Digium AEX800 User manual

800 Series
AEX800 / TDM800P
User Manual
601-00008
Rev. C3
Digium, Inc.
445 Jan Davis Drive
Huntsville, AL 35806
United States
Main Number: 1.256.428.6000
Tech Support: 1.256.428.6161
U.S. Toll Free: 1.877.344.4861
Sales: 1.256.428.6262
www.digium.com
www.asterisk.org
www.asterisknow.org
© Digium, Inc. 2013
All rights reserved.
No part of this publication may be copied, distributed, transmitted, transcribed, stored in a
retrieval system, or translated into any human or computer language without the prior written
permission of Digium, Inc.
Digium, Inc. has made every effort to ensure that the instructions contained in this document
are adequate and error free. The manufacturer will, if necessary, explain issues which may
not be covered by this documentation. The manufacturer’s liability for any errors in the
documents is limited to the correction of errors and the aforementioned advisory services.
This document has been prepared for use by professional and properly trained personnel,
and the customer assumes full responsibility when using it.
Adobe and Acrobat are registered trademarks, and Acrobat Reader is a trademark of Adobe
Systems Incorporated.
Asterisk, Digium, Switchvox, and AsteriskNOW are registered trademarks and Asterisk
Business Edition, AsteriskGUI, and Asterisk Appliance are trademarks of Digium, Inc.
Any other trademarks mentioned in the document are the property of their respective owners.
Digium, Inc.
Page 2
Compliance Information
Compliance information for this product is available at
http://www.digium.com/ccs-compliance.
Digium, Inc.
Page 3
Introduction to 800 Series Documentation
This manual contains product information for the 800 Series card. Be sure
to refer to any supplementary documents or release notes that were
shipped with your equipment. The manual is organized in the following
manner:
Chapter/
Appendix
Title
Description
1
Overview
Identifies the card and type of modules you received
with your 800 Series card. This chapter covers
applications and uses of the 800 Series card in the
real world.
2
Card Installation
Provides instructions for installing the card in your
PC, acquiring correct drivers, and checking device
compatibility.
3
Configuration
Provides examples for configuring dial plan options.
4
FXS and FXO
Explained
Describes the FXO (Foreign Exchange Office) and
FXS (Foreign Exchange Station) modules and their
significance.
5
Troubleshooting
Explains resolutions to common problems and
frequently asked questions pertaining to card
installation and usage.
A
Pin Assignments
Lists the connectors and pin assignments.
B
Specifications
Details card specifications.
C
Glossary and
Acronyms
A list of terms and acronyms used throughout this
manual.
Digium, Inc.
Page 4
Symbol Definitions
Caution statements indicate a condition where damage to the unit or
its configuration could occur if operational procedures are not
followed. To reduce the risk of damage or injury, follow all steps or
procedures as instructed.
The ESD symbol indicates electrostatic sensitive devices. Observe
precautions for handling devices. Wear a properly grounded
electrostatic discharge (ESD) wrist strap while handling the device.
The Electrical Hazard Symbol indicates a possibility of electrical
shock when operating this unit in certain situations. To reduce the
risk of damage or injury, follow all steps or procedures as
instructed.
Digium, Inc.
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Important Safety Instructions
User Cautions
Warning
This card must be used with the PC lid screwed down.
Telecommunications network voltages exist inside the PC! The PC must be shut down and telecommunications line connection shall be removed before opening the PC.
Electrical Shock.
To reduce the risk of injury, damage to the unit or your equipment, do
not attempt to touch the modules while they are powered. The case
should be securely closed before power is applied to the unit.
Alarm Dialing Equipment.
If your home has specially wired alarm equipment connected to the
telephone line, ensure the installation of the 800 Series does not
disable your alarm equipment. If you have questions, consult your
telephone company or a qualified installer.
Servicing.
Do not attempt to service this card unless specifically instructed to do
so. Do not attempt to remove the card from your equipment while
power is present. Refer servicing to qualified service personnel.
Water and Moisture. Do not spill liquids on this unit. Do not operate this equipment in a wet environment.
Heat.
Do not operate or store this product near heat sources such as
radiators, air ducts, areas subject to direct, intense sunlight, or other
products that produce heat.
Caution. To reduce the risk of fire, use only No. 26 AWG or larger
telecommunication wiring for network connections.
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User Cautions
Caution. This card is not intended for home use. It must be used in restricted
access locations and installed in UL Listed I.T.E. only.
Static Electricity.
To reduce the risk of damaging the unit or your equipment, do not
attempt to open the enclosure or gain access to areas where you are
not instructed to do so. Refer servicing to qualified service personnel.
Save these instructions for future reference.
Service Personnel Cautions
Warning.
This card must be used with the PC lid screwed down.
Telecommunications network voltages exist inside the PC! The PC must be shut down and telecommunications line connection shall be removed before opening the PC.
Electrical Shock.
To reduce the risk of injury, damage to the unit or your equipment, do
not attempt to touch the modules while they are powered. The case
should be securely closed before power is applied to the unit.
Servicing.
Disconnect telecommunications network cable before opening the
cover or removing the card from the motherboard.
Labeling.
For safety reasons, only connect equipment with a Telecommunications Compliance label. This includes customer
equipment previously labelled Permitted or Certified.
Caution.
Only connect regulatory equipment (approved for use in your specific
country) to the telecommunications network voltage circuit ports.
Digium, Inc.
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Service Personnel Cautions
Caution.
This card is not intended for home use. It must be used in restricted
access locations and installed in UL Listed I.T.E. only.
Digium, Inc.
Page 8
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Chapter 1
Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
Echo-Cancellation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
What is Asterisk®? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
Asterisk as a Switch (PBX) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
Asterisk as a Gateway . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
Asterisk in the Call Center . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
Asterisk in the Network . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
Asterisk Everywhere . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
Chapter 2
Card Installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
Unpacking the Card . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
Shipment Inspection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
Module Identification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
Port Identification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
Card Identification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
FXS and FXO Connection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
Slot Compatibility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
Hardware Installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
Software Installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
Installing Asterisk . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
Chapter 3
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Table Of Contents
Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
Driver Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .38
Configuring Card Features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
Voicemail . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
Dial Plan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
Testing Your Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
Chapter 4
FXS and FXO Explained . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
Identification. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
FXS Module . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .49
FXO Module . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .49
Using Your 800 Series Card . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
Chapter 5
Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
Appendix A Pin Assignments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
Appendix B Specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
Appendix C Glossary and Acronyms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60
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List of Figures
Figure 1:
Figure 2:
Figure 3 :
Figure 4 :
Figure 5 :
Figure 6 :
Figure 7 :
Figure 8 :
Digium, Inc.
Sample Card Application . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
TDM800P Card with Four Single Modules . . . . . . . . 21
AEX800 Card with Two Quad Modules . . . . . . . . . .22
Motherboard Slots . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
Insert the Card . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .27
Connect Power for FXS Modules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
Example dmesg Screen Shot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
Sample Application . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .48
Page 11
List of Tables
Table 1:
Table 2:
Table 3:
Table A-1:
Table B-2:
Digium, Inc.
Example TDM800P Card Configurations. . . . . . . . . 23
Example AEX800 Card Configurations . . . . . . . . . . 24
Card Identifiers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
RJ11 Telco Port Connector . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .56
Maximum Power Consumption . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .59
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Chapter 1
Overview
The 800 Series cards are versatile devices used for connecting your phone
network to the PSTN (Public Switched Telephone Network) world. This
is accomplished through phone lines connected to the FXO (Foreign
Exchange Office) ports and phones connected via the FXS (Foreign
Exchange Station) ports. The cards allow Asterisk to connect to your
phone network, creating an office type telephony environment.
There are a variety of applications where the 800 Series cards (TDM800P
or AEX800) can prove useful. An example is provided in the following
figure.
Figure 1: Sample Card Application
Note: An FXS module should be connected only to a device that is
located inside of the same building to minimize lightning exposure.
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Chapter 1: Overview
Echo-Cancellation
Users connecting their 800 Series cards to the PSTN or other devices are
likely to be placing calls that will result, at some point, in an unbalanced
4-wire/2-wire hybrid. The result of this hybrid is the reflection of a nearend echo to the calling party. Elimination of this echo is the responsibility
of echo cancellation.
The 800 Series cards, unless otherwise equipped, utilize Asterisk to
perform software-based echo cancellation. Asterisk maintains a number
of open source echo cancelers. These open source echo cancelers provide
a moderate level of echo cancellation, but are not capable of dealing with
higher levels of, or more advanced, echoes.
Digium recommends that those users concerned about echo cancellation
purchase the VPMOCT032 hardware echo cancellation module. The
VPMOCT032 may be combined with both the TDM800P and AEX800.
The VPMOCT032 is designed to handle up to 128ms of echo cancellation
across all channels and provides a G.168 echo cancellation solution.
Digium, Inc.
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Chapter 1: Overview
What is Asterisk®?
Asterisk is the world’s leading open source telephony engine and tool kit.
Offering flexibility unheard of in the world of proprietary
communications, Asterisk empowers developers and integrators to create
advanced communication solutions...for free. Asterisk is released as open
source under the GNU General Public License (GPL), and it is available
for download free of charge. Asterisk is the most popular open source
software available, with the Asterisk Community being the top influencer
in VoIP.
Asterisk as a Switch (PBX)
Asterisk can be configured as the core of an IP or hybrid PBX, switching
calls, managing routes, enabling features, and connecting callers with the
outside world over IP, analog (POTS), and digital (T1/E1) connections.
Asterisk runs on a wide variety of operating systems including Linux,
Mac OS X, OpenBSD, FreeBSD, and Sun Solaris. It provides all of the
features you would expect from a PBX including many advanced features
that are often associated with high end (and high cost) proprietary PBXs.
Asterisk's architecture is designed for maximum flexibility and supports
Voice over IP in many protocols, and can interoperate with almost all
standards-based telephony equipment using relatively inexpensive
hardware.
Asterisk as a Gateway
It can also be built out as the heart of a media gateway, bridging the
legacy PSTN to the expanding world of IP telephony. Asterisk’s modular
architecture allows it to convert between a wide range of communications
protocols and media codecs.
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Chapter 1: Overview
Asterisk as a Feature/Media Server
Need an IVR? Asterisk’s got you covered. How about a conference
bridge? Yep. It’s in there. What about an automated attendant? Asterisk
does that too. How about a replacement for your aging legacy voicemail
system? Can do. Unified messaging? No problem. Need a telephony
interface for your web site? Ok.
Asterisk in the Call Center
Asterisk has been adopted by call centers around the world based on its
flexibility. Call center and contact center developers have built complete
ACD systems based on Asterisk. Asterisk has also added new life to
existing call center solutions by adding remote IP agent capabilities,
advanced skills-based routing, predictive and bulk dialing, and more.
Asterisk in the Network
Internet Telephony Service Providers (ITSPs), competitive local
exchange carriers (CLECS) and even first-tier incumbents have
discovered the power of open source communications with Asterisk.
Feature servers, hosted services clusters, voicemail systems, pre-paid
calling solutions, all based on Asterisk have helped reduce costs and
enabled flexibility.
Asterisk Everywhere
Asterisk has become the basis for thousands of communications
solutions. If you need to communicate, Asterisk is your answer. For more
information on Asterisk, visit http://www.asterisk.org or http://
www.digium.com.
Digium, Inc.
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Chapter 2
Card Installation
This chapter provides the following information:
 Unpacking the Card on page 18
 Shipment Inspection on page 19
 Module Identification on page 19
 Port Identification on page 19
 Card Identification on page 23
 FXS and FXO Connection on page 25
 Slot Compatibility on page 25
 Hardware Installation on page 27
 Software Installation on page 31
 Installing Asterisk on page 35
Digium, Inc.
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Chapter 2: Card Installation
Unpacking the Card
When you unpack your card, carefully inspect it for any damage that may
have occurred in shipment. If damage is suspected, file a claim with the
carrier and contact the reseller from which the card was purchased, or
contact Digium Technical Support at 1.256.428.6161. Keep the original
shipping container to use for future shipment or proof of damage during
shipment.
Note: Only qualified service personnel should install the card. Users
should not attempt to perform this function themselves. The installer
must ensure that the equipment is permanently connected equipment,
pluggable type B or connected to a socket-outlet that has been checked
to ensure that it is reliably earthed in accordance with the National
Electrical Code.
This card is intended for installation in a Restricted Access
Location (RAL) only.
Digium, Inc.
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Chapter 2: Card Installation
Shipment Inspection
The following items are included in shipment of an 800 Series card:
 800 Series card (TDM800P or AEX800)
 FXO and/or FXS module(s) (depending on configuration)
Module Identification
The 800 Series cards ships with FXO and/or FXS modules in place. These
are identified by their color. Take a moment to identify which modules
were shipped with your card.
 FXO (Foreign Exchange Office) modules are Red
 FXS (Foreign Exchange Station) modules are Green
See Figure 2 on page 21 for an example of the TDM800P card shown
with two of each single module.
See Figure 3 on page 22 for an example of the AEX800 card shown with
one of each quad module.
The 800 Series cards may also be combined with Digium’s hardwarebased echo canceler, model VPMOCT032. See Figure 3 on page 22 for an
example of the AEX800 card shown with one of each quad analog
module and the echo cancellation module.
Port Identification
Each card consists of eight RJ11 ports located on the bracket. Each port
correlates to a single module port (containing either FXO or FXS
modules). The ports are numbered in sequence from one to eight. The top
port is Port 1 and the bottom port is Port 8. See Figure 2 on page 21 for
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Chapter 2: Card Installation
appropriate identification of these ports. The port identification is the
same for all cards in this series.
It is important to identify the type and location of your 800 Series
modules. You will need this information during the Asterisk
configuration.
The ports available for use on the 800 Series cards are not continuous.
The ports available for use depend upon the type of module used, and the
placement of the module on the card. The cards can accept 2 quad
modules, for a total of 8 ports. If single modules are used, only 2 single
modules can occupy the same space as a quad module. The single module
ports are identified on the card and their corresponding RJ11 ports are
identified below. Please refer to Figure 2 for an example using single
modules, and Figure 3 for an example using quad modules.
If a single module is used, the RJ11 port available for use will be the port
corresponding to the location of the module on the card. The following
ports correspond to the single module ports as shown in Figure 2.




RJ11 Port 1 is used by Single Module Port 1
RJ11 Port 2 is used by Single Module Port 2
RJ11 Port 5 is used by Single Module Port 5
RJ11 Port 6 is used by Single Module Port 6
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Chapter 2: Card Installation
5
1
Single
Modules
2
6
All
Ports
Available
8
Power
Supply
Figure 2: TDM800P Card with Four Single Modules
If a quad module is placed covering single module ports 1 and 2, then that
module will use ports 1-4. Likewise, if a quad module is placed covering
single module ports 3 and 4, the module will use ports 5 through 8. Figure
3 shows a AEX800 with two quad modules.
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Chapter 2: Card Installation
5
6
7
Quad
1
Modules
2
3
4
All
8
Ports
Power
Available
Supply
Echo Cancellation
Module
Figure 3: AEX800 Card with Two Quad Modules
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Chapter 2: Card Installation
Card Identification
There are multiple configurations in which an 800 Series card may be
purchased. Each configuration consists of a combination of single
modules, quad modules, or both, and may also include the VPMOCT032
echo cancellation module. See Table 1 on page 23 for a list of the most
common TDM800P configurations. See Table 2 on page 24 for a list of
the most common AEX800 configurations. The lists are not complete, but
rather an example of the configurations available.
It is easiest to identify your card by understanding the naming scheme for
each card. The first digit is the maximum port count of the card. The
second digit is the number of FXS (station) modules present on the card.
The third digit is the number of FXO (office) modules present on the card.
Table 1: Example TDM800P Card Configurations
FXO/FXS
Ports
Card ID
TDM801B
1 FXO module
TDM804B
4 FXO modules
TDM808B
8 FXO modules
TDM844B
4 FXS and 4 FXO modules
TDM880B
8 FXS modules
Digium, Inc.
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Chapter 2: Card Installation
Table 2: Example AEX800 Card Configurations
FXO/FXS
Ports
Card ID
AEX801B
1 FXO module
AEX804B
4 FXO modules
AEX808B
8 FXO modules
AEX844B
4 FXS and 4 FXO modules
AEX880B
8 FXS modules
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Chapter 2: Card Installation
FXS and FXO Connection
The 800 Series cards provide eight RJ11 connectors for access to the FXS
and/or FXO modules installed in the available slots. The diagram in
Table A-1 on page 56 provides the pinout for this connector.
Caution.
Only qualified service personnel should continue with
hardware installation and configuration of the 800 Series card.
Users should not attempt to perform these functions themselves.
Slot Compatibility
Check the type of card you received to be sure it is compatible with your
PCI slot. To determine which slot you have, identify it by comparing it to
those shown in Figure 4 on page 26.
Slot Number:
0: AGP Pro Slot
1: 64-bit 5.0 volt PCI Slot
2: 64-bit 3.3 volt PCI Slot
3: 32-bit 5.0 volt PCI Slot
4: PCI Express Slot
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Chapter 2: Card Installation
Slots
0
1
2
3
4
Figure 4: Motherboard Slots
The TDM800 card is a 32-bit 33MHz card keyed for universal 3.3 volt or
5.0 volt operation and works in any PCI 2.2 (or greater) compliant slot.
This means that in the motherboard shown in Figure 4, the TDM800 card
will fit into Slots 1, 2, or 3 (PCI slots), but will not fit into Slot 0 (AGP
slot) or Slot 4 (PCI Express slot).
The AEX800 card is a PCI Express card. Slot 4, illustrated above, is a 1
lane (X1) PCI Express compliant slot. The AEX800 will work in any PCI
Express compliant slot, including lane lengths X4, X8, and X16. This
means that in the motherboard shown in Figure 4, the AEX800 will only
fit into Slot 4. The AEX800 can not be used in Slots 0 through 3.
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Chapter 2: Card Installation
Hardware Installation
1. Now that you are acquainted with your card, power down your com­
puter and unplug it from its power source.
2. Attach a static strap to your wrist and open the case.
3. Remove the bracket place holder and insert the card into a PCI
(TDM800P) or PCI Express (AEX800) slot. See Figure 5.
Figure 5: Insert the Card
4. If your card has any FXS modules, you will also need to connect the
power cable from your computer’s power supply to the back of the
card. Insert a four-pin 12 volt connector (disk drive power supply
cable, e.g. hard drive) into the white plastic connector on the rear of
the card. See Figure 6.
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Chapter 2: Card Installation
Figure 6: Connect Power for FXS Modules
Many modern PCs and servers do not have either spare or any 12V power
connectors. If you have FXS modules on your card and your computer
does not have power cables available, then power must be provided to the
800 Series card by an alternate means. Digium provides a solution to this
problem with the optional PWR2400B (available separately). This card is
essentially a PCI bracket assembly that takes power from an external DC
power supply and routes it to two 15" power cables inside the computer.
You must have an available bracket slot to use the PWR2400B (either
PCI, PCI Express or AGP).
A strap on the PWR2400B card allows the two power cables to take
power from the same DC supply. The PWR2400B comes with one power
supply capable of supporting up to 24 FXS ports each, driving heavy
loads of up to 5REN. If more than 24 FXS ports with heavy loads are
connected to the PWR2400B, then a second Digium power Supply should
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Chapter 2: Card Installation
be purchased. The shorting strap on the PWR2400B should be removed if
a second power supply is used.
The PWR2400B does not connect to any bus inside the computer. It may
be used wherever there is an available PCI-size bracket such as a PCI,
PCI Express, or AGP slot.
Note: The PWR2400B is not intended to supply power to any other
device, it is intended only to be used with UL Listed Digium analog
cards.
5. Replace the cover to your computer.
Electrical Shock.
To reduce the risk of injury, damage to the unit or your
equipment, do not attempt to apply power to the unit while the
case is open.Personal injury or damage to the unit could occur
if the modules are touched while powered is applied.
6. Plug all outside phone lines to the FXO ports (corresponding to the
red modules) and connect all phones to the FXS ports (green
modules) as needed using a patch panel or punch block. See Table A­
1 on page 56 for the pin assignments.
Caution.
This unit must be connected to the Telecommunications
Network in your country using an approved line cord, e.g.: for
Australia use only line cords complying with AS/CA S008:2010.
Digium, Inc.
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Chapter 2: Card Installation
Caution.
Only connect regulatory equipment (approved for use in your
specific country) to the telecommunications network voltage
circuit ports.
Digium, Inc.
Page 30
Chapter 2: Card Installation
Software Installation
Digium hardware requires drivers and libraries that are not integrated
with the Linux kernel. Digium hardware is only supported under Linux.
Digium recommends CentOS, Debian, Red Hat, and Ubuntu distributions
of Linux. However, many other distributions are supported by Digium
Technical Support.
Digium’s software, including drivers and application software, may be
obtained from Digium’s download server at:
http://downloads.digium.com
For an introduction to Asterisk, Digium’s telephony software, including
additional information on its configuration, setup, and features, please
refer to:
http://www.asterisk.org
For the latest information on setting up and configuring DAHDI drivers
for your Digium hardware product, please refer to the latest release of this
manual which is available from the product-specific documentation
section at:
http://www.digium.com
To install your 800 Series card, you will need:
 Linux 2.6 kernel headers
 Development libraries and headers for ncurses
 Development libraries and headers for zlib and openssl
 Development libraries and headers for newt
 GCC and standard software build tools
It is recommended that you use the most recent version of the Asterisk,
DAHDI, and libpri software for the best results. If you have previously
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Chapter 2: Card Installation
installed any of these, Digium recommends that you upgrade to the latest
“-current” version of each.
Note: If you are using the 1.4.x series of Asterisk, you will need
Asterisk 1.4.22 or newer.
1. After the machine has booted to Linux, log in and execute the follow­
ing command to list the devices detected by the PCI bus:
# lspci -n
Confirm that the output from lspci lists a device with Digium’s PCI
vendor ID which is “d161”. The screen output should be similar to the
following:
0000:01:00.0 0200:d161:<card identifier>
Note: The output from lspci may or may not state “Unknown
device”. If it does, this does not indicate a problem.
In the PCI device listing shown above, <card identifier> will be
populated with one of the identifiers listed in the table below.
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Chapter 2: Card Installation
Table 3: Card Identifiers
Model
TDM800P
AEX800
Identifier
0800
8002
A Digium 800 Series (TDM800P/AEX800) card identifier should be
listed. If a matching card identifier is not listed, then your machine is
not PCI 2.2 (or higher) or PCI Express compatible, and the card will
not work with your motherboard.
2. Download the latest DAHDI drivers with tools. DAHDI is available
for download from:
http://downloads.digium.com/pub/telephony/dahdi-linux-complete
# wget http://downloads.digium.com/pub/telephony/
dahdi-linux-complete/dahdi-linux-complete­
current.tar.gz
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Chapter 2: Card Installation
3. Expand the downloaded file, compile its contents, and install the
drivers and tools. Substitute the version of DAHDI for the X.X.X in
the command lines below.
#
#
#
#
#
tar -zxvf dahdi-linux-complete-current.tar.gz
cd dahdi-linux-complete-X.X.X+X.X.X
make
make install
make config
Note: Executing ‘make config’ will install an init script and symlinks
which will allow you to start and stop DAHDI as a service.
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Chapter 2: Card Installation
Installing Asterisk
If you wish to use Asterisk with your new hardware, you can follow the
instructions below.
1. Download the latest release version of Asterisk, either 1.4.22 (or
later), 1.6.0.1 (or later), or 1.8.0 (or later). Substitute the version of
Asterisk for the X.X in the command below. Asterisk is available for
download from:
http://downloads.digium.com/pub/telephony/asterisk
# wget http://downloads.digium.com/pub/telephony/
asterisk/asterisk-X.X-current.tar.gz
2. Expand the downloaded file, compile its contents, and install the
application. Substitute the version of Asterisk for the the X.X and
X.X.X in the command lines below.
#
#
#
#
#
#
tar -zxvf asterisk-X.X-current.tar.gz
cd asterisk-X.X.X/
./configure
make menuselect
make
make install
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Chapter 2: Card Installation
3. If this is the first Asterisk installation on this system, you should install
the sample configuration files. To do this, run:
# make samples
Note: Running this command will overwrite, after making a backup
copy, any older Asterisk configuration files that you have in the /etc/
asterisk directory.
If your installation has failed, it may be because you are missing one
or more of the build dependencies, the kernel headers, or the
development tools. Please contact your reseller where the card was
purchased, or call Digium Technical Support at 1.256.428.6161 for
assistance.
Complete instructions for installing Asterisk are available at
www.asterisk.org.
Digium, Inc.
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Chapter 3
Configuration
The 800 Series cards have a variety of configuration options. This chapter
provides sample configurations to demonstrate customizing the Asterisk
software to meet your individual needs. Each section explains basic
options as examples. Once you have familiarized yourself with the
samples, you can edit the configuration files to meet your specific needs.
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Chapter 3: Configuration
Driver Configuration
1. Begin by opening the system.conf file from the /etc/dahdi directory.
2. Specify the two letter country code for your loadzone and defaultzone.
This will preload tone zone data and specify a default tone zone for
your interfaces.
The following is a typical setup for a telco in the US:
loadzone = us
defaultzone = us
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Chapter 3: Configuration
3. Specify the channel definitions. The format is:
<device> = <channel list>
A list of valid devices are specified in the sample system.conf file.
If your card has any red FXO modules, add the following to
system.conf:
fxsks =
fxsks uses kewlstart signalling, which is loopstart signalling with disconnect
supervision. For example, a TDM808E card would be configured as the
following:
fxsks = 1-8
OR
fxsks = 1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8
You should have identified the type of 800 Series card when you received it.
If you are not sure, refer to Module Identification on page 22 for
assistance.
Note: The 800 Series cards do not support Ground Start signaling.
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Chapter 3: Configuration
4. If your card has any green FXS modules, add the following:
fxoks =
fxoks uses kewlstart signalling, which is loopstart signalling with
disconnect supervision. For example, a TDM880E card would be
configured as the following:
fxoks = 1-8
OR
fxoks = 1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8
5. An example TDM844E card configuration would be:
fxoks = 1-4
fxsks = 5-8
OR
fxoks = 1,2,3,4
fxsks = 5,6,7,8
6. DAHDI uses modular echo cancellers that are configured per channel.
The echo cancellers are compiled and installed as part of the dahdi­
linux package. You can specify the echo canceller to be used for each
channel. The default behavior is for there to be no echo canceller on
any channel. So, it is very important that you specify one in the
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Chapter 3: Configuration
system.conf file if you do not have hardware echo cancellers and need
echo cancellation. The format is:
echocanceller = <echocanceller name>,<channel(s)>
A list of valid echo cancellers are specified in the sample system.conf
file.
The following is a typical setup using software-based echo
cancellation:
echocanceller = mg2,1-8
7. Load DAHDI drivers into the kernel using the modprobe utility. The
appropriate driver for the 800 Series cards is wctdm24xxp. Users
should use the following modprobe command:
# modprobe wctdm24xxp
# dahdi_cfg -vv
# dmesg
Note: The 800 Series cards use the same driver as the TDM2400.
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Chapter 3: Configuration
Figure 7: Example dmesg Screen Shot
Note: Output as shown above may vary depending on the 800 Series
card you use.
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Chapter 3: Configuration
Configuring Card Features
You will need to modify the chan_dahdi.conf file which is located in the
/etc/asterisk directory in order to configure the essential features of your
card. This file is the configuration layer between DAHDI and Asterisk.
The following is a sample configuration for a TDM844E card. You can
place this at the bottom of your chan_dahdi.conf file.
;General options
usecallerid = yes
hidecallerid = no
callwaiting = yes
threewaycalling = yes
transfer = yes
echocancel = yes
echocancelwhenbridged = yes
rxgain = 0.0
txgain = 0.0
;FXS Modules
group = 1
signalling = fxo_ks
context = Internal
channel = 1-4
;FXO Modules
group = 2
echocancel = yes
signalling = fxs_ks
context = Incoming
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Chapter 3: Configuration
channel = 5-8
Users of Digium's hardware echo cancellation module, the VPMOCT032,
should set the echocancel option to "yes." The module will automatically
configure itself to run at full capacity, 1024 taps (128ms), on each
channel.
Users without the VPMOCT032 using open source echo cancelers
included with DAHDI should configure echocancel to the values 128
(16ms) or 256 (32ms). Setting "yes" will default the option to 128 (16ms).
Users who have not purchased an 800 Series card with the hardware echo
cancellation module are encouraged to take advantage of Digium's High
Performance Echo Canceler software. This commercially licensed
software, which is made available at no charge to in-warranty Digium
analog interface card customers, provide toll quality echo cancellation,
performed on the host CPU, at up to 1024 taps (128ms) per channel. For
further details about HPEC, please refer to the Digium website here:
http://www.digium.com/en/products/software/hpec.php
When HPEC is enabled, users may set the value of the echocancel
parameter to any of the following values:
128 - 16ms
256 - 32ms
512 - 64ms
1024 - 128ms
Note: Higher values will result in dramatically increased CPU
consumption. In order to optimize system performance, users are
encouraged to choose the minimum value required to cancel their
echo.
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Chapter 3: Configuration
Voicemail
Open voicemail.conf and find the following line at the bottom:
[default]
1234 => 4242,Mark Spencer,root@localhost
In this example, 1234 is the mailbox number, 4242 is the password, Mark
Spencer is the person’s name, and root@localhost is his email address.
You can add extensions by adding the following:
1000 => 1234,Moose Member,moose@digium.com
2000 => 1234,Bill Savage,bsavage@digium.com
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Chapter 3: Configuration
Dial Plan
Open extensions.conf, which contains a large, complex sample dial
plan. In this step, you will configure a basic dial plan to enable you to
send and receive calls. Go to the bottom of the file and add the following
lines:
[Internal]
exten => 1000,1,Dial(DAHDI/1,20,rt)
exten => 1000,2,Voicemail(1000,u)
exten => 1000,102,Voicemail(1000,b)
exten => 2000,1,Dial(DAHDI/2,20,rt)
exten => 2000,2,Voicemail(2000,u)
exten => 2000,102,Voicemail(2000,b)
exten => 8500,1,VoiceMailMain
exten => 8501,1,MusicOnHold
exten => _9.,1,Dial(DAHDI/g2/www${EXTEN:1})
exten => _9.,2,Congestion
[Incoming]
exten => s,1,Answer
exten => s,2,Dial(DAHDI/g1,20,rt)
exten => s,3,Voicemail(1000,u)
exten => s,103,Voicemail(1000,b)
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Chapter 3: Configuration
In this example there are two internal extensions (1000 and 2000), a
number to check voicemail (8500), a number to listen to music-on-hold,
(8501), and a prefix to dial to get an outside line (9). It is configured to
accept incoming calls over the FXO, rings phones 1 and 2, and route to
voicemail box 1000.
Testing Your Configuration
1. Start Asterisk by typing:
asterisk
2. Connect to Asterisk and view the output by typing:
asterisk -vvvvr
3. Dial tone should be present on phones connected to the FXS ports.
Test your configuration by placing an outgoing call, placing a call
from extension 1 to 2, or receiving an incoming call. Successful
completion of these tasks indicates your configuration is working
properly.
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Chapter 3: Configuration
Figure 8: Sample Application
Note: More detailed information is provided at the Asterisk website
(www.asterisk.org), as well as the Digium Knowledge Base
(kb.digium.com). You may also obtain assistance by contacting
Digium Technical Support at 1.256.428.6161 or visiting the website at
www.digium.com.
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Chapter 4
FXS and FXO Explained
Identification
There are multiple standard configurations in which an 800 Series card
may be purchased. Each configuration consists of one to four FXS and/or
FXO modules. These modules are identified by their color.
 FXS - Foreign Exchange Station (Green Modules)
 FXO - Foreign Exchange Office (Red Modules)
This chapter provides an in-depth review of the two module types and
their uses within your Asterisk server.
Note: Only qualified service personnel should install the card. Users
should not attempt to perform this function themselves.
FXS Module
The FXS module allows an 800 Series card to initiate and send ringing
voltage to an FXO device such as an analog telephone.
FXO Module
The FXO module allows an 800 Series card to terminate analog telephone
lines (POTS). Because of the modular design, you can activate additional
ports at any time with more FXS or FXO daughter cards. The FXO
module passes all the call features any standard analog telephone line will
support. The phone receiving the call is the last FXO device in the chain.
When it receives voltage from an FXS device, the phone rings.
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Chapter 4: FXS and FXO Explained
Using Your 800 Series Card
Connect an outside line to an FXO port on your Asterisk server to receive
voltage from the outside line.
Connect phones to FXS ports on your Asterisk server. The recommended
maximum distance from an FXS module to its connected device is 1,500
ft. (457m). When the FXO module in your Asterisk Server receives the
voltage, it will then generate voltage using the FXS module and send it to
your analog phone.
Note: An analog phone line originating from an FXS module must
remain inside the same building as the FXS module. In addition, an
analog phone line originating from an FXS module must not be
bundled with a line or lines that go outside the building where the FXS
module is located.
Caution.
FXS modules are not equipped with lightning protection and
should not be exposed to high voltage. Lightning or high
voltage can cause damage to an FXS module. Damage caused
by lightning or high voltage will void the product warranty.
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Chapter 5
Troubleshooting
This chapter provides frequently asked questions and possible resolutions
as identified by Digium Technical Support. Multiple resources are
available to obtain more information about Asterisk and Digium products.
Please visit both www.digium.com and www.asterisk.org for more
information.
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Chapter 5: Troubleshooting
The FXO module never seems to hang-up the line. How do I set it to
hang-up?
Set busydetect = yes and busycount = 10 in the chan_dahdi.conf for
your channels. This will cause the line to hang-up by listening for a
consecutive number of busy tones. Upon editing chan_dahdi.conf, you
will need to restart Asterisk.
I have echo problems on my FXO modules and I've tried the different
echo cancellation algorithms in dahdi_config.h, tried tweaking the
gains, and still nothing works. What can I do?
Run the fxotune utility with the -i option (fxotune -i 4). It should discover
which DAHDI channels are FXO modules and tune them accordingly. Be
warned however, it takes a significant amount of time for each module to
tune. A conservative estimate would be somewhere around 2-3 minutes
for each module. You only have to tune the channels once for each line.
The fxotune utility will store the calibration settings in /etc/fxotune.conf.
You will need to configure your system to run fxotune with the -s flag
(fxotune -s) during the Linux boot sequence in order to initialize the
previously discovered values which are stored in fxotune.conf. A
recommendation is to put ‘fxotune -s’ in your distribution’s startup scripts
at some point after the DAHDI module loads and before Asterisk
executes.
Note: The digit after the -i option is the digit that will break dialtone
on the line.
There is a slight echo. How can I adjust the sound quality?
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Chapter 5: Troubleshooting
There are several options available to correct this. Each involves editing
the chan_dahdi.conf file. Be sure to restart Asterisk upon completion.
1. Adjust echocancel = yes to one of the following values: 32, 64, 128,
or 256.
2. You can also set echotraining = yes.
3. You can also adjust the rxgain and the txgain, although it is only
recommended to shift between -5 and 5.
How can I enable more features?
To view all of the options available to add to your dial plan, type the
following commands from within Asterisk:
*CLI> core show applications
*CLI> core show functions
Digium also offers services to help configure and add features you might
need. Contact Digium Technical Support at 1.877.DIGIUM.1
(1.877.344.4861) for more information.
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Chapter 5: Troubleshooting
Common Fixes
1. Check to see if the X Window System (e.g. X.Org Server) is running
by entering the following:
# ps aux | grep X
If the X Window System is running, stop the application since it may
cause a conflict with Asterisk.
2. Check to see if your PATA IDE hard drives are running with DMA
levels set. Advance user can perform an hdparm on your hard drive
interface.
Use hdparm with caution as the man page states that hard drive
corruption can occur when using incorrect settings. Please
review the man page for hdparm and make sure you understand
the risks before using this tool.
Check the current mode using this command:
hdparm -vi /dev/[IDE Device]
Use this command to set the drives into UDMA2 mode:
hdparm -d 1 -X udma2 -c 3 /dev/[IDE Device]
If you are still having problems, contact your reseller from which the card
was purchased, or Digium Technical Support at 1.877.DIGIUM.1
(1.877.344.4861).
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Chapter 5: Troubleshooting
Where can I find answers to additional questions?
There are several places to inquire for more information about Asterisk
Digium products:
1. Digium Technical Support (+1.256.428.6161), or Toll Free in the U.S.
(1.877.344.4861), is available 7am-8pm Central Time (GMT -6),
Monday - Friday.
2. Asterisk users mailing list (asterisk.org/lists.digium.com).
3. IRC channel #asterisk on (irc.freenode.net).
Subscription Services Program
Digium is dedicated to supporting your Asterisk system by offering full
technical support through our Subscription Services Program. Through
this program, you can be at ease knowing that your business will always
have access to the Asterisk experts. Pricing on Subscription Services may
be obtained from your nearest reseller or you may call Digium Sales for
referral to your nearest reseller at +1.256.428.6000 or e-mail
sales@digium.com.
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Appendix A
Pin Assignments
All eight ports on the 800 Series card’s bracket are 6-pin RJ11 ports. The
pin assignments are identified in Table A-1.
Table A-1: RJ11 Telco Port Connector
Digium, Inc.
Pin
Description
1
Not used
2
Not used
Pin 1
3
Tip
Pin 6
4
Ring
5
Not used
6
Not used
Page 56
Appendix B
Specifications
This appendix provides specifications, required environmental
conditions, and maximum power consumption for the 800 Series
cards.
Physical (All Cards).
Size:
Weight:
6.48” × 4.2” × 0.68” (16.46 x 10.67 x 1.72 cm)
PCB size, does not include the PCI bracket.
Check your model carefully to be sure it will accept
this PCI card.
4.5 oz (127.58 gm) with no modules loaded
Each quad module adds 1 oz (28.35 g)
Interfaces.
Local Loop Access: Industry standard 6-pin RJ-11.
Note: FXS modules are not equipped with lightning protection and
should not be exposed to high voltage. Lightning or high voltage can
cause damage to an FXS module. Damage caused by lightning or high
voltage will void the product warranty.
The recommended maximum distance from an FXS module to its
connected device is 1,500 ft. (457m).
(TDM800P) - PCI Bus: 3.3V or 5V bus slot, half-length full-height PCI
card, 33MHz minimum bus speed, compliant with PCI 2.2 or greater.
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Appendix B: Specifications
Additional Power: four-pin 12V connector for FXS power supply
(required only if FXS modules are installed)
(AEX800) - PCI-E X1, compliant with PCI-E X1 1.0 or greater.
Environment.
Temperature: 0 to 50° C (32 to 122° F) operation
-20 to 65° C (-4 to 149° F) storage
Humidity: 10 to 90% non-condensing
Note: Operating temperature is limited to 0 to 40° C (32 to 104°F)
when used with optional PWR2400B Power Bracket.
Hardware and Software Requirements.
500-Mhz Pentium III or better
64MB RAM
Available PCI or PCI-Express Slot (as described previously)
Power Consumption.
The following table lists the power consumption for both the TDM800P
card (and its permutations) and the AEX800 card (and its permutations).
Note: 3.3 and 5 volt power is taken from the PCI slot. 12 volt power is
taken only from the four-pin hard disk drive connector or optional
PWR2400B.
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Appendix B: Specifications
Table B-2: Maximum Power Consumption
Model
Digium, Inc.
Power
3.3V All TDM models
1W
3.3V All AEX “B” models
3.5 W
3.3V All AEX “E” models
4.5 W
5.0V All TDM “B” models
1W
5.0V All TDM “E” models
9W
5V All AEX models
0W
12V AEX/TDM804E
0W
AEX/TDM808E into 1REN
0W
AEX/TDM844E into 2REN
6.5W
AEX/TDM840E into 3REN
6.5W
AEX/TDM880E into 5REN
13W
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Appendix C
Glossary and Acronyms
ANSI
American National Standards Institute
An organization which proposes and establishes standards for
international communications.
asynchronous
Not synchronized; not timed to an outside clock source. Transmission is
controlled by start bits at the beginning and stop bits at the end of each
character. Asynchronous communications are often found in internet
access and remote office applications.
attenuation
The dissipation of a transmitted signal’s power as it travels over a wire.
bandwidth
The capacity to carry traffic. Higher bandwidth indicates the ability to
transfer more data in a given time period.
bit
The smallest element of information in a digital system. A bit can be
either a zero or a one.
bps
bits per second
A measurement of transmission speed across a data connection.
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Appendix C: Glossary and Acronyms
broadband
Broadband transmission shares the bandwidth of a particular medium
(copper or fiber optic) to integrate multiple signals. The channels take up
different frequencies on the cable, integrating voice, data, and video over
one line.
channel
A generic term for an individual data stream. Service providers can use
multiplexing techniques to transmit multiple channels over a common
medium.
Cat5
Category of Performance for wiring and cabling. Cat 5 cabling support
applications up to 100 MHz.
Cat5E
Category of Performance for wiring and cabling. Category 5 Enhanced
wiring supports signal rates up to 100 MHz but adheres to stricter quality
specifications.
CLEC
competitive local exchange carrier
A term for telephone companies established after the
Telecommunications Act of 1996 deregulated the LECs. CLECs compete
with ILECs to offer local service. See also LEC and ILEC.
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Appendix C: Glossary and Acronyms
CO
central office
The CO houses local switching equipment. All local access lines in a
particular geographic area terminate at this facility (which is usually
owned and operated by an ILEC).
CPE
customer premises equipment
Terminal equipment which is connected to the telecommunications
network and which resides within the home or office of the customer. This
includes telephones, modems, terminals, routers, and television set-top
boxes.
DAHDI
Digium Asterisk Hardware Device Interface
A telephony project dedicated to implementing a reasonable and
affordable computer telephony platform into the world marketplace. Also,
the collective name for the Digium-provided drivers for Digium
telephony interface products.
DS0
Digital Signal, Level 0
A voice grade channel of 64 Kbps. The worldwide standard speed for
digitizing voice conversation using PCM (Pulse Code Modulation).
DS1
Digital Signal, Level 1
1.544 Mbps in North America (T1) and Japan (J1) -up to 24 voice
channels (DS0s), 2.048 Mbps in Europe (E1) - up to 32 voice channels
(DS0s). DS1/T1/E1 lines are part of the PSTN.
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Appendix C: Glossary and Acronyms
DS3
Digital Signal, Level 3
T3 in North America and Japan, E3 in Europe. Up to 672 voice channels
(DS0s). DS3/T3/E3 lines are not part of the PSTN.
DTMF
Dual Tone Multi-Frequency
Push-button or touch tone dialing.
E1
The European equivalent of North American T1, transmits data at 2.048
Mbps, up to 32 voice channels (DS0s).
E3
The European equivalent of North American T3, transmits data at 34.368
Mbps, up to 512 voice channels (DS0s). Equivalent to 16 E1 lines.
EMI
Electromagnetic Interference
Unwanted electrical noise present on a power line
full duplex
Data transmission in two directions simultaneously.
FXO
Foreign Exchange Office
Receives the ringing voltage from an FXS device. Outside lines are
connected to the FXO port on your 800 Series card.
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Appendix C: Glossary and Acronyms
FXS
Foreign Exchange Station
Initiates and sends ringing voltage. Phones are connected to the FXS ports
on the 800 Series card.
G.711
A recommendation by the Telecommunication Standardization Sector
(ITU-T) for an algorithm designed to transmit and receive mulaw PCM
voice and A-law at a digital bit rate of 64 Kbps. This algorithm is used for
digital telephone sets on digital PBX.
G.723.1
A recommendation by the Telecommunication Standardization Sector
(ITU-T) for an algorithm designed to transmit and receive audio over
telephone lines at 6.3 Kbps or 5.3 Kbps.
G.729a
A recommendation by the Telecommunication Standardization Sector
(ITU-T) for an algorithm designed to transmit and receive audio over
telephone lines at 8 Kbps.
H.323
A recommendation by the Telecommunication Standardization Sector
(ITU-T) for multimedia communications over packet-based networks.
IAX
Inter-Asterisk eXchange
The native VoIP protocol used by Asterisk. It is an IETF standard used to
enable VoIP connections between Asterisk servers, and between servers
and clients that also use the IAX protocol.
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Appendix C: Glossary and Acronyms
iLBC
internet Low Bitrate Codec
A free speech codec used for voice over IP. It is designed for narrow band
speech with a payload bitrate of 13.33 kbps (frame length = 30ms) and
15.2 kbps (frame length = 20 ms).
ILEC
incumbent local exchange carrier
The LECs that were the original carriers in the market prior to the entry of
competition and therefore have the dominant position in the market.
interface
A point of contact between two systems, networks, or devices.
ISO
International Standards Organization
LED
light-emitting diode
Linux
A robust, feature-packed open source operating system based on Unix
that remains freely available on the internet. It boasts dependability and
offers a wide range of compatibility with hardware and software. Asterisk
is supported exclusively on Linux.
loopback
A state in which the transmit signal is reversed back as the receive signal,
typically by a far end network element.
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Appendix C: Glossary and Acronyms
MGCP
Media Gateway Control Protocol
multiplexing
Transmitting multiple signals over a single line or channel. FDM
(frequency division multiplexing) and TDM (time division multiplexing)
are the two most common methods. FDM separates signals by dividing
the data onto different carrier frequencies, and TDM separates signals by
interleaving bits one after the other.
MUX
multiplexer
A device which transmits multiple signals over a single communications
line or channel. See multiplexing.
PBX
private branch exchange
A smaller version of a phone company’s large central switching office.
Example: Asterisk.
PCI
peripheral component interconnect
A standard bus used in most computers to connect peripheral devices.
POP
point of presence
The physical connection point between a network and a telephone
network. A POP is usually a network node serving as the equivalent of a
CO to a network service provider or an interexchange carrier.
POTS
plain old telephone service
The public switched telephone network (PSTN) is the network of the
world's public circuit-switched telephone networks. Originally a network
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of fixed-line analog telephone systems, the PSTN is now almost entirely
digital, and now includes mobile as well as fixed telephones.
PPP
point-to-point protocol
Type of communications link that connects a single device to another
single device, such as a remote terminal to a host computer.
PSTN
public switched telephone network
A communications network which uses telephones to establish
connections between two points. Also referred to as the dial network.
QoS
quality of service
A measure of telephone service, as specified by the Public Service
Commission.
RJ11
A six-pin jack typically used for connecting telephones, modems, and fax
machines in residential and business settings to PBX or the local
telephone CO.
SIP
Session Initiation Protocol
An IETF standard for setting up sessions between one or more clients. It
is currently the leading signaling protocol for Voice over IP, gradually
replacing H.323.
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T1
A dedicated digital carrier facility which transmits up to 24 voice
channels (DS0s) and transmits data at 1.544 Mbps. Commonly used to
carry traffic to and from private business networks and ISPs.
T3
A dedicated digital carrier facility which consists of 28 T1 lines and
transmits data at 44.736 Mbps. Equivalent to 672 voice channels (DS0s).
TDM
time division multiplexer
A device that supports simultaneous transmission of multiple data streams
into a single high-speed data stream. TDM separates signals by
interleaving bits one after the other.
telco
A generic name which refers to the telephone companies throughout the
world, including RBOCs, LECs, and PTTs.
tip and ring
The standard termination on the two conductors of a telephone circuit;
named after the physical appearance of the contact areas on the jack plug.
twisted pair
Two copper wires commonly used for telephony and data
communications. The wires are wrapped loosely around each other to
minimize radio frequency interference or interference from other pairs in
the same bundle.
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Appendix C: Glossary and Acronyms
V
volts
VoIP
Voice over IP
Technology used for transmitting voice traffic over a data network using
the Internet Protocol.
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