Replication Partners
The group(s) on which the account can delegate space for replication and replicate volumes. Applies
to Volume administrators only.
Additional access
permission
Grants read access to the entire group. Applies to Pool administrator and Read-only accounts; Volume
administrators only have read access to the individual pools containing the storage quota they manage.
Contact
Name, e-mail address, and phone numbers for the account owner.
Enable administration Whether the account is enabled or disabled. A user cannot log into a disabled account.
account
Displaying local administration accounts
To see the names, types, access permissions or status of local administration accounts:
1. Click Group, then Group Configuration.
2. Select the Administration tab. The Group Administration window appears.
See the online help for information about the data fields and options.
Creating a local administration account
You can configure, manage, and authenticate local administration accounts within the group. Local accounts are
practical when you need only a small number of administration accounts for the group.
Before creating a local administration account, gather the information described in Administration account
attributes on page 4-4.
1. Click Group Configuration, then Administration tab.
2. In the Administration Accounts panel, click Add. The Create Account - General Settings dialog box appears.
3. Enter the account name, password, and description (optional) and click Next. The Create Account - Account
Permissions dialog box appears.
4. Select the type of account and (if applicable) the pool access and read access to the group.
4–5
Group Administration
Group security
•
For a pool administrator, select one or more pools the account can manage and whether the account has
read-only access to the entire group.
•
For a volume administrator, select one or more pools the account can manage and specify the quotas for
each pool.
5. Select whether to enable (default) or disable the account, then click Next. (You can enable and disable
accounts at any time.)
If you created a volume administrator account, and the group has replication partner(s) configured, the Create
Account - Allowed replication partners dialog box appears.
6. [Optional] Select one or more replication partners that this account can replicate to, then click Next. the Create
Account - Contact information dialog box appears.
7. [Optional] Enter contact information for the account and click Next. The Create Account - Summary dialog
box opens.
8. Review the account information. Click Back to make changes, or click Finish to create the account.
Modifying a local administration account
You can modify the account attributes described in Table 4-5. However, you cannot change the account name.
Instead, you must delete the account and then re-create it with a new name.
In addition, you cannot disable, delete, change the name, or change the type of the grpadmin default
administration account.
1. Click Group, then Group Configuration, and then the Administration tab.
2. In the Administration Accounts panel, select the account and click Modify.
•
To change the account password or description, click the General tab and change the information in the
Modify Administration Account – General dialog box.
•
To change the account type or pool or volume administrator settings, click the Permissions tab and
change the information.
•
To change replication partners for a volume administrator, click the Replication Partners tab and
change the selection(s).
•
To change the account contact information, click the Contact tab and change the information.
3. Click OK.
Deleting a local administration account
1. Click Group, then Group Configuration, and then the Administration tab.
2. In the Administration Accounts panel, select the account and click Delete.
3. Confirm that you want to delete the account.
Note: When you delete a Volume administrator account, the volumes it manages are not deleted, and its
replication and operations continue as scheduled.
4–6
Group Administration
Group security
About administration accounts on a RADIUS authentication server
You can use an external RADIUS authentication server to centralize the management of administration accounts.
The RADIUS server authenticates administration accounts and also determines the account privileges. You can
also use a RADIUS accounting server to monitor the login and logout times for accounts that a RADIUS server
authenticates.
Using a RADIUS server can simplify account management if you have a large number of accounts.
There are various implementations of RADIUS, including Microsoft Windows Internet Authentication Service
(IAS). Depending on the implementation, a RADIUS server can verify account credentials against a local database,
or it can verify them against an external resource, such as a Microsoft Windows Active Directory™ service
domain.
Note: External administration accounts depend on the availability of the RADIUS server and any related
resources. If these resources are not available, accounts cannot be authenticated and a login does not
succeed.
For information about using IAS and Active Directory to manage and authenticate administration accounts, see the
Technical Report Using Active Directory for Account Authentication to a PS Series Group on the customer support
web site.
For other RADIUS implementations, see your RADIUS server documentation for information about setting up the
RADIUS server and configuring vendor-specific attributes (VSAs).
You can use multiple RADIUS authentication servers for increased availability.
RADIUS attributes for administration accounts
A RADIUS server uses attributes to authorize accounts as group administrator, pool administrator, or read-only
accounts and to store account contact information. See Types of administrator accounts on page 4-3 and
Administration account attributes on page 4-4.
Recommendation: For security reasons, Dell recommends that you require vendor-specific attributes.
See your RADIUS server documentation for information on how to set attributes.
For each account, you must set the Service-Type attribute to one of these values:
•
Administrative – Specifies that the account is either a group administrator account, a pool administrator
account, or a volume administrator account.
Note: If you do not specify the EQL-Admin attribute, by default, the account is a group administrator account.
•
NAS-Prompt – Specifies that the account is a read-only account.
In addition, you must configure vendor-specific attributes (VSAs) for each account if you meet one of these
conditions:
•
You want to create a pool administrator account. You must specify the EQL-Admin attribute and the EQLPool-Access attribute.
4–7
Group Administration
Group security
•
You want to create a volume administrator account. You must specify the EQL-Admin attribute, the EQLPool-Access attribute, and (optionally) the EQL-Replication-Site-Access attribute.
•
You want to create a read-only account. You must specify the EQL-Admin attribute and the EQL-AdminAccount-Type attribute.
•
You plan to select the Require vendor-specific RADIUS attribute option when you configure the
group to use a RADIUS authentication server. You must specify the EQL-Admin attribute.
Table 4-6 describes the Dell vendor-specific attributes for RADIUS attributes, and lists their possible values.
Table 4-6: Vendor-Specific Attributes
Attribute
Field
Required Value
EQL-Admin-Privilege
VSA vendor ID
12740
Specifies that the account is a group administrator account or a VSA number
pool administrator account.
VSA syntax
The RADIUS server must return the value of this attribute to
the group in the Access-Accept message.
6
Decimal (0 for group administrator;
1 for pool administrator; 2 for pool
administrator with read access to the
entire group; 3 for volume
administrator).
To create a read-only account, set the
EQL-Admin attribute to 0 and the
EQL-Admin-Account-Type
attribute to RO.
Admin-Pool-Access
VSA vendor ID
Specifies the pools to which the pool administrator account has VSA number
access and, for volume administrators, the account’s storage
VSA syntax
within that pool.
Required if the value of the EQL-Admin attribute is 1 (pool
administrator account) or 3 (volume administrator account).
12740
7
String (comma-separated list of
pools; 3 to 247 characters)
The quota for volume administration accounts is expressed as
PoolName Quota, with gb and mb appended to the quota
representing GB and MB, respectively.
For example: Pool1 25gb sets the quota for Pool1 to 25GB,
and Pool1 500mb sets a quota of 500MB. Use
unlimited to set an unlimited quota for the pool, e.g.
Pool1 unlimited. If no unit is specified, the default
capacity unit is MB.
Admin-Repl-Site-Access
VSA vendor ID
12740
Specifies the sites to which the volume administrator can
replicate volumes. Required if the value of the EQL-Admin
attribute is 3 (volume administrator account). Used only for
volume administrators.
VSA number
8
VSA syntax
String (comma-separated list of sites;
3 to 249 characters)
Admin-Account-Type
VSA vendor ID
12740
Specifies whether the account is read-only (RO) or read-write
(RW):
VSA number
9
VSA syntax
RO or RW
Admin-Full-Name
VSA vendor ID
12740
(Optional) Name of the administrator using the account.
VSA number
1
VSA syntax
String (3 to 247 characters)
4–8
Group Administration
Group security
Table 4-6: Vendor-Specific Attributes (Continued)
Attribute
Field
Required Value
Admin-Email
VSA vendor ID
12740
(Optional) E-mail address of the administrator.
VSA number
2
VSA syntax
String (3 to 247 characters)
Admin-Phone
VSA vendor ID
12740
(Optional) Phone number for the administrator.
VSA number
3
VSA syntax
String (3 to 247 characters)
Admin-Mobile
VSA vendor ID
12740
(Optional) Mobile phone number for the administrator.
VSA number
4
VSA syntax
String (3 to 247 characters)
Admin-Poll-Interval
VSA vendor ID
12740
How often, in seconds, the GUI polls the group configuration
data. The default is 30 (seconds).
VSA number
5
VSA syntax
Integer (up to 6 numerals)
Displaying RADIUS authentication and accounting servers
1. Click Group, then Group Configuration.
2. Select the Administration tab.
See the online help for information about the data fields and options.
Using RADIUS authentication and accounting servers
Prerequisite tasks for RADIUS servers
Perform the tasks in Table 4-7, in the order listed, before you use a RADIUS server to authenticate administration
accounts (or CHAP accounts for iSCSI access, as described in Using CHAP accounts on a RADIUS authentication
server on page 8-3).
Table 4-7: RADIUS Server Prerequisites
Task
Description
Install and configure the
For example, to add the group as a RADIUS client on a Network Policy Server, you must
RADIUS authentication server. specify:
•
The name (also called Friendly Name) for the client. Dell recommends using the group
name.
•
The group IP address, (also called Client address), or dedicated management network
IP address.
•
The Vendor Name attribute. Select RADIUS Standard.
•
An optional password (also called Shared Secret), of up to 63 characters. This password
should also be entered in the Group Manager when you configure the group to use the
RADIUS authentication server. Dell recommends that you use a password for increased
security.
The RADIUS server must be accessible to all the group members.
4–9
Group Administration
Group security
Table 4-7: RADIUS Server Prerequisites (Continued)
Task
Description
Configure iSCSI CHAP
accounts.
For iSCSI CHAP accounts, add each configured network interface on all the group members
as a RADIUS client. Specify the network interface IP address and, optionally, a password
(or secret), up to 63 characters. If you specify a password, enter this password when you
configure the group to use the RADIUS authentication server. Dell recommends that you
use a password for increased security.
Set up attributes for
administration accounts.
For administration accounts, set up the attributes that allow the server to authorize accounts
as group administrator, pool administrator, or read-only accounts. See RADIUS attributes
for administration accounts on page 4-7.
Set up accounts.
Set up the accounts. You can set up accounts on the RADIUS server or a different resource,
such as Active Directory. The RADIUS server verifies login credentials (account name and
password) that the user supplies against these accounts.
Procedure for configuring RADIUS servers
1. Click Group, then Group Configuration, and then the Administration tab.
2. Click RADIUS settings. The RADIUS Settings dialog box appears.
3. Under RADIUS authentication servers click Add and specify the IP address of the server.
4. Specify and then confirm the RADIUS secret.
5. [OPTIONAL] Specify server timeout and retry values:
•
•
Request timeout, seconds — Number of seconds the group waits for an accounting server to
transmit before timing out. The default is two seconds.
Number of retries — Number of times the group tries to contact an accounting server after the first
failure. The default is one.
6. [OPTIONAL] Using the Radius accounting servers panel, repeat steps 2 through 5 if you also want to add
information for RADIUS accounting servers.
7. Repeat steps 3 through 6 to add additional servers or click OK to finish.
8. In the Group Administration window, click Save all changes (Control+S).
All RADIUS authentication and accounting options are now enabled. For a description of these options, see
Displaying RADIUS authentication and accounting servers on page 4-9.
Modifying RADIUS server settings
You can change these settings for a RADIUS authentication or accounting server:
•
Server IP address
•
Password (secret)
•
Request timeout value
4–10
Group Administration
•
Group security
Number of retries value
1. Click Group, then Group Configuration, and then the Administration tab.
2. In the RADIUS Authentication panel, click RADIUS settings.
3. To change a server IP address or password, select the server IP address and click Modify in the RADIUS
settings dialog box. Change the settings and click OK.
4. Click OK.
Deleting a RADIUS server connection
1. Click Group, then Group Configuration, and then the Administration tab.
2. In the RADIUS Authentication panel, click RADIUS settings. The RADIUS settings dialog box appears.
3. Select the server IP address and click Delete.
4. In the Group Administration window, click Save all changes (Control+S).
Disabling use of a RADIUS server in a Group
If you previously configured the use of a RADIUS authentication server or a RADIUS accounting server, you can
disable use of the server.
1. In the Group Administration window, deselect Enable RADIUS authentication for login or deselect
Enable RADIUS accounting for authenticated users.
2. Click Save all changes (Control+S).
Displaying and configuring SNMP access to a Group
You can use Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) for read-only access to a PS Series group through one
or more read-only community names.
Note: SAN HeadQuarters requires you to configure SNMP access to a group. The Manual Transfer Utility
requires you to configure SNMP access and specify public for the SNMP community name.
To display SNMP Access:
1. Click Group, then Group Configuration.
2. Select the SNMP tab.
See the online help for information about the data fields and options.
4–11
Group Administration
Group security
To change SNMP access:
1. In the SNMP Access panel, click Add.
2. Enter a SNMP community name (for example, public) and click OK. You can specify up to five names.
3. Click Save all changes (Control+S).
To modify or delete an SNMP community name:
1. In the SNMP Access panel, select the name.
2. Click Modify or Delete.
Host-based application access requirements
Host-based applications from EqualLogic facilitate access between computers and PS Series group storage.
Each application requires a method of accessing the group and its storage:
•
SAN HeadQuarters – Enables you to monitor the performance and status of multiple groups from a central user
interface. The application uses SNMP to access the group.
See the SAN HeadQuarters documentation and Displaying and configuring SNMP access to a Group on page
4-11.
•
Manual Transfer Utility – Enables you to perform a replication operation using external media, instead of the
network. The application uses SNMP to access the group.
See the Manual Transfer Utility documentation and Displaying and configuring SNMP access to a Group on
page 4-11.
•
Auto-Snapshot Manager/Microsoft Edition – Enables you to create consistent backups on group storage. The
application uses special access controls to access the group.
See the ASM/ME documentation and Displaying and configuring Windows service access to a Group on page
4-12.
•
Auto-Snapshot Manager/VMware Edition – Enables you to create backups on group storage in a VMware
environment. The application uses the Group Manager GUI channel to access the group.
See the ASM/VE documentation and Accessing the GUI or CLI on page 4-1.
Displaying and configuring Windows service access to a Group
Microsoft Windows computers that are running a Microsoft service, such as Virtual Disk Service (VDS) or Volume
Shadow Copy Service (VSS), must be able to access a PS Series group to perform management operations.
Note: Auto-Snapshot Manager/Microsoft Edition requires you to configure Windows service access to a group.
To allow VDS and VSS access to the group, you must create at least one VDS/VSS access control record that
matches the access control credentials you configure on the computer by using Remote Setup Wizard or AutoSnapshot Manager/Microsoft Edition.
4–12
Group Administration
Group security
VDS/VSS access control records use the same criteria for restricting access as iSCSI target access control records:
CHAP user name, iSCSI initiator name, or iSCSI initiator IP address. See About iSCSI target access controls on
page 8-1.
To display VDS/VSS Access, click Group, then Group Configuration, and then the VDS/VSS tab.
See the online help for information about the data fields and options.
Adding a VDS/VSS access control record
1. Click Group, then Group Configuration, and then the VDS/VSS tab.
2. Click Add in the VDS/VSS Access Control List panel.
3. Do at least one of the following:
•
Check the box marked Authenticate using CHAP user name to use CHAP (Authenticating
initiators through CHAP on page 8-2).
•
Check the box marked Limit access by IP Address to constrain access to an IP address or range of
addresses. Use an asterisk as a wildcard to specify a range of addresses, such as 127.200.*.*.
•
Check the box marked Authenticate using CHAP user Limit access to iSCSI Initiator
name to grant access to a specific SCSI initiator (See iSCSI target security on page 8-1). For example:
iqn.2000-05.com.qlogic.qla-4000.sn00044.
4. Click OK.
Modifying or deleting a VDS/VSS access control record
1. Click Group, then Group Configuration, and then the VDS/VSS tab.
2. To modify a record, select the record and click Modify. Change the CHAP user name, IP address (or range), or
the iSCSI initiator name. (See Adding a VDS/VSS access control record on page 4-13.) Then, click OK.
To delete a record, select the record and click Delete. Then, confirm that you want to delete the record.
When you delete or modify a record you might need to update any computer that was previously accessing
volumes through the access control record.
About dedicated management networks (advanced)
For increased security, you can configure a dedicated management network used only for administrative access to
the group. The management network is separate from the network that handles iSCSI traffic to the group.
Without a dedicated management network (the default configuration), administrators connect to the group IP
address for both administrative access to the group and iSCSI initiator access to iSCSI targets (volumes and
snapshots).
With a dedicated management network, administrators do not use the group IP address for administrative access to
the group. Instead, administrators connect to the management network address. All iSCSI traffic, including traffic
by replication partners, continues to use the group IP address.
4–13
Group Administration
Group security
Although a dedicated management network can provide additional group administration security, it has
disadvantages:
•
Because you assign the highest-numbered network interface on each group member to the management
network, iSCSI traffic is limited to the remaining network interfaces. Therefore, total iSCSI bandwidth might
decrease, depending on the control module type.
Note: Some control modules have a network interface that you can use only if you configure a dedicated
management network. For these control modules, using a dedicated management network does not
decrease iSCSI bandwidth. See the Hardware Maintenance manual for your array model.
•
If the management interface fails in a single-member group, or if the management network loses connectivity,
you lose management access to the group. However, you can always connect to the serial port on a group
member and use the Group Manager CLI to manage the group.
Only very knowledgeable users should configure a management network and only if the environment requires
separating management traffic from iSCSI traffic.
Configuring a management network
Before configuring an management network, read the considerations described in About dedicated management
networks (advanced) on page 4-13.
Prerequisite tasks for configuring a management network
Perform these tasks before configuring a management network:
•
Make sure your network environment can support a dedicated management network. You need a subnet for the
management network that is separate from the subnet (or subnets) for iSCSI traffic.
•
Obtain an IP address and default gateway information for the management network address. This is the address
to which administrators can connect.
•
For each group member, obtain an IP address for the management network interface. The IP address must be
on the same subnet as the management network address, and this subnet should not be the same that used for
data I/O.
•
On each group member, connect at least one network interface, other than the highest-numbered interface, to
the iSCSI network and configure and enable the interface. For the best performance connect, configure, and
enable all iSCSI-eligible network interfaces. To support control module failover, connect the ports on the
active and secondary control modules to the network.
See Configuring a management network on page 4-14.
•
On each group member, connect the highest-numbered network interface on the active and secondary control
modules to the management network.
For example, if you have a three-port control module, connect the Ethernet 2 port on both control modules to
the management network. For some control modules, this interface is labeled Management.
4–14
Group Administration
Group security
Procedure for configuring a management network
Warning: When you complete the management network configuration, administrators cannot log in to the
group using the group IP address. Instead, administrators must use the new management IP
address. Any open GUI or CLI sessions using the group IP address eventually time out and close.
1. Click Group, then Group Configuration, and then the Advanced tab.
2. Click Configure management network in the Dedicated Management Network panel (Alt+C). The
Configure Management Network window appears.
3. Select Enable dedicated management network.
4. Enter the management network IP address in the Management IP address field.
5. Enter the default gateway in the Default gateway field.
6. For each group member:
a. Double-click to configure, and enable at least one network interface, other than the highest-numbered
interface, on the iSCSI network.
For the best performance connect, configure, and enable all iSCSI-eligible interfaces. See Configuring a
management network on page 4-14.
b. Click Configure for management-only access next to the highest-numbered network interface.
c. In the Modify IP Settings – Management Network dialog box:
– Enter an IP address that is on the management network subnet.
– Enter a subnet mask (netmask).
– Select Enable this interface.
– Select Restrict to management access.
– Click OK.
7. Verify the network configuration in the Configure Management Network dialog box (Figure 4-1).
Click OK to complete the dedicated management network configuration.
4–15
Group Administration
Group security
Figure 4-1: Configure Management Network – Configuration Complete
8. In the Warning dialog box, click Yes to restart the Group Manager GUI session using the new management IP
address.
Note: When you configure a management network correctly, the highest-numbered interface is on the same subnet
as the management IP address and Mgmt appears in the Traffic column (Figure 4-1). The remaining
interfaces for iSCSI traffic are on a different network and SAN appears in the Traffic column.
Management network post-configuration tasks
After configuring a dedicated management network, you might need to:
•
Inform administrators of the new management network IP address.
•
Uninstall and reinstall the Group manager GUI application If you have a shortcut to the Group Manager on the
computer desktop, the group address in the shortcut is not updated with the new management address. See
Uninstalling the GUI application on page 3-2.
•
Update the group IP address in the application to the dedicated management address if you are running SAN
HeadQuarters. See the SAN HeadQuarters documentation.
Displaying management network information
1. Click Group, then Group Configuration, and then the General tab.
The management network address is shown in the Management IP address field. (If there is no
management network, this field is not shown.) The General Settings panel also shows the group IP address,
which you use for all iSCSI traffic, including traffic between replication partners.
2. Click Configure management network to display more detail.
4–16
Group Administration
Group security
Adding a member to a group with a management network
If you add a member to a group that has a management network, you must assign the highest-numbered network
interface on the new member to the management network.
After you select the pool and RAID policy for the new member, as described in Setting the RAID policy and pool
for a new member on page 6-6, the Modify IP Settings – Management Network dialog box appears.
In the Modify IP Settings – Management Network dialog box:
1. Enter an IP address that is on the management network.
2. Enter a subnet mask (netmask).
3. Select Enable this interface.
4. Select Restrict to management access.
5. Click OK.
6. Verify the configuration. See Displaying management network information on page 4-16.
Modifying the management network configuration
1. Click Group, then Group Configuration, and then the Advanced tab.
2. In the Dedicated Management Network panel, click Configure management network.
3. Enter the information in the Management IP address or Default gateway field.
4. In the Modify IP Settings dialog box, double-click the items and make your changes.
Note: Make sure all the network addresses used in the management network are on the same subnet, which is
different from the iSCSI network.
5. Click OK to confirm that you want to perform the operation. The Group Manager GUI automatically restarts,
using the group IP address.
4–17
Group Administration
Group security
Unconfiguring a management network
You can unconfigure a dedicated management network and re-enable the group IP address to be used for group
management.
1. Click Group, then Group Configuration, and then the Advanced tab.
2. In the Group Advanced window’s Dedicated Management Network panel, click Configure management
network.
3. In the Configure Management Network dialog box, deselect Enable dedicated management network.
4. Click OK to confirm that you want to perform the operation. The Group Manager GUI automatically restarts,
using the group IP address.
5. Log in to the group.
6. For each member:
a. Disconnect the former management interface from the management network.
b. If the interface is eligible for iSCSI traffic and you want to use it, connect it to the iSCSI network.
c. Click Members, then the member name, and then the Network tab.
d. Select the former management interface and click Modify IP settings.
e. In the Modify IP settings dialog box, if you do not want to use the interface, delete the IP address and click
OK.
If you want to use the interface, do the following:
• Change the IP address and subnet mask to the iSCSI network.
• Deselect Restrict to management access.
• Select Enable this interface.
• Click OK.
7. To log in to and manage the group, connect to the group IP address.
4–18
5 Group configuration
You can change the group configuration defaults and initial settings. You can also add members to a group to
expand group capacity and improve performance.
Displaying the Group summary
The Group Summary window appears when you first start the Group Manager GUI or when you click the group
name at the top of the far-left panel.
Figure 5-1: Group Summary Window
The Group Summary window displays the basic group configuration and resources in the following panels:
•
Group information panel – Shows a summary of group parameters and resource use
•
Group disk space panel – Shows how the group is using space. You can display details about the space by
selecting from the radio button options.
Note: The group free space might not be precise because the GUI uses a rounding algorithm to calculate free
space. To display the actual free space in megabytes, you must use the CLI. Enter the cli-settings
displayinMB on command. Then enter the show command to display the free group space. See the
CLI Reference manual.
•
Storage pools and Group members – Shows storage pools in the group, with details of pool capacity and used
space. See About storage pools on page 7-1.
See the online help for information about the data fields and options.
5–1
Group Administration
Group configuration
Displaying the Group configuration
To display the current configuration, click Group Configuration in the left panel. The Summary panel contains
important configuration attributes and provides links to views that contain more details and in some cases, provide
options to modify group configuration attributes.
Group configuration summary panel
Table 5-1 shows the data fields available in the group configuration Summary panel and provides links to
additional panels containing configuration values.
Table 5-1: Group Configuration Summary Panel
Field
General Settings
Administration Access
E-mail Notifications
Event Logs
iSCSI Authentication
SNMP Settings
VDS/VSS
Description
Group name and IP Address.
Click the General Settings link to go to the
General tab.
Whether Web access, Telnet access, or SSH See Enabling or disabling GUI or CLI access on
access to the group are enabled or disabled. page 4-2
Click the Administration Access link to go to
the Administration tab.
Configuring E-Mail notification on page 14-3
Whether e-mail alerts and/or email-home
functionality are enabled.
Configuring E-Mail home on page 14-4
Click the E-mail Notifications link to go to
the Notifications tab.
Whether syslog reporting is enabled for the See Configuring syslog notification on page 14-5
group.
Click the Event Logs link to go to the
Notifications tab.
Whether RADIUS and/or local CHAP
authentication is enabled.
Configuring target authentication on page 8-4
Using RADIUS authentication and accounting
Click the iSCSI Authentication link to go to servers on page 4-9
the iSCSI tab.
Whether SNMP access and/or SNMP traps See Configuring SNMP trap destinations on page
are enabled.
14-7
Click the SNMP Settings link to go to the
SNMP tab.
Whether VDS/VSS access to the group is
restricted or unrestricted.
Click the VDS/VSS link to go to the VDS/
VSS tab.
5–2
User Actions
See Modifying the group IP address or group
name on page 5-5
See Displaying and configuring Windows service
access to a Group on page 4-12
Group Administration
Group configuration
Group configuration tabs
Each of the Group Configuration tabs provides additional information and configuration options as shown in Table
5-2:
Table 5-2: Group Configuration Tabs
Tab Name
General
Administration
Description
User Actions
General group settings, date and time. Modifying the group IP address or group name on page 5-5
Modifying the time zone and clock time on page 5-3
Administration access options on page 4-2
Administration access, RADIUS
settings, and administrative accounts. Displaying RADIUS authentication and accounting servers on page
4-9
Notifications
E-mail event notifications and the
event logs.
iSCSI
Authentication, discovery and local
CHAP accounts.
Displaying local administration accounts on page 4-5
Configuring E-Mail notification on page 14-3
Configuring syslog notification on page 14-5
Using CHAP accounts on a RADIUS authentication server on page
8-3
Configuring target authentication on page 8-4
Configuring the group to use an iSNS server on page 8-5
SNMP
Access and traps.
VDS/VSS
Access control list.
Defaults
Volume settings, thin provisioning,
and iSCSI settings.
Advanced
Load balancing, member firmware
and dedicated management network.
See Displaying local CHAP accounts on page 8-2
Displaying and configuring SNMP access to a Group on page 4-11
Configuring SNMP trap destinations on page 14-7
Displaying and configuring Windows service access to a Group on
page 4-12
Displaying group-wide default volume settings on page 9-5
Displaying the iSCSI target name and alias on page 9-2
Enabling or disabling performance load balancing (advanced) on
page 5-6
Updating member firmware on page 6-13
Configuring a management network on page 4-14
Modifying the time zone and clock time
To display or change the current date and time values:
Click Group Configuration, then the General tab. See the online help for information about the data fields
and options.
To modify the group time zone and time:
1. Select the time zone and city from the Time zone pull-down menu.
2. Click Modify group time in the Date and Time panel.
3. Change the date and time. To synchronize the time with the computer running the GUI, click Set to time
of system running GUI.
4. Click OK to save the changes. Click Cancel or Reset to current group time to cancel the changes.
5–3
Group Administration
Group configuration
Setting the time through an NTP server
You can specify that the group use up to three external Network Time Protocol (NTP) servers to automatically set
the same time for all the group members. The group uses one NTP server at a time and the first listed server is the
default server. The group uses the other servers, in the order specified, if the default server is not available.
Requirement: The NTP server must be accessible to all the group members.
Recommendation: If you are using a dedicated management network, Dell recommends that the NTP server be
on the same subnet as the dedicated management network.
1. Click Group Configuration, then General tab.
2. Click Add under NTP servers in the Date and Time panel.
3. Enter the IP address for an NTP server. Use the ip_address:port format to specify a port number other than
the default, 123, then click OK.
4. [Optional] Repeat steps 2 and 3 to add more NTP servers. You can specify up to three NTP servers. Use the
arrows to move a server up or down in the list.
Changing or deleting an NTP server
On the Date and Time panel under NTP servers, select the IP address and click Modify or Delete.
If the group time changes (which means you manually modified it or the NTP server time changed), the
synchronization operation can take as long as 24 hours if the time changes by an hour or more.
Expanding group capacity
To expand PS Series group capacity and increase performance, you can add new members (arrays) to the group,
with no disruption to SAN storage users:
1. Install the new array hardware and connect the array to the network. Make sure you connect the array to the
iSCSI network.
2. Use the setup utility or the Remote Setup Wizard to configure the array as a group member. You need:
•
Group name and group IP address for the group that you want to join.
•
Group membership password.
•
IP address for a network interface on the new array (usually, Ethernet 0), in addition to the netmask and
default gateway for the iSCSI network. You must connect the network interface to the network.
See the Installation and Setup manual for your array model for details.
3. Perform the post-setup member tasks. See Common group tasks.
Note: If you configured a dedicated management network in the group, you must configure the highestnumbered network interface on the management network. See About dedicated management networks
(advanced).
5–4
Group Administration
Group configuration
About group network configuration
The group network configuration, which appears in the Group Summary window, includes the group name and
group IP address, which you set when creating a group:
•
Group name – Identifies the group on the network. For example, when you configure a replication partner, you
use the name to identify the group.
•
Group IP address – Network address for the group. You use the group IP address as the iSCSI discovery
address when connecting initiators to iSCSI targets in the group.
You also use the group IP address to access the group for management purposes, unless you configured a
dedicated management network.
Impact of modifying the group network configuration
Before modifying the group name or group IP address, make sure you understand the impact of the modification.
You might need to make adjustments to your SAN environment because of the modification.
Consider the following:
•
You identify replication partners by group name and use the group IP address to perform replication. If you
modify the group name or IP address, make sure replication partner administrators make the change to their
partner configuration. Replication fails if the partner information is incorrect. See Replication partner
requirements for information.
•
You use the group IP address as the iSCSI discovery address when connecting initiators to iSCSI targets in the
group. If you modify the group IP address, you might need to change your initiator configuration to use the
new discovery address.
•
You use the group IP address to access the group for management purposes, unless you configured a dedicated
management network. If you modify the group IP address, make sure administrators are aware of the change.
•
Changing the group IP address disconnects any iSCSI connections to the group and any administrators logged
in to the group through the group IP address.
•
If you change the IP address of a group for which you are running the GUI locally, or configure a management
network for the group, you must uninstall the standalone GUI application and then install it again.
•
Applications such as SAN HeadQuarters use the group IP address to access the group for monitoring purposes.
If you modify the group IP address, you must modify the SAN HeadQuarters configuration to use the new
group IP address.
Modifying the group IP address or group name
Before changing the group name or group IP address, see Impact of modifying the group network configuration on
page 5-5.
Requirement: Group names must be unique in your network environment. A group name can consist of one to 54
letters, numbers, or hyphens. The first character must be a letter or number.
IPv6 Note: If you are using IPv6 addresses exclusively in the group, you must use the CLI to change the group IP
address. See the CLI Reference manual for more information.
5–5
Group Administration
Group configuration
1. Click Group, then Group Configuration.
2. Select the General tab. (See the online help for information about the data fields and options.)
3. Modify the group name or group IP address.
4. [Optional] Change the location and group description.
5. Click Save all changes (Control+S).
Modifying the group membership password
To add a member to a group, you need the group membership password that is initially established when you create
the group.
1. Click Group, then Members, and then Set password.
2. Enter the new password twice and click OK. The password can contain 3 to 16 alphanumeric characters and is
case-sensitive.
Shutting down a group
Before shutting down a group, see Impact of modifying the group network configuration on page 5-5.
To perform maintenance, you might need to shut down a PS Series group. While the group is shut down, group
volumes are not available.
1. Stop applications using the group volumes.
2. Disconnect iSCSI initiators from the group volumes.
3. Shut down each group member. See Shutting down a member on page 6-14.
Note: Do not turn off power to a group member until you cleanly shut down the member.
To start the group, power on all group members.
Enabling or disabling performance load balancing (advanced)
Note: Dell recommends that you enable performance load balancing. Disabling load balancing degrades SAN
performance.
By default, the group tries to store volume data on pool members with a RAID configuration optimal for volume
performance, based on metrics collected from each group member. You can enable or disable automatic
performance load balancing. Other load balancing methods continue to apply.
1. Click Group, then Group Configuration, and then the Advanced tab.
2. In the Load Balancing panel, select or deselect Enable performance load balancing in pools
(Alt+E).
3. Click Save all changes (Control+S).
5–6
6 Group members
A PS Series group includes one or more PS Series arrays configured as group members.
Displaying Group members
To display information about all group members, click Members in the far-left panel. The Group Members panel
appears, containing the following panels:
•
Group disk space panel – Provides information about capacity use for the group and pools and capacity use
distribution by raid level.
•
Group members panel – Provides information about individual members (arrays) in the group, physical
attributes, capacity and capacity use.
See the online help for information about the data fields and options.
Displaying member details
1. Click Group, then expand Members.
2. Select the member name, and click the appropriate information tab.
You can display information about a group member as follows:
•
Member status tab – The general status of a member, such as member information and hardware health.
•
Enclosure tab – Array hardware status.
•
Controllers tab – The status of controllers, such as which controller is active.
•
Disks tab – The status of disks and model or revision of firmware.
•
Network tab – Ethernet interface operational status.
•
Connections tab – iSCSI connections to storage objects such as volumes.
•
Service tab – Information, such as details of the type, model and firmware revision of components in the array.
See the online help for information about the data fields and options.
Member status tab
1. Click Group, then expand Members.
2. Select the member name, and click the Status tab.
The following panels provide information about the member:
•
General member information – Provides information about the array model, its configuration settings, and
RAID status.
•
The Member Health Status panel – Provides a physical view of the array hardware and enables you examine
the following details:
6–1
Group Administration
Group members
–
Click Front view to see the front panel of the array. For some array models, the GUI shows disk drives
located behind the front bezel.
–
Click Inside view (not available on all array models) to see the disk drives located inside the array.
–
Click Rear view to see the back panel of the array, including the control modules and the power supply
and cooling modules. The front and rear views shown in your GUI depend on the array model of the group
member.
- A red “X” over a hardware component indicates uninstalled or unconfigured hardware. Place the pointer
over a component to display status details.
- The Member Health Status panel also shows a table with the alarm status for the array hardware
components.
–
•
Click View Alarms to display all the alarms in the member.
Member space panel – Provides information about the member’s storage capacity and how storage space is
allocated. Be aware of the following:
–
Total member capacity does not include the space in spare disk drives because the member uses spare disk
drives only if a failure occurs). Member capacity depends on the number and size of the installed disks and
the selected RAID policy.
–
If free member space is low, you can increase the member capacity by adding disk drives, if empty slots are
available, or by replacing the current drives with higher-capacity drives. You can also add more group
members to increase overall group capacity.
See the online help for information about the data fields and options.
Enclosure tab
1. Click Group, then expand Members.
2. Select the member name, and click the Members tab.
The following panels provide information about the member’s enclosure (array enclosure):
•
Power supplies panel – Enables you to identify power supply locations and verify their status.
•
Cooling fans panel – Enables you to identify cooling fan locations and verify their status, including operational
parameters.
•
Temperature sensors panel – Enables you to identify temperature sensor locations, verify their status and verify
operational parameters.
See the online help for information about the data fields and options. Your array hardware manual contains more
information about physical features of the array.
See also Monitoring the member enclosure on page 15-17 and Monitoring cooling and fans on page 15-18.
6–2
Group Administration
Group members
Controllers tab
1. Click Group, then expand Members.
2. Select the member name, and click the Controllers tab.
The following panels provide information about the member’s controller modules:
•
Control module panel – Enables you to identify controller locations and verify their status and cache battery
condition. Identifies the current PS Series firmware
•
Memory cache panel – Describes the cache mode and current caching policies.
See the online help for information about the data fields and options. See also Monitoring control modules on page
15-20.
Disks tab
1. Click Group, then expand Members.
2. Select the member name, and click the Disks tab.
The following panels provide information about the member’s disks:
•
Disk array summary panel – Enables you to identify disk drive locations and verify the status of a disk.
Provides information about failed disks and operations in progress.
Note: The disk slots are color-coded to represent the status. Mouse over a disk to view its status information as
text.
•
Installed disks panel – Describes the physical attributes of installed disks. You can select an individual disk and
display disk activity statistics and performance data. See Using the Performance Monitor on page 15-29.
See the online help for information about the data fields and options. See also Monitoring disk drives on page 1522.
Network tab
1. Click Group, then expand Members.
2. Select the member name, and click the Network tab.
The following panels provide information about the member’s network interfaces:
•
Status of network interfaces panel – Provides a description of the operational status of network interfaces in the
member’s controllers, and the physical attributes of the interface. Enables
•
IP configuration panel – Describes the IP configuration values for each network interface and enables you to
modify the IP configuration.
See the online help for information about the data fields and options. See also About member network
configuration on page 6-7.
6–3
Group Administration
Group members
Connections tab
1. Click Group, then expand Members.
2. Select the member name, and click the Connections tab.
The iSCSI Connection panel displays details of the current initiator connections. See the online help for
information about the data fields and options. See also Monitoring iSCSI connections on page 15-3.
Service tab
1. Click Group, then expand Members.
2. Select the member name, and click the Service tab.
The following panels provide information about the member’s hardware components:
•
Component versions panel – Provides information that enables you to identify your array and its components
for the purpose of service and upgrades, including installed firmware revisions.
•
Disk versions panel – Provides information that enables you to identify disk drives for the purpose of service
and upgrades, including installed firmware revisions.
You can also restart or shut down a member from this panel, as described in Restarting a member on page 6-15 and
Shutting down a member on page 6-14
See the online help for information about the data fields and options. See also Displaying member service
information.
Member RAID policies
PS Series arrays protect data by using RAID technology and spare drives. After you add a member to a PS Series
group, you choose the RAID policy for that member.
To display current RAID policies, click Members in the far-left panel. The Group Members panel shows the RAID
policy for each member.
Supported RAID policies are:
•
RAID 10
•
RAID 10 no spares
•
RAID 50
•
RAID 50 no spares
•
RAID 5
•
RAID 6
•
RAID 6 no spares
•
RAID 6 Accelerated (supported only on array models with disk drive configurations that include solid-state
drives and hard disk drives.)
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Group Administration
Group members
The RAID policy for a member consists of two parts:
•
RAID level – RAID 10, RAID 50, RAID 5, or RAID 6. See RAID level characteristics.
Recommendation: For optimal performance, Dell recommends that you assign the same RAID level to pool
members with the same disk type and disk speed.
•
Spare drive policy – Whether the member automatically configures and uses spare disk drives. Spare drives
increase availability.
The number of spare drives depends on the array model and the number of installed drives. For RAID 6
Accelerated, only one hard disk drive is configured as a spare. The solid-state drives are not protected by
sparing.
Recommendation: Dell recommends that you use a spare-drive RAID policy. Only use a no-spare-drive
RAID policy if you have sufficient support staff and maintain a stock of replacement disk
drives.
The storage in the member is available after you set the RAID policy. The member automatically configures the
disk drives according to the designated RAID level, with the appropriate number of spare drives.
Although all RAID levels provide good performance and data protection, there are some differences. When
choosing a RAID policy, you should identify the performance and availability needs of your workload and select a
RAID policy that meets those needs. If your workload has mixed requirements in terms of performance and
availability, you might want to consider mixing RAID levels in a multi-member group.
RAID level characteristics
The characteristics of each supported RAID level are:
•
RAID 10 – Striping on top of multiple RAID 1 (mirrored) sets.
•
RAID 50 – Striping on top of multiple RAID 5 (distributed parity) sets.
•
RAID 5 – One or more RAID 5 sets.
•
RAID 6 – One or more RAID 6 (dual parity) sets.
RAID 6 Accelerated is supported only on array models with disk drive configurations that include both solidstate drives and hard disk drives. RAID 6 Accelerated optimizes the use of solid-state drives for critical data.
One hard disk drive is configured as a spare and provides redundancy protection in the event of a hard disk
drive failure or a solid-state disk drive failure.
Each RAID 1 set or RAID 5 set can survive a single disk drive failure. A RAID 6 set can survive two simultaneous
drive failures. If a drive fails in a RAID set, the RAID set is degraded.
Consider the following performance and availability factors when choosing a RAID level for a member:
•
RAID 10 and RAID 50 provide excellent reliability for your data, in addition to overall high performance.
•
RAID 10 provides the best performance for workloads that are mostly small random writes.
•
RAID 6 provides high availability, but at the expense of performance during data reconstruction.
•
RAID 6 is not recommended for workloads consisting mainly of random writes.
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Group Administration
Group members
Table 6-1 compares the performance and availability characteristics of the supported RAID levels. The first
column lists workload requirements, with the other columns respectively listing the performance quality for each
requirement at RAID 10, RAID 50, RAID 5, and RAID 6.
Table 6-1: RAID Level Characteristic Comparison
Workload Requirement
Capacity
Availability
Sequential reads
Sequential writes
Random reads
Random writes
Performance impact of drive failure or
RAID reconstruction
RAID10
Average
Excellent
Excellent
Good
Excellent
Excellent
Minimal
RAID 50
Good
Good
Excellent
Good
Excellent
Good
Moderate
RAID 5
Excellent
Average
Excellent
Good
Excellent
Average
Moderate to heavy
RAID 6
Good
Excellent
Excellent
Good
Excellent
Average
Heavy
Supported RAID policy conversions
While a member remains online, you can convert it from one RAID policy to another only if the new RAID policy
provides the same or more space than the current policy.
Table 6-2 shows the supported RAID policy conversions. The first column lists RAID configurations, and the
second column lists supported RAID policy conversions for them.
Table 6-2: Supported RAID Policy Conversions
Current RAID Policy
RAID 10
RAID 10 no spares
RAID 50
RAID 50 no spares
RAID 5
RAID 6
RAID 6 no spares
RAID 6 Accelerated
Supported Conversion
All
RAID-5, RAID-50, RAID-50 no spares, RAID-6, RAID6 no spares
RAID-5, RAID-50 no spares, RAID-6, RAID6 no spares
RAID-5,RAID-6, RAID6 no spares
None
RAID-5
RAID-5
None
If a RAID policy conversion is not supported, you can remove the member from the group and then add it to the
group again. You can then set the RAID policy.
Setting the RAID policy and pool for a new member
After you add a member to a PS Series group, you must set the RAID policy for the member and choose the storage
pool. The storage in the member is available after you set the RAID policy. See Member RAID policies.
Notes: If you used the Remote Setup Wizard to create a group and add the first member to the group, you already
set the RAID policy for the member, and the group automatically assigned the member to the default pool.
If you want to use a no-spare disks RAID policy, you must use the Group Manager CLI to set the RAID
policy.
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Group Administration
Group members
1. In the Group Summary window, expand Members and double-click the member name or click Group, then
expand Members, and then select the member name.
The GUI shows whether a member is configured or not.
2. In the warning dialog box that appears, click Yes to configure RAID on the member.
3. In the Configure Member – General Settings dialog box, select the pool and click Next.
4. If prompted, confirm you want to assign the member to the pool.
Recommendation: For optimal performance, Dell recommends that you assign the same RAID level to pool
members with the same disk type and disk speed.
5. In the Configure Member – RAID Configuration dialog box:
•
Select the RAID policy.
•
By default, member storage space is immediately available, although performance is not optimal until the
RAID verification completes. To make space unavailable until the RAID verification completes and
batteries are fully charged, select Wait until the member storage initialization
completes.
6. Click Next.
7. When the configuration is complete, click Finish in the Configure Member – Summary dialog box.
Converting a RAID policy
See Supported RAID policy conversions.
Note: To convert to a no-spare-drive RAID policy, use the Group Manager CLI.
1. Click Group, then expand Members, then select the member name, and then click Modify RAID
configuration.
2. In the Modify RAID Configuration dialog box, select the new RAID policy.
The values in the Member Capacity table automatically update, based on the RAID policy you selected.
3. To ensure member space is not available until the RAID verification completes, you can select Wait until
the member storage initialization completes. If this option is already selected, you cannot
change the selection.
4. Click OK.
While the RAID policy is changing, the member’s RAID status is expanding.
About member network configuration
To enable network-based management, group communication, and iSCSI traffic, each group member must have at
least one functioning network interface that you connected to the network and configured with an IP address and
subnet mask (netmask).
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Group Administration
Group members
Recommendation: For high availability and performance, Dell recommends that you configure multiple network
interfaces and use redundant network switches.
Note: Some control module types include a network interface that can be used only in a dedicated management
network.
Member network requirements and recommendations
The minimum network requirement for a group member is one functioning network interface with the following
characteristics:
•
Located on the active control module
•
Connected to the network
•
Configured with an IP address and netmask (at least one network interface on a member must be on the same
subnet as the group IP address)
•
Enabled
When you add a member to a group, you configure a network interface with an IP address and netmask and enable
the interface (typically, Ethernet 0).
Warning: The minimum network configuration is a single-point-of-failure configuration. A network interface
failure, control module failure, or network or switch failure causes the member and any volumes with
data to go offline until you correct the problem. If it is the only member in the group, the group
becomes inaccessible from the network.
To increase performance and availability, Dell recommends that you expand the minimum network configuration
as follows:
•
Configure redundant network connections. See Configuring redundant network connections.
•
Configure redundant control modules. See Configuring redundant control modules.
•
Configure redundant network switches. See Configuring redundant network switches.
See the Hardware Maintenance manual for your array model for network configuration details.
Configuring redundant network connections
Redundant network connections protect against network interface failure and increase performance (network
bandwidth). If a network interface fails or you disconnect it, another interface can continue to service I/O requests.
1. Connect two or more network interfaces on the active control module to the network.
2. Configure the interfaces (assign an IP address and netmask and enable each interface). See Configuring
network interfaces.
Configuring redundant control modules
Redundant control modules protect against control module failure by enabling control module failover. If the active
control module fails, the secondary control module takes over and becomes active.
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Group Administration
Group members
1. Install a secondary control module in the member.
2. For each configured network interface, connect the Ethernet port on the secondary control module to the
network.
Configuring redundant network switches
Redundant network switches protect against network and switch failures and improve network performance.
Requirement: Requires redundant network connections. See Configuring redundant network connections.
1. Distribute redundant network connections across multiple switches.
2. Connect switches to links with sufficient inter-switch bandwidth.
Displaying the member network configuration
1. Click Group, then expand Members, then select the member name, and then click the Network tab.
2. In the Member Network window, review the current network configuration for the member.
Configuring network interfaces
When you add a member to a group, you configure only one network interface. It is best practice to configure all
network interfaces eligible for iSCSI traffic. The number of iSCSI eligible interfaces depends on the type of control
module.
You can also change the existing member network configuration or enable or disable an interface. If you change the
IP address for a functioning network interface, the member disconnects all iSCSI initiators from that interface.
Most initiators reconnect automatically.
IPv6 Note: If you are using IPv6 addresses exclusively in the group, you must use the CLI to configure a network
interface. See the CLI Reference manual.
1. Connect the network interface on the active control module to the network.
Recommendation: Dell recommends that you also connect the network interface on the secondary control
module to increase availability.
2. Obtain the IP address and netmask for the interface. At least one network interface on a member must be on the
same subnet as the group IP address.
3. Click Group, then expand Members, then select the member name, and then click the Network tab.
4. In the IP Configuration panel, select a network interface and click Modify IP settings.
5. Enter the following information in the Modify IP Settings dialog box:
•
IP address for the network interface.
•
Subnet mask (netmask) for the network interface IP address.
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Group Administration
Group members
Note: Unless you are using a dedicated management network, the default gateway is the same for all network
interfaces on an array. To modify the default gateway, see Modifying the default gateway for a member.
6. Select Enable this interface. You must enable the interface in order to use it.
7. Click OK.
Enabling or disabling a network interface
Enabling a network interface makes it operational if you configure it properly. Disabling a network interface makes
it unable to service network I/O requests, but does not unconfigure the interface.
Disabling a functioning network interface disconnects all iSCSI initiators associated with the member. Most
initiators reconnect to another interface automatically.
Requirement: A member must have at least one functioning network interface that is configured, enabled, and
connected to a network. If you disable the only functioning network interface on a member, the
group sets the member offline. If the member is the only member in the group, the group is not
accessible from the network.
1. Click Group, then expand Members, then select the member name, and then click the Network tab.
2. In the IP Configuration panel, select the network interface.
3. In the Activities panel, click Enable interface to enable the interface or click Disable interface to
disable the interface.
Unconfiguring a network interface
If you unconfigure a functioning network interface, the member disconnects all iSCSI initiators from that interface.
Most initiators reconnect to another interface automatically.
Requirement: A member must have at least one network interface that is functioning, configured, enabled, and
connected to a network. If you unconfigure the only functioning network interface on a member,
the group sets the member offline. If the member is the only member in the group, the group
becomes inaccessible from the network.
1. Click Group, then expand Members, then select the member name, and then click the Network tab.
2. In the IP Configuration panel, select the network interface.
3. In the Activities panel, click Modify IP Settings.
4. In the IP address field, delete the IP address.
5. Click OK.
Modifying the default gateway for a member
When you add a member to a group, you can specify a default gateway that the member uses for all its network
interfaces. You can later modify this setting.
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Group Administration
Group members
Requirement: You must use a default gateway to enable communication outside the local network.
1. Click Group, then expand Members, then select the member name, and then click the Network tab.
2. In the IP Configuration panel next to the Default gateway field, click Modify.
3. Specify a default gateway IP address if you want to use a default gateway, or delete the IP address if you do not
want to use a default gateway.
4. Click OK.
Modifying a member name or description
Requirement: Member names must be unique in a group. A member name can consist of one to 63 letters,
numbers, or hyphens. The first character must be a letter or number. A member description can be
up to 127 alphanumeric characters.
1. Click Group, then expand Members, then select the member name, and then click Modify member
settings.
2. In the Modify Member Settings dialog box, modify the member name or specify a description for the member.
3. Click OK.
About write cache operations
Each (active) control module contains a battery-backed cache. The active control module cache operates in one of
two modes:
•
Write-back – The member stores data in the cache until it is written to disk drives, which can improve
performance. The cache battery protects the data in the cache. In a dual control module configuration, the
member mirrors cache data across the two controllers, providing additional data protection.
•
Write-through – The member immediately writes data to the disk drives, which might decrease performance.
You can set policies that control the mode when the battery is low or a control module fails in a dual control
configuration. See Setting write cache policies.
Setting write cache policies
You can set policies that control the mode when the battery is low or a control module fails in a dual control
configuration.
Recommendation: Dell recommends that you keep the default write cache policy settings for the best
performance and availability.
•
Use write-through mode if only one controller is functional – Also called single-controller-safe mode, if you
enable this policy on a member with a single control module, the cache always uses write-through mode. If you
disable this policy (the default), under non-failure conditions, the cache uses write-back mode.
If you enable this policy on a member with dual control modules, but only one module is functioning, the cache
6–11
Group Administration
Group members
on the functional control module uses write-through mode. If you disable this policy (the default), the cache on
the functioning control module uses write-back mode.
•
Use write-through mode if battery charge is below tolerance – Also called low-battery-safe mode, if you enable
this policy (the default) on a member with a single control module, the cache uses write-through mode if the
charge on the cache battery is low.
If you enable this policy on a member with dual control modules, but do not enable the single-controller-safe
policy, the active control module cache uses write-back mode if its cache battery has an adequate charge, but
the secondary control module’s cache battery has a low battery charge. If you enable the low-battery-safe
policy and the single-controller-safe policy, the active control module cache uses write-through mode if the
battery charge on either control module is low.
If you disable the low-battery-safe policy (not recommended), a cache uses write-back mode, regardless of
cache battery charge.
To change the write cache policies, see Modifying write cache policies.
Modifying write cache policies
Recommendation: Dell recommends that you keep the default write cache policy settings for the best
performance and availability:
• Do not select (disable) Use write-through mode if only one controller is
functional.
• Select (enable) Use write-through mode if battery charge is below
tolerance.
1. Click Group, then expand Members, then select the member name, and then click the Controllers tab to
display the Member Controllers window.
2. In the Memory Cache panel, select or deselect the cache mode policies.
3. Click Save all changes (Control+S).
About member firmware
Each control module you install in a group member must be running the same version of the PS Series firmware.
Firmware is stored on a compact flash card or a MicroSD card on each control module.
Recommendation: Dell recommends that you always run the latest firmware to take advantage of new features
and fixes.
Dell recommends that all group members run the same firmware version. If you are adding a
new array to a group, update the group to the latest firmware before adding the new member.
You can upgrade member firmware to a higher version or downgrade member firmware to a lower version.
There are two methods for updating firmware:
•
update command – See the CLI Reference manual.
•
Group Manager GUI – See Updating member firmware.
6–12
Group Administration
Group members
Before updating firmware, see Firmware update considerations and prerequisites for important information to
consider.
Firmware update considerations and prerequisites
Regular firmware updates are an important part of maintaining a well-functioning group.
Before performing any firmware update, read the Release Notes for the new firmware and the Updating Storage
Array Firmware document. In addition, see your PS Series support provider for detailed information about
firmware and firmware updates.
When updating array firmware, keep in mind the issues listed below. The Updating Storage Array Firmware
document describes them in greater detail and provides recommendations for addressing them.
•
SAN planning. Before updating a SAN component, you must fully understand the impact of the update on the
infrastructure. Careful planning of the upgrade process can help you avoid unplanned downtime.
•
Timing. Dell recommends that you perform firmware upgrades during off hours or scheduled maintenance
periods to avoid disruption of service to the applications and servers that the storage group supports. When
scheduling a firmware update, allow enough time to update and restart the entire group of arrays.
•
Planning for downtime and minimizing host disruption. The update procedure requires an array restart.
During an array restart, volumes with data on the array are temporarily unavailable until the restart completes.
To make sure that applications are not affected, follow the Dell guidelines in the iSCSI Initiator and Operating
System Considerations document.
•
Backing up data. Upgrades should be implemented after a backup has occurred.
•
Working with Multi-Member Groups. Dell recommends that all PS Series group members run the same
version of the storage array firmware. The PS Series Release Notes describe which firmware versions can coexist in a group; however, only those features and bug fixes common to all versions are available.
•
Software Prerequisites. Depending on the firmware version, you might be required to update certain software
components prior to applying the upgrade.
•
Array Prerequisites. Before upgrading the firmware, you need network access to all group members, the
group IP address, and access to the grpadmin account.
•
Supported Upgrade Paths. Usually, you can update an array directly to the latest firmware version. However,
in some cases, you might need to update to an interim version before updating to the latest version.
Updating member firmware
You can upgrade PS Series firmware to a higher version or downgrade firmware to a lower version.
Procedure for updating firmware
The Updating Storage Array Firmware document provides step-by-step instructions for updating member
firmware. You can obtain this document from the downloads area of the EqualLogic Customer Support Website.
6–13
Group Administration
Group members
Disallowing member firmware downgrades
If the Disallow downgrades option is active, the group is not using all features of the installed firmware. You must
disallow firmware downgrades to use the features in an updated firmware release.
Requirement: Before you disallow firmware downgrades, make sure all group members are running the same
firmware version.
1. Click Group, then Group Configuration, and then the Advanced tab.
2. Click Disallow downgrades in the Member Firmware panel. (Alt+D).
3. Confirm that you want to disallow downgrades.
Removing a member from the group
You can remove a member from a multi-member group while the group is online and data stays available. The
group moves any volume data from the member you are removing to the remaining pool members. Removing a
member decreases the overall storage capacity of the group and also decreases the capacity of the storage pool to
which the member belongs.
Note: You cannot remove a member from the group unless the remaining pool members have enough space to
store the data from the member that you want to remove.
Members you remove from a group are automatically reset to the factory defaults. Previous group, member, and
volume information, as well as any volume data on the member, are removed.
Removing a member from a group can be a long operation, depending on the amount of data the group must move
to the remaining pool members. While data is moving, the member status is vacating-in-progress.
1. Click Group, then expand Members, then select the member name, and then click Delete member.
If you receive a “vacate failed” message, the member is offline.
2. Confirm you want to delete the member.
Shutting down a member
For maintenance purposes, you might need to cleanly shut down a member. Shutting down a member has no effect
on member, volume, or group configuration information or volume data stored on the member.
Shutting down a member does not turn off array power. To turn off array power, turn off all power switches on the
array after the shutdown completes.
Note: To restart a member that you shut down, turn on all power switches.
1. Click Group, then expand Members, then select the member name, and then click the Service tab.
2. Click Shutdown in the lower part of the GUI window.
3. In the Member Shutdown confirmation dialog box, enter your group administrator account password and click
OK.
6–14
Group Administration
Group members
The group sets any volumes with data on the member offline. The group sets the volumes online when you
restart the member.
Restarting a member
When you restart a member, the group sets any volumes with data on the member offline. The group sets the
volumes online when the restart completes. Restarting a member has no effect on member, volume, or group
configuration information or volume data stored on the member.
Restriction: Do not repeatedly restart a member.
1. Click Group, then expand Members, then select the member name, and then click the Service tab.
2. In the Member Services window, click Restart.
3. In the Member Restart confirmation dialog box, enter your administration account password.
4. Click OK.
6–15
Part II: Using Group Storage Space
7 Storage pools
About storage pools
Storage pools allocate storage space into partitions comprising one or more members.
By default, a group provides a single pool of storage. If your group has multiple members, you can divide group
space into different pools and then assign members.
Note: Load balancing operates only within pools.
By default, a PS Series group provides a single pool of storage. From this pool, you allocate space to users and
applications by creating volumes, which are seen on the network as iSCSI targets.
When you first create a group, there is one storage pool in a group, called default. Unless you specify a different
pool, members and volumes are assigned to the default pool.
Restriction: You cannot delete the default storage pool.
However, some environments might need to segregate storage space. In this case, you can divide PS Series group
space into multiple storage pools. Using this “SAN within a SAN” technology, administrators can easily separate
workloads, while retaining the advantages of storage consolidation.
For example, you can segregate storage space according to application, service level, RAID type, or department.
Mission critical applications can use storage resources that ensure fast and consistent performance, while littleused or archived data can use different resources.
To use multiple storage pools, a group must contain more than one member. You can then assign members to
different pools. A pool can contain multiple members. Performance load balancing occurs only across the pool
members. You can create up to four pools in a group.
After you assign a member to a pool, you can assign volumes to the pool. Only the resources that the pool members
provide are available to the volumes. As capacity needs change, you can move members or volumes from one pool
to another, while data remains online.
For detailed information about using storage pools, see the Technical Report Deploying Pools and Tiered Storage
in a PS Series SAN, which you can download from the EqualLogic customer support website.
Configuring a storage pool
To plan a storage pool configuration, you must understand the capacity and RAID policy of your group members
and also the capacity, performance, and service level needs of your volumes. This enables you to select the
appropriate members for each pool and then identify the volumes to assign to the pools. Try to identify future
demands for capacity and performance when planning the storage pool configuration.
Identify the following:
•
Capacity and performance of each member. Consider the following factors:
–
Disk type, either Serial Attached SCSI (SAS) or Serial Advanced Technology Attachment (SATA)
–
Disk size
7–1
Group Administration
–
Disk speed
–
Member RAID level (RAID 10, RAID 50, RAID 5, RAID 6)
Storage pools
Recommendation: Dell recommends that pool members with the same disk spin rate have the same RAID level.
For example, if a pool contains two members that have 7200 RPM disks installed, configure
both members with the same RAID level.
•
Disk space and performance needs of each application. Identify which applications deserve priority and
calculate their disk space and network bandwidth needs and performance characteristics. For example, some
applications do many random data transfers, while others do a small number of large sequential data transfers.
In addition, identify rarely-accessed volumes that you use only to archive data.
•
How the pools are organized. Identify the number of pools and the members that belong to each pool, based on
the member performance characteristics and capacities and the requirements of the volumes. For example, you
can organize your pools according to disk speed. You could also organize pools according to member RAID
level.
•
Which volumes belong to each pool. Put volumes with the highest service level requirements in a pool whose
members can provide that service level. If an application uses multiple volumes, those volumes can be in
different pools.
When deciding which volumes belong to a pool, consider the RAID level of the pool members. See RAID level
characteristics on page 6-5. If you do not know the optimal RAID level for a volume, make sure that the pool
to which the volume belongs contains members with a variety of RAID levels, so automatic performance load
balancing can occur.
Creating a storage pool
Prerequisite: See Configuring a storage pool on page 7-1 to understand how to select the appropriate members for
each pool and then identify the volumes to assign to the pools.
There are two ways to create a storage pool:
•
Create an empty pool. You can then assign members to the pool.
•
Create a new pool and immediately move a member from its current pool to the new pool.
When you move a member from one pool to another, the remaining pool members in the original pool must
enough space to store any volume data that is on the member. Moving a member to a different pool can take a
long time, depending on the amount of data that the group must move.
Requirement: A storage pool name can be up to 63 characters. Valid characters include letters, numbers, and
hyphens. The first character must be a letter or number. A pool description can be up to 127
alphanumeric characters.
To create an empty pool:
1. Click Group, then Storage Pools, and then Create storage pool.
2. In the Create Storage Pool dialog box, specify a pool name and description and click OK.
To create a new pool and immediately move a member to the pool:
1. Click Group, then expand Members, then select the member name, and then click Modify member
settings.
7–2
Group Administration Storage pools
2. Under Storage pool assignment, click Create new pool.
3. In the Create Storage Pool dialog box, enter a name and description for the new pool and click OK. If a
description contains spaces, surround it with quotation marks.
4. In the Modify Member Settings dialog box, click OK.
5. Confirm that you want to create the pool.
The member status shows as moving until the move operation completes.
If necessary, you can cancel an in-progress member pool move operation. The member immediately returns to the
original pool.
To cancel an in-progress member pool move operation, click Members, then member_name, then Cancel
member move.
Displaying storage pools
To display the storage pools in a group, click Group and then Storage Pools. The Storage Pool Summary
window appears, containing the following panels:
•
Group disk space panel – Shows available storage space and space usage. Provides information about RAID
distribution. You can change the view by selecting an option.
Recommendation: Dell recommends that free pool space does not fall below the following, whichever is
smaller:
– 5% of the total pool space
– 100 GB multiplied by the number of pool members
•
Storage pools panel – Shows pool configuration details. Provides information about storage objects in the pool,
such as volumes.
See the online help for information about the data fields and options.
Displaying storage pool details
To display the details of an individual storage pool, click Group, then expand Storage Pools, and then select the
pool name.
The Status, Volumes, and Volume Templates tabs provide storage pool information and links to task activities.
Storage pool status tab
The Status tab provides general pool information, disk space information, and details of each PS Series group
member in the pool. It contains the following panels:
•
General pool information panel – Provides information about members, volumes and snapshots.
•
Pool disk space panel – Provides information about available storage space, space usage, and RAID
distribution. Enables you to select a volume administrator account.
7–3
Group Administration
•
Storage pools
Pool members panel– Provides information that enables you to identify members in the pool, member status
and configuration, and pool iSCSI connections.
See the online help for information about the data fields and options.
Storage pool volumes tab
To display the volumes in a storage pool: click Group, then expand Storage Pools, then select the pool name,
and then click the Volumes tab.
The Pool Volumes panel provides a table of information about:
•
Volume name, space allocation, reserved space, and accessibility status.
•
Replication partners
•
Snapshots for the volume
•
iSCSI connections to the volume.
The table is sorted alphabetically by Volume name. You can sort the information in this panel table by clicking the
heading of any column.
Moving a member to a pool
When you add a member to a group, you assign the member to a storage pool. You can also move a member from
its current pool to different pool, with no effect on users or data availability.
Moving a member from one pool to another decreases the capacity of the current pool and increase the capacity of
the destination pool.
Requirement: To move a member from one pool to another, the remaining pool members must have enough free
space to store the data from the moved member. Moving a member to a different pool can take a
long time, depending on the amount of data that the group must move to the remaining current pool
members.
1. Click Group, then expand Members, then select the member name, and then click Modify member
settings.
2. In the Modify Member Settings dialog box, select the pool for the member.
The group updates the Pool Space table to show the new amounts of free and used space in each pool. If a pool
does not have enough space to accommodate the pool change, the table cell showing free pool space displays a
negative value.
3. Click OK.
The member status is shown as moving until the move operation completes.
If necessary, you can cancel an in-progress member pool move operation. The member immediately moves to the
original pool.
7–4
Group Administration Storage pools
To cancel an in-progress member pool move operation, click Members, then member_name, then Cancel
member move.
Moving a volume to a pool
When you create a volume, you assign the volume to a pool. The group stores volume data on the pool members.
You can also move a volume from its current pool to a different pool, with no effect on users or applications.
While a volume is moving, the group allocates volume space in the current pool and in the new pool.
Restriction: Thin clones inherit the pool setting of the template volume. You cannot move a thin
clone separately from its template column.
Requirement: The pool to which you want to move a volume must have free space equal to the volume reserve
and any snapshot reserve and local replication reserve for the volume.
1. Click Volumes, then expand Volumes, then select the volume name, then click Modify volume settings,
and then click the General tab.
2. In the Modify volume settings dialog box, select the destination pool for the volume. The group updates the
Pool Space table to show the new amounts of free and used space in each pool. If a pool does not have enough
space to accommodate the pool change, the table cell showing free pool space displays a negative value.
3. Click OK.
The volume status is shown as moving until the pool move operation completes.
If necessary, you can cancel an in-progress volume pool move operation. Volume data moves to the original storage
pool.
To cancel an in-progress volume pool move operation, click Volumes, then volume_name, then Cancel
volume moving.
Merging storage pools
You can merge any storage pool except the default pool into another pool, called the destination pool. Merging a
pool into a destination pool moves the pool members and volumes data into the destination pool. The group then
deletes the empty pool.
1. Click Group, then expand Storage pools, then select the pool name, and then click Merge storage
pool.
2. In the Merge Storage Pools dialog box, select the destination pool and click OK.
Modifying a storage pool name or description
You can change the name or description of a storage pool, including the default pool.
Requirement: A storage pool name can be up to 63 characters. Valid characters include letters, numbers, and
hyphens. The first character must be a letter or number. A pool description can be up to 127
alphanumeric characters.
7–5
Group Administration
Storage pools
1. Click Group, then expand Storage pools, then select the pool name, and then click Modify pool
settings.
2. Modify the pool name or description and click OK.
Deleting a storage pool
If you delete a storage pool, the group immediately moves its members and volumes to the default pool.
Note: You cannot delete the default pool.
1. Click Group, then expand Storage pools, then select the pool name, and then click Delete storage
pool.
2. Confirm that you want to delete the pool.
7–6
8 iSCSI target security
Volumes and snapshots are seen on the network as iSCSI targets. It is important to understand how to protect your
volumes and snapshots from unauthorized and uncontrolled access by iSCSI initiators.
About iSCSI access requirements
To access an iSCSI target (for example, a volume or snapshot), an iSCSI initiator must meet the security
requirements identified in Table 8-1.
Table 8-1: Access Requirements for iSCSI Targets
Security Condition
Description
Network access
Initiator access controls
To discover targets, the initiator must have network access to the group IP address.
(Optional) If the initiator enabled target authentication (sometimes called mutual
authentication), the target authentication credentials in the group must match the
credentials configured in the initiator. These credentials apply to all group targets.
See Configuring target authentication on page 8-4.
The initiator must meet all the conditions in one access control record for the target.
See About iSCSI target access controls on page 8-1.
Target access controls
About iSCSI target access controls
PS Series groups use access control records to prevent unauthorized computer access to iSCSI targets (volumes or
snapshots).
A volume and its snapshots share a list of access control records (up to 16 for each volume). An access control
record can apply to the volume, its snapshots, or both. For example, you can let a computer have access to the
volume and its snapshots or access only to the volume.
When you create a volume, you can set up one access control record. You can later set up additional records.
To log in to a volume or snapshot, the initiator must comply with conditions specified in one access control record.
You can specify one or more of the following conditions:
•
IP address – Restricts access to iSCSI initiators that match the specified IP address (for example,
12.16.22.123). Use asterisks to indicate that any value is accepted in an octet (for example, 12.16.*.*).
•
iSCSI initiator name – Restricts access to iSCSI initiators that match the specified name (for example,
iqn.2000-05.com.qlogic.qla-4000.sn00044).
•
CHAP user name – Restricts access to computers that supply the specified CHAP user name and its associated
password (or “secret”). The credentials must match a local CHAP account or a CHAP account on an external
RADIUS server. See Authenticating initiators through CHAP.
For example, if a volume has only one access control record, which includes an IP address and CHAP user name,
only a computer with that IP address and the appropriate CHAP credentials can access the volume. If an
administrator creates another record that includes an iSCSI initiator name, a computer with that initiator name can
also access the volume.
You can create an access control record that gives unlimited computer access. However, Dell does not recommend
unlimited computer access unless you are testing access to a target.
8–1
Group Administration
iSCSI target security
Authenticating initiators through CHAP
CHAP is a network login protocol that uses a challenge-response mechanism. You can use CHAP to authenticate
iSCSI initiators by specifying a CHAP user name in an access control record. To meet this condition, a computer
must supply the user name and its password (or “secret”) in the iSCSI initiator configuration interface when
logging in to the target.
Using CHAP for iSCSI authentication can help you manage access controls more efficiently because it restricts
target access by using user names and passwords, instead of unique IP addresses or iSCSI initiator names.
Before you can use CHAP for initiator authentication, you must set up the CHAP accounts consisting of a user
name and password (or “secret”). There are two options for accounts; you can use both options simultaneously in a
group:
•
CHAP accounts in the group. Local CHAP accounts do not rely on any external system. You can create up to
100 local CHAP accounts. See Displaying local CHAP accounts on page 8-2.
•
CHAP accounts on an external RADIUS authentication server. Using a RADIUS server to manage CHAP
accounts is beneficial if you are managing a large number of accounts. However, computer access to targets
depends on the availability of the RADIUS server. See Using CHAP accounts on a RADIUS authentication
server on page 8-3.
Note: If you use CHAP for initiator authentication, you can also use target authentication for mutual
authentication, which provides additional security. See Configuring target authentication.
Displaying local CHAP accounts
To display local CHAP accounts, click Group, then Group Configuration, and then the iSCSI tab.
The Local CHAP accounts panel provides information about the account credentials, account status, and the related
administration account. See the online help for information about the data fields and options.
Creating a local CHAP account
To create a local CHAP account:
1. Click Group, then Group Configuration, and then the iSCSI tab. The Group Configuration – iSCSI
window appears.
2. Optionally, in the iSCSI Authentication panel, select Consult locally defined CHAP accounts
first. If selected, credentials that an iSCSI initiator supplies are checked against local CHAP accounts before
external CHAP accounts on a RADIUS server.
3. In the Local CHAP Accounts panel, click Add.
4. In the Add CHAP Account dialog box:
•
8–2
Enter a CHAP user name and (optionally) a password. If you do not enter a password, the group
automatically generates a password that is 16 ASCII characters in length.
Group Administration
iSCSI target security
Note: For optimal security, passwords must contain at least 12 characters (preferably random). Individual
iSCSI initiators have their own rules and restrictions for length and format. Consult your initiator
documentation for details.
•
Select whether to enable the account. You must enable an account to use it for initiator authentication. You
can later modify an account and enable or disable it.
•
Click OK.
5. In the Group iSCSI window, click Save all changes (Control+S).
After creating the CHAP account, you can create an access control record and use the CHAP user name in the
record. See Configuring access control records.
If you want to enable target authentication (for mutual authentication), see Configuring target authentication on
page 8-4.
Modifying a local CHAP account
1. Click Group, then Group Configuration, and then the iSCSI tab. The Group Configuration – iSCSI
window appears.
2. Select the account name in the Local CHAP Accounts panel and click Modify.
3. Change the name or password or enable or disable the account.
4. Click OK.
Deleting a local CHAP account
1. Click Group, then Group Configuration, then the iSCSI tab. The Group Configuration – iSCSI window
appears.
2. Select the account name in the Local CHAP Accounts panel.
3. Click Delete.
Using CHAP accounts on a RADIUS authentication server
To use a CHAP account on an external RADIUS authentication server for iSCSI initiator authentication:
1. Set up the RADIUS server and CHAP accounts. See the prerequisites in Using RADIUS authentication and
accounting servers on page 4-9.
Recommendation: The RADIUS server must be accessible to all the group members.
2. Click Group, then Group Configuration, and then the iSCSI tab. The Group Configuration – iSCSI
window appears. See Table 8-2.
3. In the iSCSI Authentication panel, select Enable RADIUS authentication for iSCSI initiators.
4. Optionally, select Consult locally defined CHAP accounts first.
8–3
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iSCSI target security
5. If you have not already configured the group to use a RADIUS server, click RADIUS settings and add at
least one RADIUS server. See the procedure in Using RADIUS authentication and accounting servers on page
4-9 for adding RADIUS servers.
6. Click Save all changes.
After creating the CHAP account, create an access control record for a volume and specify the CHAP user name in
the record. See Configuring access control records.
Table 8-2: iSCSI Authentication Panel – RADIUS Authentication Fields
Field
Enable RADIUS
authentication for iSCSI
initiators
Consult locally defined
CHAP accounts first
RADIUS settings
Description
Enables RADIUS authentication for iSCSI
initiators.
Shortcut
Alt+E
Consults locally defined CHAP accounts
Alt+C
before using RADIUS authentication.
Launches the RADIUS settings dialog, which Alt+D
specifies RADIUS authentication and
accounting servers.
User Action
None
Creating a local CHAP account on
page 8-2
Modifying RADIUS server settings on
page 4-10
If you want to enable target authentication (for mutual authentication), see Configuring target authentication on
page 8-4.
Configuring target authentication
If you configure initiator authentication though a local CHAP account or a CHAP account on a RADIUS
authentication server, you can also allow the iSCSI initiator to authenticate iSCSI targets in a PS Series group. The
combination of initiator and target authentication is called mutual authentication and provides additional security.
With target authentication, when the initiator tries to connect to a target, the target supplies a user name and
password to the initiator. The initiator compares the user name and password to mutual authentication credentials
that you configure in the initiator configuration interface. The iSCSI connection succeeds only if the information
matches.
A group automatically enables target authentication using a default user name and password, which you can
change. Whether the initiator requires target authentication depends on the initiator configuration settings.
To display the current target authentication user name and password, click Group, then Group Configuration,
and then the iSCSI tab. The Group Configuration – iSCSI window appears. See the online help for information
about the data fields and options.
To change the target authentication user name or password:
1. Click Modify and change the user name or password.
2. Enter the target authentication user name and password from Step 2 in the iSCSI initiator configuration
interface, where you enable mutual authentication.
About iSNS servers
In a shared storage environment, you must control computer access to iSCSI targets (volumes and snapshots),
because multiple computers writing to a target in an uncoordinated manner might result in volume corruption.
8–4
Group Administration
iSCSI target security
When an initiator tries to log in to a target, the group uses access control records to determine if access should be
authorized. However, access control records do not prevent multiple initiators, either on the same computer or
different computers, from accessing the same target.
Therefore, by default, the group disables multi-host (shared) access to a target. Therefore, only one iSCSI qualified
name (IQN) can connect to a target at one time.
If all group members are not running PS Series Firmware Version 4.0 or higher, the group allows multi-host access
to targets.
An iSNS (Internet Storage Name Service) server can facilitate iSCSI initiator discovery of iSCSI targets in a SAN.
Configuring the group to use an iSNS server
You can configure a PS Series group to allow an iSNS (Internet Storage Name Service) server to automatically
discover and maintain an up-to-date list of group targets. The iSNS server then provides the target names to
initiators configured to use the server.
Note: By default, the group disables target discovery by iSNS servers. If you want iSNS servers to discover a
target, you must enable this functionality on the target.
Requirement: The iSNS server must be accessible to all the group members.
A group disables automatic discovery of group targets by iSNS servers only if all the group
members are running PS Series Firmware Version 4.1.4 or a higher version. If a member is running
a previous firmware version, iSNS servers can automatically discover all group targets.
Set up the iSNS server and configure the iSCSI initiator to use the iSNS server for discovery. See
your iSNS server and iSCSI initiator documentation for details.
To display the iSNS configuration in the group, click Group, then Group Configuration, and then the iSCSI
tab. The Group Configuration – iSCSI window appears. See the online help for information about the data fields
and options.
To configure an iSNS server:
1. In the iSCSI Discovery panel, under iSNS servers, click Add.
2. Specify the IP address for an iSNS server and click OK. Use the format ip_address:port if using a port other
than 3205.
You can specify up to three IP addresses. The group uses only one iSNS server at a time. The first server listed
is the default server. If the default server is not available, the group uses the other servers in the order specified.
Click the up and down arrows to change the IP address order.
3. In the Group iSCSI window, click Save all changes (Control+S).
Modifying an iSNS server
To modify the IP address for an iSNS server, select the address in the iSCSI Discovery panel in the Group iSCSI
window and click Modify. Change the IP address, click OK, and then click Save all changes (Control+S).
8–5
Group Administration
iSCSI target security
Deleting an iSNS server
To delete the IP address for an iSNS server, select the address in the iSCSI Discovery panel in the Group iSCSI
window and click delete. Then, click Save all changes (Control+S).
Preventing the discovery of unauthorized targets
By default, iSCSI initiators that use discovery try to log in to group targets protected by CHAP, even if they do not
have the correct access credentials. This can result in a large number of events logged in the group and is an
inefficient use of resources.
You can prevent computers from discovering unauthorized targets by enabling the iSCSI discovery filter. If you
enable the iSCSI discovery filter, initiators only discover targets for which they have the correct access credentials.
Enable the iSCSI discovery filter
1. Click Group, then Group Configuration, and then the iSCSI tab.
2. In the iSCSI Discovery panel, under iSNS discovery filter, select Prevent unauthorized hosts from
discovering targets.
3. Click Save all changes (Control+S).
Disable the iSCSI discovery filter
1. Click Group, then Group Configuration, and then the iSCSI tab.
2. In the iSCSI Discovery panel, under iSNS discovery filter, deselect Prevent unauthorized hosts from
discovering targets.
3. Click Save all changes (Control+S).
Multi-host access to targets
In a shared storage environment, you must control computer access to iSCSI targets (volumes and snapshots),
because multiple computers writing to a target in an uncoordinated manner might result in volume corruption.
When an initiator tries to log in to a target, the group uses access control records to determine if access should be
authorized. However, access control records do not prevent multiple initiators, either on the same computer or
different computers, from accessing the same target.
Therefore, by default, the group disables multi-host (shared) access to a target. Therefore, only one iSCSI qualified
name (IQN) can connect to a target at one time.
Restriction: If all group members are not running PS Series Firmware Version 4.0 or higher, the
group allows multi-host access to targets.
If you disable multi-host access to a volume, when an initiator tries to log in to the volume:
•
8–6
If there is no iSCSI initiator connection to the volume, the group uses access control records to determine
whether to authorize access.
Group Administration
•
iSCSI target security
If an initiator is connected to the volume, the group compares the IQN of the current connection to the IQN of
the incoming connection. If the IQNs are not the same, access is denied. If the IQNs are the same, the group
uses access control records to determine whether to authorize access.
However, some environment might need multi-host access to a target. You can enable multi-host access to a target
if you meet one of the following conditions:
•
Your cluster environment gives the initiators on each cluster computer a different IQN, and the environment
can manage multiple connections to a target. For example, the environment uses a Distributed Lock Manager
or SCSI reservations.
•
Your multipathing solution does not use the same IQN on all initiators, and you cannot modify the names to be
the same.
•
You use an environment, such as a virtual server, that can manage multiple connections to the same iSCSI
target (for example, through SCSI reservations).
•
Initiators on a single computer do not use the same IQN.
In all cases, use access control records as the primary method of protecting iSCSI targets in a group.
You can enable or disable multi-host access when creating a volume. You can also modify a volume or snapshot
and enable or disable multi-host access.
Connecting initiators to iSCSI targets
To access iSCSI targets (volumes and snapshots) in a PS Series group, you must install an industry-standard iSCSI
initiator on a computer.
Both hardware and software iSCSI initiators are available from a variety of vendors. Install and configure an
initiator using the vendor-supplied instructions. See your
PS Series support provider for information related to your iSCSI initiator. Also, read the PS Series Release Notes
for initiator information.
Note: Access to iSCSI targets is through TCP/IP port 3260 (the standard iSCSI port).
See your initiator documentation for the exact procedure for logging in to an iSCSI target.
The general login overview is:
1. Specify the group IP address as the discovery address or target portal in the iSCSI initiator configuration
interface. If you are using iSNS, the initiator automatically discovers targets from the iSNS server that you
configured in the group.
The initiator displays a list of iSCSI targets from the group.
2. Log in to a target. The initiator must match at least one of the target’s access control records.
As part of the login procedure, you might need to enter a CHAP user name and password (secret) and target
authentication credentials. See About iSCSI target access controls.
After the initiator logs in to the iSCSI target, the computer sees the target as a disk that you can format using the
usual operating system utilities. You can then partition the disk and create a file system.
8–7
Group Administration
iSCSI target security
Note: In some file systems, volumes and snapshots must have read-write permission even if the file system is
read-only. See Modifying volume permission and Modifying snapshot permission.
8–8
9 Basic volume operations
Basic volume operations consist of creating volumes, setting up access controls, and modifying volume attributes.
You can also clone a volume to create an exact copy.
About volumes
A computer uses an industry-standard iSCSI initiator to access a volume in a group. Most operating systems
provide an iSCSI initiator (in the form of an iSCSI driver or a host bus adapter), with a range of price and
performance options.
To access storage in a PS Series group, you allocate portions of a storage pool to volumes. Each volume appears on
the network as an iSCSI target. Computers with iSCSI initiators can connect to the target, which appears as a
regular disk.
When you connect to a volume, it appears like a regular disk drive that you can format by using the normal
operating system utilities. As the group configuration changes, volumes continue to be accessible through the same
iSCSI targets, and no modifications are necessary.
You assign each volume a size (reported size) and a storage pool. The group automatically load balances volume
data across pool members. Optionally, you can reserve snapshot space or replication space for a volume.
For each volume (and snapshot), the group generates an iSCSI target name, which you cannot modify. An iSCSI
target name includes a prefix (iqn.2001-05.com.equallogic), a string, and the volume name. Initiators use
the target name to connect to a volume.
The following is an example of an iSCSI target name for a volume with the name db3:
iqn.2001-05.com.equallogic:7-8b0900-6d0000000-001ebbc5d80sf0k0-db3
Access control records and other mechanisms protect your volumes from unauthorized and uncoordinated access
by iSCSI initiators. See iSCSI target security on page 8-1.
You can use snapshots to protect volume data from mistakes, viruses, or database corruption. To protect against
disasters, you can replicate volume data from one group to another.
About volume types
A PS Series group supports the following volume types:
•
Standard volume. The default volume type is a standard volume. There are no restrictions on a standard
volume. You can enable (and disable) thin provisioning on a standard volume.
•
Template volume. A template volume is a type of volume that is useful if your environment requires multiple
volumes that share a large amount of common data. When you write the common data to a standard volume,
you can convert it to a template volume and then create thin clones. Template volumes are read-only to protect
the common data.
•
Thin clone volume. Thin clones are based on a template volume and enable you to use space efficiently in
storage environments that require multiple volumes with a large amount of common data. After you create a
thin clone, you can write to the thin clone. See About template volumes and thin clones on page 10-6.
9–1
Group Administration
Basic volume operations
You can replicate any volume type, resulting in a replica set for the volume. In addition, you can fail over any
volume type, resulting in a recovery version of the volume. However, you can only fail back a standard volume or
a thin clone volume.
Displaying the iSCSI target name and alias
To display the iSCSI target name and public alias for a volume, click Volumes in the lower-left panel, then expand
Volumes, then select the volume name, and then click the Connections tab.
See the online help for information about the data fields and options.
About volume space allocation
It is important to understand how the group allocates space to volumes. This helps you to size volumes correctly.
Although you can modify a volume size, some operating systems and initiators do not easily handle size changes.
When you create a volume, you specify the reported size for the volume, which is the maximum amount of space
that the group might be able to allocate to the volume. You can increase or decrease the reported size.
The reported size is seen by iSCSI initiators. If a write to a volume exceeds the reported size, the write fails, and the
group generates event messages.
The actual amount of pool space that the group allocates to a volume is called the volume reserve. The value of the
volume reserve depends on whether you enable thin provisioning on a volume:
•
No thin provisioning – The volume reserve is equal to the reported size.
•
Thin provisioning – If you enable thin provisioning on a volume, the group allocates space based on volume
usage. The volume reserve is equal to or less than the reported size, depending on volume usage and the thin
provisioning settings. See About thin provisioning.
Space allocated for volume operations (for example, snapshot reserve and local replication reserve) is based on the
volume reserve.
You cannot use space that the group allocates to a volume (or for volume operations) for other purposes. Therefore,
make sure you allocate space only when necessary.
You must fully understand application and workload space requirements to allocate the correct amount of space.
About volume security and access controls
Online volumes and snapshots are seen on the network as iSCSI targets. It is important to understand how to
protect your iSCSI targets from unauthorized and uncoordinated access by iSCSI initiators. See iSCSI target
security.
Access control records prevent unauthorized computer access to iSCSI targets (volumes or snapshots). A volume
and its snapshots share a list of access control records. An access control record can apply to the volume, its
snapshots, or both. For example, you can authorize computer access to a volume and its snapshots or only to the
volume.
When you create a volume, you can create an access control record for the volume. You can later create additional
access control records (up to 16) for a volume. See Configuring access control records on page 9-10.
9–2
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Basic volume operations
In addition, you can allow or disallow volume access from multiple initiators, depending on your configuration
needs. See Allowing or disallowing multi-host volume access on page 9-14.
About volume data protection
Dell recommends that you use snapshot and replication functionality to protect volume data.
A snapshot is a point-in-time copy of volume data that can protect against mistakes, viruses, or database
corruption. You can recover data from a snapshot by setting it online or by restoring the volume from a snapshot.
See Snapshot management.
To protect against disasters, you can replicate volume data from one group to another. A replica is a point-in-time
copy of volume data that is located on a different group and has no dependencies on the original volume. In the
event of a disaster, you can host the volume from the recovery group and later failback to the original group, with
minimal disruption to users. See Volume replication.
Recommendation: Dell recommends that you protect data by using a robust backup application, in addition to
snapshot and replication functionality.
Volume attributes
Table 9-1 describes the attributes that allocate space and set the characteristics of a volume. The first column lists
volume attributes, and the second column describes them.
You set some attributes when you create a volume; other attributes use default values. In most cases, you can
modify all the volume attributes. Template volumes and thin clones have some restrictions.
Table 9-1: Volume Attributes
Volume Attribute
Name
Description
Name, up to 63 alphanumeric characters (including periods, hyphens, and colons), that identifies the
volume for administrative purposes. A volume name must be unique in a group.
The volume name appears at the end of the iSCSI target name, which the group generates
automatically. Computer access to the volume is always through the iSCSI target name, rather than the
volume name.
Description
Storage pool
See Modifying a volume name or description on page 9-12.
Optional description for the volume - up to 127 ASCII characters. See Modifying a volume name or
description on page 9-12
Name of pool for the volume. The group stores all the volume data on the pool members. The default is
the default pool.
Thin clones must reside in the same pool as the template volume. If you move a template volume to a
different pool, all the attached thin clones also move.
Reported size
See Moving a volume to a pool on page 7-5.
Reported size of the volume in MB, GB, or TB. The group rounds up volume sizes to the next 15MB if
the size is not a multiple of 15.
You cannot change the reported size of a template volume.
See About volume space allocation on page 9-2.
9–3
Group Administration
Basic volume operations
Table 9-1: Volume Attributes (Continued)
Volume Attribute
Thin provisioning
settings
Description
Controls whether the volume is thin-provisioned and, if so, the minimum and maximum volume
reserve and the in-use space warning limit.
The defaults are no thin provisioning and the group-wide volume settings.
Snapshot reserve
See About thin provisioning on page 10-1.
Optional amount of space to reserve for snapshots of the volume, based on a percentage of the volume
reserve.
The default is the group-wide snapshot reserve setting.
iSCSI alias
Permission
See Snapshot management.
Name that some iSCSI initiators display. Administrators use the alias to identify the iSCSI target. The
default is the group-wide volume setting.
See Modifying a volume alias on page 9-13.
Whether the volume is read-write (the default) or read-only.
You cannot set a template volume to read-write permission.
See Modifying volume permission on page 9-14.
Administrative status Whether the volume is online (the default) or offline. Initiators cannot discover or connect to an offline
volume.
Access controls
Administrator
Multi-host access
setting
iSNS discovery
setting
RAID preference
See Setting a volume offline or online on page 9-13.
Conditions that computers must meet to access the volume and its snapshots. To allow volume or
snapshot access, you must create at least one access control record. You can do this when creating a
volume or after you create the volume.
See About iSCSI target access controls on page 8-1.
You can assign a volume to a specific volume administrator.
See Modifying the administrator for a volume on page 9-13.
Whether the volume allows or disallows (default) access from initiators with different IQNs.
See Allowing or disallowing multi-host volume access on page 9-14.
By default, iSNS servers cannot discover iSCSI targets in a group. To allow discovery by iSNS servers,
you must enable this functionality on a volume or snapshot.
See Enabling or disabling iSNS discovery on page 9-14.
A PS Series group uses automatic performance load balancing (enabled by default) to identify the
RAID level that provides the best performance for a volume and store volume data on pool members
with that RAID level, if such members are available.
You can override automatic performance load balancing by enabling a RAID level preference on a
volume.
Thin clones inherit the RAID preference of the template volume.
Member binding
See Enabling and disabling a volume RAID preference on page 10-16.
A PS Series group uses automatic performance load balancing (enabled by default) to identify the
RAID level that provides the best performance for a volume and store volume data on pool members
with that RAID level, if such members are available.
You can override automatic performance load balancing (or ignore any RAID preference for the
volume) by binding a volume to a specific pool member.
Thin clones inherit the member binding of the template volume.
See Binding and unbinding a volume to a member on page 10-16.
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Displaying group-wide default volume settings
When you create a volume or enable thin provisioning on a volume, group-wide defaults are applied, unless you
explicitly override them for a volume. These default values control snapshot space, snapshot behavior, thin
provisioning space, and iSCSI alias naming.
To display group-wide default volume settings, click Group, then Group Configuration, and then the
Defaults tab. The Group Configuration – Defaults window appears, displaying the information about the default
volume settings. You can change the default volume settings. See Modifying group-wide volume settings.
The Group Configuration – Defaults window provides the following information:
•
Space allocation percentages.
•
Space management policies for snapshot retention and placing the volume offline.
•
iSCSI identifiers and volume name use.
You can change a setting for an existing volume. See the online help for information about the data fields and
options. See also Volume attributes on page 9-3.
Modifying group-wide volume settings
When you create or enable thin provisioning on a volume, the group applies defaults, unless you explicitly override
them for a volume. These defaults control snapshot space, snapshot behavior, thin provisioning space, and iSCSI
alias naming. See Displaying group-wide default volume settings on page 9-5.
You can modify the group-wide default values to meet the needs of your configuration.
Note: Changes to the group-wide default values apply only to new volumes.
To modify group-wide volume settings:
1. Click Group, then Group Configuration, and then the Defaults tab.
2. In the Group Defaults window, change the default settings.
3. Click Save all changes (Control+S).
Creating standard volumes
To provide storage space to end users, you create standard volumes that users can then access from host computers.
Before you create a standard volume, you need to understand:
•
Volume attributes and group-wide default settings the group apply to a volume. See Volume attributes on page
9-3 and Displaying group-wide default volume settings on page 9-5.
•
Volume security and access controls. See iSCSI target security.
•
Risks and benefits associated with thin provisioning before applying this functionality to a volume. See About
thin provisioning.
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To create a standard volume:
1. Click Volumes in the lower-left panel and then click Create volume.
2. In the Create Volume – Volume Settings dialog box, specify:
•
Volume name
•
Optional volume description
•
Storage pool
3. Click Next.
4. In the Create Volume – Space dialog box, specify:
•
Reported volume size and the unit of measure.
•
Whether to use thin provisioning on the volume. See About thin provisioning.
The values in the Pool Space table depend on the reported size and thin provisioning setting. If creating the
volume exceeds the capacity of the pool, the table cell showing free pool space displays a negative value.
If you enable thin provisioning, the Create Volume – Space dialog box allows you to adjust the default
settings for the following thin-provisioned volume attributes, which are based on a percentage of the
reported size:
– Minimum volume reserve
– In-use space warning threshold
– Maximum in-use space
•
Snapshot reserve (optional), based on a percentage of the volume reserve.
5. Click Next.
6. In the Create Volume – iSCSI Access dialog box, specify:
•
Conditions a computer must match to connect to the volume and its snapshots. Specify a CHAP user name,
IP address, or iSCSI initiator name. This information generates an access control record that applies to the
volume and its snapshots. See About iSCSI target access controls on page 8-1.
•
Permission for the volume, either read-write or read-only.
•
Whether to allow or disallow (default) access to the volume and its snapshots by initiators with different
iSCSI qualified names (IQNs). See Multi-host access to targets on page 8-6.
7. In the Create Volume – Summary dialog box, review the volume configuration. If the configuration is correct,
click Finish. Click Back to make changes.
To display the new volume, expand Volumes in the far-left panel and select the name of the new volume.
Displaying volumes
To display all the volumes in a group, click Volumes in the lower-left panel and then Volumes in the far-left tree.
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the Volumes Summary window provides the following volume information:
•
Identifiers – name, storage pool location and accessibility status.
•
Capacity – Reported size and reserve space allocation.
•
Parameters – Replication partner, snapshot count, connection count and administration account.
See the online help for information about the data fields and options.
You can modify the display:
1. To display the thin clones attached to each template volume, in the far-left column, pull down the Tree view
options menu and select Show thin clones under templates.
2. Select Organize by volume type to display template volumes and thin clones in separate categories.
Table 9-2 shows the icons that identify a volume in the Group Manager GUI, depending on the volume’s
configuration.
Table 9-2: Volume Icons
Volume Icon
Recovery Mode
Description
Standard iSCSI volume.
Volume that is set offline, unavailable for operations.
Volume collection, a set of related volumes.
Thin provisioned volume.
Thin clone volume.
Template volume.
Move the pointer over a volume to display a context message showing the requested volume status and the current
volume status.
See Monitoring volumes and snapshots on page 15-25.
Displaying volume details
You can display details about a volume such as its status, space usage, and access records.
Displaying volume status
Click Volumes in the lower-left panel, then expand Volumes in the far-left tree, then select the volume name, and
then click the Status tab. The Volume Status window appears, containing the following panels:
•
General volume information panel – Provides information about volume attributes:
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•
–
Name, status, and security (access)
–
Capacity and reserve
–
iSCSI connections
–
Storage pool and (if a thin clone) template volume
–
Replication identifiers
Basic volume operations
Volume and snapshot space panel – Provides information about volume use:
–
Size, capacity use, and reserve allocation
–
Whether the volume is thin provisioned
–
Snapshot reserve and space use
–
Policies for recovery, RAID, load balancing, and member striping
–
Whether the volume is a thin clone, and the amount of shared space
See the online help for information about the data fields and options.
Displaying access control records
Click Volumes in the lower-left panel, then expand Volumes in the far-left tree, then select the volume name, and
then click the Access tab. The Volume Access window appears, containing the following information for
volumes and snapshots:
•
CHAP user name
•
IP address or range
•
iSCSI initiator name
An asterisk in the CHAP user, IP address, or iSCSI initiator column means that any value meets the condition. If a
record shows asterisks in all columns, the volume or snapshot has unrestricted access, which Dell does not
recommend.
See the online help for information about the data fields and options. See also iSCSI target security on page 8-1.
Displaying volume snapshots
Click Volumes in the lower-left panel, then expand Volumes in the far-left tree, then select the volume name, and
then click the Snapshots tab. The Volume Snapshots window appears, containing the following panels:
•
•
Snapshot summary panel – Provides information about:
–
Reserve space and capacity allocation
–
Warning settings and recovery policy
–
Snapshot schedules and schedule status
Snapshots panel – Provides information about:
–
9–8
Creation timestamp, size, and status
Group Administration
–
Collections and schedules that include this snapshot
–
Accessibility (security) and current connections
Basic volume operations
See the online help for information about the data fields and options.
Displaying volume replication
Displays the replication configuration and replicas for the volume.
Click Volumes in the lower-left panel, then expand Volumes in the far-left tree, then select the volume name, and
then click the Replication tab. The Volume Replication window appears, containing the following panels:
•
•
Replication summary panel – Provides information about:
–
Replication partner and failback parameters
–
Replication reserve allocation
–
Transfer status and next replication time
–
Schedule and schedule status
Remote Replicas panel – You can switch between two views information:
–
Volume replicas (Alt+V) – Provides information about the volume replicas and replica status
–
Replication history (Alt+R) – Provides information about past replication events, including the timestamp,
duration, data transferred and transfer parameters.
See the online help for information about the data fields and options. See also Volume replication on page 12-1.
Displaying volume collections
Click Volumes in the lower-left panel, then expand Volumes in the far-left tree, then select the volume name, and
then click the Collections tab. The Volume Collections window appears containing the following information:
•
Collection name, included volumes and storage pool
•
Capacity and space use
•
Volume status and number of snapshots
•
Replication partner
Note: Because template volumes are not supported in volume collections, the Collections tab is not applicable
to template volumes.
See the online help for information about the data fields and options.
Displaying volume schedules
Click Volumes in the lower-left panel, then expand Volumes in the far-left tree, then select the volume name, and
then click the Schedules tab. The Volume Schedules window appears, containing the following panels:
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•
Basic volume operations
Schedules summary panel – Provides information about the snapshot and replication schedules for a volume, schedule
status and the next scheduled event.
•
Snapshot and Replication schedules panel – Provides information about individual schedules, event times and
schedule status.
Select Also show schedules for collections that include the volume or enter Alt+A to include
the snapshot and replication schedules for volume collections that include the volume.
See the online help for information about the data fields and options.
Displaying volume connections
To display iSCSI connections to a volume, click Volumes in the lower-left panel, then expand Volumes in the farleft tree, then select the volume name, and then click the Connections tab. The Volume Connections window
appears, containing the following panels:
•
Volume iSCSI settings panel – Provides information about the iSCSI target name and alias name.
•
iSCSI connections panel – Provides information about the iSCSI initiator name and connection statistics.
See the online help for information about the data fields and options.
Displaying thin clones attached to a volume
To display the thin clones attached to a template volume, click Volumes in the lower-left panel, then expand
Volumes in the far-left tree, then select the volume name, and then click the Thin Clones tab. The Volume Thin
Clones window appears, containing the following information:
•
Number of thin clones of the template volume
•
Number of demoted thin clones of the template volume
•
Combined saved space from using thin clones of the template volume
Configuring access control records
Access control records a prevent unauthorized computer access to iSCSI targets (volumes or snapshots). See About
iSCSI target access controls.
You can set up an access control record when you create a volume. You can later set up additional access control
records (up to 16) and apply them to the volume or its snapshots.
1. Click Volumes in the lower-left panel, then expand Volumes in the far-left tree, then select the volume name,
and then click the Access tab.
The Access Control List panel displays the access control records, the conditions in each record, and whether
the record applies to the volume or its snapshots.
Note: An asterisk in the CHAP user, IP address, or iSCSI initiator column means that any value meets the
condition. If a record shows asterisks in all columns, the volume or snapshot has unrestricted access,
which Dell does not recommend.
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2. In the Access Control List panel, click Add. The Add Access Control Record dialog box appears.
3. Select the conditions that a computer must meet and specify the required information (CHAP user name, IP
address, iSCSI initiator name).
4. Select whether the access control record applies to the volume, its snapshots, or the volume and its snapshots
(default).
5. Click OK.
Modifying or deleting an access control record
To modify an access control record:
1. Click Volumes in the lower-left panel, then expand Volumes in the far-left tree, then select the volume name,
and then click the Access tab.
2. In the Volume Access window, select the record and click Modify. Change the information as needed and click
OK.
To delete an access control record:
1. Click Volumes in the lower-left panel, then expand Volumes in the far-left tree, then select the volume name,
and then click the Access tab.
2. In the Volume Access window, select the record and click Delete. Confirm that you want to delete the record.
Notes: You cannot change the iSCSI initiator name in an access control record. Instead, you must delete the record
and recreate it using the new initiator name.
If you modify or delete a record, computers that met the original conditions might not meet the new
conditions and, therefore, might not be able to log in to the target.
About cloning volumes
Cloning a volume creates a new standard volume, template volume, or thin clone volume with a new name and
iSCSI target, but the same reported size, pool, contents as the original volume at the time of the cloning.
Cloning a volume consumes space from the pool where the original volume resides. The space required for cloning
a volume is equal to the volume reserve at the time of the clone operation. Reserving snapshot space for the new
volume requires additional pool space.
Restriction: If the original volume is a recovery volume, the new volume is not a recovery volume.
See Volume attributes for a description of the attributes that apply to a new volume. See iSCSI target security for
information about volume security.
Cloning a volume
To clone a volume, including a template volume or a thin clone volume:
1. Click Volumes in the lower-left panel, then expand Volumes in the far-left tree, then select the volume name.
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2. Click Clone. The following dialog box appears: Clone Volume – Settings. Specify the new volume name and
description.
3. Click Next.The following dialog box appears: Clone Volume – Space. Enable or disable thin provisioning
(only applicable to standard volumes). You can also change the thin provisioning space allocation settings for
the new volume:
•
Minimum volume reserve
•
In-use space warning threshold
•
Maximum in-use space (maximum volume reserve)
The group updates the values in the Pool Space table, based on the space settings. If the new volume exceeds
the capacity of the pool, the table cell showing free pool space becomes red, displays a negative number, and
an error message appears.
Optionally, specify the amount of space, as a percentage of the volume reserve, to reserve for snapshots of the
new volume.
4. Click Next. The following dialog box appears: Create Volume – iSCSI Access. Specify the following:
•
Conditions that a computer must match to connect to the volume and its snapshots. Specify a CHAP user
name, IP address, or iSCSI initiator name. This information generates an access control record that applies
to the volume and its snapshots. See About iSCSI target access controls.
•
Permission for the volume, either read-write or read-only.
•
Whether to allow or disallow (default) access to the volume and its snapshots by initiators with different
iSCSI qualified names (IQNs). See Multi-host access to targets.
5. Click Next. The following dialog box appears: Clone Volume – Summary. Review the volume configuration.
6. If the configuration is correct, click Finish. To make changes, click Back.
Click Volumes in the far-left panel. The new volume appears in the list of volumes. See Displaying volumes on
page 9-6.
Note: Enabling or disabling thin provisioning on a volume is an advanced operation. See Advanced volume
operations.
Modifying a volume name or description
Be aware of the potential impact of modifying a volume name:
•
If you modify a volume name, the iSCSI target name (and any snapshot or replica set names) does not change.
However, if you modify a volume name, and the volume alias is set to be the same as the volume name, the
alias also changes.
•
If you modify the name of a replicated volume, you continue to identify the replica set on the secondary by the
original volume name.
Requirement: A volume name must be unique name and can be up to 63 alphanumeric characters (including
periods, hyphens, and colons). A volume description can be up to 127 alphanumeric characters.
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1. Click Volumes in the lower-left panel, then expand Volumes in the far-left tree, then select the volume name,
then click the Modify settings, and then click the General tab.
2. In the Modify volume settings – General dialog box, modify the name or the description. The volume name
must be unique in the group and can contain up to 63 alphanumeric characters, including periods, hyphens, and
colons. The description can contain up to 127 ASCII characters.
3. Click OK.
Modifying a volume alias
An alias can help administrators identify a volume. For example, some iSCSI initiators display the volume alias in
addition to the iSCSI target name.
When you create a volume, it has an alias only if the group-wide default is to use the volume name as the alias.
Otherwise, the volume does not have an alias.
1. Click Volumes in the lower-left panel, then expand Volumes in the far-left tree, then select the volume name,
then click Modify settings, and then click the Advanced tab.
2. In the Modify volume settings – Advanced dialog box, specify a volume alias in the Public alias field.
Like its name, the volume alias can contain up to 63 alphanumeric characters, including periods, hyphens, and
colons.
3. Click OK.
Modifying the administrator for a volume
1. Click Volumes in the lower-left panel, then expand Volumes in the far-left tree, then select the volume name,
then click the Modify settings, and then click the General tab.
2. In the Modify volume settings – General dialog box, change the name of the administrator or select none in
the Volume administrator field.
3. Click OK.
Setting a volume offline or online
By default, when you create a volume, the group sets the volume online. An iSCSI initiator can only discover or
connect to an online volume. To make a volume inaccessible to iSCSI initiators, set the volume offline; the group
closes all current iSCSI connections to the volume.
Requirement: To set a volume online, each member that contains volume data must be online.
To set a volume online, click Volumes in the lower-left panel, then expand Volumes in the far-left tree, then select
the volume name, and then click Set volume online.
To set a volume offline:
1. Click Volumes in the lower-left panel, then expand Volumes in the far-left tree, then select the volume name,
and then click Set volume offline.
2. Confirm that you want to set the volume offline.
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Modifying volume permission
A volume can have read-write or read-only permission, unless it is a template volume.
Requirement: To change a volume permission to read-only, you must first set the volume offline.
Restriction: You cannot set a template volume to read-write permission.
To modify a volume permission:
1. Click Volumes in the lower-left panel, then expand Volumes in the far-left tree, then select the volume name,
and then click Set access type.
2. In the Set Access Type dialog box, change the permission.
3. Click OK.
Allowing or disallowing multi-host volume access
In a shared storage environment, you must control computer access to iSCSI targets (volumes and snapshots),
because multiple computers writing to a target in an uncoordinated manner might result in volume corruption.
You can allow or disallow multi-host (shared) access to a volume. If you disallow multi-host access to a volume,
only one iSCSI qualified name (IQN) can connect to the volume at one time. However, if you have a certain
environment, you might want to allow multi-host access to a volume. See Multi-host access to targets.
Requirement: Before disallowing multi-host access to a volume, disconnect all initiators from the volume except
one, unless the initiators have the same IQN. If multiple initiators with different IQNs have
connections to the volume, you cannot disallow multi-host access.
To allow or disallow multi-host access to a volume:
1. Click Volumes in the lower-left panel, then expand Volumes in the far-left tree, then select the volume name,
and then click Set access type.
2. In the Set Access Type dialog box, allow or disallow multi-host access.
3. Click OK.
Enabling or disabling iSNS discovery
You can configure a PS Series group to use an iSNS (Internet Storage Name Service) server, which facilitates the
discovery of iSCSI targets in the group. See Configuring the group to use an iSNS server.
By default, the group disables automatic discovery of targets by iSNS servers. If you want an iSNS server to
automatically discover a group target, you must enable this functionality on the target.
Requirement: A group disables automatic discovery of group targets by iSNS servers only if all the group
members are running PS Series Firmware Version 4.1.4 or a higher version. If a member is
running a previous firmware version (for example, if you downgrade a member from V4.1.4),
iSNS servers can automatically discover all group targets.
9–14
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You cannot use the Group Manager GUI to enable or disable iSNS discovery for a volume or snapshot. Instead,
you must use the following CLI command formats:
volume select volume_name isns-discovery enable | disable
volume select volume_name snapshot select snapshot_name isns-discovery enable | disable
Deleting a volume
You can delete a volume. Space that the group allocated to the volume becomes part of free pool space.
Note: If you delete a volume, the group also deletes its snapshots. However, the group does not delete any volume
replicas on the secondary group.
Requirement: You must set a volume offline before you delete it. The group closes any active iSCSI connections
to the volume.
Restriction: You cannot delete a template volume if it still has thin clones attached to it or if recovery thin clones
exist.
1. Click Volumes in the lower-left panel, then expand Volumes in the far-left tree, then select the volume name,
and then click Delete volume, Delete template, or Delete thin clone.
2. Confirm that you want to delete the volume and its data.
9–15
10 Advanced volume operations
Only knowledgeable group administrators should perform advanced volume operations, including creating thinprovisioned volumes, using template volumes and thin clones, changing a volume size, using volume collections,
and scheduling volume operations.
About thin provisioning
You can use thin provisioning technology to more efficiently allocate storage space, while still meeting application
and user storage needs. With a thin-provisioned volume, the group allocates space based on volume usage,
enabling you to “over-allocate” or “over-provision” group storage space.
Recommendation: Dell recommends that you fully understand the benefits and risks of using thin provisioning
before implementing it in your environment. Environments that use thin provisioning should
have around-the-clock support to handle any space allocation issues and prevent service level
disruption.
Thin provisioning volumes is beneficial in a number of environments. For example, if your environment does not
easily allow you to expand file systems or raw disks, you can give thin-provisioned volumes excessively large
reported sizes to account for future growth. The group automatically allocates space to volumes only if usage
patterns warrant the space.
Thin provisioning also helps you plan for future group expansion. For example, you can size volumes according to
their maximum possible space requirements, even if the group currently cannot provide all the required space (that
is, you can “over-provision” group space). As volume usage increases, you can expand group capacity, with no
user impact. You do not need to change drive letters, expand volume sizes, or add volumes.
However, if your environment requires guaranteed space for volume, thin provisioning might be inappropriate.
Thin provisioning is most effective if you can accurately predict how volume usage increases over time.
When you create a volume, you specify the reported size for the volume. The reported size is seen by iSCSI
initiators. The actual amount of pool space that the group allocates to a volume is called the volume reserve. The
value of the volume reserve depends on whether you enable thin provisioning on a volume:
•
No thin provisioning – The volume reserve is equal to the reported size.
For example, even if only 10% of a volume is in use, the group allocates the full reported size.
•
Thin provisioning – The volume reserve is equal to or less than the reported size, depending on volume usage
and the thin provisioning settings.
Initially, the group allocates the minimum amount of volume reserve for a thin-provisioned volume. The
minimum is 10% of the reported volume size or the user-specified percentage.
As initiators write to the volume, free volume reserve decreases. When free volume reserve falls below a
threshold, the group increases volume reserve, up to a user-defined maximum (assuming available free pool
space):
–
For a volume with a reported size of 100GB or greater, when free volume reserve is less than 6 GB, the
group allocates an additional 10 GB.
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–
Advanced volume operations
For a volume with a reported size that is less than 100GB, when free volume reserve falls below 6% of the
reported volume size, the group allocates an additional 10% of the reported volume size.
Event messages inform you when in-use volume reserve surpasses a user-defined limit and reaches the
maximum.
Thin provisioning space settings
Three settings control how the group allocates space to thin-provisioned volumes and when the group generates
events related to space usage:
•
Minimum volume reserve – Minimum amount of pool space that the group allocates to the volume, based on
a percentage of the reported volume size. The default group-wide setting is 10%.
•
In-use space warning limit – Amount of in-use volume reserve that results in notification, based on a
percentage of the reported volume size. The default group-wide setting is 60%.
When in-use volume reserve reaches the in-use warning limit, the group generates a warning event message.
Additional warning event messages occur as follows:
–
For volumes larger than 200 GB, when the in-use volume reserve increases by every additional 10 GB.
–
For volumes smaller than 200 GB, when the in-use volume reserve increases by every additional 5%.
For example, if you create a thin-provisioned volume with a size of 500 GB and set the warning limit to 75%, a
warning occurs when the amount of in-use volume reserve is more than or equal to 75% of 500 GB, or 375 GB.
•
Maximum in-use space – Maximum amount of in-use volume reserve (maximum size of the volume reserve),
based on a percentage of the reported volume size. The default group-wide setting is 100%.
The maximum in-use space value determines the behavior when the volume reserve reaches its maximum size:
–
If the maximum in-use space value is less than 100%, and an initiator write exceeds this limit, the write
fails. The group sets the volume offline and generates event messages.
If you increase the maximum in-use space value or the reported volume size (both operations require free
pool space), the group automatically sets the volume online and writes succeed.
–
If the maximum in-use space value is 100%, and an initiator write exceeds this limit, the volume is not set
offline; However, the write fails, and the group generates event messages. If you increase the reported size
of the volume, writes succeed.
This behavior is the same as when in-use space for a volume that is not thin-provisioned reaches its
reported size.
The maximum in-use space value helps prevent one volume from consuming all the pool free space and setting
other thin-provisioned volumes offline.
You can change the group-wide default volume settings (see Modifying group-wide volume settings on page 9-5),
override the default values when you create a thin-provisioned volume, or modify a volume and change the
settings.
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Enabling thin provisioning on a volume
When you create a new volume or clone an existing volume, you can enable thin provisioning on the volume. In
addition, you can modify an existing volume and enable thin provisioning.
Thin provisioning is not appropriate for all environments or volumes. You must fully understand thin provisioning
before implementing the functionality on a volume. See About thin provisioning on page 10-1.
When enabling thin provisioning on an existing volume, be aware of these issues:
•
Enabling thin provisioning on a volume usually decreases the amount of space that the group allocates to the
volume (called the volume reserve).
•
Enabling thin provisioning changes the amount of allocated snapshot space and replication space, because the
group allocates snapshot space and replication space based on a percentage of the volume reserve.
However, the group increases the snapshot space and replication space percentages to prevent the deletion of
snapshot or replication data.
To enable thin provisioning on an existing volume:
1. Click Volumes in the lower-left panel, then expand Volumes, then select the volume, then click Modify
settings, and then click the Space tab.
2. In the Modify volume settings – Space dialog box, select Thin-provisioned volume. The Pool Space table
values change.
3. Optionally, use the sliders to modify the group-wide default thin provisioning space settings:
•
Minimum volume reserve
•
In-use space warning limit
•
Maximum in-use space (maximum volume reserve)
See Thin provisioning space settings on page 10-2.
4. Click OK.
Make sure you carefully monitor the space usage for a thin-provisioned volume. See Monitoring volumes,
collections, and snapshots on page 15-24.
Disabling thin provisioning on a volume
You can disable thin provisioning on a standard volume.
Restriction: You cannot disable thin provisioning on a template volume, thin clone volume, recovery
template volume, or a recovery thin clone volume.
Before disabling thin provisioning, consider the following:
•
If you disable thin provisioning on a volume, the group allocates the full reported volume size (the reported
size and the volume reserve is the same). Therefore, you must have sufficient free pool space.
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•
Because the group bases snapshot space and replication space on a percentage of the volume reserve, disabling
thin provisioning increases snapshot space and replication space. Therefore, you must have sufficient free pool
space.
•
In some cases, if you disable thin provisioning on a volume, the group automatically decreases the snapshot
reserve percentage to prevent an excessive allocation of snapshot space.
This can occur if you previously set the snapshot reserve percentage to a high value to prevent the group from
deleting snapshots (for example, if you increased the snapshot reserve percentage from 100% to 500%). If you
disable thin provisioning on the volume, the group might decrease the percentage to a more appropriate value,
closer to 100%. The group does not decrease the snapshot reserve percentage if the decrease requires deleting
snapshots.
To disable thin provisioning on a volume:
1. Click Volumes, then expand Volumes, then select the volume, then click Modify settings, and then click
the Space tab.
2. In the Modify volume settings – Space dialog box, de-select Thin-provisioned volume.
The Pool Space table values change, based on the new volume setting. If the volume change exceeds pool
capacity, the free space cell displays a negative value.
3. Click OK.
Modifying the thin provisioning space settings
You can modify the thin provisioning space settings that are described in Thin provisioning space settings on page
10-2.
1. Click Volumes, then expand Volumes, then select the volume, then click Modify settings, and then click
the Space tab.
2. In the Modify volume settings – Space dialog box, use the sliders to adjust the settings for:
•
Minimum volume reserve
•
In-use space warning limit
•
Maximum in-use space (maximum volume reserve)
The Pool Space table values change, based on the new values. If a change exceeds capacity, the free pool space
cell displays a negative value.
3. Click OK.
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About reported volume size
You can change the reported size of a volume while the volume is online and without disrupting access to the
volume.
Warning: Not all operating systems, file systems, and applications easily handle volume size changes or behave
in a predictable manner when you change a volume size. Before changing a reported volume size, Dell
recommends that you fully understand the impact on the operating system, file system, and applications
using the volume.
Restriction: You cannot change the size of a template volume.
Changing the reported volume size affects the space that the group allocates to the volume and for volume
snapshots and replication:
•
For a volume that is not thin-provisioned, changing the reported size proportionally changes the amount of
space the group allocates to the volume (the volume reserve).
•
For a thin-provisioned volume, changing the reported size changes the minimum volume reserve, in-use space
warning limit, and maximum in-use space, because they are based on a percentage of the reported size. The
space that the group allocates to the volume (the volume reserve) might also change.
•
If the volume reserve changes due to the reported volume size change, snapshot space and replication space
also changes.
Note: If you are replicating the volume, the secondary group does not recognize the reported size change until
the next replication.
Increasing the reported size of a volume
You can increase the reported size of the volume, while the volume remains online.
See About reported volume size on page 10-5 for information on the impact of changing the reported size.
1. Click Volumes, then expand Volumes, then select the volume, then click Modify settings, and then click
the Space tab.
2. In the Modify volume settings – Space dialog box, specify the new reported volume size in the Volume size
field. If the size you specify is not a multiple if 15MB, the group rounds up the value to the nearest multiple of
15.
The values in the Pool Space table change, based on the new volume size. If you configured the volume for
replication, a table showing delegated space on the replication partner also appears. If the new volume size
exceeds the capacity of a pool, the free space cell displays a negative value.
3. For a thin-provisioned volume, optionally modify the in-use warning value and maximum in-use space value
using the slider bars. See Thin provisioning space settings on page 10-2.
4. Click OK.
5. Optionally, confirm that you want to create a snapshot of the current volume prior to the resizing.
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Decreasing the reported size of a volume
You can decrease the reported size of the volume, while the volume remains online. Decreasing the size of a
volume is sometimes called “shrinking” a volume.
See About reported volume size on page 10-5 for information on the impact of changing the reported size of a
volume.
Caution: If you decrease a volume size to less than the amount of space currently in use, you can lose data.
You cannot use the Group Manager GUI to decrease the reported size of a volume. Instead, you must use the
following Group Manager CLI command:
volume select volume_name shrink size
See the CLI Reference manual for more information about using CLI commands.
About template volumes and thin clones
Some computing environments use multiple volumes that contain a large amount of common data. For example,
some environments clone a standard volume and create multiple “boot volumes” that administrators use to boot
different client computers. Most of the data is common to all the volumes; only a small portion of volume space
contains unique data. Because each boot volume consumes pool space for the common data, the group is storing
multiple copies of the same data, which is not an efficient utilization of space.
To use pool space more efficiently, instead of cloning standard volumes, you can create one volume and populate it
with the common data. After you convert the volume to a template volume, you can create multiple thin clone
volumes and then write to each thin clone to make it unique. For example, you can add data such as a page file to a
thin clone.
Because a thin clone shares the common data in the template volume, each thin clone only consumes the space
needed to store the differences (or deltas) between the thin clone and the template volume.
Initially, a template volume and thin clone are identical in reported size and content. Because the group allocates
space to the new thin clone in the same way it allocates space to a new standard, thin provisioned volume, only the
minimum volume reserve is consumed from free pool space.
When initiators write data to a thin clone, space is consumed from free volume reserve. As needed, the group
allocates additional volume reserve to the thin clone, up to the maximum in-use space setting for the thin clone.
You can also modify the thin clone and change the data that the thin clone shares with the template volume.
However, the data in the template volume is always preserved because a template volume is read-only. Group
Manager tracks the amount of data that is shared between each thin clone and template volume and displays it in
the Volume Status window.
See Space considerations for template volumes and thin clones on page 10-7.
With a few exceptions, all normal volume operations apply to template volumes and thin clones. See Restrictions
on template volumes and thin clones on page 10-8.
Thin clones are considered attached to the template volume and cannot exist without it, similar to how snapshots
depend on the base volume.
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The group always maintains and shows the dependency of a thin clone on a template volume. If you expand
Volumes in the far-left panel, you can choose to display all volumes in alphabetical order or display thin clones
under the template volume on which they depend.
If you replicate a template volume and its attached thin clones, the primary and secondary groups maintain the
dependency. For example, you must replicate a template volume before replicating any of its thin clones. On the
secondary group, if you expand Inbound Replicas in the far-left panel, you can choose to display thin clone
replica sets under the template replica set on which they depend.
In addition, the group maintains and shows the dependency of a thin clone on a template volume (or a thin clone
replica set on a template replica set), even if a volume (or replica set) changes state, as occurs during failover and
failback operations. For example, if you promote a thin clone replica set to a recovery thin clone, you can still see
the dependency of the recovery thin clone on the template replica set.
Because of this dependency, the group does not allow you to delete a template volume, a template replica set, or a
recovery template if a thin clone, thin clone replica set, or recovery thin clone depends on it. Also, you cannot
disable replication on a template volume until you disable replication on all its thin clones.
Space considerations for template volumes and thin clones
When you convert a standard volume to a template volume:
•
Thin provisioning is enabled on the volume, the volume is set offline, and the volume permission is set to readonly.
Note: If you are using the Group Manager CLI, you must perform these tasks manually before you can
convert to a template volume.
•
Volume reserve decreases to the amount of in-use space (or the minimum volume reserve, whichever is
greater), and free volume reserve becomes unreserved space.
•
Snapshot reserve is adjusted, based on the new volume reserve. If necessary to preserve existing snapshots, the
snapshot reserve percentage is increased.
When you create a thin clone volume, it has the same reported size and contents as the template volume. If you
mount the thin clone, you can see the data that the thin clone shares with the template volume.
The group allocates only the minimum volume reserve when you first create a thin clone. The group allocates
additional space if you specify snapshot reserve for the thin clone. Just as with a standard, thin provisioned volume,
as you write to a thin clone, the group allocates more space and increases the volume reserve.
In the Volume Status window for a thin clone volume, the Volume Space table shows the space utilization for the
thin clone, including the in-use space, which is the portion of volume reserve that is storing data unique to the thin
clone. When you first create a thin clone, it has zero in-use space.
In the Volume Status window for a thin clone volume, the Shared Space table (only appears for thin clones) shows
the amount of space that is shared with the template volume and the unshared (in-use) space. As you write to the
thin clone, unshared (in-use) space increases. In some cases, when you write to a thin clone, shared space can
decrease (for example, if you are overwriting shared data).
Free space in the Shared Space table shows the amount of unwritten thin clone space (that is, the reported volume
size minus the combined shared space and unshared space). This represents the amount of data you can write to the
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thin clone before you need to increase its size. This value is the same as the value for “unreserved” space in the
Volume Space table in the Volume Status window for the template volume.
If you detach a thin clone, the resulting new standard volume has in-use space equal to the combined shared space
and unshared space, as shown in the Shared Space table in the Volume Status window.
Restrictions on template volumes and thin clones
With a few exceptions, all normal volume attributes and operations apply to template volumes and thin clones as
specified in Table 10-1.
Table 10-1: Template Volume and Thin Clone Restrictions
Attribute or
Operation
Snapshots
Thin provisioning
Permissions
Volume collections
Scheduling operations
RAID preference
Member binding
Cloning
Resizing
Pool move
Replication
Failover
Failback
Deletion
Restriction
You cannot restore a template volume from a snapshot.
You cannot disable thin provisioning on a template volume or thin clone.
You cannot set Template volumes to read-write permission.
You cannot include a template volume in a volume collection.
You cannot schedule a snapshot or replication operation for a template volume.
Thin clones inherit the RAID preference, if any, of the template volume.
Thin clones inherit the member binding setting, if any, of the template volume.
Cloning a template volume creates a new template volume with a new name and iSCSI target, but
the same reported size, pool, and contents as the original volume at the time of the cloning.
Cloning a thin clone creates a new thin clone with a new name and iSCSI target, but the same
reported size, pool, contents, and relationship to the template volume as the original thin clone at the
time of the cloning.
You cannot change the reported size of a template volume. However, you can change the thin
provisioning settings.
Thin clones inherit the pool setting of the template volume. If you move the template volume to a
different pool, the thin clones also move.
You can replicate a template volume only one time.
You cannot replicate a thin clone until you replicate the template volume to which the thin clone is
attached.
You can permanently promote a template replica set to a template volume only if you first
permanently promote all the attached thin clone replica sets to thin clones.
You cannot demote a template volume to a failback replica set.
You cannot fail back a template volume.
To fail back a thin clone volume, the template volume must exist on the primary group.
You cannot delete a template volume if it has thin clones or failback thin clone replica sets attached
to it.
You cannot delete a recovery template volume if there are still recovery thin clone volumes, thin
clone replica sets, or permanently promoted thin clone replica sets attached to the volume.
Converting a standard volume to a template volume
When you convert a standard volume to a template volume, the template volume is thin provisioned, read-only, and
offline. You can set the volume online at any time.
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Note: When you convert to a template volume, the group disables any schedules that include the volume. If you
later convert the template volume to a standard volume, the group does not automatically enable the
schedules.
Requirement: Before converting to a template volume, make sure the standard volume contains all the data that is
shared with the thin clones. Also, make sure that the standard volume has sufficient free space to
hold the approximate amount of data that you write to each thin clone.
For example, if the reported size of the template volume is 1 GB, and in-use space is 900 MB, you
can write approximately 100 MB to each thin clone before you must increase the thin clone size.
1. Click Volumes, then expand Volumes, then select the volume, and then click Convert to template.
2. Confirm that you want to convert to a template volume.
Converting a template volume to a standard volume
Restriction: You cannot convert a template volume to a standard volume if thin clones are attached to
the template volume or if the template volume is configured for replication.
Restriction: You must disable replication before you can convert a template volume to a volume.
Note: Space used to store template replicas on the secondary group becomes unmanaged if you convert a template
volume to a standard volume.
1. Click Volumes, then expand Volumes, then select the volume, and then click Convert to volume.
2. Confirm that you want to convert to a volume.
Creating a thin clone
1. Click Volumes, then expand Volumes, then select the template volume, and then click Create thin
clone.
2. In the Create Thin Clone – Volume Settings dialog box, enter a unique name and optional description and click
the Next button.
3. In the Create Thin Clone – Space dialog box, change the snapshot reserve setting and the thin provisioning
settings, and click the Next button.
4. In the Create Thin Clone – iSCSI Access dialog box, create an access control record for the volume, select the
permission (read-write or read-only), and specify the multi-host access setting. Then, click the Next button.
5. In the Summary dialog box, click the Finish button if the thin clone configuration is correct. Click the Back
button to make changes.
Detaching a thin clone from a template volume
Detaching a thin clone from a template volume breaks the dependency between the thin clone and the template
volume.
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If you detach a thin clone from a template volume, the thin clone is converted to a standard volume and no longer
shares space with the template volume. Therefore, when you detach a thin clone, the volume reserve for the thin
clone increases by the amount of space the thin clone shares with the template volume.
Note: If you detach a thin clone from a template volume that is bound to a member or has a RAID preference, the
resulting volume does not inherit the binding or the RAID preference.
Restriction: You cannot detach a thin clone if replication is enabled for the thin clone.
1. Click Volumes, then expand Volumes, then select the thin clone, and then click Detach from template.
2. Confirm that you want to detach the thin clone.
Displaying template volumes and thin clones
The procedure for displaying information about a template volume or a thin clone is the same as for any volume.
1. Click Volumes, then expand Volumes, and then click the template volume or thin clone.
2. Click the Status tab to display the Volume Status window.
3. Click the other tabs to display additional volume information.
For template volumes, there is no Collections tab. You cannot use a template volume in a volume collection.
For template volumes, click the Thin Clones tab to display the thin clones that are attached to the template
volume.
To display thin clones under the template volume in the far-left panel, pull down the tree view options menu and
select Show thin clones under templates.
About volume collections
You can group multiple volumes for the purpose of performing an operation simultaneously on the volumes.
Volume collections are useful when you have multiple, related volumes.
A volume collection includes one or more volumes from any pool. In a single operation, you can create snapshots
of the volumes (a snapshot collection) or replicas of the volumes (a replica collection).
Restriction: You cannot use a template volume in a volume collection.
Creating a volume collection
1. Click Volumes, then Volume Collections, and then Create volume collection.
2. In the Create Volume Collection – General Settings dialog box, specify a name (up to 63 ASCII characters) for
the collection and an optional description (up to 127 ASCII characters). Then, click Next.
3. In the Create Volume Collection – Components dialog box, select the volumes to include in the collection (up
to eight volumes) and click Next.
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4. Review the Create Volume Collection – Summary dialog box and, if satisfactory, click Finish. To make
changes, click Back.
The volume collection appears in the far-left GUI panel, under Volume Collections.
Displaying volume collections
Click Volumes and then Volume Collections. The Volume Collection Summary window appears, containing
the following information:
•
Collection, volumes, and storage pool identifiers.
•
Capacity and reserve
•
Volume status and number of snapshots
•
Replication partner
See the online help for information about the data fields and options.
Displaying details for a volume collection
Click Volumes, then expand Volume Collections, then select the collection. Click the tabs to display details
about the volume collection.
Status tab
Click Volumes, then expand Volume Collections, then select the collection. Click the Status tab. The
Volume Collection Status window appears, containing the following panels:
•
Collection status panel – Provides information about snapshot collections and replication status.
•
Collection volumes panel – Provides information about:
–
Volumes in the collection, and the storage pool
–
Capacity and reserve
–
Volume status and number of snapshots
–
Replication partner
–
iSCSI connections
The information is sorted by Volume name. You can sort the information by clicking the column headings.
See the online help for information about the data fields and options.
Snapshots tab
Click Volumes, then expand Volume Collections, then select the collection. Click the Snapshots tab. The
Volume Collection Snapshot window appears, containing the following panels:
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•
Snapshot summary panel – Provides information about snapshot collections, schedules, and scheduled events.
•
Snapshots panel – Provides information about snapshot timestamp, schedule name, security, and connections.
See the online help for information about the data fields and options.
Replicas tab
Click Volumes, then expand Volume Collections, then select the collection. Click the Replicas tab. The
Volume Collection Replicas window appears, containing the following panels:
•
Replication summary panel – Provides information about the replication partner and replication schedules and
schedule status.
•
Remote replicas panel – Provides information about remote replicas and their status.
See the online help for information about the data fields and options.
Schedules tab
Click Volumes, then expand Volume Collections, then select the collection. Click the Schedules tab
The Volume collection window appears, containing the following panels:
•
Schedules summary panel – Provides information about snapshot and replication schedules, schedule status,
and scheduled events.
•
Snapshot and replication schedules panel – Provides information about objects that a schedule can create and
the parameters of the schedule.
You can use the Snapshot and Replication Schedules panel to create, modify, or delete scheduled snapshot and/or
replication operations. See the online help for information about the data fields and options.
Modifying a volume collection
1. Click Volumes, then expand Volume Collections, then select the collection, and then click Modify
volume collection.
2. In the Modify Volume Collection dialog box:
•
To change the collection name or description, click the General tab and modify the name (up to 63 ASCII
characters) or description (up to 127 ASCII characters).
•
To add volumes or remove volumes from the collection, click the Components tab. Select and deselect
volumes.
3. Click OK.
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Deleting a volume collection
Note: Deleting a volume collection does not delete the volumes in the collection or any snapshots or replicas.
However, the group deletes any schedules for the volume collections.
1. Click Volumes, then expand Volume Collections, then select the collection, and then click Delete
volume collection.
2. Confirm that you want to delete the collection.
Scheduling volume operations
You can create schedules to automatically perform volume operations at a specific time or on a regular basis (for
example, hourly or daily). For example, you can create a schedule to create snapshots or replicas of a volume or a
volume collection.
Note: Using a schedule can generate a large number of snapshots or replicas, so make sure that you have sufficient
snapshot or replication space. You can set a limit on the maximum number of snapshots or replicas that a
schedule creates.
If a volume is part of a volume collection, make sure a schedule for the collection does not overlap a schedule for
the volume.
Restriction: You cannot use manual transfer replication with a replication schedule.
You cannot schedule a snapshot or replication operation for a template volume.
Schedule attributes
Table 10-2 describes the schedule attributes. The first column lists attributes, and the second column describes
them. You set the attribute values when you create a schedule. You can later modify the schedule and change the
values, if you want.
Table 10-2: Schedule Attributes
Attribute
Name
Type
Enabled or
disabled
Frequency
Description
Identifies the schedule for administrative purposes. Up to 63 ASCII characters. The schedule name must be
unique in the group.
Type of schedule, either snapshot or replication.
Whether you want to enable (run) or disable the schedule.
How often the schedule runs (once, hourly, or daily).
For one-time schedules, you can specify the day and time when the schedule runs.
For hourly schedules, you can specify the start and end date, the time when the schedule runs, and how
often the schedule runs (from 5 minutes to 12 hours apart).
For daily schedules, you can specify the start and end date, how often the schedule runs (from every day to
every 100 days), the time when the schedule runs, and how often during the day the schedule runs (from 5
minutes to 12 hours apart).
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Table 10-2: Schedule Attributes (Continued)
Attribute
Number of
snapshots or
replicas to keep
Snapshot
permission
Description
How many snapshots or replicas to keep (from 1 to 512; the default is 10). This attribute applies only to
snapshots or replicas that the schedule creates.
If the schedule exceeds the maximum number of snapshots or replicas to keep, the group automatically
deletes the oldest snapshots or replicas before creating new ones.
The group closes any active iSCSI connections to a snapshot before deleting the snapshot.
Regardless of the number of snapshots and replicas you choose to keep, the size of the snapshot reserve and
the replica reserve limits the number of snapshots and replicas.
Applicable only to snapshot schedules, applies either read-write or read-only (the default) permission to the
snapshots that the schedule creates.
Creating a schedule
When you create a schedule, you specify the attributes described in Table 10-2.
1. Do one of the following:
•
For a volume, click Volumes, then expand Volumes, then select the volume, and then click Create
schedule.
•
For a volume collection, click Volumes, then expand Volume Collections, then select the collection,
and then click Create schedule.
2. In the Create Schedule – Schedule Type dialog:
•
Enter a schedule name.
•
Select the type of schedule (snapshot or replication).
•
Select the frequency. Alternately, click Reuse existing schedule to use an existing schedule as the
basis for the new schedule. You can then modify the schedule attributes.
•
Choose whether you want to enable the schedule.
Click Next.
3. The next dialog box depends on the selected schedule frequency and enables you to control how often the
schedule runs, the number of snapshots or replicas to keep, and whether the snapshots are read-write or readonly.
If you selected Run once for a frequency, the Create Schedule – Run Once dialog box appears.
If you select Hourly schedule for a frequency, the Create Schedule – Hourly Schedule dialog box appears.
If you select Daily schedule for a frequency, the Create Schedule – Daily Schedule dialog box appears.
Then, click Next.
4. In the Create Schedule – Summary dialog box, if the schedule configuration is correct, click Finish. To make
changes, click Back.
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Displaying volume schedules
1. Click Volumes, then expand Volumes, then select the volume, and then click the Schedules tab.
The Schedules Summary panel shows the status of the volume schedules and the creation time for the next
scheduled snapshot or replica. A running schedule is a schedule that you enabled.
2. In the Snapshot and Replication Schedules panel, select a schedule to display details. To display the schedules
for volume collections that include the selected volume, select Also show schedules for collections
that include the volume.
See the online help for information about the data fields and options.
Modifying a schedule
Table 10-2 describes the schedule attributes. You can modify any attribute except for:
•
Schedule type (snapshot or replication)
•
Schedule frequency (one time, hourly, or daily)
1. Do one of the following:
•
For a volume, click Volumes, then expand Volumes, then select the volume, and then click the
Schedules tab.
•
For a volume collection schedule, click Volumes, then expand Volume Collections, then select the
collection, and then click the Schedules tab.
2. Select the schedule in the Snapshot and Replication Schedules panel and click Modify.
3. Change the schedule attributes.
4. Click OK.
Deleting a schedule
Deleting a schedule does not affect the snapshots or replicas that the schedule created.
1. Do one of the following:
•
For a volume, click Volumes, then expand Volumes, then select the volume, and then click the
Schedules tab.
•
For a volume collection schedule, click Volumes, then expand Volume Collections, then select the
collection, and then click the Schedules tab.
2. Select the schedule in the Snapshot and Replication Schedules panel and click Delete.
3. Confirm that you want to delete the schedule.
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Enabling and disabling a volume RAID preference
A PS Series group uses automatic performance load balancing (enabled by default) to identify the RAID level that
provides the best performance for a volume and store volume data on pool members with that RAID level, if such
members are available.
You can override automatic performance load balancing by enabling a RAID level preference (RAID 10, RAID 50,
RAID 5, or RAID 6) on a volume.
If you enable a RAID preference, the group attempts to store volume data on pool members with that RAID level.
The group still uses capacity-based load balancing on the volume.
If you disable a RAID preference on a volume, the group resumes automatic performance load balancing.
Restriction: Thin clones inherit the RAID preference, if any, of the template volume. You cannot set
a separate RAID preference for a thin clone.
Requirement: To enable a volume RAID preference, make sure at least one member in the volume’s pool has the
preferred RAID level. If no pool member has the preferred RAID level, the group ignores the
RAID preference until a member exists with the preferred RAID level.
See Displaying storage pools on page 7-3 to display the RAID levels of the pool members.
1. Click Volumes, then expand Volumes, then select the volume, then click Modify settings, and then click
the Advanced tab.
2. In the Modify volume settings – Advanced dialog box, under Volume RAID preference, select the preferred
RAID level or select Automatic to disable a RAID preference.
3. Click OK.
Binding and unbinding a volume to a member
A PS Series group uses automatic performance load balancing (enabled by default) to identify the RAID level that
provides the best performance for a volume and store volume data on pool members with that RAID level, if such
members are available.
You can override automatic performance load balancing (or ignore any RAID preference for the volume) by
binding a volume to a specific pool member.
If you bind a volume to a pool member, the group stores the volume data on the member, instead of distributing
data across multiple pool members.
You can bind a volume only to a member that is in the same pool as the volume. If you bind a volume to a member
and then delete that member from the pool or group, the group cancels the bind operation.
Restriction: Thin clones inherit the member binding setting, if any, of the template volume. You
cannot have a separate member binding setting for a thin clone.
You cannot use the Group Manager GUI to bind a volume to a member. Instead, you must use the following Group
Manager CLI command format:
volume select volume_name bind member_name
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To unbind a volume from a member, use the following CLI command format:
volume select volume_name unbind
See the PS Series CLI Reference manual for more information about using CLI commands.
Managing a volume or snapshot with lost blocks
In rare circumstances, a volume (or snapshot) might lose blocks. For example, this can occur if there is a power
failure and then a control module cache battery fails. (If the control module cache battery is the only power source
for a control module for more than 72 hours after a power failure occurs, the battery can fail.)
If a volume (or snapshot) loses blocks, the current status of the volume (or snapshot) is offline-lost-cached-
blocks. In addition, the group generates an event message.
1. Click Volumes, then expand Volumes, then select the volume name, and then click the status tab.
2. Click offline-lost-cached-blocks.
3. In the dialog box that appears, do one of the following:
•
Click Set the volume online but retain the lost blocks to set the volume or snapshot
online but keep the lost blocks.
The volume (or snapshot) status changes to online-lost-blocks.
If an application tries to read a lost block, an error occurs. If an initiator writes new data to a lost block
before it is read, the block is no longer lost. The members containing lost blocks have a status of RAID
lost blocks until initiators write to all the lost blocks.
•
Click Mark the lost blocks valid and set the volume online to set the lost block status to
valid.
The volume (or snapshot) status changes to online. The status of the members containing volume data
changes to online.
4. Click OK.
Note: Setting a volume with lost blocks online is a data integrity risk. The blocks might contain old or
invalid data.
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11 Snapshot management
Snapshots greatly simplify and increase the performance of backup and recovery operations.
About snapshots
A snapshot is a point-in-time copy of volume data. Creating snapshots on a regular basis can protect you from data
loss due to mistakes, viruses, or database corruption.
A snapshot represents the contents of a volume at the time of creation. You can create snapshots of standard
volumes, in addition to template volumes and thin clone volumes.
Creating a snapshot does not prevent access to a volume, and the snapshot is instantly available to authorized iSCSI
initiators. If you accidentally delete data, you can set a snapshot online and retrieve the data. If a volume is
corrupted, you can restore the volume from a snapshot. You can also clone a snapshot to create a new copy of a
volume.
Restriction: You cannot restore a template volume from a snapshot.
To create snapshots of a volume, you must allocate snapshot reserve for the volume. Initially, a snapshot
consumes no space from the snapshot reserve because it shares all data with the volume (sometimes called the base
volume). When the volume changes, the snapshot reserve tracks those changes to maintain the volume contents at
the time of snapshot creation.
Note: If a volume is offline, all its snapshots are also offline. If you delete a volume, the group deletes all its
snapshots.
Like volumes, snapshots appear on the network as iSCSI targets. All the iSCSI target security mechanisms apply to
snapshots. See iSCSI target security on page 8-1.
You can access the data in a snapshot by using the following methods:
•
Restore a volume from a snapshot. This operation replaces the volume with the data that existed at the time you
created the snapshot. See Restoring a volume from a snapshot on page 11-9.
•
Clone a snapshot. The new volume contains the volume data that existed at the time you created the snapshot.
See Cloning a snapshot to create a new volume on page 11-9.
•
Set the snapshot online. iSCSI Initiators can access the target in the usual way. See Setting a snapshot online or
offline on page 11-11.
You can create snapshots of individual volumes or volume collections. When you perform a snapshot operation on
a volume collection, the group creates a set of snapshots (one for each volume in the collection) called a snapshot
collection. You can also simultaneously create snapshots of multiple volumes that are not in a collection. The
resulting set of snapshots is called a custom snapshot collection.
Use volume schedules to create snapshots or snapshot collections at a specific time or time interval, such as hourly,
daily or weekly.
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Snapshot management
About snapshot reserve allocation
Before you can create snapshots of a volume, you must allocate snapshot reserve for the volume. Snapshot reserve
is consumed from the pool where the volume resides.
You can allocate snapshot reserve when you create a volume, or you can modify a volume’s properties to change
the snapshot reserve. Snapshot reserve is a percentage of the volume reserve. Because the volume reserve for a
thin-provisioned volume changes as volume usage increases, the snapshot reserve for a thin-provisioned volume
also changes.
The group generates event messages when the amount of free snapshot reserve falls below a user-defined
threshold. Depending on the policy that you set for snapshot space recovery, the group preserves snapshot reserve
as described in About snapshot reserve settings.
About snapshot access controls
Online snapshots are seen on the network as iSCSI targets. It is important to protect your snapshots from
unauthorized and uncoordinated access by iSCSI initiators.
Note: When a snapshot is online and accessible, a user or application can change the contents of the snapshot. If
this happens, the snapshot no longer represents a point-in-time copy of a volume and has limited use for
data recovery.
All iSCSI target security mechanisms apply to snapshots, including access control records, which prevent
unauthorized iSCSI initiator access to a volume and its snapshots. See iSCSI target security.
About snapshot reserve settings
There are group-wide default values for the following snapshot reserve settings, unless you explicitly change them
for a volume:
•
Snapshot reserve – Amount of space, based on a percentage of the volume reserve, that the group allocates to
snapshots. When you create a volume, you can specify the snapshot reserve percentage for the volume.
Otherwise, the group applies the group-wide default value. You can modify the snapshot reserve value.
•
Snapshot space recovery policy – Action the group takes when a new snapshot exceeds snapshot reserve:
–
Delete the oldest snapshots to free space for new snapshots.
–
Set the volume (and snapshots) offline.
If a snapshot has active iSCSI connections, the group closes the connections before deleting the snapshot.
Note: In some cases, you might want to preserve the data in a snapshot that might be at risk of deletion. To
preserve the data in a snapshot, you can clone the snapshot. See Cloning a snapshot to create a new
volume on page 11-9.
•
Snapshot space warning percentage – Percentage of the snapshot reserve, when reached by in-use snapshot
reserve, results in an event message. The default is 90% of the snapshot reserve.
For example, if snapshot reserve space is 200 MB and the warning level is 90%, a warning occurs when in-use
snapshot reserve equals or exceeds 180 MB.
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Snapshot management
See Modifying snapshot reserve settings for a volume on page 11-3.
About snapshot schedules
You can set up a schedule for creating snapshots of a volume or volume collection at a specific time or on a regular
basis.
Using a schedule can cause a large number of snapshots. Make sure you have sufficient snapshot reserve. You can
set a limit on the number of snapshots the schedule can create. In addition, the size of the volume’s snapshot
reserve limits the number of volume snapshots.
Restriction: You cannot schedule snapshots for a template volume.
See Scheduling volume operations for information about creating a snapshot schedule.
Modifying snapshot reserve settings for a volume
1. Click Volumes in the lower-left panel, then expand Volumes in the far-left tree, then select the volume name,
and then click Modify snapshot settings.
2. In the Modify Snapshot Settings dialog box, modify the snapshot reserve, space recovery policy, or the
snapshot space warning percentage.
If you change the snapshot reserve, the values in the Pool Space table change. If the new snapshot reserve
value exceeds the capacity of the pool, the free pool space cell displays a negative value.
3. Click OK.
Creating snapshots
You can create a snapshot of a single volume at the current time. Snapshot creation occurs immediately, with no
impact on volume availability or performance.
To create snapshots of multiple volumes at the same time, see About snapshot collections on page 11-5.
Requirement: Before you can create a snapshot, you must allocate snapshot reserve for the volume. See About
snapshot reserve settings on page 11-2.
1. Click Volumes in the lower-left panel, then expand Volumes in the far-left tree, then select the volume name,
and then click Create snapshot now.
2. In the Create Snapshot dialog box:
•
Enter an optional description for the snapshot (up to 127 ASCII characters).
•
Select whether to keep the snapshot offline (default) or set the snapshot online.
•
Select whether to make the snapshot permission read-write (the default) or read-only.
3. Click OK.
The snapshot appears in the far-left panel, under the volume name.
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Snapshot management
The default snapshot name is the volume name followed by the date and time when you created the snapshot (for
example, dbase-2009-03-25-15:31:14.7668). Snapshots appear under a volume in the far-left panel listed by
by timestamp. When you select a snapshot timestamp, its full name (volume and timestamp) appears in the GUI
main window and in the Snapshot iSCSI Settings pane.
Displaying snapshots for a volume
1. Click Volumes in the lower-left panel, then expand Volumes in the far-left tree.
2. Select the volume name, and then click the Snapshots tab. The Snapshot Summary panel provides the
following information:
•
Snapshot reserve and capacity used.
•
Warning and recovery policy
•
Number of, and schedule for snapshots
•
Schedule details and events
3. Move the pointer over a snapshot to display a context message showing its name, the current snapshot status,
and the requested snapshot status.
4. See Table 15-23 and Table 15-24 for snapshot status.
See the online help for information about the data fields and options.
Displaying snapshot details for a volume
Click Volumes in the lower-left panel, then expand Volumes in the far-left tree, then select the volume name, and
then click the Snapshots tab. The Snapshots panel provides the following information:
•
Collection and schedule containing this snapshot
•
Size and status of the snapshot
•
Accessibility of (security) and connections to the snapshot
If the snapshot belongs to a snapshot collection, click View snapshot collection to see details of the
snapshot collection. This link appears in the General Snapshot Information panel only if applicable.
See the online help for information about the data fields and options.
Displaying details of an individual snapshot
1. Click Volumes in the lower-left panel and then expand Volumes in the far-left tree.
2. Expand a volume name and then click the snapshot. The Snapshot name window contains the Snapshot Status
and Snapshot Access tabs.
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Snapshot management
Snapshot status tab
The Snapshot Status tab provides the following panels:
•
General snapshot information panel – Provides information about:
–
Volume status and accessibility (security)
–
Schedule and collection relating to this snapshot
–
Creation timestamp and size of the snapshot
•
Snapshot iSCSI settings panel – Provides information about the iSCSI target and alias name of the snapshot.
•
iSCSI connections panel – Provides information about the initiator and connection statistics.
See the online help for information about the data fields and options.
Snapshot access control tab
The Snapshot Access tab contains the Access Control List panel, which provides the following information:
•
Whether the access rules apply to both volume and snapshots
•
The methods used: CHAP, IP, or initiator name.
A volume and its snapshots share a list of access control records. See About iSCSI target access controls and
Configuring access control records.
In the Snapshot Access window, select a record in the Access Control List panel to display details, including
whether the record applies to the volume or its snapshots.
See the online help for information about the data fields and options.
About snapshot collections
Creating snapshots of multiple volumes simultaneously is useful when you want to protect data in multiple, related
volumes. You can do this in one operation, using one of two methods:
•
Create snapshots of all the volumes in a volume collection. The resulting set of snapshots, one for each volume
in the collection, is called a snapshot collection. You can also schedule snapshot collections.
•
Create snapshots of multiple volumes without using a volume collection. The resulting set of snapshots, one
for each volume, is called a custom snapshot collection. You cannot schedule custom snapshot collections.
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Snapshot management
Creating a snapshot collection
You can create snapshots of all the volumes in a volume collection in one operation. The resulting set of snapshots,
one for each volume in the collection, is called a snapshot collection.
Requirement: Before you create a snapshot collection, you must allocate snapshot reserve for each volume in the
volume collection. See About snapshot reserve settings on page 11-2.
1. Click Volumes, then expand Volume Collections, then select the collection name, and then click Create
snapshot now.
2. In the Create Snapshot Collection dialog box, enter an optional description (up to 127 ASCII characters).
3. Click OK.
Snapshot collections appear under the volume collection name in the far-left panel.
The default snapshot collection name is the volume collection name, followed by the date and time when you
created the snapshots (for example, datavols-2009-03-25-15:31:14.7668). However, when snapshot
collections appear under a volume collection, you can identify them only by timestamp.
Displaying snapshot collections
1. Click Volumes, then expand Volume Collections, then select the collection, and then click the
Snapshots tab.
The Snapshot Summary panel shows the number of snapshot collections for the volume collection, the most
recent snapshot collection timestamp, and any snapshot schedules for the volume collection.
2. Expand a snapshot collection in the Snapshots panel to display the individual snapshots that comprise the
collection. A snapshot that is part of a snapshot collection also appears under its volume name in the far-left
panel.
3. Place the pointer over the snapshot collection or a snapshot to display details.
Displaying snapshot collection details
1. Click Volumes, then expand Volume Collections, then expand the collection.
2. Select the snapshot collection timestamp. The Volume Collection – Snapshot Collection window appears.
The Snapshot Collection Status panel describes the snapshot collection, including the volume collection name, the
time you (or a schedule) created the snapshot collection, the original number of snapshots in the collection, and the
collection Integrity status and Modification status.
The snapshot collection Integrity status can be:
•
complete — A snapshot exists for each volume in the collection.
•
incomplete — A snapshot that was originally part of the collection does not exist.
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The snapshot collection Modification status can be:
•
not modified — No snapshot in the collection is set online with read-write permission.
•
potentially modified — One or more snapshots in the collection are currently set online with read-write
permission.
The Snapshots panel displays information about the snapshots in the collection. Double-click a snapshot to display
details about the snapshot.
Creating a custom snapshot collection
You can create snapshots of multiple volumes in a single operation, without using a volume collection. The set of
snapshots, one for each volume, is called a custom snapshot collection.
Requirement: Before you create a custom snapshot collection, you must allocate snapshot reserve for each
volume in the volume collection. See About snapshot reserve settings on page 11-2.
1. Click Volumes and then Custom snapshot collections.
2. In the Create Custom Snapshot Collection – General Settings dialog box, enter a name for the custom snapshot
collection (up to 63 ASCII characters) and an optional description (up to 127 ASCII characters). You cannot
specify spaces in the name. Then, click Next.
3. In the Create Custom Snapshot Collection – Components dialog box, select the volumes and click Next.
4. In the Create Custom Snapshot Collection – Summary dialog box, review the information. If correct, click
Finish. Click Back to make changes.
The default custom snapshot collection name is the volume collection name followed by the date and time when
you created the snapshots (for example, UserData-2009-05-14-15:08:18.3).
To display custom snapshot collections, see Displaying custom snapshot collections on page 11-7.
Displaying custom snapshot collections
To see information about a custom snapshot collection, you must know the timestamp for the custom snapshot
collection, which is the same as the timestamp for its snapshots.
Note: A custom snapshot collection is not associated with a volume collection.
Click Volumes and then expand Custom Snapshot Collections. The Custom Snapshot Collections panel
provides the following information:
•
The name, timestamp, and status of the custom snapshot.
•
Accessibility (security) of, and connections to the custom snapshot
See the online help for information about the data fields and options.
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Displaying snapshot collection status
Click Volumes, then Custom Snapshot Collections, and then the timestamp of the collection. The Snapshot
Collection name window contains the following panels:
•
Snapshot collection status panel – Provides information about:
–
Name and timestamp of the snapshot collection and any related volume collection
–
Number of snapshots in the collection
–
The integrity and modification status of the collection
•
Snapshots panel – Provides information about:
•
Name of the snapshot, the related volume, and the storage pool.
•
Size and status of the snapshot.
•
Accessibility (security) of, and connections to the snapshot.
Modifying a snapshot collection name or description
Requirement: A snapshot collection name can be up to 63 ASCII characters. A snapshot collection description
can be up to 127 ASCII characters.
The snapshot collection name appears in the title of the Volume Collection – Snapshot Collection window. Place
the pointer over a snapshot collection in the Snapshots panel to see the description.
1. Do one of the following:
•
If you are modifying a snapshot collection name or description:
Click Volumes, then expand Volume Collections, then expand the collection, and then select the
timestamp for the snapshot collection.
•
If you are modifying a custom snapshot collection name or description:
Click Volumes, expand Custom Snapshot Collections, and then select the timestamp for the custom
snapshot collection.
2. Click Modify snapshot collection.
3. In the Modify Snapshot Collection Settings dialog box, modify the snapshot collection name or description and
click OK.
Deleting a snapshot collection
Deleting a snapshot collection also deletes the snapshots in the collection.
1. Do one of the following:
•
11–8
If you are deleting a snapshot collection
Group Administration
Snapshot management
Click Volumes, then expand Volume Collections, then expand the collection, and then select the
timestamp for the snapshot collection.
•
If you are deleting a custom snapshot collection:
Click Volumes, then expand Custom Snapshot Collections, and then select the timestamp for the
custom snapshot collection.
2. Click Delete snapshot collection.
3. Confirm that you want to delete the snapshot collection or the custom snapshot collection.
Restoring a volume from a snapshot
You can restore a volume from a snapshot, and replace the data in the current volume with the volume data at the
time you created the snapshot. The snapshot still exists after the restore operation.
Note: Before a volume restore operation starts, the group automatically creates a snapshot of the current volume.
Requirement: To restore a volume from a snapshot, all members that contain data from a volume or snapshot
must be online.
Restriction: You cannot restore a template volume from a snapshot.
1. Disconnect any iSCSI initiators from the volume. Follow the instructions for your operating system and
initiator.
2. Click Volumes in the lower-left panel, then expand Volumes in the far-left panel, and then select the volume.
3. Click Set volume offline and confirm that you want to set the volume offline.
4. Click Restore volume.
5. In the Restore Volume from Snapshot dialog box, select the snapshot and click OK.
6. In the Restore Volume Confirmation dialog box, choose whether to set the volume online after the restore
operation completes (the default) and confirm that you want to restore the volume.
The restored volume has the same name and iSCSI target name as the original volume.
Cloning a snapshot to create a new volume
Cloning a snapshot creates a new standard volume, template volume, or thin clone volume with a new name and
new iSCSI target name, but with the same reported size, pool, contents as the original volume at the time you
created the snapshot.
The group allocates space equal to the volume reserve you specify for the new volume. If you reserve snapshot
space for the new volume, the group allocates additional space.
The snapshot still exists after the clone operation.
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Snapshot management
See Volume attributes for attributes that apply to a new volume. In addition, you should fully understand volume
access controls. See iSCSI target security.
1. Click Volumes in the lower-left panel, then expand Volumes in the far-left panel, then select the volume, then
select the snapshot timestamp, and then click Clone snapshot.
2. Follow the prompts in the Clone Snapshot wizard. See Cloning a volume on page 9-11 for information about
the information you specify in the wizard dialog boxes.
Modifying snapshot properties
You can modify the properties of a snapshot, including the snapshot name, description, and public alias (public
name).
Modifying a snapshot name or description
The default snapshot name is based on the volume name and the time you created the snapshot. You can modify
this name and the optional snapshot description.
Note: If you modify a snapshot name, and the public alias (public name) is set to be the same as the snapshot name
(as described in Displaying group-wide default volume settings on page 9-5), the alias changes to match the
new name. The iSCSI target name for the snapshot does not change if you change the snapshot name.
1. Click Volumes in the lower-left panel, then expand Volumes in the far-left panel, then expand the volume
name, then select the snapshot timestamp, and then click Modify snapshot properties.
2. Click the General tab and enter the new snapshot name or description in the Modify Snapshot Properties –
General dialog box.
3. Click OK.
Modifying the snapshot alias
To help you identify the snapshot, you can modify its public alias (public name). Some iSCSI initiators show the
alias along with the iSCSI target name.
1. Click Volumes in the lower-left panel, then expand Volumes in the far-left panel, then expand the volume
name, then select the snapshot timestamp, and then click Modify snapshot properties.
2. Click the iSCSI tab and enter the new alias in Public alias field in the Modify Snapshot Properties –
iSCSI dialog box.
3. Click OK.
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Snapshot management
Setting a snapshot online or offline
By default, a snapshot is offline. You can set a snapshot online, making it accessible to iSCSI initiators that match
one of the snapshot’s access control records.
If you set a snapshot offline, any current iSCSI connections to the snapshot are lost.
1. Click Volumes in the lower-left panel, then expand Volumes in the far-left panel, then expand the volume
name, and then select the snapshot timestamp.
2. Click Set snapshot online or Set snapshot offline.
3. Confirm you want to set the snapshot online or offline.
Modifying snapshot permission
A snapshot can have read-only or read-write permission.
If you write to a snapshot, it might no longer represent the contents of the base volume at the time of snapshot
creation.
Requirement: To change the permission of an online snapshot to read-only, first set the snapshot offline.
1. Click Volumes in the lower-left panel, then expand Volumes in the far-left panel, then expand the volume
name, then select the snapshot timestamp, and then click Set access type.
2. In the Select Access Type dialog box, select the permission for the snapshot.
3. Click OK.
Allowing or disallowing multi-host snapshot access
In a shared storage environment, you must control computer access to iSCSI targets (volumes and snapshots),
because multiple computers writing to a target in an uncoordinated manner can result in volume corruption.
You can allow or disallow multi-host (shared) access to a snapshot. If you disallow multi-host access to a snapshot,
only one iSCSI qualified name (IQN) can connect to the snapshot at one time. However, if you have a certain
environment, you might want to allow multi-host access to a snapshot. See Multi-host access to targets.
Note: To disable multi-host access to a snapshot, first disconnect all initiators from the snapshot except one. If
multiple initiators have connections when you try to disable multi-host access, the operation fails, unless the
initiators have the same IQN.
1. Click Volumes in the lower-left panel, then expand Volumes in the far-left panel, then expand the volume
name, then select the snapshot timestamp, and then click Set access type.
2. In the Select Access Type dialog box, allow or disallow multi-host access.
3. Click OK.
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Snapshot management
Deleting snapshots
Note: If you delete a snapshot that is part of a snapshot collection or a custom snapshot collection, the collection
Integrity status changes to incomplete.
1. Click Volumes in the lower-left panel, then expand Volumes in the far-left panel, then expand the volume
name, then select the snapshot timestamp, and then click Delete snapshot.
2. Confirm that you want to delete the snapshot.
11–12
12 Volume replication
Volume replication between different groups provides protection against data loss. If a volume is destroyed, you
can fail over to the recovery group and recover data from a replica. Users can then resume access to the recovery
volume. When the original volume becomes available, you can failback to the original group.
About replication
An effective data recovery solution must help you correct day-to-day mistakes (such as when users erroneously
delete files or volumes), computer viruses, and site disasters.
Some solutions are time-consuming and involve backing up data and manually transporting the backups to a
different physical location. Other solutions rely on expensive hardware and the ability to copy data over long
distances, which can decrease application performance.
Using the replication technology provided by PS Series firmware, you can copy volume data from one group to
another, protecting the data from a variety of failures, ranging from the destruction of a volume to a complete site
disaster, with no effect on data availability or performance.
You can use PS Series replication functionality alone or in conjunction with Auto-Snapshot Manager (for Windows
or VMware) or Storage Replication Adaptor for VMware Site Recovery Manager. See the product documentation
for details.
About replicas
Similar to a snapshot, a replica represents the contents of the volume at the time the replica was created. Each
replicated volume has a replica set, which is the set of replicas created over time.
You can create replicas of individual volumes or volume collections. You can create replicas at the current time, or
you can set up a schedule.
Individual replicas are identified by the date and time that the replication operation started.
The replica set name is based on the volume name and includes a dot-number extension to ensure that all replica set
names are unique, in case two different partners replicate volumes with the same name to the same group. The
number in the extension reflects the order that each partner was configured as a replication partner to the group. For
example, all replica sets from the first configured partner have a dot-1 extension (such as, dbase.1). Replica sets
from the next configured partner have a dot-2 extension (such as, dbase.2).
A volume and its replica set are always stored in different groups connected by a robust network link. Separating
the groups geographically protects volume data in the event of a complete site disaster.
12–1
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Volume replication
How replication works
Before you can replicate volume data, you must configure the group where the volume resides and the group that
stores the volume replicas as replication partners.
Each partner plays a role in the replication of a volume, and you can monitor replication activity from either
partner:
•
Primary group. Location of the volume. The primary group administrator configures the secondary group as a
replication partner and initiates the volume replication operation. Replication of the volume is considered
outbound from the view of the primary group.
•
Secondary group. Location of the volume’s replica set. The secondary group administrator configures the
primary group as a replication partner and delegates space for storing replicas from the primary group.
Replication of a volume is considered inbound from the view of the secondary group (sometimes called the
destination group).
Mutual authentication using passwords provides security between partners.
When you configure the two groups as replication partners, you can configure a volume or volume collection for
replication, specifying the replication partner, the local group space for the replication operation, and the remote
partner space for storing the replicas.
The first time you replicate a volume, the primary group copies the entire contents of the volume to the secondary
group. For subsequent replication operations, the primary group copies only the data that changed since the
previous replication operation started.
Eventually, the oldest replicas are deleted from the replica set to free space for new replicas. The amount of space
you allocate for storing replicas limits the number of replicas you can keep on the secondary group.
Note: To ensure that a complete copy of volume data exists on the secondary group, the most-recent complete
replica of a volume cannot be deleted.
To access or recover volume data from replicas, you can:
•
Clone an individual replica to create a new volume on the secondary group.
•
Promote the replica set to a recovery volume (and snapshots) on the secondary group and configure initiators to
connect to the recovery volume.
If the primary group becomes available, you can replicate the recovery volume to the primary group and then
fail back to the primary group, returning to the original configuration.
Note: Replication is used primarily for disaster recovery and does not take the place of a comprehensive backup
strategy.
You can manually delete replicas and replica sets that are no longer needed. You cannot delete the most recent
complete replica from a replica set, but you can delete the entire replica set, which disables replication on the
volume.
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Volume replication
About manual transfer replication
If you are transferring a large amount of data and your network link between the primary and secondary groups is
not sufficient, you can use manual transfer replication for a replication operation. Manual transfer replication
requires manual tasks and uses external media to copy data to the secondary group, instead of using the network.
For example, the first replication of a volume copies the contents of the volume to the secondary group. If in-use
volume space is large and the network is slow, the replication operation can take a long time. In this case, you
might want to use manual transfer replication.
You also might want to use manual transfer replication after you defragment a large volume.
Manual transfer replication should only be used when necessary. A properly constructed and sized network should
be able to handle network replication.
Manual Transfer Utility
To use manual transfer replication and transfer data between replication partners by using external media, you must
first download and install the Manual Transfer Utility from the EqualLogic customer support site. For more
information, see the Manual Transfer Utility Installation and User’s Guide.
To start the manual transfer wizard:
1. Click Tools to display the tools menu.
2. Click Manual transfer utility.
The main window appears, containing the following panels:
•
•
Manual Replication in Current Group panel – Provides information about the manual transfer replication
operations for the group to which the computer is currently connected:
–
Volume name and direction of transfer
–
Replica timestamp and status
–
Pending actions
Data Transfers on Local Machine panel – Provides information about the manual transfer operations in the
group that are running on the local computer:
–
Group and volume name
–
Current operation, its status and progress
–
Available user actions
Click the checkbox next to Show data transfers launched from other group to display all manual
transfer operations that are running on the local computer
See the online help for information about the data fields and options.
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Volume replication
Replication configuration options
A group can have multiple replication partners. However, you can replicate a volume only to one replication
partner at a time. Choose the replication configuration that is right for your environment.
Replication to one partner
One replication partner replicates volumes to another partner. For example, in Figure 12-1, GroupA replicates
Volume1 and Volume2 to GroupB. GroupA is the primary group, and GroupB is the secondary group.
Figure 12-1: Replication to One Partner
Replication to multiple partners
One replication partner replicates different volumes to different partners. For example, in Figure 12-2, GroupA
replicates Volume1 to GroupC, and GroupA replicates Volume2 to GroupB. GroupA is the primary group, and
GroupB and GroupC are secondary groups.
Figure 12-2: Replication to Multiple Partners
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Volume replication
Reciprocal replication between partners
Both partners replicate volumes to each other. For example, in Figure 12-3, GroupA replicates Volume1 to
GroupB, and GroupB replicates Volume2 to GroupA. For the replication of Volume1, GroupA is the primary
group, and GroupB is the secondary group. For the replication of Volume2, GroupB is the primary group, and
GroupA is the secondary group.
Figure 12-3: Reciprocal Replication Between Partners
Centralized replication
Multiple partners replicate volumes to another partner. For example, in Figure 12-4, GroupA and GroupB replicate
volumes to Group C. In this configuration, GroupA and GroupB are primary groups, and GroupC is the secondary
group.
Figure 12-4: Centralized Replication
12–5
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Volume replication
How volume changes affect replication space
How much space you need for replication depends on the volume size and the rate of volume changes.
The first replication of a volume copies the entire volume contents from the primary group to the secondary group.
Subsequent replication operations transfer only the data that changed since the previous replication. Replication
time and space requirements increase as the amount of transferred data increases.
It can be difficult to estimate the rate of volume changes because volume usage can vary. Therefore, it can be
difficult to estimate replication time and space requirements. For example:
•
Although some applications perform a consistent number of volume writes, others have a workload that
changes daily. Therefore, one replication operation might transfer little data and complete quickly, while
another replication might transfer a large amount of data and take a long time.
•
In some cases, a volume might appear to have few changes, but the transferred data is relatively large. Random
writes to a volume can result in a large amount of transferred data, even if the actual data changes are small.
•
Some disk operations, such as defragmenting a disk or reorganizing a database, can increase the amount of
transferred data. However, the defragmentation or reorganization can make subsequent replications more
efficient.
In addition, because volume usage can change over time, replication space that was adequate for one workload
might become inadequate when you add more users.
If a replication operation requires copying a large amount of data, you might want to use manual transfer
replication. See About manual transfer replication on page 12-3.
For each replication operation, you can display the amount of data that the primary group is transferring to a
replication partner. See Displaying replication activity and replicas for a volume on page 12-28. You can also
display the replication history for a volume and the amount of data transferred for each replication operation.
Best practice for replicating volumes
To help ensure successful replication, for each volume that you want to replicate, follow these steps to set up your
replication environment:
1. Plan the volume replication configuration:
a. Gather the following information to help you determine how much replication space you need:
• Number of replicas you want to keep and the average time span between each consecutive replica
• Reported size of the volume
• Whether thin-provisioned
• Estimated rate of volume changes (depends on volume usage)
b. Make sure that the primary group has enough free pool space for the local replication reserve for each
replicated volume. See About local replication reserve on page 12-8.
c. Identify a replication partner (secondary group) to store the volume replicas. This secondary group must
meet the space and network connectivity requirements in Replication partner requirements on page 12-16.
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See the PS Series Release Notes for replication limits.
2. If you did not already configure the groups as replication partners:
a. Log in to the primary group and configure the secondary group as a replication partner.
b. Log in to the secondary group and configure the primary group as a replication partner. Make sure you
delegate the correct amount of space to the primary group for storing replicas of primary group volumes.
If you already configured the groups as replication partners, check the secondary group space that is delegated
to the primary group and increase it, if necessary.
See About replication partners on page 12-16.
3. On the primary group, configure the volume for replication, specifying the appropriate replication space
values. See Configuring a volume for replication on page 12-25.
4. On the primary group, replicate the volume. See Creating a replica on page 12-28.
You can set up a schedule to create replicas on a regular basis. See Using schedules to create replicas on page
12-30.
5. Monitor each replication operation and make sure it is successful. See Displaying replication activity and
replicas for a volume on page 12-28.
If the replication operation is not successful, identify and correct the problem. For example, you might need to
increase network bandwidth or increase replication space.
6. Monitor the number of replicas and replication space usage over time. The goal is to keep a specific number of
replicas without wasting replication space.
If replicas are deleted before you reach the number of replicas you want to keep, you might want to increase the
replica reserve percentage for the volume.
If you are keeping an excessive number of replicas, you might want to decrease the replica reserve percentage
for the volume.
To recover volume data from replicas, see Data recovery on page 13-1.
About replication space
Volume replication between partners requires space on the primary group (volume location) and on the secondary
group (replica location):
•
Local replication reserve. Each volume requires primary group space for use during replication and,
optionally, for storing the failback snapshot. See About local replication reserve on page 12-8.
•
Delegated space. To provide space for storing replicas, the secondary group delegates space to the primary
group. All primary group volumes that you replicate to the secondary group share the delegated space.
Each volume is assigned a portion of delegated space, called the replica reserve. The replica reserve for a
volume limits the number of replicas you can keep. When replica reserve is consumed, the oldest replicas are
deleted to free space for new replicas.
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See About delegated space and replica reserve on page 12-11 and Replica reserve usage on page 12-12.
To make sure replication operations complete and to keep the desired number of volume replicas, you must allocate
sufficient replication space.
To determine the optimal amount of replication space, Dell recommends that you set up replication using the
default space values, monitor activity over some time period, analyze the space usage, and make adjustments. This
helps you keep the desired number of replicas while using replication space efficiently.
About local replication reserve
Each replicated volume requires primary group space, called local replication reserve. See Figure 12-5.
Figure 12-5: Local Replication Reserve
Local replication reserve has two purposes:
•
Preserve the contents of the volume at the time replication started. If volume writes occur during a
replication operation, the primary group creates a snapshot of the volume in the local replication reserve to
preserve the contents of the volume at the time replication started. As volume changes occur during replication,
the snapshot consumes more local replication reserve.
When replication completes, the primary group deletes the snapshot, freeing the space, unless you chose the
option to keep the failback snapshot.
•
Store the failback snapshot (optional). The failback snapshot for a volume can expedite volume failback
operations.
If you choose to keep the failback snapshot when configuring a volume for replication, the primary group does
not delete the snapshot in the local replication reserve when replication completes. Instead, it becomes the
failback snapshot. As volume changes occur between replication operations, the failback snapshot consumes
more local replication reserve.
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After each replication completes, the primary group replaces the failback snapshot to update the failback
baseline. Therefore, the volume data represented by the failback snapshot on the primary group always
matches the volume data represented by the most recent complete replica on the secondary group.
If you failover to the secondary group and write to the recovery volume, you can fail back to the primary group
by replicating only the changes made to the recovery volume if the failback snapshot still exists. If the failback
snapshot does not exist, you must replicate the entire volume contents to the primary group to complete the
failback operation.
It is important to allocate sufficient local replication reserve to ensure that replication operations complete and,
optionally, to maintain the failback snapshot.
If there is not enough free local replication reserve to complete a replication operation, one of the following occurs:
•
If you enabled the option to borrow free pool space, and sufficient free pool space is available (at least 10%
free pool space), replication continues. The primary group generates an informational message, specifying that
it is temporarily using free pool space during the replication.
•
If you did not enable the option to borrow free pool space, or if you enabled the option, but there is not enough
free pool space, the primary group cancels the replication and generates an event message, stating that the
replication was cancelled.
If there is not enough free local replication reserve to maintain the failback snapshot, one of the following occurs:
•
If you enabled the option to borrow free pool space, and free pool space is available, the primary group
generates an informational message specifying that it is temporarily using free pool space.
•
If you did not enable the option to borrow free pool space, or if you enabled the option, but there is not enough
free pool space, the primary group deletes the failback snapshot and generates an event message. To reestablish
the failback snapshot, increase the local replication reserve and replicate the volume.
In addition, if you attempt to replicate a recovery volume to the primary group, and there is insufficient local
replication reserve to store the changes, the primary group generates an event message advising you to increase the
space.
Guidelines for sizing local replication reserve
On the primary group, you specify the value of the local replication reserve and whether to keep the failback
snapshot when you configure a volume for replication. You can also enable the option that allows you to borrow
free pool space if there is not enough local replication reserve. You can later modify these settings.
The local replication reserve size is based on a percentage (5% to 200%) of the volume reserve. For a thinprovisioned volume, the volume reserve size changes dynamically, based on volume usage; therefore, the local
replication reserve size also changes.
The recommended local replication reserve percentage depends on whether you want to keep the failback snapshot.
•
No failback snapshot. Specify 100% for the local replication reserve.
•
Keep the failback snapshot. If you want to keep the failback snapshot, specify 200% for the local replication
reserve.
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However, using the recommended values might not be the most efficient use of local replication reserve. Ideally,
you want to allocate only enough space to meet the volume requirements. However, specifying too little space can
prevent successful replication.
The optimal value for local replication reserve depends on the volume change rate, the replication frequency, and
whether you are keeping the failback snapshot. The volume change rate can be difficult to estimate. See How
volume changes affect replication space on page 12-6.
If you want to use less than the recommended value for local replication reserve, follow these guidelines:
•
No failback snapshot. Size the local replication reserve based only on its use during replication.
•
Keep the failback snapshot. Size the local replication reserve based on its use during replication and also for
maintaining the failback snapshot. Then, combine the two values.
See Sizing local replication reserve for use during replication and Sizing the local replication reserve for the
failback snapshot.
Sizing local replication reserve for use during replication
To size the portion of local replication reserve for use during replication, follow these guidelines:
•
Recommended value. A value of 100% ensures sufficient local replication reserve even if the entire volume
changes during a replication operation.
•
Space-efficient value. If few volume changes are expected during an average replication operation, use a
value less than 100%.
To obtain an appropriate value, estimate the average volume changes that occur during a typical replication
operation. Then, use this equation, where 5% is the minimum local replication reserve:
5% + change rate
For example, if you estimate that at most 10% of the volume changes, a value of 15% might be appropriate
(5% plus 10%).
If you use a local replication reserve value that is less than 100%, sufficient space might not be available to
complete a replication operation (for example, if more volume changes than expected occur during a
replication operation). Therefore, Dell recommends that you select the option that allows you to borrow free
pool space if there is not enough local replication reserve to complete a replication.
Sizing the local replication reserve for the failback snapshot
To size the portion of local replication reserve used to maintain the failback snapshot, follow these guidelines:
•
Recommended value. A value of 100% ensures sufficient local replication reserve even if the entire volume
changes between replication operations.
•
Space-efficient value. If few volume changes are expected on average between replication operations, use a
value less than 100%,
To obtain an appropriate value, estimate the average volume changes that occur between consecutive
replication operations. Then, use this equation, where 5% is the minimum local replication reserve:
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5% + change rate
For example, if you estimate that at most 20% of the volume changes, a value of 25% might be appropriate
(5% plus 20%).
If you use a local replication reserve value that is less than 100%, sufficient space might not be available to
maintain the failback snapshot. Therefore, Dell recommends that you select the option that allows you to
borrow free pool space if there is not enough local replication reserve to maintain the failback snapshot.
About delegated space and replica reserve
Replicas are stored in space that the secondary group delegates to the primary group.
For example, if you want to replicate GroupA volumes and Group B volumes to GroupC, GroupC must delegate
space to GroupA and GroupB. See Figure 12-6.
Figure 12-6: Delegated Space
The secondary group administrator delegates space to the primary group when configuring the group as a
replication partner. The administrator can modify the partner configuration and increase or decrease delegated
space.
When the primary group administrator configures a volume for replication, the administrator assigns a portion of
delegated space to the volume. This space, called replica reserve, limits the number of replicas that you can keep
on the secondary group. You can modify the volume replication configuration and increase or decrease the replica
reserve value.
To determine the correct amount of space that the secondary group must delegate to the primary group, you must
obtain the replica reserve requirement for each primary group volume that you are replicating to the secondary
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group. Replica reserve is based on a percentage of the volume’s replica volume reserve. See Replica volume
reserve and Replica reserve usage.
Replica volume reserve
Each replicated volume has a replica volume reserve, which approximates the amount of in-use volume space. The
value of the replica volume reserve is used to allocate replica reserve for a volume.
When you configure a volume for replication, the primary group sets the initial value of the replica volume reserve:
•
For volumes that are not thin-provisioned, 10% of the reported volume size.
For example, if you have a 10 GB volume that is not thin-provisioned, the initial replica volume reserve is 1
GB (10% of 10 GB).
•
For thin-provisioned volumes, the current volume reserve.
For example, if you have a 10 GB volume that is thin-provisioned with a volume reserve of 2.5 GB, the initial
replica volume reserve is 2.5 GB.
The initial value of the replica volume reserve appears in the Configure Replication – General Settings dialog box.
At the start of each replication operation, the primary group determines whether to increase the value of the replica
volume reserve:
•
For volumes that are not thin-provisioned, the replica volume reserve increases by the amount of new data
added to the volume since the start of the previous successful replication, up to the reported volume size. That
is, the replica volume reserve increases by the amount of data that must be replicated.
For example, if you have a 10 GB volume that is not thin-provisioned, and initiators write 2 GB to the volume,
the replica volume reserve increases by 2 GB.
•
For thin-provisioned volumes, the replica volume reserve increases to the current size of the volume reserve,
up to the maximum in-use space value.
For example, if you have a 10 GB volume that is thin-provisioned, and the volume reserve increases from 2.5
GB to 4.0 GB, the replica volume reserve increases by 1.5 GB.
The size of the replica reserve for a volume is based on a percentage of the replica volume reserve. Therefore, as
the replica volume reserve increases, the replica reserve also increases, providing more space for replicas, up to a
limit. See Replica reserve usage.
Replica reserve usage
To provide space for partner replicas, the secondary group delegates space to the partner. When you configure a
volume for replication, you assign a portion of delegated space to the volume. This space, called replica reserve,
limits the number and size of volume replicas that you can keep on the secondary group.
It is important to correctly size the replica reserve for a volume. Too little replica reserve might prevent you from
keeping the desired number of replicas. However, delegated space is limited, so keeping too many replicas might
not be an efficient use of delegated space.
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When you configure a volume for replication, you specify the replica reserve size as a percentage (minimum
105%) of the replica volume reserve, which approximates in-use volume space. As volume usage increases, the
replica volume reserve increases; therefore, the replica reserve also increases, providing more space for replicas, up
to a limit. See Replica volume reserve.
For example, if you specify 200% for the replica reserve, and the replica volume reserve is 2.5 GB, the replica
reserve size is 5.0 GB. If the replica volume reserve increases to 6.0 GB, the replica reserve size increases to 12.0
GB.
The replica volume reserve has a maximum size (the reported volume size for volumes that are not thinprovisioned, or the maximum in-use space value for thin-provisioned volumes); therefore, the replica reserve has a
maximum size.
To properly size replica reserve, you must understand how replica reserve space is used. See Replica reserve usage
– first replication and Replica reserve usage – subsequent replications.
Replica reserve usage – first replication
1. The primary group determines how much volume data to replicate. For the first replication operation, the
primary group must copy all the volume data.
2. The primary group increases the replica reserve if the replica volume reserve increased since you enabled
replication on the volume.
Note: If there is not enough free delegated space for the replica reserve increase, the primary group generates
an event message, and the replication pauses. Replication continues automatically once there is
sufficient delegated space.
3. The primary group copies the contents of the volume to replica reserve, decreasing the amount of free replica
reserve. For example, if the volume consists of 10 GB of data, free replica reserve decreases by 10 GB.
At this point, the replica reserve contains one replica, which is the most recent complete replica.
Replica reserve usage – subsequent replications
1. The primary group determines how much volume data to replicate. For replication operations other than the
first, the primary group copies only the data that changed since the previous complete replication (the deltas).
2. The primary group increases the replica reserve if the replica volume reserve increased since the previous
replication operation.
Note: If there is not enough free delegated space for the replica reserve increase, the primary group generates
an event message, and the replication pauses. Replication continues automatically once there is
sufficient delegated space.
3. If there is not enough free replica reserve for the volume data, the primary group deletes the oldest replica to
free space for the new replica. For example, if the data transfer consisted of 5 GB of new data, the replica
reserve must have 5 GB of free space to store this data.
Because each replica is a representation of volume data at the time the replication started, only the data that
differentiates the oldest replica from the other replicas is deleted. Therefore, multiple replicas might be deleted
to free sufficient space.
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The most recent complete replica is never deleted automatically, ensuring that you always have a viable copy
of volume data on the secondary group.
Note: If you cannot free enough replica reserve for the volume data by deleting replicas, the replication
pauses, and the primary group generates an event message, indicating the replica reserve percentage
required to complete the replication.
4. The primary group copies the volume data to replica reserve, decreasing the amount of free replica reserve. For
example, if the replication transferred 5 GB of new data, free replica reserve decreases by 5 GB.
When each replication completes, the new replica becomes the most recent complete replica.
To make sure that replication operations complete and keep the desired number of volume replicas, it is important
to allocate sufficient delegated space and specify the correct replica reserve percentage. The amount of delegated
space you need depends on the replica reserve requirements for all the replicated volumes from a partner.
See Guidelines for sizing replica reserve for a volume on page 12-14 and Guidelines for sizing delegated space on
page 12-15.
Guidelines for sizing replica reserve for a volume
To determine the amount of space that the secondary group must delegate to the primary group, you must obtain
the replica reserve requirement for each primary group volume that you are replicating to the secondary group.
When you configure a volume for replication, you specify the replica reserve size as a percentage (minimum
105%) of the replica volume reserve, which approximates in-use volume space.
As volume changes occur, the replica volume reserve increases; therefore, the replica reserve increases, providing
more free space for replicas, up to a limit. If there is insufficient free replica reserve for a new replica, the oldest
replicas are deleted to increase free space.
Note: Replica reserve can increase automatically or by administrator action only if free delegated space is
available. See Guidelines for sizing delegated space on page 12-15.
Ideally, you want to allocate only enough replica reserve to store the desired number of replicas. In general, the
higher the replica reserve percentage, the more replicas you can store. However, specifying a high percentage for
all volumes might not be the most efficient use of delegated space.
The optimal value for replica reserve depends on the volume change rate, which can be difficult to estimate, and
the replication frequency. See How volume changes affect replication space on page 12-6.
Guidelines for sizing replica reserve are as follows:
•
Recommended value. Dell recommends that you specify 200% for the replica reserve. Specifying 200%
guarantees that you can store at least two replicas, assuming there is sufficient delegated space for the replica
reserve to reach its maximum size. If the replica reserve cannot reach its maximum size due to lack of
delegated space, you are not guaranteed two replicas.
If you want to guarantee more than two replicas, specify a higher percentage.
•
Space-efficient value. For volumes that are not frequently modified, you might be able to keep the desired
number of replicas by using a replica reserve value that is less than 200%.
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To obtain an appropriate replica reserve value, estimate the average volume changes that occur between
replication operations. Then, use this calculation, where 105% is the minimum replica reserve value:
105% + [change rate x (number of replicas to keep -1)]
For example, if you estimate that at most 20% of the volume changes between replication operations, and you
want to keep three replicas, specify 145% for the replica reserve value.
When replication is ongoing, monitor the number of replicas for each volume and the replica reserve usage. If more
than the desired number of replicas exist, consider decreasing the replica reserve percentage. If less than the desired
number of replicas exist, consider increasing the replica reserve percentage. A low free replica reserve can indicate
optimal use of replica reserve space, if the desired number of replicas exist.
Guidelines for sizing delegated space
The secondary group administrator delegates space to the primary group when configuring the group as a
replication partner. The secondary group administrator can modify the partner configuration and increase or
decrease delegated space.
Ideally, you should request from the secondary group administrator only enough delegated space to store the
desired number of replicas for each volume.
Guidelines for sizing delegated space are as follows:
•
Recommended value. Add together the maximum replica reserve space requirements for all the primary group
volumes that you want to replicate to the secondary group and request at least that much delegated space.
If you later decide to replicate additional volumes, the secondary group administrator might need to increase
the delegated space. See Modifying space delegated to a partner on page 12-20.
•
Space-efficient value. You might want to request delegated space that is less than the recommended value
described above.
Initially, replica reserve is not fully allocated. Instead, it increases automatically, based on volume usage. This
enables you to over-provision delegated space. When you over-provision delegated space, the total maximum
replica reserve space for all the partner volumes exceeds delegated space.
Warning: If you over-provision delegated space, a volume’s replica reserve might not be able to increase
automatically or through administrative action, preventing the replication operation from
completing.
For example, assume you are replicating five volumes, and the maximum combined replica reserve needed is 70
GB. If you allocate 50 GB for delegated space, delegated space is over-provisioned by 20 GB. If you specify 70
GB for delegated space, each volume’s replica reserve can increase to its maximum.
After you set up replication, you should monitor delegated space usage. If free delegated space is low and the
replica volume reserve for each replicated volume has not reached its maximum, consider increasing the delegated
space.
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About replication partners
Before you can replicate volume data between two PS Series groups, you must configure the groups as replication
partners.
Each partner plays a role in the replication of a volume, and you can monitor replication activity and manage
replicas from either partner:
•
Primary group. Location of the volume. The primary group administrator configures the secondary group as a
replication partner and initiates the replication operation. Replication of the volume is considered outbound
from the view of the primary group.
•
Secondary group. Location of the volume’s replica set. The secondary group administrator configures the
primary group as a replication partner and provides space for replicas. Replication of the volume is considered
inbound from the view of the secondary group (sometimes called the destination group).
Mutual authentication using passwords provides security between partners.
Partners use port 3260 for replication activity.
When you configure the replication partners, you can replicate a volume or replicate all the volumes in a volume
collection.
Replication partner requirements
To be replication partners, the two groups must meet the following requirements:
•
The primary group must have enough free space for the local replication reserve for each replicated volume.
Local replication reserve is located in the same pool as the volume. See About local replication reserve on page
12-8.
•
The secondary group must have enough free space to delegate to the primary group. See Guidelines for sizing
delegated space on page 12-15.
•
The groups must have network connectivity. The link between the groups must support full IP routing and must
provide sufficient bandwidth to complete replication operations in a timely manner.
•
The network link between the groups must be secure (for example, through use of a firewall, VPN, or
encryption).
•
The groups must run the same PS Series firmware version. If the groups are not running the same firmware
version, features in the most recent firmware version might not be available. In some cases, you must also
disallow firmware downgrades.
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Replication partner attributes
When you configure a replication partner, you specify values for the attributes described in Table 12-1. The first
column lists attributes, and the second describes them. You can also modify the partner configuration and change
the attribute settings.
Table 12-1: Replication Partner Attributes
Attribute
Description
Group name and group
IP address
Description
Contact information
Name and IP address of the group that you want to configure as a replication partner. The
group name is case sensitive.
Optional description for the partner.
Optional contact information for the partner administrator:
•
Name – Up to 63 alphanumeric (ASCII) characters, including spaces.
•
E-mail address – Up to 31 alphanumeric (ASCII) characters, including spaces, the
“@” sign, dots, dashes, and underscores.
•
Two passwords
Delegated space
Phone numbers – Up to 31 alphanumeric (ASCII) characters, including spaces, dots,
dashes, and parentheses.
Passwords for mutual authentication. Each partner supplies a password to the other
partner, which validates the password.
Passwords are case sensitive and can consist of up to 16 alphanumeric characters.
Amount of space to delegate to the partner. Required only if the group stores replicas
from the partner. See About delegated space and replica reserve on page 12-11.
Configuring replication partners
After you obtain the replication partner attributes described in Table 12-1, you can configure the two groups as
replication partners.
You must:
•
Log in to the primary group (where the volume is located) and configure the secondary group as a replication
partner.
•
Log in to the secondary group (where the replicas are stored) and configure the primary group as a replication
partner. Make sure you delegate space to the primary group.
Note: Password or configuration problems between partners do not occur until you enable replication on a
volume. If you receive a login error message, make sure that you specified the correct passwords when
configuring the partners.
On each group:
1. Click Replication and then Configure partner.
2. In the Configure Replication Partner – Identification dialog box, specify:
•
Group name. Note that group names are case sensitive.
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•
Group IP address.
•
Optional description for the partner.
Volume replication
Then, click Next.
3. In the Configure Replication Partner – Contact dialog box, enter the optional name, e-mail address, and phone
number or mobile number for the partner administrator. Then, click Next.
4. In the Configure Replication Partner – Authentication dialog box, enter the passwords that the partners use for
mutual authentication:
•
Specify a password in the Password for partner field.
When you configure the other group as a replication partner, you must specify this password in the
Password obtained from partner field.
For example, if you specify the password 123abc123 in the Password for partner field, specify
123abc123 in the Password obtained from partner field when configuring the other partner.
•
Specify a password in the Password obtained from partner field.
When you configure the other group as a replication partner, you must specify this password in the
Password for partner field.
For example, if you specify the password abc123abc in the Password obtained from partner
field, specify abc123abc in the Password for partner field when configuring the other partner.
Then, click Next.
5. In the Configure Replication Partner – Delegated Space dialog box, optionally, select the storage pool and
enter the amount of space the group delegates to the partner. Then, click Next.
6. In the Configure Replication Partner – Summary dialog box, review the configuration. If it is acceptable, click
Finish.To make changes, click Back.
When you have configured both replication partners, you can replicate volume data.
Displaying replication partners
Click Replication and then Replication Partners.
The Replication Partners panel appears, providing the following information for each partner:
•
The top entry shows whether outbound replication from the group to the partner is enabled or paused, any
space that the partner delegated to the group, and free delegated space.
•
The bottom entry shows whether inbound replication from the partner to the group is enabled or paused, any
space that the group delegated to the partner, and free delegated space.
See the online help for information about the data fields and options.
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Displaying the replication configuration for a partner
Click Replication and then select the partner name. The Replication Partner Summary window appears
containing the following panels:
•
•
•
General partner information panel – Provides information about the replication partner:
–
Group name and IP address
–
Partner information and status
Replication status panel – Provides information about inbound replication, outbound replication, and
unmanaged space:
–
Whether replication is paused or not
–
Delegated and unmanaged space
–
Volumes and collections replicated
Replication progress panel – Provides information about in-progress replication operations:
–
Volume name and direction of transfer
–
Timestamp of transfer and transfer status
–
Amount of data transferred
See the online help for information about the data fields and options.
Modifying replication partner attributes
You can modify the name, group IP address, amount of delegated space and its pool, passwords, and contact
information for a replication partner. See Replication partner attributes on page 12-17.
Note: Replication partner changes you make on the secondary group are not updated on the primary group until
the next replication.
Modifying a partner group name or IP address
1. Click Replication, then select the partner, then click Modify settings, and then click the General tab.
2. In the Modify Replication Partner – General window, change the group name, IP address, or description.
3. Click OK.
Modifying partner contact information
1. Click Replication, then select the partner, then click Modify settings, and then click the Contact tab.
2. In the Modify Replication Partner - Contact window, change the contact name, e-mail address, or phone
numbers.
3. Click OK.
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Modifying partner passwords
If you make a modification on one partner, you must make the reciprocal modification on the other partner. The
password in the Password for partner field on one partner must match the password in the Password
obtained from partner field on the other partner.
To modify partner passwords:
1. Click Replication, then select the partner, and then click Modify passwords.
2. In the Modify Replication Partner - Passwords window, change each password.
3. Click OK.
Modifying space delegated to a partner
Restriction: You cannot decrease the space delegated to a lower capacity than is currently used to
store the partner’s replicas.
To modify the space delegated to a partner:
1. Click Replication, then select the partner, and then click Modify delegated space.
2. In the Modify Delegated Space dialog box, enter the new delegated space value or change the delegated space
pool.
The Pool Space table shows how pool space is currently used and how much space is used after the change. If
the new delegated space exceeds the capacity of the pool, the color of the table cell showing free pool space
changes to red. Changing the pool moves all the replicas and any recovery volumes for the partner to the new
pool.
3. Click OK.
Deleting a replication partner
Deleting a replication partner breaks the replication relationship between the two groups. The next replication of a
volume configured to use the deleted partner pauses or fails.
Deleting a partner deletes any inbound replicas stored in space that the group delegated to the partner. Then, the
delegated space becomes free pool space. However, replicas stored on the deleted partner are not deleted, and you
can access them by logging in to the partner.
Note: If the group is hosting a recovery volume from the partner, do one of the following before you delete the
partner:
• Demote the recovery volume to an inbound replica set (which is deleted when you delete the partner).
Double-click the recovery volume in the far-left panel and click Demote to replica set.
• Promote the recovery volume to a permanent volume.
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Volume replication
To delete a replication partner:
1. Click Replication, then select the partner, and then click Pause inbound.
2. Click Delete partner.
3. Confirm that you want to delete the partner.
Displaying inbound and outbound replication
Click Replication and then expand the partner name. From the Replication Partner Status window, you can:
•
Click Inbound Replicas to display partner replicas stored in the group. Select an individual replica to
display detailed information.
•
Click Inbound Replica Collections to display partner replica collections stored in the group. Select an
individual replica collection or replica to display detailed information.
•
Click Outbound Replicas to display replicas of group volumes stored on the partner. Select an individual
replica to display detailed information.
•
Click Outbound Replica Collections to display replicas of group volume collections stored on the
partner. Select an individual replica or replica collection to display detailed information.
Note: Individual replicas are identified by the date and time the replication operation started. The time stamp for
the primary group is based on its time zone; likewise, the time stamp for the secondary group is based on its
time zone.
The Inbound Replicas and Inbound Replica Collections windows show the following:
•
The Delegated Space panel shows the usage of the space that the group delegated to the partner.
•
The Local Replicas panel shows each replicated volume or volume collection, the volume replicas, the replica
reserve size, the replication status, and the replica status.
The Outbound Replicas and Outbound Replica Collections windows show the following:
•
The Replica Space panel shows the usage of the space the partner delegated to the group.
•
The Remote Replicas panel shows each replicated volume or volume collection, the volume replicas, the
replica reserve size, the replication status, and the replica status.
In the Remote Replicas panel, click Replication history to display details about the last 10 replication
operations for each volume, including the duration of the replication and the size and speed of the data transfer. The
duration includes the amount of time during which replication was paused or the network was down.
Displaying inbound replica collections
To display all inbound replica collections, click Replication, then expand the partner name, and then expand
Inbound Replica Collections.
To display an individual replica collection, click Replication, then expand the partner name, then expand
Inbound Replica Collections, and then select the volume collection name.
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Volume replication
The Inbound Replicas Collections window appears, containing the following panels:
•
•
Delegated space panel – Provides information about the space the group delegated to the selected partner:
–
Space delegated, used, and free
–
Failback replica space
–
Inbound replica status
Inbound replicas panel – Provides information about inbound replicas and replica status.
See the online help for information about the data fields and options.
Displaying all inbound replicas
Click Replication, then expand the partner name, and then expand Inbound Replicas.
The Inbound Replica Summary window appears, containing the following panels:
•
Delegated Space – Provides information about the space that the group delegated to the partner.
•
Inbound Replicas panel – Provides information about each replicated volume, the volume replicas, the replica
reserve size, the replication status, and the replica status.
See the online help for information about the data fields and options.
Displaying individual inbound replica sets
Click Replication, then expand the partner name, then expand Inbound Replicas, and then select the replica
set name. The Replica Set Status window appears, containing the following panels:
•
•
General replica set information panel – Provides information about the inbound volume replication
configuration:
–
Status and latest transfer timestamp
–
Whether a failback snapshot or thin provisioning are enabled.
–
User description and identifiers: Volume name, storage pool, and replication partner
–
Requested and free reserve
Replicas panel – Provides information about the replicas created for the selected volume.
Note: Select the column headers in the GUI to sort the table. By default, the table is sorted by the Created date.
See the online help for information about the data fields and options.
Displaying an inbound template replica set
To display the inbound replica set for a template volume, click Replication, then expand the partner name, then
expand Inbound Replicas, and then select the replica set name. The Template Replica Set Status window
appears. For a template volume replica set, this window contains two tabs.
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Volume replication
Template replicas tab
In the Replica Set Status window, the Template Replicas tab provides information about the inbound replica set for
the template volume and includes the following panels:
•
•
Template replicas panel – Provides information about template volume replication configuration.
–
Size, status and latest transfer timestamp
–
Whether a failback snapshot or thin provisioning are enabled
–
Storage pool, and replication partner
–
Requested and free reserve
Replicas panel – Provides information about the replicas created for the selected volume.
Thin clone replica sets tab
The Thin Clone Replica Sets tab shows:
•
Number of thin clone replica sets attached to the template replica set.
•
Number of promoted thin clone replica sets (that is, recovery thin clones) attached to the template replica set.
•
Thin Clone Replica Sets panel – Provides information about each thin clone replica set or promoted thin clone
replica set, including:
–
Name, reported size and status
–
Replication partner and status
–
iSCSI Connections
See the online help for information about the data fields and options.
Displaying all outbound replica collections
Click Replication, then expand the partner name, and then click Outbound Replica Collections. The
Outbound Replica Collections window appears, containing the following panels:
•
Remote delegated space panel – Provides information about capacity usage for delegated space on the selected
replication partner.
•
Remote replicas panel – Provides information about the replicas stored on a partner.
See the online help for information about the data fields and options.
Displaying individual outbound replica collections
Click Replication, then expand the partner name, then expand Outbound Replica Collections, and then
select the volume collection. The Replication of Collection name panel appears, containing the following panels
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Volume replication
Note: You can also display information about volume collection replication by clicking Volumes in the lower-left
corner, then expanding Volume Collections, then selecting the collection name, and then clicking the
Replicas tab.
•
Replication summary panel – Provides information about the volume collection replication configuration,
including replication partner, and schedule status.
•
Remote replicas panel – Provides information about the replicas stored on a replication partner.
See the online help for information about the data fields and options.
Displaying all outbound replicas
Click Replication, then expand the partner name, and then click Outbound Replicas.
The Outbound Replicas Summary window appears, containing the following panels:
•
The remote delegated space panel – Provides information about the space the selected partner delegated to the
group.
•
Remote replicas panel – Provides information about replicas stored on the partner.
In the Remote Replicas panel, select Replication history to display details about the last 10 replication
operations for each volume, including the duration of the replication and the size and speed of the data transfer. The
duration includes the amount of time during which replication was paused or the network was down.
See the online help for information about the data fields and options.
Displaying the outbound replication of an individual volume
Click Replication, then expand the partner name, then expand Outbound Replicas, and then select the
volume. The Replication of volume name window appears, containing the following panels:
Note: You can also display information about volume replication by clicking Volumes in the lower-left corner,
then expanding Volumes, then selecting the volume name, and then clicking the Replication tab.
•
•
Replication summary panel – Provides information about the replication configuration for the volume:
–
Replication partner
–
Replica and local reserve
–
Failback snapshot an baseline
–
Schedule and status
Remote replicas panel – Provides information about each replica:
–
Click Replication history to display details about the last 10 replication operations for the volume.
–
Select Thin clone replicas (only applicable if the outbound replica is for a template volume) to
display information about any replicated thin clones attached to the template volume.
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Volume replication
Volume replication configuration attributes
Table 12-2 describes the attributes you set when configuring the volume for replication. The first column lists their
attributes and the second describe them. You can modify the replication configuration and change the attribute
values.
Table 12-2: Volume Replication Configuration Attributes
Attribute
Replication partner
Description
Partner that stores the volume replicas. The partner must have space delegated to the group.
Local replication reserve
percentage
See Configuring replication partners on page 12-17.
Space for use during replication and optionally for storing the failback snapshot. This space is
consumed from the same pool as the volume.
See About local replication reserve on page 12-8.
Borrow space setting
Enables you to borrow from free pool space if the local replication reserve size is inadequate.
Note: To enable the borrow space setting or to borrow space, the pool must have at least 10%
free pool space.
Failback snapshot setting Enables you to keep the failback snapshot in the local replication reserve. The failback snapshot
can expedite failback operations.
Replica reserve percentage Portion of delegated space on the partner for storing the volume replicas.
See About delegated space and replica reserve on page 12-11.
Configuring a volume for replication
When you have configured at least one replication partner that has delegated space to the group, you can configure
volumes for replication.
Restriction: You cannot configure a thin clone for replication until you replicate the template volume
to which the thin clone is attached.
To configure a volume for replication:
1. Gather the volume replication attributes. See Volume replication configuration attributes.
2. Click Volumes in the lower-left panel, then expand Volumes, then select the volume, and then click
Configure replication.
3. In the Configure Volume Replication – General Settings window:
•
Select the replication partner.
•
Specify the replica reserve percentage.
•
Specify the local replication reserve percentage and whether to allow borrowed pool space.
Then, click Next.
4. In the Configure Volume Replication – Advanced Settings window, select whether to keep the failback
snapshot and click Next.
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Volume replication
Because a template volume is read-only and cannot be failed back from the secondary group, keeping the
failback snapshot is not necessary for this type of volume.
5. In the Configure Volume Replication – Summary window, review the information and click Finish if the
configuration is correct. Click Back to make changes.
When you complete the volume replication configuration, you can choose to create a replica. You can also choose
to perform the replication by using manual transfer replication. See About replicas on page 12-1.
Modifying volume replication configuration settings
You can modify the settings described in Volume replication configuration attributes. Changes are not applied until
the next replication.
To modify the settings, click Volumes, then expand Volumes, then select the volume, then click Modify
replication settings, and then click the General tab.
In the Modify Volume Replication Settings – General dialog box, you can change:
•
Replication partner. The replicas remain on the original partner. The next replication to the new partner
transfers the full volume contents.
•
Replica reserve percentage.
Note: The space currently used to store replicas represents the lower limit for replica reserve. You cannot
decrease replica reserve below this limit.
•
Local replication reserve percentage.
•
Borrow space setting.
To change the failback snapshot setting, click the Advanced tab. In the Modify Volume Replication Settings –
Advanced dialog box, select or deselect Keep failback snapshot.
Note: If you select Keep failback snapshot, you must create a replica to establish the failback snapshot.
Configuring a volume collection for replication
You can simultaneously replicate data in related volumes by replicating the volume collection. The resulting set of
replicas is called a replica collection.
Note: To replicate a volume collection, you must configure all the volumes in the collection to replicate to the
same partner. See Configuring a volume for replication on page 12-25.
1. Click Volumes, then expand Volume Collections, then select the collection, and then click Configure
replication.
2. In the Volume Collection – Modify Replication Settings dialog box:
•
Select the replication partner for the volume collection.
•
Make sure each volume is configured to replicate to the partner selected above.
If a volume is not configured for replication, click the not replicated link and configure the volume.
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Volume replication
See Configuring a volume for replication on page 12-25.
If a volume is configured to replicate to a different partner, click the partner name link to modify the
volume replication configuration and change the partner. See Modifying volume replication configuration
settings on page 12-26.
3. Click OK.
Modifying volume collection replication configuration settings
You can modify the replication configuration of a volume collection or the volumes in the collection.
1. Click Volumes, then expand Volume Collections, then select the collection, and then click Modify
replication settings.
2. In the Volume Collection – Modify Replication Settings dialog box, you can change the partner name for the
collection. You can also click the partner name next to a volume to change the replication configuration for the
volume. See Modifying volume replication configuration settings on page 12-26.
3. Click OK.
Disabling replication
Disabling replication for a volume or volume collection unconfigures replication on the volume or volume
collection.
Disabling replication does not delete the volume replicas stored on the partner. You can log in to the partner and
access the replicas.
If you later reconfigure replication on the same volume to the same partner, you must delete the existing replica set
on the partner before creating a replica. The first replication is a complete copy of the volume data.
Note: When you disable replication on a volume, the delegated space on the secondary group that is storing the
replicas becomes unmanaged space; that is, the space cannot be managed from the primary group. If you do
not need the replicas, log into the secondary group and delete the replica set.
Restriction: You cannot disable replication on a template volume if any attached thin clones have
replication enabled.
To disable replication for one volume:
1. Click Volumes, then expand Volumes, then select the volume name, and then click Disable volume
replication.
2. Confirm that you want to disable replication on the volume.
To disable replication for a volume collection:
1. Click Volumes, then expand Volume Collections, then select the collection name, and then click
Disable volume replication.
2. Confirm that you want to disable replication on the volume collection.
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Group Administration
Volume replication
Creating a replica
The first time you replicate a volume to a partner, the primary group copies the entire volume contents to replica
reserve on the secondary group. Subsequent replication operations transfer only the volume data that changed since
the previous complete replication.
Note: Very large data transfers might exceed the capacity of the network link between the primary group and the
secondary group. For replication operations that require transferring large amounts of data, consider using
manual transfer replication. See About manual transfer replication on page 12-3.
Prerequisite: Set up the replication partners and configure the volume or volume collection for replication.
Prerequisite: You must replicate a template volume before replicating any of its thin clones.
Restriction: You can replicate a template volume only one time.
See Configuring replication partners on page 12-17, Configuring a volume for replication on page 12-25.
1. Click Volumes, then expand Volumes, then select the volume name, and then click Create replica now.
2. In the Create Replica dialog box:
•
If you want to use manual transfer replication to perform the replication, select Perform manual
replication.
•
Click Yes to start the replication.
3. Monitor replication to make sure replicas complete in a timely manner. See Displaying replication activity and
replicas for a volume on page 12-28.
If replication operations take longer than expected, make sure you have adequate network bandwidth between the
groups, in addition to full IP routing. A slow network link can cause long replication times.
Displaying replication activity and replicas for a volume
1. Click Volumes in the lower-left panel, then expand Volumes, then select the volume name, and then click the
Replication tab. In the Volume Replication window, the Replication Summary panel shows:
•
Current size of the replica reserve.
•
Local replication reserve.
•
Whether you are keeping the failback snapshot and, if so, the failback baseline timestamp.
•
The amount of data that must be transferred for the next or current replication.
•
Any replication schedules and the next scheduled replication.
The Remote Replicas panel shows:
•
Replica set and individual replicas for the volume. Each replica is identified by the date and time the
replication operation started.
•
Number of complete replicas and the current size of the replica reserve.
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Group Administration
•
Volume replication
Replication operation status and replica status.
2. In the Remote Replicas panel, click Replication History to show details about each replication operation:
•
Time the operation started.
•
Replication partner.
•
Total replication time. The duration time includes the amount of time during which replication was paused
or the network was down.
•
Amount of data transferred.
•
Data transfer speed.
•
Status of the replication.
Replicating volume collections
Volume collections enable you to perform an operation on multiple volumes at the same time.
If you replicate a volume collection, the resulting set of replicas is called a replica collection. When complete, a
replica collection contains one replica for each volume in the collection. A replica collection set is the set of all the
replica collections for a volume collection.
Requirement: Before you can replicate a volume collection, the volumes in the collection and the volume
collection must be configured to replicate to the same partner. See Configuring a volume for
replication on page 12-25 and Configuring a volume collection for replication on page 12-26.
1. Click Volumes, then expand Volume Collections, then select the collection, and then click Create
replica now.
2. In the Create Replica Collection dialog box:
•
If you want to perform the replication using manual transfer replication, select Perform manual
replication. See About manual transfer replication on page 12-3.
•
Click Yes to start the replication.
You should monitor replication to make sure replicas complete in a timely manner. See Displaying replication
activity and replicas for a volume collection on page 12-29.
If replication operations are taking longer than expected, make sure you have adequate network bandwidth
between the groups, in addition to full IP routing. A slow network link can cause long replication times.
Displaying replication activity and replicas for a volume collection
Click Volumes, then expand Volume Collections, then select the collection name, and then click the
Replicas tab.
In the Volume Collection Replicas window, the Replication Summary panel shows:
•
Replication partner for the collection.
•
Replication schedules for the volume collection, including the next scheduled replication operation, if any.
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The Remote Replicas panel shows the replica collections for the volume collection. Expand a replica collection to
see the individual replicas and their status.
Using schedules to create replicas
Schedules enable you to create replicas of a volume or all the volumes in a collection on a regular basis.
Note: Schedules apply only to network replications. Scheduled replications do not run until any in-process manual
transfer replications are complete.
Restriction: You cannot schedule replicas for a volume template.
Before you set up a replication schedule:
•
Configure a partner. See Configuring replication partners on page 12-17.
•
Make sure the volume or volume collection is configured for replication. See Configuring a volume for
replication on page 12-25 and Configuring a volume collection for replication on page 12-26.
To set up a replication schedule, see Scheduling volume operations.
Pausing and resuming replication of a volume
You can pause and resume volume replication. For example, tasks such as promoting a replica set require you to
first pause volume replication.
To pause replication for a volume, click Volumes, then expand Volumes, then select the volume name, and then
click Pause volume replication.
To resume replication for a volume, click Volumes, then expand Volumes, then select the volume name, and then
click Resume volume replication.
Pausing and resuming replication to or from a partner
You can pause and then resume replication as needed. Some operations require temporarily pausing replication.
Pausing and resuming outbound replication
•
To pause outbound replication to a partner:
Click Replication, then expand the partner name, and then click Pause outbound.
•
To resume outbound replication to a partner:
Click Replication, then expand the partner name, and then click Resume outbound.
Pausing and resuming inbound replication
•
To pause inbound replication from a partner:
Click Replication, then expand the partner name, and then click Pause inbound.
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Group Administration
•
Volume replication
To resume inbound replication from a partner:
Click Replication, then expand the partner name, and then click Resume inbound.
Cancelling a volume replication
You can cancel an in-progress volume replication.
Note: To temporarily stop volume replication instead of cancelling it, pause the replication. See Pausing and
resuming replication of a volume on page 12-30.
Click Volumes, expand Volumes, then select the volume name, and then click Cancel replication.
Cloning an inbound replica
Cloning enables data access in a replica, with no impact on the replication configuration or the replica.
You can clone an inbound replica to create a new volume on the secondary group. The new volume has the same
reported size, is the same type (standard volume, template volume, or thin clone volume), and has the same data as
the original volume at the time you created the replica.
The new volume is located in the same pool as the replica. After the clone operation completes, the replica still
exists, and replication continues as usual.
Note: If you clone a thin clone replica to create a new thin clone volume, the new volume is attached to the
template replica set on which the thin clone replica depends.
1. Click Replication, then expand the replication partner, then expand Inbound replicas, then select the
replica set, and then click Clone replica.
2. In the Clone Replica dialog box, select the timestamp of the replica.
3. In the Clone Volume Replica – Volume Settings dialog box, specify the new volume name and (optional)
description. Then, click Next.
4. In the Clone Volume Replica – Space dialog box, change the thin provisioning settings and the snapshot
reserve value, and click Next.
5. In the Clone Volume Replica – iSCSI Access dialog box, specify:
•
Access controls. See About iSCSI target access controls.
•
Permission, either read-only or read-write.
•
Whether to allow initiators with different iSCSI qualified names (IQNs) access to the volume and its
snapshots. See Multi-host access to targets.
Then, click Next.
6. In the Clone Volume Replica – Summary dialog box, review the information and click Finish if satisfactory.
Click Back to make changes.
The new volume appears in the list of volumes in the far-left panel.
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Volume replication
Deleting outbound replica sets or replicas
Deleting a replica set disables replication on the volume. If you re-enable replication on the volume, the first
replication is a complete transfer of volume data.
1. Click Volumes, then expand Volumes, then select the volume name, and then click the Replication tab.
2. In the Volume Replication window, click Volume replicas in the Remote Replicas panel.
3. To delete the replica set, select the replica set and click Delete replica set.
To delete a replica, select the replica, and click Delete replica.
4. Confirm that you want to delete the replica set or replica.
Deleting outbound replica collection sets, replica collections, or
replicas
You can delete an outbound replica collection, an outbound replica that is part of a replica collection, or the entire
replica collection set for a volume collection. Deleting a replica collection deletes all the replicas that are in the
collection.
If you delete a replica from a replica collection, the replica collection longer represents the contents of the volumes
in the collection at the time you created the replica collection.
Deleting a replica collection set disables replication on the volume collection. If you re-enable replication on the
volume collection, the first replication of each volume is a complete transfer of volume data.
1. Click Volumes, then expand Volume Collections, then select the collection name, and then click the
Replicas tab.
2. In the Volume Collection Replicas window, to delete the replica collection set, select it in the Remote Replicas
panel and click Delete replica collection set.
To delete a replica collection, expand the replica collection set, select the replica collection, and click Delete
replica collection.
To delete a replica from a replica collection, expand the replica collection, select the replica, and click Delete
replica.
3. Confirm that you want to perform the delete operation.
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Deleting inbound replica sets or replicas
If the primary group is not available, you can delete replicas and replica sets when logged in to the secondary
group. However, if you delete replicas or replica sets from the secondary group, the primary group information is
not updated and errors can result. Deleting a replica set disables replication on the volume.
Recommendation: Dell recommends that you delete replicas when logged in to the primary group. See Deleting
outbound replica sets or replicas on page 12-32.
To delete an inbound replica or replica set:
1. Click Replication, then expand the partner name, and then click Inbound Replicas.
2. If you want to delete an inbound replica set, click Pause inbound.
3. In the Inbound Replicas panel:
To delete a replica set, select the replica set and click Delete replica set.
To delete a replica, expand the replica set, select the replica, and click Delete replica.
4. Confirm that you want to delete the replica or replica set.
5. If you paused inbound replication, click Resume inbound.
The replica or replica set no longer appears in the group. However, the replica or replica set still appears on the
partner (primary group), if it is available. You can log in to the primary group and delete the replica or replica set.
Deleting inbound replica collection sets, replica collections, or
replicas
You can delete an inbound replica collection, an inbound replica that is part of a replica collection, or the entire
inbound replica collection set for a volume collection. Deleting a replica collection deletes all the replicas that are
in the collection and disables replication on the volume collection.
Recommendation: Dell recommends that you delete replicas when logged in to the primary group. See Deleting
outbound replica collection sets, replica collections, or replicas on page 12-32.
1. Click Replication, then expand the partner name, and then click Inbound Replica Collection.
2. If you are deleting an inbound replica collection set, click Pause inbound.
3. To delete a replica collection set, select it in the Inbound Replicas panel and click Delete replica
collection set.
To delete a replica collection, expand the replica collection set, select the replica collection, and click Delete
replica collection.
To delete a replica from a replica collection, expand the replica collection, select the replica, and click Delete
replica.
4. Confirm that you want to perform the delete operation.
5. If you paused inbound replication, click Resume inbound.
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The replica, replica collection, or replica collection set no longer appears in the group. However, the replica or
replica set still appears on the partner (primary group), if it is available. You can log in to the primary group and
delete the replica or replica set.
12–34
13 Data recovery
If you replicate a volume to a partner (see Chapter 12, Volume replication), you can recover volume data on the
partner. In addition, you might be able to fail over to the partner and later fail back to the original group.
About data recovery
Effective data recovery requires a well-planned disaster protection strategy and the regular creation of replicas and
backups. To protect volume data from unrecoverable failure, you can replicate a volume to a group configured as a
replication partner. See Chapter 12, Volume replication.
If the volume becomes unavailable—either temporarily or permanently—you can recover the data from the
partner.
When volume failure occurs, or if the primary group is unavailable because of maintenance, it is important to
resume data availability as soon as possible to prevent or limit application downtime.
The method for recovering data depends on the state of the groups and your specific data recovery requirements.
See Data recovery procedures.
For example, you can clone a replica to create a new volume on the secondary group. The new volume contains the
same data that existed at the time you created the replica; initiators can connect to it in the usual way. Cloning a
replica has no impact on the original volume and the replication configuration. If the original volume is still
available, replication can continue, as usual. See Cloning an inbound replica on page 12-31.
In most situations in which you must recover data, the primary group is not available because of maintenance or a
failure. In this case, you can temporarily – or permanently – fail over the volume to the secondary group and make
the volume data available to initiators. If the original volume on the primary group becomes available again, you
can fail back the volume to the primary group, returning to the original replication configuration.
You implement failover and failback by using the following operations:
•
promote – Enables you to convert a replica set into a volume and snapshots. The volume contains the data
represented by the most recent complete replica. The snapshots correspond to the remaining replicas.
For example, you can promote an inbound replica set to a recovery volume, as part of a failover operation.
•
demote – Enables you to convert a volume into a replica set.
For example, you can demote a volume to a failback replica set, as part of a failback operation.
See Failing over and failing back a volume on page 13-2 for more details.
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Data recovery
Data recovery procedures
Table 13-1 describes common data recovery procedures.
Table 13-1: Data Recovery Procedures
Goal
Procedure
Fail over and fail back a 1. Promote the replica set to a recovery volume.
volume.
2. Demote the volume to a failback replica set.
Use this method if the
3. Replicate the recovery volume.
volume is unavailable
4. Demote the recovery volume to a replica set.
due to a failure or
maintenance.
5. Promote the failback replica set to a volume.
Reference
Failing over and
failing back a volume
on page 13-2
Make a temporary copy 1.
of volume data available
2.
on the primary group.
Making a temporary
volume available on
the secondary group
on page 13-12
3.
Permanently switch
1.
partner roles in a volume
replication configuration. 2.
3.
1.
Permanently host the
volume on the group that
was the secondary group. 2.
3.
Considerations
If the failback snapshot
is not available on the
primary group, you
must replicate the full
recovery volume,
instead of just the
changes.
Promote the replica set to a recovery volume. This method assumes
you do not want to
Perform the operation on the recovery
preserve writes made to
volume.
the recovery volume.
Demote the recovery volume to an inbound
replica set.
Permanently promote the replica set to a
If the failback snapshot
volume.
does not exist, the first
replication after the
Permanently demote the volume to an
role switch is a
inbound replica set.
complete copy of the
Configure the volume to replicate from the volume data.
new primary group to the new secondary
group.
If the volume is available, set the volume
The first replication of
offline.
the new volume is a
complete copy of the
Permanently promote the replica set to a
volume data.
volume.
Permanently
switching partner
roles on page 13-12
Permanently
promoting a replica
set to a volume on
page 13-14
Optionally, replicate the new volume.
Failing over and failing back a volume
If a failure or maintenance in the primary group makes a volume unavailable, you can fail over to the secondary
group and allow users to access the volume. If the primary group becomes available, you can fail back to the
primary group.
Restriction: You cannot replicate a recovery template volume, and you cannot demote a template volume to a
failback replica set.
1. Promote the replica set to a recovery volume (and snapshots) on the secondary group, and allow initiators to
connect to the volume. You can choose to keep the same iSCSI target name to facilitate iSCSI initiator access
to the recovery volume. See Promoting an inbound replica set to a recovery volume.
2. When the original volume on the primary group becomes available, synchronize the volume data on both
groups. Use the Replicate to Partner operation to:
•
Demote the original volume to a failback replica set on the primary group.
•
Replicate the recovery volume to the primary group. If you kept the failback snapshot for the original
volume, only the changes made to the recovery volume are replicated.
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See Replicating a recovery volume to the primary group.
3. When you are ready to fail back to the primary group, use the Failback to Partner operation to:
•
Set the recovery volume offline.
•
Perform a final replication to synchronize the volume data across both groups.
•
Demote the recovery volume to an inbound replica set.
•
Promote the failback replica set to a volume and snapshots. The volume represents the data that was in the
most recent complete replica. The snapshots correspond to any additional replicas.
See Failing back to the primary group.
At this point, initiators can connect to the volume on the primary group and replication can continue as usual. By
default, the failback baseline is reestablished.
Example of failing over and failing back a volume
An example of how to fail over a volume to the secondary group and then fail back to the primary group is shown
in Figure 13-1 to Figure 13-5. Figure 13-1 shows the replication configuration, where GroupA is replicating
Volume1 to GroupB.
Figure 13-1: No Failure – Data Is Available
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Figure 13-2 shows the replication configuration after a failure in the primary group (GroupA).
Figure 13-2: Primary Group Failure – Data Is Not Available
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Figure 13-3 shows the first step in recovering data on the secondary group, which is to fail over the volume to the
secondary group. To do this, promote the inbound replica set to a recovery volume and snapshots. The recovery
volume contains the volume data represented by the most recent complete replica. Users can connect to the
recovery volume to resume access to volume data.
Figure 13-3: Step 1: Failover to the Secondary Group – Data Is Available
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Figure 13-4 shows the second step in recovering data—replicate to the primary group. When the primary group is
available:
•
Demote the original volume to a failback replica set.
•
Replicate the recovery volume to the primary group.
Note: If the failback snapshot is not available on the primary group, the first replication transfers all the
recovery volume data, instead of only the changes that users made to the recovery volume.
You can perform these tasks separately, or use the Replicate to Primary operation, which encompasses both tasks.
Figure 13-4: Step 2: Replicate to the Primary Group – Data Is Available and Protected
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Figure 13-5 shows the final step in recovering data—fail back to the primary group. To fail back to the primary
group:
•
Set the recovery volume offline.
•
Replicate the recovery volume to synchronize volume data across both groups.
•
Demote the recovery volume to an inbound replica set.
•
Promote the failback replica set to a volume.
You can perform these tasks separately, or use the Replicate to Primary operation, which encompasses all the tasks.
At this point, the volume replication configuration returns to its original state and users can connect to the volume
on the primary group.
Figure 13-5: Step 3: Fail Back to the Primary Group
Promoting an inbound replica set to a recovery volume
To temporarily fail over a volume (or template or thin clone) to the secondary group, you promote the inbound
replica set to a recovery volume (or recovery template or recovery thin clone) and snapshots. Users can connect to
the recovery volume and resume access the volume data.
A recovery volume name is generated automatically, based on the volume name, with a dot-number extension (for
example, vol01.1). You can chose to keep the same iSCSI target name as the original volume to facilitate iSCSI
initiator connections to the recovery volume.
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Promoting an inbound replica set does not require any additional space on the secondary group, because it reduces
delegated space by the size of the volume’s replica reserve.
With some exceptions, all volume operations apply to a recovery volume. See Recovery volume restrictions.
Restriction: You cannot convert a recovery template to a standard volume. You must first You must first make the
promotion permanent. You cannot detach a recovery thin clone.
1. Click Replication, then expand the replication partner, then expand Inbound Replicas, then select the
replica set, and then click Promote to volume.
2. Confirm that you want to pause inbound replication from the partner. Replication resumes automatically for all
other volumes after the replica set is promoted.
3. In the Promote Replica Set – Volume Options dialog box, specify the following:
•
Whether you want to set the recovery volume online or offline. Set the volume online if you want initiators
to connect to it.
•
Whether you want to retain the iSCSI target name of the original volume.
•
Whether you want to keep the ability to demote to replica set. Unless you are permanently promoting the
replica set, make sure you keep this ability.
Then, click Next.
4. In the Promote Replica Set – iSCSI Access, specify the following:
•
Conditions that a computer must match to connect to the recovery volume. Specify a CHAP user name, IP
address, or iSCSI initiator name. See About iSCSI target access controls on page 8-1.
•
Recovery volume permission, either read-only or read-write.
•
Whether to allow initiators with different iSCSI qualified names (IQNs) access to the recovery volume.
See Multi-host access to targets on page 8-6.
Then, click Next.
5. In the Promote Replica Set – Summary dialog box, review the information and click Finish if satisfactory.
Click Back to make changes.
After the promote operation completes, the replica set disappears from the list of inbound replica sets, and the
recovery volume appears in the list of volumes.
Where to go next
•
Connect to the recovery volume. See Connecting initiators to iSCSI targets on page 8-7.
•
Go to the next step in the failover and failback process when the original volume on the primary group
becomes available. See Replicating a recovery volume to the primary group on page 13-9.
•
To reverse the inbound replica set promotion and cancel the failover, demote the recovery volume to an
inbound replica set:
Click Volumes, then expand Volumes, then select the recovery volume name, and then click Demote to
replica set.
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•
Data recovery
If the original volume becomes permanently unavailable, you can make the inbound replica set promotion
permanent. See Making an inbound replica set promotion permanent on page 13-13.
Recovery volume restrictions
To temporarily fail over a volume to the secondary group, you promote the volume’s inbound replica set to a
recovery volume. Users can connect to the recovery volume and resume access the volume data.
All volume operations apply to a recovery volume, with some exceptions. You cannot change:
•
Volume size
•
Volume name
•
Public alias
•
RAID preference
•
Replication partner
•
Thin provisioning settings (applicable only to recovery template volumes and recovery thin clone volumes)
•
Permission (applicable only to recovery template volumes)
In addition, you cannot delete a recovery template volume if there are still recovery thin clone volumes, thin clone
replica sets, or permanently promoted thin clone replica sets attached to the volume.
See Chapter 9, Basic volume operations for information about modifying volumes.
Replicating a recovery volume to the primary group
When the original volume on the primary group becomes available, you can replicate the recovery volume to the
primary group. This action synchronizes the data across both groups and protects the recovery volume. During the
replication, initiators can continue to access the recovery volume.
Recommendation: Dell recommends that you replicate the recovery volume to the primary group immediately
before failing back to the primary group. This is because the volume is offline during the final
replication that is part of failing back to the primary group.
Restriction: You cannot replicate a recovery template volume.
The Replicate to Partner operation is available only if the primary group and the secondary group are running PS
Series Firmware Version 4.0 or greater. If you do not meet this requirement, you must perform the steps
individually, as described in Manually performing the replicate to partner operation on page 13-16.
How quickly you can replicate the recovery volume depends on the presence of the failback snapshot on the
primary group. The failback snapshot establishes the failback baseline, which is the point in time at which the
volume on the primary group and the most recent complete replica on the secondary group have the same data. If
the failback snapshot exists, only the changes made to the recovery volume are replicated. If the failback snapshot
does not exist, the first replication is a complete copy of the recovery volume data.
1. Obtain the name and password for a group administrator account on the primary group.
2. Click Volumes, expand Volumes, select the recovery volume, and then click Replicate to partner.
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3. In the Replicate Recovery Volume dialog box:
•
Specify the group administrator account name and password.
•
Select whether to perform the replication by using manual transfer replication. See About manual transfer
replication on page 12-3.
•
Select whether to save the primary group administrator account name and password for future use in the
current GUI session.
4. Click OK.
To monitor the Replicate to Partner operation and make sure all tasks complete, open the Alarms panel at the
bottom of the GUI window and click the Failback Operations tab. If an individual task fails, you must correct
the problem and then retry the task. See Handling a failed operation on page 13-15.
Note: If you chose to use manual transfer replication, the status of the create replica task is in-progress until
you complete the manual transfer replication. When the manual transfer replication is complete, the
Replicate to Partner operation continues automatically.
When the volume demote task on the primary group completes, the original volume disappears from the list of
volumes, and the failback replica set appears under Inbound Replicas in the far-left panel.
Where to go next
•
To create more replicas, select the recovery volume and click Create replica now. You can also configure
replication schedules on the recovery volume.
•
When you are ready to fail back, see Failing back to the primary group.
•
You can move a failback replica set to a different pool in the primary group. If you later promote the failback
replica set to a volume, the volume belongs to the new pool.
To move a failback replica set to a different pool:
1. On the primary group, click Replication, expand the replication partner, expand Inbound Replicas,
select the failback replica set, and click Change storage pool.
2. Select the new pool and click OK.
•
If you do not want to return to the original replication configuration or switch roles, you can make the inbound
replica set promotion permanent and then delete the replica set:
1. On the primary group, click Replication, then expand the replication partner, then expand Inbound
Replicas, then select the failback replica set, and then click Convert to replica set.
The replica set continues to be shown in the Replication Partner – Inbound window, but it is no longer a
failback replica set.
2. Click Pause inbound.
3. Select the replica set and then click Delete replica set.
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Moving a failback replica set to a different storage pool
You can move a failback replica set to a different pool in the primary group. If you later promote the failback
replica set to a volume, the volume belongs to the new pool.
1. On the primary group, click Replication, expand the replication partner, expand Inbound Replicas,
select the failback replica set, and click Change storage pool.
2. Select the new pool and click OK.
Failing back to the primary group
When you want to return to the original volume replication configuration, you can use the Failback to Primary
operation.
Recommendation: Dell recommends that you use the Replicate to Partner operation before failing back to the
primary group. Although the Failback to Primary operation performs a final replication, the
recovery volume is offline during the final replication. See Replicating a recovery volume to
the primary group.
Restriction: You cannot fail back a template volume.
Restriction: The Failback to Primary operation is available only if the primary group and the secondary group are
running PS Series Firmware Version 4.0 or greater. If you do not meet this requirement, you must
perform the steps individually, as described in Manually performing the failback to primary operation
on page 13-16.
1. Obtain the name and password for a group administrator account on the primary group.
2. Click Volumes, then expand Volumes, then select the recovery volume, and then click Failback to
primary.
3. Confirm that you want to set the recovery volume offline.
4. In the Failback Recovery Volume dialog box:
•
Specify the group administrator account name and password.
•
Select whether to perform the replication by using manual transfer replication. See About manual transfer
replication on page 12-3.
•
Select whether to save the primary group administrator account name and password for future use in the
current GUI session.
Then, click OK.
As part of the failback operation, a replica is created immediately on the secondary group to reestablish the failback
snapshot (and set the failback baseline). Because the volume data is already synchronized between the groups, no
data is actually transferred.
To monitor the Failback to Primary operation and make sure all tasks complete, open the Alarms panel at the
bottom of the GUI window and click the Failback Operations tab. If an individual task fails, you must correct
the problem and then retry the task. See Handling a failed operation on page 13-15.
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Note: If you chose to use manual transfer replication, the status of the create replica task is in-progress until
you complete the manual transfer replication. When the manual transfer replication is complete, the
Failback to Primary operation continues automatically.
When the Failback to Primary operation completes, on the secondary group, the recovery volume disappears from
the list of volumes, and the inbound replica set reappears in the list of inbound replica sets. On the primary group,
the failback replica set disappears from the list of inbound replica sets, and the volume reappears in the list of
volumes.
Making a temporary volume available on the secondary group
You can make a temporary copy of a volume available on the secondary group, while providing continuous access
to the original volume on the primary group. This is helpful when you want to perform an operation, such as a
backup, on the copy, with no disruption to users. When the operation completes, you can resume replicating the
volume.
Note: This procedure assumes that the volume does not change while available on the secondary group, or—if the
volume changes—those changes are not replicated to the primary group. If you want to replicate changes,
follow the procedure described in Failing over and failing back a volume.
1. Promote the replica set to a recovery volume. See Promoting an inbound replica set to a recovery volume.
Make sure you select the option that enables you to demote the recovery volume.
2. Perform the desired operation on the recovery volume. See Recovery volume restrictions on page 13-9.
3. Demote the recovery volume to an inbound replica set:
Click Volumes, then expand Volumes, then select the recovery volume, and then click Demote to replica
set.
At this point, you can resume replicating the volume.
Permanently switching partner roles
You can switch the partner roles in a volume replication configuration. The original secondary group becomes the
new primary group, and the original primary group becomes the new secondary group.
Note: Because you cannot permanently demote a template volume, when you switch roles for a replication
configuration that includes a template volume with thin clone volumes, only the thin clone replication
configuration switches. Therefore, the original template volume must still exist on the original primary
group after the switch, because the new thin clone replica sets depend on the template volume.
1. On the primary group:
a. Make sure the volume replication configuration includes keeping the failback snapshot. See Modifying
volume replication configuration settings on page 12-26.
b. Set the volume offline. See Setting a volume offline or online on page 9-13.
c. Perform a final replication. This synchronizes volume data across the primary group and the secondary
group. See Creating a replica on page 12-28.
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2. On the secondary group:
a. Promote the replica set to a recovery volume. Make sure you keep the ability to demote the recovery
volume, in case you decide to cancel the role switch. See Promoting an inbound replica set to a recovery
volume.
Users can now access volume data by connecting to the recovery volume. See Connecting initiators to
iSCSI targets on page 8-7.
b. Replicate the recovery volume to the primary group. See Replicating a recovery volume to the primary
group.
c. Make the inbound replica set promotion permanent. See Making an inbound replica set promotion
permanent.
3. On the primary group, convert the failback replica set to an inbound replica set. See Converting a failback
replica set to an inbound replica set.
The partner role switch is complete.
Making an inbound replica set promotion permanent
After promoting an inbound replica set to a recovery volume, you can make the promotion permanent, resulting in
a new standard volume, template volume, or thin clone volume. You might need to perform this task if the original
volume is destroyed or if you are switching roles in a replication configuration.
Note: After making an inbound replica set promotion permanent, you can no longer demote the volume to the
original inbound replica set.
Restriction: Before you can make a template replica set promotion permanent, you must permanently promote all
the attached thin clone replica sets.
1. Click Volumes, then expand Volumes, then select the recovery volume, then click Make promote
permanent.
2. In the Convert Recovery Volume – Volume Settings dialog box:
•
Enter a new volume name, up to 63 alphanumeric characters (including periods, dashes, and colons). A
volume name must be unique in a group.
•
Enter an optional description.
•
Select the storage pool.
Then, click Next.
3. In the Convert Recovery Volume – iSCSI Access dialog box, specify:
•
Access control credentials for the recovery volume. Specify a CHAP user name, IP address, or iSCSI
initiator name. See About iSCSI target access controls on page 8-1.
•
Permission, either read-only or read-write.
•
Whether to allow initiators with different iSCSI qualified names (IQNs) access to the volume. See
Multi-host access to targets on page 8-6.
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Then, click Next.
4. Review the information in the Convert Recovery Volume – Summary dialog box and click Finish if
satisfactory. Click Back to make changes.
When the operation completes, the recovery volume is converted to a volume.
Where to go next
•
If you are permanently switching partner roles, see Converting a failback replica set to an inbound replica set
for the next step in the procedure.
Converting a failback replica set to an inbound replica set
The final step in the procedure for switching roles in a volume replication configuration is to permanently convert
the volume’s failback replica set to an inbound replica set.
Note: After you convert a failback replica set to an inbound replica set, you cannot promote the inbound replica set
to the original volume.
1. On the primary group, click Replication, then expand the partner, then expand Inbound Replicas, then
select the failback replica set, then click Convert to replica set.
2. Confirm that you want to convert the replica set.
When the conversion completes, the replica set continues to appear in the Replication Partner – Inbound window,
but it is no longer a failback replica set.
Permanently promoting a replica set to a volume
You can permanently promote a replica set in a single operation, resulting in a new standard volume, template
volume, or thin clone volume. You might need to perform this task if the original volume is destroyed. Permanently
promoting an inbound replica set does not require any additional space on the secondary group, because it reduces
delegated space by the size of the volume's replica reserve.
Permanently promoting an inbound replica set does not require any additional space on the secondary group,
because it reduces delegated space by the size of the volume’s replica reserve.
Restriction: In some cases, you cannot permanently promote a replica set in a single operation. If you do not get
the option to deselect the Keep ability to demote to replica set option, you must
temporarily promote the replica set and then make the promotion permanent. See Promoting an
inbound replica set to a recovery volume on page 13-7 and Making an inbound replica set promotion
permanent on page 13-13.
Restriction: Before you can permanently promote a template replica set, you must permanently promote all the
attached thin clone replica sets.
1. On the secondary group, click Replication, then expand the partner, then expand Inbound Replicas,
then select the replica set name, and then click Promote to volume.
2. Confirm that you want to pause inbound replication from the partner.
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3. In the Promote Replica Set – Volume Options dialog box:
•
Choose whether to set the volume online or offline.
•
Choose whether to retain the iSCSI target name of the original volume. This can facilitate initiator access
to the volume.
•
Deselect the Keep ability to demote to replica set option.
Then, click Next.
4. In the Promote Replica Set – Volume Settings dialog box:
•
Enter a new volume name, up to 63 alphanumeric characters (including periods, hyphens, and colons). A
volume name should be unique in a group.
•
Enter an optional description.
•
Select the storage pool.
Then, click Next.
5. In the Promote Replica Set – iSCSI Access dialog box:
•
Access controls for the recovery volume. Specify a CHAP user name, IP address, or iSCSI initiator name.
See About iSCSI target access controls on page 8-1.
•
Permission, either read-only or read-write.
•
Whether to allow initiators with different iSCSI qualified names (IQNs) access to the volume. See
Multi-host access to targets on page 8-6.
Then, click Next.
6. If the information in the Promote Replica Set – Summary dialog box is satisfactory, click Finish. Click Back
to make changes.
The replica set disappears from the list of inbound replicas, and the new volume appears in the list of volumes.
Handling a failed operation
The Replicate to Partner operation and the Failback to Primary operation consolidate multiple tasks, as
documented in Manually performing the replicate to partner operation on page 13-16 and Manually performing
the failback to primary operation.
To check the status of a Replicate to Partner operation and the Failback to Primary operation:
1. Open the Alarms panel and click the Failback Operations tab.
2. Expand the recovery volume to display the status of each task in the operation.
If an individual task fails during a Replicate to Partner or Failback to Primary operation, correct the problem.
After correcting the problem, in the Failback Operations panel, right-click the failed operation and select Retry
task. The operation continues automatically.
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Manually performing the replicate to partner operation
The Replicate to Partner operation consolidates multiple tasks. You can perform each task in the operation
individually.
Requirement: You must promote the inbound replica set to a recovery volume, before performing the individual
Replicate to Partner tasks. See Promoting an inbound replica set to a recovery volume.
1. On the primary group:
a. Set the original volume offline. See Setting a volume offline or online on page 9-13.
b. Cancel any in-progress replication. See Cancelling a volume replication on page 12-31.
c. Set any snapshots for the volume offline. See Setting a snapshot online or offline on page 11-11.
d. Demote the volume to a failback replica set:
Click Volumes, then expand Volumes, then select the volume, and then click Demote to replica
set.
2. On the secondary group:
a. Configure the recovery volume to replicate to the primary group. See Configuring a volume for replication
on page 12-25.
b. Create a replica. See Creating a replica on page 12-28.
You can use manual replication if a large amount of data must be transferred. See the Manual Transfer
Utility Installation and User Guide.
Manually performing the failback to primary operation
The Failback to Primary operation consolidates multiple tasks. You can perform each task in the operation
individually.
1. Perform the Replicate to Partner operation. See Replicating a recovery volume to the primary group on page
13-9 or Manually performing the replicate to partner operation.
2. On the secondary group:
a. Disable any replication or snapshot schedules for the recovery volume.
b. Set the recovery volume offline. See Setting a volume offline or online on page 9-13.
c. Create a final replica. See Creating a replica on page 12-28.
You can use manual replication if a large amount of data must be transferred. See the Manual Transfer
Utility Installation and User Guide.
d. Demote the recovery volume to the original inbound replica set:
Click Volumes, then expand Volumes, then select the volume, and then click Demote to replica
set.
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3. On the primary group, promote the failback replica set to the original volume:
Click Replication, expand the partner name, expand Inbound Replicas, select the failback replica set,
and click Promote to volume.
13–17
Part III: Troubleshooting
14 Group event logging
A PS Series group generates events when normal group operations occur and also when significant events occur.
Events enable you to track operations and also detect and solve problems before they affect performance or data
availability.
In addition, you can use SNMP traps to track significant group events.
About event messages
When an event occurs in the group (for example, you create a volume or a power supply fails), the group generates
an event message.
Event messages help you monitor normal operations and also identify problems before they disrupt service.
Events appear in the Monitoring window, the CLI console, and in the output of the show recentevents
command.
Note: You can disable the display of informational messages in the GUI and CLI; however, the group still logs
these events. See Enabling or disabling the display of INFO event messages on page 14-5.
Examples of event messages seen on the console are:
484:2:gigan34mem1:netmgtd:15-Mar-2010 11:25:04.310003:rcc_util.c:714:INFO:25.2.9:CLI: Login
to account grpadmin succeeded.
10:5:gigan34mem1:SP:13-Mar-2010 22:30:19.250006:emm.c:1922:WARNING:28.3.51:Warning health
conditions currently exist. Correct these conditions before they affect array operation.
Control modules are initializing. Control module failover cannot occur until the
initialization completes.
There are 1 outstanding health conditions. Correct these conditions before they affect array
operation.
Each event message includes the following information:
•
Event priority: INFO, WARNING, ERROR, or FATAL (see Event priorities on page 14-2)
•
Date and time that the event occurred
•
Member on which the event occurred
•
Descriptive event text
In addition, the group generates hardware alarms. An alarm is a persistent condition in an array (for example, high
temperature). Alarms help you find and correct problems before they disrupt operations. An alarm always has a
corresponding event. See About hardware alarms on page 14-2.
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Group event logging
Event priorities
Each event has a priority. Table 14-1 lists event priorities in order of lowest (least severe) to highest (most severe).
The first column lists the priorities, the second describes them.
Table 14-1: Event Priorities
Priority
INFO
WARNING
ERROR
FATAL
Description
Informational message. Indicates an operational or transitional event that requires no action.
Potential problem. Can become an event with Error priority if administrator intervention does not occur.
Serious failure. Identify and correct the problem as soon as possible.
Catastrophic failure. Identify and correct the problem immediately.
About hardware alarms
The group generates an alarm in the event of a persistent hardware condition in a group member (for example, high
temperature or a failed power supply). Alarms help you discover and correct problems before they disrupt
operations.
Alarms appear in the Alarms and Operations panel at the bottom of the Group Manager GUI. Click the panel
header to open and close the panel.
Each alarm has a priority level, either Warning or Critical, based on the severity of the problem. An alarm always
has a corresponding event. For more information, see Monitoring alarms and operations on page 15-10.
Event notification methods
Set up one or more event notification methods so the group notifies you when events occur.
You can configure the following event notification methods:
•
E-mail notification. If an event occurs, the group automatically sends a message to designated e-mail
addresses.
The group collects multiple events into a single message, eliminating the need for multiple e-mails. If only one
event occurs within one minute, the group sends e-mail to the addresses you configured for notification. If
another event occurs within one minute, the timer starts over and sends email after two minutes.
See Configuring E-Mail notification on page 14-3.
•
E-Mail Home. If a hardware component fails or if you update firmware, the group automatically notifies
customer support.
E-Mail Home is available to all PS Series customers, but response time and assistance is based on the validity
and level of your support contract.
See Configuring E-Mail home on page 14-4.
•
Remote syslog server logging. The group logs events to a remote syslog server. You can then access events
from the syslog server. For example, you can log events to the syslog server provided by SAN HeadQuarters.
See Configuring syslog notification on page 14-5.
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Configuring E-Mail notification
Requirement: To use e-mail notification, a group must have access to a Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP)
server or e-mail relay.
1. Click Group, then Group Configuration, and then the Notifications tab. See the online help for
information about the data fields and options.
2. In the E-Mail Event Notifications panel, select Send E-mail to addresses.
3. Under E-mail recipients, click Add and enter an e-mail address. You can enter up to five e-mail addresses to
receive e-mail notifications. Then, click OK.
4. Under Event Priorities, select events for which you want to generate an e-mail message. See About event
messages on page 14-1.
5. Under E-Mail Configuration Settings, click Add and enter an IP address for the SMTP server or e-mail relay
that handles e-mail forwarding. Then, click OK.
Use the ip_address:port format to specify a port number other than the default (25).
You can enter up to three IP addresses. The group uses one SMTP server or e-mail relay at any time. The first
server you specify is the default server. The group uses the other servers in the order specified, if the default
server is not available. Click the up and down arrows to change the order.
6. In the Sender in e-mail address field, type the e-mail address that appears in the “From” field in the
notification e-mail. You can use the group name at your company’s e-mail address. For example:
GroupA@company.com. When the intended recipient receives e-mail, the e-mail itself specifies which group it
came from. This is helpful in multi-group environments.
7. Click Save all changes (Control+S).
To test the e-mail notification, select Enable live informational messages (you can later disable the
display of informational events), log out of the group, and then log in to the group. If an e-mail recipient does not
receive notification of the logout and login events, check and fix the configuration.
Changing the E-Mail notification configuration
1. Click Group, then Group Configuration, and then the Notifications tab.
2. In the E-Mail Event Notifications panel:
•
To disable e-mail notification, deselect Send E-mail to addresses.
•
To modify an e-mail address or SMTP server IP address, select the address and click Modify, change the
address, and click OK.
•
To delete an e-mail address or SMTP server IP address, select the address and click Delete.
•
To change event priorities that result in notification, select or deselect the appropriate priorities.
3. Click Save all changes (Control+S).
14–3
Group Administration
Group event logging
Configuring E-Mail home
If a hardware component fails or if you update firmware, the group can automatically notify customer support
through email.
Recommendation: Dell strongly recommends that you enable E-Mail Home, to expedite customer support
becoming engaged in solving any problems.
E-Mail Home is available to all PS Series customers, but response time and assistance is based on the validity and
level of your support contract.
Requirement: To support E-Mail Home, the group must have access to an SMTP server or e-mail relay.
1. Click Group, then Group Configuration, and then the Notifications tab.
2. In the E-Mail Event Notifications panel, select Send e-mail alerts to Customer Support (E-Mail
Home).
3. In the Local contact e-mail field, enter an e-mail address to receive E-Mail Home notification messages.
4. Under E-Mail Configuration Settings, click Add and enter an IP address for the SMTP server or e-mail relay
that handles e-mail forwarding. Then, click OK.
Use the ip_address:port format to specify a port number other than the default (25).
You can enter up to three IP addresses. The group uses one SMTP server or e-mail relay at any time. The first
server you specify is the default server. The group uses the other servers in the order specified, if the default
server is not available. Click the up and down arrows to change the order.
5. In the Sender in e-mail address field, type the e-mail address that appears in the “From” field in the
notification e-mail. You can use the group name at your company’s e-mail address. For example:
GroupA@company.com. When the intended recipient receives e-mail, the e-mail itself specifies which group it
came from. This is helpful in multi-group environments, and reduces the chance that the e-mail server or
recipient discards or rejects notifications.
6. Click Save all changes (Control+S).
When you first enable E-Mail Home, the group sends the local contact e-mail address a confirmation message. If
you do not receive this message:
•
Make sure that you specified the correct information in the Group Notifications window.
•
Examine the PS Series event log. If no errors are logged, contact your support provider. If you have a service
agreement, your support provider can help you resolve the problem.
Changing the E-Mail home configuration
1. Click Group, then Group Configuration, and then the Notifications tab.
2. In the Group Notifications window:
•
To disable E-Mail Home, deselect Send e-mail alerts to Customer Support (E-Mail Home).
•
To modify the local e-mail address, enter the new address in the Local contact e-mail field.
14–4
Group Administration
Group event logging
•
To modify the IP address for an SMTP server, select the IP address, click Modify, change the address, and
click OK.
•
To delete an SMTP server, select the IP address and click Delete.
3. Click Save all changes (Control+S) to apply the changes.
Configuring syslog notification
Requirement: The syslog server must be able to store remote log files.
1. Click Group, then Group Configuration.
2. Click the Notifications tab. See the online help for information about the data fields and options in the
Event Logs panel.
3. In the Event Logs panel, select Send events to syslog servers.
4. Under Syslog Servers, click Add and specify an IP address for the syslog server. You can specify up to three
syslog servers. All the servers receive events.
5. Under Event Priorities, select the event priorities that result in syslog server notification. See About event
messages on page 14-1.
6. Click Save all changes (Control+S).
Changing the syslog notification configuration
1. Click Group, then Group Configuration, and then the Notifications tab.
2. In the Event Logs panel:
•
To disable syslog notification, deselect Send events to syslog servers.
•
To modify the IP address for a syslog server, select the IP address, click Modify, change the address, and
click OK.
•
To delete a syslog server, select the IP address and click Delete.
•
To change the event priorities that result in notification, select the priorities.
3. Click Save all changes (Control+S) to apply the changes.
Enabling or disabling the display of INFO event messages
You can enable (default) or disable the display of informational messages in the Group Events window and on the
CLI console. However, the group continues to log these messages.
1. Click Group, then Group Configuration, and then the Notifications tab.
2. In the Event Logs panel, select or deselect Enable live informational messages.
3. Click Save all changes (Control+S).
14–5
Group Administration
Group event logging
About SNMP traps
SNMP traps are unsolicited event messages sent to a management console by an agent. PS Series arrays send traps
for equipment issues and security issues.
See Displaying and configuring SNMP access to a Group on page 4-11 and Configuring SNMP trap destinations
on page 14-7.
The PS Series array MIBs (Management Information Bases) contain information about SNMP traps and trap
thresholds. See Accessing PS Series array MIBs on page 14-7.
Table 14-2 lists PS Series SNMP Traps
Table 14-2: PS Series SNMP Traps
Trap Type
Battery backup
Component
Fan and PSU
iSCSI
Link
RAID
Security
Start
Temperature
14–6
Trap Names
eqlMemberHealthBatteryLessThan72Hours
eqlMemberHealthNVRAMBatteryFailed
eqlMemberHealthhighBatteryTemperature
eqlMemberHealthhwComponentFailedCrit
eqlMemberHealthincompatControlModule
eqlMemberHealthopsPanelFailure
eqlMemberHealthemmLinkFailure
eqlDiskStatusChange
eqlMemberHealthFanSpeedHighThreshold
eqlMemberHealthFanSpeedLowThreshold
eqlMemberHealthFanTrayRemoved
eqlMemberHealthBothFanTraysRemoved
eqlMemberHealthPowerSupplyFailure
iscsiTgtLoginFailure
iscsiIntrLoginFailure
iscsiInstSessionFailure
scsiTgtDevicesStatusChanged
scsiLuStatusChanged
linkUp
linkDown
eqlMemberHealthRAIDSetDoubleFaulted
eqlMemberHealthRAIDLostCache
eqlMemberHealthRAIDSetLostBlkTableFull
eqlMemberHealthRaidOrphanCache
eqlMemberHealthRaidMultipleRaidSets
authenticationFailure
coldStart
warmStart
eqlMemberHealthTempSensorHighThreshold
eqlMemberHealthTempSensorLowThreshold
eqlMemberHealthlowAmbientTemp
Group Administration
Group event logging
Configuring SNMP trap destinations
You can configure network addresses to receive SNMP traps from the group.
1. Click Group, then Group Configuration.
1. Click the SNMP tab. See the online help for information about the data fields and options.
2. In the SNMP Traps panel, click Add.
3. Enter the IP address where SNMP traps are sent and click OK. You can specify up to five IP addresses. All the
addresses receive traps.
4. Optionally, modify the SNMP trap community name. The default is SNMP-trap. The group uses the SNMP
trap community when it sends SNMP traps. SNMP trap community names must be unique and can contain up
to 63 alphanumeric characters, but no commas.
5. Click Save all changes (Control+S).
Changing the SNMP trap configuration
1. Click Group, then Group Configuration, and then the SNMP tab.
2. In the SNMP Traps panel:
•
To modify an SNMP trap destination, select the IP address, click Modify, change the IP address, and click
OK.
•
To delete an SNMP trap destination, select the IP address, and click Delete.
•
To modify the SNMP trap community name, change the name in the SNMP trap community name field.
3. Click Save all changes (Control+S).to apply the modification.
Accessing PS Series array MIBs
PS Series array MIBs (Management Information Bases) contain information about SNMP traps and trap
thresholds. The group collects MIBs in an archive. You can open this archive and examine the individual MIBs, or
you can download the archive and store it on your computer.
Requirement: To use MIBs, you must install them on a management station. Not all traps apply to all array
models.
If you have a support account, you can access the PS Series array MIBs from the customer support website.
1. Log in to a support account and access the Downloads web page.
2. Click the link for your PS Series Firmware version.
3. Click MIBS.
14–7
15 Group monitoring
It is best practice to regularly monitor a PS Series group, so you can address issues before service is interrupted.
About monitoring best practices
Dell recommends that you set up event notification to inform you automatically of events and operations in a
group. See Event notification methods on page 14-2.
If you configured SNMP trap notification, you can examine the traps using an SNMP console. See About SNMP
traps on page 14-6.
Table 15-1 describes general best practices for monitoring a group. The first column lists the monitoring condition,
the second column describes it, and the third column provides a reference for more information about addressing
the issue.
Table 15-1: General Monitoring Best Practices
Monitor
Events of WARNING,
ERROR, and FATAL
severity
Hardware failures
Degraded RAID set
Offline volumes
Low pool space
Description
Reference
Investigate significant events and take the appropriate action See Monitoring events on page 15-2
to prevent or resolve problems.
Replace failed hardware promptly. Multiple hardware
failures might result in an offline member or lost data.
Do not remove a failed hardware component until you are
ready to replace it.
If a RAID 1 or RAID 5 set is degraded, another disk drive
failure in the RAID set might result in lost data. If a RAID 6
set is degraded, one or two additional drive failures might
result in lost data. Immediately replace failed drives.
An offline volume might indicate a problem. For example, a
member might be offline.
Do not let pool space fall below a recommended value.
Low free volume space If there is insufficient free volume space, writes to the
volume fail. This can affect application performance.
If a write to a volume exceeds the reported size, it fails. This
can affect applications that use the volume.
Incomplete pool move
operations
See Monitoring alarms and
operations on page 15-10 and
Monitoring group members on page
15-15
See Monitoring a specific member
on page 15-16
See Monitoring volumes and
snapshots on page 15-25
See Monitoring storage pool free
space on page 15-15
See Monitoring volumes,
collections, and snapshots on page
15-24
If a thin-provisioned volume reaches its maximum in-use
space limit (and the limit is less than 100%), the group sets
the volume offline.
Moving a volume or a member from one pool to another can See Monitoring group operations on
page 15-14
take a long time. Monitor the progression of the move
operation and make sure that it completes.
15–1
Group Administration
Group monitoring
Getting started with group monitoring
All monitoring information is available by clicking Monitoring in the lower-left panel.
Monitoring events
The group generates a message when a significant event that requires corrective action occurs in the group (for
example, when hardware fails, or replication space is insufficient). The group also generates event messages when
certain normal operations occur (for example, when a user logs in to the group, or you create a volume).
Event messages help you monitor group operations and correct problems before they disrupt operations. See About
event messages on page 14-1.
To display events, click Monitoring and then Events.
Table 15-2 shows the filtering options available in the Events panel.
Table 15-2: Events Panel
Option
View
Description
Filters the list by event type with to include all events,
warnings and errors, or critical errors.
More
Acknowledge
all
Clear event list
Shortcut
Alt+V
The events list displays events for a specified period of time. Alt+M
Select this option to display events from a previous time
period.
Acknowledges all new events.
None
Deletes all events in the list.
None
View details
Provides detailed information about the selected event.
None
Hide details
Hides details for the selected event.
None
User Actions
See About monitoring best
practices on page 15-1
See Monitoring alarms on
page 15-10
See About monitoring best
practices on page 15-1
See About monitoring best
practices on page 15-1
See About monitoring best
practices on page 15-1
See About monitoring best
practices on page 15-1
See About monitoring best
practices on page 15-1
From the Group Events window, you can:
•
Display all events or events of a specific priority. Pull down the View menu and select the events you want to
display.
•
Retrieve previous events. To retrieve the most recent 100 events, click the More icon (
retrieve the next 100 events.
•
Acknowledge all events. Unacknowledged events appear in bold. To acknowledge the receipt of all event
messages, click the Acknowledge all icon ( ).
•
Clear the event list. To erase all the events from the panel, click the Clear event list icon (
the events again, click the More icon.
•
Show or hide details, by doing any of the following:
•
15–2
Move the pointer over an event. A pop-up window appears, showing event details.
). Click it again to
). To show
Group Administration
Group monitoring
•
Double-click an event. The event details panel opens at the bottom of the events list.
•
Select an event and click the View details (
opens at the bottom of the events list.
) or Hide details icons (
). The event details panel
See the online help for information about the data fields and options.
Accessing the event log file on a remote computer
If you configured syslog notification, the group logs events to one or more syslog servers. How you access the
events depends on the syslog configuration.
See Configuring syslog notification on page 14-5.
Accessing events sent to an E-Mail address
If you configured e-mail notification of events, you can view the events by logging into one of the e-mail accounts
that you configured for notification.
See Configuring E-Mail notification on page 14-3.
Monitoring administrative sessions
To monitor administrative statistics, click Monitoring and then Administrative Sessions. The
Administrative Sessions window appears, containing the following panels:
•
•
Active administration sessions – Provides information about the login:
–
Account name, session type, and login time
–
IP of local group and client computer
Administrative login history – Provides information about account usage:
–
Account name, authentication and type
–
Pool access and last login
Double-click the name of a user to open the Modify Administration Account wizard.
See the online help for information about the data fields and options.
Monitoring iSCSI connections
To monitor iSCSI connection statistics for all the targets (volumes and snapshots) in the group, click Monitoring
and then iSCSI Connections. The iSCSI Connections panel provides the following information:
•
Initiator address and target name.
•
Connection time and connection ethernet interface
•
Data transfer volume
15–3
Group Administration
Group monitoring
Check for multiple initiators writing to the same target. This can cause volume corruption if not handled correctly
by the servers.
Note: You can sort the table in the GUI by clicking column headings. By default, the table is sorted by Initiator
address.
See the online help for information about the data fields and options.
Monitoring snapshot schedules
To monitor snapshot schedules, click Monitoring and then Snapshot Schedules. The Snapshot Schedules
panel provides the following information:
•
Name of schedule and the associated volume or collection
•
Type of object created (such as snapshot)
•
Time and data parameters and schedule run status
To display more detail about a schedule, move the pointer over a schedule entry in the panel. A pop-up window
appears, showing additional information such as the:
•
Schedule type (once, daily, hourly)
•
Next time the schedule runs
•
Number of snapshots to keep
You can take the following actions on a schedule:
•
To modify a schedule, either double-click the schedule, or select it and click the Modify icon in the Actions
column. The Modify Schedule dialog box opens. Make the changes, then click OK. You can change the:
•
Schedule name
•
Run date and time
•
Number of snapshots to keep
•
To disable or enable a schedule, select it and click the flag icon (enable or disable). In the confirmation dialog
box, click Yes to disable the schedule.
•
To delete a schedule, select it and click the X icon (delete). In the confirmation dialog box, click Yes to delete
the schedule.
See the online help for information about the data fields and options.
Monitoring replication schedules
To monitor replication schedules, click Monitoring and then Replication Schedules. The Replication
Schedules panel provides the following information:
•
Name of schedule and the associated volume or collection
•
Type of object created (such as snapshot)
15–4
Group Administration
•
Group monitoring
Time and data parameters and schedule run status
To see more detail about a schedule, move the pointer over a schedule entry in the panel. A pop-up window
appears, showing additional information such as the:
•
Partner for the replication
•
Schedule type (once, daily, hourly)
•
Next date and time the schedule runs
•
Schedule status (enabled, disabled or expired)
•
Replication partner name
•
Number of replicas to keep
You can take the following actions on a schedule:
•
To modify a schedule, either double-click the schedule, or select it and click the Modify icon in the Actions
column. The Modify Schedule dialog box opens. Make the changes, then click OK. You can change the:
•
Schedule name
•
Run date and time
•
Number of replicas to keep
•
To disable or enable a schedule, select it and click the flag icon (enable or disable). In the confirmation dialog
box, click Yes to disable the schedule.
•
To delete a schedule, select it and click the X icon (delete). In the confirmation dialog box, click Yes to delete
the schedule.
See the online help for information about the data fields and options.
Monitoring replication
If you are replicating volume data, you should monitor replication operations to ensure that each operation
completes.
From the Monitoring tab in the navigation panel, you can see information about:
•
Outbound replication (all volumes on the group configured for replication)
•
Inbound replication (all replica sets stored in the group from all partners replicating to this group)
•
Replication history (history of all outbound replications)
See the online help for information about the data fields and options.
In addition, you should monitor the usage of delegated space. If free delegated space is not available, replica
reserve cannot increase automatically. You can also monitor replica reserve for a volume. Insufficient replica
reserve limits the number of replicas.
For details about displaying information about replication partners, see Monitoring replication partners on page
15-9.
15–5
Group Administration
Group monitoring
Table 15-3 describes some best practices for monitoring replication between groups. The first column lists the
monitoring condition, the second column describes it, and the third column provides a reference for more
information about addressing the issue.
Table 15-3: Replication Monitoring Best Practices
Monitor
Incomplete replication
operations
Incomplete manual
transfer operations or
failback operations
Low free delegated
space
Number of replicas
Description
If a replication operation fails to complete, you might need to
increase replication space.
Some operations require multiple tasks that administrators must
complete. Make sure you complete all multi-task operations.
Reference
See Monitoring replication on
page 15-5
See Monitoring replication on
page 15-5
If delegated space is low, replica reserve space might not be able to See Monitoring a specific
increase automatically to store new replicas.
partner on page 15-10 and
Monitoring inbound replication
on page 15-8
If too many replicas exist, consider decreasing the replica reserve See Monitoring inbound
percentage. If too few replicas exist, consider increasing the replica replication on page 15-8
reserve percentage.
A low free replica reserve can indicate optimal use of replica
reserve space, if the desired number of replicas exist.
Monitoring outbound replication
Outbound replication transfers volume data from the current group to a replication partner.
To monitor outbound replication, click Monitoring and then Outbound Replication. The Outbound
Replication panel provides the following information:
•
Volume and partner name
•
Transfer status, start time, and amount of data transferred
See the online help for information about the data fields and options.
To see more detail about a volume in the list, move the pointer over the volume name. A pop-up window appears,
listing the following:
•
Volume name
•
Storage pool
•
Thin provisioning status (enabled or disabled)
•
Reported size, volume reserve, and snapshot reserve
•
Current and requested status (online or offline)
•
Access type (read-write permission and whether shared for cluster access)
•
Replication partner
•
Description, if any
15–6
Group Administration
Group monitoring
You can take the following actions:
•
Click a volume name to navigate to the Volumes Status window.
•
Double-click a row to navigate to the Outbound Replicas window.
Table 15-4 shows the outbound replication operation status. The first column lists the status values, the second
column provides descriptions, and the third column provides solutions.
Table 15-4: Outbound Replication Operation Status
Status
authfailure
cancelling
completed
disabled
failed
Description
Failed authentication between the
replication partners.
Administrator cancelled the replication
operation.
Most recent replication is complete.
Administrator disabled replication for
the volume.
Volume replication failed.
inprogress
Volume replication is in progress.
manual-transfer-in-progress Manual transfer is in progress.
partner-down
Volume replication cannot continue
because the partner is unavailable.
partner-paused-inbound
partner-paused-outbound
pause-max-snaps-reached
paused
paused-remote-reserve-low
Partner administrator paused inbound
replication.
Partner administrator paused outbound
replication.
Replication paused because the
secondary group contains the maximum
number of replicas or snapshots for a
group.
Administrator paused replication to the
partner.
Replication paused because of
insufficient replica reserve.
paused-remote-resize-failed Replica reserve resize operation failed
due to insufficient delegated space.
ready
Replication between the partners is
correctly configured and is ready to
process new replication operations.
remote-disallow-downgrade- Replication paused because the
not-set
secondary group did not disallow
firmware downgrades.
remote-partner-needsReplication paused because the
upgrade
secondary group is running incompatible
firmware.
Solution
Make sure you configured the partners
with the correct passwords.
None needed; informational
None needed; informational
None needed; informational
Examine the event log for information
about the failure and correct the
problem.
None needed; informational
None needed; informational
Make sure the network link between the
partners is configured correctly and
functioning.
None needed; informational
None needed; informational
Delete replicas or snapshots on the
secondary group.
None needed; informational
On the primary group, increase the
replica reserve percentage. An event
message specifies the amount to which
the replica reserve must be increased for
the replication to complete. Replication
continues automatically.
On the secondary group, increase the
space delegated to the primary group.
None needed; informational.
On the secondary group, disallow
downgrades.
Upgrade secondary group firmware to
the same firmware as the primary group.
Replication resumes automatically.
15–7
Group Administration
Group monitoring
Table 15-4: Outbound Replication Operation Status (Continued)
Status
remote-replicaset-isrecovery-volume
waiting
Description
The replica set on the partner has been
promoted to a recovery volume.
Replication data transfer did not start
because the group cannot create more
iSCSI sessions.
Solution
Demote the recovery volume on the
partner and retry the replication.
In most cases, the problem resolves
itself, and replication continues
automatically.
Monitoring inbound replication
Inbound replication stores volume data on the current group, in replica sets, from a replication partner.
To monitor inbound replication, click Monitoring and then Inbound Replication. The Inbound Replication
panel provides the following information:
•
Volume and partner name
•
Replication start time and status
•
Amount of data transferred
See the online help for information about the data fields and options.
Table 15-5 shows the inbound replication operation status, its description, and how to solve any issues.
Table 15-5: Inbound Replication Operation
Status
authfailure
farenddown
inprogress
ready
stopped
unmanaged
waiting
Description
Authentication between the partners failed.
Solution
Make sure you configured the partners with the
correct passwords.
No communication with the primary group for Correct the network problems or make sure the
primary group is available.
one hour or more.
Replication is in progress.
None needed; informational.
None needed; informational.
Replication is correctly configured on the
volume.
Administrator paused replication.
None needed; informational.
If these replicas are no longer needed, you can
Delegated space capacity on the secondary
delete them or permanently promote them to a
group that is no longer accessible from the
volume.
primary group. This can happen when the
original volume is no longer available or no
longer configured for replication.
Replication data transfer did not start because In most cases, the problem resolves itself, and
the group cannot create more iSCSI sessions.
replication continues automatically.
To see more detail about a replica set in the list, move the pointer over the replica set name. A pop-up window
appears, listing the:
•
Replica set name
•
Storage pool where the replica set is stored on the current group
•
Thin provisioning status (enabled or disabled)
15–8
Group Administration
Group monitoring
•
Maximum reserve, snapshot reserve, and free space
•
How the latest replication occurred (over the network or through Manual Transfer Replication)
•
Whether a failback snapshot is enabled
•
Current and operational status (online or offline)
•
Number of replicas in the replica set
•
Description, if any
Click a replica set name or double-click a row to navigate to the Inbound Replicas window for that partner, with the
replica set selected and its detail shown.
Monitoring outbound replication history
To see replication history, click Monitoring and then Replication History. The Outbound Replication
History panel provides the following information:
•
Volume and partner name
•
Replication start time, duration, and status
•
Amount of data transferred and the transfer speed
See the online help for information about the data fields and options.
Table 15-6 describes replica status and descriptions.
Table 15-6: Replica Status
Status
complete
incomplete or in progress
Description
Replication operation is complete, and all the data is on the secondary group.
Replication operation is not complete.
A replication operation cannot start if another operation replication for the same
volume is in progress.
Periodically examine the replication duration information. If you see long replication times, make sure the network
connection between the partners is sufficient. A slow network link between the partners can cause long replication
times. If a replication operation makes no progress, the group generates a warning event. Make sure you have
adequate network bandwidth between the groups, in addition to full IP routing. If necessary, increase the network
bandwidth.
In the Transferred column, check how much data you are replicating. You might want to use manual transfer
replication if you are transferring a large amount of data.
Monitoring replication partners
You can display information about all the configured replication partners for a group. This information includes
both outbound details (volumes on this group replicating to others) and inbound (replication from other groups to
this group).
15–9
Group Administration
Group monitoring
To display a list of all the replication partners for a group, click Replication and then Replication
Partners.
The Delegated Space panel shows all the delegated space for all partners, and how much free space is available.
The Replication panel shows all the replications, and their direction, between this group and all configured
partners.
You should monitor the usage of delegated space. If free delegated space is not available, replica reserve cannot
increase automatically.
Monitoring a specific partner
To display details about a specific partner, click Replication and then the replication partner.
The General Partner Information panel shows the partner name, IP address, and contact information.
The Replication Status panel shows the status of outbound and inbound replications between this partner and the
group. In this panel, check the amount of free delegated space. If free delegated space is low and the replica volume
reserve for each replicated volume has not reached its maximum (and, therefore, can increase), consider increasing
the delegated space.
The Replication Progress panel shows any in-process replication activity between the groups.
For each partner, you can display details about the following:
•
Inbound replica collections
•
Inbound replicas
•
Outbound replica collections
•
Outbound replicas
Monitoring alarms and operations
The Alarms and Operations panel at the bottom of the GUI displays a visual cue to alarm conditions in the group,
as well as in-progress operations. Some operations might need administrator intervention.
To open or close the Alarms and Operations panel, click the panel header or the arrow in the header.
Monitoring alarms
The group generates an alarm if a persistent hardware condition occurs in a member (for example, high
temperature or a failed power supply). Alarms help you discover and correct problems before they disrupt
operations. Make sure you investigate all alarms. See About hardware alarms on page 14-2.
Each alarm has a priority level, based on the severity of the problem:
•
Warning – Condition that decreases performance or can become critical if you do not correct it. See Displaying
warning alarms on page 15-12.
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•
Group monitoring
Critical – Serious problem that can cause damage to the array or data loss. See Displaying critical alarms on
page 15-11.
When an alarm occurs:
•
The Alarms panel header flashes. Click the header to open and close the panel.
•
The group generates a corresponding event message.
•
LEDs on the array chassis light.
The Alarms panel header is divided into two areas: Alarms and Operations. Each header includes icons that match
the tabs in the panel.
Alarms header icons are as follows:
•
Critical (red circle with an X) and a count of all critical alarms
•
Warning (yellow triangle with an exclamation mark) and a count of all warning alarms
•
Actions (light bulb) with a count of all actions needed
Operations header icons are as follows:
•
Group operations (gear) with a count of all in-process operations
•
Failback operations (volume cylinder with an arrow) and a count of all in-process failback operations
Each alarm entry includes the severity, the member that reported the alarm (if applicable), and the message text.
Move the pointer over the message text to display more information.
Alarms remain in the Alarms panel until you correct the condition or complete the task. However, the event
message associated with the alarm remains in the event log even after the task is complete or the condition is
corrected.
Click the Acknowledge all icon (
). in the Alarms panel to acknowledge all alarms.
Displaying critical alarms
Open the Alarms and Operations panel and click the Critical tab to display Critical alarms.
Table 15-7 shows the data fields available in the Critical tab.
Table 15-7: Alarms and Operations Panel - Critical Tab
Column
Severity
Description
Severity of the alarm.
User Actions
Monitoring alarms and operations on page 15-10
Object
Object to which the alarm applies.
Accessing the alarms panel on page 3-4
Monitoring alarms and operations on page 15-10
Condition
Condition that triggered the alarm.
Accessing the alarms panel on page 3-4
Monitoring alarms and operations on page 15-10
Accessing the alarms panel on page 3-4
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Critical alarms appear on the Critical tab of the Alarms panel. A critical alarm indicates a serious problem that
can cause damage to the array or data loss. Correct the problem that causes a critical alarm immediately.
Note: Critical alarms correspond to ERROR events.
Critical alarms include:
•
•
•
•
Data integrity:
–
RAID is not functioning.
–
More than one valid RAID set in the array.
–
Full lost block table.
Cache:
–
Control module cache has lost data.
–
Cache battery is not charging because it exceeds the temperature limit.
–
Cache contains data that does not belong to any of the installed disk drives.
Cooling component fault
–
Array temperature exceeds upper or lower limit.
–
Missing fan tray or cooling module.
–
Both fans failed on a fan tray or cooling module.
Hardware component fault:
–
Failed NVRAM coin cell battery.
–
Control modules are different models.
–
Failed critical hardware component.
–
Missing or failed operations panel (not all array models).
–
Failed array monitoring processor (not all array models).
Displaying warning alarms
Open the Alarms and Operations panel and click the Warnings tab to display Warning alarms.
Table 15-8 shows the data fields available in the Warning tab.
Table 15-8: Alarms and Operations Panel - Warning Tab
Column
Severity
Object
Condition
Description
Severity of the alarm.
Object to which the alarm applies.
Condition that triggered the alarm.
User Actions
Monitoring alarms and operations on page 15-10
Monitoring alarms and operations on page 15-10
Monitoring alarms and operations on page 15-10
Warning alarms appear on the Warnings tab of the Alarms panel. A warning alarm indicates a condition that
decreases performance or can become critical if you do not correct it.
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Note: Warning alarms correspond to WARNING events.
Warning alarms include:
•
•
•
•
Data integrity:
–
Degraded, but functioning RAID set.
–
RAID (volume-level) has lost blocks.
–
Installed spare drive does not have enough capacity to replace a RAID set drive.
Hardware Component:
–
Failed non-critical hardware component.
–
Component temperature is near upper or lower limit.
–
Fan RPMs exceed upper or lower limit.
–
Failed power supply fan.
–
Missing power supply.
–
Power supply does not have power.
Control Module:
–
One installed control module.
–
Control module failover occurred.
–
Control module has insufficient RAM.
–
Lock on secondary control module is open (not all array models).
–
Active control module syncing with secondary.
–
No communication between control modules.
Batteries:
–
Real-time-clock battery has low charge.
–
Cache battery has less than 72 hours of charge.
Monitoring actions
Open the Alarms and Operations panel and click the Actions tab to display any steps that you must complete. See
Monitoring alarms and operations on page 15-10.
Table 15-9 shows the data fields available in the Actions tab.
Table 15-9: Alarms and Operations Panel - Actions Tab
Column
Severity
Object
Condition
Description
Severity of the action.
Object to which the action applies.
Action taking place.
User Actions
Monitoring group operations on page 15-14
Monitoring group operations on page 15-14
Monitoring group operations on page 15-14
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Some complex operations, such as manual transfer replication, require administrators to perform multiple tasks.
To display incomplete tasks, open the Alarms and Operations panel and click the Actions tab.
If a multi-task operation is in progress, the GUI displays the incomplete tasks. Make sure you complete all multitask operations.
Monitoring group operations
Open the Alarms and Operations panel and click the Group Operations tab to display group management
operations (for example, moving a member to another pool) and actions you might need to take.
Table 15-10 shows the data fields available in the Group Operations tab.
Table 15-10: Alarms and Operations - Group Operations Tab
Column
Started
Description
Date and time the operation started.
User Actions
About event messages on page 14-1
Object
Object on which the operation is performed.
Accessing the alarms panel on page 3-4
About event messages on page 14-1
Operation
Type of operation performed.
Accessing the alarms panel on page 3-4
About event messages on page 14-1
Status
Status of the operation.
Accessing the alarms panel on page 3-4
About event messages on page 14-1
Progress of the operation.
Accessing the alarms panel on page 3-4
About event messages on page 14-1
Progress
Actions
Contains an option for canceling in-progress
operations.
Accessing the alarms panel on page 3-4
About event messages on page 14-1
Accessing the alarms panel on page 3-4
The Alarms and Operations panel displays details about in-process operations in the group, including moving
volumes or members to another pool, moving a partner’s delegated space to another pool, or deleting a member.
Depending on the operation, you might be able to perform actions on it, such as canceling it.
Monitoring failback operations
Open the Alarms and Operations panel and click the Failback Operations tab to display failback operations
and any actions you might need to take.
Table 15-11 shows the data fields available in the Failback Operations tab.
Table 15-11: Alarms and Operations - Failback Operations Tab
Column
Name
Executing On
Description
Name of the recovery volume participating in the
failback operation. Expand the volume to display the
status of the individual tasks in the operation.
Partner on which the operation is taking place.
User Actions
Monitoring replication partners on page 15-9
Monitoring failback operations on page 15-14
Monitoring replication partners on page 15-9
Monitoring failback operations on page 15-14
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Table 15-11: Alarms and Operations - Failback Operations Tab (Continued)
Column
Status
Description
Status of the operation.
User Actions
Monitoring replication partners on page 15-9
Started
Time and date the operation started.
Monitoring failback operations on page 15-14
Monitoring replication partners on page 15-9
Monitoring failback operations on page 15-14
Monitoring storage pool free space
You must maintain sufficient free pool space to ensure that load balancing, thin provisioning, member removal,
snapshot, and replication operations perform optimally.
1. Click Group and then Storage Pools. The Storage Pool Summary window appears.
2. Check the free pool space value in the Storage Pools panel. Dell recommends that free pool space does not fall
below the following, whichever is smaller:
•
5% of the total pool space
•
100 GB multiplied by the number of pool members
You can increase free pool space by moving volumes from the low-space pool to a different pool. See Moving a
volume to a pool on page 7-5.
You can expand pool capacity by moving a member to the pool.
To sort the table, by click a column heading. The table is sorted by Volume Template by default.
Monitoring group members
Member hardware problems typically cause event messages and alarms. Monitor the member hardware and replace
any failed components immediately.
1. Click Group and then Members. The Group Disk Space panel shows the total amount of free space in the
group and in each pool (if applicable).
The Group Members panel lists all members, the pool to which each member belongs, the capacity and
amount of free space, RAID policy, number of disks, status, PS Series Firmware version (should be the same
for all members), and the number of iSCSI connections to each member. (This indicates the number of volumes
or snapshots with data on that member that are connected to an initiator. Nothing connects directly to a
member.)
2. Check the following:
•
Member status – Table 15-13 describes member status. If a member is offline, investigate the cause.
Volumes with data on an offline member are also offline. If a member has a problem, double-click the
member to display additional information.
•
Low free space – Low free space in a member might indicate that overall group space is low. You can free
space in a member by adding more members to the same pool (the group distributes volume data across the
pool members).
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Monitoring a specific member
Click Group, expand Members, then select the member name, and then click the Status tab.
Displaying general member information
In the General Member Information panel, check the RAID status. Table 15-12 describes the RAID status values
and provides possible solutions where appropriate.
Table 15-12 shows RAID status for a member. The first column lists the status values, the second column provides
descriptions, and the third column provides solutions.
Table 15-12: RAID Status
Status
catastrophicLoss
degraded
expanding
failed
ok
reconstructing
verifying
Description
Disk array lost group metadata or user data. The array does not
initialize.
A RAID set is in a degraded state. If the member RAID level is
RAID 5, RAID 50, or RAID 6, performance might be impaired.
Disk array is expanding (for example, because you installed
additional disk drives or changed the member RAID policy).
Multiple disk drive failures occurred in the same RAID set. The
member is set offline.
Disk array initialization is complete. Performance is normal.
Solution
Contact your support
provider.
Identify and replace any
failed drives.
None needed;
informational.
Contact your support
provider.
None needed;
informational.
Disk array is reconstructing data on a drive (for example, because a Identify and replace any
failed drives.
drive failed, and a spare is replacing it). During reconstruction,
performance might decrease. After reconstruction, performance
returns to normal, unless a RAID set is degraded.
Disk array is initializing (for example, because you set the member None needed;
RAID policy).
informational.
Displaying member health status
1. Click Group, then expand Members, then select the member name, and then click the Status tab.
2. In the Member Health Status panel:
•
Click Front view to display the front panel of the array.
•
Click Rear view to display the back panel of the array, including the control modules and the power
supply and cooling modules. The front and rear views shown in your GUI depend on the array model of the
group member.
•
Click Inside view (not available on all array models) to display the interior disk drive slots.
•
Click View alarms to display all the alarms for the member.
A red X over a hardware component indicates uninstalled or unconfigured hardware. A warning or error status
symbol in the array graphic indicates a failed or failing component. Move the pointer over a component to show
status details.
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Table 15-13 shows member status, description, and how to solve any issues.
Table 15-13: Member Status
Status
unconfigured
initializing
online
Description
You did not select a RAID policy for the member.
Member is initializing according to the selected
RAID policy.
Array is a functioning member of the group.
Member is unavailable, failed, or power was
removed.
vacating-in-progress Member is moving data to the remaining pool
members before it is removed from the group.
offline
vacated
Solution
None needed; informational.
None needed; informational.
None needed; informational. A member
can experience a failure but still be
online.
Identify and correct the problem.
None needed; informational. This can
be a long operation, based on the
amount of data that must be moved to
the other pool members.
Member has successfully moved its data to the other None needed; informational.
pool members before it is removed from the group.
Displaying member space
Click Group, then expand Members, then select the member name, and then click the Status tab.
The Member Space panel shows the total amount of usable space on the member, how much space is used by
volumes, snapshots, and replicas, and the amount of free space, numerically and in a graphic.
Using LEDs to identify a member
If a hardware failure occurs in a member, the group generates an alarm which causes the member LED to light.
In addition, to help you identify a member, you can make the fan tray LED and the control module ERR LED on
the member chassis flash.
•
To make a member’s LED flash, click Group, then expand Members, then select the member name, and then
click Start LEDs flashing.
•
To stop flashing a member’s LED, click Group, then expand Members, then select the member name, and then
click Stop LEDs flashing
Warning: Never turn off power to a group member unless the member has been cleanly shut down. See Shutting
down a member on page 6-14.
Monitoring the member enclosure
The member enclosure information includes the power supplies, cooling fans (usually integrated into the power
supplies), and, on some array models, channel cards and an EIP card.
To display the member enclosure information, click Group, then expand Members, then select the member name,
and then click the Enclosure tab.
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Monitoring power supplies
A member has two or three power supplies. Most PS Series arrays use power supplies that have integrated cooling
modules.
A member can survive one power supply failure. Replace failed power supplies as soon as possible.
For proper cooling, do not remove a power supply until you have a replacement.
For information about replacing a power supply, see the Hardware Maintenance manual for your array model or
contact your PS Series support provider.
The Power Supplies panel shows the status of the power supplies. The number and type of hardware components
shown depends on your array model.
Table 15-14 shows power supply status and possible solutions. The first column lists the status values, the second
column provides descriptions, and the third column provides solutions.
Table 15-14: Power Supply Status
Status
OK
no-power
failed
Description
Array is receiving power from the power supply.
Power supply is not installed or not connected to a
power source, or the power supply is not turned on (not
all power supply models).
Power supply failure.
Solution
None needed; informational.
Keep all power supplies installed and connected to a
power source. If the power supply has a power
switch, make sure the power switch is on.
See your PS Series support provider for information
about replacing the power supply.
Monitoring cooling and fans
A member has two or three cooling modules and multiple fans. Most PS Series arrays use power supplies that have
integrated cooling modules.
Periodically, feel the room temperature where the hardware is located and make sure that the room is sufficiently
cool and ventilated. Also make sure the fan trays and cooling modules have no red LEDs, and monitor the member
temperature.
A member can survive one cooling module failure. Replace failed cooling modules as soon as possible.
The Cooling Fans panel shows the status of the fans on the cooling modules. Table 15-15 shows the cooling fan
status. These status values apply to array models with combination power supply and cooling modules. The first
column lists the status values, the second column provides descriptions, and the third provides solutions.
Table 15-15: Cooling Fan Status
Status
fan-present
fan-notpresent
Description
Cooling modules and fan are functioning.
Cooling module or fan failed, or the cooling
module is not installed, not turned on, or not
connected to a power source.
Solution
None needed; informational.
Install a functioning cooling module, make sure the
cooling module is connected to a power source, or
turn on the cooling module (not available on all
cooling module models).
See your PS Series support provider for information
about replacing a failed cooling module.
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The Temperature Sensors panel shows the current temperature for the various array controllers and processors, in
addition to the normal temperature range. Table 15-16 describes the array temperature status, descriptions, and how
to solve any issues.
Table 15-16: Array Temperature Status
Status
normal
warning
critical
Description
Temperature is within normal range.
Temperature is outside normal range, but within
limits.
Temperature is outside operating limits.
Solution
None needed; informational.
Check that all fans are working properly. Monitor the
temperature carefully.
Check that all fans are working properly. Make sure the
air conditioning system is working correctly, and make
sure there is air flow around the array. If a processor
temperature stays high, replace the control module.
See your PS Series support provider for information
about replacing a failed cooling module.
Multiple fan failures increase the array temperature. A high temperature results in event messages. The array might
shut down before damage occurs.
Some PS Series arrays also show the ambient temperature, which is calculated in Celsius from the two sensor
temperatures with the highest temperatures, using the following formula:
((Backplane Sensor 0 + Backplane Sensor 1) / 2) – 7
Monitoring channel cards
Some array models include redundant channel cards. An array continues to operate if a channel card fails. You can
replace the failed channel card with no impact on group operation.
Table 15-17 shows channel card status, descriptions, and how to solve any issues.
Table 15-17: Channel Card Status
Status
good
failed
not-present
Description
Channel card is functioning normally.
Channel card failure.
Solution
None needed; informational.
Contact your PS Series support provider for
information about replacing a channel card.
Channel card is missing or status is unavailable. Contact your PS Series support provider for
information about installing or replacing a
channel card.
For information about replacing channel cards, see the Hardware Maintenance manual for your array model or
contact your PS Series support provider.
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Monitoring the EIP card
Some array models include an Enclosure Interface Processor (EIP) card. An array continues to operate if the
EIP card fails. You can replace the failed EIP card with no impact on group operation.
In the Member Enclosure window, the EIP card panel shows the EIP card status.
Table 15-18 describes EIP card status, descriptions, and how to solve any issues.
Table 15-18: EIP Card Status
Status
good
failed
Description
EIP card is functioning normally.
EIP card failure.
not-present
EIP card is missing or status is unavailable.
Solution
None needed; informational.
Contact your PS Series support provider for
information about replacing an EIP card.
Contact your PS Series support provider for
information about installing or replacing an EIP
card.
For information about replacing the EIP card, see the Hardware Maintenance manual for your array model or
contact your PS Series support provider.
Monitoring control modules
Each group member has one or two control modules installed. One control module is designated as active
(responsible for serving I/O to the member). On the active control module the LED labeled ACT is lit.
In a dual control module array, the other control module is secondary (mirrors cache data from the active control
module). Upon startup, either control module can be designated active or secondary, regardless of its previous
status.
Under normal operation, the status of a control module (active or secondary) does not change, unless you restart the
member.
In a single control module array, if the control module fails, the member is offline.
In a dual control module array, if the active control module fails, the secondary control module becomes active and
begins serving I/O. This is called control module failover. I/O should continue if you connect cables to the newly
active control module.
For information about replacing control modules, see the Hardware Maintenance manual for your array model or
contact your PS Series support provider.
To display control module information, click Group, then expand Members, then select the member name, and
then click the Controllers tab.
Each Control Module Slot panel shows the following information:
•
Status. See Table 15-19.
•
Boot time.
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•
Cache battery status and NVRAM battery status. See Table 15-20 and Table 15-21 for descriptions of battery
status and possible solutions where appropriate.
•
Model number.
•
Boot ROM version.
•
PS Series firmware version.
An empty slot means that a control module is not installed or has failed.
For information about replacing a control module, see the Hardware Maintenance manual for your array model or
contact your PS Series support provider. Do not remove a failed control module until you have a replacement.
The Memory Cache panel displays the cache mode. Control module and battery status affect the cache mode.
Write-through mode might impair performance. Identify why the cache is in write-through mode and correct the
problem, if necessary. See About write cache operations on page 6-11.
Control module status
Table 15-19 describes the control module status, descriptions, and how to solve any issues.
Table 15-19: Control Module Status
Status
active
secondary
Description
Serving I/O to the member.
Mirroring cache data from the active
control module.
Solution
None needed; informational.
None needed; informational.
Cache battery status
Table 15-20 describes the control module cache battery status, descriptions, and how to solve any issues.
Table 15-20: Cache Battery Status
Status
ok
failed
missing battery
low voltage
low voltage, is charging
good battery, is charging
Description
Battery is fully charged.
Battery failure.
Solution
None needed; informational.
Contact your service provider for
information about replacing batteries.
Battery is missing.
Contact your service provider for
information about replacing batteries.
Battery is below the limit for normal
If the battery status is low voltage
operation.
for an extended period of time, contact
your PS Series service provider for
information about replacing batteries.
Battery is charging but is still below the If the battery status is low voltage,
limit for normal operation.
is charging for an extended period
of time, contact your PS Series service
provider for information about replacing
batteries.
Battery is charging but has enough
None needed; informational.
charge for normal operation.
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NVRAM battery status
Table 15-21 describes the control module NVRAM coin cell battery status, descriptions, and how to solve any
issues. Not every array has an NVRAM battery.
Table 15-21: NVRAM Battery Status
Status
good
bad
Description
Battery installed and fully charged.
Battery failure.
not-present
Battery is not installed.
unknown
Battery status is not known.
Solution
None needed; informational.
Contact your PS Series service provider
for information about replacing batteries.
Contact your PS Series service provider
for information about replacing batteries.
Contact your PS Series service provider
for information about replacing batteries.
Monitoring disk drives
Make sure you detect and replace failed disk drives as soon as possible. Although spare disks and RAID protect
data against disk failures, multiple disk failures might put data in jeopardy.
To display the disk drive information, click Group, expand Members, then select the member name, and then click
the Disks tab.
The Disk Array Summary panel shows the disk drives in the member. The number and type of drives shown
depends on your array model.
The Installed Disks panel shows more information about each disk, including the slot, type, model and revision,
size, status, and errors. Closely monitor drives with errors.
Disk drive status
Table 15-22 shows disk drive status, descriptions, and how to solve any issues.
Table 15-22: Disk Drive Status
Status
too-small
failed
foreign
history-of-failures
offline
online
15–22
Description
Disk drive is smaller than other drives in
the member. The drive cannot be used in
the member.
Disk drive failure.
Solution
Replace the drive with a drive that has
the same size or a greater size than the
installed drives.
See your PS Series support provider for
information about replacing failed disk
drives.
Disk drive has a foreign label. The drive To use the drive, click foreign disk
was probably removed from a different and clear the label.
array and then installed in this array.
Previously failed disk drive.
See your support provider. To use the
drive, click history-of-failure and
agree to use the disk.
Indicates that the disk drive does not fall See your PS Series support provider.
into the other status categories.
Disk drive is functioning.
None needed; informational.
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Group monitoring
Table 15-22: Disk Drive Status (Continued)
Status
spare
unsupported-version
Description
Disk drive is a spare drive.
Disk drive cannot use the firmware
running on the member.
Solution
None needed; informational.
See your PS Series support provider.
Warning: A disk drive failure in a RAID 5 or RAID 10 set that is degraded might result in data loss.
When a drive in a RAID set fails, a member behaves as follows:
•
If a spare disk drive is available: Data from the failed drive is reconstructed on the spare. During the
reconstruction, the RAID set that contains the failed drive is temporarily degraded.
•
If a spare disk drive is not available, and the RAID set has not reached the maximum number of drive
failures: The RAID set that contains the failed drive is degraded. For RAID 5, RAID 50, or RAID 6,
performance might decrease.
•
If a spare disk drive is not available, and the RAID set has reached the maximum number of drive
failures: The member is set offline, and any volumes and snapshots that have data stored on the member are
set offline. Data might be lost and must be recovered from a backup or replica.
When you replace a failed disk, a member behaves as follows:
•
If a spare disk drive was used: The new drive automatically becomes a spare, with no effect on performance.
•
If a RAID set was degraded: Data is automatically reconstructed on the new drive and performance goes
back to normal after reconstruction.
•
If a member was offline because of multiple RAID set drive failures: Any volumes snapshots with data on
the member are set offline and data might be lost.
In some cases, a member might detect a problem with a disk drive. The member automatically copies the data on
the failing disk drive to a spare disk drive, with no impact on availability and little impact on performance. The
group generates event messages informing you of the progress of the copy-to-spare operation. I/O is written to both
drives until the copy-to-spare operation completes. If the disk drive completely fails during the operation, data is
reconstructed on the spare using parity data, as usual.
Replace any failed disks immediately. For information about replacing disk drives, see the Hardware Maintenance
manual for your array model or contact your PS Series support provider.
Monitoring network hardware
A member must have at least one functioning network interface connected to a network and configured with an IP
address. Each control module has multiple Ethernet ports.
If you experience network problems, group members might lose the ability to communicate with each other over
the network. In such a group, some management operations are not allowed. For example, you cannot change the
IP addresses of an isolated member.
If the members of a group cannot communicate, identify and correct the network problems. This restores the group
to normal full operation, including network communication.
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To display the network information, click Group, expand Members, then select the member name, and then click
the Network tab.
The Status of Network Interfaces panel shows the following information:
•
•
Operational status – This is the current status of the network interface and can be:
–
up – Operational, connected to a functioning network, configured with an IP address and subnet mask, and
enabled.
–
down – Not operational, not connected to a functioning network, not configured with an IP address or
subnet mask, or disabled.
Requested status – This status is set by administrative action:
–
enabled – Configured and serving I/O.
–
disabled – Not serving I/O. Might be configured.
If the operational status is down, but the requested status is enabled, identify and correct the error.
To protect against network interface or port failure, connect multiple network interfaces on both control
modules to the network.
•
Speed – Make sure that the interface speed is adequate.
•
MTU size – The path MTU size depends on the iSCSI initiator setting.
•
Packet errors – A few packet errors are not usually a problem. If a large number of packet errors occur, network
problem or a network interface or port failure might exist. Identify and correct the problem.
The IP Configuration panel shows each interface and its IP address, netmask, MAC address and description, if any.
Monitoring iSCSI connections to a member
To display all connections to a member, click Group, expand Members, select the member name, and then click the
Connections tab.
The iSCSI Connections panel shows information about the initiator address, which volume or snapshot it is
connected to (Target column), how long the connection has been active, and which Ethernet port the initiator is
using.
Check for multiple initiators writing to the same iSCSI target. This can cause target corruption if not handled
correctly by the servers.
Monitoring volumes, collections, and snapshots
You can monitor volume and snapshot status, volume space usage, volume free space, and snapshot reserve.
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Monitoring volumes and snapshots
Make sure volumes and snapshots are online or offline. Make sure that thin-provision volumes are not about to run
out of volume reserve. Also check free volume space.
To display information for all group volumes, click Volumes in the lower-left panel and then click Volumes in the
far-left panel. The Volume Summary window appears.
To display detailed information about a specific volume, expand Volumes and select the volume name. The
Volume Status window appears. To display snapshot information, expand a volume name and select a snapshot
timestamp. The Snapshot Status window appears.
Monitor volume and snapshot space as follows:
•
For volumes that are not thin-provisioned, check for in-use space that is near a volume’s reported size. When
free volume space is exhausted, writes to the volume fail, potentially disrupting applications, but the volume
remains online.
To increase free volume space, increase the reported volume size. See Increasing the reported size of a volume
on page 10-5.
•
For thin-provisioned volumes, check for in-use space that is near the maximum in-use space setting.
Thin-provisioned volumes are set offline if their maximum in-use space is set to less than 100% and a write
exceeds this value. If the maximum in-use space is set to 100%, and a write exceeds this value, the write fails,
but the volume remains online.
To increase free volume space, increase the reported volume size. See Increasing the reported size of a volume
on page 10-5. You can also increase free volume space by increasing the value of the maximum in-use space
value up to 100%.
•
Check the snapshot reserve free space and the space recovery setting. If free snapshot reserve is exceeded, the
space recovery setting controls whether the oldest snapshots are deleted to free space for new snapshots, or the
volume and its snapshots are set offline.
To increase the snapshot reserve or change the space recovery setting, see About snapshot reserve settings on
page 11-2.
Each volume and snapshot has two status values:
•
Requested status – Administrator-applied setting for the volume or snapshot. For example, an administrator
can set a volume online or offline. See Table 15-23.
•
Current status – Actual status of the volume or snapshot, regardless of the requested status. See Table 15-24.
Under normal conditions, the requested status and current status are the same. However, an event in the group can
result in a current status that differs from the requested status.
For example, if an administrator sets a volume online, but a member containing volume data is shut down, the
requested status is online, but the current status is offline-member-down. Always investigate when the
current status is different from the requested status.
The group sets a volume or snapshot offline if network problems occur or if a member that contains volume data is
not available. If the group sets a volume offline because of a problem, the group also sets all its snapshots offline.
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The group also sets a thin-provisioned volume offline if the volume’s maximum in-use space setting is less than
100% and a write exceeds this value.
In the Volume Summary window, check the current volume status in the Volumes panel. The requested status
appears when you move the pointer over the volume in the Volumes panel. If the requested status and current status
are not the same, investigate further.
In the Volume Snapshots window, check the current snapshot status in the Snapshots panel. The requested status
appears when you move the pointer over the snapshot in the Snapshots panel. If the requested status and current
status are not the same, investigate further.
Volume and snapshot requested status
Table 15-23 shows the possible values for the requested status for a volume or snapshot, descriptions, and how to
solve any issues.
Table 15-23: Requested Volume and Snapshot Status
Status
online
offline
online-lost-cached-blocks
Description
Administrator set the volume or snapshot
online.
Administrator set the volume or snapshot
offline. Computers cannot access an
offline volume or snapshot.
Administrator set the volume or snapshot
online despite lost blocks. Authorized
computers can access the volume or
snapshot.
Solution
None needed; informational.
None needed; informational.
None needed; informational.
If an application tries to read a lost
block, an error occurs. If the block is rewritten, no error occurs, and the block no
longer shows a status of lost.
Volume and snapshot current status
Table 15-24 shows the possible values for the current status for a volume or snapshot, descriptions, and how to
solve any issues.
Table 15-24: Current Volume and Snapshot Status
Status
online
offline
offline-snap-reserve-met
15–26
Description
Solution
Administrator set the volume or snapshot None needed; informational. Online
volumes and snapshots are shown in the
online, and no failures have occurred.
far-left panel in black text.
Administrator set the volume or snapshot None needed; informational. Computers
offline.
cannot access the volume or snapshot,
but no failures have occurred. Offline
volumes and snapshots are shown in the
far-left panel in gray text.
Volume or snapshot was automatically Increase the amount of reserved snapshot
set offline due to the selected snapshot space. See About snapshot reserve
recovery policy.
settings on page 11-2.
Group Administration
Group monitoring
Table 15-24: Current Volume and Snapshot Status (Continued)
Status
offline-max-grow-met
Description
A thin-provisioned volume and its
snapshots were automatically set offline
because a write exceeded the maximum
in-use space value.
offline-missing-pages
A volume or snapshot was set offline
because some volume data cannot be
found. This is a serious condition.
The thin-provisioned volume and its
snapshots were set offline because there
was not enough free pool space for the
volume reserve to increase
automatically.
offline-nospace-auto-grow
offline-member-down
offline-lost-cached-blocks
Volume or snapshot was automatically
set offline because a member that
contains volume or snapshot data is
unavailable.
Volume or snapshot was automatically
set offline because blocks were lost.
Computers cannot access the volume or
snapshot.
Solution
Increase the value of the maximum inuse space setting or increase the
volume’s reported size. See Modifying
the thin provisioning space settings on
page 10-4 or Increasing the reported size
of a volume on page 10-5.
Contact your PS Series support provider.
Increase pool free space. For example,
you can add another member to the pool
or move volumes from the pool. See
Moving a member to a pool on page 7-4
and Moving a volume to a pool on page
7-5.
Identify why the member is unavailable
and correct the problem.
Click the status link and select how to
manage the lost blocks. See Managing a
volume or snapshot with lost blocks on
page 10-17 for more information.
Using the Performance Monitor
Use the Performance Monitor to show performance statistics for the drives or control modules in a member. The
Performance Monitor collects statistical data every second.
You can start the Performance Monitor from the Tools menu, or from the Members panel in the Group Manager
GUI.
Starting Performance Monitor from the tools menu
1. Open the Tools menu and click Performance monitor. The Performance Monitor GUI starts.
2. Click Add statistics.
3. In the Select Statistics dialog box:
a. Expand Members
b. Expand a specific member
c. Expand a component or statistics category
d. Select a statistic to display
e. Click OK
The data is displayed in the Performance Monitor main window (Figure 15-1).
15–27
Group Administration
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Starting Performance Monitor from the Group Manager GUI
1. From the Members list, select a member name.
2. On the Disks or Network tab, click a row for a drive or an Ethernet port.
3. In the Statistics Activity panel, select the statistic to display.
The Performance Monitor window opens and displays the selected data (Figure 15-1).
Recommendation: While it is possible to open several Performance Monitor windows at the same time, Dell
recommends running only one to avoid possible unexpected results.
Figure 15-1: Performance Monitor
15–28
Group Administration
Group monitoring
Using the Performance Monitor
Table 15-25 shows the operation icons in the Performance Monitor window.
Table 15-25: Performance Monitor Operations
Click Icon
Operation
Start polling the data.
Stop polling the data.
Go to the start (first item).
Go to the previous item.
Go to the next item.
Go to the end (last item).
Adding, changing, or removing statistics
You can display up to four sets of statistics in the Performance Monitor.
To add more statistics:
1. Click Add statistics.
2. In the Select Statistics dialog box:
a. Expand Members
b. Expand a specific member
c. Expand a component or statistics category
d. Select a statistic to display
e. Click OK
3. To add more sets of statistics (up to four), repeat steps 1 and 2.
In the header of each statistics panel, the following icons perform additional operations:
to select a different data set to display in that panel
•
Click
•
to close (delete) that panel. All other panels remain open in the Performance Monitor window and
Click
are resized to fill the window. You can open a new panel in the window (up to four total).
15–29
Group Administration
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Changing how data is displayed
Table 15-26 shows the icons you use to change the data display. You can view the data as a chart, histogram (bar
graph), or as a data table.
Table 15-26: Changing How Data is Displayed
Icon
Data Format
Chart (line graph)
Options
- Displays data on a linear scale
- Displays data on a logarithmic scale
- Resizes the display (scales in or out or to fit)
Histogram (bar graph)
- Displays data on a linear scale
- Displays data on a logarithmic scale
Data table
- Resizes the display (scales in or out or to fit)
None
Note: The display mode you select applies to all panels currently open in the Performance Monitor window.
Displaying data for a specific point in time
In the chart view (for both linear and logarithmic scales), when you click inside the data window, the cursor
changes to a crosshair. You can click at any place along the graph to display the details for that time slice.
For example, you can click the crosshairs on the peak of a graph line to display the data for that moment in time in
the panel on the left Figure 15-2). In this example, at the peak of the graph, the group is processing 303 output
requests.
15–30
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Figure 15-2: Performance Monitor - Select Data Point
Customizing the Performance Monitor
Within the Performance Monitor window, you can change the following:
•
colors used in graphs
•
length of time between which data points are collected
•
number of data points to save
Changing the display colors
On the left side of the window within each statistics panel, you can change the colors used in the display. Click the
colored box (for example, ) to open the Select a color dialog box (Figure 15-3). You can choose from a
predefined swatch panel, or open the HSB or RGB tabs to specify a custom color value. Click OK when done.
15–31
Group Administration
Group monitoring
Figure 15-3: Performance Monitor- Select a Color Dialog Box
Changing the data collection values
Click Preferences to change:
•
The time interval between data points. The default is 1 second, and the maximum is 60 seconds. You can
choose from a list of predefined intervals (1, 5, 10, 30, and 60) or enter any integer value between 1 and 60; for
example, 45.
•
The number of data points to save. The default is 100 and the maximum is 1000. You can choose from a list of
predefined values (100, 250, 500, or 1000) or enter any integer value between 100 and 1000; for example, 300.
As you choose different values for the interval and number of data points to save, the dialog box shows you the
total amount of time you can save with that combination of values; for example, using an interval of 60 seconds
and saving 300 data points, you can store up to 5 hours of statistics.
Click OK to save your changes. The changes take effect immediately; you do not have to stop and restart polling.
Additional monitoring tools
To enhance your view of PS Series group operation, you can use additional tools:
•
SAN HeadQuarters – Enables you to monitor multiple PS Series groups from a single graphical interface. It
gathers and formats performance data and other vital group information. Analyzing the data might help you
improve performance and more effectively allocate group resources.
Visit the customer support website for more information about SAN HeadQuarters.
•
Multiple Router Traffic Grapher (MRTG) – A supplement to the Performance Monitor, enables you to monitor
the I/O activity, latency, and throughput of volumes and members.
For more information on using MRTG, see the CLI Reference manual.
15–32
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Contacting customer support
The Customer Support website contains downloads for firmware updates, documentation, and other services. You
can also create and log into your customer support account to report a problem and receive direct technical support.
To launch the EqualLogic Customer Support website from the GUI, click Tools and then Customer Support.
For more information about creating or logging into a support account, and receiving technical support, see
Technical Support and Customer Service on page xvii.
Displaying member service information
Click Group, expand Members, select the member name, and then click the Service tab.
In the Member Service window, component and disk information is specific to your array model.
You can display specific information about member hardware (for example, a component model, revision, or serial
number). You can also display the Dell service tag identification for each individual array (not available on all
arrays).
Collecting diagnostic information
In rare cases, an event might occur that only your PS Series support provider can correct. Your support provider
might instruct you to collect encrypted diagnostic information from one or more group members. The group
automatically sends this information to your support provider by using multiple e-mail messages.
Note: Do not collect diagnostic information unless instructed by your support provider.
1. Configure the group to use an SMTP server:
a. Click Group, then Group Configuration, and then the Notifications tab.
b. In the E-Mail Event Notifications panel, under E-Mail Configuration Settings, click Add, enter the IP
address for an SMTP server (or e-mail relay), and click OK.
Use the ip_address:port format to specify a port number other than the default (25).
You can enter up to three IP addresses. The group uses one SMTP server or e-mail relay at any time. The
first server you specify is the default server. The group uses the other servers in the order specified, if the
default server is not available. Click the up and down arrows to change the order.
c. Optionally, in the Sender e-mail address field, enter the address that appears in the message “From”
field.
d. Click Save all changes (Control+S) in the Group Notifications window.
2. Optionally, configure E-Mail Home notification. See Configuring E-Mail home on page 14-4. The support
provider address for E-Mail Home receives the reports.
3. Click Tools and then Diagnostic reports.
4. In the Generate and E-Mail Diagnostics dialog box:
•
Select the member(s) for which you want to generate reports.
15–33
Group Administration
•
Group monitoring
Select whether to send reports to your support provider (requires E-Mail Home), one or two e-mail
addresses (separated by a comma), or both.
Note: Do not change the default settings unless your support provider instructs you to change them.
5. Click OK.
To monitor progress while the group generates diagnostic reports, check the Alarms and Operations panel.
15–34
Appendix A
Legal notices
This appendix lists the third-party copyrights for software used in the PS Series product.
This product contains portions of the NetBSD operating system:
For the most part, the software constituting the NetBSD operating system is not in the public domain; its authors retain their
copyright.
Copyright © 1999-2001 The NetBSD Foundation, Inc.
All rights reserved.
Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without modification, are permitted provided that the following
conditions are met:
Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer.
Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer
in the documentation and/or other materials provided with the distribution.
All advertising materials mentioning features or use of this software must display the following acknowledgement:
This product includes software developed by the NetBSD Foundation, Inc. and its contributors.
Neither the name of the NetBSD Foundation nor the names of its contributors may be used to endorse or promote products
derived from this software without specific prior written permission.
THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE NETBSD FOUNDATION, INC. AND CONTRIBUTORS “AS IS”' AND ANY
EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF
MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE ARE DISCLAIMED. IN NO EVENT SHALL
THE FOUNDATION OR CONTRIBUTORS BE LIABLE FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL,
EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF
SUBSTITUTE GOODS OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION)
HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT LIABILITY, OR
TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY OUT OF THE USE OF THIS
SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGE.
This code is derived from software contributed to The NetBSD Foundation by Charles M. Hannum and by Jason R. Thorpe of
the Numerical Aerospace Simulation Facility, NASA Ames Research Center.
This code is derived from software contributed to The NetBSD Foundation by John T. Kohl and Charles M. Hannum.
This code is derived from software contributed to The NetBSD Foundation by Kevin M. Lahey of the Numerical Aerospace
Simulation Facility, NASA Ames Research Center.
This code is derived from software contributed to The NetBSD Foundation by Jun-ichiro Hagino.
This product includes software developed by Christopher G. Demetriou for the NetBSD Project.
Copyright © 1995, 1996, 1997, 1998 Christopher G. Demetriou.
This code is derived from software contributed to The NetBSD Foundation by Luke Mewburn.
This code is derived from software contributed to The NetBSD Foundation by Klaus Klein.
This code is derived from software contributed to The NetBSD Foundation by Jonathan Stone.
This code is derived from software contributed to The NetBSD Foundation by Jason R. Thorpe.
This code is derived from software contributed to The NetBSD Foundation by UCHIYAMA Yasushi.
This product includes software developed for the NetBSD Project by Wasabi Systems, Inc.
Copyright © 2000-2001 Wasabi Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.
This product includes software developed by the University of California, Berkeley and its contributors. This product includes
software developed by the University of California, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory.
Copyright 1985-1995 The Regents of the University of California.
Copyright 1997-2000 Niels Provos.
This code is derived from software contributed to Berkeley by Ralph Campbell.
A–1
Group Administration
Legal notices
This code is derived from software contributed to Berkeley by Rick Macklem.
Copyright © 1989 Digital Equipment Corporation.
This product includes software developed by Manuel Bouyer.
Copyright © 1999 Manuel Bouyer.
This product includes software developed by Adam Glass.
Copyright © 1994 Adam Glass.
This code is derived from software contributed to Berkeley by Paul Vixie.
This code is derived from software contributed to Berkeley by Chris Torek.
This code is derived from software contributed to Berkeley by Mike Hibler.
This code is derived from software contributed to Berkeley by Paul Borman at Krystal Technologies.
This code is derived from software contributed to Berkeley by Peter McIlroy.
This code is derived from software contributed to Berkeley by Peter McIlroy and by Dan Bernstein at New York University.
This code is derived from software contributed to Berkeley by Stephen Deering of Stanford University.
This code is derived from software contributed to Berkeley by Jeffrey Mogul.
Copyright 1996 The Board of Trustees of The Leland Stanford Junior University.
This product includes software developed by the Computer Systems Laboratory at the University of Utah. Copyright ©
1990,1994 The University of Utah and the Computer Systems Laboratory (CSL). All rights reserved.
This code is derived from software contributed to Berkeley by the Systems Programming Group of the University of Utah
Computer Science Department.
This product contains icons by Mark James under the Creative Commons Attribution 2.5 License (http://
www.famfamfam.com/lab/icons/silk/).
Copyright (c) 2000 Soren S. Jorvang.
Copyright (c) 1993 John Brezak. All rights reserved.
Copyright © 1995 - 2000 WIDE Project. All rights reserved.
© UNIX System Laboratories, Inc.
All or some portions of this file are derived from material licensed to the University of California by American Telephone and
Telegraph Co. or Unix System Laboratories, Inc. and are reproduced herein with the permission of UNIX System
Laboratories, Inc.
Copyright © 1999 Shuichiro URATA.
This product includes software developed by Matthias Pfaller.
Copyright © 1996 Matthias Pfaller.
Copyright © 1993 Jan-Simon Pendry.
This product includes software developed by Gordon W. Ross.
Copyright © 1995 Gordon W. Ross.
This product includes software developed by Philip A. Nelson.
Copyright © 1993 Philip A. Nelson.
Copyright © 1999 Ross Harvey.
This product includes software developed by Christos Zoulas.
Copyright © 1996 Christos Zoulas.
Copyright © 1997 Zubin D. Dittia.
This product includes software developed by SiByte, Inc.
Copyright © 2000 SiByte, Inc.
Copyright © 1996, 2000 Intel Corporation.
Copyright 1996 - 1998 Microsoft Corporation.
A–2
Group Administration
Legal notices
Copyright © 1990,1994 The University of Utah and the Computer Systems Laboratory (CSL).
Copyright © 1991 Bell Communications Research, Inc. (Bellcore).
Copyright © 2000 Caldera Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.
Copyright © 1995 - 2000 Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan.
(Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden). All rights reserved.
Copyright © 1993-1995 HEWLETT-PACKARD COMPANY.
Copyright © 1995-1997 Eric Young All rights reserved.
Copyright © 1992 Simmule Turner and Rich Salz. All rights reserved.
Copyright © 1999 - 2001, PADL Software Pty Ltd. All rights reserved.
Copyright © 1985 - 1988 by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
Copyright © 1995 by Wietse Venema. All rights reserved.
Copyright © 1999 The OpenSSL Project. All rights reserved.
Copyright © 1992 – 1999 Theo de Raadt. All rights reserved.
Copyright © 1999 Dug Song. All rights reserved.
Copyright © 2000-2002 Markus Friedl. All rights reserved.
Copyright © 2001 Per Allansson. All rights reserved.
Copyright © 1998 CORE SDI S.A., Buenos Aires, Argentina.
Copyright © 2001-2002 Damien Miller. All rights reserved.
Copyright © 2001 Kevin Steves. All rights reserved.
Copyright © 1999 Aaron Campbell. All rights reserved.
Copyright © 2002 Nils Nordman. All rights reserved.
Copyright © 2000 Todd C. Miller. All rights reserved.
Copyright © 1995, 1996 by David Mazieres.
Copyright © 2000 Zembu Labs, Inc. All rights reserved.
Copyright © 2000 Takuya SHIOZAKI. All rights reserved.
Copyright © 1992 Keith Muller.
Copyright © 1994, Jason Downs. All rights reserved.
Copyright © 1997 Matthew R. Green. All rights reserved.
Copyright © 1999 Citrus Project. All rights reserved.
Copyright © 1990-2, RSA Data Security, Inc. All rights reserved.
Copyright © 1995 by International Business Machines, Inc.
Copyright © 1996 by Internet Software Consortium.
Copyright © 1995, 1999 Berkeley Software Design, Inc. All rights reserved.
Copyright © 1993 Carlos Leandro and Rui Salgueiro Dep. Matematica Universidade de Coimbra, Portugal, Europe.
Copyright © 1992, 1993, 1994 Henry Spencer.
Copyright © 1986-1991 by Sun Microsystems, Inc.
Copyright © 1993 Martin Birgmeier.
Copyright © 1991 by AT&T.
Copyright © 1997 Frank van der Linden. All rights reserved.
Copyright © 1999 Michael Graff. All rights reserved.
This product includes software developed by Alistair G. Crooks.
Copyright © 1999 Alistair G. Crooks. All rights reserved.
Copyright © 2001 Cerbero Associates Inc.
A–3
Group Administration
Legal notices
Copyright © 1995-1998 Mark Adler.
Copyright © 1995-1998 Jean-loup Gailly.
Copyright © 1998-1999 Brett Lymn. All rights reserved.
Copyright © 1996-1999 SciTech Software, Inc.
Copyright © 2001, 2002 Brian Stafford.
Copyright © 1999-2001 Bruno Haible.
Copyright © 2001 Alex Rozin, Optical Access. All rights reserved.
Copyright © 1989 TGV, Incorporated. All rights reserved.
Copyright © 2000 Frank Strauss. All rights reserved.
Copyright © 1997 Niels Baggesen. All rights reserved.
Copyright © 2000 National Aeronautics & Space Administration. All rights reserved.
Copyright © 1990-2000 Robin's Nest Software, Inc.
Copyright © 1989-1996 Carnegie Mellon University. All rights reserved.
Redistribution and use in source and binary forms are permitted provided that the above copyright notice and this paragraph
are duplicated in all such forms and that any documentation, advertising materials, and other materials related to such
distribution and use acknowledge that the software was developed by Carnegie Mellon University. The name of the University
may not be used to endorse or promote products derived from this software without specific prior written permission.
THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED “AS IS” AND WITHOUT ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES,
INCLUDING, WITHOUT LIMITATION, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTIBILITY AND FITNESS FOR
A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.
A–4
Glossary
This glossary defines the storage technology terminology that is specific to EqualLogic. If a term has unique
meaning in the context of hardware or of a specific software application, that context is indicated.
See The SNIA Dictionary (http://www.snia.org/education/dictionary/) for definitions of any industry-standard
storage terms used in this manual.
.bcd
(Auto-Snapshot Manager) The file extension used by ASM to identify a Smart Copy backup document.
.pvss
(Auto-Snapshot Manager) The file extension for a backup document relating to a mounted Smart Copy Set
(post-VSS).
access control list (ACL)
A list of permissions attached to an object such as a storage volume. See access control record.
access control record
Means by which you restrict/control access to a PS Series volume. To ensure that only authorized computers and
users can access a PS Series volume (iSCSI target), use access control records. You can restrict volume access by
using any combination of specific IP addresses, iSCSI initiators, or CHAP user name and password (secret).
access credentials
Identity information that is checked against access control records. A computer must match the credentials
specified in an access control record in order to connect to a volume. See access control record.
actions pane
(Auto-Snapshot Manager) The part of the ASM GUI main window that itemizes operations (actions). When you
select a node in the Console tree, available operations for that node appear in the Actions Pane.
active control module
(hardware) In a dual control module array, the control module that is actively serving I/O on a network. If it ceases
to function, it fails over to the secondary control module. See secondary control module.
application component
(Auto-Snapshot Manager) Any part of an application that ASM supports for Smart Copy operations.
application component (node)
(Auto-Snapshot Manager) Objects in the ASM console tree that represent components of software applications,
such as SQL Server or Microsoft Exchange.
applications
(Auto-Snapshot Manager) Installed applications for which a VSS writer is available, such as Microsoft Exchange
or SQL Server.
applications master node
(Auto-Snapshot Manager) The location of applications and their components in the ASM console tree.
apply logs
(Auto-Snapshot Manager) An ASM option that enables you to apply database transaction logs manually to a
restored database.
Glossary–1
Group Administration
Glossary
array
(hardware) A PS Series storage array is a completely self-contained storage unit that includes multiple disk drives
configured in a highly available RAID set with dual control modules and redundant power supplies and cooling
modules.
array serial number
(Auto-Snapshot Manager) A unique PS Series array identification string that is encoded in the array's hardware.
See service tag.
ASM/ME
(Auto-Snapshot Manager) Auto-Snapshot Manager/Microsoft Edition, a snap-in console application for the
Microsoft Management Console that enables you to administer Smart Copies.
ASM/VE
(Auto-Snapshot Manager) Auto-Snapshot Manager/VMware Edition, a web-based application that works with
VMware virtual environments to enable you to administer Smart Copies.
ASMCLI
(Auto-Snapshot Manager) A set of Smart Copy operation commands that you can execute at the Windows
command prompt.
automatic RAID configuration
Internal process that configures the user-selected RAID policy on a member's disk array.
backup document
(Auto-Snapshot Manager) A file residing on the host that describes a Smart Copy on the PS Series array.
backup type
(Auto-Snapshot Manager) Specifies the backup behavior type that you want to create, either copy or full. Microsoft
Exchange Storage Groups support only the copy backup type.
backup validation on startup
(Auto-Snapshot Manager) Automatically validate Smart Copies when ASM is started.
bandwidth
Rate at which an I/O subsystem or component can transfer bytes of data. Also called the transfer rate.
base volume
1. (Auto-Snapshot Manager) A PS series array volume mounted on the computer and reachable through its
Windows-assigned drive letter (such as G:) or mount point.
2. (Group Manager) A volume that has snapshots. Snapshots depend on the base volume. If the base volume is
destroyed, the snapshots have been removed.
broken smart copies
(Auto-Snapshot Manager) Smart Copies that ASM can no longer validate.
CHAP
Challenge Handshake Authentication Protocol, a network login protocol that uses an encrypted challenge-response
mechanism. Used to limit access to volumes and snapshots to hosts that supply the correct account name and
password. CHAP is also used for login/administrator accounts. See access credentials.
CHAP account
An account that uses CHAP configured on an external RADIUS server.
Glossary–2
Group Administration
Glossary
CHAP properties
(Auto-Snapshot Manager) An ASM configuration option that enables you to specify CHAP credentials for VSS or
VDS access to groups and for computer access to Smart Copies for importing.
checksum verification
The process of verifying the integrity of Microsoft Exchange Smart Copies. You use the Windows eseutil.exe, a
database maintenance utility.
cloning
The process of creating a new copy of an object such as a volume. The new object is the same type and has the
same contents as the original. Contrast with a thin clone.
collection
(Auto-Snapshot Manager) Related groups of volumes or application components. These objects are represented by
nodes in the ASM Console Tree under the Collections master node. Create collections of related volumes that you
copy frequently. This ensures that ASM creates all the relevant Smart Copies simultaneously in one set. Create,
modify, or delete a collection, create a Smart Copy Set for the collection, or configure a schedule for the collection.
command generation
(Auto-Snapshot Manager) The process of using the ASM GUI to generate an ASMCLI command.
console pane
(Auto-Snapshot Manager) The section of the ASM GUI that contains the console tree. This pane contains a
collapsing, branched structure of related groups of clickable objects on which you can perform many different
operations. See console tree.
console tree
(Auto-Snapshot Manager) A hierarchical structure of branched nodes representing objects on which ASM can
perform operations. Nodes represent objects such as applications, volumes, and collections. The ASM console tree
consists of related groups of objects (nodes) organized in a branching tree structure. Depending on the status of a
node, you are presented with a menu of actions in the Actions Pane. See console pane.
control module
(hardware) The processor and interface component in a PS Series array. A control module contains the PS Series
firmware in flash memory and provides temporary power continuity for data stored in cache memory. It has
multiple network interfaces and an optional serial port. An array can contain two hot-swappable, dual redundant
controllers. The active control module serves I/O, while the secondary control module mirrors data in its cache.
cooling module
(hardware) Hot-swappable hardware component, optionally integrated with a power supply, that provides cooling
to a PS Series array. Arrays are shipped with redundant cooling modules. An array can continue to operate if one
cooling module fails.
custom snapshot collection
(Auto-Snapshot Manager) One or more snapshots created at the same time through a multi-volume snapshot
operation.
defer verification
(Auto-Snapshot Manager) When creating a replica, this operation causes ASM to defer Checksum Verification and
Soft Recovery to a later time. Invoke the procedure manually or create a schedule at some future time.
delegated space
(Group Manager) Space on a group set aside to store received replicas for a partner.
demote
(Group Manager) Convert a volume in a replication configuration into a replica set.
Glossary–3
Group Administration
Glossary
device-specific module (DSM)
(Host Integration Tools) A plug-in for Microsoft Windows device driver module. For multipath implementation on
PS Series arrays, you use EqualLogic Multipath I/O DSM in conjunction with Microsoft MPIO. It provides the
EHCMservice.exe user mode Windows service, and the eqldsm.sys kernel mode driver.
discovery
Requesting from the target portal a list of accessible iSCSI targets (for example, volumes or snapshots) making
those targets available for use.
DSM
See device-specific module (DSM).
eqlvdshwpriv
(hardware) A VDS service that runs on Windows and is specific to EqualLogic PS Series Group operations.
eqlvss
(hardware) A VSS service that runs on Windows and is specific to EqualLogic PS Series Group operations.
failback
(Group Manager) Replicating only the volume changes (delta) from the secondary group to the primary group and
then returning to original replication configuration.
failback baseline
Date and time at which the data in the failback snapshot is identical to the data represented by the most recent
replica.
failback replica set
(Group Manager) Temporary replica set created by demoting a volume as part of a failback operation. You can also
create failback thin clone replica sets. See demote.
failback snapshot (baseline)
(Group Manager) A snapshot on the primary group containing the same data as the most recent complete replica,
defining the failback baseline. A failback snapshot enables you to fail back to the primary group by replicating only
the changes made to the recovery volume.
fan tray
(hardware) See cooling module.
global Smart Copy access
(Auto-Snapshot Manager) Refers to access controls that allow other computers to access (import) Smart Copies
created on a particular computer.
global verification task
(Auto-Snapshot Manager) A scheduled background activity that you can run from any designated user account.
The Global Verification Task performs Checksum Verification and Soft Recovery processing on Exchange Smart
Copies.
global verification window
(Auto-Snapshot Manager) A core time period in which ASM can perform Checksum Verification and Soft
Recovery on Smart Copies of Microsoft Exchange Storage Groups and mailbox databases. You typically specify a
range of time that corresponds with a period of low system usage (off-peak times) to make best use of server
resources.
group
See PS Series group.
Glossary–4
Group Administration
Glossary
group access
1. (Auto-Snapshot Manager).The process of enabling computer access to a PS Series Group by configuring and
supplying credentials. See access credentials and CHAP.
2. (Group Manager) Access to the Group Manager UIs for management purposes. Access the GUI or CLI though
the network. You can access the CLI through the optional serial port on the controller.
3. (hardware) Access to the group storage. iSCSI initiators access group iSCSI targets through the group IP
address (discovery address). Access to a specific target is controlled through the access controls assigned to the
target.
group administrator
An account on a PS Series group that has permission to manage all features and objects in a PS Series group,
including configuring replication partners. The default group administrator account is grpadmin. See pool
administrator.
group IP address
The network address that iSCSI initiators use to discover iSCSI targets and administrators use to access the group.
See management IP address.
group member
See member.
group name
A unique identifier assigned to a group.
Host Integration Tools
(HIT) A suite of applications that enable you to configure and manage an array. It includes ASM/ME, DSM
(Multipath I/O Device Specific Module), and RSW (Remote Setup Wizard).
hot-swap
(hardware) Removing a redundant component and installing a replacement while the array is running.
imported Smart Copy credentials
(Auto-Snapshot Manager) When a computer imports a Smart Copy, it must automatically present default
credentials that match one of the Smart Copy’s access control records.
iSCSI host bus adapter (HBA)
(hardware) An iSCSI initiator implemented as a physical I/O adapter through which a computer connects to a
physical storage device such as a volume.
iSCSI initiator
The hardware or software component in a computer that starts the transfer of information to or from an iSCSI
target. See iSCSI host bus adapter (HBA).
iSCSI portal verification
(Auto-Snapshot Manager) Verifying that ASM can connect to arrays to which it previously connected when last
active.
iSCSI target
An iSCSI block storage device that you access through an iSCSI initiator. The volumes and snapshots in a PS
Series group appear on the network as individual iSCSI targets.
iSCSI target discovery
An iSCSI protocol exchange that finds the available iSCSI targets from a target portal or discovery address.
Glossary–5
Group Administration
Glossary
jumbo frames
Ethernet frames capable of more than 1,500 bytes of payload (MTU). Enabling jumbo frames might improve
performance on certain configurations.
keep count
1. (Auto-Snapshot Manager) The maximum number of snapshots or replicas retained by a Smart Copy schedule.
2. (Group Manager) The user-established limit on the number of snapshots or replicas created by using a schedule
on the PS Series group.
latency
The time required to complete a specific I/O operation.
load balancing
Automatic distribution of I/O across resources to improve performance.
local replication reserve
(Group Manager) Storage space on a primary group that is used to record changes to a volume when replication is
configured, and optionally to store a failback snapshot for a volume.
management IP address
In a group with a management network configured and enabled, an address used exclusively to log into the Group
Manager GUI or CLI.
management network
An optional management network separates iSCSI traffic (volume I/O) from management traffic (GUI and CLI
sessions, and other group management communications and intergroup operations).
manual restore
(Auto-Snapshot Manager) Mounting a Smart Copy and manually restoring data items.
manual transfer replication
(Host Integration Tools, Group Manager) Replication done through transportable media instead of over a network.
Used in cases where the network link between replication partners is too slow or otherwise unsuitable for
transferring large amounts of data.
Manual Transfer Utility
A stand-alone utility from EqualLogic that performs volume replication using transportable media, instead of the
network. The utility has both graphical and command line user interfaces.
member
A PS Series array configured into a PS Series group. Groups can have several members.
member name
The unique name used to identify a specific member within a group.
membership password
The password required to add an array to a group, making it a member of the group.
merging pools
(Group Manager) The process of moving all the members and volumes from a source pool to a destination pool,
deleting the source pool on completion.
mount
(Auto-Snapshot Manager) To create a connection to an iSCSI volume (clone, replica, or snapshot) and make its file
system accessible to the operating environment.
Glossary–6
Group Administration
Glossary
MPIO
Acronym for multipath I/O. Multiple connections from an iSCSI initiator to targets on a PS Series Group over the
network to provide redundancy and enhance performance. See device-specific module (DSM).
MPIO properties tab
(HIT) A EqualLogic-specific tab on the iSCSI Initiator properties page that provides status information about
multipathing sessions. The ehcmn.log file is a rotating log file (such as ehcm0.log) containing the data displayed in
the MPIO properties tab. See MPIO.
notification
(Auto-Snapshot Manager, Group Manager) The method that a group uses to inform you of significant events
through e-mail, remote syslog files, and SNMP traps.
path failover
(hardware, Host Integration Tools) Relocating data traffic from a failed network path to a functional network path.
This can occur automatically if the computer's software and hardware is configured for failover. MPIO provides
server-side path failover.
path uptime
The elapsed time during which a session is active, displayed in the MPIO properties tab.
pool
Storage space provided by one to four group members. You assign volumes to a specific pool and load balancing
operates only within pools. See load balancing and merging pools
pool administrator
(Group Manager) An account on a PS Series group that has permission to manage objects only in a specific pool or
set of pools for a group. Compare to group administrator.
power supply
(hardware) Hot-swappable hardware component, sometimes integrated with a cooling module, that enables you to
connect a PS Series array to a source of power. Arrays are shipped with redundant power supplies. An array can
continue to operate if one power supply fails. Dell recommends that you connect power supplies to different
sources of power, preferably on separate circuits.
primary group
(Group Manager) In a replication partnership the group containing the original volume. See secondary group.
primary volume
(Group Manager) A volume configured for replication to a replication partner.
promote
(Group Manager) To convert a replica set in a replication configuration into a volume. See demote.
PS Series array
A single EqualLogic iSCSI storage unit, usually configured as a PS Series Group. You can join multiple PS Series
arrays into a larger PS Series Group and manage them as a single iSCSI SAN.
PS Series group
An iSCSI storage entity comprised of one or more PS Series storage arrays that you access through a single IP
address and manage as a storage area network (SAN).
Queue-depth reporting
(SAN HQ) The average number of outstanding I/O operations at the start of each incoming I/O operation.
Glossary–7
Group Administration
Glossary
RAID policy
The type of RAID level (such as RAID 10 or RAID 6) that you configure for a member, coupled with the sparing
policy (spares or no spares).
read-only account
(Group Manager) An administration account that only provides read-only access to group information.
recovery volume
Temporary volume created by promoting an inbound replica set as part of a failover operation. You can also create
recovery template volumes and recovery thin clones. See promote.
replica
A point-in-time representation of a PS Series volume. The original volume and its replica are located on different
PS Series groups (replication partners) potentially separated at some geographical distance to facilitate disaster
tolerance.
replica collection
(Group Manager) The set of replicas resulting from each replication of a volume collection.
replica collection set
(Group Manager) The set of replica collections for a volume collection.
replication partner
(Group Manager) A group that is configured to send or receive replicas from another partner.
replica reserve
(Group Manager) Portion of the delegated space on a replication partner that is set aside for the replica sets for a
specific volume. You configure the replica reserve for the volume on the primary group, but the actual replica
reserve is on the secondary group.
replica set
(Group Manager) Set of complete replicas for a volume, template volume, or thin clone volume.
replication
(Group Manager) Copying volume data (only deltas) from the primary group, where the volume is stored, to the
secondary group. Groups can be an unlimited distance apart. You can recover data from the secondary group, if
necessary.
restore
1. (Auto-Snapshot Manager) The process of recovering data from a Smart Copy.
2. (Group Manager) The process of restoring the contents of a volume from a snapshot.
RSW
(HIT) Remote Setup Wizard, a graphical user interface (GUI) that enables you to configure a PS-Series array after
you install the Host Integration Tools.
SAN HeadQuarters
(SAN HQ) Enables you to monitor multiple PS Series groups from a single graphical interface. It gathers and
formats performance data and other important group information.
secondary control module
(hardware) Mirrors cache data from the active control module. If the active control module ceases to function, the
secondary takes over network operations. See active control module.
Glossary–8
Group Administration
Glossary
secondary group
(Group Manager) In a replication configuration, the group that receives replicas of a source volume. See primary
group.
service tag
(Group Manager) A unique ID assigned by Dell to particular equipment, for use by customer service.
sessions
(Group Manager) In an multipath configuration, the number of connections made to targets that span multiple
members. The number of sessions can be configured to manage bandwith use.
shrink (volume)
(Group Manager) Decreasing the reported size of a volume.
Smart Copy
(Auto-Snapshot Manager) Point-in-time, application-consistent copy of objects in a PS Series group. Smart Copies
can be of type snapshot, clone, or replica, depending on the edition of Auto-Snapshot Manager that you are using.
snapshot
A point-in-time representation of a PS Series iSCSI volume. Seen on the network as an iSCSI target. This is
maintained in an array as deltas from the original volume.
snapshot collection
A set of snapshots resulting from a snapshot operation on a volume collection. See volume collection.
spare disk
(hardware) An unused disk in a PS Series array that is used automatically to replace a failed disk.
storage pool
(Group Manager) See pool.
template volume
Read-only volume from which you create thin clones.
thin clone
Volume that shares space with a template volume. Thin clones provide an efficient use of storage space for
configurations with multiple volumes that have a large amount of common data.
thin provisioning
(Group Manager) The process optimizing use of storage space in a group through over-allocation. An object (such
as a volume) is attributed less physical space than is reported by the group to any computer that is connected to the
volume.
torn Smart Copy
(Auto-Snapshot Manager) The resulting Smart Copy that contains only partial data. The partial data set is referred
to as torn because it does not contain all the files in a particular data set. This situation can occur when you attempt
to do a Smart Copy of data sets that span multiple volumes.
transportable
(Auto-Snapshot Manager) A characteristic of a Smart Copy that enables it to be created on one computer and then
moved to another computer to be used.
unmanaged space
Delegated space capacity on the secondary group that is no longer accessible from the primary group.
vacate
(Group Manager) To remove a member from a group while the member remains online.
Glossary–9
Group Administration
Glossary
VDS provider
(hardware) The EqualLogic VDS provider is a component of the Host Integration Tools that enables you use
Microsoft Storage Manager for SANS to create and manage volumes in a PS Series Group.
volume
Storage allocated by a PS Series group as an addressable iSCSI target.
volume collection
(Group Manager) A number of volumes grouped together for purposes of performing operations on the volumes
simultaneously. See also snapshot collection and replica collection.
volume administrator
An account on a PS Series group that has permission to manage a quota of storage in one or more pools. A volume
administrator can perform any volume operations, including replication, within their quota limit.
volume reserve
(Group Manager) Amount of space allocated to a volume from free pool space. Without thin provisioning, volume
reserve is the same as reported size.
vss-control volume
(Auto-Snapshot Manager) A special logical volume that enables Microsoft VSS/VDS services to communicate
with a PS Series array. The vss-control volume appears as a non-initialized disk in the Windows Disk Management
interface.
XMLlogsize
(hardware) The variable that controls the size of ehcmn.log.
Glossary–10
Index
A
access control
snapshot 11-2
access control records
creating 9-6, 9-10
deleting 9-11
iSCSI target access 8-1
modifying 9-11
snapshot access 9-2
VDS/VSS access 4-12
volume access 9-2
access controls, iSCSI targets 8-1
accessing data
snapshot 11-1
accounts (administration)
attributes 4-4
group administrator 4-3
local 2-1, 4-5
creating 4-5
displaying 4-5
modifying 4-6
monitoring 15-3
pool administrator 4-3
RADIUS 4-7
attributes 4-7
configuring servers 4-10
disabling 4-11
prerequisites 4-9
read-only 4-3
types 4-3
unsupported operations 4-4
volume administrator 4-4
accounts (CHAP), See CHAP
alarms 14-2
critical 15-12
warning 15-12
allocating snapshot reserve 11-2
audience 2-xiii
B
backup 11-1
batteries
monitoring 15-21
status 15-21, 15-22
binding a volume 10-16
C
cache modes
setting policies 6-12
channel cards
monitoring 15-19
status 15-19
CHAP
initiator authentication 8-1
local accounts
creating 8-2
deleting 8-3
displaying 8-2
modifying 8-3
CLI
accessing 3-6
managing a group 3-6
network connection 3-6
serial connection 3-6
clone
from snapshots 11-1
cloning
replicas 12-31
snapshots 11-9
volumes 9-11
collection
snapshots 11-1
collections, See volume collections, snapshot
collections, and replica collections
control modules
cache modes 6-11, 6-12
monitoring 15-20
status 15-21
cooling modules
monitoring 15-18
status 15-18
copy
point-in-time 11-1
snapshots 11-1
custom snapshot collections
creating 11-7
deleting 11-8
displaying 11-7
naming 11-7
custom snapshot collections, See also snapshot
collections
Customer Support, contacting 15-33
cache 6-3
Index-1
Group Administration
Index
priorities 14-2
WARNING 14-2
D
data
accessing in a snapshot 11-1
data recovery
example 13-3
failback 13-3
failover 13-3
methods 13-1, 13-2
date
setting 5-4
dedicated management network, See management
network
default gateway
management network 4-14
members 6-10
delegated space
monitoring 15-10
over-provisioning 12-15
sizing 12-15
usage 12-11
demote
converting volume to replica set 13-1, 13-11
diagnostics, collecting 15-33
disk drives
monitoring 15-22
status 15-22
Displaying 6-1
downgrades, disallowing 6-14
E
EIP card
monitoring 15-20
status 15-20
E-Mail Home 14-2
changing configuration 14-4
checking configuration 14-4
configuring 14-4
e-mail notification 14-2
accessing events 15-3
changing configuration 14-3
configuring 14-3
events
disabling INFO message display 14-5
displaying 14-1, 15-2
ERROR 14-2
FATAL 14-2
format 14-1
INFO 14-2
monitoring 15-2
notification 14-2
Index- 2
F
failback
demoting a recovery volume 13-11
example 13-3
promoting a failback replica set 13-11
steps 13-2
failback baseline 13-9
failback replica set 13-1
changing pool 13-10, 13-11
converting to inbound replica set 13-14
deleting 13-10
promoting to volume 13-11
failback snapshot 12-8, 13-9
Failback to Primary operation
individual tasks 13-16
retrying 13-15
starting 13-11
failover
example 13-3
promoting a replica set 13-7
steps 13-2
firmware 6-12
disallowing downgrades 6-14
displaying 15-21
replication requirements 12-16
updating 6-13
G
group
alarms 14-2
automatic operations 1-4
capacity 5-1, 5-4
CLI management 3-6
connecting to targets 8-7
default volume settings 9-5
displaying configuration 5-1
events 14-1
expanding 5-4
features 1-1
firmware 6-12
free space recommendation 15-15
hardware 1-2
host-based applications 1-6
interoperability 1-3
introduction 1-1
IP address 5-5
iSNS servers 8-5
load balancing 1-4, 5-6
Group Administration
members 6-1
MIBs 14-6, 14-7
monitoring 15-1
name 5-5
network configuration 5-5
notification of events 14-2
pools 7-1
RAID support 6-4
removing members 6-14
scalability 1-3
security 1-4, 1-5
shutting down 5-6
SMTP servers 14-3
snapshots 11-1
SNMP access 4-11
user interfaces 3-1
VDS/VSS access 4-12
volumes 9-1
group IP address 5-5
modifying 5-5, 5-6
usage 5-5
GUI
alarm notification 3-6
communication policies 3-6
controlling operation 3-5
event display 3-6
help location 3-7
icons 3-4
navigating 3-2
reconnecting 3-6
refresh data interval 3-6
requirements 3-1
standalone application 3-1
starting 3-1
user preferences 3-5
H
hardware
monitoring 15-16, 15-17
help, accessing 3-7
host-based applications 1-6
access requirements 4-12
I
iSCSI
snapshot security 11-2
iSCSI connections
monitoring 15-3, 15-24
iSCSI discovery
configuring iSNS servers 8-5
preventing 8-6
Index
iSCSI targets
authentication 8-4
connecting to 8-7
controlling access 8-1
multi-host access 8-4, 8-6
mutual authentication 8-4
naming 9-1
preventing discovery 8-6
security 1-5
snapshots 11-1
iSNS discovery
enabling on a volume 9-14
restriction 8-5
iSNS servers
configuring 8-5
deleting 8-5
modifying 8-5
J
Java
requirements for standalone GUI 3-1
L
load balancing
disabling automatic 5-6
enabling automatic 5-6
types of 1-4
local replication reserve 12-8
borrowing pool space 12-8
sizing 12-9, 12-10
specifying 12-25
lost blocks
snapshots 10-17
volumes 10-17
M
management network
adding a member 4-17
disadvantages 4-14
displaying 4-16
post-setup tasks 4-16
prerequisites 4-14
unconfiguring 4-18
manual transfer replication 12-3, 12-28
Manual Transfer Utility 12-3
members
adding to group 5-4
behavior
during drive failure 15-23
during drive replacement 15-23
binding a volume to 10-16
Index-3
Group Administration
cache modes
setting 6-12
write-back 6-11
write-through 6-11
cancelling pool move operation 7-3, 7-4
collecting diagnostics 15-33
displaying 6-1
firmware 6-12
disallowing downgrades 6-14
updating 6-13
flashing LEDs 15-17
monitoring 15-16, 15-17
batteries 15-21
channel cards 15-19
control modules 15-20
cooling modules 15-18
disk drives 15-22
EIP card 15-20
iSCSI connections 15-24
network 15-24
network configuration 15-24
power supplies 15-17, 15-18
temperature 15-19
network configuration 6-7
default gateway 6-10
network interfaces
configuring 6-9
deconfiguring 6-10
disabling 6-10
enabling 6-10
network recommendations 6-8
network requirements 6-8
pool
choosing 6-6
moving 7-4
RAID policy 6-4
converting 6-7
displaying 6-4
recommendation 6-7
setting 6-6
RAID status 15-16
removing from group 6-14
restarting 6-15
service information 15-33
shutting down 6-14
status 15-17
memory cache 6-3
MIBs 14-6
accessing 14-7
monitoring
Index- 4
Index
administrator logins 15-3
best practices 15-1
delegated space 15-10
events 14-1, 15-2
free space 15-15
group 15-1
hardware 15-16, 15-17
iSCSI connections 15-3, 15-24
members 15-16, 15-17
batteries 15-21
channel cards 15-19
control modules 15-20
cooling modules 15-18
disk drives 15-22
EIP card 15-20
iSCSI connections 15-24
network configuration 15-24
power supplies 15-17, 15-18
temperature 15-19
operations 15-13
pool move 15-14
replication 15-5, 15-7, 15-8
replication partners 15-10
snapshot status 15-25
volume status 15-25
monitoring tools 15-32
MRTG 15-32
multi-host access 8-4, 8-6
snapshots
disabling 11-11
enabling 11-11
mutual authentication
iSCSI targets 8-4
replication partners 12-16
N
network configuration
group 5-5
modifying 5-5, 5-6
members 6-7
monitoring 15-24
recommendations 6-8
requirements 6-8
network interfaces
configuring 6-9
deconfiguring 6-10
disabling 6-10
enabling 6-10
O
online
Group Administration
setting snapshots 11-1
organization 2-xiii
P
partners
monitoring 15-10
Performance Monitor
changing the displayed statistics 15-29
closing a statistics panel 15-29
Performance Monitor, using 15-27
point-in-time 11-1
policy
snapshot space recovery 11-2
pools
creating 7-2
deleting 7-6
displaying 7-3
free space recommendation 15-15
merging 7-5
modifying description 7-5
modifying name 7-5
monitoring free space 15-15
monitoring move operations 15-14
moving members 7-4
moving volumes 7-5
organizing storage 7-1
planning 7-1
post-setup tasks
configuring CHAP 2-2
configuring SNMP 2-2
creating local accounts 2-1
setting group date and time 2-1
setting the group-wide volume defaults 2-2
setting the member RAID policy 2-2
setting up event notification 2-1
power supplies
monitoring 15-17, 15-18
status 15-18
preface 2-xiii
promote
converting replica set to volume 13-1, 13-7, 13-11
permanent 13-14
promote, converting replica set to volume 13-11
R
RADIUS
administration accounts 4-7
RAID levels
comparing 6-5
supported 6-4, 6-5
volume preference 10-16
Index
RAID policies
converting 6-6, 6-7
setting 6-6
supported 6-4
RAID status, monitoring 15-16
recovery volumes 13-1
converting to regular volume 13-13
creating 13-7
demoting to replica set 13-11
naming 13-7
replicating 13-9
restrictions 13-9
Remote Setup Wizard 5-4
replica collection sets 12-29
replica collections
creating 12-29
defined 12-29
deleting 12-32, 12-33
displaying 12-29
status 12-29
replica reserve 12-25
sizing 12-14
specifying 12-25
usage 12-11, 12-12
replica set 12-1
replica sets 12-1
promoting to recovery volume 13-7
replica volume reserve 12-12
replicas
cancelling 12-31
cloning 12-31
creating 12-1, 12-28, 12-29
deleting 12-33
displaying 12-28
naming 12-1
recovering data 12-2
scheduling 12-30
Replicate to Partner operation
individual tasks 13-16
retrying 13-15
starting 13-9
replication
cancelling 12-31
configuration options 12-4
creating replicas 12-1, 12-28
data recovery 13-1
data transferred 12-6
disabling 12-27
disaster recovery planning 12-1
displaying 12-28
Index-5
Group Administration
firmware requirements 12-16
manual transfer 12-3
monitoring 15-5, 15-7, 15-8
partners 12-16
pausing 12-30
recovering data 12-2
recovery volumes 13-9
resuming 12-30
scheduling 12-30
space 12-25
borrowing 12-8
delegated 12-11
failback snapshot 12-8
guidelines
delegated space 12-15
local replication reserve 12-9, 12-10
replica reserve 12-14
local replication reserve 12-8
replica reserve 12-11, 12-12
replica volume reserve 12-12
requirements 12-7
usage 12-6
status 15-7, 15-8
volume collections
configuring 12-26
volumes
attributes 12-25
modifying configuration 12-26
replication partners 12-16
attributes 12-17
communication 12-17
configuring 12-17
deleting 12-20
displaying 12-18, 12-19
modifying 12-19
mutual authentication 12-2
requirements 12-16
roles 12-16
switching roles 13-12
reported size, volumes 9-2
reserve
for snapshots, setting 11-2
snapshot 11-1
snapshots, allocating 11-2
S
SAN advantages 1-1
SAN HeadQuarters 15-32
schedules
attributes 10-13
Index- 6
Index
creating 10-14
deleting 10-15
modifying 10-15
replication 12-30
snapshots 11-1, 11-3
volume operations 10-13
security
iSCSI authentication 8-1, 9-2
mutual authentication 8-4
replication 12-2
service information 15-33
service tag 15-33
set online
snapshots 11-1
setting snapshot reserve 11-2
setup utility 5-4
shutting down a group 5-6
SMTP 14-3
diagnostics requirement 15-33
E-Mail Home requirement 14-4
e-mail notification requirement 14-3
snapshot
iSCSI target 11-1
snapshot collections 11-5
creating 11-6
deleting 11-8
displaying 11-6
naming 11-6
status 11-6
snapshot collections, See also custom snapshot
collections
snapshot reserve 11-1
thin provisioning 11-2
usage 11-2
volume reserve 11-2
snapshots
about 11-1
access control records
creating 11-2
displaying 11-5
access control. 11-2
access controls 11-2
accessing data in 11-1
backup 11-1
clone from 11-1
cloning 11-9
collection 11-1
controlling access 8-1
creating 11-3
displaying 11-4
Group Administration
displaying alias 11-10
handling lost blocks 10-17
introduction 11-1
iSCSI security 11-2
modifying contents of 11-2
modifying description 11-10
modifying name 11-10
modifying settings 11-3
monitoring 15-25
multi-host access 8-4, 8-6
disabling 11-11
enabling 11-11
naming 11-4
offline 11-1
preserving 11-2
recovering space 11-2
reserve allocation 11-2
restore volume from 11-1
restoring volumes 11-9
schedules 11-1
scheduling 11-3
set online 11-1
setting offline 11-11
setting online 11-11
setting read-only 11-11
setting read-write 11-11
settings 11-2
snapshot reserve settings 11-2
space allocation 11-2
space recovery policy 11-2
status 15-25, 15-26
volume collections 11-1
SNMP
accessing traps 15-1
community name requirement for traps 14-7
group access 4-11
sending traps 14-7
traps 14-6
syslog 14-2
accessing events 15-3
changing configuration 14-5
configuring for event logging 14-5
T
target
iSCSI 11-1
snapshots 11-1
temperature
monitoring 15-19
status 15-19
Index
template volume
displaying dependent thin clones 10-7
thin clones
displaying the template volume 10-7
thin provisioning
disabling 10-3
introduction 10-1
in-use space warning limit 10-2
maximum volume reserve 10-2
minimum volume reserve 10-2
modifying space settings 10-4
recommended environments 10-1
settings 10-2
space allocation 10-1
thin-provisioning
snapshot reserve 11-2
time
setting 5-4
time zone
setting 5-4
tools for monitoring groups 15-32
U
user interfaces
CLI 3-6
group 3-1
V
VDS/VSS, access requirements 4-12
volume
restore from snapshots 11-1
volume collections
deleting 10-13
displaying 10-11
modifying 10-12
purpose 10-10
replicating 12-26, 12-29
schedule attributes 10-13
scheduling operations 10-13
snapshots of 11-1
volume reserve 9-2
snapshot reserve 11-2
volumes
access control records
creating 9-6, 9-10
deleting 9-11
modifying 9-11
access controls 9-2, 9-6
attributes 9-3
binding to a member 10-16
cancelling pool move operation 7-5
Index-7
Group Administration
cloning 9-11
collections 10-10
controlling access 8-1
current status 15-25
data recovery 13-1
default settings 9-5
deleting 9-15
displaying 9-6
handling lost blocks 10-17
iSNS discovery
disabling 9-14
enabling 9-14
modifying permission 9-14
modifying snapshot settings 11-3
monitoring 15-25
multi-host access 8-4, 8-6
disabling 9-6
enabling 9-6
naming 9-1
pool
choosing 9-3
moving 7-5
protecting data 9-3
recovering data 12-2
replication 12-1
reported size 9-2
requested status 15-25
restoring from snapshot 11-9
Index- 8
Index
schedule attributes 10-13
scheduling operations 10-13
setting offline 9-13
setting online 9-13
setting RAID preference 10-16
setting read-only 9-14
setting read-write 9-14
size modification
decreasing 10-6
increasing 10-5
restrictions 10-5
snapshots 11-1, 11-3
space allocation 9-2
status 15-25, 15-26
thin provisioning
disabling 10-3
enabling
thin provisioning
enabling 10-3
introduction 10-1
modifying space settings 10-4
settings 10-2
space allocation 10-1
volume reserve 9-2, 10-1
W
write-back mode 6-11
write-through mode 6-11