Agilent Technologies DP235 User`s guide

User’s Guide
Publication Number 01670-97022
August 2002
For Safety information, Warranties, and Regulatory information, see
the pages behind the index.
© Copyright Agilent Technologies 1994-2002
All Rights Reserved
Agilent Technologies 1670G
Series Logic Analyzers
Agilent Technologies 1670G-Series Logic Analyzers
The Agilent Technologies 1670G-Series is a 150-MHz State/500-MHz
Timing Logic Analyzer with a VGA resolution color display. The 1670GSeries logic analyzer has two options available. One option is to add a
2 GSa/s digitizing oscilloscope. Another option is to add a 32 channel
pattern generator.
Logic Analyzer Features
•
130 data channels and 6 clock/data channels in the 1670G
•
96 data channels and 6 clock/data channels in the 1671G
•
64 data channels and 4 clock/data channels in the 1672G
•
32 data channels and 2 clock/data channels in the 1673G
•
3.5-inch flexible disk drive
•
2 GB hard disk drive
•
GPIB, RS-232-C, parallel printer, and LAN interfaces
•
BNC and TP LAN ports
•
Variable setup/hold time
•
64k memory on all channels with 256k and 2M options
•
Marker measurements
•
12 levels of trigger sequencing for state and 10 levels of trigger sequencing
for timing
•
Time tagging and number-of-states tagging
•
Full programmability
•
DIN mouse and keyboard support
2
Oscilloscope Features (Option)
•
500 MHz bandwidth
•
2 Gigasample per second max sampling rate
•
>32000 samples per channel
•
Marker measurements
displays time between markers, acquires until specified time between
markers in captured, performs statistical analysis on time between markers
•
Lightweight miniprobes
Pattern Generator Features (Option)
•
16 output channels at 200 MHz
•
32 output channels at 100 MHz
•
258,048 vectors
Documentation Options
•
Programmer's Guide
•
Service Guide
•
Training Kit
3
In This Book
This User’s Guide has three sections. Section 1 covers how to use the
1670G-series logic analyzers. Section 2 covers how to connect, use, and
troubleshoot the logic analyzer via a Local Area Network (LAN)
connection. Section 3 covers the features of the Agilent Technologies
Symbol Utility software.
Section 1. Chapters 1 through 4 cover general product information
you need to use the logic analyzer. Chapter 5 and 6 contains detailed
examples to help you use your analyzer in performing complex
measurements. Chapter 7 covers how to use the oscilloscope (Option).
Chapter 8 covers how to use the pattern generator (Option). Chapters
9 through 11 contains reference information on the hardware and
software, including the analyzer menus and how they are used.
Chapters 12 through 14 provides a basic service guide.
Section 2. Chapters 15 through 16 provides information about
connecting the logic analyzer to the network. Chapter 17 shows you
how to access the logic analyzer’s file system. Chapter 18 shows you
how to display the analyzer interface on an X Window server. Chapter
19 shows you how to retrieve measurement data, screen images, and
status information from you logic analyzer on the LAN, and how to
copy and restore configurations. Chapter 20 shows you methods for
programming the logic analyzer via the network connection. Chapter
21 contains additional information on the logic analyzer’s directory
structure and dynamic files. Chapter 22 describes what to do if you
have a problem using the logic analyzer on your network.
Section 3. Chapters 23 through 24 describe how to locate the menus
associated with the Symbol Utility. Chapter 25 describes how to use the
Symbol Utility to perform common tasks. Chapter 26 describes the
features and functions of the Symbol Utility.
4
Contents
Agilent Technologies 1670G-Series Logic Analyzers
In This Book
1 Logic Analyzer Overview
Agilent Technologies 1670G-Series Logic Analyzer
To make a measurement
26
29
2 Connecting Peripherals
Connecting Peripherals
36
To connect a mouse 37
To connect a keyboard 38
To connect to an GPIB printer 39
To connect to an RS-232-C printer 41
To connect to a parallel printer 43
To connect to a controller 44
3 Using the Logic Analyzer
Using the Logic Analyzer
Accessing the Menus
46
47
To access the System menus 48
To access the Analyzer menus 50
5
Contents
Using the Analyzer Menus
52
To label channel groups 52
To create a symbol 55
To examine an analyzer waveform 57
To examine an analyzer listing 60
To compare two listings 63
The Inverse Assembler
65
To use an inverse assembler
65
4 Using the Trigger Menu
Using the Trigger Menu
70
Specifying a Basic Trigger
71
To assign terms to an analyzer 72
To define a term 74
To change the trigger specification 75
Changing the Trigger Sequence
77
To add sequence levels 78
To change trigger functions 80
Setting Up Time Correlation between Analyzers
81
To set up time correlation between two state analyzers 82
To set up time correlation between a timing and a state analyzer 83
Arming and Additional Instruments
84
To arm another instrument 84
To arm the oscilloscope with the analyzer (1670G-series logic analyzers with
the oscilloscope option) 85
To receive an arm signal from another instrument 87
6
Contents
Managing Memory
89
To selectively store branch conditions (state only)
To set the memory length 91
To place the trigger in memory 93
To set the sampling rates (Timing only) 94
90
5 Triggering Examples
Triggering Examples
96
Single-Machine Trigger Examples
97
To store and time the execution of a subroutine 98
To trigger on the nth iteration of a loop 100
To trigger on the nth recursive call of a recursive function 102
To trigger on entry to a function 104
To capture a write of known bad data to a particular variable 106
To trigger on a loop that occasionally runs too long 107
To verify correct return from a function call 108
To trigger after all status bus lines finish transitioning 109
To find the nth assertion of a chip select line 110
To verify that the chip select line is strobed after the address is stable 111
To trigger when expected data does not appear when requested 112
To test minimum and maximum pulse limits 114
To detect a handshake violation 116
To detect bus contention 117
Cross-Arming Trigger Examples
118
To examine software execution when a timing violation occurs 119
To look at control and status signals during execution of a routine 121
To detect a glitch 122
To capture the waveform of a glitch using the oscilloscope (oscilloscope option
only) 123
To view your target system processing an interrupt (oscilloscope option
7
Contents
only) 124
To trigger timing analysis of a count-down on a set of data lines
To monitor two coprocessors in a target system 126
Special Displays
128
To interleave trace lists 129
To view trace lists and waveforms on the same display
131
6 File Management
File Management
134
Transferring Files Using the Flexible Disk Drive
To save a configuration 136
To load a configuration 137
To save a trace list in ASCII format
To save a screen's image 140
To load additional software 141
Transferring Files Using the LAN
To transfer files using ftp
135
139
142
143
7 Using the Oscilloscope
Using the Oscilloscope
146
Calibrating the oscilloscope
147
Calibration PROTECT/UNPROTECT switch 147
Set up the equipment 147
Load the default calibration factors 148
Self Cal menu calibrations 149
Protect the operational accuracy calibration factors
8
151
125
Contents
Oscilloscope Common Menus
Run/Stop options
Autoscale 154
Time base 156
152
152
The Scope Channel Menu
157
Offset field 157
Probe field 158
Coupling field 158
Preset field 159
The Scope Display Menu
160
Mode field 160
Connect Dots field 162
Grid field 162
Display Options field 163
The Scope Trigger Menu
164
Trigger marker 164
Mode/Arm menu 164
Level field 167
Source field 169
Slope field 169
Count field 170
Auto-Trig field 171
When field 172
Count field 175
The Scope Marker Menu
176
Manual time markers options 176
Automatic time markers options 179
Manual/Automatic Time Markers option
Voltage Markers options 185
Channel Label field 187
184
9
Contents
The Scope Auto Measure Menu
188
Input field 188
Automatic measurements display 189
Automatic measurement algorithms 191
8 Using the Pattern Generator
Using the Pattern Generator
196
Setting Up the Proper Configurations
To set up the configuration
To build a label 199
197
197
Building Test Vectors and Functions
200
To build a main vector sequence 201
To build an initialization sequence 202
To edit a main or initialization sequence 203
To include hardware instructions in a sequence 204
To include software instructions in a sequence 205
To include a user macro in a sequence 206
To build a user macro 207
To modify a function name 208
To edit a function 208
To add, delete, or rename parameters 209
To place parameters in a vector 210
To enter or modify parameters 211
To build a User Symbol Table 212
To include symbols in a sequence 213
To include symbols in a function 214
To store a configuration 215
To load a configuration 216
To use Autoroll 217
The Format Menu 218
The Sequence Menu 222
The User Macros Menu 231
10
Contents
Loading ASCII Files
ASCII File Commands
233
234
ASCDown Command 234
LABel 235
VECTor 236
FORMat:xxx 239
Loading an ASCII file over a bus (example)
Pattern Generator Probing System 242
240
9 Logic Analyzer Reference
1670G-Series Logic Analyzer Description
1670G-Series Configuration Capabilities
Probing
244
246
248
General-purpose probing system description 251
Assembling the probing system 255
Oscilloscope probes (oscilloscope option only) 259
Connecting the pattern generator pods directly to a PC board (pattern generator option only) 260
Pattern generator output pod characteristics (pattern generator option
only) 261
Keyboard Shortcuts
267
Moving the cursor 267
Entering data into a menu 268
Using the keyboard overlays 269
Common Menu Fields
270
Print field 271
Run/Stop field 273
Roll fields 274
11
Contents
Disk Drive Operations
275
Disk operations 275
Autoload 278
Format 278
Pack 279
Load and Store 280
The RS-232-C, GPIB, and Centronics Interfaces
282
The GPIB interface 283
The RS-232-C interface 284
The Centronics interface 285
The Ethernet LAN interface 286
System Utilities
289
Real Time Clock Adjustments field
Update FLASH ROM field 290
Display Color Selection
289
292
Setting the Color, Hue, Saturation, and Luminosity Fields 294
Returning to the Default Colors 294
The Analyzer Configuration Menu
295
Type field 295
Illegal configuration 296
The Analyzer Format Menu
297
Pod threshold field 297
State acquisition modes 298
Timing acquisition modes 299
Acquisition modes 300
Clock Inputs Display 301
Pod clock field (State only) 302
Master and Slave Clock fields (State only)
Symbols field 308
Label fields 310
Label polarity fields 311
12
305
Contents
The Analyzer Trigger Menu
312
Trigger sequence levels 312
Modify Trigger field 313
Timing trigger function library 314
State trigger function library 316
Modifying the user function 319
Resource terms 323
Arming Control field 327
Acquisition Control field 329
Count field (State only) 331
The Listing Menu
Markers
332
332
The Waveform Menu
334
sec/Div field 334
Accumulate field 334
Delay field 335
Waveform label field 335
Waveform display 337
The Mixed Display Menu
338
Interleaving state listings 338
Time-correlated displays 339
Markers 339
The Chart Menu
340
Min and Max scaling fields
Markers/Range field 341
Axis Control field 342
Rescale field 343
341
13
Contents
The Compare Menu
344
Reference Listing field 345
Difference Listing field 345
Copy Listing to Reference field 346
Find Error field 347
Compare Full/Compare Partial field 347
10 System Performance Analysis (SPA) Software
System Performance Analysis Software
350
What is System Performance Analysis? 352
Getting started 355
SPA measurement processes 357
Using State Overview, State Histogram, and Time Interval
Using SPA with other features 383
373
11 Logic Analyzer Concepts
Logic Analyzer Concepts
The File System
386
387
Directories 388
File types 389
The Trigger Sequence
391
Trigger sequence specification 392
Analyzer resources 395
Timing analyzer 400
State analyzer 400
Configuration Translation Between Agilent Logic Analyzers
14
401
Contents
The Analyzer Hardware
403
1670G-series analyzer theory 404
Logic acquisition board theory 408
Oscilloscope board theory 412
Pattern Generator board theory 417
Self-tests description 420
12 Troubleshooting the Logic Analyzer
Troubleshooting the Logic Analyzer
Analyzer Problems
422
423
Intermittent data errors 423
Unwanted triggers 424
No activity on activity indicators 424
Capacitive loading 425
No trace list display 425
Analysis Probe Problems
426
Target system will not boot up 426
Slow clock 427
Erratic trace measurements 428
Inverse Assembler Problems
429
No inverse assembly or incorrect inverse assembly
Inverse assembler will not load or run 431
429
15
Contents
Error Messages
432
". . . Inverse Assembler Not Found" 432
"No Configuration File Loaded" 432
"Selected File is Incompatible" 433
"Slow or Missing Clock" 433
"Waiting for Trigger" 433
"Must have at least 1 edge specified" 434
"Time correlation of data is not possible" 434
"Maximum of 32 channels per label" 434
"Timer is off in sequence level n where it is used" 435
"Timer is specified in sequence, but never started" 435
"Inverse assembler not loaded - bad object code." 435
"Measurement Initialization Error" 436
"Warning: Run HALTED due to variable change" 436
13 Specifications
General Information
438
Accessories 438
Specifications (logic analyzer) 440
Specifications (oscilloscope option) 441
Characteristics (logic analyzer) 442
Characteristics (oscilloscope) 443
Characteristics (pattern generator) 443
Supplemental characteristics (logic analyzer) 445
Supplemental characteristics (oscilloscope) 450
Operating environment 452
14 Operator’s Service
Operator’s Service
16
454
Contents
Preparing For Use
455
To inspect the logic analyzer 456
To apply power 456
To clean the logic analyzer 457
To test the logic analyzer 457
Troubleshooting
458
To use the flowcharts 459
To check the power-up tests 461
To run the self-tests 462
To test the auxiliary power 471
15 Introducing the LAN Interface
Introducing the LAN Interface
LAN section overview
476
478
16 Connecting and Configuring the LAN
Connecting and Configuring the LAN
To connect to your network 481
To configure the network addresses 482
To verify connectivity with the ping utility
To mount the logic analyzer 486
480
485
17 Accessing the Logic Analyzer File System Using the LAN
Accessing the Logic Analyzer File System Using the LAN
490
Control User vs. Data User 490
To mount the file system via NFS 491
To access the file system via ftp 496
17
Contents
18 Using the LAN’s X Window Interface
Using the LAN’s X Window Interface
498
To start the interface from the front panel 499
To start the interface from the computer 501
To close the interface 504
To load the custom fonts 505
Additional Information 508
19 Retrieving and Restoring Data Using the LAN
Retrieving and Restoring Data Using the LAN
To copy ASCII measurement data 511
To copy raw measurement data 512
To restore raw measurement data 513
To copy screen images from \system\graphics
To copy status information from \status 515
To copy configurations from setup.raw 517
To restore configurations 518
510
514
20 Programming the Logic Analyzer Using the LAN
Programming the Logic Analyzer Using the LAN
520
To set up for Ethernet LAN programming 521
To enter commands directly using telnet 522
To write programs that open the command parser socket
21 LAN Concepts
LAN Concepts
528
Directory structure of the logic analyzer's file system 529
Dynamic files 532
LAN-related fields in the logic analyzer's menus 533
18
524
Contents
22 Troubleshooting the LAN Connection
Troubleshooting the LAN Connection
Troubleshooting the Initial Connection
536
537
Assess the problem 537
Troubleshooting in a workstation environment 540
Troubleshooting in an MS-DOS environment 542
Troubleshooting in an MS Windows environment 544
Verify the logic analyzer performance 546
Status Number 548
Network Status Information 551
Solutions to Common Problems
553
If you cannot connect to the logic analyzer 553
If you cannot mount the logic analyzer file system 554
If you cannot access the file system via ftp 554
If you cannot start the XWindow interface 555
If your X Window looks odd 555
If you cannot copy files from the logic analyzer 556
If you cannot restore raw files 556
If you get an "operation timed-out" message 557
If the logic analyzer begins to operate slowly 557
If the logic analyzer does not respond 557
If all else fails 558
Getting Service Support
Return to Agilent service
559
559
23 Symbol Utility Introduction
Symbol Utility Introduction
564
Equipment Required 564
Supported Symbol File Formats 565
Symbol Utility section overview 567
19
Contents
24 Getting Started with the Symbol Utility
Getting Started with the Symbol Utility
570
To Access the Symbol File Load Menu 571
Method 1: Using the Module Field 571
Method 2: Using the Symbol Field in the Format Menu 573
To Access the Symbol Browser 575
25 Using the Symbol Utility
To generate a symbol file 578
To Load a Symbol File 579
To Display Symbols in the Trace List 582
To Trigger on a Symbol 583
To View a List of Symbol Files Currently Loaded into the System
To Remove a Symbol File From the System 586
26 Symbol Utility Features and Functions
Symbol Utility Features and Functions
The OMF Symbol File Load Menu
OMF File Field 590
Drive Field 590
Label Field 591
Module Field 591
Load Field 592
Current Loaded Files Field 593
Section Relocation Option 594
20
589
588
585
Contents
The OMF Symbol Browser Menu
596
Symbol Type Selection Field (User vs. OMF)
Find Field 598
Browse Results Display 600
Align to xx Byte Option 601
Offset Option 602
Context Display 603
Address Display 603
Symbol Mode Field 604
597
The General-Purpose ASCII File Format 605
Creating a GPA Symbol File 606
GPA File Format 607
Sections 609
Functions 611
Variables 612
Source Line Numbers 613
Start Address 614
Comments 614
21
Contents
22
Section 1
Logic Analyzer
23
24
1
Logic Analyzer Overview
25
Logic Analyzer Overview
Agilent Technologies 1670G-Series Logic Analyzer
Agilent Technologies 1670G-Series Logic
Analyzer
1670G-Series Logic Analyzer Front Panel (oscilloscope option)
Select Key
The Select key action depends on the type of field currently
highlighted. If the field is an option field, the Select key brings up an
option menu or, if there are only two possible values, toggles the value
in the field. If the highlighted field performs a function, the Select key
starts the function.
Done Key
The Done key saves assignments and closes pop-up menus. In some
fields, its action is the same as the Select key.
26
Logic Analyzer Overview
Agilent Technologies 1670G-Series Logic Analyzer
Shift Key
The Shift key, which is blue, provides lowercase letters and access to
the functions in blue on some of the keys. You do not need to hold the
shift key down while pressing the other key. Press the shift key first,
and then the function key.
Knob
The knob can be used in some fields to change values. These fields are
indicated by a side view of the knob placed on top of the field when it is
selected. The knob also scrolls the display and moves the cursor within
lists. If you are using a mouse, you can do the same actions by holding
down the right button of the mouse while dragging.
1670G-Series Logic Analyzer Back Panel
27
Logic Analyzer Overview
Agilent Technologies 1670G-Series Logic Analyzer
External Trigger BNCs
The External Trigger BNCs provide the "Port In" and "Port Out"
connections for the Arm In and Arm Out of the Trigger Arming Control
menu.
RS-232-C Connector
Standard DB-25 type connector for connecting an RS-232-C printer or
controller.
GPIB Connector
Standard GPIB connector for connecting an GPIB printer or controller.
Parallel Printer Connector
Standard Centronics connector for connecting a parallel printer.
LAN Connectors
Connects the logic analyzer to your local ethernet network. The BNC
connector on top accepts 10Base2 ("thinlan"). The UTP connector
below the BNC connector accepts 10Base-T ("ethertwist").
Calibration Memory Switch
Provides write protection for the calibration factors stored in memory.
Active Probe Power
Provides the power needed for active probes such as the Agilent
Technologies 1144A.
28
Logic Analyzer Overview
Agilent Technologies 1670G-Series Logic Analyzer
To make a measurement
For more detail on any of the information below, see the referenced
chapters or the Logic Analyzer Training Kit. If you are using an analysis
probe with the logic analyzer, some of these steps may not apply.
Map to target
Connect probes
Connect probes from the target system to the logic analyzer to
physically map the target system to the channels in the logic analyzer.
Attach probes to a pod in a way that keeps logically-related channels
together. Remember to ground the pod.
See Also
"Probing" on page 248 for more detail on constructing probes.
Set type
When the logic analyzer is turned on, Analyzer 1 is named Machine 1
and is configured as a timing analyzer, and Analyzer 2 is off. To use
state analysis or software profiling, you must set the type of the
analyzer in the Analyzer Configuration menu. You can only use one
timing analyzer at a time.
29
Logic Analyzer Overview
Agilent Technologies 1670G-Series Logic Analyzer
Assign pods
In the Analyzer Configuration menu, assign the connected pods to the
analyzer you want to use. The number of pods on your logic analyzer
depends on the model. Pods are paired and always assigned as a pair to
a particular analyzer.
Set up analyzers
Set modes and clocks
Set the state and timing analyzers using the Analyzer Format menu. In
general, these modes trade channel count for speed or storage. The
state analyzer also provides for complicated clocking. If your state
clock is set incorrectly, the data gathered by the logic analyzer might
indicate an error where none exists.
See Also
"The Analyzer Format Menu" on page 297 for more information on
modes and clocks.
Group bits under labels
The Analyzer Format menu indicates active pod bits. You can create
groups of bits across pods or subgroups within pods and name the
groups or subgroups using labels.
30
Logic Analyzer Overview
Agilent Technologies 1670G-Series Logic Analyzer
Set up trigger
Define terms
In the Analyzer Trigger menu, define trigger variables called terms to
match specific conditions in your target system. Terms can match
patterns, ranges, or edges across multiple labels.
Configure Arming Control
Use Arming Control if:
•
you want to correlate the triggers and data of both analyzers
•
you want to use the logic analyzer to trigger an external instrument, or
•
you want to use an external instrument to trigger the logic analyzer.
Set up trigger sequence
Create a sequence of steps that control when the logic analyzer starts
and stops storing data and filters which data it will store. For common
tasks, you can use a trigger function to simplify the process or use the
user-defined trigger functions to loop and jump in sequence.
See Also
"Using the Trigger Menu" on page 70 and "Triggering Examples" on
page 96 for more information on setting up a trigger.
"The Trigger Sequence" on page 391 for more information about the
trigger sequence mechanism.
"To save a configuration" on page 136 and "To load a configuration" on
page 137 for instructions on saving and loading the setup so you don't
have to repeat setting up the analyzer and trigger.
31
Logic Analyzer Overview
Agilent Technologies 1670G-Series Logic Analyzer
Run measurement
Select single or repetitive
From any Analyzer menu, select the field labeled Run in the upper
right corner to start measuring, or press the Run key. A single run will
run once, until memory is full; a repetitive run will go until you select
Stop or until a stop measurement condition that you set in the markers
menu is fulfilled.
If nothing happens, see Troubleshooting the Logic
Analyzer
When you start a run, your analyzer menu changes to one of the display
menus or a status message pops up. If nothing happens, press the Stop
key or select Cancel. If the analyzer still does not display any
measurements, see "Troubleshooting the Logic Analyzer" on page 422.
Gather data
You can gather statistics automatically by going to the Waveform or
Listing menu, turning on markers, and setting patterns for the X and O
markers. You can set the analyzer to stop if certain conditions are
exceeded, or just use the markers to count valid runs.
32
Logic Analyzer Overview
Agilent Technologies 1670G-Series Logic Analyzer
View data
Search for patterns
In both the Waveform and Listing menus you can use symbols and
markers to search for patterns in your data. In the Analyzer Waveform
or Analyzer Listing menu, toggle the Markers field to turn the pattern
markers on and then specify the pattern. When you switch views, the
markers keep their settings.
Correlate data
You can correlate data by setting Count Time in your state analyzer's
Trigger menu and then using interleaving and mixed display.
Interleaving correlates the listings of two state analyzers. Mixed display
correlates a timing analyzer waveform and a state analyzer listing. The
System Performance Analysis (SPA) Software does not save a record of
actual activity, so it cannot be correlated with either timing or state
mode.
33
Logic Analyzer Overview
Agilent Technologies 1670G-Series Logic Analyzer
Make measurements
The markers can count occurrences of events, measure durations, and
collect statistics, and SPA provides high-level summaries to help you
identify bottlenecks. To use the markers, select the appropriate marker
type in the display menu and specify the data patterns for the marker.
To use SPA, go to the SPA menu, select the most appropriate mode, fill
in the parameters, and press Run.
See Also
"System Performance Analysis (SPA) Software" on page 350 for more
information on using SPA.
"The Waveform Menu" on page 334 and "The Listing Menu" on page 332
for additional information on the menu features.
34
2
Connecting Peripherals
35
Connecting Peripherals
Connecting Peripherals
Connecting Peripherals
The 1670G-series logic analyzers comes with a PS2 mouse. It also
provides connectors for a keyboard, Centronics (parallel) printer, and
GPIB and RS-232-C devices. This chapter tells you how to connect
peripheral equipment such as the mouse or a printer to the logic
analyzer.
Mouse and Keyboard
You can use either the supplied mouse and optional keyboard, or
another PS2 mouse and keyboard with standard DIN connector. The
DIN connector is the type commonly used by personal computer
accessories.
Printers
The logic analyzer communicates directly with HP PCL printers
supporting the printer control language or with other printers
supporting the Epson standard command set. Many non-Epson
printers have an Epson-emulation mode. HP PCL printers include the
following:
•
HP ThinkJet
•
HP LaserJet
•
HP PaintJet
•
HP DeskJet
•
HP QuietJet
You can connect your printer to the logic analyzer using GPIB, RS-232C, or the parallel printer port. The logic analyzer can only print to
printers directly connected to it. It cannot print to a networked printer.
36
Connecting Peripherals
Connecting Peripherals
To connect a mouse
Agilent Technologies supplies a mouse with the logic analyzer. If you
prefer a different style of mouse you can use any PS2 mouse with a
standard PS2 DIN interface.
1 Plug the mouse into the mouse connector on the back panel.
Make sure the plug shows the arrow on top.
2 To verify connection, check the System External I/O menu for a
mouse box.
The mouse box is on the right side above the Settings fields. If the logic
analyzer was displaying the System External I/O menu when you
plugged in the mouse, the menu won't update until you exit and then
return to it.
The mouse pointer looks like a plus sign (+). To select a field, move the
pointer over it and press the left button. To duplicate the front-panel
knob, hold down the right button while moving the mouse. Moving the
mouse up or to the right duplicates turning the knob clockwise. Moving
the mouse down or to the left duplicates turning the knob
counterclockwise.
System External I/O Menu Showing Mouse Installed
37
Connecting Peripherals
Connecting Peripherals
To connect a keyboard
You can use either the Agilent-recommended keyboard, E2427B, or
any other keyboard with a standard DIN connector.
1 Plug the keyboard into the keyboard connector on the back
panel.
2 To verify, check the System External I/O menu for a keyboard
box.
The keyboard box is on the right side, above the Settings fields. If the
logic analyzer was displaying the System External I/O menu while you
plugged the keyboard in, the menu won't update until you exit and
then return to it.
The keyboard cursor is the location on the screen highlighted in
inverse video. To move the cursor, use the arrow keys. Pressing Enter
selects the highlighted field. The primary keyboard keys act like the
analyzer's front-panel data entry keys.
See Also
"Keyboard Shortcuts" on page 267 for complete key mappings.
System External I/O Menu Showing Keyboard Installed
38
Connecting Peripherals
Connecting Peripherals
To connect to an GPIB printer
Printers connected to the logic analyzer over GPIB must support GPIB
and Listen Always. When controlling a printer, the analyzer's GPIB port
does not respond to service requests (SRQ), so the SRQ enable setting
does not have any effect on printer operation.
1 Turn off the analyzer and the printer, and connect an GPIB cable
from the printer to the GPIB connector on the analyzer rear
panel.
2 Turn on the analyzer and printer.
3 Make sure the printer is set to Listen Always or Listen Only.
For example, the figure below shows the GPIB configuration switches
for an GPIB ThinkJet printer. For the Listen Always mode, move the
second switch from the left to the 1 position. Because the instrument
doesn't respond to SRQ EN (Service Request Enable), the position of
the first switch doesn't matter.
Listen AlwaysSwitchSetting
39
Connecting Peripherals
Connecting Peripherals
4 Go to the System External I/O menu and configure the analyzer's
printer settings.
a If the analyzer is not already set to GPIB, select the field under
Connected To: in the Printer box and choose GPIB from the
menu.
b Select the Printer Settings field.
c In the top field of the pop-up, select the type of printer you
are using. If you are using an Epson graphics printer or an
Epson-compatible printer, select Alternate.
d If the default print width and page length are not what you
want, select the fields to toggle them.
If you select 132 characters per line when using a printer
other than QuietJet, the listings are printed in a compressed
mode. QuietJet printers can print 132 characters per line
without going to compressed mode, but require wider paper.
e Press Done.
40
Connecting Peripherals
Connecting Peripherals
To connect to an RS-232-C printer
1 Turn off the analyzer and the printer, and connect a null-modem
RS-232-C cable from the printer to the RS-232-C connector on
the analyzer rear panel.
2 Before turning on the printer, locate the mode configuration
switches on the printer and set them as follows:
•
For the HP QuietJet series printers, there are two banks of mode
function switches inside the front cover. Push all the switches down to
the 0 position.
•
For the HP ThinkJet printer, the mode switches are on the rear panel of
the printer. Push all the switches down to the 0 position.
•
For the HP LaserJet printer, the factory default switch settings are
okay.
3 Turn on the analyzer and printer.
4 Go to the System External I/O menu and configure the analyzer's
printer settings.
a If the analyzer is not already set to RS232, select the field
under Connected To: in the Printer box and choose RS232
from the menu.
b Select the Printer Settings field.
c In the top field of the pop-up, select the type of printer you
are using. If you are using an Epson graphics printer or an
Epson-compatible printer, select Alternate.
41
Connecting Peripherals
Connecting Peripherals
d If the default print width and page length are not what you
want, select the fields to toggle them.
If you select 132 characters per line when using a printer
other than QuietJet, the listings are printed in a compressed
mode. QuietJet printers can print 132 characters per line
without going to compressed mode, but require wider paper.
e Press Done.
5 Select the RS232 Settings field and check that the current
settings are compatible with your printer.
See Also
"The RS-232-C, GPIB, and Centronics Interface" on page 282 for more
information on RS-232-C settings.
42
Connecting Peripherals
Connecting Peripherals
To connect to a parallel printer
1 Turn off the analyzer and the printer, and connect a parallel
printer cable from the printer to the parallel printer connector on
the analyzer rear panel.
2 Before turning on the printer, configure the printer for parallel
operation.
The printer's documentation will tell you what switches or menus need
to be configured.
3 Turn on the analyzer and printer.
4 Go to the System External I/O menu and configure the analyzer's
printer settings.
a If the analyzer is not already set to Parallel, select the field
under Connected To: in the Printer box and choose Parallel
from the menu.
b Select the Printer Settings field.
c In the top field of the pop-up, select the type of printer you
are using. If you are using an Epson graphics printer or an
Epson-compatible printer, select Alternate.
d If the default print width and page length are not what you
want, select the fields to toggle them.
If you select 132 characters per line when using a printer
other than QuietJet, the listings are printed in a compressed
mode. QuietJet printers can print 132 characters per line
without going to compressed mode, but require wider paper.
e Press Done.
There are no settings specific to the parallel printer connector.
43
Connecting Peripherals
Connecting Peripherals
To connect to a controller
You can control the 1670G-series logic analyzer with another
instrument, such as a computer running a program with embedded
analyzer commands. The steps below outline the general procedure for
connecting to a controller using GPIB or RS-232-C.
1 Turn off both instruments, and connect the cable.
If you are using RS-232-C, the cable must be a null-modem cable. If you
do not have a null-modem cable, you can purchase an adapter at any
electronics supply store.
2 Turn on the logic analyzer and then the controller.
3 In the System External I/O menu, select the field under
Connected To: in the Controller box and set it appropriately.
4 Select the appropriate Settings field and configure the values in
the pop-up menu to be compatible with the controller.
See Also
Agilent Technologies 1670G-Series Logic Analyzers Programmer's
Guide and the LAN section of this book starting on page 476 for more
information on connecting controllers.
44
3
Using the Logic Analyzer
45
Using the Logic Analyzer
Using the Logic Analyzer
Using the Logic Analyzer
This chapter shows you how to perform the basic tasks necessary to
make a measurement. Each section uses an example to show how the
task fits into the overall goal of making a measurement.
46
Using the Logic Analyzer
Accessing the Menus
Accessing the Menus
When you power up the logic analyzer, the first screen after the system
tests is the Analyzer Configuration menu. Menus are identified by two
fields in the upper left corner. The leftmost field shows Analyzer. This
field is sometimes referred to as the "mode field" because it controls
which other set of menus you can access. The second field, just to the
right of the mode field, accesses menus within the mode and so is
called the "menu field." For example, if you are in Analyzer mode, the
menus for the analyzer are accessed from the menu field. Menus are
referred to by the titles that appear in the mode and menu fields, for
example, the Analyzer Configuration menu.
The figure below shows the top of the first screen. The mode field, item
1, displays "Analyzer." The menu field, item 2, displays "Configuration."
Because menus are identified by the titles in these two fields, this
menu is referred to as the Analyzer Configuration menu. When there is
no risk of confusion, the menu is sometimes referred to just by the title
showing in the second field, for example, the Configuration menu.
47
Using the Logic Analyzer
Accessing the Menus
To access the System menus
The System menus allow you to perform operations that affect the
entire logic analyzer, such as load configurations, change colors, and
perform system diagnostics.
1 Select the mode field.
Use the arrow keys to highlight the mode field, then press the Select
key. Or, if you are using the mouse, click on the field. This operation is
referred to as "select."
A pop-up menu appears with the choices System and Analyzer. (If you
have installed any optional software, there may be other choices as
well.)
2 Select System.
48
Using the Logic Analyzer
Accessing the Menus
3 Select the menu field.
The pop-up lists five menus: Hard Disk, Flexible Disk, External I/O,
Utilities, and Test.
See Also
•
Hard Disk allows you to perform file operations on the hard disk.
•
Flexible Disk allows you to perform file operations on the flexible disk.
•
External I/O allows you to configure your GPIB, RS-232-C, and LAN
interfaces, connect to a printer and controller, and to reset the 1670Gseries logic analyzer.
•
Utilities allows you to set the clock, update the operating system software,
and adjust the display.
•
Test displays the installed software version number and loads the self tests.
For information on "File Management" see page 134, and for
information on "Disk Drive Operations" see page 275.
For information on the External I/O menu, "Connecting Peripherals",
see page 35, and "The RS-232-C, GPIB, and Centronics Interfaces" see
page 282.
49
Using the Logic Analyzer
Accessing the Menus
To access the Analyzer menus
The Analyzer menus allow you to control the analyzer to make your
measurement, perform operations on the data, and view the results on
the display.
1 Select the mode field.
A pop-up menu appears with the choices System, Analyzer, and
Patt Gen or Scope (if you have one of these options). If you have
installed any optional software, there may be other choices as well.
2 Select Analyzer.
3 Select the menu field.
The figure on the next page does not show all of the possible menus
because certain menus are only accessible with the analyzer configured
in a particular mode. For instance, the Compare menu is only available
when you set an analyzer to state mode, and the SPA menu requires an
analyzer set to SPA.
•
Configuration is always available in Analyzer mode. Use Configuration to
assign pods and set the analyzer type.
•
Format is available whenever an analyzer is set to a type other than "Off."
Use Format to create data labels and symbols, adjust the pod threshold
level, and set modes and clocks.
•
Trigger is available when an analyzer is set to State or Timing. Use Trigger
to specify a trigger sequence which will filter the raw information into the
measurement you want to see.
•
Listing is available when an analyzer is set to State or Timing. Use Listing
to view your measurement as a list of states. Using an inverse assembler, a
state analyzer can display the measurement as though it were assembly
code.
50
Using the Logic Analyzer
Accessing the Menus
See Also
•
Compare is available only when an analyzer is set to State. Use Compare to
compare two listings and quickly scroll to the sections where they differ.
•
Mixed Display always appears in the menu list when an analyzer is set to
State or Timing, but it requires a State analyzer with time tags enabled.
•
Waveform is available when an analyzer is set to State or Timing. Use
Waveform to view the data as logic levels on discrete lines.
•
Chart is available only when an analyzer is set to State. Use Chart to view
your measurement as a graph of states versus time.
•
SPA is available only when an analyzer is set to SPA. Use SPA to gather and
view overall statistics about your system performance.
"Logic Analyzer Reference" on page 243 for details on the State and
Timing menus and "System Performance Analysis (SPA) Software" on
page 349 for information on the SPA menu.
"Using the Analyzer Menus" in this chapter for how to use the menus.
51
Using the Logic Analyzer
Using the Analyzer Menus
Using the Analyzer Menus
The following examples show how to use some of the Analyzer menus
to configure the logic analyzer for measurements. These examples
assume that you have already determined which signals are of interest,
and have connected the logic analyzer to the target system. Some of
the examples use data from a Motorola 68360 target system, acquired
with an Agilent Technologies E2456A Analysis Probe.
To label channel groups
Agilent Technologies logic analyzers give you the ability to separate or
group data channels and label the groups with a name that is
meaningful to your measurement. Labels also assist you in triggering
only on states of interest.
Labels can only be assigned in the Analyzer Format menu. Once
assigned, the labels are available in all display menus, where they can
be added to or deleted from the display. Use labels when you want to
group data channels by function with a name that has meaning to that
function.
The default label names are Bus1 through Bus126. However, you can
modify a name to any six-character string. If you are using an Agilent
Technologies analysis probe, the configuration file has predefined
labels for your specific processor.
52
Using the Logic Analyzer
Using the Analyzer Menus
To create or modify a label and assign channel groups, use the
following procedure.
1 Press the Format key to go to the Format menu.
2 Select a label under the Labels heading. In the pop-up menu,
select Modify Label.
3 Use the front panel to enter a name for the label and press Done.
In this example, the label is called CYCLE.
4 Select the pod containing the channels for the label. Use the
knob or the arrow keys to position the selector over a channel
you want to change.
An asterisk indicates the channel is selected; a dot indicates the
channel is not part of the current group.
53
Using the Logic Analyzer
Using the Analyzer Menus
5 Toggle the channel's group status by pressing Select.
The indicator changes and the selector moves to the next channel.
6 Press the Done key to complete selection.
54
Using the Logic Analyzer
Using the Analyzer Menus
To create a symbol
Symbols are alphanumeric mnemonics that represent specific data
patterns or ranges. When you define a symbol and set the base type to
Symbol in the Listing menu, the symbol is displayed in the data listing
where the bit pattern would normally be displayed. The symbols also
appear in the Waveform menu when you view a label in bus form.
Symbols allow you to quickly identify data of interest.
To create a symbol, use the following procedure.
1 In the Analyzer Format menu, select Symbols.
The symbol table menu appears. The symbol table is where all user
symbols are created and maintained. If you get a message, "No labels
specified," check that you have at least one label turned on with
channels assigned to it.
2 In the Symbol menu, select the Label field. In the pop-up menu,
select the label that contains the channel groups you want.
When you open the symbol table menu, the Label field displays the
name of the first active label.
If the label you want does not appear in the pop-up menu, the label is
probably off. Return to the Format menu, select the label you want,
and select Turn Label On. Another possibility is that the label is on the
other analyzer. The two analyzers manage resources separately.
3 Select the Base field. In the pop-up menu, select the base for the
pattern.
In this example, binary is used because CYCLE only contains three
channels.
4 Select the field below Symbol. Select Add a Symbol, type in the
symbol name, then press Done.
55
Using the Logic Analyzer
Using the Analyzer Menus
5 If additional Symbols are needed, repeat step 4 until you have
added all symbols.
In this example, three symbols are added: MEM RD, MEM WR, and
DATA RD.
6 Toggle the Type field to "range" or "pattern".
When Type is range, a third field appears under the Stop column. To
fully specify a range, you need to enter a value for it, too.
7 Select the Pattern/Start field and use the keypad to enter an
appropriate value in the selected base. Use X for "don't care."
8 When the pattern is specified, press Done. If you created
additional Symbols, repeat steps 6 and 7 until all symbols are
specified.
9 To close the symbol table menu, select Done.
Symbol table Menu Showing Three Symbols
You can also download symbol tables created by your programming
environment using the Symbol Utility. The Symbol Utility is shipped
installed on all 1670G-series logic analyzers.
See Also
The Symbol Utility section of this book on page 563 for more
information on the Symbol Utility.
56
Using the Logic Analyzer
Using the Analyzer Menus
To examine an analyzer waveform
The Analyzer Waveform menu lets you view state or timing data in a
format similar to an oscilloscope display. The horizontal axis represents
states (in state mode) or time (in timing mode) and the vertical axis
represents logic highs and lows.
1 In Analyzer mode, press the Run key to acquire data.
In any mode other than Analyzer, Scope, or Patt Gen, pressing the Run
key has no effect. The menus which ignore Run, lack the Run field
onscreen. In Analyzer mode with Run available, the menu changes to a
display menu.
2 Go to the Analyzer Waveform menu.
3 To adjust the horizontal axis (sec/Div or states/Div), use the
knob.
If nothing happens when you turn the knob, make sure the Div field has
a roll indicator above it, as in the figures on the next page. When you
first enter the Waveform menu, the knob adjusts the horizontal axis but
if you select another rollable field, the knob will control that field
instead.
4 To adjust the display relative to the trigger, select the Delay field
and enter a value or use the knob.
The portion of memory being displayed is indicated by a white bar
along the bottom of the display area. The position of the trigger in
memory is indicated by a red dot on the same line. When the bar
includes the dot, then the trigger is visible on the display as indicated
by a vertical line with a "t" underneath.
57
Using the Logic Analyzer
Using the Analyzer Menus
5 To scroll through waveforms, select the large rectangle below the
Div field and use the knob.
The roll indicator appears at the top of the rectangle and the name of
the first waveform is highlighted. The highlight moves as you turn the
knob.
6 To insert waveforms, double-click on the large rectangle under
the Div field (sec/Div or states/Div). In the pop-up, select Insert,
and then select the labels and channels.
The Sequential field inserts all the channels of the label as individual
waveforms; the Bus field groups the waveforms; the Bit N field inserts
just the Nth bit. Waveforms are inserted after the currently highlighted
one.
7 To take measurements, select the Markers field and choose the
appropriate marker type.
The markers available depend on the type of analyzer and whether or
not tagging is enabled. Use markers to locate patterns quickly.
58
Using the Logic Analyzer
Using the Analyzer Menus
Example
The following example shows a state waveform from the Agilent
Technologies analysis probe for the Motorola 68360. Notice how the
bus waveforms insert symbols or state data.
59
Using the Logic Analyzer
Using the Analyzer Menus
To examine an analyzer listing
The Analyzer Listing menu displays state or timing data as patterns
(states). The Listing menu uses any of several formats to display the
data such as binary, ASCII, or symbols. If you are using an inverse
assembler and select Invasm, the data is displayed in mnemonics that
closely resemble the microprocessor source code.
See Also
"The Inverse Assembler" at the end of this chapter for additional
information on using an inverse assembler.
1 In Analyzer mode, press the Run key to acquire data.
In any mode other than Analyzer, Scope, or Patt Gen, pressing the Run
key has no effect. The menus which ignore Run lack the Run field
onscreen. In Analyzer mode with Run available, the menu changes to a
display menu.
2 Go to the Analyzer Listing menu.
All labels defined in the Analyzer Format menu appear in the listing. If
there are more labels than will fit on the screen, the Label/Base field is
shaded like a normal field.
3 To scroll the labels, select the Label/Base field and use the knob
or press the blue shift key and a page key.
If the Label/Base field is selectable, the roll indicator appears over the
field as in the example. To move the labels one full screen at a time,
press Shift and a Page key.
60
Using the Logic Analyzer
Using the Analyzer Menus
4 To scroll the data, use the Page keys or select the data roll field
and use the knob.
If you select the data roll field, the roll indicator moves to it. No matter
which field is currently controlled by the knob, however, the Page keys
page the data up or down.
The numbers in the data roll column indicate how many samples the
data is from the trigger. Negative numbers occurred before the trigger
and positive numbers occurred after.
5 If the labels have symbols associated with them, set the base to
Symbol.
The symbols you defined appear in the listing.
6 To insert a label, select one of the label fields, then select Insert
from the pop-up and the label you want to insert.
The last label cannot be deleted, so there is always at least one label.
You can insert the same label multiple times and display it in different
bases.
7 To take measurements, select the Markers field and choose the
appropriate marker type.
The markers available depend on the type of analyzer and whether or
not tagging is enabled. Use markers to locate states quickly.
61
Using the Logic Analyzer
Using the Analyzer Menus
Example
The following illustration shows a listing from the Agilent Technologies
analysis probe for the Motorola 68360. The ADDR label has the base set
to Hex to conserve space on the display. The DATA label has the base
set to Invasm for inverse assembly. The FC label has the base set to
Symbol. Additional labels are located to the right of FC, and can be
viewed by highlighting and selecting Label, then using the knob to
scroll the display horizontally.
62
Using the Logic Analyzer
Using the Analyzer Menus
To compare two listings
The Compare menu allows you to take two state analyzer acquisitions
and compare them to find the differences. You can use this function to
quickly find all the effects after changing the target system or to
quickly compare the results of quality tests with results from a working
system.
1 In Analyzer mode, press the Run key to acquire data.
In any mode other than Analyzer, Scope, or Patt Gen, pressing the Run
key has no effect. The menus which ignore Run lack the Run field
onscreen. In Analyzer mode with Run available, the menu changes to a
display menu.
2 Go to the Analyzer Compare menu, select Copy Listing to
Reference, and then select Execute.
The Compare menu initially is empty, but when you select Execute the
data appears.
3 Set up the other test that you want to compare to the first.
This can be a change to the hardware, or a different system. Do not
change the trigger, however, or all the states will be different.
4 Run the test again, then select the Reference listing field to
toggle to Difference listing.
The Difference listing is displayed on the next page.
63
Using the Logic Analyzer
Using the Analyzer Menus
The Difference listing displays the states that are identical in dark
typeface, and the states that are different in light typeface
(indistinguishable in the above illustration). The light typeface shows
the data from the compare file that is different from the data in the
reference file.
5 Select the Find Error field and use the knob to scroll through
the errors.
The display jumps past all states that are identical, and shows the
number of errors through the current state in the Find Error field. In
the above illustration, there are 37 errors through state 44 of the
listing.
64
Using the Logic Analyzer
The Inverse Assembler
The Inverse Assembler
When the analyzer captures a trace, it captures binary information. The
analyzer can then present this information in symbol, binary, octal,
decimal, hexadecimal, or ASCII. Or, if given information about the
meaning of the data captured, the analyzer can inverse assemble the
trace. The inverse assembler makes the trace list more readable by
presenting the trace results in terms of processor opcodes and data
transactions.
To use an inverse assembler
Most analysis probes include an inverse assembler in their software.
Loading the configuration file for the analysis probe sets up the logic
analyzer to provide certain types of information for the inverse
assembler. This section is provided in case you ever have to set up an
analyzer for inverse assembly yourself.
The inverse assembly software needs at least these five pieces of
information:
•
Address bus. The inverse assembler expects to see the label ADDR, with
bits ordered in a particular sequence.
•
Data bus. The inverse assembler expects to see the label DATA, with bits
ordered in a particular sequence.
•
Status. The inverse assembler expects to see the label STAT, with bits
ordered in a particular sequence.
•
Start state for disassembly. This is the first displayed state in the trace list,
not the cursor position. See the figure on the next page.
•
Tables indicating the meaning of particular status and data combinations.
65
Using the Logic Analyzer
The Inverse Assembler
The particular sequences that each label requires depends on the type
of chip the inverse assembler was designed for. Because of this, inverse
assemblers cannot generally be transferred between platforms.
To run the inverse assembler, you must be sure the labels are spelled
correctly as shown here, or as directed in your inverse assembler
documentation. Even a minor difference such as not capitalizing each
letter will cause the inverse assembler to not work.
Inverse Assembly Synchronization
When you press the Invasm key to begin inverse assembly of a trace,
the inverse assembler begins with the first displayed state in the trace
list. This is called synchronization. It looks at the status bits (STAT)
and determines the type of processor operation, which is then
displayed under the STAT label. If the operation is an opcode fetch, the
inverse assembler uses the information on the data bus to look up the
corresponding opcode in a table, which is displayed under the DATA
label. If the operation is a data transfer, the data and corresponding
operation are displayed under the DATA label. This continues for all
subsequent states in the trace list.
66
Using the Logic Analyzer
The Inverse Assembler
If you roll the trace list to a new position and press Invasm again, the
inverse assembler repeats the above process. However, it does not
work backward in the trace list from the starting position. This may
cause differences in the trace list above and below the point where you
synchronized inverse assembly. The best way to ensure correct inverse
assembly is to synchronize using the first state you know to be the first
byte of an opcode fetch.
See Also
The Analysis Probe User's Guide for more information on controlling
inverse assembly. If you have problems using the inverse assembler, see
"Troubleshooting the Logic Analyzer" on page 421.
67
Using the Logic Analyzer
The Inverse Assembler
68
4
Using the Trigger Menu
69
Using the Trigger Menu
Using the Trigger Menu
Using the Trigger Menu
To use the logic analyzer efficiently, you need to be able to set up your
own triggers. This chapter provides examples of triggering. Those
examples assume you already know where to find fields in the trigger
menu.
This chapter shows you how to:
•
Specify a basic trigger
•
Change a trigger sequence
•
Set up time correlation between analyzers
•
Arm from another instrument, or arm another instrument
•
Manage memory
70
Using the Trigger Menu
Specifying a Basic Trigger
Specifying a Basic Trigger
The default analyzer triggers are
While storing "anystate" TRIGGER on "a" occuring 1 time
Store "anystate"
for state analyzers and
TRIGGER on "a" > 8 ns
for timing analyzers. If you want to simply record data, these will get
you started. They can quickly be tailored by specifying a particular
pattern to look for instead of the general case.
Customizing a trigger generally requires these steps:
•
Assign terms.
•
Define the terms.
•
Change the trigger to use the new terms.
71
Using the Trigger Menu
Specifying a Basic Trigger
To assign terms to an analyzer
When you turn the logic analyzer on, Analyzer 1 is named Machine 1
and Analyzer 2 is off. Because trigger terms can only be used by one
analyzer at a time, all the terms are assigned to Analyzer 1. If you plan
to use both analyzers in your measurement, you need to assign some of
the terms to Analyzer 2.
1 Go to the Trigger Machine 1 menu.
If you have renamed Machine 1 in the Analyzer Configuration menu,
the name you changed it to will appear in the menu instead of Machine
1.
2 Select a term.
The terms are the fields below the roll field "Terms". See the figure
below.
3 Select Assign from the list that appears.
The Resource Term Assignment menu appears. It is divided into two
sections, one for each analyzer. All terms are listed.
72
Using the Trigger Menu
Specifying a Basic Trigger
4 To change a term assignment, select the term field.
The term fields toggle from one section to the other. You can get all
your terms assigned at once, or just change a few to meet immediate
needs.
5 To exit the term assignment menu, select Done.
73
Using the Trigger Menu
Specifying a Basic Trigger
To define a term
Both default triggers trigger on term "a". If you only need to look for the
occurrence of a certain state, such as a write to protected memory,
then you only need to define term "a" to make the measurement you
want.
1 In the Trigger menu, select the field at the intersection of the
term and the label whose value you want to trigger on.
You set labels in the Analyzer Format menu. If the channels you want
to monitor are not attached to a label, they will not appear in the
trigger menu.
2 Enter the value or pattern you want to trigger on.
If the label's base is Symbol, a pop-up menu appears offering a choice
of symbols. For other bases, use the keypad. An "X" stands for "don't
care".
If there are two conditions that need to be present at the same time, for
example a protected address on the address bus and a write on the
read/write line, define both values on the same term. See the figure
below.
3 Press Done.
Term "a" Defined as a Data Write to Read-Only Memory
74
Using the Trigger Menu
Specifying a Basic Trigger
To change the trigger specification
Most triggers use terms other than "a." Even a simple trigger might use
additional terms to set conditions on the actual trigger. To use these
terms, you must include them in the trigger sequence specification.
1 In the Trigger menu, select the number beside the specific level
you want to modify.
A Sequence Level menu pops up. It shows the current specification for
that trigger level.
2 Select the field you want to change.
In the top row of the pop-up are three action fields: Insert Level, Select
New Function, and Delete Level. The next section goes into detail on
them. The fields after "While storing", "TRIGGER on", and "Else on" are
completed with trigger terms. Selecting these fields pops up a menu of
terms.
3 Select the term you want to use from the pop-up, or enter a new
value, as appropriate to the field.
If you have renamed a term, that name is automatically used
everywhere the term would appear.
75
Using the Trigger Menu
Specifying a Basic Trigger
4 Select Done until you are back at the Trigger menu.
Term Selection Pop-up Menu
76
Using the Trigger Menu
Changing the Trigger Sequence
Changing the Trigger Sequence
Most measurements require more complicated triggers to better filter
information. From the basic trigger, you can:
•
Add sequence levels
•
Change trigger functions
Your logic analyzer provides a trigger function library to make setting
up the trigger easier. There are 12 state functions and 13 timing
functions. Most trigger functions take more than one level internally to
implement, and can be broken down into their separate levels. Once
broken down, the levels can be used to design your own trigger
sequences.
77
Using the Trigger Menu
Changing the Trigger Sequence
To add sequence levels
You can add sequence levels anywhere except after the final one.
1 In the Trigger menu, select the number beside the sequence level
just after where you want to insert.
For example, if you want to insert a sequence level between levels 1
and 2, you would select level 2. To insert levels at the beginning, select
level 1.
A Sequence Level pop-up appears. Its exact contents depend on the
analyzer configuration and the level specification. However, all
Sequence Level pop-ups have an Insert Level field in the upper left
corner.
2 Select Insert Level.
Another pop-up offers the choices of Cancel, Before, or After. If the
level you started from was the last level, After will not appear.
3 Select Before.
The Trigger Function pop-up replaces the Sequence Level pop-up. The
functions available depend on whether the analyzer is configured as
state or timing.
4 Use the knob to highlight a trigger function, and select Done.
A new Sequence level pop-up appears. Its contents reflect the trigger
function you just selected. The figure below shows a user trigger
function for a state analyzer.
78
Using the Trigger Menu
Changing the Trigger Sequence
5 Fill in the fields and select Done.
Sequence Level Pop-up Menu
79
Using the Trigger Menu
Changing the Trigger Sequence
To change trigger functions
You do not need to add and delete levels just to change a level's trigger
function. This can be done from within the Sequence Level pop-up.
1 From the Trigger menu, select the sequence level number of the
sequence level you want to modify.
A Sequence Level pop-up appears. Its contents reflect the current
trigger function.
2 Select Select New Function.
The Trigger Function pop-up replaces the Sequence Level pop-up. The
functions available depend on whether the analyzer is configured as
state or timing.
3 Use the knob to highlight the function you want, and select
Done.
A new Sequence Level pop-up appears. Its contents reflect the
function you just selected. The wording of this screen is very similar to
the function description, and the line drawing demonstrates what the
function is measuring.
4 Select the appropriate assignment fields and insert the desired
pre-defined terms, numeric values, and other parameter fields
required by the function. Select Done.
For state analyzers, a final "go to trigger" level is automatically placed
at the end of the trigger specification for you. This level must always be
a user level. Although you can change its fields, you cannot change the
function. Timing analyzers do not have this restriction.
See Also
"Timing Trigger Function Library" and "State Trigger Function Library"
in The Analyzer Trigger Menu on page 312 for a complete listing of
functions.
80
Using the Trigger Menu
Setting Up Time Correlation between Analyzers
Setting Up Time Correlation between Analyzers
There are two possible combinations of analyzers: state and state, and
state and timing. Timing and timing is not possible because the
Analyzer Configuration menu only permits one analyzer at a time to be
configured as a timing analyzer. For either combination, time
correlation is necessary for interleaving and mixed display.
Time correlation is useful when you want to store different sorts of
data for each trace, but see how they are related. For instance, you
could set up a timing and a correlated state analyzer and see if setup
and hold times are being met. Or, you could set up two state analyzers
and have one watch normal program execution and the other watch
the control and status lines.
Time correlation requires that state analyzers store time tags. You set
the state analyzer to store time tags by turning on Count Time in the
Analyzer Trigger menu. The timing analyzer already stores time tags
when it samples data.
See Also
"Special displays" on page 128 for more information on interleaving and
mixed display.
81
Using the Trigger Menu
Setting Up Time Correlation between Analyzers
To set up time correlation between two state
analyzers
To correlate the data between two state analyzers, both must have
Count Time turned on in their Trigger menus. Although both have
Count State available, it is not possible to correlate data based on
states even when they are identically defined.
1 In the Analyzer Trigger menu, select Count.
Count may be Count Off, Count Time, or Count States. Selecting the
field causes a pop-up to appear.
2 Select the field after Count: and select Time.
A warning may appear about reduced memory. It will not prevent you
from changing Count to Count Time.
3 Select Done.
4 Repeat steps 1 through 3 for the other state analyzer.
Now when you acquire data you will be able to interleave the listings.
82
Using the Trigger Menu
Setting Up Time Correlation between Analyzers
To set up time correlation between a timing
and a state analyzer
To set up time correlation between a timing and a state analyzer, only
the state analyzer needs to have Count Time turned on. The timing
analyzer automatically keeps track of time.
1 In the state Analyzer Trigger menu, select Count.
Count may be Count Off, Count Time, or Count States. Selecting the
field causes a pop-up to appear.
2 Select the field after Count: and select Time.
A warning may appear about reduced memory. It will not prevent you
from changing Count to Count Time.
3 Select Done.
Now when you acquire data you will be able to set up a mixed display.
83
Using the Trigger Menu
Arming and Additional Instruments
Arming and Additional Instruments
Occasionally you may need to start the analyzer acquiring data when
another instrument detects a problem. Or, you may want to have the
analyzer itself arm another measuring tool. This is accomplished from
the Arming Control field of the Analyzer Trigger menu.
To arm another instrument
1 Attach a BNC cable from the External Trigger Output port on the
back of the logic analyzer to the instrument you want to trigger.
The External Trigger Output port is also referred to as "Port Out." It
uses standard TTL logic signal levels, and will generate a rising edge
when trigger conditions are met.
2 In the Analyzer Trigger menu, select Arming Control.
Arming Control is below the Run button.
3 Select the field near Arm Out, and choose PORT OUT.
4 If you are using both analyzers, set the Arm Out Sent From field
in the upper right corner.
This field does not appear if only one analyzer is configured.
The selected analyzer will send the arm signal when it finds its trigger.
5 Select Done.
When you make a measurement, the analyzer will send an arm signal
through the External Trigger Output when the analyzer finds its
trigger.
84
Using the Trigger Menu
Arming and Additional Instruments
To arm the oscilloscope with the analyzer
(1670G-series logic analyzers with the
oscilloscope option)
If both analyzer and the oscilloscope are turned on, you can configure
one analyzer to arm the other analyzer and the oscilloscope. An
example of this is when a state analyzer triggers on a bit pattern, then
arms a timing analyzer and the oscilloscope which capture and display
the waveform after they trigger.
1 In the Analyzer Trigger menu, select Arming Control.
2 Select the Analyzer Arm Out Sent From field, and choose from
the list the Analyzer that will generate the arm.
3 Select the Analyzer Arm In field, and choose Group Run.
This allows you to time-correlate the data from the analyzers and the
scope. The Scope Trigger Mode must be Immediate for correlation.
4 Select the field of the instrument which will arm the others, and
in the pop-up set it to run from Group Run.
The Scope field is not selectable. To set how the scope is run, select the
field under Scope Arm In.
5 Select the other instrument fields and choose the mechanism
which will arm them.
The Analyzer Arm Out field determines which analyzer sends the
arming signal to Port Out and to the oscilloscope if the oscilloscope is
being armed by an analyzer.
As you set each machine, the arrows connecting the fields in the
Arming Control menu change. The arrows show the order in which the
instruments are armed.
See the example on the next page.
6 Select Done until you are back at the Trigger menu.
85
Using the Trigger Menu
Arming and Additional Instruments
Example
In this example STATE MACH triggers from Group Run, then arms
TIME MACH and Scope.
To duplicate this, set STATE MACH to run from Group Run, TIME
MACH to run from STATE MACH, and Scope Arm In to Analyzer.
Arming with two analyzers and an oscilloscope
When the run starts, the state analyzer automatically begins evaluating
its trigger sequence instruction. When the trigger sequence is satisfied,
the state analyzer sends an “Arm” signal to the timing analyzer, the
oscilloscope, and the external trigger.
86
Using the Trigger Menu
Arming and Additional Instruments
To receive an arm signal from another
instrument
When you set the analyzer to wait for an arm signal, it does not react to
data that would normally trigger it until after it has received the arm
signal. The arm signal can be sent to any of the Trigger Sequence
levels, but will go to level 1 unless you change it. Setting up the
analyzer to receive an arm signal is more efficient when the sequence
levels are already in place.
!
CAUTION:
1 Connect a BNC cable from the instrument which will be sending
the signal to the External Trigger Input port on the back of the
logic analyzer.
Do not exceed 5.5 volts on the External Trigger Input.
The External Trigger Input port is also referred to as "Port In." It uses
standard TTL logic signal levels, and expects a rising edge as input.
2 In the Analyzer Trigger menu, select Arming Control.
Arming Control is below the Run button.
3 Select the leftmost field, and choose PORT IN.
The field is unlabeled and shows either Run or PORT IN. It has arrows
going from it to the analyzer(s).
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Using the Trigger Menu
Arming and Additional Instruments
4 To change the default settings, select the analyzer field.
A small pop-up menu appears. To change which device the analyzer is
receiving its arm signal from, select the Run from field. To change
which sequence level is waiting for the arm signal, select the Arm
sequence level field.
5 Select Done until you are back at the Trigger menu.
88
Using the Trigger Menu
Managing Memory
Managing Memory
Sometimes you will need every last bit of memory you can get on the
logic analyzer. There are three simple ways to maximize memory when
specifying your trigger:
•
Selectively store branch conditions (state only)
•
To set the memory length
•
Place the trigger relative to memory
•
Set the sampling rates (timing only)
89
Using the Trigger Menu
Managing Memory
To selectively store branch conditions
(state only)
Besides setting up your trigger levels to store anystate, no state, or
some subset of states, you can also choose whether or not to store
branch conditions. Branch conditions are always stored by default, and
can make tracing the analyzer's path through a complicated trigger
easier. If you really need the extra memory, however, it is possible to
not store the branch conditions.
You cannot set the analyzer to store only some branches in a trigger
sequence specification.
1 In the Analyzer Trigger menu, select Acquisition Control.
The Acquisition Control menu pops up. If the acquisition mode is set to
Automatic, the menu contains a single field and an explanation. If
Acquisition has been customized, it has 3 fields and a picture showing
where the trigger is currently placed in memory.
2 If the mode is Automatic, select the field and toggle it to Manual.
The menu now shows three fields and a picture.
3 Select the Branches Taken Stored field.
It toggles to Branches Taken Not Stored.
4 Select Done.
90
Using the Trigger Menu
Managing Memory
To set the memory length
The 1670G-series logic analyzer’s memory length can be adjusted. The
table on the following page shows the amount of memory available for
different modes of operation.
Typically you will want to use small amounts of memory at the
beginning of troubleshooting, when you are first looking for a problem,
and use deep memory when you are searching for the root cause.
Shallower memory provides faster acquisitions, but might not have
sufficient context. Deep memory provides more context, but takes
longer to fill, more time to display, and more time for you to analyze.
The Memory Length field allows you to configure the acquisition
memory to suit your needs.
1 In the Analyzer Trigger menu, select Acquisition Control.
The Acquisition Control menu pops up. If the acquisition mode is set to
Automatic, the menu contains two fields and an explanation. If
Acquisition has been customized, it has four or five fields and a picture
showing the amount of memory and where the trigger is currently
placed in memory.
2 Select the Memory Length field.
Use the knob to select the memory length. Memory size can be set in
powers of 2 from 4096 to the maximum. The table below shows the
maximum memory for various modes of operation.
91
Using the Trigger Menu
Managing Memory
3 Select Done to exit the Acquisition Control menu.
Mode
Memory
Option 001
Option 002
Full-channel timing
>64K (65536)
256K
2M
Half-channel timing
>128K (131072)
512K
4M
State 1
>64K (65536)
256K
2M
State 2
>32K (32768)
128K
1M
State Compare 1
>32K (32768)
128K
512K
State Compare 2
>32K (32768)
128K
256K
1
With tags turned off or non-interleaved tags. Tags are non-interleaved
if there is an unassigned pod pair or a pod pair assigned to an analyzer
that is turned off.
2
With interleaved tags.
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Using the Trigger Menu
Managing Memory
To place the trigger in memory
In Automatic Acquisition Mode, the exact location of the trigger
depends on the trigger specification but usually falls around the center.
You can manually place it at the beginning, end, or anywhere else.
1 In the Analyzer Trigger menu, select Acquisition Control.
The Acquisition Control menu pops up. If the acquisition mode is set to
Automatic, the menu contains a single field and an explanation. If
Acquisition has been customized, it has 3 or 4 fields and a picture
showing where the trigger is currently placed in memory.
2 If the mode is Automatic, select the field to toggle it to Manual.
The menu now shows three fields and a picture.
3 Select the Trigger Position field.
4 Select the appropriate entry for your needs.
Start, Center, and End place the trigger respectively at the beginning,
middle, and end of the memory. Delay, available in timing analyzers
only, causes the analyzer to not save any data before the time delay has
elapsed. User Defined calls up a fourth field where you specify exactly
where you want the trigger.
5 Select Done.
93
Using the Trigger Menu
Managing Memory
To set the sampling rates (Timing only)
A timing analyzer samples the data based on its own internal clock. A
short sample period provides more detail about the device under test; a
long sample period allows more time before memory is full. However, if
the sample period is too large, some information may be missed.
1 In the Analyzer Trigger menu, select Acquisition Control.
The Acquisition Control menu pops up. If the acquisition mode is set to
Automatic, the menu contains a single field and an explanation. If
Acquisition has been customized, it has 3 or 4 fields and a picture
showing where the trigger is currently placed in memory.
2 If the mode is Automatic, select the field and toggle it to Manual.
The menu now shows three fields and a picture.
3 Set the Sample Period field using the knob, or select it to use
the keypad to enter the period.
4 Select Done.
Next time you take a measurement, the analyzer will sample at the rate
you entered.
94
5
Triggering Examples
95
Triggering Examples
Triggering Examples
Triggering Examples
As you begin to understand a problem in your system, you may realize
that certain conditions must occur before the problem occurs. You can
use sequential triggering to ensure that those conditions have occurred
before the analyzer recognizes its trigger and captures information.
If you are not familiar with the trigger menus, read through Chapter 4,
"Using the Trigger Menu," and try working through the examples in the
Logic Analyzer Training Kit manual.
96
Triggering Examples
Single-Machine Trigger Examples
Single-Machine Trigger Examples
The following examples require only a single analyzer to make
measurements. Sequence specifications are given in the form you see
within the sequence levels, but the illustrations show the complete,
multi-level sequence specification.
Although all the examples are case-specific, terms are named in a way
that highlights their role in solving the trigger problem. You can easily
apply the examples to your specific instance by changing the specific
values assigned to the trigger terms.
97
Triggering Examples
Single-Machine Trigger Examples
To store and time the execution of a subroutine
Most system software of any kind is composed of a hierarchy of
functions and procedures. During integration, testing, and
performance evaluation, you want to look at specific procedures to
verify that they are executing correctly and that the implementation is
efficient. The analyzer lets you do this by triggering on entry to the
address range of the subroutine and counting the elapsed time since
the trigger state.
1 Go to the state analyzer's Trigger menu.
2 Set Count to Time.
3 Define a range term, such as Range1, to represent the address
range of the particular subroutine.
You may need to examine the structure of your code to help determine
this. If your subroutine calls are really procedure calls, then there is
likely to be some code at the beginning of the routine that adjusts the
stack for local variable allocation. This will precede the address of the
first statement in the procedure. If your subroutine has no local storage
and is called by a jump or branch, then the first statement will also be
the entry address.
4 Under State Sequence Levels, enter the following sequence
specification:
NOTE:
•
While storing "no state" TRIGGER on "In_Range1" Occurs 1 Else on "no
state" go to level 1
•
While storing "In_Range1" Then find "Out_Range1" Occurs 1 Else on "no
state" go to level 2
•
Store "no state" on "no state" go to level 1
For processors that prefetch instructions or have pipelined architectures, you
may want to add part or all of the depth of the pipeline to the start address for
In_Range1 to ensure that the analyzer does not trigger on a prefetched but
unexecuted state.
98
Triggering Examples
Single-Machine Trigger Examples
The figure below shows what you would see on your analyzer screen
after entering the sequence specification given in step 4.
Trigger Setup for Storing and Timing Execution of a Subroutine
Suppose you want to trigger on entry to a routine called MY_SUB. You
can create a symbol from the address of MY_SUB in the Format menu,
allowing you to reference the symbol name when setting up the trace
specification. Assume that MY_SUB extends for 0A hex locations. You
can set up the trigger sequencer as shown in the display.
99
Triggering Examples
Single-Machine Trigger Examples
To trigger on the nth iteration of a loop
Traditional debugging requires print statements around the area of
interest. This is not possible in most embedded systems designs, but
the analyzer lets you view the system's behavior when a particular
event occurs. Suppose that your system behaves incorrectly on the last
iteration of a loop, which, in this instance, happens to be the 10th
iteration. You can use the analyzer's triggering capabilities to capture
that iteration and subsequent processor activity.
1 Go to the state analyzer's Trigger menu.
2 Define the terms LP_START and LP_END to represent the start
and end addresses of statements in the loop, and LP_EXIT to
represent the first statement executed after the loop terminates.
3 Change State Sequence Level 1's function to "Find event2 n
times after event1 before event3 occurs."
4 In the pop-up, enter the following sequence specification:
•
While storing anystate Find "LP_START" "9" times after "LP_END" before
"LP_EXIT" occurs.
You should use your value for n-1 instead of "9" in the sequence
specification above.
Trigger Setup for Triggering on the 10th Iteration of a Loop
100
Triggering Examples
Single-Machine Trigger Examples
The specification has some advantages and a potential problem.
•
The advantages are that a pipelined processor won't trigger until it has
executed the loop 10 times. Requiring LP_END to be seen at least once
first ensures that the processor actually entered the loop; then, 9 more
iterations of LP_START is really the 10th iteration of the loop. Also, no
trigger occurs if the loop executes less than 10 times ƒ the analyzer sees
LP_EXIT and restarts the trigger sequence.
•
The potential problem is that LP_EXIT may be too near LP_END and thus
appear on the bus during a prefetch. The analyzer will constantly restart
the sequence and will never trigger. The solution to this problem depends
on the structure of your code. You may need to experiment with different
trigger sequences to find one that captures only the data you want to view.
101
Triggering Examples
Single-Machine Trigger Examples
To trigger on the nth recursive call of a
recursive function
1 Go to the state analyzer's Trigger menu.
2 Define the terms CALL_ADD, F_START, and F_END to
represent the called address of the recursive function, and the
start and end addresses of the function. Define F_EXIT to
represent the address of the first program statement executed
after the original recursive call has terminated.
Typically, CALL_ADD is the address of the code that sets up the
activation record on the stack, F_START is the address of the first
statement in the function, and F_END is the address of the last
instruction of the function, which does not necessarily correspond to
the address of the last statement. If the start of the function and the
address called by recursive calls are the same, or you are not interested
in the function initialization code, you can use F_START for both
CALL_ADD and F_START.
3 Change State Sequence Level 1's function to "Find event2 n
times after event1 before event3 occurs."
4 In the pop-up, enter the following sequence specification:
•
While storing anystate Find "CALL_ADD" "9" times after "F_START" before
"F_EXIT" occurs.
You should use your value for n-1 instead of "9" in the specification.
102
Triggering Examples
Single-Machine Trigger Examples
5 Insert another sequence level before the current one. Select the
User Level function and enter the following specification:
•
While storing "no state" Find "F_END" occurs "1" Else on "no state" go to
level 1.
As with the trigger specification for "To trigger on the nth iteration of a
loop," this specification helps avoid potential problems on pipelined
processors by requiring that the processor already be in the first
recursive call before advancing the sequencer. Depending on the exact
code used for the calls, you may need to experiment with different
trigger sequences to find one that captures only the data you want to
view.
Triggering on the 10th Call of a Recursive Function
103
Triggering Examples
Single-Machine Trigger Examples
To trigger on entry to a function
This sequence triggers on entry to a function only when it is called by
one particular function.
1 Go to the state analyzer's Trigger menu.
2 Define the terms F1_START and F1_END to represent the start
and end addresses of the calling function. Define F2_START to
represent the start address of the called function.
3 Change State Sequence Level 1's function to "Find event2 n
times after event1 before event3 occurs."
4 In the pop-up menu, enter the following sequence specification:
•
While storing anystate Find "F2_START" "1" times after "F1_START"
before "F1_END" occurs.
This sequence specification assumes there is some conditional logic in
function F1 that chooses whether or not to call function F2. Thus, if F1
ends without the analyzer having seen F2, the sequence restarts.
104
Triggering Examples
Single-Machine Trigger Examples
The specification also stores all execution inside function F1, whether
or not F2 was called. If you are interested only in the execution of F1,
without the code that led to its invocation, you can change the storage
specification from "anystate" to "nostate" for the second sequence
term.
Triggering on Entry to a Function
105
Triggering Examples
Single-Machine Trigger Examples
To capture a write of known bad data to a
particular variable
The trigger specification ANDs the bad data on the data bus, the write
transaction on the status bus, and the address of the variable on the
address bus.
1 Go to the state analyzer's Trigger menu.
2 Define the terms BAD_DATA, WRITE, and VAR_ADDR to
represent the bad data value, write status, and the address of the
variable.
3 Under State Sequence Level 1, enter the following sequence
specification (use the Combination trigger term):
•
While storing "anystate" TRIGGER on "BAD_DATA • WRITE •
VAR_ADDR" Occurs "1" Else on "no state" go to level "1"
Capturing a Bad Write to a Variable
106
Triggering Examples
Single-Machine Trigger Examples
To trigger on a loop that occasionally runs too
long
This example assumes the loop normally executes in 14 ms.
1 Go to the state analyzer's Trigger menu.
2 Define terms LP_START and LP_END to represent the start and
end addresses of the loop, and set Timer1 to the normal duration
of the loop.
3 Change State Sequence Level 1's function to "Find event2
occurring too late after event1."
4 In the pop-up menu, enter the following sequence specification:
•
While storing anystate Find "LP_END" occurring too late after
"LP_START" Use Timer: "Timer1" Time="14 ms"
Of course, you use your normal loop duration in place of "14 ms." The
function will automatically start Timer1 for you.
Triggering on a Loop Overrun
107
Triggering Examples
Single-Machine Trigger Examples
To verify correct return from a function call
The exit code for a function will often contain instructions for
deallocating stack storage for local variables and restoring registers
that were saved during the function call. Some language
implementations vary on these points, with the calling function doing
some of this work, so you may need to adapt the procedure to suit your
system.
1 Go to the state analyzer's Trigger menu.
2 Define terms SR_START and SR_END to represent the start and
end addresses of the subroutine.
3 Under State Sequence Levels, insert 2 more sequence levels and
enter the following sequence specification:
•
While storing "anystate" Find "SR_START" Occurs "1" Else on "no state" go
to level "1"
•
While storing "anystate" Then find "SR_END" Occurs "1" Else on "no state"
go to level "2"
•
While storing "anystate" TRIGGER on "/=SR_START" Occurs "1" Else on
"SR_START" go to level "2"
Verifying Correct Return from a Function Call
108
Triggering Examples
Single-Machine Trigger Examples
To trigger after all status bus lines finish
transitioning
In some applications, you will want to trigger a measurement when a
particular pattern has become stable. For example, you might want to
trigger the analyzer when a microprocessor's status bus has become
stable during the bus cycle.
1 Go to the timing analyzer's Trigger menu.
2 Define a term called PATTERN to represent the value to be found
on the status bus lines.
3 Under Timing Sequence Levels, enter the following sequence
specification:
•
TRIGGER on "PATTERN" > 40 ns
Triggering After Lines have Finished Transitioning
109
Triggering Examples
Single-Machine Trigger Examples
To find the nth assertion of a chip select line
1 Go to the timing analyzer's Trigger menu.
2 Define the Edge1 term to represent the asserting transition on
the chip select line.
You can rename the Edge1 term to make it correspond more closely to
the problem domain, for example, to CHIP_SEL.
3 Under Timing Sequence Levels, enter the following sequence
specification:
•
TRIGGER on "CHIP_SEL" Occurs "10" Else on "no state" go to level "1"
You should use your value for "n" in place of "10" in the specification
above.
Triggering on the 10th Assertion of a Chip Select Line
110
Triggering Examples
Single-Machine Trigger Examples
To verify that the chip select line is strobed
after the address is stable
1 Go to the timing analyzer's Trigger menu.
2 Define a term called ADDRESS to represent the address in
question and the Edge1 term to represent the asserting
transition on the chip select line.
You can rename the Edge1 term to suit the problem, for example, to
MEM_SEL.
3 Under Timing Sequence Levels, enter the following sequence
specification:
•
Find "ADDRESS" > 80 ns
•
TRIGGER on "MEM_SEL" Occurs "1" Else on "/=ADDRESS" go to level "1"
Verifying Setup Time for Memory Address
111
Triggering Examples
Single-Machine Trigger Examples
To trigger when expected data does not appear
when requested
1 Go to the timing analyzer's Trigger menu.
2 Define a term called DATA to represent the expected data, the
Edge1 term to represent the chip select line of the remote
device, and the Timer1 term to identify the time limit for
receiving expected data.
You can rename the Edge1 and Timer1 terms to match the problem
domain, for example, to REM_SEL and ACK_TIME.
3 Under Timing Sequence Levels, enter the following sequence
specification:
•
Find "REM_SEL" Occurs "1" Else on "no state" go to level "1"
•
TRIGGER on "ACK_TIME > 16.00 ms" Occurs "1" Else on "DATA" go to
level "1"
You will need to start ACK_TIME timer (Timer1) upon entering this
state. You do this using the Timer Control field in the menu for
sequence level 2.
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Triggering Examples
Single-Machine Trigger Examples
This sequence specification causes the analyzer to trigger when the
data does not occur in 16 ms or less. If it does occur within 16 ms, the
sequence restarts. Specifications of this type are useful in finding
intermittent problems. You can set up and run the trace, then cycle the
system through temperature and voltage variations, using automatic
equipment if necessary. The failure will be captured and saved for later
review.
Triggering when Data not Returned
113
Triggering Examples
Single-Machine Trigger Examples
To test minimum and maximum pulse limits
1 Go to the timing analyzer's Trigger menu.
2 Define the Edge1 term to represent the positive-going transition,
and define the Edge2 term to represent the negative-going
transition on the line with the pulse to be tested.
You can rename these terms to POS_EDGE and NEG_EDGE.
3 Define the Timer1 term to represent the minimum pulse width,
and the Timer2 term to represent the maximum pulse width.
You can rename these terms to MIN_WID and MAX_WID. In this
example, Timer1 was set to 496 ns and Timer2 was set to 1 ms. Both
timers start when sequence level 2 is active.
4 Under Timing Sequence Levels, enter the following sequence
specification:
•
Find "POS_EDGE" Occurs "1" Else on "no state" go to level "1"
•
Then find "NEG_EDGE" Occurs "1" Else on "no state" go to level "2"
You will need to start both timers upon entering this second state. You
do this using the Timer Control field in the menu for sequence level 2.
•
114
TRIGGER on "MIN_WID 496 ns + MAX_WID 1.00 ms" Occurs "1" Else on
"anystate" go to level "1"
Triggering Examples
Single-Machine Trigger Examples
Because both timers start when entering sequence level 2, they start as
soon as the positive edge of the pulse occurs. Once the negative edge
occurs, the sequencer transitions to level 3. If at that point, the
MIN_WID timer is less than 496 ns or the MAX_WID timer is greater
than 1 ms, the pulse width has been violated and the analyzer triggers.
Otherwise, the sequence is restarted.
Measurement of Minimum and Maximum Pulse Width Limits
Triggering when a Pulse Exceeds Minimum or Maximum Limits
115
Triggering Examples
Single-Machine Trigger Examples
To detect a handshake violation
1 Go to the timing analyzer's Trigger menu.
2 Define the Edge1 term to represent either transition on the first
handshake line, and the Edge2 term to represent either
transition on the second handshake line.
You can rename these terms to match your problem, for example, to
REQ and ACK.
3 Under Timing Sequence Levels, enter the following sequence
specification:
•
Find "REQ" Occurs "1" Else on "no state" go to level "1"
•
TRIGGER on "REQ" Occurs "1" Else on "ACK" go to level "1"
Triggering on a Handshake Violation
116
Triggering Examples
Single-Machine Trigger Examples
To detect bus contention
In this setup, the trigger occurs only if both devices assert their bus
transfer acknowledge lines at the same time.
1 Go to the timing analyzer's Trigger menu.
2 Define the Edge1 term to represent assertion of the bus transfer
acknowledge line of one device, and Edge2 term to represent
assertion of the bus transfer acknowledge line of the other
device.
You can rename these to BTACK1 and BTACK2.
3 Under Timing Sequence Levels, enter the following sequence
specification:
•
TRIGGER on "BTACK1 • BTACK2" Occurs "1" Else on "no state" go to level
"1"
Triggering on Bus Contention
117
Triggering Examples
Cross-Arming Trigger Examples
Cross-Arming Trigger Examples
The following examples use cross arming to coordinate measurements
between two separate analyzers within the logic analyzer or between
analyzers and the oscilloscope. The analyzers can be configured as
either a state analyzer and timing analyzer, or two state analyzers. It is
not possible to set both to timing.
You set up cross arming in the Arming Control menu (obtained by
selecting Arming Control in the Trigger menu). When coordinating
measurements between two instruments, you need to select Count
Time to correlate the measurements. When correlating measurements
between an analyzer and the oscilloscope you also need to set the
oscilloscope Trigger Mode to Immediate.
118
Triggering Examples
Cross-Arming Trigger Examples
To examine software execution when a timing
violation occurs
The timing analyzer triggers when the timing violation occurs. When it
triggers, it also sets its "arm" level to true. When the state analyzer
receives the arm signal, it triggers immediately on the present state.
1 Set up one state analyzer and one timing analyzer.
2 Go to the timing analyzer's Trigger menu.
3 Define Edge1 to represent the control line where the timing
violation occurs.
4 Under Timing Sequence Levels, enter the following sequence
specification:
•
TRIGGER on "Edge1" Occurs "1" Else on "no state" go to level "1"
5 Go to the state analyzer's Trigger menu and check that term "a" is
set to "don't care". In the Arming Control menu, set the state
analyzer to be run by the timing analyzer.
Arming the State Analyzer from the Timing Analyzer
119
Triggering Examples
Cross-Arming Trigger Examples
6 Under State Sequence Levels, enter the following sequence
specification:
•
120
While storing "anystate" TRIGGER on "arm Πa" Occurs "1" Else on "no
state" go to level "1"
Triggering Examples
Cross-Arming Trigger Examples
To look at control and status signals during
execution of a routine
The state analyzer will trigger on the start of the routine whose control
and status signals are to be examined more frequently than once per
bus cycle. When the state analyzer triggers, it sends out an arm signal.
The timing analyzer triggers when it receives the true arm level and
detects the transition represented by Edge1.
1 Set up one state analyzer and one timing analyzer.
2 Go to the state analyzer's Trigger menu and define term
R_START to represent the starting address of the routine.
3 Under State Sequence Levels, enter the following sequence
specification:
•
While storing "anystate" TRIGGER on "R_START" Occurs "1" Else on "no
state" go to level "1"
4 Go to the timing analyzer's Trigger menu.
5 Define the Edge1 term to represent a transition on one of the
control signals.
6 Set the timing analyzer to be run by the state analyzer. Under
Timing Sequence Levels, enter the following sequence
specification:
•
TRIGGER on "arm ΠEdge1" 1 time
You do not need to use a combination trigger when one analyzer is
armed from the other analyzer - the arm term is ANDed automatically
with the term already in use at that level.
121
Triggering Examples
Cross-Arming Trigger Examples
To detect a glitch
The following setup uses a state analyzer to capture state flow
occurring at the time of the glitch. This can be useful in
troubleshooting. For example, you might find that the glitch is ground
bounce caused by a number of simultaneous signal transitions.
1 Set up a timing analyzer and a state analyzer.
2 Go to the timing analyzer's Format menu and set the Timing
Acquisition Mode to Half Channel 500 MHz.
3 Go to the timing analyzer's Trigger menu.
4 Select an Edge term. Then assign glitch detection "*" to the
channels of interest represented by the Edge term.
5 Go to the state analyzer's Trigger menu.
6 Set the analyzer to be armed by the timing analyzer. Leave the
trigger set to trigger on any state.
If you don't see the activity of interest in the state trace, try changing
the trigger position using the Acquisition Control field in the Trigger
menu of the state analyzer. By changing the Acquisition mode to
manual, you can position the trigger at any state relative to analyzer
memory.
NOTE:
The timing analyzer can detect glitch activity on a waveform. A glitch is
defined as two or more transitions across the logic threshold between adjacent
timing analyzer samples.
122
Triggering Examples
Cross-Arming Trigger Examples
To capture the waveform of a glitch using the
oscilloscope (oscilloscope option only)
The following setup uses the triggering capability of the timing
analyzer and the acquisition capability of the oscilloscope.
1 Set up a timing analyzer. Go to the timing analyzer’s Format
menu and set the Timing Acquisition Mode to Half Channel
500 MHz.
2 Go to the timing analyzer’s Trigger menu.
3 Select an Edge term. Then assign glitch detection “*” to the
channels of interest represented by the Edge term.
4 Go to the Arming Control menu. Set the Scope Arm In to
Analyzer.
5 Select Group Run in the Analyzer Arm In menu.
6 Go to the Scope Trigger menu, and set Mode to Immediate.
If you have trouble capturing the glitch waveform on the oscilloscope,
try adjusting the skew in the Arming Control menu, so the oscilloscope
triggers earlier.
NOTE:
A timing analyzer can trigger on a glitch and capture it, but a timing analyzer
doesn’t have the voltage or timing resolution to display the glitch in detail. An
oscilloscope can display a glitch waveform with fine resolution, but cannot
trigger on glitches, combinations of glitches, or sophisticated patterns
involving many channels.
123
Triggering Examples
Cross-Arming Trigger Examples
To view your target system processing an
interrupt (oscilloscope option only)
Use the oscilloscope to trigger on the asynchronous interrupt request.
1 Go to the state analyzer’s Trigger menu, and set the analyzer to
trigger on any state and store any state.
2 Select Arming Control. Set the analyzer to respond to the arm
signal from the oscilloscope, and set the oscilloscope to Group
Run.
3 Go to the Scope Trigger menu, and set the mode to Edge trigger.
Set the Source field to C1, and probe the interrupt with
Channel 1.
4 Press the Run key.
When the interrupt occurs, the oscilloscope will trigger, subsequently
triggering the state analyzer.
If the analyzer doesn’t capture the expected interrupt activity, ensure
that the interrupt isn’t masked due to the actions of other program
code.
This setup can help you answer questions like the following:
•
•
•
•
•
Does the processor branch to the proper interrupt handling routine?
Are registers and status information saved properly?
How long does it take to service the interrupt?
Is the interrupt acknowledged properly?
After the interrupt is serviced, does the processor restore registers and
status information and continue with the interrupted routine as expected?
You can use the state analyzer to check the address of the interrupt
routine as well as to see if interrupt processing is done as expected.
Using an analysis probe and inverse assembler with the state analyzer
will make it easier to read the program flow.
124
Triggering Examples
Cross-Arming Trigger Examples
To trigger timing analysis of a count-down on a
set of data lines
Your target system may include various state machines that are started
by system events such as interrupt processing or I/O activity. The state
analyzer is ideal for recognizing the system events; the timing analyzer
is ideal for examining the step-by-step operation of the state machines.
1 Set up a timing analyzer and a state analyzer.
2 Go to the state analyzer's Trigger menu.
3 Set the timing analyzer to be run from the state analyzer.
4 Set the state analyzer to trigger on the label and term that
identify the start of the count-down routine.
5 Go to the timing analyzer's Trigger Menu.
6 Set the timing analyzer to trigger on any state and store any
state.
125
Triggering Examples
Cross-Arming Trigger Examples
To monitor two coprocessors in a target
system
Debugging coprocessor systems can be a complex task. Replicated
systems and contention for shared resources increase the potential
problems. Using two state analyzers with analysis probes can make it
much easier to discover the source of such problems. For example, you
may want to set up one analyzer to trigger only when a certain problem
occurs, and set up the other analyzer to be armed by the first analyzer
so that it takes its trace only when the first analyzer recognizes its
trigger. This will let you observe the behavior of both coprocessors
during the occurrence of a problem.
1 Set up both analyzers as state analyzers.
2 Go to the first analyzer's Trigger menu.
3 Set the second analyzer to be run from the first analyzer.
4 Turn on Count Time.
5 Set the first analyzer to trigger on the problem condition.
Some problems may involve complex sequences of conditions. See
earlier examples in this chapter for more information on defining
trigger sequences.
6 Go to the Trigger menu of the second analyzer.
126
Triggering Examples
Cross-Arming Trigger Examples
7 Check that the second analyzer is triggering on arm and that
Count Time is set.
After the measurement is complete, you can interleave the trace lists of
both state analyzers to see the activity executed by both coprocessors
during related clock cycles.
You can use a similar procedure if you have only one processor, but
want to monitor its activity with that of other system nodes, such as
chip-select lines, I/O activity, or behavior of a watchdog timer. In some
instances it may be easier to look at related activity with a timing
analyzer.
See Also
"Special Displays" on page 128.
"To trigger timing analysis of a count-down on a set of data lines" on
page 125.
127
Triggering Examples
Special Displays
Special Displays
Interleaved trace lists
Interleaved trace lists allow you to view data captured by two analyzers
in a single display. When you interleave the traces, you see each state
that was captured by each analyzer. These states are shown on
consecutive lines.
You can interleave state listings from state analyzers when two are
used together in a run. Interleaved state listings are useful when you
are using multiple analyzers to look at interaction between two or more
processors. They are also useful when you need more analysis width
than is available in one analyzer.
Mixed Display mode
The Mixed Display mode allows you to show state listings and timing
waveforms together on screen. State listings are shown at the top of
the screen and waveform displays are shown at the bottom. You can
interleave state listings from two analyzers at the top of the screen, if
desired. You can display waveforms from the timing analyzer at the
bottom of the screen.
128
Triggering Examples
Special Displays
To interleave trace lists
1 Set up both analyzers as state analyzers.
2 Go to the Trigger menu of the first analyzer.
3 Set Count to Time, and set up the trigger.
The logic analyzer uses the time tags stored with each state to
determine the ordering of states shown in an interleaved trace list.
4 Set Count to Time, and set up the trigger on the second
analyzer.
The second analyzer does not need to be run from the first analyzer,
but both analyzers must have "Count Time" turned on to correlate the
data.
5 Make the measurement run.
6 Go to one of the Listing menus.
7 Select one of the label fields in the trace list display, then select
Interleave.
129
Triggering Examples
Special Displays
8 Select the name of the other analyzer and the label to interleave.
Interleaved data is displayed in a light shade. Trace list line numbers of
interleaved data are indented. The labels identifying the interleaved
data are shown above the labels for the current analyzer, and are
displayed in a light shade.
If you have problems with the procedure, check that each analyzer has
an independent clock from the target system.
Interleaved Trace Lists on the 1671G
130
Triggering Examples
Special Displays
To view trace lists and waveforms on the same
display
1 Set up a timing and a state analyzer.
2 Go to the state analyzer's Trigger menu.
3 Set Count to Time, and set up the trigger as appropriate.
You do not need to have one instrument arming the other to display the
information jointly, but you do need to turn on Count Time so that the
information may be correlated.
4 Set up the timing analyzer trigger.
Timing analyzers implicitly count time because their sampling is driven
by an internal clock, rather than an external state clock.
5 Make a measurement run.
6 Go to the Mixed Display menu.
7 To insert state listings, select any label field from the state listing.
From the pop-up that appears, select the desired label to insert.
8 To insert timing or waveforms, double-select the label field to the
left of the waveform display area. From the pop-up that appears,
select insert, and then the appropriate label.
131
Triggering Examples
Special Displays
You cannot view state analyzer data in the waveform display. However,
you can view timing analyzer data and oscilloscope data
simultaneously.
You can also position X and O Time markers on the waveform display.
Once set, the time markers will be displayed in both the listing and the
waveform display areas. Note that even if you set X and O Time
markers in another display, you must also set the Time markers in the
Mixed Display if Time markers are desired.
NOTE:
You can use the Mixed Display feature in the analyzer menu to show both
waveforms and trace lists in the same display, making it easier to correlate the
events of interest.
Mixed Display using Timing and State in the 1671G
132
6
File Management
133
File Management
File Management
File Management
Being able to transfer data to a host computer, such as a PC or UNIX
workstation, can enhance the logic analyzer in many ways. You can use
the host to store configuration files or measurement results for later
review. You can save screen images from the logic analyzer in bitmap
files to include in reports developed using word processors or desktop
publishing tools. Or, you can develop programs on the PC that
manipulate measurement results to satisfy your problem-solving needs.
This chapter shows you how to save the different types of information.
The examples store files on the flexible disk drive, but you can move
the same files to your host computer using a network interface. The
1670G-series of logic analyzers have GPIB and RS-232-C capabilities,
and an ethernet interface. If you need help using the LAN interface, see
the LAN section of this book on page 476.
You can also use a host computer to send the logic analyzer complex
command sequences allowing you to automate your measurement
tasks. If you want to program the analyzer using a host computer, see
the Agilent Technologies 1670G-Series Logic Analyzers Programmer's
Guide.
134
File Management
Transferring Files Using the Flexible Disk Drive
Transferring Files Using the Flexible Disk Drive
Because the flexible disk drive on the 1670G-series logic analyzers will
read and write double-sided, double-density, or high-density disks in
MS-DOS format, it is a useful tool for transferring data to and from IBM
PC-compatible computers as well as transferring data to and from
other systems that can read and write MS-DOS format. You can save
configuration files, measurement results, and even menu and
measurement images from the screen.
This section shows you how to use the flexible disk drive to:
•
Save a configuration
•
Load a configuration
•
Save a trace list in ASCII format
•
Save a screen image (such as a display or menu)
•
Load additional software
135
File Management
Transferring Files Using the Flexible Disk Drive
To save a configuration
You can save configurations on a 3.5-inch disk or on the internal hard
disk for later use. This is especially useful for automating repetitive
measurements for production testing.
1 Go to the System Hard Disk or System Flexible Disk menu.
2 Set the field under System to Store.
3 Select the type of configuration you want to save in the field to
the right of Store.
You can save the analyzer configuration, the system configuration, or
both.
4 Specify a file name into which to save the configuration using the
to file field.
5 Enter a description for the file using the file description field.
6 Select Execute.
NOTE:
If you want to save your file in a directory other than the root, you can select
Change Directory from the disk operations field, then type the name of the
desired directory in the directory name field or select it from the list of visible
directories using the knob.
Saving the System Configuration for Programmatic Control
136
File Management
Transferring Files Using the Flexible Disk Drive
To load a configuration
You can quickly load a previously saved configuration, so that you will
not have to manually set up the measurement parameters.
1 Go to the System Hard Disk or System Flexible Disk menu.
Your choice here depends on where you saved the configuration.
2 Select the field below System and select Load from the pop-up
menu.
3 Select the destination from the module list.
"System" loads only settings available under the System menus.
"Analyzer" loads data and settings for the analyzer. "All" loads both the
system and analyzer configurations.
You can only load configuration files to the area from which the
configuration was taken. For instance, you cannot load an analyzer
configuration file to the system. Thus, if you select System, then select
a file that contains only an analyzer configuration, the configuration
will fail. The file type field tells you what type of information is in a file.
Analyzer configuration files show “167xan_config”, and system
configurations show "167x_cnfg" in the file type field.
4 Specify a file name from which to load the configuration using
the from file field or scrolling with the knob.
137
File Management
Transferring Files Using the Flexible Disk Drive
5 Select Execute.
Loading System Configuration for Programmatic Control
138
File Management
Transferring Files Using the Flexible Disk Drive
To save a trace list in ASCII format
Some screens, such as file lists and trace lists, contain columns of
ASCII data that you may want to move to a computer for further
manipulation or analysis. You can save these displays as ASCII files.
While a screen capture saves only the data shown onscreen, saving the
display as an ASCII file captures all data in the list, even if it is
offscreen.
1 Insert a DOS-formatted 3.5-inch disk in the flexible disk drive.
2 Set up the menu you want to capture, or run a measurement
from which you want to save data.
Remember that only displays that present lists of textual data can be
captured as ASCII files.
3 Select Print and choose Print Disk from the pop-up menu.
4 Select the Filename field and specify a file name to which the
data will be saved.
5 Select ASCII (ALL) from the Output Format field.
If the current display contents can not be saved as an ASCII file, this
option will not be present in the Output Format field.
6 Select Flexible Disk from the Output Disk menu, then select
Execute.
139
File Management
Transferring Files Using the Flexible Disk Drive
To save a screen's image
You can save menus and measurements to disk in one of four different
graphical formats.
1 Insert a formatted flexible disk in the flexible disk drive.
2 Set up the menu whose image you want to capture, or run a
measurement from which you want to save data.
3 Select Print and choose Print Disk from the pop-up menu.
If the screen contains a pop-up menu, the Print field is not available.
Pop-up menus cannot be saved to file unless you are using a controller.
4 Select the Filename field and specify a file name to save to.
5 Select the Output Format field and choose the output format for
the graphics file from the pop-up menu.
•
Choose one of the following formats:
•
B/W TIF is a black-and-white TIFF (Tagged Image File Format), v 5.0.
•
COLOR TIF is a color TIFF file in TIFF version 5.0 format.
•
PCX is a color PCX file (PCX is the PC Paintbrush and Publisher's
Paintbrush format from ZSoft).
•
EPS is a black-and-white Encapsulated PostScriptø file.
140
File Management
Transferring Files Using the Flexible Disk Drive
6 Select Flexible Disk from the Output Disk menu, then select
Execute.
Print Disk Menu
To load additional software
You can enhance the power of your 1670G-series logic analyzer by
installing software such as symbol utilities. The software comes with
installation instructions. In general, however, you can install logic
analyzer software by following these instructions.
1 Turn off the logic analyzer.
2 Insert the first disk of the software into the flexible disk drive.
3 Turn on the logic analyzer.
The analyzer will load the software as it powers up.
4 To permanently install the software, follow the instructions that
come with it.
141
File Management
Transferring Files Using the LAN
Transferring Files Using the LAN
The 1670G-series logic analyzers come equipped with a LAN interface.
You can transfer information from the logic analyzer to a computer for
processing or storage over the LAN without ever copying a file to disk.
Because there are so many different network software packages, this
section does not attempt to explain how to put your logic analyzer on
the local network or how to establish a network connection. Those
topics are covered in detail and with many examples in the LAN
Section of this User’s Guide.
There are three basic types of connection you can establish between a
computer and the logic analyzer over an Ethernet LAN: ftp, telnet, and
X Window. ftp (File Transfer Protocol) is a common UNIX® program
for copying files between two computers. It is also available on many
PCs. A telnet or X Window connection is better suited than ftp for
controlling the logic analyzer, but they cannot transfer files.
See Also
The LAN section of this User’s Guide on page 476 for more information
on setting up connections.
142
File Management
Transferring Files Using the LAN
To transfer files using ftp
1 Check that your network package include ftp, and connect your
logic analyzer to the LAN.
See the LAN section of this User’s Guide on page 476 for instructions.
2 From the computer you want to transfer the files to or from,
establish an ftp connection.
3 At the login prompt, log in as data or control.
If you want to load files into the logic analyzer, log in as control.
Otherwise, log in as data.
4 If you will be transferring screen images or configuration files, set
type to BIN.
5 Locate the file you want, and transfer it.
“The File System” on page 387 explains the different types of files in
the file system. Most ftp software lets you use your regular computer
commands for moving around the remote file system and listing files.
To copy files, most ftp software uses get and put.
143
File Management
Transferring Files Using the LAN
144
7
Using the Oscilloscope
145
Using the Oscilloscope
Using the Oscilloscope
Using the Oscilloscope
This chapter covers the oscilloscope common menus and calibration.
This chapter covers:
•
calibrating the oscilloscope
•
oscilloscope common menus.
The oscilloscope circuitry requires an operational accuracy calibration
by the user or service department under any of the following
conditions:
•
at six month intervals or every 1000 hours
•
if ambient temperature changes more than 10°C from the temperature at
full calibration
•
to optimize measurement accuracy.
To test the oscilloscope circuitry against specifications (full
calibration), refer to chapter 3, Testing Performance in the “Agilent
Technologies 1670G-Series Logic Analyzers Service Guide.”
146
Using the Oscilloscope
Calibrating the oscilloscope
Calibrating the oscilloscope
Equipment Required
Equipment
Critical Specification
Recommended
Agilent Model/Part
Qty
Cable (2)
BNC, 9-inch (equal length)
10502A
1
Cable
50 W BNC (m-to-m) 48-inch
10503A
1
Adapter
BNC tee (m)(f)(f)
1250-0781
1
Adapter
BNC (f)(f) (ug-914/u)
1250-0080
1
Calibration PROTECT/UNPROTECT switch
The 1670G-series logic analyzers have a calibration
PROTECT/UNPROTECT switch on the back panel. This switch must
be set to UNPROTECT before new calibration values from the
operational accuracy calibration can be stored to nonvolatile RAM.
Set up the equipment
1 Turn on the logic analyzer. Let it warm up for 30 minutes if you
have not already done so.
2 Facing the front panel, reach around to the lower right corner on
the back of the logic analyzer. Flip the PROTECT/UNPROTECT
switch to UNPROTECT (flip the switch up).
147
Using the Oscilloscope
Calibrating the oscilloscope
Load the default calibration factors
Note that once the default calibration factors are loaded, all
calibrations must be done. This includes all of the calibrations in the
Self Cal menu. The calibration must be performed in the exact
sequence listed below.
NOTE:
The calibration PROTECT/UNPROTECT switch on the back of logic analyzer
must be set to UNPROTECT.
1 Go to the Scope Calibration menu.
2 Select the Mode field, then select Service Cal from the pop-up
menu.
3 Select the Procedure field, then select Default Values from the
pop-up menu.
4 Select the Start field and follow the instructions on the display.
Loading the Default Calibration Factors
After you select the Start field, you can abort the calibration procedure
by selecting either the Mode or Procedure fields if the Continue field is
still displayed on the screen.
148
Using the Oscilloscope
Calibrating the oscilloscope
Self Cal menu calibrations
Messages will be displayed as each calibration routine is completed to
indicate calibration has passed or failed. The resulting calibration
factors are automatically stored to nonvolatile RAM at the conclusion
of each calibration routine.
The Self Cal menu lets you optimize vertical sensitivity (Vert Cal) for
channels 1 and 2 individually or both channels on a board
simultaneously. Also, the Self Cal menu lets you optimize delay (Delay)
for channel 1 and 2 separately, then Time Null for channel 2 and the
Logic Trigger.
1 Optimize Vert Cal of the Self Cal.
a Connect two BNC 50-W, 9-inch cables to the BNC tee adapter.
Connect the BNC 50W (f)(f) adapter to the BNC tee adapter,
and connect the 48-inch BNC cable to the BNC 50W (f)(f)
adapter. Once you select Start, the instrument will prompt
you to connect the cables to the appropriate locations on the
rear panel of the instrument.
b Select the Mode field, then select Self Cal from the pop-up
menu.
c Select the Procedure field, then select Vert Cal from the popup menu.
d Select the Channel field, then select a channel choice from
the pop-up menu.
e Select the Start field and follow the instructions on the
display.
f After completion of Vertical Calibration, remove the cables
from the instrument.
149
Using the Oscilloscope
Calibrating the oscilloscope
2 Optimize Delay of the Self Cal.
a Obtain a BNC 50-W, 48-inch cable. Once you select Start, the
instrument will prompt you to connect the cable to the
appropriate location on the rear panel of the instrument.
b Select the Procedure field, then select Delay from the pop-up
menu.
c Select the Channel field, then select C1.
d Select the Start field and follow the instructions on the
display.
e Repeat steps c and d for channel 2.
f After completing all of the channel delay calibrations, remove
the cable from the oscilloscope.
3 Optimize the Time Null of the Self Cal.
a Connect two BNC 50-W, 9-inch cables to the BNC tee adapter.
Connect the BNC 50W (f)(f) adapter to the BNC tee adapter,
and connect the 48-inch BNC cable to the BNC 50W (f)(f)
adapter. Once you select Start, the instrument will prompt
you to connect the cables to the appropriate locations on the
rear panel of the instrument.
b Select the Procedure field, then select Time Null from the
pop-up menu.
c Select the Start field and follow the instructions on the
display.
d After completion of the Time Null calibration, remove the
cables from the instrument.
150
Using the Oscilloscope
Calibrating the oscilloscope
4 Calibrate the Logic Trigger of the Self Cal.
a Obtain a BNC 50-W, 48-inch cable.
b Select Start. The instrument will prompt you to connect the
cable to the appropriate location on the rear panel of the
instrument.
c Select the Procedure field, then select Logic Trigger from
the pop-up menu.
d Select the Start field and follow the instructions on the
display.
e After completion of the Logic Trigger calibration, remove the
cable from the instrument.
Protect the operational accuracy calibration
factors
•
Facing the front panel, reach around to the lower right corner on the back
of the logic analyzer. Flip the PROTECT/UNPROTECT switch to
PROTECT (flip the switch down).
151
Using the Oscilloscope
Oscilloscope Common Menus
Oscilloscope Common Menus
The following options apply to all of the oscilloscope menus.
Run/Stop options
There are three ways you can manually run and stop the oscilloscope:
the Autoscale menu, the Run and Stop keys, and the Run/Stop field.
Single and Repetitive modes
Single mode acquisition fills acquisition memory once with 8000
samples of the input waveform, automatically stops running, then
displays the contents of acquisition memory. Each 8000-sample
waveform record is acquired in a single acquisition. Each channel has a
memory capacity of 8000 samples.
Repetitive mode acquisition fills acquisition memory with 8000 samples
of the input waveform on continuing acquisitions, with each new
acquisition overwriting the previous. The display is updated each time
a new acquisition is made. Repetitive mode continues acquiring data in
this manner until you select the Stop field. As in single mode, each
8000-sample waveform record is acquired in a single acquisition.
Autoscale run
Select the autoscale field on the screen, then choose Continue from the
pop-up menu. When autoscaling is complete, the oscilloscope
automatically starts running.
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Using the Oscilloscope
Oscilloscope Common Menus
If you have been using the Run field to initiate your runs, the
oscilloscope will run in the mode (single or repetitive) that was last
chosen using the Run options. If no run mode has been chosen prior to
choosing autoscale, the run mode defaults to single mode.
If you have been using the Run key to initiate your runs, the
oscilloscope will run in single mode.
See Also
"Autoscale" on page 154 for information on how the autoscale
algorithm works.
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Using the Oscilloscope
Oscilloscope Common Menus
Autoscale
Autoscale is an algorithm that automatically optimizes the display of
one or more waveforms. When you select the Autoscale field and
choose Continue, the autoscale algorithm starts.
What the Autoscale algorithm does when a signal is found
The autoscale algorithm first checks all input channels to determine
whether or not there are any signals present. The vertical scaling is
then set as required for each channel. Next the time base is scaled for a
single input channel, the trigger channel is selected, the data is
acquired, and the waveforms are displayed.
Finding the vertical settings. The autoscale algorithm sets the
vertical scaling (V/Div and offset) appropriate to the input signal for
channel 1. This process is repeated for channel 2.
Finding the time base settings. The time base settings (s/Div and
delay) are determined based on the input signal of Channel 1 (if active)
or Channel 2. The time base is scaled so that between two and five
complete cycles of the time base scaling source input signal can be
seen on the screen. The trigger settings are also changed by the
autoscale algorithm and an edge mode trigger with CHAN 1 or CHAN 2
is selected. The channel selected for time base scaling is selected as
the trigger source.
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Using the Oscilloscope
Oscilloscope Common Menus
Displaying the waveform. When the autoscale algorithm is
complete, the oscilloscope automatically starts running, acquires the
data, and displays waveforms for the inputs that have been selected.
The trigger point on the waveform is determined by the trigger level
set by the autoscale algorithm. The trigger point is displayed as a
dotted vertical line at the center of the screen (Delay = 0 s).
What the Autoscale algorithm does when a signal is not found .
If no signal is found, the autoscale algorithm toggles the Auto-Trig field
to On, which places the oscilloscope in the automatic trigger mode.
The oscilloscope then displays the message "Auto triggered." The
automatic trigger mode allows the oscilloscope to sweep automatically
and to display a baseline anytime a trigger signal is not present. All
other settings are restored to their original values.
Menus and fields changed by the Autoscale algorithm
The following table shows the menus and their fields that are changed
by the autoscale algorithm.
Settings Changed by Autoscale
Menu
Field
Autoscale
Channel
V/Div
Offset
Mode
Source
Level
Slope
Count
Auto-Trig
s/Div
Delay
Scaled - depending on amplitude of input signal.
Scaled - depending on offset of input signal.
Defaults to Edge.
Set to lowest numbered channel with signal present.
Scaled - depending on amplitude of lowest numbered channel with signal present.
Defaults to Positive.
Defaults to 1.
Defaults to On.
Scaled - depending on frequency of lowest numbered channel with signal present.
Defaults to 0 s.
Trigger
All
Applicable
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Using the Oscilloscope
Oscilloscope Common Menus
Time base
The s/Div and Delay fields are displayed on all of the oscilloscope
menus, except for the Calibration menu.
s/Div field
The s/Div field allows you to set the sweep speed (time scale) on the
horizontal axis of the display from 500 ps/div to 5 sec/div. Sweep speed
is measured in seconds per division.
Delay field
The Delay field allows you to set the horizontal position of the
displayed waveform in relation to the trigger. Delay time is always
measured from the trigger point on the waveform to the center of the
screen. Delay time is measured in seconds. When acquisitions are
stopped, the Delay field can be used to control the portion of
acquisition memory displayed on screen.
156
Using the Oscilloscope
The Scope Channel Menu
The Scope Channel Menu
The Channel menu selects the channel input and the values that
control the vertical sensitivity, offset, probe attenuation factor, input
impedance, and coupling. The Channel menu also gives you preset
vertical sensitivity, offset, and trigger level values for ECL and TTL
logic levels. Each channel may be set independently of the other
channel.
Offset field
You use the Offset field to set the vertical position of the waveform on
the screen. Offset is the dc voltage that is added to or subtracted from
the input signal so that the waveform can be centered on the waveform
display. Offset range and resolution are dependent on vertical
sensitivity (V/Div) as shown in the table below. The table values are
based on a 1:1 probe setting.
Offset Range and Resolution
V/Div Setting
Offset Range
Offset Resolution
4 mV - 100 mV/Div
± 2V
1 mV
>100 mV - 500mV/Div
± 10V
1 mV
>500mV - 2.5 V/Div
± 50V
1 mV
>2.5 V - 10 V/Div
± 250V
2 mV
Offset changes are not reflected on the waveform until a Run is
initiated and the next acquisition is displayed. Changes to Offset during
a repetitive run will be seen on the next displayed acquisition because
the hardware is reprogrammed between acquisitions.
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Using the Oscilloscope
The Scope Channel Menu
Probe field
You use the Probe field to set the probe attenuation factor for the input
channel currently displayed in the Input field.
Probe attenuation factor
The probe attenuation factor can be set from 1:1 to 1000:1 in
increments of one. When you select a probe attenuation factor, the
actual sensitivity at the input does not change. The voltage values
shown on the display (V/div, offset, trigger level) are automatically
adjusted to reflect the attenuation factor. The marker and automatic
measurement voltage values change when a Run is initiated and the
next acquisition is displayed.
Coupling field
You use the Coupling field to set the input impedance for the channel
currently displayed in the Input field.
Coupling field selections
When you select the Coupling field, a pop-up appears that shows the
input impedance values available. The selectable values are 1MW / DC,
1MW / AC, and 50W / DC.
CAUTION:
The maximum input voltage for the 50Ω / DC Coupling field selection is 5
Vrms.
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Using the Oscilloscope
The Scope Channel Menu
Preset field
When you select the Preset field, a pop-up appears, offering choices of
TTL, ECL, and User. The Preset field automatically sets offset, V/div,
and trigger level values to properly display TTL and ECL logic levels.
Trigger level is in the Trigger menu and can be changed only when
edge trigger is the selected trigger mode.
159
Using the Oscilloscope
The Scope Display Menu
The Scope Display Menu
The Display options control how the oscilloscope acquires and displays
waveforms.
Mode field
The Mode field provides three selections: Normal, Average, or
Accumulate.
Normal mode
In Normal mode, the oscilloscope acquires waveform data and displays
the waveform acquired from that data. New acquisitions overwrite old
data.
Average mode
In Average mode, the oscilloscope averages new data with previously
acquired data. Averaging helps eliminate random noise from your
displayed waveforms.
When you select Average mode, a new field appears next to the Mode
field which allows you to set the number of waveform acquisitions to
average. The number of averages can be set to 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, 64, 128,
or 256.
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Using the Oscilloscope
The Scope Display Menu
If you start repetitive run, the oscilloscope acquires and displays data,
averaging each run with the preceding set accumulated since you
selected repetitive run. When the oscilloscope has acquired the
number of waveforms you selected, it displays the advisory message
"Number of averages has been met." All new data is weighed at 1/N and
is averaged with the previous data. All data is retained.
If you set the Run mode to Single, acquisitions are not made until you
initiate a Run. If Average # is set to 16, as in the previous example, the
"Number of averages has been met" message will not be displayed until
you have selected the Run field 16 times.
If you bring a waveform that is being averaged in the oscilloscope into
the waveform display of another time correlated module, such as the
timing analyzer, the waveform will not continue to average. Only the
most recent acquisition, not the average trace data, will appear on the
screen. To view an averaged mode trace with other time correlated
waveforms, bring those other waveforms into the display of the channel
that is setup for average mode.
Accumulate mode
In Accumulate mode, the oscilloscope accumulates all waveform
acquisitions and displays them on the screen without erasing the
previously acquired waveforms. This is similar to infinite persistence
on an analog storage oscilloscope. These acquisitions will stay on the
display until Mode is changed, or until the waveform is adjusted by a
control that causes the display to change, such as s/Div, Delay, or
Connect Dots from On to Off.
When in Accumulate mode, the operation of the display grid follows
special rules when turned on or off (refer to the Grid Field paragraph
later in this chapter).
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Using the Oscilloscope
The Scope Display Menu
Connect Dots field
The oscilloscope display can be enhanced to show a better picture of a
waveform by using the Connect Dots On / Off. The default setting for
the Connect Dots field is Off.
If an edge is fast enough (relative to the sample rate), the signal may
begin to look like dots scattered around the display, because each
sample is displayed as a single dot. To give you a better idea of what the
waveform looks like, the oscilloscope can connect the sample dots
together. Selecting the Connect Dots field toggles the field between On
and Off.
Grid field
The oscilloscope display can be set to Grid On or Grid Off. Selecting the
Grid field toggles the field between On and Off. In either Normal or
Average modes, the grid can be turned On or Off when the oscilloscope
is not currently running and the change appears on screen
immediately. If the oscilloscope is currently acquiring data, the grid will
be drawn or removed when the acquisition is completed. In
Accumulate mode, the grid can be turned On or Off at any time, but it
will not be changed until the next acquisition is completed or some
change is made to the display screen that causes the display to be
erased and redrawn, such as changing s/Div.
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Using the Oscilloscope
The Scope Display Menu
Display Options field
The Display Options field allows you to display either sample period
information or marker value information on the oscilloscope menus,
and also provides access to the scope channel labeling menu.
The Display Options field appears on the Channel, Trigger, Display and
Auto-Measure menus. Selecting the Display Options field provides a
pop-up menu, which provides the Set Channel Labels menu. If either
voltage or time markers are enabled, selecting the Display Options field
reveals all three of the following selections:
Set Channel Labels
Selecting Set Channel Labels from the Display Options pop-up will take
you to the Scope Channel Labels menu. This menu allows you to assign
labels to each of the oscilloscope channels. These labels will
subsequently appear in the channel label area to the left of the
waveform display area. The scope channel labels appear on single trace
waveforms only. The default oscilloscope labels are used for overlay
and waveform math displays.
Display Sample Period
Selecting the Display Sample Period option displays the sample period
information on the scope menus. Sample period information is the
default display option and is always displayed when markers are turned
off.
Display Marker Values
This option displays the marker value information on the oscilloscope
menus.
163
Using the Oscilloscope
The Scope Trigger Menu
The Scope Trigger Menu
The Scope Trigger menu allows you to choose the method you want to
use to trigger the oscilloscope for a particular application.
Trigger marker
The trigger marker is the dotted vertical line at the center of the
waveform display. The point where the waveform from the trigger
source crosses the trigger marker is called the trigger point. The
trigger point always represents a delay time of zero seconds.
If you set Delay time to greater than 5 times the setting for s/Div, the
trigger marker will move off the screen.
Mode/Arm menu
The Mode/Arm field provides a pop-up menu with three types of
triggering, plus a fourth choice identical to the Arming Control field in
the Analyzer Trigger menu. The three types of triggering are Edge,
Pattern, and Immediate. For information on Arming Control, refer to
"Arming Control field" earlier in this chapter. Note that to timecorrelate the oscilloscope and the analyzer waveforms when the
oscilloscope is armed by a logic analyzer, the Mode must be set to
Immediate.
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Using the Oscilloscope
The Scope Trigger Menu
Edge trigger mode
In the edge trigger mode, the oscilloscope triggers at a specified
voltage level on a rising or falling edge of one of the input channels. In
this mode you can specify which input is the trigger source, set a
trigger level voltage, and specify which edge to trigger on.
When you select edge trigger mode, additional fields appear for Source,
Level, Slope, Count, and Auto-Trig. These fields are discussed in the
following sections.
Pattern
Pattern trigger mode allows you to trigger the oscilloscope upon
entering or exiting a specified pattern of the trigger channels or by
specifying a pattern duration time or range. Each entry in the pattern
shown in the Pattern row shows the trigger condition of the input
above it in the Channel row.
You must set the trigger voltage level for each input you want to use in
the pattern. To set the voltage level, first set the Mode to Edge, then
set the level for each channel used in the Pattern. You can then return
to Pattern mode. The trigger level marker does not appear when
Pattern mode triggering is selected.
The pattern for each input may be specified as high (H), low (L), or
"don't care" (X). H, L, and X conditions are as follows:
•
H-the voltage value of this input channel must be greater than the edge
trigger level of this input.
•
L-the voltage level of this input channel must be less than the edge trigger
level of this input.
•
X-is a "don't care" condition. The "don't care" means the associated input
channel will not be used in the pattern for the trigger qualifier. It does not
equate to "trigger on anything."
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Using the Oscilloscope
The Scope Trigger Menu
The default condition for all patterns is X, "don't care." To change the
pattern, select the Channel/Pattern field and use the pop-up menu.
A pattern of XX says to use NO channels to find the trigger.
NOTE:
Using NO channels to find the trigger does not equate to Immediate Mode
when Auto-Trig is set to Off. This event will never occur in the hardware. Do
not confuse XX with "don't care, trigger on anything."
Immediate trigger mode
Immediate trigger mode causes the oscilloscope to trigger by itself.
Immediate trigger mode can be used for dual time-base applications
where, for instance, a timing analyzer arms the oscilloscope. The
oscilloscope triggering mode must be set to Immediate in order to have
the waveforms time-correlated.
This mode is very similar to Auto-Trig On, but immediate mode does
not wait for a specified event to occur.
166
Using the Oscilloscope
The Scope Trigger Menu
Level field
The Level field shows the voltage value of the trigger level. When the
voltage value on the trigger source input waveform equals the trigger
level voltage value, the oscilloscope triggers.
When you change the trigger level voltage value, the waveform moves
horizontally on the display to maintain the trigger point. (That is, the
point where the waveform voltage value crosses the trigger point
voltage value.)
If the trigger point voltage level is set above or below the waveform
amplitude, the trigger point cannot be found. If Auto-Trig is set to On,
this causes the waveform display to become unsynchronized and to
"float" on the display. If Auto-Trig is set to Off, the message "Waiting for
trigger" is displayed.
The trigger point voltage can be set either by the autoscale function or
by a voltage value set into the Level field. It can be set to any voltage
value contained within the waveform display window, in increments of
0.05% of full scale vertical voltage range (V/Div x 4 divisions = full
scale). For example, if full scale voltage range were 400 mV, trigger
level would be set in increments of 2 mV (V/Div = 100 mV x 4 x 0.005 =
2 mV). Values entered that are not in this range will be rounded to the
nearest 0.05% increment.
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Using the Oscilloscope
The Scope Trigger Menu
Since the trigger level range is limited by the voltage values displayed
in the waveform window, the voltage window limits can be easily
determined. Turn the knob in both directions until the Level field reads
minimum and maximum voltage. These voltage values are the limits of
the waveform window. However, if the level is set at the min or max of a
window and offset for that channel is changed, the trigger level will
track that change, thereby changing the window limits.
If the trigger source channel is displayed in the waveform area of the
screen, the trigger level marker will appear on the screen as a
horizontal dashed line. The trigger level marker will move up and down
on the screen as the trigger level voltage is changed.
If the trigger source channel is not in the waveform area of the screen,
the trigger level marker will not be displayed.
If there are multiple occurrences of the trigger source waveform in the
waveform area of the screen, only the uppermost occurrence of the
trigger source waveform will display the trigger source marker.
The trigger level marker only appears when the trigger menu is
selected.
The default value for the Level field is 1.620 V (TTL preset value).
168
Using the Oscilloscope
The Scope Trigger Menu
Source field
When you select the Source field, a pop-up menu appears showing the
inputs available as the trigger source. The source can be channel 1 or
channel 2.
At power-up, the default channel input selection for the Source field is
the lowest numbered input channel. For example, if inputs are
connected to both channels 1 and 2, the Source field defaults to 1.
However, if an input signal is only connected to channel 2, the Source
field defaults to 2 when you automatically scale with Autoscale, even
though channel 1 is the default at power-up.
Slope field
You can set the trigger slope to trigger on either the positive or
negative edge of the trigger source waveform. When you select the
Slope field, the field toggles between Positive and Negative.
The default selection for the Slope field is Positive.
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Using the Oscilloscope
The Scope Trigger Menu
Count field
The Count field defines the number of trigger events that must occur
after the first trigger qualifier before the oscilloscope will trigger and
acquire a waveform. In edge trigger mode, you can define a positive or
negative edge and the trigger level as a trigger qualifier. When the
oscilloscope detects the trigger qualifier, it will trigger at a userspecified number of edges (Count field) on the waveform. Count can
be set to any integer from 1 to 32,000.
This type of triggering is commonly referred to as "events triggering" or
"delay-by-events triggering". It is very useful when trying to trigger on a
specific pulse in a burst of pulses, with a long time delay, before the
next burst occurs.
The default value for the Count field is 1.
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Using the Oscilloscope
The Scope Trigger Menu
Auto-Trig field
The Auto-Trig field allows you to specify whether or not the
acquisitions should wait for the specified trigger condition to occur.
When you select the Auto-Trig field, the field toggles between On and
Off. The On and Off fields are discussed below.
The default selection for the Auto-Trig field is On.
On
When you set auto-trigger to On, the oscilloscope waits 50 ms (20-Hz
rate) for a trigger to occur. If a trigger does not occur within that time,
the current contents of acquisition memory are displayed. The
message "Auto triggered" is displayed if one of the following conditions
occurs:
•
No signal is on the input. In this case, the oscilloscope will display a
baseline.
•
There is a signal but the specified trigger condition has not been met
within 50 ms. In this case, the waveform display will not be synchronized
to a trigger point.
Off
When you set auto-trigger to Off, the oscilloscope waits until a trigger
is received before the waveform display is updated. If a trigger does not
occur, the screen is not updated and the message "Waiting for Trigger"
is displayed. Use this mode when:
•
The trigger source signal has less than a 20-Hz repetition rate.
•
The trigger events counter (refer to "Count field") is set so that the
number of trigger events would not occur before 50 ms.
•
When you want to trigger on a specific event only.
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Using the Oscilloscope
The Scope Trigger Menu
When field
The When field appears only when Pattern mode is selected. When you
select this field, a pop-up menu appears that lets you specify the
trigger When condition.
Pattern When condition pop-up menu
The Pattern When pop-up menu is used to specify the trigger-when
condition for pattern triggering. The default selection for the When
field is When Entered.
When Entered. When this field is active, the oscilloscope triggers on
the first transition that makes the pattern specification true for every
input used in the pattern trigger specification. If the count set in the
Count field is more than 1, the pattern must be true for the number of
times set in the count field.
When Exited. When this field is active, the oscilloscope triggers on
the first transition that causes the pattern specification to be false for
every input used in the pattern trigger specification. If the count set in
the Count field is more than 1, the pattern must be true for the number
of times set in the count field before turning false.
Present >. When this field is active, the scope triggers on the first
transition that causes the pattern specification to be false for any input
used in the pattern trigger specification if the specified pattern has
been true for the time duration specified. If the pattern specification
becomes false before the specified duration time has elapsed, the
search for a trigger condition starts again. If the pattern specification
remains true longer than the specified duration time, the trigger point
will be the point at which the pattern specification becomes false.
172
Using the Oscilloscope
The Scope Trigger Menu
The pattern duration time can be any value between 20 ns and 160 ms
in 10 ns steps.
If the count set in the Count field is one, the trigger event will be the
first pattern event that meets both the pattern specification and the
duration specification. If the count is greater than one, only the first
pattern event must meet the duration specification. Once the pattern
duration specification has been met, subsequent pattern events that
meet the pattern specification can be of any duration and each such
pattern event will contribute to meeting the count specification. For
instance, with a pattern specification of HX, a duration specification of
>100 ns, and a count of 3, a pulse string with pulse widths 80 ns, 150
ns, 50 ns, 75 ns, 20 ns, 200 ns would trigger on the trailing edge of the
75 ns pulse. In this example, the 150 ns pulse meets the duration
specification and is count 1, the 50 ns pulse is count 2, and the 75 ns
pulse is count 3.
Present <. When this field is active, the scope triggers on the first
transition that causes the pattern specification to be false for any input
used in the pattern trigger specification if the specified pattern has
been true for less than the time duration specified. If the pattern
specification remains true after the specified duration time has
elapsed, the search for a trigger condition starts again the next time
the pattern specification becomes true. If the pattern specification
becomes false before the specified duration time, the trigger point will
be the point at which the pattern specification becomes false.
The pattern duration time can be any value between 20 ns and 160 ms
in 10 ns steps.
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Using the Oscilloscope
The Scope Trigger Menu
If the count set in the Count field is one, the trigger event will be the
first pattern event that meets both the pattern specification and the
duration specification. If the count is greater than one, only the first
pattern event must meet the duration specification. Once the pattern
duration specification has been met, subsequent pattern events that
meet the pattern specification can be of any duration and each such
pattern event will contribute to meeting the count specification. For
instance, with a pattern specification of HX, a duration specification of
<100 ns, and a count of 3, a pulse string with pulse widths 200 ns, 80
ns, 150 ns, 50 ns, 75 ns, 20 ns would trigger on the trailing edge of the
50 ns pulse. In this example, the 80 ns pulse meets the duration
specification and is count 1, the 150 ns pulse is count 2, and the 50 ns
pulse is count 3.
Range. When this field is active, the scope triggers on the first
transition that causes the pattern specification to be false for any input
used in the pattern trigger specification if the specified pattern has
been true for greater than the first time value and less than the second
time value that make up the pattern duration range.
If the pattern specification remains true for longer than the maximum
duration range limit or becomes false before the minimum duration
range limit, the search for a trigger condition starts again the next time
the pattern specification becomes true. If the pattern specification
becomes false within the specified duration time range, the trigger
point will be the point at which the pattern specification becomes false.
The minimum pattern duration time can be any value between 20 ns
and 160 ms in 10 ns steps. The maximum pattern duration time must
be at least 10 ns greater than the minimum time value.
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Using the Oscilloscope
The Scope Trigger Menu
If the count set in the Count field is one, the trigger event will be the
first pattern event that meets both the pattern specification and the
duration specification. If the count is greater than one, only the first
pattern event must meet the duration specification. Once the pattern
duration specification has been met, subsequent pattern events that
meet the pattern specification can be of any duration and each such
pattern event will contribute to meeting the count specification. For
instance, with a pattern specification of HX, a duration specification of
>60 ns & <100 ns, and a count of 3, a pulse string with pulse widths 200
ns, 80 ns, 150 ns, 50 ns, 75 ns, 20 ns would trigger on the trailing edge
of the 50ns pulse. In this example, the 80 ns pulse meets the duration
specification and is count 1, the 150 ns pulse is count 2, and the 50 ns
pulse is count 3.
Count field
In pattern trigger mode, you can define a pattern as a trigger qualifier.
When the oscilloscope detects the trigger qualifier, it will trigger when
the number of patterns specified in the Count field have occurred on all
inputs.
The Count field defines the number of events that must occur after the
first trigger qualifier before the oscilloscope will trigger and acquire a
waveform.
Count can be set to any integer from 1 to 32,000. The default value for
the Count field is 1.
175
Using the Oscilloscope
The Scope Marker Menu
The Scope Marker Menu
The oscilloscope has two sets of markers that allow you to make time
and voltage measurements. These measurements can be made either
manually (voltage and time markers) or automatically (time markers
only). The markers are accessed when you select the Markers choice
on the oscilloscope menu pop-up.
The default selection for both the time and voltage Markers fields is
Off.
Manual time markers options
Turn on the time markers by selecting the T Markers field and choosing
On from the pop-up menu. Three new fields appear to the right of the T
Markers field: Tx to To, Trig to X, and Trig to O. These fields allow you
to position the Tx (Time X) marker and the To (Time O) marker by
entering time values for these markers.
Tx to To field
The Tx to To field displays the time difference between the Tx marker
and the To marker. When you select the Tx to To field, turning the
knob moves both the Tx and To markers across the display without
changing the value in the Tx to To field. However, the values in the Trig
to X and Trig to O fields will change to reflect the movement of the Tx
and To markers.
You can change the value in the Tx to To field by changing the Trig to X
or Trig to O values, or by changing the Tx to To value using the keypad.
When you change the time value of Tx to To by using the keypad, the
difference between the new value and old value is split equally
bnetween Tx and To.
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Using the Oscilloscope
The Scope Marker Menu
Trig to X and Trig to O fields
The trigger point is always Time 0. Resolution for Trig to X and Trig to
O time values is 2% of the sweep speed(s/Div) setting. The default
value for these fields is 0 s, the trigger point.
When you select the Trig to X field and turn the knob, the Tx marker
will move across the display. As you move the marker, the time value in
the Trig to X field changes. A negative time value indicates the marker
is placed before the trigger point, and a positive time value indicates
the marker is placed after the trigger point. The Trig to O field works
similarly.
As you turn the knob when either the Trig to X or Trig to O field is
selected, the time value in the Tx to To field also changes, showing the
time difference between the Tx and To markers. If the time displayed
in the Tx to To field is negative, the To marker is to the left of the Tx
marker.
When you select the Tx to To field and turn the knob, the Tx and To
markers will move in unison and maintain the preset Tx to To time
value.
You can also change the Tx to To, Trig to X, and Trig to O fields with
the pop-up keypad. Refer to the earlier paragraph entitled "Tx to To
Field" for a description and results of keypad entries in the Tx to To
field.
T Marker value display
Any time the markers (either voltage or time) are turned on, the
current marker settings may be displayed on the channel, trigger,
display and auto-measure menus by using the Display Options field
located to the right of the time base Delay field. The Display Options
field provides a pop-up menu that allows you to either select to set
channel labels or to view the Sample Period display or the Marker Value
display.
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Using the Oscilloscope
The Scope Marker Menu
The Marker Value display consists of two blocks. One contains settings
for the voltage markers, the second contains settings for the time
markers. If only one set of markers is turned on, only one of the two
blocks will appear on the screen.
On the marker menu, if time markers are turned off, the Sample Period
display will appear on the marker menu. If time markers are selected as
either On or Auto, the Sample Period display is not visible on the
Marker menu.
The Display Options field never appears on the Marker menu.
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Using the Oscilloscope
The Scope Marker Menu
Automatic time markers options
When you select the T Markers field, a pop-up menu appears. When
you choose the Auto field in the pop-up a pop-up menu for automatic
time marker measurements is displayed.
The automatic time marker measurements are made by setting the
time markers to levels that are a percentage of the top-to-base voltage
value of a waveform or to specific voltage levels. The top-to-base
voltage value of a wavform is typically not the same as the peak-to-peak
voltage value. The oscilloscope determines the top and base voltages
by finding the flattest portions of the top and bottom of the waveform.
The top and base values do not typically include preshoot or overshoot
of the waveform. The peak-to-peak voltage is the difference between
the minimum and maximum voltages found on the waveform.
If the signal is clipped, the time markers will not be automatically
placed.
When searching for the marker patterns, the search will occur only on
that part of the waveform that is displayed, not the entire stored
waveform.
The default Auto markers pop-up menu options are discussed in the
following sections.
179
Using the Oscilloscope
The Scope Marker Menu
Set on field
The Set on field assigns an input waveform to the Tx or To marker, or
allows the marker to be set manually (with the MANUAL selection in
the pop-up). When you select the Set on field, a pop-up appears
showing the waveform sources available.
The default selection for the Set on field is the lowest letter and
number combination.
Type field
The Type field selects the units in which an automatic time marker
level will be specified. The automatic time marker can have a level
expressed as either a percentage of the waveform top-base voltage
(Percent) or as an absolute voltage level (Absolute). The default
selection is Percent.
at Level field
When the marker type is Percent, the at Level field sets the Tx or To
marker to a percentage level (from 10% to 90%) of the top-base
voltage on the waveform selected by the Set on field. When you select
the at Level field, you can change the percentage by turning the knob
or by entering a value using the keypad. You can enter any percentage
from 10% to 90% in increments of 1%.
When the marker type is Absolute, the at Level field sets the Tx or To
marker to the specific voltage level. The allowable voltage range that
can be selected is the vertical range for the selected channel. You can
enter any voltage from -12 V to 4 V in increments of 30 mV.
The default value for the at Level field is 50%.
The power-up default value for the at Level field is the selected
channel offset value. If the vertical range parameters (for example:v/
div, offset, probe factor) of a channel are changed such that the current
at Level voltage is no longer valid, the at Level voltage will track the
limit of the vertical range.
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Using the Oscilloscope
The Scope Marker Menu
Slope field
The Slope field sets the Tx or To marker on either the positive or
negative edge of the selected occurrence of a waveform. When you
select the Slope field, the slope toggles between Positive and Negative.
The default selection for the Slope field is Positive.
Occur field
The Occur field sets the Tx or To marker on a specific occurrence of a
displayed edge on the waveform. You can define the edge to be
displayed all the way from the 1st edge up to the 100th edge. The
count of edge occurrences is made starting with the first edge
displayed on the screen.
Auto-marker measurements are made with data that is displayed on
the screen. Make sure the data of interest is fully displayed on the
screen.
Any number from 1 to 100 in increments of 1 can be entered. The
default value for the Occur field is 1.
Statistics field
The Statistics field allows you to make minimum, maximum, and mean
time interval measurements from marker Tx to marker To. When you
select the Statistics field, it toggles between On and Off. The default
selection for the Statistics field is On.
On
When Statistics is set to On, the minimum, maximum, and mean
(average) Tx to To marker time interval data is accumulated and
displayed to the right of the T Markers field until one of the following
happens:
•
Auto is deselected as the time marker option.
•
Auto-marker parameters are changed.
•
Statistics is set to Off.
•
Run Repetitive mode is stopped.
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Using the Oscilloscope
The Scope Marker Menu
Off
When Statistics is set to Off, the Tx to To, Trig to X, and Trig to O fields
appear next to the T Markers field on the Marker menu.
The marker statistics (minimum, maximum, and mean) are reset to
zero only when you select the Done field on the auto-markers pop-up
after making a change to one of the auto-marker placement
specification fields (Set On, Type, Level, Slope, or Occur).
Other oscilloscope menu changes do not reset marker statistics, but
may have an impact on the values computed for the marker statistics.
Run Until Time X-O field
This field allows you to set up a stop condition for the time interval
between the Tx marker and To marker. When the stop condition is met,
the oscilloscope stops making acquisitions and displays the message
"Stop condition satisfied." You define the stop conditions with
selections you make after you select the Run Until Time X-O field. The
default selection for this field is Off.
The Run Until Time X-O feature is only valid if the Run field is set to
Repetitive.
Less Than field
When you select this field from the pop-up, a time value field appears
next to the Run Until Time X-O Less Than field. The time value field
default value is 0 seconds.
Resolution is 10 ps up to +/-99.9 ns, and can be set to 5-digit resolution
otherwise. Positive times are used when the Tx marker is displayed
before the To marker, and negative times are used when the To marker
is displayed before the Tx marker.
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Using the Oscilloscope
The Scope Marker Menu
When you select Less Than, the oscilloscope runs until the Tx-To time
interval is less than the value entered for the Less Than time field.
When the condition is met, the oscilloscope stops making acquisitions
and displays the message "Stop condition satisfied."
Greater Than field. When you select this field from the pop-up, a
time value field appears next to the Run Until Time X-O Greater Than
field. The time value field default value is 0 s. When you select the time
value field, you can enter the time in the same manner as for the Less
Than field.
When you select Greater Than, the oscilloscope runs until the Tx-To
time interval is greater than the value entered for the Greater Than
time field. When the condition is met, the oscilloscope stops making
acquisitions and displays the message "Stop condition satisfied."
In Range field. When you select this field from the pop-up, two time
value fields appear next to the Run Until Time X-O In Range field. You
need to enter the time range values for the stop condition in these two
time fields. Select each time value field, in turn, and enter the time
value in the same manner as for the Less Than field.
When you select In Range, the oscilloscope runs until the Tx-To time
interval is in the range of the time values entered for the In Range time
fields. When the condition is met, the oscilloscope stops making
acquisitions and displays the message "Stop condition satisfied."
Not In Range field. When you select this field from the pop-up, two
time value fields appear next to the Run Until Time X-O Not In Range
field. You need to enter the time range values for the stop condition in
these two time fields. Select each time value field, in turn, and enter
the time values in the same manner as for the Less Than field.
When Not In Range is selected, the oscilloscope runs until the Tx-To
time interval is not in the range of the time values entered for the Not
In Range time fields. When the condition is met, the oscilloscope stops
acquisitions and displays the message "Stop condition satisfied."
183
Using the Oscilloscope
The Scope Marker Menu
Manual/Automatic Time Markers option
The manual/automatic combination allows you to have one time marker
set to automatic mode and one time marker set to be controlled
manually with the knob.
Setting the Manual/Automatic Time Markers Option
To set the manual/automatic option, you select the T Markers field and
choose the Auto field from the pop-up. You then select the Set on field
for either the Tx or To marker, and then choose MANUAL from the
pop-up menu.
When you choose Done in the auto-markers pop-up menu, you return
to the waveform display. Now when you select the T Markers field
again and choose On from the pop-up menu, the marker you selected
with the MANUAL field is set to the manual mode and the other marker
is set to fall on the parameters you set while in the automatic mode.
184
Using the Oscilloscope
The Scope Marker Menu
Voltage Markers options
When you select the V Markers field on the display, a pop-up menu
appears. When you select the On field in the pop-up to turn Voltage
Markers On, you can manually move the Va and Vb markers to make
voltage measurements.
When you select the On field in the V Markers menu, five new fields
appear to the right of the V Markers field: Va On, Va Volts, Vb On, Vb
Volts, and Va to Vb fields. These fields allow you to position the Va
marker and the Vb marker by entering channel numbers and voltage
levels for these markers.
If you turn the voltage markers on while the time markers are also
turned on, the voltage levels that correspond to the time marker
waveform crossings will be deleted from the channel label field. If you
turn the voltage markers off while the time markers are turned on, the
voltage levels that correspond to the time marker waveform crossings
will appear in the channel label field.
Va On field
The Va marker is shown on the waveform display as a horizontal
dashed line.
The Va On field assigns the Va marker to one of the oscilloscope
acquisition channels. The default channel is channel 1.
The channel selected for assignment to the Va marker does not have to
be displayed in the waveform area. If the selected waveform is not in
the waveform area of the screen, the Va marker will not be displayed. If
there are multiple occurrences of the selected waveform in the
waveform area of the screen, only the uppermost occurrence of the
waveform will display the Va marker.
185
Using the Oscilloscope
The Scope Marker Menu
Overlay and waveform math traces cannot be selected for voltage
marker placement.
The Vb On field works similarly.
Va Volts field
The Va marker is shown on the waveform display as a horizontal
dashed line. The voltage displayed in the Va Volts field is measured
relative to the zero-volt reference for this channel.
When you select the Va Volts field, you can change the voltage value by
turning the knob or by entering a voltage value from the pop-up
keypad. The range of voltage levels for the Va Volts field is +/-2 times
maximum range for the selected channel. The maximum range value is
affected by the probe factor and v/div settings.
The Vb Volts field works similarly.
Va to Vb field
This field displays the difference between the Va and Vb markers. This
value is dependent on channel selections and represents Vb minus Va.
Center Screen Field
The Center Screen field appears on the right side of the Marker menu.
The Center Screen field centers the screen on the chosen timebase
marker.
If time markers are turned off, the only marker choice available on the
Center screen pop-up will be the trigger marker. If time markers are
turned on, the Tx and To markers will also appear in the Center Screen
pop-up menu. If the auto time markers are enabled, only the trigger
marker appears in the Center Screen pop-up menu.
186
Using the Oscilloscope
The Scope Marker Menu
Selecting one of the possible time markers for centering the waveform
data will cause the timebase delay value to be changed such that the
selected marker is positioned at the center of the screen. All
acquisition channels are shifted when the trace data is centered. The
timebase delay field value will be updated when the centering
operation is performed.
V Marker value display
Any time the markers (either voltage and/or time) are turned on, the
current marker settings may be displayed on the channel, trigger,
display and auto-measure menus by using the Display Options field
located to the right of the timebase Delay field. The Display Options
field provides a pop-up menu that allows you to either select channel
labels or to view the Sample Period display or the Marker Value display.
The Marker Value display consists of two blocks. One contains settings
for the voltage markers, the second contains settings for the time
markers. If only one set of markers is turned on, only one of the two
blocks will appear on the screen.
On the marker menu, if time markers are turned off, the Sample Period
display will appear on the marker menu. If time markers are selected as
either On or Auto, the Sample Period display is not visible on the
Marker menu.
The Display Options field never appears on the Marker menu.
Channel Label field
The channel label field is the field to the left of the waveform display.
When you turn time markers on with voltage markers off, the voltage
values where the Tx and To markers intersect each waveform are
displayed under each channel label.
187
Using the Oscilloscope
The Scope Auto Measure Menu
The Scope Auto Measure Menu
One of the primary features of the oscilloscope is its ability to make
parametric measurements on displayed waveforms. This section
provides details on how automatic measurements are performed and
gives some tips on how to improve automatic measurement results.
There are nine automatic measurements available in the automatic
measurement menu:
Period
Frequency
Vp_p
Risetime
+Width
Preshoot
Falltime
-Width
Overshoot
There are two Automatic-Measurement fields. They are the Input field
and the actual automatic measurement display. These fields are
discussed in the following paragraphs.
Input field
The Input field allows you to select the source of the waveform to be
measured. When you select this field, a pop-up menu appears which
shows the input sources. Make sure the proper source is selected for
the input you are using.
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Using the Oscilloscope
The Scope Auto Measure Menu
Automatic measurements display
The large field in the middle row of the menu is called the automatic
measurements display. This display shows the nine automatic
measurements and their values.
See Also
"Automatic Measurement Algorithms" on page 191 for an explanation
of each of these fields.
Measurement setup requirements
Measurements typically should be made at the fastest possible sweep
speed in order to obtain the most accurate measurement possible. You
can only make automatic measurements with data that is currently
being displayed in the waveform display area. Keep the following in
mind when making measurements:
•
At least one full cycle of the waveform, with at least two like edges, must
be displayed for Period and Freq measurements.
•
A complete positive pulse must be displayed to make a +Width
measurement.
•
A complete negative pulse must be displayed to make a -Width
measurement.
•
The leading (rising) edge of the waveform must be displayed for Risetime,
and rising edge Preshoot and Overshoot measurements.
•
The trailing (falling) edge of the waveform must be displayed for Falltime,
and falling edge Preshoot and Overshoot measurements.
•
Risetime, Falltime, Preshoot, and Overshoot measurements will be more
accurate if you expand the edge of the waveform by selecting a faster
sweep speed.
•
If the signal is clipped, the automatic measurements cannot be made.
189
Using the Oscilloscope
The Scope Auto Measure Menu
Criteria used for making automatic measurements
If more than one waveform, edge, or pulse is displayed, the
measurements are made on the first (leftmost) portion of the displayed
waveform that can be used. When any of the defined measurements are
requested, the oscilloscope first determines the top (100%) and base
(0%) voltages of the waveform. From this information, it can determine
the other important voltage values (10% voltage, 90% voltage, and 50%
voltage) required to make the measurements. The 10% and 90%
voltage values are used in the rise time and fall time measurements.
The 50% voltage value is used for measuring frequency, period, and
pulse width.
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Using the Oscilloscope
The Scope Auto Measure Menu
Automatic measurement algorithms
The following explains top and base voltages, then defines the
measurement algorithms.
Top and base voltages
All measurements except Vp_p are calculated using the Vtop (100%
voltage) and Vbase (0% voltage) levels of the displayed waveform. The
Vtop and Vbase levels are determined from an occurrence density
histogram of the data points displayed on the screen.
The digitizing oscilloscope displays 8-bit vertical voltage resolution. In
other words, the vertical axis of the display is divided into 28 voltage
levels. Each of these 256 levels is called a quantization level. Each
waveform has at least 500 data points displayed on the horizontal axis
of the screen. Each of these data points has one quantization level
assigned to it. The histogram is calculated by adding the number of
occurrences of each quantization level of all displayed points on the
displayed waveform.
The quantization level with the greatest number of occurrences in the
top half of the waveform corresponds to the Vtop level. The
quantization level with the greatest number of occurrences in the
bottom half of the waveform corresponds to the Vbase level.
If Vtop and Vbase do not contain at least 5% of the 500 data points
displayed on screen, Vtop defaults to the maximum voltage
(Vmaximum) and Vbase defaults to the minimum voltage (Vminimum)
found on the display. An example of this case would be measurements
made on sine or triangle waves.
From this information, the instrument can determine the 10%, 50%,
and 90% points, which are used in most automatic measurements. The
Vtop or Vbase of the waveform is not necessarily the maximum or
minimum voltage present on the waveform. If a pulse has a slight
amount of overshoot, it would be wrong to select the highest peak of
the waveform as the top because the waveform proper rests below the
perturbation.
191
Using the Oscilloscope
The Scope Auto Measure Menu
Measurement algorithms
Frequency (Freq). The frequency of the first complete cycle
displayed is measured using the 50% levels.
If the first edge on the display is rising, then
1
Freq =
t rising edge 2 - t rising edge 1
If the first edge on the display is falling, then
1
Freq =
t falling edge 2 - t falling edge 1
Period. The period is measured at the 50% voltage level of the
waveform.
If the first edge on the display is rising, then
Period = t rising edge 2 - t rising edge 1
If the first edge on the display is falling, then
Period = t falling edge 2 - t falling edge 1
Peak-to-Peak Voltage (Vp_p). The maximum and minimum voltages
for the selected source are measured:
Vp_p = V maximum - V minimum
where Vmaximum and Vminimum are the maximum and minimum
voltages present on the selected source.
192
Using the Oscilloscope
The Scope Auto Measure Menu
Positive Pulse Width (+Width). Pulse width is measured at the 50%
voltage level.
If the first edge on the display is rising, then
+Width = t falling edge 1 - t rising edge 1
If the first edge on the display is falling, then
+Width = t falling edge 2 - t rising edge 1
Negative Pulse Width (-Width). Negative pulse width is the width
of the first negative pulse on screen using the 50% levels.
If the first edge on the display is rising, then
-Width = t rising edge 2 - t falling edge 1
If the first edge on the display is falling, then
-Width = t rising edge 1 - t falling edge 1
Rise time. The rise time of the first displayed rising edge is measured.
To obtain the best possible measurement accuracy, set the sweep
speed as fast as possible while leaving the full leading edge of the
waveform on the display. The rise time is determined by measuring
time at the 10% and 90% voltage points on the rising edge:
Rise time = t90%-t10%
Fall time. Fall time is measured between the 10% and 90% points of
the falling edge. To obtain the best possible measurement accuracy, set
the sweep speed as fast as possible while leaving the falling edge of the
waveform on the display:
Fall time = t10%-t90%
193
Using the Oscilloscope
The Scope Auto Measure Menu
Preshoot and Overshoot . Preshoot and Overshoot measure the
perturbation on a waveform above or below the top and base voltages
(see the "Top and Base Voltages" section earlier in this chapter). These
measurements use all data displayed on the screen; therefore, it is very
important that only the data of interest be displayed. If you want to
measure preshoot and overshoot on one edge of a waveform, then only
display that edge. If you want to measure the maximum preshoot and
overshoot on a waveform, then display several cycles of the waveform.
Preshoot is a perturbation before a rising or a falling edge and is
measured as a percentage of the top-base voltage.
Overshoot is a perturbation after a rising or a falling edge and it is
measured as a percentage of the top-base voltage.
If the measured edge is rising, then
V base - V minimum )
Preshoot = (------------------------------------------------
× 100
( Vmaximum - V top )
Overshoot= ----------------------------------------------
× 100
( V top - V base )
and,
( Vtop - V base )
If the measured edge is falling, then
V maximum - V top )
Preshoot= (---------------------------------------------( V top - V base )
× 100
and,
Vbase - V minimum )
Overshoot= (-----------------------------------------------( V top - V base )
194
× 100
8
Using the Pattern Generator
195
Using the Pattern Generator
Using the Pattern Generator
Using the Pattern Generator
This chapter provides instructions for using the pattern generator to
generate vectors and patterns for design and test environments. It also
covers the pattern generator common menus, loading ASCII files, and
the pattern generator probing system.
This chapter covers:
•
Setting up the proper configurations
•
Building test vectors and functions
•
Pattern generator common menus
•
Loading ASCII files
•
Pattern generator probing system
196
Using the Pattern Generator
Setting Up the Proper Configurations
Setting Up the Proper Configurations
This section discusses setting up the configuration attributes and
parameters of the pattern generator.
If you are reloading existing configurations or downloading ASCII
vector files, refer to the Load operation in the disk drive menus of the
System.
To set up the configuration
1 From the Format menu, set the Vector Output Mode to either
full- or half-channel.
Make this selection first because clock frequencies and available
channels are affected.
In half-channel mode, only pods 1 and 3 are used.
2 Set the Clock Source to either internal or external.
An external clock is used when you need a clock frequency that is not
available internally, or if you need to drive the pattern generator timing
with an external reference.
3 Set the Clock Period for an internal clock or the Clock Frequency
for an external clock.
The external clock frequency information is required to select the
appropriate operating mode. Operating the pattern generator at an
external clock frequency higher than selected will result in erroneous
operation.
197
Using the Pattern Generator
Setting Up the Proper Configurations
4 Set the Clock Out Delay if a delay is needed.
Setting a delay is useful when using the clock out edge as a read strobe.
If you do not set the Clock Out Delay, the value is uncalibrated.
198
Using the Pattern Generator
Setting Up the Proper Configurations
To build a label
When you build a label, you are grouping channels under a label name
and mapping the selected channels to the probes on the associated
pods. A label may contain a maximum of 32 channels, however, a single
channel cannot be used under more than one label.
1 Select the label's channel assignment field.
2 Select the desired channels.
* (asterisk) = on
. (period) = off
Only the selected channels can output pattern generator signals.
3 Select Done.
199
Using the Pattern Generator
Building Test Vectors and Functions
Building Test Vectors and Functions
Once the pattern generator is configured, you will want to build
programs to use in your test system. You build programs in the
Sequence menu. If you have small program segments that are built
from frequently used vectors, they can be built in the User Macros
Sequence menu.
200
Using the Pattern Generator
Building Test Vectors and Functions
To build a main vector sequence
During a single run, the program vectors in the MAIN SEQUENCE are
output to the system under test in an order of first vector to last vector.
The data of the last vector is then held until run is selected again.
During a repetitive run, the MAIN SEQUENCE loops until stop is
selected.
1 From the Sequence menu, use the knob to highlight the first data
row.
2 Select the Insert field once for each line of vectors you want
inserted into the main sequence.
These new lines of vectors provide fields to place data into for each
label.
3 Select the data field, then type in a data value.
If you will be adding data in many fields, use the Autoroll feature. Refer
to "To use Autoroll" on page 217.
201
Using the Pattern Generator
Building Test Vectors and Functions
To build an initialization sequence
Use the INIT SEQUENCE to place the system under test into a known
initialization state. Default start and end program vectors are marked
INIT SEQUENCE START and INIT SEQUENCE END. During a
repetitive run, the initialization sequence is only executed the first time
the program is run. The main sequence then loops repetitively.
1 From the Sequence menu, use the knob to highlight INIT
SEQUENCE START.
2 Select the Insert field once for each new line of vectors you want
inserted into the initialization sequence.
These new lines of vectors provide fields to place data into for each
label.
3 Select the data field, then type in a data value.
If you are adding data in many fields, use the Autoroll feature. Refer to
"To use Autoroll" on page 217.
202
Using the Pattern Generator
Building Test Vectors and Functions
To edit a main or initialization sequence
1 Using the knob, highlight the vector you want to edit.
2 Select the data field you want to edit.
3 Select the new instruction or change the data value.
203
Using the Pattern Generator
Building Test Vectors and Functions
To include hardware instructions in a sequence
The following hardware instruction types are available:
•
Break
•
Signal IMB
•
Wait Event
•
If Event
1 Highlight the vector that you want to output as a hardware
instruction.
2 Select the INST field of the highlighted vector.
3 Select the desired hardware instruction type.
4 If required, select any qualifying actions for the hardware
instruction.
204
Using the Pattern Generator
Building Test Vectors and Functions
To include software instructions in a sequence
The following software instructions are available:
•
User Macro
•
Repeat Loop
If you are inserting a User Macro and have not yet built the function, go
to "To build a user macro" later in this chapter. Functions must be built
before they can be inserted. To include these instructions in a
sequence, use the following procedure.
1 Highlight the vector that will be output at the time of the
instruction.
2 Select the INST field.
3 Select the desired software instruction to insert.
4 If required, select any qualifying actions for the instruction.
205
Using the Pattern Generator
Building Test Vectors and Functions
To include a user macro in a sequence
If you have user macros, you can include them in the vector sequence
using the following procedure. (If you have not yet built user macros,
turn to "To build a user macro" to build needed functions.)
1 Insert a new vector where you want to place the user macro.
2 Highlight this new vector using the knob, then select the INST
field.
3 Select the User Macro field.
4 Select the user macro you want to insert from the list provided in
the pop-up.
206
Using the Pattern Generator
Building Test Vectors and Functions
To build a user macro
Build functions for sequences of vectors you will want to use in
multiple places. You can then insert these functions in INIT or MAIN
sequences. Give each function a name that will help you identify its
function and make it easier to select from the list of functions you've
built.
1 From the User Macros menu, select the Add/Del Function field,
then select ADD FUNCTION.
2 Select the FUNCTION field, then type the new function name.
3 Add any desired parameters.
Parameters are set when they are inserted into MAIN or INIT
sequences. For more information on adding parameters, refer to
"Adding parameters" found later in this chapter.
4 Select the Insert field to add as many vectors as needed into the
function.
5 Highlight the desired vector to modify.
6 Highlight a data field and insert the appropriate data.
207
Using the Pattern Generator
Building Test Vectors and Functions
To modify a function name
If you rename a function, the new function name will be displayed in
INIT and MAIN sequences where the function has been used.
1 Select the function to be renamed from the list of functions.
2 Highlight the first line of the function, then select the field.
3 Modify the function name, then select Done.
To edit a function
1 Highlight the vector you want to edit using the knob.
2 Select the field you want to edit.
3 Select the new instruction or change the data values using the
pop-up or front panel.
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Using the Pattern Generator
Building Test Vectors and Functions
To add, delete, or rename parameters
Parameters are set when they are inserted into MAIN or INIT
sequences. The changes you make in the parameter list will appear
every place in the INIT or MAIN sequences in which you have used that
function.
1 From the User Macros menu, select a function from the list of
functions.
2 Highlight the first line of the function, then select the field.
3 To add a parameter, select Add Parameter, then select the new
parameter field that appears and rename the parameter.
4 To delete a parameter from the parameter list, select a parameter
name, then select Delete Parameter.
209
Using the Pattern Generator
Building Test Vectors and Functions
To place parameters in a vector
Once parameters are added to the parameter list, you insert them into
data fields in function vectors.
1 From the User Macro menu, select the desired data field in a
vector.
2 Select the Set Param field. From the parameter list that appears,
select the desired parameter to insert.
210
Using the Pattern Generator
Building Test Vectors and Functions
To enter or modify parameters
Each time you include a function in an initialization or main sequence,
you should enter the parameters for that particular instance. To enter
or modify function parameters, use the following procedure.
1 From the Sequence menu, highlight the line which contains the
function name, then select the field.
2 Enter or modify the parameter in the pop-up menu.
3 Select Done.
211
Using the Pattern Generator
Building Test Vectors and Functions
To build a User Symbol Table
You may want to build a symbol table to make inserting values into your
program easier. You can name a symbol for one value in a label and
insert that symbol into your vector sequence where you need it.
1 From the Format menu, select the Symbols field at the right of
the menu.
2 Set the desired Label, Base, and Symbol Width.
Symbols are specific for a given label. Symbol width determines the
width of the symbolic name displayed in the Sequence menu.
3 Select the Symbol field, then enter a name for the symbol.
4 Select the desired symbol Type, then enter the Pattern/Start and
Stop values.
The type is either a pattern or a range. A range provides a symbolic
method for defining values within a specified range.
5 If you want to add more symbols, select the Symbol field. Then
select Add a Symbol, and repeat steps 2 through 4.
6 Select Done.
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Using the Pattern Generator
Building Test Vectors and Functions
To include symbols in a sequence
Symbols must be created before they become available for insertion.
See the task on the preceding page for more information.
1 From the Sequence menu, select the Base field under the desired
label where you want a symbol used.
2 From the Base selection list, select Symbol.
3 Highlight the desired vector, then select the data field.
4 Select the desired predefined symbol name.
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To include symbols in a function
In the Format menu, you assign symbols to data under a given label.
Once assigned, these symbols can be included under the same label in
a function.
1 From the User Macros menu, select the label Base field for any
label that has pre-assigned symbols. Then, select Symbol from
the Base selection list.
2 Highlight any vector in the function. Then, select the data field
under the label that has the pre-assigned symbol.
3 Select the symbol name you want displayed.
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To store a configuration
Once you have completed configuring the pattern generator, you can
save that configuration to hard disk for future uses.
1 From the System menu, select Configuration.
2 Select Hard Disk.
3 Select the Store operation, then Patt Gen.
4 Select the to file field and type a name for the file.
5 Select the file description field and type in a description if
desired.
6 Select Execute.
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To load a configuration
1 From the System menu, select Configuration.
2 Select Hard Disk.
3 Select the Load operation, then Patt Gen.
4 Highlight the file to be loaded by rotating the knob.
5 Select Execute.
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To use Autoroll
When Autoroll is used, each time you complete the process of adding
data to a data field, the data entry focus changes to the next specified
data field. The data entry keypad remains active, ready to define the
next data field.
The following procedure shows you how to use Autoroll:
1 Select the first data field to define.
2 Enter the desired data using the pop-up keypad.
3 Select the Autoroll Off field, then select the desired roll
direction.
4 As you continue to enter data and select Done, the data field
focus rolls to the next data field automatically.
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The Format Menu
The Format menu lets you configure the pattern generator with a clock
source and parameters, generate a symbol table, select its output
mode, assign which vector output channels are used, and then group
and label the vector output channels.
Format Menu
Clock Source
The Clock Source field toggles between internal and external. The
internal clock source is supplied by the pattern generator and controls
the frequency the vectors are output to the system under test.
The external clock is provided by you, or the system under test, and is
input to the pattern generator through the CLK IN probe of a clock
pod. By using an external clock, you synchronize the vector output of
the pattern generator to the system under test.
Regardless of which clock is selected, vectors are output on the rising
edge of the clock.
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Clock Period (internal clock source)
This field toggles from Clock Period, when an internal clock source is
selected, to Clock Frequency, when an external clock source is
selected.
You select clock periods in steps of 1, 2, 2.5, 4, 5, 8, and 10. If the
keypad is used to select a value between the step intervals, the value is
rounded to the nearest interval.
The minimum clock period available with Vector Output Mode at Full
Channel 100 Mbit/s is 10 ns. The minimum clock period available with
Vector Output Mode at Half Channel 200 Mbit/s is 5 ns. Maximum clock
period for either mode is 250 ms.
Clock Frequency (external clock source)
This field toggles from Clock Frequency, when an external clock source
is selected, to Clock Period, when an internal clock source is selected.
Set the clock frequency range to match the frequency of the external
clock source.
If the Vector Output Mode is Full Channel 100 Mbit/s, you are offered
two clock frequency ranges:
•
Less than 50 MHz
•
Between 50 MHz and 100 MHz
If the Vector Output Mode is Half Channel 200 Mbit/s, you are offered
three clock frequency ranges:
NOTE:
•
Less than 50 MHz
•
Between 50 MHz and 100 MHz
•
Greater than 100 MHz
If the external clock is faster than the frequency range selected, the pattern
generator will produce erroneous output vectors.
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Clock Out Delay
The Clock Out Delay setting allows you to position the output clock
with respect to data. The zero setting is uncalibrated and should be
measured to determine the initial position with respect to the data.
Each numerical change of one on the counter results in an approximate
change of 1.3 ns.
Symbols
Touching the Symbols field brings up a pop-up menu that lets you build
a symbol table to use when putting data into the Sequence and User
Macros menus. Providing symbol names to frequently used values lets
you enter the values more easily and recognize these values by their
symbol name rather than having to remember data values.
Vector Output Mode
The Vector Output Mode determines the channel width, available pods,
and the frequency range for both the internal and external clock. The
following table shows the difference between the Full Channel 100
MBits/s mode and the Half Channel 200 MBits/s mode.
Full Channel
100 MBits/s
Half Channel
200 MBits/s
Pods Available
Pods 1, 2, 3, 4
Pods 1, 3
Maximum Channels
32; eight per
pod
16; eight on pods
1, 3
Maximum External Clock
Frequency
100 MHz
200 MHz
Maximum Internal Clock
Frequency
100 MHz
200 MHz
Minimum External Clock
Frequency
DC
DC
Minimum Internal Clock
Frequency
4 kHz
4 kHz
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Labels
Labels let the user group output channels from the data pods into a
more logical configuration for creating vector data. The pattern
generator labels work in the same fashion as the labels for the logic
analyzer products, with the exception that an output channel cannot
be assigned to more than one label.
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The Sequence Menu
Use the Sequence menu to build your test vector files. There are two
sequences, an initialization sequence and a main sequence.
In single run mode, the vectors are output from the first vector in the
initialization sequence to the last vector of the main sequence. The last
vector of the main sequence will be held at the outputs until run is
executed again.
In repetitive run mode, the vectors in the initialization sequence will be
output from first to last one time, then the main sequence will
repetitively output the vectors in the sequence until the stop field is
pressed. The vector being output when stop is acknowledged by the
module will be held at the outputs until run is executed again.
The initialization sequence can be empty in which case it will be
ignored. The main sequence must contain at least two vectors to
output.
Sequence Menu
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INIT and MAIN Sequences
Use the knob to highlight individual lines in either vector sequences.
When a line is highlighted, you can add data lines below it by selecting
the Insert field. Selecting the INST field brings up a dialog box that lets
you insert one of the instructions or user macros into the vector
sequence.
An instruction is not allowed on the following vector lines of the
sequence:
•
The first vector of the INIT sequence.
•
The first vector of the MAIN sequence.
•
The last vector of the MAIN sequence.
•
The vector prior to the IF block.
•
The first vector of the IF block.
•
The last vector of the IF block.
•
The vector following the IF block.
It should be noted that with the Vector Output Mode of Half Channel
200 Mbit/s, the INIT sequence must contain a number of vectors that is
divisible by four. If this is not the case, the first vector of the INIT
sequence is duplicated to create the correct number of vectors.
With the Vector Output Mode of Full Channel 100 Mbit/s and vector
frequencies greater than 50 MHz, the INIT sequence must contain an
even number of vectors. Again, if this is not the case, the first vector of
the INIT sequence is duplicated to create the correct number of
vectors.
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Step
Use the Step field to step through your vector sequence to debug a
critical set of vectors following a break instruction in the program
sequence. Stepping will begin at the vector following the break
instruction, or the Output First State item can be pressed which will
place the first vector of the sequence on the outputs. Stepping will
then begin on the second vector of the sequence. When the last vector
of the main sequence is encountered while stepping, the next step
command places the first vector of the main sequence on the outputs.
When stepping through a sequence, breaks are ignored while valid
branch and wait conditions are executed.
The Step Count Field
The Step Count field lets you set the number of steps to be executed,
to a maximum of 100,000. The Output First State field reloads the
hardware if necessary and places the first vector of the sequence on
the outputs. The Resume field closes the Step pop-up menu and
restarts the hardware without changing the previous run mode.
Execution resumes from the point at which the sequence was stopped.
Delete
The Delete field lets you delete sequence lines. The From and To fields
in the Delete pop-up menu lets you select line numbers with either the
knob or another pop-up menu that appears when the From and To
fields are selected twice.
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When deleting vector rows, the INIT START, INIT END, MAIN START,
and MAIN END cannot be deleted. Deleting all the vector rows from
INIT START to MAIN END will reset the sequence to the powerup
state. The deletion will not be performed if the results of the delete
operation will place fewer than two vectors in the main sequence, or, if
the delete operation will place an instruction on any of the following
vectors:
•
The first vector of the INIT sequence.
•
The first vector of the MAIN sequence.
•
The last vector of the MAIN sequence.
•
The vector prior to the IF block.
•
The first vector of the IF block.
•
The last vector of the IF block.
•
The vector following the IF block.
Merge
Selecting the Merge field brings up a pop-up menu that lets you select
sections of a previously created configuration file to merge after the
current line in the sequence. The Input Drive field selects between the
hard disk or the front floppy disk (if present). The Filename field
displays a file browser pop-up menu that allows searching for the file to
be used in the merge. The Merge Section field lets you select the
section of the configuration to be merged. Configuration sections
consist of the main sequence and any functions that were created. The
merge will not be performed in the following cases:
•
Merge data exceeds the maximum number of sequence lines.
•
Merge data requires more repeats than are available.
•
Merge data requires more function calls than are available.
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Merge is not allowed in the following cases:
•
Within a repeat loop.
•
Within an IF block (starting with the vector prior to the if, and ending with
the vector following the IF).
•
Between the start and first vector of the main sequence.
•
After the last vector of the main sequence.
•
Between the init and main sequence.
•
Between the start and first vector of the init sequence.
•
Within an empty init sequence (insert one vector in the init and merge
after that vector).
Copy
Selecting the Copy field brings up a pop-up menu that lets you select
vector sequence lines to be copied and a location to insert them. The
values in the Start, End, and Copy After fields can be selected with the
knob or with the pop-up keypad that appears when the appropriate
field is selected twice.
Copy will not be performed if you run out of function calls (1000) or
repeats (1000). Copy will not be allowed if the result of the copy places
an instruction on one of the following vectors:
•
The first vector of the INIT sequence.
•
The first vector of the MAIN sequence.
•
The last vector of the MAIN sequence.
•
The vector prior to the IF block.
•
The first vector of the IF block.
•
The last vector of the IF block.
•
The vector following the IF block.
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Insert
Selecting the Insert field adds another instruction line immediately
below the line that is currently highlighted.
Instructions
User Macro. The User Macro instruction brings up a list of current
user macros you can insert. Functions are inserted at the current line
and expanded at run time.
If the function selected has parameters, a second pop-up menu will be
displayed to allow setting of the passed parameter values. Parameters
are passed as 32 bit values and the most significant bits are truncated
when the data is applied to labels with less than 32 bits.
Once inserted, the passed parameters of a function may be altered by
selecting that function again and changing the data. A function can
only be removed from the sequence by using the delete field.
Repeat Loop. The Repeat Loop instruction inserts the start and end
of a repeat loop using the current vector row as the data. Once the loop
has been created, vectors can be inserted or copied into the loop to
change the size. A repeat loop will be expanded at run time into
individual vectors. The number of repetitions of the loop (maximum
20000) is set when the repeat is first inserted into the sequence and
can be altered by selecting the start of the repeat to get the Repeat
Count pop-up menu. Both the start and end of a repeat loop will be
removed from the sequence if either is included in the delete block.
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Break. The Break instruction causes a break at the current vector. In
single run mode, this instruction halts the sequence and holds the
outputs at the break vector's value. In repetitive run mode, this
instruction pauses the sequence at the current vector momentarily,
then continues.
NOTE:
When operating at 200 MHz you can not have 2 Break events in succession.
This also includes the Wait event.
Signal IMB. The Signal IMB instruction creates a signal for the IMB
bus of the 1670G-series at the current vector, allowing the pattern
generator to trigger the state or timing analyzers. Multiple signal IMB
instructions may be placed in the sequence, but only the first signal
IMB will be executed.
Wait Event. The Wait Event instruction halts the execution of the
program sequence until the event is received by the hardware.
Selecting this instruction brings up a pop-up menu that lets you set
four data patterns and select one of them or an IMB signal as the event
the pattern generator is waiting for.
An external wait event is the ORing of the three input lines on the clock
pod. The first wait IMB is the only one recognized because IMB does
not allow pulsing.
NOTE:
When operating at 200 MHz you can not have 2 Wait events in succession. This
also includes the Break event.
If Event. The If Event instruction is only available in Full Channel 100
Mbit/s mode with clock frequencies of 50 MHz and lower. Only one If
Event is allowed in a sequence program. If a new if instruction is placed
in a program sequence, a message will appear stating that only one if
instruction is allowed. To add a new if instruction, the old one must be
deleted.
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The If event uses either the IMB or the same external clock pod input
lines as the Wait event. If the condition is true at the If event, then the
data in the If block is output, otherwise it is skipped.
The If event takes the current data line and duplicates as in the
following example:
These vectors are now restricted. They cannot have instructions.
Delete and Copy operations that result in instructions being placed on
these vectors will not be allowed. The If can be removed by deleting
either the start or end of the If block.
current data
IF
current data
current data
END IF
current data
These vectors are now restricted. They cannot have instructions.
Delete and Copy operations that result in instructions being placed on
these vectors will not be allowed. The If can be removed by deleting
either the start or end of the If block.
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Data Field
Selecting the data field to the right of the instruction field lets you
insert vector data. ASCII-based data cannot be edited, and ASCII- and
Symbols-based data cannot be autorolled.
Autoroll
The Autoroll field is provided to reduce the number of keystrokes
required to enter data into the sequence or a function. When a data
field is edited (except in the last vector row), the Autoroll field appears
to the left of the data entry pop-up menu. Autoroll can move from left
to right across the labels on the display with an automatic line feed, or
it can move down a label from vector row to row. When the last vector
row of the sequence is encountered, Autoroll will stop the editing
process, or the Autoroll can be halted at any point in the editing
process by turning the autoroll function off.
Memory Used
The MEMORY USED bar shows in percent how much memory is being
used by the vector sequence entered. It should be noted that Repeat
Loops and User Macros may suddenly increase the amount of memory
used because they are expanded at run time. It is critical to use the
MEMORY USED bar to obtain an idea of how much memory will be
needed at run time.
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The User Macros Menu
The User Macros menu is used to create new functions and edit
existing functions. Function 0 is the default function and always exists.
Functions let you define a pattern sequence once, then insert the
function by name wherever it is needed.
Functions can also have parameters passed to them. Parameters let
you create a generic function. For each instance of a function, you
specify unique values for the parameterized variable. Each function
can have a maximum of 10 parameters. A maximum of 100 different
functions can be defined for use in a single stimulus program.
Differences between User Macros and the INIT and MAIN sequences
are that functions cannot use the If instruction, and a function cannot
call another function.
The User Macros Menu
This section only covers the two unique fields in the User Macros menu
and using parameters. For information about other fields in this menu,
refer to the discussion of these fields in the previous section on the
Sequence Menu.
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Function 0 (current function field)
Touching this field brings up a list of functions that have been created
and are available to insert into the Sequence menu. If you want to edit
or view a previously built function, select that function from the list
and it will appear in the main part of the display.
Add/Delete Function
Selecting this field brings up a pop-up menu that lets you choose
between adding a new function or deleting one. If you select Add
Function, a new blank function appears in the display with a new
Function "n" name.
To rename the new function, select the function name field, and in the
pop-up menu that appears, type in a new name. You can also add
parameters to the new function in the same pop-up menu. For more
information on parameters, refer to "Using Parameters" below.
If you select Delete Function, you will be presented with a list of
current functions. Select the function you want to delete from the list.
If the function you delete is being used in the MAIN sequence, it will be
removed from the sequence. If you try to delete the first function, it
will be removed from the MAIN sequence but not from the function list.
Using Parameters
Parameters are used to pass values into functions. A major benefit in
passing parameters is that you keep a function's functionality generic
and still direct specific action identified by parameters. Think of
parameters as the only part of a function that changes as the function
is reused. You create the function and add parameters to the function
in the User Macro menu. You then insert the function and assign
parameter values in the Sequence menu. As you reuse the function in
other places in the sequence, simply change parameter values to the
new specific values.
Function parameters are passed as 32-bit values. If fewer than 32 bits
are assigned to a label in the Format menu, the most significant bits of
the parameter value are truncated when the parameter is used as data
for the given label.
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Loading ASCII Files
Loading ASCII Files
You can create pattern generator files and load them as ASCII files
using one of the remote communication interfaces or by loading an
ASCII disk file.
Regardless of the load method selected, the general format of the file
must conform to certain guidelines. In general, an ASCII file consists of
a block of setup information (clock specs, labels, etc.) followed by a
block of pattern generator data.
There are a few minor differences between the format required for a
communication download and that of a disk file load.
Disk files are loaded into the pattern generator using the LOAD
command on the disk menu.
Some general restrictions are:
•
Data is assumed to be entirely hexadecimal base.
•
No instructions are allowed in the data.
•
No functions are defined or invoked in the data.
•
All labels consist of adjacent bits.
A special "ASCII 000000" string is required to uniquely identify an
ASCII disk file. This string cannot be used when loading ASCII files
using one of the remote communication interfaces. This line must be
the first line of the disk file. It consists of 5 blanks and 6 zeros.
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ASCII File Commands
ASCII File Commands
In addition to the unique ASCII file commands described here, you may
want to include some standard FORMat commands in the ASCII file,
such as those that are used to specify the clock or output mode.
The only FORMat commands that are permitted are FORMat: MODe,
CLOCk, and DELay. Refer to the command descriptions in this chapter
for the syntax of these commands.
Note that there is no section header prefix for these ASCII file
command strings.
Refer to the example programs at the end of this chapter for usage
examples of the various commands described in this chapter.
ASCDown Command
Command
ASCDown
The ASCDown command is used to signal the start of an ASCII file load.
It causes the current pattern generator label and sequence structures
to be cleared and reset to a default state.
The ASCDown command must precede any label definitions and the
data portion of an ASCII file load.
Example
ASCDown
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ASCII File Commands
LABel
Command
LABel <name_str>,<width>
<name_str> label string, six characters maximum in length.
<width>
integer number of bits in the label (1 through 32).
The LABel command is a special means of specifying labels for use by
an ASCII file. The label bits are assigned from most to least significant
bits across the output pods. Labels may only contain adjacent bits. The
user must specify the label string and the width of the field. The label
base is hexadecimal.
There is a maximum of 126 labels. No label may be more than 32 bits
wide. If a label is too wide (too many bits) for the remaining unused
pattern generator bits, it will be discarded. Use of the FORMat:LABel
command after the ASCDown command will generate an error.
Example
LABel 'TEST1',7
LABel 'ADDR',13
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VECTor
Command
<char_count>
VECTor <char_count>
a ten character string starting with a '#8' and including the total file
size count.
The VECTor command is used after the end of the header/setup
commands to signal the start of the actual pattern generator data in an
ASCII file.
The VECTor command is used with a parameter that specifies the
exact byte count of the data block. This count must include all data
characters, all blank characters, and all line termination (DOS cr/lf or
UNIX cr) characters. The file character count is the sole criteria used
to determine when the bus file transfer is complete. If a disk file is
used, the character count has no meaning and can be any value or
deleted from the command string.
If the file character count does not match the actual data byte count of
the file, an error condition will occur. If the actual data count exceeds
the byte count passed in with the VECTor command, excess data will
be lost (and treated as remote control bus command(s)). If the actual
data count is less than the data count passed in with the VECTor
command, the bus transfer will appear to hang while the
1670G-series system waits for the 'remaining' data. The controller
sending the file may, or may not, time-out and terminate the bus
transfer. Generally, recovery from this condition involves sending more
data until the data byte count is satisfied.
The file character count is contained in a string with a specific format.
The actual count is right justified in a ten-character string that starts
with a '#8' followed by eight digits. These ten characters are NOT part
of the file character count.
The following page shows an example of this.
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ASCII File Commands
No data is allowed in the same line as the VECTor command. The line
termination in the VECTor command line is included in the character
count for the file.
The <char_count> field is not required as part of the VECTor command
when creating a disk file, and will be ignored if included.
Example
VECTor #800010457
Vector Data
The data portion of the ASCII file is basically an array of hexadecimal
data fields. Each row of the array corresponds to a single line of the
main program. Each column of the array corresponds to a single label
as defined on the format menu.
Data fields are separated by one or more blank characters. A line
termination (carriage return or carriage return + line feed) signals the
end of a line and the start of a new line. If a data field has more data
than the label width would indicate, only the least significant bits of the
data field are used. If there are more data fields in a row than there are
labels, the extra data fields (last data fields in the row) are ignored. If
there are fewer data fields in a row than there are labels, the data for
the extra (right-most) labels will be zero.
Data lines consisting of only line termination characters are ignored.
The MAIN SEQUENCE must have at least two data lines. In the ASCII
data file, a row consisting of only '*M' is used to signal the start of the
main sequence. If there is to be no data in the init sequence, the first
row of the file after the VECTor command must be '*M'. Note that the
quotes in '*M' are not really in the file. The line termination after the
'*M' (as well as the '*M') must be included in the character count for a
file loaded using a remote bus.
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ASCII File Commands
Any characters that are not valid hexadecimal digits (0 through 9, or
upper/lower case a through f) are ignored and treated as field
separators. This could cause problems if a typo appears in the middle
of a data value (for example, '12R4' will be assigned to two labels as '12'
and '4').
The last data row of the file must end with a line termination as this is
the flag to load the data row into the data structure. Failure to do this
will result in a short main program.
When counting file characters be aware of how a particular file
generator (editor) terminates a line. DOS-based systems use two
characters. Be sure to account for line termination character(s) in the
overall file character count.
The ASCII file load mechanism assumes correctness in the data file and
any header commands. Error handling is rather basic, and treating
unexpected characters as field separators could create bizarre results
when parsing the file. Error messages point to the line number where
the parser thinks the error occurred, but the line count may not be
exact because of parsing problems with the data.
When using a LAN interface to send ASCII data, an extra line feed <lf>
is required at the end of the file. This <lf> is NOT included in the
<char_count> value. It is required to ensure the data buffer is flushed.
Serious problems will cause the default main program to be loaded in
an effort to avoid locking up the 1670G-series system.
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ASCII File Commands
FORMat:xxx
Command
FORMat:MODE
FORMat:CLOCk
FORMat:DELay
These commands transfer set fields from the Format menu. The
existing clock scheme is used if nothing is specified here. Command
syntax is same as normal bus commands.
Examples
FORMat:MODE FULL
FORMat:CLOCk INT,5E-9
FORMat:DELay 1E-9
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Loading an ASCII file over a bus (example)
To load an ASCII file over the bus use the following example. A few
items to be noted:
•
Line numbers are added for documentation only and are NOT part of the
actual remote bus commands.
•
In this example, the string '<lf>' is a generic line feed sequence and counts
as a single character.
010 SELect <slot><lf>
020 ASCDOWN<lf>
030 FORM:MODE FULL<lf>
040
041
042
043
044
LABEL
LABEL
LABEL
LABEL
LABEL
050
060
070
080
090
100
110
120
VECT #800000092<lf>
12 34 56 7 89A<lf>
0 22 7 0 FFF<lf>
A0 33 00 1 111<lf>
*M<lf>
92 6F 00 1 FF0<lf>
CA CA 00 1 00F<lf>
00 10 11 0 ABC<lf>
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'LAB1',8<lf>
'DATA',8<lf>
'TEST',9<lf>
'CLK',3<lf>
'BIG',12<lf>
Using the Pattern Generator
ASCII File Commands
Notes
•
Lines 010 through 044 can be sent as discrete remote control commands
or included in a single file (with the data) and loaded using the bus.
•
Other format commands could be used in place of or in addition to line
030.
•
The label sequence seen in lines 040 through 044 will result in a specific bit
assignment. A different ordering of the LABel commands would give a
different ordering to the bits.
•
There is a space before the '#8' in line 050.
•
The character count in line 050 is based on:
•
15 characters (10 digits, 4 blanks, 1 <lf>) each in lines 060, 080, 100,
110, and 120
•
3 characters in line 090
•
13 characters in line 070
•
1 character (the <lf>) in line 050
Format Specification
Clock Source: Internal
Vector Output Mode: Full Channel 100 Mbit/s
Clock Period: 10 ns
Clock Out Delay Setting: 0
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Pattern Generator Probing System
Pod Numbering
The 1670G-series pods are numbered as shown in the figure below.
1670G Pattern Generator Pods
See Also
“Probing” on page 248 for more information on the pattern generator
probing system.
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1670G-Series Logic Analyzer Description
1670G-Series Logic Analyzer Description
The 1670G-series logic analyzers are part of a family of generalpurpose logic analyzers. The 1670G-series consists of four models
ranging in channel width from 34 channels to 136 channels, with 150MHz state and 500-MHz timing speeds. There are two options that
expand the use of the 1670G-series. The oscilloscope option, which is a
2-GSa/s digitizing oscilloscope, and the pattern generator option, which
is a 200 M Vector/s pattern generator.
The 1670G-series logic analyzers are all designed as full-featured
standalone or network-configurable instruments for use by digital and
microprocessor hardware and software designers. All models have
GPIB, RS-232-C, and Centronics interfaces for hard copy printouts and
control by a host computer, and have ethernet LAN interfaces.
Analyzer memory depth is 64K per channel in all pod pair groupings, or
128K per channel on one pod of a pod pair (half-channel mode).
Deeper memory configurations are available as options (see page 92).
Measurement data is displayed as data listings and waveforms, and can
also be plotted on a chart or compared to a reference image. Profiled
data is displayed as histograms of activity by time, state, or address
range using the software performance analysis feature.
The 150-MHz state analyzer has master, master/slave, and
demultiplexed clocking modes available. Measurement data can be
stamped with state or time tags. For triggering and data storage, the
state analyzer uses 12 sequence levels with two-way branching, 10
pattern resource terms, 2 range terms, and 2 timers.
The 250-MHz timing analyzer has conventional timing mode with
variable width, depth, and speed selections. Sequential triggering uses
10 sequence levels with two-way branching, 10 pattern resource terms,
2 range terms, 2 edge terms and 2 timers.
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1670G-Series Logic Analyzer Description
Oscilloscope option
The 2 GSa/s oscilloscope has immediate, edge, and pattern trigger
modes. The pattern trigger mode uses both channels, an occurrence
counter, and a timer for specifying complex patterns. The oscilloscope
also provides statistics and nine automatic measurements. Oscilloscope
memory is 32K samples.
Pattern generator option
The 200 M Vector/s pattern generator has a memory depth of 258,048
vectors with a maximum of 32 channels of digital stimulus.
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1670G-Series Configuration Capabilities
1670G-Series Configuration Capabilities
The four analyzer models in each of the 1670GP-series offer a wide
variety of channel widths and memory depth combinations. The
number of data channels range from 34 channels with the
1673G, to a maximum of 136 channels with the
1670G. In addition, a half-channel acquisition mode is available which
doubles memory depth per channel while reducing channel width by
half.
The configuration guide below illustrates the memory depth/channel
width combinations in all acquisition modes with all analyzer models.
State Analyzer Configurations
Mode
Memory
1670G
1671G
1672G
1673G
Full-channel
150 MHz
65536
(64K)
64K-deep / 136
chan. 132 data +
4 data or clock
64K-deep / 102
chan. 98 data + 4
data or clock
64K-deep / 68
chan. 64 data +4
data or clock
64K-deep / 34
chan. 32 data +
2 data or clock
State Analyzer Configuration Considerations
•
Unused clock channels can be used as data channels.
•
With Time or State tags turned on, memory depth is reduced by half.
However, full depth is retained if you leave one pod pair unassigned.
•
Deeper memory configurations are available as options (see page 92).
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1670G-Series Configuration Capabilities
Timing Analyzer Configurations
Mode
Memory
1670G
1671G
1672G
1673G
Convention
al halfchannel
500 MHz
131072
(128K)
128K-deep / 68
chan. 66 data + 2
data or clock
128K-deep / 51
chan. 49 data + 2
data or clock
128K-deep / 34
chan. 32 data + 2
data or clock
128K-deep / 17
chan. 16 data + 1
data or clock
Convention
al fullchannel
250 MHz
65536
(64K)
64K-deep / 136
chan. 132 data +
4 data or clock
64K-deep / 102
chan. 98 data + 4
data or clock
64K-deep / 68
chan. 64 data + 4
data or clock
64K-deep / 34
chan. 32 data + 2
data or clock
Timing Analyzer Configuration Considerations
•
Unused clock channels can be used as data channels.
•
Edge terms can detect glitches.
•
Deeper memory configurations are available as options (see page 92).
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Probing
Probing
This section discusses the probing system for the logic analyzer. It also
contains the information you need for connecting the probe system
components to each other, to the logic analyzer, to the oscilloscope, to
the pattern generator, and to the system under test.
Probing Options
You can connect the logic analyzer to your system under test in one of
the following ways:
See Also
•
Microprocessor- and bus-specific interfaces (optional).
•
Standard general-purpose probing (provided).
•
Direct connection to a 20-pin, 3M-Series type header connector using the
optional termination adapter.
Accessories for Agilent Logic Analyzers for additional information
about the microprocessor interface kits and for any new probing
solutions.
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Probing
Microprocessor and Bus-Specific Interfaces
There are a number of microprocessor- and bus-specific interfaces
available as optional accessories. Microprocessors are supported by
Universal Interfaces or Analysis Probes, or in some cases, both.
Universal Interfaces are manufactured by other vendors. Universal
Interfaces are aimed at initial hardware turn-on, and provide fast,
reliable, and convenient connections to the microprocessor system.
Many use passive probing and do not support inverse assembly.
Analysis probes are aimed at hardware turn-on and hardware/software
integration, and provide the following:
•
All clocking and demultiplexing circuits needed to capture the system's
operation.
•
Additional status lines to further decode the operation of the CPU.
•
Inverse assembly software to translate logic levels captured by the logic
analyzer into microprocessor mnemonics.
Bus interfaces will support bus analysis for the following:
•
Bus support for GPIB, RS-232-C, RS-449, SCSI, VME, and VXI.
General-Purpose Probing
General-purpose probing connects the logic analyzer probes directly to
your target system without using any interface. General-purpose
probing does not limit you to specific hookup schemes.
General-purpose probing uses grabbers that connect to both throughhole and surface-mount components. General-purpose probing comes
as the standard probing option. You will find a full description of its
components and use later in this section.
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Probing
The Termination Adapter
The logic analyzer must be properly terminated to operate correctly.
Most Agilent Technologies analysis probes have properly terminated
state connectors; however, many of them require termination adapters
for the timing connectors.
The optional termination adapter lets you connect the logic analyzer
probe cables directly to test ports on your target system without the
probes.
The termination adapter is designed to connect to a 20-position
(2x10), 4-wall, low-profile, header connector which is a 3M-Series 3592
or equivalent.
Termination Adapter
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Probing
General-purpose probing system description
The standard probing system provided with the logic analyzer consists
of a probe tip assembly, probe cable, and grabbers. Because of the
passive design of the probes, there are no active circuits at the outer
end of the cable. The rest of this chapter is dedicated to generalpurpose probing.
The passive probing system is similar to the probing system used with
high-frequency oscilloscopes. It consists of a series RC network (100k
ohms in parallel with 1.5 pF) at the probe tip, and a shielded, resistive
transmission line. The advantages of this system include the following:
•
1.5-pF input capacitance at the probe tip for minimal loading
•
Signal ground at the probe tip for high-speed timing signals
•
Inexpensive, removable probe tip assemblies
Probe Tip Assemblies
Probe tip assemblies lets you connect the logic analyzer directly to the
target system. This general-purpose probing is useful for discrete
digital circuits. Each probe tip assembly contains 16 probe leads (data
channels), 1 clock lead, a pod ground lead, and a ground tap for each of
the 16 probe leads.
Probe Tip Assembly
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Probing
Probe and Pod Grounding
Each pod is grounded by a long, black, pod ground lead. You can
connect the ground lead directly to a ground pin on your target system
or use a grabber. To connect the ground lead to grounded pins on your
target system, you must use 0.63-mm (0.025-in) square pins, or use
round pins with a diameter of 0.66 mm (0.026 in) to 0.84 mm (0.033
in). The pod ground lead must always be used.
Each probe can be individually grounded with a short black extension
lead that connects to the probe tip socket. You can then use a grabber
or the grounded pins on your target system in the same way you
connect the data lines. For extra confidence in your measurements,
grounding every third or fourth probe is recommended.
When probing signals with rise and fall times of 1 ns or less, grounding
each probe lead with the 2-inch ground lead is recommended. In
addition, always use the probe ground on a clock probe.
Probe Leads
The probe leads consists of one 12-inch twisted-pair cable, one ground
tap, and one grabber. The probe lead, which connects to the target
system, has an integrated RC network with an input impedance of 100k
ohms in parallel with approximately 1.5-pF. The probe lead has a twopin connector on one end that snaps into the probe housing.
Probe Ground Lead
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Probing
Grabbers
The grabbers have a small hook that fits around the IC pins and
component leads. The grabbers have been designed to fit on adjacent
IC pins on either through-hole or surface-mount components with lead
spacing greater than or equal to 0.050 inches.
Probe Cable
The probe cable contains 18 signal lines, 17 chassis ground lines and
two power lines for analysis probe use. The cables are woven together
into a flat ribbon that is 4.5 feet long. The probe cable connects the
logic analyzer to the pods, termination adapter, or analysis probe. Each
cable is capable of carrying 0.33 amps for analysis probe power.
CAUTION:
DO NOT exceed 0.33 amps per cable, or the cable will be damaged.
Analysis probe power is protected by a current limiting circuit. If the
current limiting circuit is activated, the fault condition must be
removed. After the fault condition is removed, the circuit will reset in
one minute.
Minimum Signal Amplitude
Any signal line you intend to probe with the logic analyzer probes must
supply a minimum voltage swing of 500 mV to the probe tip. If you
measure signal lines with a voltage swing of less than 500 mV, you may
not obtain a reliable measurement. Because the minimum input
overdrive is the greater of 250 mV or 30% of input amplitude, be sure
to correctly set the pod threshold in the Analyzer Format menu.
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Probing
Maximum Probe Input Voltage
The maximum input voltage of each logic analyzer probe is 40 volts
peak.
Pod Thresholds
Logic analyzer pods have two preset thresholds and a user-definable
pod threshold. The two preset thresholds are ECL (-1.3 V) and TTL
(+1.5 V). The user-definable threshold can be set anywhere between 6.0 volts and +6.0 volts in 0.05 volt increments.
All pod thresholds are set independently.
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Probing
Assembling the probing system
The general-purpose probing system components are assembled as
shown to make a connection between the measured signal line and the
pods displayed in the Analyzer Format menu.
Connecting Probe Cables to the Logic Analyzer
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Probing
Connecting Probe Cables to the Logic Analyzer
All probe cables are installed at the factory. If you need to replace a
probe cable, refer to the 1670G-Series Logic Analyzers Service Guide.
You can purchase the Service Guide from your Agilent Technologies
Sales Office.
Connecting the Probe Tip Assembly to the Probe Cable
To connect a probe tip assembly to a cable, align the key on the cable
connector with the slot on the probe housing and press them together.
Connecting Probe Tip Assembly
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Probing
Disconnecting Probe Leads from Probe Tip Assemblies
When you receive the logic analyzer, the probe leads are already
installed in the probe tip assemblies. To keep unused probe leads out of
your way during a measurement, you can disconnect them from the
pod.
To disconnect a probe lead, insert the tip of a ballpoint pen into the
latch opening. Push on the latch while gently pulling the probe out of
the pod connector as shown in the figure.
To connect the probes into the pods, insert the double pin end of the
probe into the probe housing. Both the double pin end of the probe and
the probe housing are keyed so they will fit together only one way.
Installing Probe Leads
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Probing
Connecting the Grabbers to the Probes
Connect the grabbers to the probe leads by slipping the connector at
the end of the probe onto the recessed pin located in the side of the
grabber. If you need to use grabbers for either the pod or the probe
grounds, connect the grabbers to the ground leads in the same manner.
Connecting Grabbers to Probes
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Probing
Oscilloscope probes (oscilloscope option only)
The two oscilloscope probes supplied with the oscilloscope option are
Agilent Technologies 1160A Miniature Passive Probes. These small,
lightweight probes allow measurements that were previously very
difficult in densely populated circuits.
For complete information on the operation, maintenance, and
adjustments of the miniature passive probes, be sure to read the
operating note that is packaged with the probes.
Probe Inputs
Probe inputs are located on the front panel to the right of the power
switch. Input 1 is on the left. The probes may be connected directly to
the BNC input connectors. The signal is dc-coupled to the oscilloscope.
BNC cables can be connected directly to the BNC connectors. A BNCto BNC cable is not provided with the instrument, but you can order it
separately.
Maximum Probe Input Voltage
The maximum input voltage of each logic analyzer probe is ±40 volts
peak. The maximum input voltage of the oscilloscope is ±250 volts dc
at 1 MΩ setting and 5 volts rms at 50Ω setting.
Calibration Outputs
There is one calibration output BNC located on the rear panel. It is the
AC/DC calibration signal source. This signal is used during calibration
of the oscilloscope. This calibration signal can also be used for probe
compensation adjustment.
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Probing
Connecting the pattern generator pods directly
to a PC board (pattern generator option only)
To connect the pattern generator pods directly to the PC board, use
one of the following two methods. Both methods require that a 3M
2520-series, or similar alternative connector be installed on the PC
board.
Direct pod to board connection
Simply plug the pod directly into the 3M 2520-series, or similar
alternative connector on the PC board.
Jumper cable to pod connection
Use this method when you have clearance problems on the PC board.
Construct a flat ribbon cable and connect as shown below.
Equivalent connectors can be obtained from sources other than 3M.
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Probing
Pattern generator output pod characteristics
(pattern generator option only)
The following equivalent circuit information is provided to help you
select the appropriate clock and data pods for your application.
Agilent Technologies 10461A TTL Data Pod
Output type
Maximum clock
Skew
Recommended lead set
10H125 with 100 ohm in series
200 MHz
Typical <2 ns; worst case 4 ns (note 1)
Agilent Technologies 10474A
Agilent Technologies 10462A 3-State TTL/CMOS Data Pod
Output type
74ACT11244 with 100 ohm in series
10H125 on non 3-state channel 7 (see note 2)
3-state enable
negative true, 100K ohm to GND
enabled on no connect
Maximum clock
100 MHz
Skew
Typical <4 ns; worst case 12 ns (note 1)
Recommended lead set Agilent Technologies 10474A
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Probing
Agilent Technologies 10464A ECL Data Pod (terminated)
Output type
Maximum clock
Skew
Recommended lead set
10H115 with 330 ohm pulldown,
47 ohm in series
200 MHz
Typical <1 ns; worst case 2 ns (see note 1)
Agilent Technologies 10474A
Agilent Technologies 10465A ECL Data Pod
(unterminated)
Output type
Maximum clock
Skew
Recommended lead set
262
10H115 (no termination)
200 MHz
Typical <1 ns; worst case 2 ns (see note 1)
Agilent Technologies 10347A
Logic Analyzer Reference
Probing
Agilent Technologies 10466A 3-State TTL/3.3 Volt Data
Pod
Output type
74LVT244 with 100 ohm in series
10H125 on non 3-state channel 7 (see note 2)
3-state enable
negative true, 100K ohm to GND,
enabled on no connect
Maximum clock
200 MHz
Skew
Typical <3 ns; worst case 7 ns (see note 1)
Recommended lead set Agilent Technologies 10474A
NOTE 1:
Typical skew measurements made at pod connector with
approximately 10 pF/50K ohm load to GND; worst case skew numbers
are a calculation of worst case conditions through circuits.
NOTE 2:
Channel 7 on the 3-state pods has been brought out in parallel as a non
3-state signal. By looping this output back into the 3-state enable line,
the channel can be used as a 3-state enable.
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Probing
Data Cable Characteristics Without a Data Pod
The 1670G-series, with the pattern generator option, data cables
without a data pod provide an ECL-terminated (1 KW to -5.2 V)
differential signal. These are usable when received by a differential
receiver, preferably with a 100-ohm termination across the lines. These
signals should not be used single ended due to the slow fall time and
shifted voltage threshold (they are not ECL compatible).
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Probing
Agilent Technologies 10460A TTL Clock Pod
Clock output type
Clock output rate
Clock out delay
Clock input type
Clock input rate
Pattern input type
Clk-in to clk-out
Patt-in to recognition
Recommended lead set
10H125 with 47 ohm series; true & inverted
100 MHz maximum
11 ns maximum in 9 steps
TTL - 10H124
DC to 100 MHz
TTL - 10H124 (no connect is logic 1)
Approx. 30 ns
Approx. 15 ns + 1 clk period
Agilent Technologies 10474A
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Probing
Agilent Technologies 10463A ECL Clock Pod
Clock output type
10H116 differential unterminated; and
differential with 330 ohm to -5.2v and 47 ohm
series
Clock output rate
200 MHz maximum
Clock out delay
11 ns maximum in 9 steps
Clock input type
ECL - 10H116 with 50 KW to -5.2 V
Clock input rate
DC to 200 MHz
Pattern input type
ECL - 10H116 with 50 KW
(no connect is logic 0)
Clk-in to clk-out
Approx. 30 ns
Patt-in to recognition Approx. 15 ns + 1 clk period
Recommended lead set Agilent Technologies 10474A
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Keyboard Shortcuts
Keyboard Shortcuts
This section explains how to use the optional keyboard interface
(Agilent Technologies E2427B Keyboard Kit). You can use the
keyboard interchangeably with the knob and front-panel keypad for all
menu applications. The keyboard functions fall into the two basic
categories of cursor movement and data entry.
Moving the cursor
The keyboard cursor is the location on the screen highlighted in
inverse video. Move the cursor using one of the methods described
below.
Keyboard cursor movement
There are four cursor keys marked with arrows on the keyboard. These
keys act as follows:
•
Up-pointing arrow moves the cursor up.
•
Down-pointing arrow moves the cursor down.
•
Right-pointing arrow moves the cursor to the right.
•
Left-pointing arrow moves the cursor to the left.
The cursor keys do not wrap. This means that pressing the rightpointing arrow when the cursor is already at the rightmost point in a
menu will have no effect. The cursor keys do repeat, so holding the key
down is the fastest way to continue keyboard cursor movement in a
given direction.
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Keyboard Shortcuts
Page Up and Page Down keys
The Page Up and Page Down keys page through listings. The Page Up
key displays the previous page of data. The Page Down key displays the
next page of data.
Selecting a menu item
To select a menu item with the keyboard, position the cursor (the
location highlighted in inverse video) on the menu item and press the
Return or Enter key.
Entering data into a menu
When an assignment field is selected, the cursor is displayed under the
leftmost character in the field. When you type a character, it is
displayed in the cursor position, and the cursor is advanced. Cursor
keys move the cursor within the assignment field. Pressing either the
Return key or the Enter key will terminate data entry for that item.
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Keyboard Shortcuts
Using the keyboard overlays
A keyboard overlay is included in the E2427B Keyboard Kit. The table
below represents the key mappings.
Key
Functions Like
Key
Functions Like
F1
System Key
S
Select "seconds"
F2
Config Key
M
Select "milliseconds" or "millivolts"
F3
Format Key
U
Select "microseconds"
F4
Trigger Key
N
Select "nanoseconds"
F5
Listing Key
V
Select "volts"
F6
Waveform Key
B
Select "any (both) edge"
F7
Print All Key
R
Select "rising edge"
F8
Run Key
F
Select "falling edge"
F9
Stop
*
Assign glitch
F10
Done
.
Assign Don't Care (X)
F12
Assign Don't Care (X)
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Common Menu Fields
Common Menu Fields
There are a number of fields that appear throughout the different
menus that have similar operation. These common fields are listed
below:
•
Mode (System/Analyzer) field
•
Menu field
•
Print field
•
Run field
•
Base field
•
Label field
•
Roll fields
Because most of these fields are self-explanatory, only the fields with
less obvious features are described here.
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Common Menu Fields
Print field
The Print field prints what is displayed on the screen at the time you
initiate the printout. When you select the Print field, a print selection
pop-up appears showing you one or more of the following options:
•
Print Screen
•
Print Disk
•
Print All
•
Print Partial
•
Cancel
While printing, the Print field changes to Cancel and the user interface
is not active except for Cancel. When the printout is complete, the user
interface becomes active again. The Print field is not available with
pop-up menus. The only way to print a pop-up menu to disk is with a
controller.
Print Screen
The Print Screen option sends the screen immediately to the specified
printer. The option does not create a file; to do that, use Print Disk.
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Common Menu Fields
Print Disk
The Print Disk option copies the screen in graphical form or ASCII, if
available, to a file on either drive. Possible output formats are
•
ASCII
8-bit standard ASCII text file
•
B/W TIF
Black-and-white image in TIFF version 5.0 format
•
Color TIF
Color image in TIFF version 5.0 format
•
PCX
Color image in standard PCX format
•
EPS
Line image in standard Encapsulated PostScript format
Print All
The Print All option prints not only what is displayed on the screen, but
data that is below the screen. This option is only available when an
ASCII form of the screen is possible. For example, Print All is never
available in Waveform.
When you select Print All with a Listing menu, make sure the first line
you want to print is in the state location box (also referred to as the
data roll field) at the center of the listing area. Lines above this box will
not print.
Print Partial
The Print Partial option is identical to the Print All option, except the
start and end states are specified. The screen settings and specified
data are printed in ASCII form.
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Common Menu Fields
Run/Stop field
The Run field starts the analyzer measurement. When you select Run,
the screen switches to the display menu last viewed and displays the
acquired data. If Stop is selected during a single run, the data
acquisition is aborted. If Stop is selected during a repetitive run, the
current run cycle is completed before data is displayed.
Repetitive
The Repetitive option runs the data acquisition cycle repeatedly until
you select Stop or until a pre-assigned stop measurement condition is
met. The stop measurement condition is set in the Analyzer Listing or
Analyzer Waveform menus when pattern markers are turned on.
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Common Menu Fields
Roll fields
Some data may not fit on screen when there are many pods or labels to
display. When this happens, it is indicated by the Label/Base field
becoming selectable and its shade changing to the common field shade.
To move through the hidden data, select the field, wait for the roll
indicator to appear, and then use the knob to move through the data.
The figure on this page shows an active roll field.
If there is more than one rollable field, the roll indicator remains with
the last rollable field activated. For example, the Listing menu shown
below has both the Label/Base field and the state location field, which
are both rollable. However, the only field affected when turning the
knob is the field with the roll indicator.
Another way to move through data is by using the Page keys. The Page
keys are independent of the knob rolling function and move through
data without changing which labels or pods are displayed. Page keys
page data up or down one screen at a time. To move data left or right
one screen at a time, press the blue Shift key and then a Page key.
Label and Base Roll Field
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Disk Drive Operations
Disk Drive Operations
The logic analyzer has a built-in 3.5-inch, double-sided, high-density or
double-density, flexible disk drive. The disk drive is compatible with
both LIF (Logical Interchange Format) and DOS (Disk Operating
System) formats. It also has an internal hard disk drive, which
performs the same operations as the flexible disk drive.
Disk operations
Ten disk operations are available:
•
Autoload
Designates a set of configuration files to be loaded automatically the
next time the analyzer is turned on.
•
Copy
Copies files. Any file can be copied from one drive to another, from one
directory to another, or to different flexible disks.
•
Duplicate Disk
Copies one flexible disk to another flexible disk. You cannot copy the
hard disk to a flexible disk in a single operation. All volume labels,
directories, and file positions from one disk are copied exactly to
another disk. The new disk is formatted to match the source disk if it is
required. All files on the destination disk will be destroyed with this
operation.
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Disk Drive Operations
•
Format Disk
Formats a flexible disk or the internal hard disk. Either can be
formatted in LIF or DOS format. All files on the disk will be destroyed
with this operation.
•
Load
Loads a file into the logic analyzer, overwriting the current settings or
information. You can load system configurations, analyzer
measurement setups including measurement data, and inverse
assembler files.
•
Make Directory
Creates a new directory on a DOS disk. You can save or copy files to the
new directory using the store and copy commands. This is not available
with LIF disks.
•
Pack Disk
Removes all empty or unused sectors between files on a LIF disk so
that more space is available. If you select Pack Disk while a DOS disk is
in the drive, nothing happens.
•
Purge
Purges (deletes) the file you indicate. Deleted files cannot be
recovered.
•
Rename
Changes the name of the file you select.
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Disk Drive Operations
•
Store
Saves system and analyzer measurement setups including data.
Disk operation safeguards
If there is a problem or additional information is needed to execute an
operation, a pop-up appears near the center of the screen displaying
the status of the operation.
If executing a disk operation could destroy or damage a file, a pop-up
appears when you select Execute. If you do not want to complete the
operation, select Cancel to cancel the operation. Otherwise, select
Continue.
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Disk Drive Operations
Autoload
The Autoload operation allows you to designate a set of configuration
files to be loaded automatically the next time the analyzer is turned on.
This allows you to change the default configuration of certain features
to one that better fits your needs. If both the hard drive and flexible
drive have autoload setups, only the setup on the flexible drive will be
used.
Autoload loads all of the files for a given base filename. If you want to
load only one type of file, rename that file or copy it to a separate name
and enable it as the current Autoload file. As long as Autoload is
enabled before the instrument is shut off, Autoload will remain enabled
when you turn on the instrument and load the configuration files.
Format
CAUTION:
Executing Format Disk permanently erases all existing information from the
disk. After formatting, there is no way to retrieve the original information.
The logic analyzer recognizes a variety of sector sizes for LIF disks.
However, it only creates 1024-byte sectors when formatting a LIF disk.
DOS disks always have 512-byte sectors.
The logic analyzer does not support track sparing during formatting. If
a bad track is found, the disk is considered bad. If a disk has been
formatted elsewhere with track sparing, it will be read successfully.
When formatting a disk, the DISK ERROR message appears if the disk
is unformatted. This is normal, and you can safely continue the format
process.
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Disk Drive Operations
Pack
By purging files from the disk and adding other files, you may end up
with blank areas on the disk (between files) that are too small for the
new files you are creating. On LIF disks, the Pack Disk operation packs
the current files together, removing unused areas from between the
files so that more space is available for files at the end of the disk. On
DOS disks, the Pack Disk operation is not available. If you do select
Pack Disk while a DOS disk is in the drive, the disk is not affected.
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Disk Drive Operations
Load and Store
When you choose Load or Store, you next need to set the field
immediately to the right. This field presents at least three choices: All,
System, and Analyzer. If you have other software loaded, it might add
to the list of choices.
All
Choose All to store or load both system and analyzer information. If
you are storing, two files (one for the system and one for the analyzer)
are created. The system file ends in "._ _" and the analyzer file ends in
"._A".
System
System files store system configurations. System information for the
1670G-series consists of settings for printer, controller, RS-232-C,
GPIB, shade, and sound. LAN settings are not saved. System
configuration files end in two underscores and have a file type of
167x_cnfg.
Analyzer
Analyzer configuration files store measurement setups, including data.
If you are storing the current measurement and an inverse assembler is
already loaded, when you reload the file you are now creating it will try
to pull in the inverse assembler. Other attributes stored in analyzer
configuration files include labels, trigger sequence, arming
configuration, measurement data, markers, analyzer names, and pod
assignments. Analyzer configuration files end in "._A" and have a file
type of 167xan_config.
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Logic Analyzer Reference
Disk Drive Operations
Oscilloscope (oscilloscope option only)
Oscilloscope configuration files store measurement setups, including
data. Attributes stored in scope configuration files include labels,
trigger sequence, arming configuration, measurement data, markers,
and channel assignments. Oscilloscope configuration files end in “._B”
and have a file type of 167Xsc_config.
Pattern Generator (pattern generator option only)
Pattern generator files store the configuration attributes and
parameters of the pattern generator, including vectors and functions,
labels, pod assignments, and clock frequency. Pattern generator
configuration files end in "._B" and have a file type of 16522_config.
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Logic Analyzer Reference
The RS-232-C, GPIB, and Centronics Interfaces
The RS-232-C, GPIB, and Centronics Interfaces
This section describes the default setup, controller and printer
interfaces and their configurations found in the System External I/O
menu. It defines the GPIB interface and describes how to select a
different GPIB address. It also defines the RS-232-C interface and tells
you how to select a baud rate, how to change the stop bits, how to set
the parity and data bits, and how to change the flow control protocol.
The Centronics (parallel) interface (for printers only) and LAN
interface (controller only) are also described.
Default Setup
Default Setup resets the logic analyzer to all the default settings. This
gives you the same result as when you re-power the logic analyzer.
Controller interface
The logic analyzer is equipped with standard RS-232-C, GPIB, and
Ethernet LAN interfaces that allow you to connect to a controller. All of
the interfaces give you remote access for running measurements and
uploading and downloading configurations and data.
Printer interface
The logic analyzer can output its screen to various GPIB, RS-232-C,
and Centronics graphics printers. Configured menus, as well as
waveforms and other data, can be printed for complete measurement
documentation. The analyzer cannot use a networked or shared
printer.
See Also
"Connecting Peripherals" on page 36 for more details on physically
connecting equipment.
Agilent Technologies 1670G-Series Logic Analyzers Programmer's
Guide for more information on the controller interface.
The LAN section of this book on page 476 more information on the
LAN interface.
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Logic Analyzer Reference
The RS-232-C, GPIB, and Centronics Interfaces
The GPIB interface
The General Purpose Interface Bus (GPIB) is Agilent Technologies'
implementation of IEEE Standard 488-1978, "Standard Digital
Interface for Programmable Instrumentation." GPIB is a carefully
defined interface that simplifies the integration of various instruments
and computers into systems.
The GPIB interface uses an addressing technique to ensure that each
device on the bus (interconnected by GPIB cables) receives only the
data intended for it. To accomplish this, each device is set to a different
address and this address is used to communicate with other devices on
the bus. The GPIB address is the only GPIB interface setting
configurable from the logic analyzer.
The GPIB address can be set to 31 different GPIB addresses, from 0 to
30. Simply choose a compatible address for your device and software.
The default address for all Agilent logic analyzers is 7. In the System
External I/O menu, select GPIB Settings and then set the Address field
to your address.
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Logic Analyzer Reference
The RS-232-C, GPIB, and Centronics Interfaces
The RS-232-C interface
The RS-232-C interface is Agilent Technologies' implementation of EIA
Recommended Standard RS-232-C, "Interface Between Data Terminal
Equipment and Data Communications Equipment Employing Serial
Binary Data Interchange."
With this interface, data is sent one bit at a time and characters are not
synchronized with preceding or subsequent data characters. Each
character is sent as a complete entity independent of other events.
The paragraphs below describe the settings for RS-232-C. You can
change these settings by going to the System External I/O menu and
selecting RS232 Settings. Each field in the Settings pop-up menu
presents a list of valid choices.
Baud rate
The baud rate is the rate at which bits are transferred between the
interface and the peripheral. The baud rate must be set to transmit and
receive at the same rate as the peripheral.
Stop Bits
Stop Bits are used to identify the end of a character. The number of
Stop Bits must be the same for the controller as for the logic analyzer.
Parity
The parity bit detects errors as incoming characters are received. If the
parity bit does not match the expected value, the character was
incorrectly received. The action taken when an error is detected
depends on the interface and the device program configuration.
Parity is determined by the requirements of the system. The parity bit
may be included or omitted from each character by enabling or
disabling the parity function.
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Logic Analyzer Reference
The RS-232-C, GPIB, and Centronics Interfaces
Data Bits
Data Bits are the number of bits used to represent the binary code of a
character. The 1670G-series logic analyzers, with the pattern
generator, support 8-bit binary code.
Protocol
Protocol governs the flow of data between the instrument and the
external device. It can be controlled either by the hardware, in which
case you select None in the RS-232-C Settings pop-up, or by the
software, in which case you select Xon/Xoff. Xon/Xoff stands for
Transmit On/Transmit Off.
With less than a 5-wire interface, selecting None does not allow the
sending or receiving device to control how fast the data is being sent,
increasing the possibility of missing data. With a full 5-wire interface,
selecting None allows a hardware handshake to occur. With a hardware
handshake, hardware signals control data flow. The HP 13242G cable
allows the logic analyzer to support hardware handshake.
The Centronics interface
The Centronics interface is an industry-standard parallel printer
interface. It can only be used as a printer interface, and is not available
to the controller. There are no Centronics-specific settings; page and
line length are set in the Printer Settings menu.
See Also
"Connecting Peripherals" on page 36 for more information on setting
up the parallel printer port.
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Logic Analyzer Reference
The RS-232-C, GPIB, and Centronics Interfaces
The Ethernet LAN interface
The LAN interface is Agilent Technologies’ implementation of IEEE
standard 802.3 (ISO 88002-3), “Carrier Sense Multiple Access with
Collision Detection (CSMA/CD) Access Method and Physical Layer
Specifications.” This network protocol is commonly referred to as
Ethernet.
To access the LAN menus, go to the System External I/O menu and
select the LAN Settings field.
LAN Settings menu
NOTE:
If you are uncertain as to your local network configuration, or have questions
concerning addresses, contact you network system administrator.
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The RS-232-C, GPIB, and Centronics Interfaces
LAN Port
There are two ports for connecting the logic analyzer to LAN. The LAN
TP port is for a twisted pair network, sometimes known as ethertwist
or 10Base-T. The LAN BNC port is for a coaxial cable network,
sometimes know as thinlan or 10Base2. The LAN Port field toggles
between these two ports. Select the field that matches your LAN
network and the back-panel connector you are using.
Analyzer IP Address
This is the IP address that the logic analyzer will respond to, and must
be unique on the network. If you need to create and IP address, contact
your system administrator. Enter the analyzer address in this field.
Gateway IP Address
The gateway IP address is only necessary if the host computer and
logic analyzer are on different subnets. Use the address of the gateway
nearest the logic analyzer between the analyzer and the host. Your
system administrator should be able to provide this information.
File Timeout
The file timeout is the amount of time the logic analyzer will keep a file
in memory. If you are transferring 1 M of data, the file timeout must be
larger than if you are transferring 64 K of data. The file timeout can
also affect the network timeout. Generally, 1.5 seconds is a good value.
Analyzer name
You can assign an analyzer name to the logic analyzer. It does not have
to be the same as the IP alias, although you could set it to that. This
name shows up in the X Window title bar and in ASCII files created by
the analyzer.
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The RS-232-C, GPIB, and Centronics Interfaces
Help with...
These buttons provide additional information on the LAN settings
screen, hosts table, and PC settings.
Show LAN Connections
This field pops up a list of all connections to the logic analyzer, and
some information as to the type of connection. An IP address followed
by “0.0” is an X Window connection. A line beginning with FTP is an ftp
PARSER SOCKET is a telnet connection. A straight IP address or
computer name is an NFS client.
Ethernet Statistics
This field pops up a display showing the analyzer’s ether address, the
subnet mask, and transmit and receive statistics on the current session,
which may be helpful for troubleshooting. These fields are not
configurable.
See Also
The LAN section of this User’s Guide on page 476 for more details.
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Logic Analyzer Reference
System Utilities
System Utilities
The System Utilities menu is used for setting system level parameters
such as the system clock, display intensity for each shade, and the
sound. In this menu you can also rewrite the analyzer's memory with
any new revisions of the operating system.
Real Time Clock Adjustments field
A real-time clock is displayed in the Waveform and Listing menus.
When you print a screen, the current clock and date appear on the
hard copy. To change the clock, go to the System Utilities menu and
select Real Time Clock Adjustments. Set the values to the desired date
and time.
The Time Zone field changes the logic analyzer's apparent file times
when viewed over NFS. It does not affect the real-time clock. Set the
Time Zone to the same Time Zone used by your LAN. This value is
usually the same as the difference in hours between your local time and
Greenwich Mean Time.
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Logic Analyzer Reference
System Utilities
Update FLASH ROM field
The logic analyzer uses flash ROMs to store the operating system. The
analyzer you received should have an operating system in place and
should also include the operating system files on a flexible disk, but you
may occasionally need to update the operating system. Update FLASH
ROM updates the analyzer's operating system.
CAUTION:
Updating flash ROM without the proper files will damage the logic analyzer
operating system.
1 Go to the System Utilities menu.
2 Select Update FLASH ROM.
The analyzer warns, "Selecting Continue Will Erase & Update Flash
ROMs." and waits for you to select Cancel or Continue. If you select
Continue, the analyzer will be reset. If you need to save the
measurement data, select Cancel.
3 Select Continue.
The screen goes black and the analyzer performs its power-up self
tests. It then displays a message listing the required files and provides
further instructions.
4 Insert the update disk into the flexible disk drive.
5 To search only the flexible disk drive, press the Done key. To
search the flexible disk drive and then the hard drive, press any
other key.
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Logic Analyzer Reference
System Utilities
If you press a key other than Done, the logic analyzer will not pause for
you to insert the second disk when it finishes copying files from the
first disk. Instead, it will look on the hard drive under the /SYSTEM
directory. If it finds copies of the operating system files on the hard
drive, those are used instead. This could result in incorrect installation
of the updated operating system.
The logic analyzer warns, "We are about to erase flash ROM memory."
This is the last point at which you can cancel the operation. Any loss of
power between the time the analyzer starts to erase flash ROM and the
time it finishes copying the update will destroy the operating system.
CAUTION:
If you do not have the required files, turn off the analyzer immediately.
Pressing any key will destroy the operating system.
6 If you are sure you are ready to continue, press any key.
7 When the analyzer has completed the update, press any key.
The screen goes black and the analyzer reboots. You have finished
updating the flash ROM and the new operating system is in place. It is
now safe to turn off the logic analyzer.
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Logic Analyzer Reference
Display Color Selection
Display Color Selection
The color selection feature allows you to customize display colors,
which improves contrast and lessens eye fatigue caused by your
operating environment. If you are color-blind to certain colors, are
operating in a difficult light environment, or don't like the default
colors, you can quickly and easily change them.
The colors used by an X Window are always the default colors, and
cannot be changed.
The Color Model: Hue, Saturation, and Luminosity
The 1670G-series logic analyzers use the HSL color model (Hue,
Saturation, and Luminosity). This model is very effective for interactive
color selection. Similar in concept to the method used by artists for
mixing paints, pure hues are selected, and then white and black are
mixed to dilute the color or darken it.
•
Hue is the pure color. 0 is red, 33 green, and 67 blue. The selection ranges
from 0 to 100.
•
Saturation is the ratio of the pure color mixed with white (0 to 100%).
•
Luminosity is the brightness per unit area (0 to 100%).
The figure on the next page shows a cylindrical representation of the
HSL model (Hue, Saturation, and Luminosity). Hue is the angular
coordinate, Saturation is the radial coordinate, and Luminosity is the
altitude above the polar coordinate plane.
The cylinder rests on a black plane (Luminosity = 0%) and extends
upward. As you increase in altitude, you increase luminosity, which
represents an increase in brightness. Whenever luminosity is zero, the
values of saturation and hue do not matter. Zero luminosity is black,
and 100% luminosity gives you the pure color.
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Logic Analyzer Reference
Display Color Selection
White is the center of the top of the cylinder (Luminosity = 100%,
Saturation = 0%). The center line of the cylinder (Saturation = 0%) is a
line which connects the center of the black plane (Luminosity = 0%,
Saturation = 0%) with white (Luminosity = 100%, Saturation = 0%)
through a series of gray steps (Luminosity from 0% to 100%,
Saturation = 0%). Whenever saturation is 0%, the value of hue does not
matter. Zero saturation is white, and 100% saturation gives you the
pure color. The outer edge of the cylinder (Saturation = 100%)
represents the fully saturated color.
The Color Model
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Logic Analyzer Reference
Display Color Selection
Setting the Color, Hue, Saturation, and
Luminosity Fields
To set the Color, Hue, Saturation, or Luminosity fields, see if the field
you want has a different background than the other fields (light blue if
using default colors). If it already has a different background, rotate
the knob to change the value in that field. Otherwise, select the field
once and its background will change color, indicating that it has been
selected. Then rotate the knob to change the value. If you look at the
large field in the center of the display, you can see how the knob affects
the color.
Color Selection
Returning to the Default Colors
The Default Colors field, below the Luminosity field, allows you to
return to the default colors simply by selecting that field. These default
colors are listed in the table on the previous page.
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Logic Analyzer Reference
The Analyzer Configuration Menu
The Analyzer Configuration Menu
Type field
The Type field lets you configure the logic analyzer with either an
internal clock (Timing mode) or an external clock (State and SPA).
When the Type field is selected, the following choices are available.
Timing. When Timing is selected, the analyzer uses its own internal
clock to clock measurement data into the acquisition memory. This
clock is asynchronous to the signals in the target system. Fields
relating to external clocks such as the Analyzer Format menu's Master
Clock do not appear and certain menus such as Compare are not
available.
The analyzer can only be configured with one timing analyzer. If two
are selected, the first will be turned off.
State. When State is selected, the analyzer uses a clock from the
system under test to clock measurement data into acquisition memory.
This clock is synchronous to the signals in the target system.
State Compare. When State Compare is selected, the Compare menu
is available in the main menu selection. For more details on Compare,
see “The Compare Menu.” State Compare mode functions much like
State mode, except that total memory is reduced.
SPA. SPA stands for System Performance Analysis. It uses an external
clock like a state analyzer but measures overall system performance
rather than recording discrete activity. For more details on SPA, see
page 350.
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Logic Analyzer Reference
The Analyzer Configuration Menu
Illegal configuration
When both analyzers are turned on, the first pod pair 1,2 and the last
pod pair cannot be assigned to the same analyzer machine. If this
configuration is set, the analyzer will display a re-assignment menu
when you try to leave the configuration screen. Use this re-assignment
menu to configure the pod assignment automatically to a legal
configuration.
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Logic Analyzer Reference
The Analyzer Format Menu
The Analyzer Format Menu
Pod threshold field
The pod threshold field is used to set a voltage level that the data must
reach before the analyzer recognizes and displays it as a change in logic
levels. Threshold levels apply to single pods, and cover both data and
clock channels.
TTL. When TTL is selected, the threshold level is +1.5 volts.
ECL. When ECL is selected, the threshold level is -1.3 volts.
User. When User is selected as the threshold level, the data signals
must reach a user selectable value. The range of this value is between 6.0 volts to +6.0 volts in 50-mV increments.
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Logic Analyzer Reference
The Analyzer Format Menu
State acquisition modes
The State Acquisition Mode field identifies the channel width and
memory depth of the selected acquisition mode. There are two
configurations of channel width/memory depth.
Full Channel/64K Memory/150 MHz
Full-channel mode uses both pods in a pod pair for 34 channels of
width and a total memory depth of 64 K per channel. If time or state
tags are turned on, the total memory is evenly split between data
acquisition storage and time or state tag storage. To maintain the full
64 K per channel depth with state or time tags, leave one pod pair
unassigned.
Half Channel/128K Memory/150 MHz
Half-channel mode cuts the channel width to 17 channels. In this
mode, the pod used within the pod pair is selected through the Pod
field. In half-channel mode, the memory depth is increased to 128 K
per channel. Time or state tags are not available in this mode.
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Logic Analyzer Reference
The Analyzer Format Menu
Timing acquisition modes
The Timing Acquisition mode field identifies the acquisition type, the
channel width, and sampling speed of the present acquisition mode.
There are three acquisition modes and five configurations.
Conventional Acquisition Mode
In Conventional Acquisition mode, the analyzer stores measurement
data at each sampling interval.
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Logic Analyzer Reference
The Analyzer Format Menu
Acquisition modes
The Acquisition mode field identifies the channel width and sampling
speed of the present acquisition mode. There are two timing
acquisition modes. State analyzers only have one acquisition mode.
Full-channel 250 MHz. Data is sampled and stored as often as every
4 ns.
Half-channel 500 MHz. Data is sampled and stored as often as every
2 ns, but only one of the pods in each pod pair is active.
150 MHz State. Data is synchronously sampled and stored.
See Also
See page 92 for memory configurations.
“Configuration Capabilities” in this chapter and “Managing Memory”on
page 89 for additional information on memory configurations.
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Logic Analyzer Reference
The Analyzer Format Menu
Clock Inputs Display
Beneath the Data on clks, and next to the activity indicators, is a group
of all clock inputs available in the present configuration. The number of
available clocks depends on the model. The J and K clocks appear with
pod pair 1/2, the L and M with pod pair 3/4. In a model with more than
three pod pairs, all other clock lines are displayed to the left of the
displayed master clocks, and are used only as data channels.
With the exception of the Range resource, all unused clock bits can be
used as data channels in the trigger terms. Activity indicators above
the clock identifier show clock or data signal activity.
Pod Clocks
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Logic Analyzer Reference
The Analyzer Format Menu
Pod clock field (State only)
The pod clock field identifies the type of clock arrangement assigned to
each pod. When the pod clock field is selected, a clock arrangement
menu appears with the choices of Master, Slave, or Demultiplex. Once
a pod clock is assigned a clock arrangement, its identity and function
follows what is configured in the Master and Slave Clock fields.
Master
This option specifies that data on all pods designated "Master Clock," in
the same analyzer, are strobed into memory when the status of the
clock lines match the clocking arrangement specified under the Master
Clock.
See Also
"Master and Slave Clock fields (State only)" found later in this section
for information about configuring a clocking arrangement.
Slave
This option specifies that data on a pod designated "Slave Clock" is
latched when the status of the slave clock meets the requirements of
the slave clocking arrangement. Then, followed by a match of the
master clock and the master clock arrangement, the slave data is
strobed into analyzer memory along with the master data. See the
figure on the following page.
If multiple slave clocks occur between master clocks, only the data
latched by the last slave clock prior to the master clock is strobed into
analyzer memory.
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Logic Analyzer Reference
The Analyzer Format Menu
Analyzer Memory
latches on master clock
latches on
slave clock
data on master
Slave Latch
data on slave
Latching Slave Data
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Logic Analyzer Reference
The Analyzer Format Menu
Demultiplex
The Demultiplex mode is used to store two different sets of data that
occur at different times on the same channels. In Demultiplex mode
both the master and slave clocks are used, but only one pod of the pod
pair is sampled.
Channel assignments are displayed as Demux Master and Demux
Slave. For easy recognition of the two sets of data, assign slave and
master data to separate labels.
When the analyzer sees a match between the slave clock input and the
Slave Clock arrangement, Demux Slave data is latched. Then, followed
by a match of the master clock and the master clock arrangement, the
slave data is strobed into analyzer memory along with the master data.
If multiple slave clocks occur between master clocks, only the most
recently latched data is strobed into analyzer memory.
Analyzer Memory
latches on master clock
latches on
slave clock
Slave Latch
same pod
data on master
Latching Slave Data in Demultiplex Mode
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data on slave
Logic Analyzer Reference
The Analyzer Format Menu
Master and Slave Clock fields (State only)
The Master and Slave Clock fields are used to construct a clocking
arrangement. A clocking arrangement is the assignment of appropriate
clocks, clock edges, and clock qualifier levels which allow the analyzer
to synchronize itself on valid data.
Clock selections
When the Master or Slave Clock field is selected, a clock/qualifier
selection menu appears showing the available clocks and qualifiers for
a clocking arrangement. Depending on the model, there are a
maximum of four clocks available (J through M), and a maximum of
four clock qualifiers available (Q1 through Q4).
Clock edges are ORed to clock edges, clock qualifiers are ANDed to
clock edges, and clock qualifiers can be either ANDed or ORed
together. All clock and qualifier combinations on the left side of the
graphic line are ORed to all combinations on the right side of the line.
For example, in a six-clock model, all combinations of the J, K, and L
clock with Q1 and Q2 qualifiers, are ORed to the clock combinations of
the M, N, and P clocks with Q3 and Q4 qualifiers.
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Logic Analyzer Reference
The Analyzer Format Menu
See Also
"Pod Clock Field" found earlier in this chapter for information on
selecting clocking arrangement types, such as Master, Slave, or
Demultiplex.
Clock Fields
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Logic Analyzer Reference
The Analyzer Format Menu
Setup/Hold field
Setup/Hold in the Master and Slave Clock fields adjusts the relative
position of the clock edge with respect to the time period that data is
valid. When the Setup/Hold field is selected, a configuration menu
appears. Use this Setup/ Hold configuration menu to select each pod in
the analyzer and assign a Setup/Hold selection from the selection list.
With a single clock edge assigned, the choices range from 3.5-ns Setup/
0.0-ns Hold to 0.0-ns Setup/3.5-ns Hold. With both edges of a single
clock assigned, the choices are from 4.0-ns Setup/0.0-ns Hold to 0.0-ns
Setup/4.0-ns Hold. If the analyzer has multiple clock edges assigned,
the choices range from 4.5-ns Setup/0.0-ns Hold to 0.0-ns Setup/4.5-ns
Hold.
The relationship of the clock signal and valid data under the default
setup and hold is shown in the upper figure. If the relationship of the
clock signal and valid data is such that the data is valid for 1 ns before
the clock occurs and 3 ns after the clock occurs, you will want to use
the 1.0 setup and 2.5 hold setting as shown in the lower figure.
Clock Position in Valid Data
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Logic Analyzer Reference
The Analyzer Format Menu
Symbols field
The Symbols field is located directly below the Run field in the upper
right corner of the Format menu. Use this field to access the symbol
tables.
Use symbol tables to define a mnemonic for a specific bit pattern of a
label. You can specify up to 1000 total symbols, and use them freely
between available analyzers. When measurements are made, the
mnemonic is displayed where the bit pattern occurs using the selected
symbol base. You can also download compiled symbol tables using
Agilent Technologies E2450A Symbol Utility, which is supplied with the
logic analyzer.
See Also
The Symbol Utility section of this book on page 564 for more
information on downloading symbols.
Label field
The Label field identifies the label for which you are specifying
symbols. When you select this field, a selection menu appears that lists
all the labels turned on for that analyzer. Each label has a separate
symbol table, so you can give the same name to symbols defined under
different labels.
Symbol Pop-up Menu
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Logic Analyzer Reference
The Analyzer Format Menu
Base field
Use the Base field to select the numeric base in which the pattern in
the symbols menu is displayed. Binary is not available if more than 20
channels are assigned to a label because there is only enough room for
20 bits to be displayed on the screen.
You cannot specify a pattern or range when the base is ASCII. Define
the pattern or range in one of the other bases, then switch to ASCII to
see the ASCII characters.
Symbol Width field
The Symbol Width field specifies how many characters of the symbol
name will be displayed when the symbol is referenced in the Trigger,
Waveform, and Listing menus. You can display from 1 to 16 characters
of the symbol name.
Symbol name field
When you first access the symbol table, there are no symbols specified.
The symbol name field reads "New symbol." Select this field to enter a
symbol name. When you are done, a symbol Type field becomes active.
Type field
The symbol Type field toggles between pattern and range. When the
symbol is defined as a pattern, a Pattern/Start field appears to the right
of the Type field. To assign a pattern, select the Pattern/Start field and
type in the desired pattern.
If the symbol is defined as a range, a Pattern/Start field and a Stop field
appear. Use these fields to specify the upper and lower boundaries of
the range. To assign values to the boundaries, select the fields and
enter the pattern. You can specify ranges that overlap or are nested
within each other.
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The Analyzer Format Menu
Label fields
The label fields are the fields with label names along the left side of the
display below the field captioned Labels. The default label names are
Bus1 through Bus126. Selecting the label fields pops up a choice of
Turn Label On, Turn Label Off, and Modify Label.
The Turn Label Off option turns off the label. When a label is turned
off, the label name and the bit assignments are saved by the logic
analyzer so that you can turn the label back on and not have to retype
the bit assignments and name. With labels off, the label names remain
displayed for identification and searching purposes. Turning labels off
may save memory in transitional timing.
Labels may have from 1 to 32 channels assigned to them. If you try to
assign more than 32 channels to a label, the logic analyzer will beep,
indicating an error. A message will appear at the top of the screen
telling you that 32 channels per label is the maximum.
Channels assigned to a label are numbered from right to left by the
logic analyzer. The least significant assigned channel on the far right is
numbered 0, the next assigned channel is numbered 1, and all other
channels are assigned sequentially up to the maximum of 16 per pod.
Because 32 channels can be assigned to one label at most, the highest
number that can be given to a channel is 31.
Although labels can contain split fields, assigned channels are always
numbered consecutively within a label.
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Label polarity fields
The label polarity fields, which are located just after the label, are used
to assign a polarity to each label. The default polarity for all labels is
positive (+). You change the label polarity by toggling the polarity field.
When the polarity is positive, 1 is high and 0 is low. When the polarity is
negative, 1 is low and 0 is high. All data as well as bit-pattern specific
configurations used for identifying, triggering, or storing data reflect
the change of polarity. Numbers use the appropriate logical encoding,
but waveforms and edges are still shown as logic levels, either low or
high. In a timing analyzer with the data inverted, the waveform display
remains positive true.
As an example, setting the logic analyzer to trigger on 0A hex with
positive polarity is the same as setting it to trigger on F5 hex with
negative polarity. The listing would show 0A with + polarity, F5 with
- polarity. In the waveform menu, if the waveform is defined as bus the
waveform shown as symbols inverts with a change of polarity. If the
waveform is defined as individual channels or is not using symbols, it is
not affected by changing polarity.
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The Analyzer Trigger Menu
Trigger sequence levels
Sequence levels are the definable stages of the total trigger
specification. Individual sequence levels are assigned using either a
predefined trigger function or a user-level trigger function. The total
trigger specification can contain both kinds of function.
See Also
"Using the Trigger Menu" on page 70 for more on setting up a trigger.
Sequence level usage
Generally, you would think using one function in one sequence level
uses up one of the available sequence levels. This may not always be
the case. Some of the more complex predefined functions require
multiple sequence levels. Keep this point in mind if you are near the
limit on remaining sequence levels. The exact number of internal levels
required per function, and the remaining available levels, are shown
within the function library list. User functions, however, use only one
level almost all the time. The only instance where multiple levels are
used with the User function is when the "<" duration is assigned.
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Modify Trigger field
The Modify Trigger field allows you to modify the statements of any
single sequence level as well as perform other high-level actions like
global clearing of existing trigger statements, and adding or deleting
sequence levels. Break Down Functions/Restore Functions acts a bit
differently than the others.
Break Down Functions / Restore Functions
When a predefined function is broken down, the contents of that
function are displayed in the same long form used in the User function.
If the function uses multiple internal levels, all levels are separated out
and displayed in the sequence levels of the Trigger menu. Once the
functions in your trigger specification are broken down, Break Down
Functions changes to Restore Functions. Use Restore Functions to
restore all functions to their original structure.
When the function is in a broken-down form, you can change the
structure. However, when the functions are restored, all changes are
lost and any branching that is part of the original structure is restored.
Use Break Down Functions if you want to view a particular function
part in its long form to see the exact sequence flow. Breaking down
functions can also help in creating a custom trigger specification.
When a function is broken down, you have all the assignment fields and
branching options available as though they were a set of User
functions.
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Timing trigger function library
The following list contains all the functions in the library of timing
trigger functions. They are listed in the same order as they appear
onscreen.
User Mode
User level - custom combinations, loops
The User level is a user-definable level. This level offers low-level
configuration and uses one internal sequence level. If the "<" duration
is used, four levels are required.
Basic Functions
1. Find edge
This function becomes true when the designated edge is seen. It uses
one internal sequence level.
2. Find Nth occurrence of an edge
This function becomes true when it finds the designated occurrence of
a designated edge. It uses one internal sequence level.
3. Find pattern present/absent for > duration
This function becomes true when it finds a designated pattern that has
been present or absent for greater than or equal to the set duration. It
uses one internal sequence level.
4. Find pattern present/absent for < duration
This function becomes true when it finds a designated pattern that has
been present or absent for less than the set duration. It uses four or
five internal sequence levels.
5. Find anystate "n" times
This function becomes true when the first state it sees occurs "n"
number of times. It uses one internal sequence level.
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Pattern/Edge
1. Find edge and pattern
Combinations
This function becomes true when a selected edge type is seen at the
same time as a designated pattern. It uses one internal sequence level.
2. Find pattern occurring too soon after edge
This function becomes true when a designated pattern is seen
occurring within a set duration after a selected edge type is seen. It
uses three or four internal sequence levels.
3. Find pattern occurring too late after edge
This function becomes true when one selected edge type occurs, and
for a designated period of time after that first edge is seen, a pattern is
not seen. It uses two internal sequence levels.
Time Violations
1. Find 2 edges too close together
This function becomes true when a second selected edge is seen
occurring within a designated period of time after the occurrence of a
first selected edge. It uses three or four internal sequence levels.
2. Find 2 edges too far apart
This function becomes true when a second selected edge occurs
beyond a designated period of time after the first selected edge. It uses
two internal sequence levels.
3. Find width violation on a pattern/pulse
This function becomes true when the width of a pattern violates
designated minimum and maximum width settings. It uses four or five
internal sequence levels.
Delay
•
Wait "t" seconds
This function becomes true after a designated time period has expired.
It uses one internal sequence level.
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State trigger function library
The following list contains all the functions in the library of state
trigger functions. They are listed in the same order as they appear
onscreen.
User Mode
User level - custom combinations, loops
The User level is a user-definable level. This level offers low-level
configuration and uses one internal sequence level.
Basic Functions
1. Find event "n" times
This function becomes true when it sees a designated pattern
occurring a designated number of times consecutively or
nonconsecutively. It uses one internal sequence level.
2. Find event "n" consecutive times
This function becomes true when it sees a designated pattern
occurring a designated number of consecutive times. It uses one
internal sequence level.
3. Find event 2 immediately after event 1
This function becomes true when the first designated pattern is seen
immediately followed by a second designated pattern. It uses two
internal sequence levels.
4. Find anystate "n" times
This function becomes true when the first state it sees occurs "n"
number of times. It uses one internal sequence level.
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Sequence
1. Find event 2 "n" times after event 1 before event 3
occurs
Dependent functions
This function becomes true when it first finds a designated pattern 1,
followed by a selected number of occurrences of a designated pattern
2. In addition, if a designated pattern 3 is seen anytime while the
sequence is not yet true, the sequence starts over. If pattern 2's "nth"
occurrence is coincident with pattern 3, the sequence starts over. It
uses two internal sequence levels.
2. Find too few states between event 1 and event 2
This function becomes true when a designated pattern 1 is seen,
followed by a designated pattern 2, and with less than a selected
number of states occurring between the two patterns. It uses three or
four internal sequence levels.
3. Find too many states between event 1 and event 2
This function becomes true when a designated pattern 1 is seen,
followed by at least a selected number of states, then followed by a
designated pattern 2. It uses two internal sequence levels.
4. Find n-bit serial pattern
This function finds an "n" bit serial pattern on a designated channel and
a designated label. It uses "n" internal sequence levels.
Time Violations
1. Find event 2 occurring too soon after event 1
This function becomes true when a designated pattern 1 is seen,
followed by a designated pattern 2, and with less than a selected time
period occurring between the two patterns. It uses two internal
sequence levels.
2. Find event 2 occurring too late after event 1
This function becomes true when a designated pattern 1 is seen,
followed by at least a selected time period, before a designated pattern
2 occurs. It uses two internal sequence levels.
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Delay
1. Wait "n" external clock states
This function becomes true after a designated number of user clock
states have occurred. It uses one internal sequence level.
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Modifying the user function
Before you begin building a trigger specification using the user
function, it should be noted that in most cases one of the predefined
trigger functions will work.
If you need to accommodate a specific trigger condition, or you prefer
to construct a trigger specification from scratch, use the User function
as a starting point. This function appears in long form, which means it
has the analyzer's total flexibility available in terms of resource terms,
global timers, occurrence counters, duration counters, and two-way
branching.
The User function has a "fill-in-the-blanks" type statement. You have
the following elements to use:
•
Bit Patterns, Ranges, and Edges
•
Storage Qualification
•
< and > Durations
•
Occurrence Counters
•
Timers
•
Branching
A typical method used during a debug operation is to first trigger on a
known pattern, edge or range. From that point, it becomes an iterative
process of adding more levels to further filter the data. It is important
for you to know how to use such elements as occurrence counters,
timers, and branching, to zero in and trigger at the desired point.
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As the analyzer executes the trigger specification, it searches for a
match between the resource term value and the data. When a match is
found, that part of the sequence statement becomes true and the
sequencing continues to the next part of the statement or the next
sequence level.
Eventually a path of "true" resource terms leads to your trigger
command. If timers or occurrence counters are used, the analyzer
waits or counts occurrences of a specified value before continuing.
The following examples illustrate the use of resource terms,
occurrence counters, timers, branching, and store qualification. You
will use them in your trigger specification either by themselves or
combined with each other.
Using bit patterns, ranges, and edges
Bit patterns are set to match specific data values, and ranges are set to
match a range of bit patterns. In the Timing Acquisition mode, edges
are set to match specific edges of a timing pulse.
Using storage qualification
Store qualification lets you store all data, no data, or just selected data,
before trigger occurs.
Setting < and > durations (Timing only)
When a resource term is found during a timing sequence evaluation,
you can dictate how long the term must remain before it actually
becomes true. When less than (<) or greater than (>) duration is
assigned, the secondary branching (Else on) is not available.
> field. When greater than (>) is used, the analyzer continues
sequence level evaluation only after the resource term has been true
for greater than or equal to the amount of duration specified.
< field. When less than (<) is used, the analyzer continues sequence
level evaluation only after the resource term has been true for less than
or equal to the amount of duration specified. Using less than requires
four sequence levels.
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Using the Occurrence Counters
Occurs field. When "Occurs" is selected, the < and > duration
functions change to an occurrence counter. Use the occurrence
counter to delay sequence evaluation until the resource term has
occurred a designated number of times. If the "else on" branch
becomes true before all specified occurrences of the primary "Trigger
on" branch, the secondary "else on" branch is taken.
Using the timer
Timers are like other resource terms in that they are either true or
false. Timers can be set to Start, Stop, Pause, or Continue as the
analyzer enters a sequence level. The two timers are global, so each
sequence level can control the same timer. The default timer condition
in all sequence levels is Off.
Timers start as you enter the sequence level, and when the timer count
expires, the timer becomes true. If a timer is paused in one level, it
must be continued in another level before it can count through.
As more sequence levels are added, the timer status in the new levels
defaults to Off. Timers must be continued or started in each new level
as appropriate. When a timer expires or stops, its count resets to zero.
Branching
If either the less than or greater than duration is used, only the primary
branch is available. Otherwise, each sequence level except for the last
has two-way branching.
If the primary branch is taken, the analyzer goes to the next level. If the
primary branch is not found, the analyzer immediately evaluates the
"Else on" secondary branching term.
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If the "Else on" term is found, the secondary branch taken is to the
designated sequence level. If the "Else on" term is not found, the
analyzer continues to loop within the same sequence level until one of
the two branches is found. If the "Else on" branch is taken, the
occurrence counter is reset even if the "go to level" branch is back to
the same level. If both branches are found true at the same time, the
primary branch is taken.
Branching across the trigger level is possible. If this occurs, the
sequence level evaluation could loop without ever seeing a trigger
term. Be careful in designing your sequence instructions.
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Resource terms
Resource terms are user-defined variables that are assigned to
sequence levels. They are placed into the sequence statement where
their bit pattern or edge type is searched for within the data stream.
When a match is found, a branch is initiated and the next statement or
sequence level is acted upon. Resource terms take the following forms:
•
Bit pattern terms a-j
•
Range terms 1 and 2
•
Edge terms 1 and 2 (Timing only)
•
Global timers 1 and 2
All resource terms and timer terms are listed in a scrollable Terms field.
To view all offscreen terms, select the Terms field, then use the knob to
roll the terms list onscreen.
When the logic analyzer is configured as a state analyzer, you can use
any of the ten bit pattern terms, range terms, or timers in your trigger
specification. When you configure the logic analyzer as a timing
analyzer, you can use any of these terms plus the edge terms.
Bit pattern terms a-j
You can set a bit pattern consisting of any combination of 1s, 0s, or Xs
(don't cares) for the 10 terms a ƒ j. Bit pattern terms can also take the
NOT form of a - j.
Range terms 1 and 2
Two range terms are available which can be set to a range of bit pattern
values. The first pattern and the last pattern are part of the range
which must be matched.
Range terms take the form of either In Range, or the NOT form of Out
Range.
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Edge terms 1 and 2 (Timing only)
The two edge terms are only available in the timing analyzer. Each edge
term is assigned positive-going, negative-going, or any-transition edge
type, or glitch.
Global timers 1 and 2
In addition to the resource terms available, there are two global timers
available. Each timer can be started, paused, continued, or stopped
from any sequence level except the first.
Assigning resource term names and values
The Terms field identifies the list of available resource terms within the
analyzer. A resource term can be assigned to only one machine at a
time. The resource term names (a - j, Edge1, Edge2, Range1, Range2)
are default names that can be changed. You assign values in the
following two ways:
•
Using Preset Values
•
Assigning Bit by Bit
Changing resource properties. When any of the individual term
fields are selected, a configuration pop-up menu appears. Use this popup menu to quickly set the resource term to a preset value.
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Using Preset Values
Assign. Assign toggles which machine the term is assigned to. All of
the available resource terms except the Edge terms can be assigned to
any analyzer. However, a term can only be assigned to one analyzer at a
time.
Rename. Rename lets you change the term name. This function works
for all terms.
Clear (=X). Clear sets the terms to their broadest possible meaning.
For terms a - j, the assignment field is set to all Xs (don't cares). For
Range 1 and 2, the boundaries are set to the maximum and minimum
values. For Timers 1 and 2, the assignment field is set to a minimum
time of 400 ns. For Edge 1 and 2, the assignment field is set to don't
cares.
Set (=1). In terms a - j, the assignment field is set to its maximum
value, with all bits set to 1. This option is not available for the Range,
Timer, and Edge terms.
Reset (=0). In terms a - j, the assignment field is set to its minimum
value, with all bits set to 0. This option is not available for the Range,
Timer, and Edge terms.
Assigning Bit by Bit
Bit pattern terms. Just to the right of the bit pattern name fields are
the term assignment fields. When any of the individual assignment
fields are selected, a keypad appears. Use this keypad to assign real
values or Don't Care (X) values.
Edge terms. Assign edge terms the same way you do bit pattern
terms. Edge terms can be used singularly or in combination with each
other across all assigned channels. When you specify an edge on more
than one channel, the analyzer ORs the edges.
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After the assignment menu closes, you may see "$" indicators in the
field display. A "$" indicates the assignment can't be displayed in the
selected base because of Don't Cares. When you display the
assignment in binary, however, you can see the actual pattern.
Range terms. Range terms require an upper and lower bit pattern
boundary. The range is recognized as the data that is numerically
between or on the two specified boundaries. In addition, the range
must be contained in a single label across a single pod pair, with no
clock bits allowed.
Timer terms. Timers are either true or false. Timers start as you enter
the sequence level, and when the count expires, the it becomes true. If
a timer is paused in one level, it must be continued in another level
before it can count through.
As more sequence levels are added, the timer status in the new levels
defaults to Off. Timers must be continued or started in each new level
if it is appropriate. When a timer expires or stops, its count resets to
zero.
Combination of terms
Combination terms are configured and selected from within trigger
sequence levels. All user-defined resource terms can be combined to
create complex qualifiers that occupy a single assignment field space.
When you select the term field in a Sequence Level menu, a pop-up
selection list appears. If you then select "Combination," a logical
assignment menu appears. Use this menu to turn on resource terms
and input them into a chain of logical operators.
When the combination is placed in the assignment field, if the term is
too long to fit in the assignment field, the display is truncated.
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Arming Control field
Arming Control sets up the order of triggering for complicated
measurements involving more than one machine. You can set the logic
analyzer to begin running when it receives a signal from an external
machine, have one analyzer start the other, or have one analyzer send a
signal to another external machine. The default configuration has both
analyzers running independently without external communications.
Arming control between analyzers
If both analyzers are turned on, you can configure one analyzer to arm
the other. When you select the analyzer name in the Arming Control
menu, a pop-up menu for selecting where the Arm In signal is coming
from appears. This pop-up menu also selects the sequence level in
which an "arm" flag is placed.
When an analyzer receives an Arm In signal, the arm term in the userselected sequence level becomes true. If the analyzer was waiting at a
trigger sequence level for the arm term, the analyzer begins evaluating
the rest of that sequence level. However, if the arm term is not part of
the current sequence level, the preceding sequencing could trigger the
analyzer before the arm term is seen. Generally, the arm term is
evaluated and used the same as the other resource terms within the
sequence instruction.
Arming control using external BNCs
A more complex arming example involves passing arm signals in and
out through the External BNCs on the rear panel. In the Arming
Control menu, the External Triggers are called "Port In" and "Port Out".
“PORT IN” can be selected in the Arming Control menu for the
analyzer, scope or pattern generator, and “PORT OUT” can be selected
in the Port Out key for the modules.
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One possible scenario is to have several test instruments and a logic
analyzer connected to a complex target system. The analyzer is armed
by an external Arm In signal from another test/measurement entity.
After the first analyzer triggers, it arms the second analyzer. After the
second analyzer triggers, it sends a Port Out signal through the
external BNC. This signal is used to arm another external test/
measurement entity.
The Arm Out signal can be generated by either one of the two local
analyzers.
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Acquisition Control field
Selecting the Acquisition Control field pops up the Acquisition Control
menu. The Acquisition Control menu sets the acquisition mode, the
trigger position within acquisition memory, and the sample period.
Acquisition Mode field
The Acquisition Mode field toggles between Manual and Automatic.
When set to Automatic, the position of stored data relative to trigger
and the sample rate are based on the sec/Div and delay settings in the
Waveform menu.
When Acquisition Mode is set to Manual, additional configuration fields
become available. The additional configuration fields work together
with the sequence instructions in a prioritized manner to position the
memory relative to the trigger point. A small picture at the bottom of
the menu displays the sum effect of all the settings on the trigger
position within memory.
Memory Length
The Memory Length field set the amount of memory to be used for
acquisition. It applies to all acquisition modes. Only discrete sizes are
available (see “To set the memory length” on page 91). If you enter a
number with the keyboard, it is rounded to the nearest available
discrete size.
Trigger Position field
The Trigger Position field sets how much information is stored before
and after the trigger. When a run is started, a timing analyzer will not
look for a trigger until at least the proper percent of pre-trigger data
has been stored. A state analyzer will trigger at the first occurrence of
the trigger, but will notify you that the prestore was not completed.
After a trigger has been detected, the rest of memory is filled before
the analyzer halts.
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In a timing analyzer, even when the trigger position is set to Start or
End, there will always be a small portion of pre-trigger and post-trigger
data stored. Most of the choices designate prestore and poststore
percentages, but the Delay setting affects when the memory begins
storing data relative to the trigger.
Delay (Timing only)
The Delay field delays the start of acquisition storage after the trigger.
The delay time range is affected by the sample period but could range
from 16 ns to 8 ks. As the picture in the pop-up menu shows, any data
falling between the trigger and the delay time is not stored.
Branches Taken Stored / Not Stored field
The Branches Taken field is a toggle field that sets the analyzer to
store, or not to store, the resource term that sent the analyzer off on a
branch.
As the analyzer steps through the sequence instructions, it may take
either branch of a sequence level. With Branches Taken set to Stored,
the state data values that caused the branch are stored. When the
analyzer is set to Branches Taken Not Stored, only the data you
explicitly designate in the sequence levels is stored.
The Branches Taken Stored/Not Stored is not available when the
analyzer is configured as a timing analyzer.
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Count field (State only)
The Count field accesses a selection menu which indicates whether
acquisition data is stamped with a Time tag or a State Count tag.
Time and State tags
If you have all pod pairs assigned, the state acquisition memory is
reduced by half when time or state tags are turned on. You can
maintain full memory depth if you leave a specified pod pair
unassigned.
States. States places numbered tags on all data relative to the trigger.
Pre-trigger data has negative numbers and post-trigger data has
positive. In the display menus, State numbering is either relative to the
previous memory location or absolute from the trigger point. You can
set it in the display menus by toggling the Absolute/Relative field.
Time. Count time places time tags on all displayed data. Data stored
before triggering has negative time numbers and data stored after
triggering has positive time numbers. Time tag numbering is set to be
either relative to the previous memory location or absolute from the
trigger point. Selecting the Absolute or Relative option is done by
toggling the Absolute/Relative field. Time tag resolution is 8 ns.
To retain full memory using time or state tags. To retain full
memory depth when using time or state tags requires that one pod pair
be unassigned. The exact pair to unassign varies. Generally, it is best to
unassign one of the middle pod pairs. If you have two analyzers
configured, the ends must be assigned to different analyzers.
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The Listing Menu
The Listing Menu
Markers
The Markers field accesses the markers selection menu. When the
Markers field is selected, a marker selection menu appears with the
marker choices appropriate for the present analyzer configuration.
Off
The Off selection turns off marker operations but does not turn off
operations based on the markers. For example, if a stop measurement
was previously specified and the stop measurement criteria are met,
the measurement will stop even though the markers are off.
Pattern markers
Pattern markers identify and mark unique bit patterns in the data
listing. Once the unique bit patterns are marked, you can use them as
reference points or as criteria for a stop measurement.
When a marker is positioned in the Listing menu, it is also positioned in
the Chart menu and Waveform menu, but not in the Mixed Display
menu.
State analyzer markers
In a state analyzer with Count Off in the Trigger menu, only Pattern
markers are available. With Count Time turned on, Time markers and
Statistics markers become available. With Count States turned on,
State markers become available.
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The Listing Menu
Timing analyzer markers
Timing analyzers always have marker choices of Pattern, Time, or
Statistics. Timing analyzers do not have state markers. The pattern
markers, though, can be used to count intervening patterns.
Stop measurement field
The stop measurement function specifies a condition that stops the
analyzer measurement during a repetitive run. If two analyzers are
configured, both analyzers stop when either specified stop condition is
satisfied.
Off . The Off selection turns all Stop measurement operations off. If
the stop measurement operation is not turned off and the stop
measurement criteria is met, the measurement will stop even though
the markers are set to other types or turned off.
X-O. The X-O option is available in the Timing analyzer and in the
State analyzer with its count set to Time.
When X-O is selected, a repetitive run is stopped when a comparison of
the time period between the X and O markers and one of the time
period options is true.
Compare. When you select Compare, a repetitive run is stopped when
a comparison of data in the Listing menu and data and criteria in the
Reference listing of the Compare menu matches an equality selection.
The equality selection is set from the Equal/Not Equal selection pop-up
menu.
Statistics markers
After patterns are assigned to the X and O markers, statistical
information is available when markers are set to Statistics.
In a State analyzer, Statistics markers only become available when the
Trigger menu Count field is set to Time.
Statistics are based on the time between the X and O. Both markers
must be found before valid statistical information is displayed.
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The Waveform Menu
The Waveform Menu
sec/Div field
When acquisition control is set to automatic, the sec/Div field affects
the sample period. Timing waveforms are reconstructed relative to the
sample period. A shorter sample period puts more sample points on the
waveform for a more accurate reconstruction but also fills memory
more quickly.
If the sec/Div is changed resulting in a change in the next sample
period, you must run the analyzer again before the current sample
period display is updated. The sample period is shown in the second
row from the top when the markers are turned off.
Accumulate field
The Accumulate field controls whether old data is cleared or displayed
along with new data. The Accumulate field will toggle On/Off. When
Accumulate is on, the analyzer displays the data from a current
acquisition on top of the previously acquired data. When Accumulate is
off, the display is cleared before each new run cycle.
If you leave the Waveform menu, or pop up a menu over the waveform
display, any accumulated display data is lost and the accumulation
process starts over.
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The Waveform Menu
Delay field
Depending on the analyzer configuration, a positive or negative delay
measured in either states (State only) or time (Timing only) can be set.
The Delay field lets you scroll the data and place the display window at
center screen. Changing the delay will not affect the data acquisition
unless it is a timing analyzer and the acquisition mode is automatic. In
this case, the sample period changes.
The delay range of a timing analyzer is from -2500 seconds to +2500
seconds. The delay range of a state analyzer is dependent on memory
length and cannot exceed total memory size.
Waveform label field
The waveform label field, located on the left side of the waveform
display, is both a display and configuration field. After all desired
waveforms are configured for display, they are listed in the waveform
label field. If there are more waveforms than can be displayed, you can
roll the list by selecting the waveform label field, then after the roll
indicator appears, turn the knob.
If the waveform label field is selected a second time, a waveform
modification menu appears. Use this menu to configure the waveform
display.
When the waveform modification menu appears, select the operation
to insert, replace, delete, or scale waveforms into the display. You can
display a maximum of 24 waveforms on screen at one time.
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The Waveform Menu
Viewing state values in the bus option
When all assigned waveforms in a label are overlaid with the Bus
option, the value of the data is displayed in the base selected in the
Listing menu to the right of each new transition in the waveform
display. This happens only when the waveform size is set to large.
If the sec/Div is set to view a large increment of time, or the waveform
scaling is set to small or medium, the state data readout does not fit
between transitions. To display the state data readouts within the
waveform, expand the sec/Div and use the large waveform setting.
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The Waveform Menu
Waveform display
At the bottom of the Waveform menu is a reference line which displays
the relative location of the display window, the markers, and the trigger
point with reference to the total memory.
Total memory is represented by a horizontal dotted line. The display
window is represented by an overlaid solid line. The markers and
trigger point are represented by small dots above the total memory
line, and an X, O, and t label, all of which are located below the total
memory line.
Waveform Display
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The Mixed Display Menu
The Mixed Display Menu
The Mixed Display menu combines a state listing display located at the
top of the menu and a waveform display located at the bottom of the
menu. The Mixed Display menu shows both state and timing data in the
same display.
The Mixed Display menu only becomes available when at least one
analyzer is configured as a state analyzer, with its Count field in the
Trigger menu set to Time. If two state analyzers are configured, both
state listing displays can be interleaved as well as shown separately,
however, the listing menus are the best display menus for a two-state
analyzer configuration.
The waveform display area shows timing analyzer waveforms from the
configured timing analyzer, the oscilloscope waveform
(analyzers with the oscilloscope option), or both.
Interleaving state listings
Interleaved state listings lets you view two labels and their data from
different analyzers in the same column. The process of interleaving
state listings can be performed in either the Listing menu or the Mixed
Display menu. For example, if data is interleaved in the Listing menu, it
will be automatically interleaved in the Mixed Display menu.
The interleaved label is placed directly above the selected label, and all
interleaved data is displayed in yellow. In addition, the state numbers
of the interleaved data are indented to the right. Because of the lack of
room available in the listing portion of the Mixed Display menu, the
label identifying the interleaved data is not displayed. For this reason,
when two state analyzers are configured the listing menus should be
used to display interleaved labels.
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The Mixed Display Menu
Time-correlated displays
Once the Time markers are set in the Waveform display area of the
Mixed Display menu, time-correlated X and O Time markers will be
displayed in both the listing and the waveform display areas.
Markers
The markers in the Mixed Display menu are not the same as the
markers in the individual Listing and Waveform menus. First, Mixed
Display only has time markers. Second, markers placed in the
individual waveform and listing menus will not transfer to the Mixed
Display menu. You must place new Time markers on your points of
interest in the Mixed Display.
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The Chart Menu
The Chart Menu
State Chart is a software post-processing feature that provides the
ability to build x-y charts of label activity using state data. The Chart
menu builds a graphical representation of the system under test. The Y
axis always represents data values for a specified label. You can select
whether the X axis represents states (rows in the state listing) or the
data values for another label.
When the X-axis is set to State, X and O markers are available which
display the current sample relative to the trace point and the
corresponding Y-axis data value. Marker placement is synchronized
with the normal state listing.
An accumulate mode is available that allows the chart display to build
up over several runs.
You can generate x-y charts of Label vs. Label or Label vs. State.
Label vs. Label charts
When labels are assigned to both axes, the chart shows how the data
acquired under one label varies relative to the other for a particular
measurement. Label values are always plotted in ascending order from
the bottom to the top of the chart and in ascending order from left to
right across the chart. Plotting a label against itself will result in a
diagonal line from the lower left to upper right corner. All markers are
disabled when plotting this kind of chart.
Label vs. State charts
Label versus State is a plot of data values acquired under a label versus
the memory location of the same data. The label value is plotted
against successive memory location numbers.
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The Chart Menu
Min and Max scaling fields
When State is selected for the X axis, the minimum and maximum
values can range from -1 M to +1 M, depending on the trace point
location.
When Label is selected for either axis, the minimum and maximum
values range from 00000000 hex to FFFFFFFF hex regardless of the
axis, because labels are restricted to 32 bits.
Markers/Range field
The Marker/Range field is a toggle field. If the field is set to Range, X
and Y range fields become available to set the chart minimum and
maximum range points. If the field is set to Markers, a marker selection
menu appears with marker choices available with the present analyzer
configuration.
In a state analyzer with Count Off in the Trigger menu, only Pattern
markers are available. With Count Time on, Time markers and Statistics
markers become available. With Count States on, States markers are
available. The markers function just like those of the Waveform and
Listing displays.
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The Chart Menu
Axis Control field
Axis Control pops up a menu that lets you select what will appear on
the X and Y axes, what base the measurements display in, and how
much of the memory appears onscreen.
Chart Axis Control Menu
Base. The base fields control the base that the markers and other
onscreen values appear in. If you are charting label versus label, you
can set the two labels to use different bases.
Memory Charted. The two values in the line “Plot from State thru
State” control how much of the memory can be examined. The
minimum and maximum values are based on the size of the data in
memory. Setting these fields to show only a subset of your data will
speed up display.
X max, X min, Y max, and Y min. These values are the maximum
and minimum values of the axes. Use these to focus in on a particular
area. In label versus state charts, the X fields do not appear.
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The Chart Menu
Rescale field
The Rescale field allows you to zoom in on a particular area, or move
back to viewing the entire chart. To use Rescale, place your markers to
box in an area you want to focus on, and then select one of the
“between markers” choices. To move back to the big picture, choose
Full Scale. You can also get a larger picture by setting the markers
outside the current boundaries and choosing one of the “between
markers” options.
When more data is available above or below the currently displayed
data, “clip” is displayed just to the left of the corner of the display.
If you rescale the area between markers and you do not see your data,
check the memory charted fields.
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The Compare Menu
The Compare Menu
State Compare is a software postprocessing feature that compares bitby-bit the acquired state data listing and a reference listing. State
Compare is only available when at least one analyzer is configured as a
State analyzer.
The comparison between the acquired state listing data and the data in
the reference listing is done relative to the trigger points. This means
that the two data records are aligned at the trigger points and then
compared bit-by-bit.
Any bits in the acquired data that do not match the bits in the compare
image are treated as unequal.
You can separately view the acquired data, the reference listing, and a
listing that highlights the bits in the acquired data that do not match
the corresponding bits in the reference listing.
You can edit the reference listing for unique comparisons.
You can mask specific bits that you do not want to compare. These
"Don't compare" bits can be specified individually for a given label and
state row, or specified by channel across all state rows.
You can select a range of states to compare. When a range is selected,
only the bits in states on or between the specified boundaries are
compared. Also, you can save the reference listing along with the
analyzer configuration to disk.
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The Compare Menu
Reference Listing field
The Reference Listing field is a toggle field that switches the listing
type between the Reference image listing and the Difference listing.
The Reference listing is a display of the image (or template) that
acquired data is compared to during a comparison measurement. The
boundaries of the image (or size of the template) are controlled by
using the channel masking and compare range functions. Any bits in
the reference listing displayed as "X" have been set to don't care bits
during bit editing.
When the data listing is rolled, the difference data listing and the data
listing in the Listing menu are also rolled.
Difference Listing field
The Difference Listing field is a toggle field that switches the listing
type between the Reference image listing and the Difference listing.
The Difference listing is a display of the acquired data listing with the
data that differs, if any, from the Reference listing, highlighted with
inverse video. If the base is inverse assembled symbols, the entire line
is highlighted with inverse video.
The controls that roll the listing in all three menus (the normal State
listing, the Reference listing, and the Difference listing) are
synchronized unless the number of pre-trigger states differ between
the Reference listing and the acquired data.
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The Compare Menu
This means that when you change the current row position in the
Difference listing, the analyzer automatically updates the current row
in the acquired State listing and Reference listing, and vice-versa.
If the three listings are synchronized and you acquire data again, the
Reference listing may have a different number of pre-trigger states
depending on the trigger criteria. The Reference listing can be
resynchronized to the State and Difference listings by entering the
desired state (acquisition memory) location from the front-panel
keypad.
This lets you view corresponding areas of all lists, to cross check
alignment, and to analyze the bits that do not match.
Copy Listing to Reference field
The initial Reference image is generated by either copying the data
listing from the listing menu or by loading an analyzer configuration file
which contains a Reference listing. Be aware that if you load an
analyzer configuration to get a Reference image, the other menu setups
will change.
When the Copy Listing to Reference field is selected, the contents of
the acquisition data structure (Listing menu display) are copied to the
Reference image buffer. The previous Reference image is lost if it has
not been saved to a disk.
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The Compare Menu
Find Error field
The Find Error field lets you easily locate any patterns that do not
match in the current comparison. Occurrences of differences or errors
are found in numerical ascending order from the start of the listing.
The first occurrence of an error has the numerical value of one.
You select which error number to find by highlighting the Find Error
field and entering a number from the front-panel keypad. If the roll
indicator is in the Find Error field, simply turn the knob. The listing is
then scanned sequentially until the specified occurrence is found and
rolled into view.
Compare Full/Compare Partial field
The Compare Full/Compare Partial field is a toggle field which lets you
compare either the full range of states or define a subset of the total
number of states in the Reference image to be used in the comparison.
The Compare mode is accessed by selecting the Compare Full/
Compare Partial field in either the Compare or Difference listing
menus. When selected, a pop-up appears in which you select either the
Full or Partial option.
When you select the Partial option, fields appear for setting the start
state and stop state values. Only bits in states (lines) on or between the
boundaries are compared against the acquired data.
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The Compare Menu
Mask field
The channel masking field is used to specify a bit, or bits in each label
that you do not want compared. This causes the corresponding bits in
all states to be ignored in the comparison. The Reference data image
itself remains unchanged on the display.
When you select the Mask field an assignment pop-up appears in which
you specify which channels are to be compared and which channels are
to be masked. A "." (period) indicates a don't compare mask for that
channel and an "*" (asterisk) indicates that channel is to be compared.
Bit Editing field
The bit editing fields are located in the center of the Reference listing
display. A bit editing field exists for every label in the display unless the
label's base is ASCII or inverse assembled symbols. The bit editing field
lets you modify the values of individual bits in the Reference image or
specify them as don't compare bits.
You access data in the Reference listing by rolling the data listing using
the knob until the data is located in the bit editing field. To enter a
desired pattern or don't compare (X) for a bit, select the field and use
the front-panel keypad.
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10
System Performance Analysis (SPA)
Software
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System Performance Analysis Software
System Performance Analysis Software
The System Performance Analysis (SPA) software is included as
standard software in the 1670G-series logic analyzers.
SPA provides you with a set of functions for performing statistical
analysis on your target system. Its functions include State Overview,
State Histogram, and Time Interval modes.
To be successful with this software, you should be familiar with the
operation of the logic analyzer.
This chapter is organized as follows:
•
"What is System Performance Analysis?" outlines typical SPA applications,
and describes the operating characteristics for each SPA mode.
•
"Getting started" describes how to access the SPA menus and how to select
the SPA modes and set the specifications.
•
"SPA measurement processes" is a detailed description of the
measurement processes used by the SPA package. This theory of operation
explains how the SPA software samples and sorts the data from the target
system, and how the onscreen measurement values are computed for the
State Overview, State Histogram, and Time Interval modes.
•
State Overview, State Histogram, and Time Interval" leads you through the
State Overview, State Histogram, and Time Interval modes. It also tells how
to set up SPA for the three modes, how to interpret the acquired data, and
how to make measurements on specific areas of interest.
•
"Using SPA with other features" tells you how to use SPA with other
features.
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Error messages and warnings used by SPA are the same as those used
by each of the logic analyzers. Refer to page 421 for descriptions of
these messages.
If you need programming information, refer to the Agilent Technologies
1670G Series Logic Analyzers Programmer’s Guide. It is available from
your Agilent Technologies Sales Office.
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What is System Performance Analysis?
The logic analyzer's state or timing analyzer is used to make
quantitative measurements on specific events in the target system. For
example, they can measure a specific time interval on a
microprocessor's control lines or can find out how a particular
subroutine was called.
System Performance Analysis, on the other hand, is used for qualitative
measurements on the target system. SPA provides statistical analysis
functions so you can determine how efficiently your target system is
operating.
SPA repeatedly samples signals of interest, such as an address bus or
the output of a counter. The multiple data sets from the repeated
sampling are then used to build histograms and compile statistics that
describe your target system's performance over time.
Some typical examples of SPA applications include:
•
Obtain an overview of system activity.
•
Identify software problems that lock up the microprocessor.
•
Determine the best-case and worst-case execution times for a software
module or a state machine.
•
Establish standards for software modules or state machines.
•
Identify inefficient use of mass storage and other peripherals.
•
Evaluate memory utilization, such as illegal access in protected portions of
memory, and locality of execution.
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Operating characteristics
The following describes the operating characteristics of the System
Performance Analysis software for the three SPA measurement modes.
State Overview
The State Overview mode displays a bar chart of a label's state value
versus the relative number of occurrences of each value in the defined
range of the label. State Overview is available on any label defined in
the Format Specification.
•
The X axis is the defined range for the specified label which is divided into
256 buckets.
•
The range of the specified label is user-definable.
•
The Y axis is the relative number of occurrences in each bucket.
•
The maximum value of the Y axis is constantly updated to reflect the
number of occurrences in the bucket that has the most occurrences, and is
displayed as "Max count".
•
The total number of states sampled for the selected label is presented as
Total count. This includes states that may be outside the user-specified
Xaxis range.
•
Two markers are available on the X axis to determine the range of a bucket
and number of occurrences in any bucket.
•
Choice of base for a specified label is user-definable.
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State Histogram
The State Histogram mode displays states that occur within userdefined ranges of a label. State Histogram is available on any label
defined in the Format Specification.
•
The maximum number of ranges is 11.
•
Other States included/excluded is available and displays a histogram of all
states not covered by the user-defined ranges.
•
You can trace All States or patterned Qualified States.
•
Total samples displays the total number of occurrences in all displayed
ranges.
•
The choice of base for specified label is user-definable.
Time Interval
The Time Interval mode displays time intervals between user-defined
start and end events.
•
Start and end events can be defined over all labels defined in the Format
Specification.
•
10 ns is the minimum sample period and time interval resolution.
•
The maximum number of time interval ranges is 8.
•
The time interval range size is 10 ns to 9,999,999 seconds.
•
Calculated statistics provides Maximum time, Minimum time, Average
time, and Total number of time intervals sampled (one time interval
defined to be a paired start/end event).
•
The auto-range feature automatically scales the eight time intervals over
maximum and minimum times using a logarithmic scale or linear scale.
•
Choice of base for labels is user-definable.
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Getting started
This section describes how to access the System Performance Analysis
(SPA) menus. Also, it describes selecting the SPA modes and setting
the specifications.
Accessing the menus
The SPA menus are accessed through the Analyzer Configuration
menu. When the configuration menu is displayed, select the Type field
and choose SPA from the pop-up.
Configuring an Analyzer for SPA
Selecting State Overview, State Histogram, or Time
Interval modes
To access one of the three SPA modes, select the analyzer menu field
after configuring one of the analyzers as SPA and select SPA.
Once in the SPA menu, you can move from State Overview, State
Histogram, or Time Interval Modes by selecting the Trace Mode field as
shown in the SPA menu on the next page. A pop-up menu appears, and
you can select one of the three SPA modes in the pop-up.
NOTE:
If you change modes while the logic analyzer is acquiring data, it will stop the
acquisition.
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Setting up the State Format specification
When a State or Timing analyzer is changed to SPA, SPA will retain the
State or Timing Format specification. For complete details on changing
from a State or Timing Analyzer to SPA, see "Using SPA with other
features."
The State and Timing format specification menus provide symbol
tables. You can use any defined symbols to specify the Low and High
values in State Overview to define the ranges and the qualified states in
State Histogram, or to specify the Start and End conditions in Time
Interval.
Your ability to use existing State or Timing configurations with SPA
depends on your application and target system. If your SPA
measurement uses the same physical signals from the target system as
an existing State or Timing configuration, it may be easier to load the
state or timing configuration from the disk instead of entering a new
one.
This manual assumes you already have a basic understanding of the
Analyzer Format menu, and it will not be covered here.
Default SPA Menu
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SPA measurement processes
This section introduces you to the measurement processes of the
System Performance Analysis (SPA) software. It tells you how to select
the appropriate trace mode and labels. It also explains how SPA
samples and sorts data.
Selecting and changing trace modes
SPA has three trace modes: State Overview, State Histogram, and Time
Interval. These are selected by the Trace Mode field in the SPA data
display.
Only the currently displayed trace mode is affected during an
acquisition. While acquiring and viewing data in one trace mode, the
other two trace modes are not updated. If the trace mode or any other
critical variable is changed during an acquisition, the logic analyzer
stops the acquisition and displays "Warning: Run HALTED due to
variable change."
Each trace mode only performs statistics on its own database.
Therefore, if acquisitions are completed in two different trace modes,
the two modes will not contain the same data.
For example, you select the State Overview mode and press the Run
key. After the data accumulates for a period, press Stop. You then
select the Time Interval mode and the screen is blank since no data has
been acquired in this mode. You again press Run, and let data
accumulate and press Stop. In this example, two separate data sets are
acquired, the first for State Overview mode, the second for Time
Interval. You can now move between the modes and see the correct
data for the associated measurement.
This separate acquisition data applies to all three trace modes. In this
way, three separate views of the target system can be acquired and
stored in SPA.
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Sampling methods and data sorting
SPA provides a statistical summary of target system behavior over
time. The greater the number of samples, the more accurate the
statistics. Therefore, SPA should always be run in the Repetitive mode.
By doing this, the analyzer will continue to sample the data and update
the display until Stop is pressed or until a sampling variable is changed
on the display.
After SPA completes an acquisition, each sample in the current
acquisition is compared to the ranges or buckets for the current trace
mode. If the sample matches a range or bucket, it is sorted into that
range or bucket. This process is repeated for every sample in the
acquisition. After the entire acquisition has been sorted, the
histograms and displayed statistics are updated, and the analyzer is rearmed for the next acquisition.
Refer to the following sections on the three trace modes for details on
sorting criteria and statistical computation.
Between each successive acquisition, there is blind time during which
the captured data is unloaded and sorted, the display is updated, and
the analyzer is restarted. The length of the blind time is a function of
the complexity of the SPA measurement.
Selecting and changing labels
A label in Agilent Technologies logic analyzers is defined in the Format
menu. A label is any named group of 32 or fewer data channels.
The State Overview and State Histogram modes monitor one label at a
time. Any labels that are defined in the Format Specification are
available. A typical example is the ADDR (address) label used in many
of the Agilent Technologies inverse assembler configurations. Often,
SPA measurements will use the ADDR label to monitor memory
activity.
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Qualified State Histogram and Time Interval modes use all of the labels
in the Format Specification to define either the qualified state or the
start and stop events, respectively. While State Overview and State
Histogram deal with recorded states, Time Interval deals with time.
NOTE:
Changing from one label to another in State Overview or State Histogram
mode or changing the Start or End pattern in Time Interval erases any
configuration and data for the original label. When returning to the original
label, the display returns to its default mode. Loss of configurations and data
when changing between labels can be prevented by saving configurations of
interest to the disk before making the change, or by printing the results.
State Overview mode
State Overview mode is an X-versus-Y chart of the activity on a
specified label. It provides a global view of the distribution of activity of
the target system signals grouped under the specified label.
X axis scaling. The X axis represents the defined range of the
specified label and is divided into a series of buckets, or smaller ranges.
The range of the X axis is defined by the Low value and High value
fields, and is divided equally among 256 buckets. For example, if the
range defined by the low and high values is 1100, then 1100 divided by
256 equals 4.29. This value will be rounded up to 5, each bucket will
have a range of 5, and only 220 buckets will be used (1100/5 = 220).
The display grid will be truncated on the right because only 220
buckets are displayed.
If the full range of the label or the portion of the label defined by the
Low value and High value is less than 255, then the number of buckets
will be the difference between the Low and High values.
The Low and High values can be specified as discrete values in Binary,
Octal, Decimal, or Hexadecimal. If Symbols have been defined in the
Format Specification, they can also be used for the low and high values.
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Data sampling and sorting. When Run is pressed, all input channels
defined in the Format Specification are sampled. Once acquired, the
sampled data is sorted into the buckets of the specified label, and the
State Overview display is updated. The acquisition is repeated until
Stop is pressed or until a display variable is changed.
Y axis scaling. The display builds a vertical histogram where the Y
axis represents the relative number of occurrences in each of the
buckets. As successive acquisitions are acquired and sorted, the
display is constantly re-scaled vertically so that the upper limit of the Y
axis represents the largest number of occurrences in any bucket.
The Y axis maximum limit is displayed in Max count.
Total count. The Total count field is the total number of states
sampled over the entire label range since the measurement was
started.
X and O markers. Markers can be placed on any bucket to determine
the number of occurrences in that bucket. The X Mark count and O
Mark count fields display the number of occurrences at the markers.
The markers move only on the bucket boundaries.
The range of each bucket can be determined by selecting the Xmarker
or Omarker fields and noting the change in the marker value in the
pop-up as the marker is moved slowly across the display.
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Example
State Overview example
An example of a State Overview measurement is testing for access to a
reserved area of memory. In this case, the address bus of the target
system would need to be grouped under a single label, such as ADDR.
By selecting the ADDR label in State Overview mode, and by defining
the full range of the label (Low value = 0000, High value = FFFF with a
16-bit ADDR label), activity over the entire address range can be
monitored. Access into reserved memory is easily identified.
By selecting only the range of the reserved area of memory with the
Low and High values, the number of address values per bucket is
decreased and a more detailed analysis can be performed.
The figure below shows a State Overview display.
SPA State Overview Menu
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State Histogram mode
State Histogram mode displays relative activity of ranges of a specified
label. The ranges can also be compared to activity on the rest of the
label not defined in the ranges. Data qualification is possible with State
Histogram, so data can be filtered during acquisition.
Data sampling and sorting. When Run is pressed, all input channels
defined in the Format Specification are sampled. Once acquired, each
sample in the acquisition is compared to each defined range. If the
sample value is inclusively within the range and if the range is on, the
count for that range is incremented, then the State Histogram display
is updated. The acquisition is repeated until Stop is pressed or until a
display variable is changed.
The histogram is displayed on a percentage scale, and each bar
represents the fraction of all samples in that range. For example, if a
bar reaches the 40% value on the display, then the range for that bar
contains 40% of all the samples displayed. If the total percentages of all
bars equals greater than 100%, then ranges have been overlapped and
data has been counted twice.
State Histogram vs. State Overview. State Histogram is similar to
State Overview, but there are key differences between the two modes.
State Overview shows relative distribution of activity over a single
contiguous range of a label. State Histogram also allows several noncontiguous ranges of a label to be defined.
State Overview requires minimal setup, and provides a quick overview
of system activity. State Histogram requires more setup, but provides
greater resolution and measurement flexibility.
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State Overview mode does not display data that falls out of the range of
its Low and High values. State Histogram, on the other hand, has an
"Other States included/excluded" feature that will present a histogram
of any activity that does not fall into the defined ranges (see "Other
States included/ excluded," later in this section).
State Overview samples and displays all activity on the specified label.
But State Histogram allows data qualification so that only activity of
interest is sampled and displayed (see "Trace Type: All States vs.
Qualified States," later in this section).
Range specifiers. A maximum of 11 ranges are available. The ranges
are defined by specifying a low and high value on the specified label
and by a name you define. The ranges need not be contiguous. If two
ranges overlap in any manner, acquired data will be counted in both
ranges.
If a range has a low and high value and a name defined, and the range is
turned off, it will retain the low and high value and name when turned
back on.
User-defined ranges vs. symbols. When defining low and high
values for the State Histogram ranges, you may use symbols instead of
entering discrete values. Symbols can only be used for labels selected
in the State Histogram mode if they are defined in the Format
Specification, and only if the base in the State Histogram menu is set to
Symbol.
Pattern or range symbols defined in the Format Specification can be
used to set the low or high value of a range.
Total samples. The Total samples field displays the total number of
samples in all the displayed ranges. If Other States included is selected,
then total samples is the total of all displayed samples plus the other
states. If any ranges are overlapped and samples fall in multiple
buckets, these samples are only counted once in total samples.
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Number of samples per range. Displayed next to each bar is a value
representing the number of samples for that range. The ratio of these
values to total samples determines the relative size of the histograms.
These values are updated as the repeated acquisitions are sorted and
displayed.
Other States included/excluded. Usually the defined ranges will not
cover the entire range of the specified label. The Other States included/
excluded field provides an optional histogram showing all activity on
the specified label that does not fall within any of the defined ranges.
By selecting excluded, the relative activity of only the defined ranges is
displayed. If included is selected, the "other" histogram appears under
the ranges.
If a range is turned off, any activity in that range is included in Other
States. The activity of a turned off range is included in the other range
whether included or excluded other states is displayed or not.
Trace Type: All States vs. Qualified States. State Histogram mode
can qualify data as it is sampled. Qualifying data while sampling allows
only data of interest to be stored, while the rest is thrown away.
When Trace Type is set to Qualified States, a new field appears in the
upper row of the display. The new field, Specify States, is where the
data qualification is defined. The data qualification is not limited only
to the label selected in the State Histogram menu. It is defined over all
labels in the Format Specification as a combination of values, in the
current base, and don't cares.
For example, a microprocessor target system memory may contain two
arrays. In State Histogram, the address ranges of the arrays can be
defined and the relative activity in the arrays monitored. But, what if
you only want to monitor writes to the array? In this case, you can
define the data qualification as "Memory Write" on the STATUS label.
States that do not meet the qualification criteria are not stored by the
analyzer, so they are not included in Other States.
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Example
State Histogram example
A computer system has several I/O devices, such as a data terminal,
disk drive, tape drive, and printer. Each device has its own service
routines stored in memory. The problem is that one or more of the
devices is tying up the CPU.
The address bus of the system is monitored using State Histogram to
define the memory blocks where the service routines are stored. The
histograms quickly show that the print spooler is not working because
the printer is constantly interrupting the CPU and is consuming 80% of
address bus activity.
The figure below shows a sample State Histogram display.
SPA State Histogram Menu
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Time Interval mode
Time Interval mode shows distribution of the execution time of a single
event. The event is defined by specifying Start and End conditions as
patterns across all labels defined in the Format Specification.
Data sampling and sorting. When you press Run, the analyzer
samples the target system using the definitions entered in the Format
Specification. During acquisition, the state analyzer searches the data
for the start and end conditions, and uses the analyzer's time tag
feature to time the event. The time durations for each Start/End pair
are then sorted into user-definable time interval ranges on the display.
The acquisition is repeated until Stop is pressed or until a display
variable is changed.
Because time tags are not available in the half-channel mode as
specified in the Format menu, time interval mode will not function
when half-channel mode is selected.
After the data is sampled, timed, and sorted, the histogram for each
time interval range is updated.
If two time intervals are adjacent and have a common boundary (the
upper limit of one equals the lower limit of the next), and a sampled
time interval falls on the common boundary, the sample will be sorted
into the higher time interval.
Start/End conditions. Start and end conditions for Time Interval are
specified on all labels defined in the Format Specification as a
combination of values, in the current base, and don't cares.
If a start or end condition is not found during an acquisition, the
histogram will not change. The analyzer will only update when a start
and stop event are both found.
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Start and end conditions need not be adjacent in the data stream. For
example, when the state analyzer sees the specified start condition, it
starts the timer. If the start condition occurs again before the end
condition occurs, the timer will not be reset.
For measurement purposes, the analyzer measures the time between
the first occurrence of the start condition and the first occurrence of
the stop condition.
Time Interval ranges. A maximum of 8 time interval ranges are
available. Each range has a lower and upper limit which can be entered
manually. The Auto-range feature will automatically scale the eight
ranges. The minimum allowable limit is 0ns, the maximum 9,999,999
seconds.
Ranges do not have to be contiguous. However, gaps between ranges
increase the risk of missed data. If two ranges overlap, data will be
counted in both ranges. This applies to any number of overlapping
ranges, or any portions of overlapping ranges. Common boundaries of
adjacent ranges are not considered to be overlapped.
A range can be turned off by setting the lower and upper values to zero.
Auto-range. The Time Interval ranges can be scaled quickly by
selecting "Auto-range." This option requires a global Minimum time and
Maximum time for the eight time interval ranges. The eight ranges are
then scaled using either a log scale or linear scale.
All the ranges may be quickly initialized to off by selecting Auto-range,
setting Minimum time and Maximum time to zero, and performing a
linear scale.
The smallest increment allowable using Auto-scale is 10 ns. If the time
interval defined by the minimum and maximum times is too small to
scale8 ranges, Auto-range will scale as many as possible and exclude
some upper time interval ranges. The maximum resolution of each time
interval is 10 ns.
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Min, Max, and Avg Time Statistics. The Time Interval mode display
shows three statistics: Maximum (Max) time, Minimum (Min) time,
and Average (Avg) time. These values are displayed whether or not
they fall into any of the time interval ranges. Therefore, they are
helpful in determining if the appropriate time intervals have been
chosen.
The maximum resolution of the statistics is 8 ns.
Total samples. Total samples is displayed above the histogram. A
sample is defined as one Start/End pair. The Total samples field is not
updated until the analyzer's memory is full or until Stop is pressed.
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Example
Time Interval example
A team of applications programmers is writing a math package for a
spreadsheet. They need to develop standards for the various math
functions. Using time interval mode, they can test the execution time
of each of the math functions.
For each math function, they enter the starting and ending addresses
in the Time Interval menu. They run the math function while
monitoring its execution time with their logic analyzer in the Time
Interval mode. Using Auto-range, they can quickly vary the time
interval ranges for either greater time coverage or greater time
resolution.
If the programmers wanted to see the details of the time intervals, they
could set up a state analyzer measurement (not using SPA) and
capture the activity between the start and stop events. The details
could then be viewed in the state listing menu.
The figure below shows a sample Time Interval menu and its display.
SPA Time Interval Menu
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Measurement example using all three trace modes
In a 32-bit microprocessor system, you want to determine how
efficiently the CPU is being utilized. Critical questions might be: are
any processes consuming excessive processing time, are any processes
getting stuck in wait loops, and is the system handling service calls and
interrupts efficiently?
You connect the logic analyzer to the address bus of your system. In the
Format Specification, you define a 32-bit label called ADDR and the
state clocking. In many cases, Agilent Technologies provides analysis
probes, inverse assemblers and standard configurations for popular
microprocessors, and you need not enter the configuration manually or
worry about probing issues.
In the State Overview mode, you select the ADDR label and start the
acquisition to monitor the entire memory space. After several
acquisitions, five areas of relatively high activity begin to build on the
histogram. Using the X and O markers to determine the address
boundaries of these five regions, you quickly recognize two programs, a
delay routine in the operating system kernel, and a keyboard interrupt
routine. The figure below shows the State Overview display.
SPA State Overview
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Next, you go to the State Histogram menu and enter the names and
boundaries of the five routines in the state histogram ranges.
State Histogram then displays the relative activity of the five routines.
After several acquisitions, it is apparent that the interrupt routine is
being accessed more often than expected.
The figure below shows the State Histogram display for this example.
SPA State Histogram
You now go to the Time Interval menu and enter the Start and End
conditions for the suspect interrupt routine. Before altering the default
Time Interval ranges, you start the acquisition and observe the
Maximum (Max), Minimum (Min), and Average (Avg) times. From
these values, the typical execution times of the interrupt are apparent,
and provide good starting values for the Time Interval ranges using
Auto-range. From the Max time, it is apparent that the interrupt
routine is having problems.
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Running the acquisition again, you discover that the interrupt usually
takes the expected 8 microseconds, but occasionally it takes as long as
8milliseconds. After experimenting with the target system while
monitoring the interrupt with Time Interval mode, a faulty key on the
keyboard is discovered. The key is bouncing excessively, resulting in an
extended interrupt routine call.
The figure below shows the Time Interval display for this example.
SPA Time Interval
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Using State Overview, State Histogram, and
Time Interval
This section explains how to select the display fields, set up the logic
analyzer and use the State Overview, State Histogram and Time
Interval modes of SPA.
Setting up the logic analyzer
This section assumes you have defined the Format and have connected
the logic analyzer probes to the target system. For complete details on
these topics, refer to the appropriate reference section for your
analyzer.
For a detailed description of State Overview, State Histogram, and
Time Interval mode measurement processes, refer to the previous
section, "SPA measurement processes."
Using State Overview mode
Choosing a label to monitor. To specify a label to monitor, select the
"Label" field in the State Overview menu. The pop-up shows a list of all
the labels defined in the Format Specification. From this list, choose
the label you want to monitor.
NOTE:
Changing from one label to another will erase the display setup for the first
label. If you want to change to a different label, but don't want to lose the
setup for the current one, first save the current one to disk or print it.
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Label
Low value
X marker
O Marker
High Value
Max Count
Bucket Display
Area
X Mark count
O Mark count
Total count
SPA State Overview Menu with Fields Called Out
Specifying Low and High values
The range of the X axis is determined by the Low value and High value
fields. To change the X axis range, select the Low value or High value
fields and enter new limits. The range you specified will then be
divided among the 256 available buckets along the X axis (unless the
range is less than 256 or the histogram frame is truncated due to
bucket range round-off).
For example, you might set the low and high values so that the range is
1100. 1100 divided by 256 is 4.29. This will be rounded up to 5, and
each bucket will have a range of 5. Because 1100 divided by 5 is 220,
the histogram frame will be truncated at the right because the X axis
will have only 220 of the 256 buckets.
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The default high and low values represent the full range of the label
you chose. Before changing these values, you may want to run the
acquisition and acquire some data to view activity over the entire range
of the label. You can then zoom in on areas of interest.
You can enter low and high values in binary, octal, decimal,
hexadecimal, ASCII, or symbol.
Interpreting the histogram display
Press the blue shift key and Run to start the State Overview
acquisition. As the data is sampled and sorted, the buckets along the X
axis will accumulate. The relative size of the vertical bars show the
distribution of activity on the label you chose. The analyzer will
continue to sample, sort the data, and update the display until you
press Stop or until you change a display variable.
Max count represents the current upper limit of the Y axis for the
bucket with the greatest number of data samples. Max count for the
limit of the Y axis will increase as the buckets fill with samples.
Read Total count to find the total number of samples taken over the
specified range of the label. This is not affected by the low and high
values.
Using the markers. To find the number of data samples in any
bucket, select the Xmarker or Omarker field. Turn the knob to move
the marker to the area of interest. Read the X Mark count or O Mark
count values to determine the number of samples in the current
bucket.
As you move either marker across the display, the value in the XMarker
or OMarker pop-up will change. The amount of change of the marker's
value represents the size of the bucket.
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Zooming in on an area of interest. When viewing the State
Overview display, you may see areas of high activity and areas of little
or no activity. To zoom in on one of these areas for more resolution, put
the X and O markers on the boundaries of the area, then adjust the low
and high values to match the X and O marker positions.
Using State Histogram mode
Choosing a label to monitor. To specify a label to monitor, select the
Label field in the State Histogram display. In the pop-up, you will see a
list of all the labels defined in the Format specification. From this list,
choose the label you want to monitor.
NOTE:
Changing from one label to another will erase the display setup for the first
label. If you want to change to a different label, but do not want to lose the
setup for the current one, save the current one to a disk.
Defining the ranges. To define a range on the specified label, select
one of the 11 range fields. When you select one of the 11 ranges, you
will see the Range Definition pop-up. This pop-up has fields where you
enter the low and high value, a name for the range, and whether the
range is on or off.
SPA State Histogram Menu
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Using symbols for ranges. In the Format menu, you can define
symbols for any available label. The symbols can be defined as Pattern
Symbols or Range Symbols. For complete information on defining and
using symbols, see "Symbols field" on page 308.
If you set the base field in the State Histogram display to Symbol, you
can use any defined range or pattern symbol to set the lower and upper
values of the ranges.
Tracing All States vs. Qualified States. You can qualify the data
sampled and sorted in the State Histogram by selecting the Trace Type
field and setting it to Qualified States. This creates a new field at the
top of the display called "Specify States."
Select Specify States and you will see a pop-up that contains a pattern
field for every label defined in the Format Specification. Use the
pattern fields to define the data qualification.
For example, in the State Histogram you may want to monitor the
address bus of a microprocessor system to examine memory activity.
But, you may want to monitor only writes to memory. In the Specify
States pop-up, you can tell the analyzer to sample only memory writes
by entering under the STATUS label the bit pattern or symbol that
corresponds to memory writes.
SPA State Histogram Menu
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Interpreting the histogram display. Press the blue shift key and
Run to start the State Histogram acquisition. The relative activity over
the ranges you defined is displayed as histograms (see the figure on the
previous page). The total samples field shows the total number of data
samples displayed in all of the ranges. The number of samples for each
range is displayed to the left of each histogram.
The percentage amounts of the histograms total 100% (note the scale
at the bottom of the display). If they add up to more than 100%, you
have overlapped two or more ranges, and the data samples are being
counted in multiple ranges.
The analyzer will continue to sample, sort the data, and update the
display until you press Stop or change a display variable.
Other States included/excluded. The histograms show the relative
distribution of activity over the ranges you have defined. In most cases,
the ranges will not cover the full range of the label you chose to
monitor.
To view the activity over the entire range of the label, including activity
not covered by the ranges, select the Other States field and change it to
included. Another histogram bar called "other" will appear at the
bottom of the display. This will show activity not covered by the ranges.
You can toggle included/excluded if the analyzer is stopped or if it is
running because it only affects the display and not the accumulated
data that has been acquired.
Note that changing between included and excluded changes the
absolute sizes of the histograms. Unless you have defined overlapping
ranges, the total percentage size of the all the range histograms plus
the histogram for other should equal 100%.
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Using Time Interval mode
Use Time Interval mode to determine the distribution of time between
two specific events. The state analyzer uses the time tag feature to
time the event; thus, in Time Interval mode, the minimum state clock
period is 10 ns.
Specifying an event
To use Time Interval mode, you must define an event that you want
timed. At the bottom of the display, note the Start and End fields. To
define an event, select the appropriate labels in the Start and End
fields to define the boundaries.
For example, start and end might be the beginning and ending
addresses of a subroutine stored in memory. If you are timing a counter
period, start and end might be the initial and final count values.
Note that in start and end, you are not limited to a single label. You
define the event over all available labels as patterns including don't
cares. Be sure that the start and end conditions actually occur in the
target system or the analyzer will not find the timing reference points
and will not make the time interval measurement. You may want to use
the state analyzer (not SPA) to verify that the Start and Stop events
actually occur.
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SPA Time Interval Menu
For measurement purposes, the analyzer measures the time between
the first occurrence of the Start condition and the first occurrence of
the Stop condition.
Defining the Time Interval ranges. Before changing the ranges
from their default values, you may want to press Run and acquire some
data. From this initial run, the Maximum (Max), Minimum (Min), and
Average (Avg) statistics on the display will help you choose the
appropriate set of Time Interval ranges.
To define the ranges, select the fields for the lower and upper limits
and enter the limits of the range. The ranges do not need to be
contiguous, but if you leave gaps between the ranges, critical data may
be missed. Also, if you overlap ranges, data may be counted multiple
times and present a misleading histogram.
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Using Auto-range. To quickly set up all 8 time interval ranges, select
the Auto-range field. Enter the minimum time and maximum time for
all 8 ranges combined. Then, when you select Log Scale or Linear
Scale, all 8 ranges will be scaled accordingly between the Minimum and
Maximum times. See the figure on the previous page for the Autorange pop-up. Common boundaries of adjacent ranges are not
considered overlapped. Values that fall on the common boundary will
be included in the highest range.
A fast way to set up the Time Interval display is to define your Start and
End events and select Run using the default ranges. Select Repetitive
Run mode. After accumulating data for a while, press Stop. Then select
Auto-range and enter the Min time and Max time display statistics in
the Auto-range Minimum time and Maximum time fields. When you
select Log Scale or Linear Scale, the ranges will be defined
automatically.
Interpreting the histogram display. As the analyzer samples the
data, it searches for Start/End event pairs. One event pair is considered
one sample. The time value for each event pair is compared to each
defined time interval range. The range's count is incremented if the
time value falls within that range.
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The analyzer continues to search for Start/End event pairs until you
press Stop or change a display variable. The distribution of the events'
time duration is displayed as histograms.
The Max time, Min time, and Avg time statistics give you useful
statistics for the event you defined no matter what ranges you've set
up.
SPA Time Interval Menu
The Total samples field shows the number of Start/End event pairs
found by the analyzer, whether they are covered by the ranges or not.
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Using SPA with other features
Programming with SPA
SPA is programmable. Refer to the Agilent Technologies 1670G Series
Logic Analyzers Programmer's Guide for SPA commands. The
Programmer's Guide is available as an option with the logic analyzer.
Contact your Agilent Technologies Sales Office for more information.
Changing between SPA and a State/Timing Analyzer
If you have configured a state or timing analyzer in the logic analyzer,
you can quickly change to SPA, or from SPA to a state or timing
analyzer. You can use the same Format Specification in your SPA
measurements as you did in your state or timing analysis
measurements.
To change between a state analyzer and SPA, go to the Analyzer
Configuration menu, select the Type field, and select SPA from the list.
When SPA is selected, a separate trace specification definition is used.
Even though the Qualified State Histogram and Time Interval modes
use the same pattern recognizers as SPA, the SPA definitions are kept
separate from those entered in the state or timing analyzer mode. As a
result, switching between SPA and state or timing recovers the user's
original pattern recognizers for the selected mode.
Any Symbols in the Format Specification will also carry over to SPA.
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Using SPA in Group Runs
The 1670G-series logic analyzers allow you to set up group runs using
the Arming Control field of the other machine's Trigger menu.
By its statistical nature, SPA runs best as a repetitive measurement
system. Therefore, if you include SPA in a Group Run, it will execute
and update the SPA displays, but the data may not be acquired in a
statistically random-repetitive fashion. It may not represent a true
statistical analysis of your target system.
Another way to make SPA measurements in conjunction with other
analysis is to run SPA independently (do not include it in the Group
Run), and set up the other machines as you normally would. In this
way, SPA will provide a truer statistical analysis of your target system.
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Logic Analyzer Concepts
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Logic Analyzer Concepts
Logic Analyzer Concepts
Understanding how the analyzer does its job will help you use it more
effectively and minimize measurement problems. This chapter explains
the structure of the file system, the details of transitional timing mode,
the general operation of the trigger sequence, and the details of the
hardware.
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The File System
The File System
The 1670G-series logic analyzers have a complex internal file system.
Many of the file attributes are only accessible over a LAN connection.
From the logic analyzer's front panel, the only parts of the file system
you can examine are the hard disk drive and the flexible disk drive. The
hard disk drive contains the /SYSTEM directory with the X Window
fonts and some example files, and also whatever other files and
directories you have created on it. The flexible disk drive directory
contains whatever files are on the disk in the disk drive.
See Also
The LAN section of this book on page 478 for more information on the
LAN-accessible portions of the file system.
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The File System
Directories
Hard disk drive
When you receive the logic analyzer, the hard disk drive is already
DOS-formatted. The factory also creates a directory on the hard disk
drive named "/SYSTEM". The /SYSTEM directory is intended to store
system software such as backup copies of the operating system files
and the performance verification files. When you receive your logic
analyzer, the /SYSTEM directory already contains two X Window font
files and several files containing examples.
The files on the hard disk drive are not essential to the logic analyzer's
correct operation. However, you can store important files such as
optional software, autoload files, configurations, and software backups
here. You can configure the logic analyzer to Autoload files from the
hard disk at power-up.
When the logic analyzer searches for autoload files and software
options, it first looks in the flexible disk drive. If the flexible disk drive
contains an autoload file and two software options, the analyzer does
not check the hard disk drive. If some of these were not found, the
analyzer next checks the hard drive's /SYSTEM directory.
You can manually copy files, such as performance verification files, to
the /SYSTEM directory, but they will not necessarily be installed when
the analyzer powers up. To automatically load software, follow the
installation instructions provided with the software. It will change the
power-up sequence to include the software option and also copy the
files to the /SYSTEM directory.
Flexible disk drive
The flexible disk drive reads 3.5-inch flexible disks in both DOS and
LIF format. If a disk is in the drive when the analyzer is turned on, the
analyzer checks the disk for software and autoload files. If these files
are found, they are loaded into the analyzer.
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The File System
File types
Standard file types
The file type is shown in a small display box centered on the line above
the file listings.
autoload_file. indicates the file, almost always named AUTOLOAD, is
an autoload file. The file description indicates if the autoload file is
enabled or disabled, and the file it autoloads. Autoload files are created
by executing "Autoload" in the System Disk menu.
167xan_config. indicates the file is a 1670G-series logic analyzer
configuration. These files are created by executing "Store Analyzer" or
"Store All" in the System Disk menu.
167x_cnfg. indicates the file is a system configuration. These files are
created by executing "Store System" or "Store All" in the System Disk
menu.
DOS. indicates the file is in DOS format. It might be a screenshot or a
file created on a PC and copied to the disk. These files are not loadable.
directory. indicates the file is a directory and that you can change to
that directory. Other files are within it.
16[6/7]x_opt. indicates the file is software that can be used with
either the Agilent Technologies 1660 or 1670 family of logic analyzers.
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The File System
167xsc_config. indicates the file is an oscilloscope configuration.
These files are created by executing "Store Scope" or "Store All" in the
System Disk menu.
16522_cnfg. indicates that the file is a pattern generator
configuration. These files are created by executing "Store Patt Gen" in
the System Disk menu.
Filename endings
Filename endings are not restricted to certain types. These
descriptions are just general guidelines. In addition, other tools you use
with the logic analyzer will likely have their own set of filename
endings.
[none]. Of the common file types you can create using the logic
analyzer, only the ASCII listings do not have a default ending. If you
supply one in the Print to Disk filename field, that ending will be used,
but no ending is automatically appended as with other filenames.
Three other types of files commonly do not have a default ending:
directories, software, and autoload files. Check the file type field to be
sure what type of file you are selecting.
._A. This ending is appended to analyzer configuration files created
with the Store operation from the System Disk menu.
._B. This ending is appended to oscilloscope and pattern generator
configuration files created with the Store operation from the System
Disk menu.
.__ . This ending is appended to system configuration files created with
the Store operation from the System Disk menu.
.TIF. This ending is appended to TIFF version 5.0-format screenshots
created with the Print to Disk function.
.EPS. This ending is appended to EPS-format screenshots created
with the Print to Disk function.
.PCX. This ending is appended to PCX-format screenshots created
with the Print to Disk function.
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The Trigger Sequence
The Trigger Sequence
1670G-series logic analyzers have triggering and data storage features
that allow you to capture only the system activity of interest.
Understanding how these features work will help you set up analyzer
trigger specifications that satisfy your measurement needs.
In both the state and timing analyzers, the trigger sequence acts as a
filtering mechanism, with a minimum of two steps and a maximum of
twelve steps in the state analyzer and ten steps in the timing analyzer.
Some trigger functions may use more than one step. The steps are the
sequence level specifications. The analyzer searches for a trigger
sequence by matching input values on the pods to branch conditions,
which control transitions between sequence levels. You can insert or
delete levels to make the trigger sequence as simple or complex as is
needed for your application.
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The Trigger Sequence
Trigger sequence specification
See the following figure, which shows a sequence specification with
four levels. To define the trigger sequence, you specify sequenceadvance, sequence-else, storage, and trigger-on specifications.
Each level except the last has two branch conditions, the sequenceadvance and sequence-else specification. The storage specification
indicates whether data should be stored or not while the logic analyzer
is at that sequence level. (The trigger-on specification is a special
sequence-advance specification that is described in the section
"Trigger on specification.")
State Analyzer Sequence with Four States
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The Trigger Sequence
Sequence-advance specification
The sequence-advance branch, sometimes called the "if" branch or
primary branch, always branches to the next level. You can specify the
following kinds of sequence-advance specifications:
Find (or Then find) "<TERM>" <OCCURS> time(S)
Find (or Then find) "<TERM>" <TIME PERIOD>
If the <TERM> is found <OCCURS> number of times or the <TERM>
remains stable for <TIME PERIOD>, the analyzer advances to the next
sequence level.
Sequence-else specification. The sequence-else branch, sometimes
called the "else if" branch or secondary branch, may branch to any
other state, including the current state, a previous state, or a later
state. The sequence-else specification looks like the following:
Else on "<TERM>" go to level <sequence level>
If the Sequence-Else specification is satisfied before the sequenceadvance specification, the sequencer goes to <sequence level>.
The last state may only have a sequence-else branch specification,
which may branch to the same state or a prior state.
Storage specification. In each state, a storage specification
determines the data stored by the analyzer while it is searching for the
sequence-advance, sequence-else, and trigger specifications. Storage
specifications are defined using the same pattern, range, and timer
resources available for defining branching specifications.
While storing "anystate", "no state", or "<TERM>"
Note that if you specify "no state," the analyzer still stores sequenceadvance terms and TRIGGER terms unless you also set Branches
Taken Not Stored in Acquisition Control in the Analyzer Trigger menu.
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Trigger on specification. If there are branch and storage
specifications for each sequence level, what does the trigger term
mean? The trigger term is a special sequence-advance specification in
that, when found, it locks the contents of analyzer acquisition memory.
The trigger can be positioned at the beginning, middle, or end of
acquisition memory.
The trigger specification can look like the following:
TRIGGER on "<TERM>" <OCCURS> times
TRIGGER on "<TERM>" <TIME PERIOD>
If the trigger term is found <OCCURS> times, or if the trigger term
remains stable for <TIME PERIOD>, the trigger is captured in memory.
Then the analyzer advances to the next sequence level. If you want to
capture activity after the trigger is captured, define an additional
sequence level and specify the desired storage qualification for posttrigger activity (for example, store anystate).
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Logic Analyzer Concepts
The Trigger Sequence
Analyzer resources
The sequence-advance, sequence-else, storage, and trigger-on
specifications are set by a combination of a maximum of 10 pattern
terms, 2 range terms, 2 timers, and 2 edge terms (for the timing
analyzer only). A resource can only be assigned to one analyzer at a
time.
10 pattern terms. The pattern terms, a through j, represent single
states to be found on labeled sets of bits. For example, you could have
an address on the address bits or a status on the status bits, or both the
address and status occurring together. Pattern terms AND conditions
occurring on separate labels.
2 timers. You can start, stop, continue, or pause the timers upon entry
to a sequence state, then use a comparison of current timer value
against a preset value to determine whether to branch to another state.
2 range terms. The range terms, Range1 and Range2, represent
ranges of values to be found on labeled sets of bits. For example, you
could have a range of addresses to be found on the address bus or a
range of data values to be found on the data bus. Range terms are
satisfied by any value within the range for "In_Range," and any value
outside the range for "Out_Range."
2 edge terms (timing analyzer only). The edge terms, Edge1 and
Edge2, represent edges. The edge terms can be set to catch glitches
even when the timing analyzer is not in glitch mode. When an edge
term comprises more than one channel, it ORs the channel conditions
together and any of the specified transitions satisfy the term.
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Logic Analyzer Concepts
The Trigger Sequence
You can combine the pattern terms and range terms with logical
operators to form complex pattern expressions in the sequenceadvance, sequence-else, and TRIGGER on specifications.
For example,
Find "(<TERM1> • <TERM2>) + (<TERM3> • <TERM4>)"
Where <TERM> can be a single value on a set of labels, any value
within a range of values on a set of labels, or a glitch or edge transition
on a bit or set of bits.
Limitations affecting use of analyzer resources. There are
limitations on the way resources can be combined to form complex
pattern expressions. Resources are combined in a four-level hierarchy.
First, resources are divided into two groups. The groups can be
combined with AND or OR. Second, within these groups, resources are
combined into pairs. Pairs can also be logically combined using AND or
OR. Third, individual resources are combined into pairs using AND,
NAND, OR, NOR, XOR, and NXOR. Fourth, individual resources may
be included or excluded from participating in a pattern expression. You
can also include the logical negation of the resource. Fifth, the timing
terms are not available in the first sequence level.
The following table shows how resources are divided in the logic
analyzer. Remember that some resources may not be available,
depending on the analyzer configuration. For example, if you are using
the analyzer as a state analyzer, the Edge1 and Edge2 resources are
not available, and only one analyzer may use a resource at a time.
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Logic Analyzer Concepts
The Trigger Sequence
Resource Combination Hierarchy
Group
Pair
Resource Operation
Resource
Pair Links
Group Link
Group 1
Pair 1
Off, On, Negate
Off, On, Negate
Off, On, Negate
Off, In Range, Out of Range
Off, On, Negate
Off, On, Negate
Off, On, Negate
Off, <, >
Off, On, Negate
Off, On, Negate
Off, On, Negate
Off, In Range, Out of Range
Off, On, Negate
Off, On, Negate
Off, On, Negate
Off, <, >
a
b
c
Range 1
d
Edge 1
e
Timer 1
f
g
h
Range2
i
Edge 2
j
Timer 2
Combine
resources
within pairs
using AND,
NAND, OR,
NOR, XNOR
Combine
pairs within
groups or
group 1 and
group 2 using
AND or OR
Combine
resources
within pairs
using AND,
NAND, OR,
NOR, XNOR
Combine
pairs within
groups or
group 1 and
group 2 using
AND or OR
Pair 2
Pair 3
Pair 4
Group 2
Pair 1
Pair 2
Pair 3
Pair 4
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Logic Analyzer Concepts
The Trigger Sequence
For example, the following combinations are valid combinations for the
analyzer:
(a+b) • (In_Range2 + Timer2 > 400 ns)
(c • Out_Range1) + (f xor g)
The following combinations are not valid, because resources cross pair
boundaries:
a xor c
(d + Timer1 < 400 ns) • Edge1
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Logic Analyzer Concepts
The Trigger Sequence
The first example shows that a and c cannot be combined at the first
level. The following figure shows the possible combinations of the a, b,
c and Range1 terms:
Combining a, b, c, and Range1 Terms
The following combination is not valid because pairs cross group
boundaries:
((a+b) + (h ΠIn_Range2)) Π(j xor Timer2 > 400 ns)
Note that although the analyzer interface will not let you enter invalid
combinations, you need to be aware of what combinations are legal, so
that you can make the desired measurement.
Another limitation is that the analyzer cannot handle ranging for input
pods that are assigned to different pod pairs. For example, if you need
to define a 32-bit range term, you must do it using pods 1/2, 3/4, or 5/6.
Trying to define a range across pods 2/3, 4/5, or 1/6 will not work.
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Logic Analyzer Concepts
The Trigger Sequence
Timing analyzer
When you configure a timing analyzer, the trigger sequence follows the
general outlines given previously. The trigger sequence of the timing
analyzer differs from the state analyzer in the following ways:
•
There are 10 levels available to build a trigger.
•
The trigger term is always the last step.
•
The analyzer cannot use pattern terms h and j.
•
The timing analyzer has two additional resources, Edge1 and Edge2.
•
Edge1 and Edge2 recognize occurrences of a glitch, rising edge, falling
edge, either edge, or no edge on a bit or ORed set of bits.
State analyzer
When you configure a state analyzer, the trigger sequence follows the
general outlines given previously. The trigger sequence of the state
analyzer differs from the timing analyzer in the following ways:
•
There are 12 levels available to build a trigger.
•
The trigger term is never the last step.
•
The state analyzer cannot use Edge1 and Edge2.
•
The state analyzer can use pattern terms h and j.
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Logic Analyzer Concepts
Configuration Translation Between Agilent Logic Analyzers
Configuration Translation Between Agilent
Logic Analyzers
Analyzer configuration files cannot be transferred directly from one
type of analyzer to another because each analyzer has internal
architectural differences, reflected in the number of pods, clock
configurations, trigger sequence features, analyzer resources, and so
on. To help you move configuration files from one analyzer to another,
most Agilent logic analyzers support automatic translation of analyzer
configurations. The 1670G-series logic analyzer can translate
configuration files from the following common analyzer models:
•
Agilent Technologies 16510
•
Agilent Technologies 16541
•
Agilent Technologies 16511
•
Agilent Technologies 16550
•
Agilent Technologies 16540
•
Agilent Technologies 1660
If you save an analyzer configuration from one model of analyzer, then
load that configuration into a model that supports configuration
translation and was released after the original analyzer, the translator
will adjust the configuration as required to account for differences
between the models.
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Logic Analyzer Concepts
Configuration Translation Between Agilent Logic Analyzers
The configuration translator needs to account for many aspects of the
analyzer architecture. Some of the considerations are as follows:
•
When a range term is split across multiple pods, the term must span
adjacent odd/even pairs, starting with 1. Thus, terms could span pods 1
and 2, 3 and 4, 5 and 6, or 7 and 8, but not 2 and 3. Again, the translator
may display messages asking you to reconnect cables in a different
configuration.
•
When loading a configuration into an analyzer with fewer pods than the
one on which the configuration was saved, the translator must remove pod
assignments. Which pods are removed from the configuration will depend
on the widths of each pod in the original analyzer and new analyzer.
The configuration translation also needs to account for many
differences in the format and trace menus between the analyzers,
including label names, polarities, thresholds, symbols, clocking,
number of sequence levels, branch conditions, and patterns, among
others.
To ensure that trace measurements act as expected when you move
configuration files from one analyzer to another, follow these
recommendations:
NOTE:
•
Ensure that the analyzer pods are hooked up as required by the
configuration translation and the new analyzer. The onscreen messages
given by the translator will help you identify which analyzer pods must be
swapped. If you are using an Agilent Technologies analysis probe, the
Analysis Probe User's Guide may contain information showing the cable
connections for different analyzer models.
•
Review all trace format and trigger menu settings to verify that they will
meet your measurement requirements. You should check label
assignments, channel masks, pattern and range definitions, sequencer
setup, and general analyzer configuration (which pods are mapped to each
analyzer).
When you move a configuration file from one analyzer to another, the trace
data from previous measurements is not moved. If you need to store trace
data for future reference, see "To save a trace list in ASCII format" on page
139.
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Logic Analyzer Concepts
The Analyzer Hardware
The Analyzer Hardware
This section describes the theory of operation for the logic analyzer
and describes the self-tests. The information in this section is to help
you understand how the logic analyzer operates and what the self-tests
are testing. This information is not intended for component-level
repair.
The block-level theory is divided into two parts: theory for the logic
analyzer and theory for the acquisition boards. A block diagram is
shown with each theory.
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Logic Analyzer Concepts
The Analyzer Hardware
1670G-series analyzer theory
1670G logic analyzer board
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Logic Analyzer Concepts
The Analyzer Hardware
CPU board
The microprocessor is a Motorola 68EC020 running at 25 MHz. The
microprocessor controls all of the functions of the logic analyzer
including processing and storing data, displaying data, and configuring
the acquisition ICs to obtain and store data.
System memory
The system memory is made up of both read-only memory (ROM) and
random access memory (RAM). Two types of ROM are used. A single
128Kx8 EPROM is used as a boot ROM, and four 512Kx8 Flash ROMs
are configured to provide a 512Kx32 Flash ROM space. One SIMM
socket supports 2-MB, 4-MB, or 8-MB SIMMs.
On power-up, instructions in the boot ROM command the instrument
to execute its boot routine. The boot routine includes power-up
operation verification of the instrument subsystems and entering the
operating system. The CPU searches for the operating system on flash
ROM. Then, if the operating system is in flash ROM, the instrument will
be initialized with the default configuration and await front panel
instructions from you. If the operating system is not in flash ROM, the
CPU accesses the disk drives to see if the operating system is on the
disks.
The DRAM stores the instrument configuration, acquired data to be
processed, and any inverse assembler loaded in the instrument by the
user.
Keypad and knob interface
The front panel keypad is scanned directly from the microprocessor
address bus during the video blanking cycle of the CRT. When a front
panel key is pressed the associated address bits are fed to the data bus
through the pressed key and read by the microprocessor.
The rotary pulse generator (RPG) knob has its own interface. Pulses
and direction of rotation information are directed to the RPG interface.
The microprocessor then reads and interprets the RPG signals and
performs the desired tasks.
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Logic Analyzer Concepts
The Analyzer Hardware
GPIB interface
The instrument interfaces to GPIB as defined by IEEE Standard 488.2.
The interface consists of an GPIB controller and two octal drivers/
receivers. The microprocessor routes GPIB data to the controller. The
controller then buffers the 8-bit GPIB data bits and generates the bus
handshaking signals. The data and handshaking signals are then routed
to the GPIB bus through the octal line drivers/receivers. The drivers/
receivers provide data and control signal transfer between the bus and
controller.
RS-232-C interface
The instrument RS-232-C interface is compatible with standard RS232-C protocol. The interface consists of a controller and drivers/
receivers. The controller serializes parallel data from the
microprocessor for transmission. At the same time the controller also
receives serial data and converts the data to parallel data characters for
the microprocessor.
The controller contains a baud rate generator that can be programmed
from the logic analyzer front panel. Other RS-232-C communications
parameters can also be programmed from the logic analyzer front
panel.
The drivers/receivers interface the instrument with data
communications equipment. Slew rate control is provided on the ICs
eliminating the need for external capacitors.
Power supply
A low voltage power supply provides all dc voltages needed to operate
the logic analyzer. The power supply also provides the +5 V dc voltage
to the probe cables to power logic analyzer accessories and analysis
probes.
Unfiltered voltages of +12 V, -12 V, +5 V, -5.2 V, and +3.5 V are supplied
to the acquisition board where they are filtered and distributed to the
CPU board, CRT Monitor Assembly, and probe cables.
406
Logic Analyzer Concepts
The Analyzer Hardware
LAN Interface
The LAN Interface is primarily a single LAN integrated circuit with
supporting components. Isolation circuitry for the LAN port is included
on the I/O board. The LAN interface conforms to IEEE 802.3
407
Logic Analyzer Concepts
The Analyzer Hardware
Logic acquisition board theory
Logic acquisition board
408
Logic Analyzer Concepts
The Analyzer Hardware
Probing
The probing circuit includes the probe cable and terminations. The
probe cable consists of two 17-channel pods which are connected to
the circuit board using a high-density connector. Sixteen single-ended
data channels and one single-ended clock/data channel per pod are
passed to the circuit board. If the clock/data channel is not used as a
state clock in state acquisition mode, it is available as a data channel.
The clock/data channel is also available as a data channel in timing
acquisition mode. Eight (1670’s), six (1671’s), four (1672’s), or two
(1673’s) clock/data channels are available as data channels; however,
only four clock/data channels can be assigned as clock channels in the
1670’s, 1671’s, and 1672’s. In the 1673’s, only two clock/data channels
can be assigned as clock channels.
The cables use nichrome wire woven in polyarmid yarn for reliability
and durability. The pods also include one ground path per channel in
addition to a pod ground. The channel grounds are configured such
that their electrical distance is the same as the electrical distance of
the channel. The probe tip assemblies and termination modules
connected at the end of the probe cables have a divide-by-10 RC
network that reduces the amplitude of the data signals as seen by the
circuit board. This adds flexibility to the types of signals the circuit
board can read in addition to improving signal integrity.
The terminations on the circuit board are resistive terminations that
reduce transmission line effects on the cable. The terminations also
improve signal integrity to the comparators by matching the
impedance of the probe cable channels with the impedance of the
signal paths of the circuit board. All 17 channels of each pod are
terminated in the same way. The signals are reduced by a factor of 10.
Comparators
Two proprietary 9-channel comparators per pod interpret the incoming
data and clock signals as either high or low depending on where the
user- programmable threshold is set. The threshold voltage of each pod
is individually programmed, and the voltage selected applies to the
clock channel as well as the data channels of each pod.
Each of the comparator ICs has a serial test input port used for testing
409
Logic Analyzer Concepts
The Analyzer Hardware
purposes. A test bit pattern is sent from the Test and Clock
Synchronization Circuit to the comparator. The comparators then
propagate the test signal on each of the nine channels of the
comparator. Consequently, all data and clock channel pipelines on the
circuit board can be tested by the operating system software from the
comparator.
Acquisition
The acquisition circuit is made up of a single Agilent-proprietary ASIC.
Each ASIC is a 34-channel state/timing analyzer, and one such ASIC is
included for every two logic analyzer pods. All of the sequencing,
pattern/range recognition, and event counting functions are performed
on board the IC.
In addition to the storage qualification and counting functions, the
acquisition ASICs also perform master clocking functions. All four state
acquisition clocks are fed to each IC, and the ICs generate their own
sample clocks. Every time you select run, the ICs individually perform
a clock optimization before data is stored.
Clock optimization involves using programmable delays on board the IC
to position the master clock transition where valid data is captured.
This procedure greatly reduces the effects of channel-to-channel skew
and other propagation delays.
In the timing acquisition mode, an oscillator-driven clock circuit
provides a four-phase, 125-MHz clock signal to each of the acquisition
ICs. For high speed timing acquisition (125 MHz and faster), the
sample period is determined by the four-phase, 125-MHz clock signal.
For slower sample rates, one of the acquisition ICs divides the 125-MHz
clock signal to the appropriate sample rate. The sample clock is then
fed to all acquisition ICs.
410
Logic Analyzer Concepts
The Analyzer Hardware
Threshold
A precision octal DAC and precision op amp drivers make up the
threshold circuit. Each of the eight channels of the DAC is individually
programmable which allows you to set the thresholds of the individual
pods. The 16 data channels and the clock channel of each pod are all
set to the same threshold voltage.
Test and clock synchronization circuit
ECLinPS ICs are used in the test and clock synchronization circuit for
reliability and low channel-to-channel skew. Test patterns are
generated and sent to the comparators during software operation
verification. The test patterns are propagated across all data and clock
channels and read by the acquisition ASIC to ensure both the data and
clock pipelines are operating correctly.
The test and clock synchronization circuit also generates a four-phase,
125-MHz sample/synchronization signal for the acquisition ICs
operating in the timing acquisition mode. The synchronizing signal
keeps the internal clocking of the individual acquisition ASICs locked in
step with the other ASICs at fast sample rates. At slower sample rates,
one of the acquisition ICs divides the 125-MHz clock signal to the
appropriate sample rate. The slow speed sample clock is then used by
all acquisition ICs.
411
Logic Analyzer Concepts
The Analyzer Hardware
Oscilloscope board theory
Oscilloscope board
412
Logic Analyzer Concepts
The Analyzer Hardware
Attenuator/Preamp theory of operation
The channel signals are conditioned by the attenuator/preamps, thick
film hybrids containing passive attenuators, impedance converters, and
a programmable amplifier. The channel sensitivity defaults to the
standard 1-2-4 sequence (other sensitivities can be set also). However,
the firmware uses passive attenuation of 1, 5, 25, and 125, with the
programmable preamp, to cover the entire sensitivity range.
The input has a selectable 1 MW input impedance with ac or dc
coupling or a 50W input impedance with dc coupling. Compensation for
the passive attenuators is laser-trimmed and is not adjustable. After the
passive attenuators, the signal is split into high-frequency and lowfrequency components. Low frequency components are amplified on
the main assembly, where they are combined with the offset voltage.
The ac coupling is implemented in the low frequency amplifier.
The high- and low-frequency components of the signal are recombined
and applied to the input FET of the preamp. The FET provides a high
input impedance for the preamp. The programmable preamp adjusts
the gain to suit the required sensitivity and provides the output signal
to the main assembly. The output signal is then sent to both the trigger
circuitry and ADC.
Oscilloscope acquisition
The acquisition circuitry provides the sampling, digitizing, and storing
of the signals from the channel attenuators. The channels are identical.
Trigger signals from each channel and the external triggers
synchronize acquisition through the time base circuitry. A 100MHz
oscillator and a time base provide system timing and sample clocking.
A voltage-controlled oscillator (VCO), frequency divider, and digital
phase detector provide the sample clock for higher sample rates. After
conditioning and sampling, the signals are digitized, then stored in a
hybrid IC containing a FISO (fast in, slow out) memory.
413
Logic Analyzer Concepts
The Analyzer Hardware
ADC Hybrid. The ACD Hybrid provides all of the sampling, digitizing,
and high-speed waveform storage. The ADC includes a phase-locked
loop frequency converter that, for sample rates from 250 MHz to
2 GHz, multiplies the input clock from the time base.
FISO memory. 32,768 samples of the FISO (fast in, slow out) memory
are used per measurement per channel. Memory positions are not
addressed directly. The configuration is a ring which loops
continuously as it is clocked. Memory position is tracked by counting
clocks. The clocking rate is the same as the ADC, however the clock
frequency is half that of the ADC since the FISO clocks on both
transitions of the clock period. Data is buffered onto the CPU data bus
for processing.
Triggering. There are two main trigger circuits that control four
trigger sources. The two trigger circuits are the analog trigger and the
logic trigger. The analog trigger IC operates as a multichannel Schmidt
trigger/comparator. A trigger signal (a copy of the analog input signal)
from each of the inputs (channel 1 and channel 2) is directed to the
analog trigger IC inputs. The trigger signal is continuously compared
with the trigger reference level selected by the user. Once the trigger
condition is met, the trigger true signal is fed to the logic trigger, which
begins the acquisition and store functions by way of the time base.
The four trigger sources are Channel 1, Channel 2, Intermodule Bus
(IMB), and external BNC. Channel 1 and channel 2 triggers were
discussed previously. The IMB trigger signal is sent directly to the logic
trigger. External triggering is provided by the BNC input of the 1670Gseries logic analyzers with the oscilloscope option.
Time base. The time base provides the sample clocks and timing
necessary for data acquisition. It consists of the 100 MHz reference
oscillator and time base hybrid.
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Logic Analyzer Concepts
The Analyzer Hardware
The 100 MHz reference oscillator provides the base sample frequency.
The time base hybrid has programmable dividers to provide the rest of
the sample frequencies appropriate for the time range selected. The
time base uses the time-stretched output of the fine interpolator to
time-reference the sampling to the trigger point. The time base has
counters to control how much data is taken before (pre-trigger data)
and after (post-trigger data) the trigger event. After the desired
number of pre-trigger samples has occurred, the time base hybrid
sends a signal to the logic trigger (trigger arm) indicating it is ready for
the trigger event. When the trigger condition is satisfied, the logic
trigger sends a signal back to the time base hybrid. The time base
hybrid then starts the post-trigger delay counter.
When the countdown reaches zero, the sample clocks are stopped and
the CPU is signaled that the acquisition is complete. The fine
interpolator is a dual-slope integrator that acts as a time-interval
stretcher. When the logic trigger receives a signal that meets the
programmed triggering requirements, it signals the time base. The time
base then sends a pulse to the fine interpolator. The pulse is equal in
width to the time between the trigger and the next sample clock. The
fine interpolator stretches this time by a factor of approximately 500.
Meanwhile, the time base hybrid runs a counter with a clock derived
from the sample rate oscillator. When the interpolator indicates the
stretch is complete, the counter is stopped. The count represents, with
much higher accuracy, the time between the trigger and the first
sample clock. The count is stored and used to place the recently
acquired data in relationship with previous data.
AC/DC Cal. The AC Cal is a multiplexer circuit that can provide
several signals to the Probe Compensation/AC Calibrator output on the
rear panel. The signal provided depends on the mode of the
instrument. It can be either a probe compensation signal, a pulse
representing the trigger event, signals used for self-calibration, or the
100 MHz reference oscillator when sample period is 1 ns. The DC Cal
output, a rear panel signal, is used for self-calibration. It is one output
from the 16-channel DAC.
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Logic Analyzer Concepts
The Analyzer Hardware
Digital Interface. The Digital Interface provides control and
interface between the system control and digital functions in the
acquisition circuitry.
Analog Interface
The Analog Interface provides control of analog functions in the
acquisition circuitry. It is primarily a 16-channel DAC with an accurate
reference and filters on the outputs. It controls channel offsets and
trigger levels, and provides the DC Cal output.
416
Logic Analyzer Concepts
The Analyzer Hardware
Pattern Generator board theory
Pattern Generator Board
Loop Register
The loop register holds the programmable vector flow information.
When the module reaches the end of the vector listing, the loop
register is queried for the RAM address location of the next userprogrammed vector. In many cases, the next vector address location
would be the start of the vector listing. Consequently, the vectors
would continue to loop from the end of the listing back to the beginning
until you instruct the module to stop.
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Logic Analyzer Concepts
The Analyzer Hardware
RAM
Consisting of five 256Kx16 VRAM ICs and RAM addressing circuitry,
the RAM stores the desired patterns that appear at the module output.
The RAM addressing circuitry is merely a counter which addresses the
pattern locations in RAM. When the end of the vector listing is reached,
the addressing circuitry is loaded from the loop register with the
address of the first vector of the listing to provide an uninterrupted
vector loop. The RAM output is sent to the Output Driver circuit where
the patterns are presented in a logic configuration usable by the output
pods.
Output Driver
The output driver circuit is made up of a series of latch/logic translators
and multiplexers. The latch/translators convert the working-level TTL
signals to output-level ECL signals for each channel. The ECL-level
signals are then directed to the multiplexers.
The multiplexers, one per channel, direct the programmed data
patterns to the output channels. The single-ended ECL-level signals
are converted to differential signals which are routed to the output
cables and to the pods. Note that the differential ECL output signal of
the pattern generator module is not suitable to directly drive ECL
circuitry.
Clock Circuit
The clock circuit paces the loop register, the RAM address circuitry,
and the multiplexers in the output driver according to the desired data
rate. A 200 MHz clock source is directed through a divider circuit
which provides a 100 MHz and 50 MHz clock in addition to 200 MHz.
The 200 MHz, 100 MHz, 50 MHz and external clock signals are routed
to a clock select multiplexer. The output of the multiplexer, which
represents the user-selected clocking rate, is distributed to the above
listed subcircuits.
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Logic Analyzer Concepts
The Analyzer Hardware
The output of the clock select multiplexer is also distributed to an
external clock out circuit. The clock signal is routed to a bank of
external clock delays, and then to an external clock delay select
multiplexer. The output of this multiplexer, which represents the
desired clock delay, is directed to the external clock out pin on the
clock pod. Consequently, either the internal clock or external clock is
redirected to the clock out pin on the clock pod with a user-selected
clock delay.
CPU Interface
The CPU interface is a single programmable-logic device which
interprets the 1670EP Logic Analysis System backplane logic and
translates the logic into signals to drive and program the pattern
generator module.
Pod
The Clock or Data Pod converts the differential output ECL signal to
the logic levels of interest. Because the output of the pattern generator
module cannot directly drive ECL circuitry, the Clock and Data Pod is
required to interface the pattern generator with the target system.
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Logic Analyzer Concepts
The Analyzer Hardware
Self-tests description
The self-tests identify the correct operation of major functional areas in
the logic analyzer. The self-tests are not intended for component-level
diagnostics.
Three types of tests are performed on the 1670G-series logic analyzers:
the power-up self-tests, the functional performance verification selftests, and the parametric performance verification tests.
The power-up self-tests are performed when power is applied to the
instrument. The power-up self-tests are divided into two parts. The
first part is the system memory tests and the second part is the
microprocessor interrupt test. The system memory tests are performed
before the logic analyzer actually displays the power-up self-test
screen. Both the system ROM and RAM are tested during power-up.
The interrupt test is performed after the power-up self-test screen is
displayed.
The functional performance verification self-tests are run using a
separate operating system, the performance verification (PV)
operating system. The PV operating system resides on a separate disk
that must be loaded when running the functional performance
verification self-tests. The system and analyzer tests are functional
performance verification tests.
Parametric performance verification requires the use of external test
equipment that generates and monitors test data for the logic analyzer
to read. Refer to the Agilent Technologies 1670G-Series Logic
Analyzers Service Guide for further information about parametric
performance verification.
420
12
Troubleshooting the Logic Analyzer
421
Troubleshooting the Logic Analyzer
Troubleshooting the Logic Analyzer
Troubleshooting the Logic Analyzer
Occasionally, a measurement may not give the expected results. If you
encounter difficulties while making measurements, use this chapter to
guide you through some possible solutions. Each heading lists a
problem you may encounter, along with some possible solutions. Error
messages which may appear on the logic analyzer are listed below in
quotes " ". Symptoms are listed without quotes.
If you still have difficulty using the analyzer after trying the suggestions
in this chapter, please contact your local Agilent Technologies Service
Center.
CAUTION:
When you are working with the analyzer, be sure to power down both the
analyzer and the target system before disconnecting or connecting cables,
probes, and analysis probes. Otherwise, you may damage circuitry in the
analyzer, analysis probe, or target system.
422
Troubleshooting the Logic Analyzer
Analyzer Problems
Analyzer Problems
This section lists general problems that you might encounter while
using the analyzer.
Intermittent data errors
This problem is usually caused by poor connections, incorrect signal
levels, or marginal timing.
❏ With the logic analyzer and all connected equipment turned off, remove
and reseat all cables and probes; ensure that there are no bent pins on the
analysis probe or poor probe connections.
❏ Adjust the threshold level of the data pod in the Format menu to match
the logic levels in the system under test.
❏ Use an oscilloscope to check the signal integrity of the data lines.
Clock signals for the state analyzer must meet particular pulse shape
and timing requirements. Data inputs for the analyzer must meet pulse
shape and setup and hold time requirements.
See Also
"Capacitive loading" in this section for information on other sources of
intermittent data errors.
423
Troubleshooting the Logic Analyzer
Analyzer Problems
Unwanted triggers
Unwanted triggers can be caused by instructions that were fetched but
not executed.
❏ Add the prefetch queue or pipeline depth to the trigger address.
The depth of the prefetch queue depends on the processor that you are
analyzing. Suppose you are analyzing a pipelined processor having
fetch, decode, execute, and memory stages. The processor fetches 32bit words. To ensure that the processor has begun executing a
particular routine when the trigger occurs, set the trigger to the
module entry address plus 08 hex. (This assumes that there is no
immediate data in the instruction stream.)
No activity on activity indicators
❏ Ensure that the Threshold settings in the Format menu match the logic
family being probed.
❏ Check for loose cables, board connections, and analysis probe connections.
❏ Check for bent or damaged pins on the analysis probe.
424
Troubleshooting the Logic Analyzer
Analyzer Problems
Capacitive loading
Excessive capacitive loading can degrade signals, resulting in incorrect
capture by the analysis probe, or system lockup in the microprocessor.
All analysis probes add additional capacitive loading, as can custom
probe fixtures you design for your application. To reduce loading,
remove as many pin protectors, extenders, and adapters as possible.
Careful layout of your target system can minimize loading problems
and result in better margins for your design. This is especially
important for systems that are running at frequencies greater than 50
MHz.
No trace list display
If there is no trace list display, it may be that your trigger specification
is not correct for the data you want to capture, or that the trace
memory is only partially filled.
❏ Check your trigger specification to ensure that it will capture the events of
interest.
❏ Try stopping the analyzer; if the trace list is partially filled, this should
display the contents of trace memory.
425
Troubleshooting the Logic Analyzer
Analysis Probe Problems
Analysis Probe Problems
This section lists problems that you might encounter when using an
analysis probe. If the solutions suggested here do not correct the
problem, you may have a defective analysis probe. Refer to the User's
Guide for your analysis probe for test procedures. Contact your local
Agilent Technologies Sales Office if you need further assistance.
Target system will not boot up
If the target system will not boot up after connecting the analysis
probe, the microprocessor or the analysis probe may not be installed
properly, or they may not be making electrical contact.
❏ Ensure that you are following the correct power-on sequence for the
analysis probe and target system.
1. Power up the analyzer and analysis probe.
2. Power up the target system.
If you power up the target system before you power up the analysis
probe, interface circuitry in the analysis probe may latch up,
preventing proper target system operation.
❏ Verify that the microprocessor and the analysis probe are properly rotated
and aligned, so that the index pin on the microprocessor (such as pin 1 or
A1) matches the index pin on the analysis probe.
❏ Verify that the microprocessor and the analysis probe are securely inserted
into their respective sockets.
❏ Verify that the logic analyzer cables are in the proper sockets of the
analysis probe and are firmly inserted.
❏ Reduce the number of extender sockets.
See Also
"Capacitive loading" in the previous section of this chapter.
426
Troubleshooting the Logic Analyzer
Analysis Probe Problems
Slow clock
If you have the analysis probe hooked up and running and observe a
slow clock or no activity from the interface board, the +5 V supply
coming from the analyzer may not be getting to the interface board.
❏ To check the +5 V supply coming from the analyzer, disconnect one of the
logic analyzer cables from the analysis probe and measure across pins 1
and 2 or pins 39 and 40.
•
If +5 V is not present, check the internal analysis probe fuse or current
limiting circuit on the logic analyzer. For information on checking this fuse
or circuit, refer to the 1670G-Series Logic Analyzers Service Guide.
•
If +5 V is present and the cable connection to the analysis probe appears
sound, contact your nearest Agilent Technologies Sales Office for
information on servicing the board.
427
Troubleshooting the Logic Analyzer
Analysis Probe Problems
Erratic trace measurements
There are several general problems that can cause erratic variations in
trace lists and inverse assembly failures.
❏ Ensure that the analysis probe configuration switches are correctly set for
the measurement you are trying to make.
Some analysis probes include configuration switches for various features
(for example, to allow dequeueing of the trace list). See your Analysis
Probe User's Guide for more information.
❏ Try doing a full reset of the target system before beginning the
measurement.
Some analysis probe designs require a full reset to ensure correct
configuration.
❏ Ensure that your target system meets the timing requirements of the
processor with the analysis probe installed.
See "Capacitive loading" in this chapter. While analysis probe loading is
slight, pin protectors, extenders, and adapters may increase it to
unacceptable levels. If the target system design has poor timing margins,
such loading may cause incorrect processor functioning, giving erratic
trace results.
❏ Ensure that you have sufficient cooling for the analysis probe.
Current processors such as the i486, Pentiumø, and MC68040 generate
substantial heat. This is exacerbated by the active circuitry on the analysis
probe. You should ensure that you have ambient temperature conditions
and airflow that meet or exceed the requirements of the microprocessor
manufacturer.
428
Troubleshooting the Logic Analyzer
Inverse Assembler Problems
Inverse Assembler Problems
This section lists problems that you might encounter while using the
inverse assembler.
When you obtain incorrect inverse assembly results, it may be unclear
whether the problem is in the analysis probe or in your target system. If
you follow the suggestions in this section to ensure that you are using
the analysis probe and inverse assembler correctly, you can proceed
with confidence in debugging your target system.
No inverse assembly or incorrect inverse
assembly
This problem is due to incorrect synchronization, modified
configuration, incorrect connections, or a hardware problem in the
target system. A locked status line can cause incorrect or incomplete
inverse assembly.
❏ Verify that the inverse assembler has been synchronized by placing an
opcode at the top of the display (not at the input cursor) and pressing the
Invasm key.
Because the inverse assembler works from the first line of the trace
display, if you jump to the middle of a trace and select Invasm, prior trace
states are not disassembled correctly. If you move to several random
places in the trace list and select Invasm each time, the trace disassembly
is only guaranteed to be correct from the top of the display forward for
each selection.
See Also
"The Inverse Assembler" on page 65.
429
Troubleshooting the Logic Analyzer
Inverse Assembler Problems
❏ Ensure that each analyzer pod is connected to the correct analysis probe
cable.
There is not always a one-to-one correspondence between analyzer pod
numbers and analysis probe cable numbers. Analysis probes must supply
address (ADDR), data (DATA), and status (STAT) information to the
analyzer in a predefined order, so the cable connections for each analysis
probe are often altered to support that need. Thus, one analysis probe
might require that you connect cable 2 to analyzer pod 2, while another
will require you to connect cable 5 to analyzer pod 2. See the User's Guide
for your analysis probe for further information.
❏ Check the activity indicators for status lines locked in a high or low state.
❏ Verify that the STAT, DATA, and ADDR format labels have not been
modified from their default values.
These labels must remain as they are configured by the configuration file.
Do not change the names of these labels or the bit assignments within the
labels. Some analysis probes also require other data labels; check your
Analysis Probe User's Guide for more information.
❏ Verify that all microprocessor caches and memory managers have been
disabled.
In most cases, if the microprocessor caches and memory managers remain
enabled you should still get inverse assembly, but it may be incorrect since
some of the execution trace was not visible to the logic analyzer.
❏ Verify that storage qualification has not excluded storage of all the needed
opcodes and operands.
430
Troubleshooting the Logic Analyzer
Inverse Assembler Problems
Inverse assembler will not load or run
You need to ensure that you have the correct system software loaded
on your analyzer.
❏ Ensure that the inverse assembler is on the same disk as the configuration
files you are loading.
Configuration files for the state analyzer contain a pointer to the location
of the corresponding inverse assembler. If you delete the inverse
assembler or move it to another location, the configuration process will
fail.
❏ Make sure you are using the version of the inverse assembler software that
corresponds to the operating system revision installed on your analyzer.
See your Analysis Probe User's Guide for details.
431
Troubleshooting the Logic Analyzer
Error Messages
Error Messages
This section lists some of the messages that the analyzer displays when
it encounters a problem.
". . . Inverse Assembler Not Found"
This error occurs if you rename or delete the inverse assembler file
that is attached to the configuration file. Ensure that the inverse
assembler file is not renamed or deleted, and that it is on the same
flexible disk or in the same directory as the configuration file.
"No Configuration File Loaded"
This is usually caused by trying to load a configuration file for one type
of module or the system into a different type of module.
Verify that the appropriate module has been selected as the target of
the Load operation. Selecting Load All will cause incorrect operation
when loading most analysis probe configuration files.
See Also
"To Load a Configuration" on page 137.
432
Troubleshooting the Logic Analyzer
Error Messages
"Selected File is Incompatible"
This occurs when you try to load a configuration file for the wrong
module. Ensure that you are loading a translatable configuration file for
your logic analyzer.
"Slow or Missing Clock"
❏ This error might occur if the target system is not running properly. Ensure
that the target system is on and operating properly.
❏ Check your State clock configuration. The proper clocking scheme should
be listed in your Analysis Probe User's Guide.
❏ If the error message persists, check that the logic analyzer pods are
connected to the proper connectors. See the User's Guide for your analysis
probe to determine the proper connections.
"Waiting for Trigger"
If a trigger pattern is specified, this message indicates that the
specified trigger pattern has not occurred. Verify that the triggering
pattern is correctly set.
❏ When analyzing microprocessors that fetch only from long-word aligned
addresses, if the trigger condition is set to look for an opcode fetch at an
address not corresponding to a long-word boundary, the trigger will never
be found.
433
Troubleshooting the Logic Analyzer
Error Messages
"Must have at least 1 edge specified"
You must assign at least one clock edge to one of the available clocks in
the clocking arrangement. The analyzer will not let you close the clock
assignment pop-up until an edge is specified.
"Time correlation of data is not possible"
To time-correlate data, the data must be stored with time tags.
❏ Set the Count field in the Analyzer Trigger menu to Time.
"Maximum of 32 channels per label"
You have tried to assign more than 32 channels to a single label.
❏ Unassign some of the channels. If you need more than 32 channels to
specify trigger conditions, you can AND terms in the Analyzer Trigger
menu.
434
Troubleshooting the Logic Analyzer
Error Messages
"Timer is off in sequence level n where it is
used"
If you use timers as part of your trigger sequence, you must remember
to turn them on using Timer Control in the Sequence Level pop-up
menu.
❏ Check that your timers are turned on. The timer status is shown in the
right side of the Sequence Level display of the Trigger menu. An "S" means
"Start", "P" means "Pause", "C" means "Continue", and "-" means "off".
"Timer is specified in sequence, but never
started"
This message often appears with "Timer is off in sequence level n
where it is used," but is not quite the same. That message refers to a
particular sequence level, but this message is a general warning that
the timer has not been set to Start in any level.
❏ Start the timer in one of the levels before where it is used.
"Inverse assembler not loaded - bad object
code."
The inverse assembler file has been corrupted.
❏ Try loading a different copy of the inverse assembler.
435
Troubleshooting the Logic Analyzer
Error Messages
"Measurement Initialization Error"
The logic analyzer failed its internal hardware calibration.
❏ Run the Performance Verification tests.
See Also
The Agilent Technologies 1670G-Series Logic Analyzers Service Guide
for information on running the Performance Verification test.
"Warning: Run HALTED due to variable
change"
This message appears when certain analyzer settings are changed
during a repetitive run. When this occurs, the analyzer stops.
436
13
Specifications
437
Specifications
General Information
General Information
This chapter lists the accessories, specifications and characteristics for
the 1670G-series logic analyzers.
Accessories
The following accessories are supplied with the logic analyzer. You will
only be supplied the accessories needed for the model you have. The
part numbers are current as of this edition of the User's Guide, but
future upgrades may change the part numbers. Do not be concerned if
the accessories you receive have different part numbers.
Accessories supplied
Agilent part number
Probe tip assemblies
01650-61608
Note 1
Probe cables
01660-61605
Note 2
Grabbers (20 per pack)
5090-4356
Note 1
Probe ground (5 per pack)
5959-9334
Note 1
Logic Analyzer Training Kit
E2433-60013
1
User's Guide
01660-99016
1
Accessories pouch
01660-84501
1
RS-232-C loopback connector
01650-63202
1
PS2 mouse
A2839B
1
10:1 probes (oscilloscope option only)
1160A
2
BNC miniprobe adapter (oscilloscope
option only)
1250-1454
1
438
Qty
Specifications
General Information
Note 1 Quantities:
8 - 1670G
6 - 1671G
4 - 1672G
2 - 1673G
Note 2 Quantities
4 - 1670G
3 - 1671G
2 - 1672G
1 - 1673G
439
Specifications
General Information
Specifications (logic analyzer)
The specifications are the performance standards against which the
product is tested. Refer to the Agilent Technologies 1670G Logic
Analyzers Service Guide (available from your Agilent Technologies
Sales Office) for testing procedures.
Maximum state speed
150 MHz
*
Minimum state clock pulse width
3.5 ns
*
Minimum master to master clock time 6.66 ns
3.5 ns
Minimum glitch width*
Setup/Hold time:*
Single clock, single edges
Single clock, multiple edges
Multiple clocks, multiple edges
3.0/0.0 ns through -0.5/3.5 ns,
adjustable in 500-ps increments
3.5/0.0 ns through -0.5/4.0 ns,
adjustable in 500-ps increments
4.0/0.0 ns through -0.5/4.5 ns,
adjustable in 500-ps increments
*Specified for an input signal VH = -0.9 V, VL = -1.7 V, slew rate = 1 V/ns,
and threshold = -1.3 V.
440
Specifications
General Information
Specifications (oscilloscope option)
The specifications are the performance standards against which the
1670G-series logic analyzers oscilloscope is tested.
Bandwidth*:
dc to 500 MHz (realtime, dc coupled)
Time Interval Measurement
Accuracy*, **:
+/-[(0.005% of ∆t) + (2 x 10-6 * delay
setting) + 150 ps]
DC Offset Accuracy*:
+/-(1.0% of channel offset + 2.0% of
full scale)
Voltage Measurement
Accuracy*:
+/-[(1.25% of full scale + offset
accuracy) + (0.016 x V/div)]
Trigger Sensitivity*:
dc to 50 MHz:
0.063 * full scale
50 MHz to 500 MHz:
0.125 * full scale
Input R:
1 MΩ +/-1%,50 Ω +/-1%
* = Specifications valid within +/-10 °C of self-calibration temperature
** Specification applies at the maximum sample rate. At lower rates,
specification should be +/-(0.005% x ∆t) + (2 x 10-6 x delay setting) +
(0.15 X sample interval) for bandwidth limited signals (tr = 1.4 x
1
-.
sample interval). Sample interval is defined as ---------------------------samplerate
441
Specifications
General Information
Characteristics (logic analyzer)
These characteristics are not specifications, but are included as
additional information.
Full Channel Half Channel
150 MHz
not applicable
250 MHz
500 MHz
64 K
128 K
256 K
512 K
2M
4M
Maximum state clock rate
Maximum conventional timing rate
Memory depth
Memory option 001
Memory option 002
Channel count:
1670G
1671G
1672G
1673G
442
136
102
68
34
68
51
34
17
Specifications
General Information
Characteristics (oscilloscope)
The characteristics are not specifications, but are included as
additional information.
Maximum sample rate
Number of channels
Rise Time*
ADC
Vertical resolution
Waveform record length
Vertical (dc) gain accuracy**
Input coupling
Input Capacitance
2 Gigasample per second
2
700 ps
8-bit real time
8 bits over 4 vertical divisions (±0.4%)
>32,000 points
±1.25% of full scale
1 MΩ: ac and dc, 50 Ω: dc only
Approximately 7 pF
0.35 *Rise time is calculated from t r = ---------------------------
bandwidth
**Vertical gain accuracy decreases 0.08% per ûC from software calibration
temperature
Characteristics (pattern generator)
These characteristics are not specifications, but are included as
additional information.
Channel count
Maximum speed
Memory depth
Full Channel
32
100 MHz
258,048
Half Channel
16
200 MHz
258,048
443
Specifications
General Information
Logic levels
Data inputs
Clock outputs
Clock input
Internal clock period
TTL, 3-state, TTL/3.3v,
3-state TTL/CMOS, ECL terminated,
ECL Unterminated, and differential
ECL (without POD)
3-bit pattern - level sensing (clock pod)
Synchronized to output data
DC to 200 MHz
Programmable from 5 ns to 250 us
in a 1, 2, 2.5, 4, 5, 8 sequence
External clock period (user supplied)
External duty cycle
Maximum number of "IF condition"
blocks at 50 MHz
Maximum number for different Functions
Maximum number of lines in a Function
Maximum number of Function invocations
Maximum number of repeat loop invocations
Maximum number of Wait event patterns
444
DC to 200 MHz
2 ns minimum high time
1
100
1024
1000
1000
4
Specifications
General Information
Supplemental characteristics (logic analyzer)
Probes
Input resistance
Input capacitance
Minimum voltage swing
Threshold range
100 kΩ, ±2%
~ 1.5-pF
500 mV, peak-to-peak
±6.0 V, adjustable in 50-mV increments,
CAT I
State analysis
State/Clock qualifiers
Time tag resolution*
Maximum time count
between states
Maximum state tag count*
1671 - 4; 1672 - 4; 1673 - 2,
8 ns or 0.1%, whichever is greater
34 seconds
4.29 x 109
* Maximum state clock rate with time or state tags on is 150 MHz. When
all pods are assigned to a state or timing machine, time or state tags
halve the memory depth.
445
Specifications
General Information
Timing analysis
Sample period accuracy
Channel-to-channel skew
Time interval accuracy
0.01 % of sample period
2 ns, typical
± [sample period + channel-to-channel
skew +(0.01%)(time reading)]
Triggering
Sequencer speed
State sequence levels
Timing sequence levels
Maximum occurrence
counter value
Pattern recognizers
Maximum pattern width
150 MHz, maximum
12
10
Range recognizers
Range width
Timers
Timer value range
Glitch/Edge recognizers
Maximum glitch/edge width
2
32 bits each
2
400 ns to 500 seconds
2 (timing only)
136 channels in 1670G,
102 channels in 1671G,
68 channels in 1672G,
34 channels in 1673G
446
1,048,575
10
136 channels in 1670G,
102 channels in 1671G,
68 channels in 1672G,
34 channels in 1673G
Specifications
General Information
Measurement and display functions
Displayed waveforms. 24 lines maximum, with scrolling across 96
waveforms.
Measurement functions
Run/Stop functions. Run starts acquisition of data in specified trace
mode.
Stop. In single trace mode or the first run of a repetitive acquisition,
Stop halts acquisition and displays the current acquisition data. For
subsequent runs in repetitive mode, Stop halts acquisition of data and
does not change the current display.
Trace mode. Single mode acquires data once per trace specification.
Repetitive mode repeats single mode acquisitions until Stop is pressed
or until the time interval between two specified patterns is less than or
greater than a specified value, or within or not within a specified range.
Indicators
Activity indicators. Provided in the Configuration and Format
menus for identifying high, low, or changing states on the inputs.
Markers. Two markers (X and O) are shown as vertical dashed lines
on the display.
Trigger. Displayed as a vertical dashed line in the Timing Waveform
display and as line0 in the State Listing display.
447
Specifications
General Information
Data entry/display
Labels. Channels may be grouped together and given a 6-character
name. Up to 126 labels in each analyzer may be assigned with up to 32
channels per label.
Display modes. State Listing, State Waveforms, Chart, Compare
Listing, Compare Difference Listing, Timing Waveforms, and Timing
Listings. State Listing and Timing Waveforms can be time-correlated on
the same displays.
Timing waveform. Pattern readout of timing waveforms at X or O
marker.
Bases. Binary, octal, decimal, hexadecimal, ASCII (display only), two's
complement, and user-defined symbols.
Symbols. 1,000 maximum. Symbols can be downloaded over RS-232
or GPIB, or LAN.
448
Specifications
General Information
Marker functions
Time interval. The X and O markers measure the time interval
between a point on a timing waveform and the trigger, two points on
the same timing waveform, two points on different waveforms, or two
states (time tagging on).
Delta states (state analyzer only). The X and O markers measure
the number of tagged states between one state and trigger or between
two states.
Patterns. The X and O markers can be used to locate the nth
occurrence of a specified pattern from trigger, or from the beginning of
data. The O marker can also find the nth occurrence of a pattern from
the X marker.
Statistics. X and O marker statistics are calculated for repetitive
acquisitions. Patterns must be specified for both markers, and statistics
are kept only when both patterns can be found in an acquisition.
Statistics are minimum X to O time, maximum X to O time, average X
to O time, and ratio of valid runs to total runs.
Auxiliary power
Power through cables
1/3 amp at 5 V maximum per cable
449
Specifications
General Information
Supplemental characteristics (oscilloscope)
Vertical (at BNC)
Vertical sensitivity range
(1:1 Probe)
DC offset range
!
Probe factors
Maximum safe input
voltage
Channel-to-channel
isolation
Timebase
Range
Resolution
Delay Pre-trigger Range
Delay Post-trigger Range
450
4 mV/div to 10 V/div in 1-2-4 increments
Vertical sensitivity Available offset
4mV - 100mV/div
±2V
100mV - 400mV/div ±10V
400mV - 2.5V/div
±50V
2.5V - 10V/div
±250V
Any integer ration from 1:1 to 1000:1
1 MΩ:±250V [dc + peak ac (< 10 KHz)],
CAT II 50Ω:±5 VRMS
dc to 50 MHz: 40 dB,
50 MHz to 500 MHz:30 dB
0.5 ns/div to 5 s/div
10 ps
81.8 sec, 5 divisions
2.5 x 103 seconds
Specifications
General Information
Triggering:
Trigger Level Range: Within display window (vertical offset +/- 2
divisions)
Trigger Modes:
Immediate: Triggers immediately after arming condition is met.
Edge: Triggers on rising or falling edge from channel 1 or channel 2.
Pattern: Triggers on entering or exiting a specified pattern across
two channels.
Auto Trigger: Self-triggers if no trigger condition is found within
approximately 50 ms after arming.
Events Delay: The trigger can be set to occur on the nth edge or
pattern, as specified by the user.
Intermodule: Arms another measurement module or triggers the
rear panel BNC.
451
Specifications
General Information
Operating environment
Temperature
Humidity
Altitude
Vibration
452
Instrument, 0 °C to 55 °C (+32 °F to 131 °F).
Probe lead sets and cables,
0 °C to 65 °C (+32 °F to 149 °F).
Flexible disk media, 10 °C to 40 °C
(+50 °F to 104 °F)
Indoor use only.
Instrument, probe lead sets, and cables, up to
80% relative humidity at +40 °C (+122 °F).
To 3067 m (10,000 ft).
Operating: Random vibration 5 to 500 Hz,
10 minutes per axis, ≈ 0.3 g (rms).
Non-operating: Random vibration 5 to 500 Hz,
10 minutes per axis, ≈ 2.41 g (rms);
and swept sine resonant search, 5 to 500 Hz,
0.75 g (0-peak), 5 minute resonant dwell
at 4 resonances per axis.
14
Operator’s Service
453
Operator’s Service
Operator’s Service
Operator’s Service
This chapter provides information on how to prepare the logic analyzer
for use, and contains self-tests and flow charts used for troubleshooting
the logic analyzer.
The 1670G-Series Logic Analyzers Service Guide contain detailed
service procedures. Service guides can be ordered through your
Agilent Technologies Sales Office; they are not shipped with the logic
analyzer.
454
Operator’s Service
Preparing For Use
Preparing For Use
This section gives you instructions for preparing the logic analyzer for
use.
Power requirements
The logic analyzer requires a power source of either 115 VAC or 230
VAC, -22 % to +10%, single phase, 48 to 66 Hz, 200 Watts maximum
power.
Category I: Signal level, telecommunications, electronic. (Seperated
from line voltage by transformer, etc).
Category II: Local level, appliances, portable equipment (line voltage in
appliance and to wall outlet).
Operating environment
The operating environment is listed in previous chapter. Note the
noncondensing humidity limitation. Condensation within the
instrument can cause poor operation or malfunction. Provide
protection against internal condensation.
The logic analyzer will operate at all specifications within the
temperature and humidity range given. However, reliability is
enhanced when operating the logic analyzer within the following
ranges:
•
Temperature: +20°C to +35 °C (+68 °F to +95 °F)
•
Humidity: 20% to 80% noncondensing
•
Pollution degree 2: Normally only dry non-conductive pollution occurs.
Occasionally a temporary conductivity caused by condensation must be
expected.
455
Operator’s Service
Preparing For Use
Storage
Store or ship the logic analyzer in environments within the following
limits:
•
Temperature: -40 °C to +75 °C
•
Humidity: Up to 90% at 65 °C
•
Altitude: Up to 15,300 meters (50,000 feet)
Protect the logic analyzer from temperature extremes which cause
condensation on the instrument.
To inspect the logic analyzer
1 Inspect the shipping container for damage.
If the shipping container or cushioning material is damaged, keep them
until you have checked the contents of the shipment and checked the
instrument mechanically and electrically.
2 Check the supplied accessories.
3 Inspect the product for physical damage.
Check the logic analyzer and the supplied accessories for obvious
physical or mechanical defects. If you find any defects, contact your
nearest Agilent Technologies Sales Office. Arrangements for repair or
replacement are made, at Agilent Technologies' option, without waiting
for a claim settlement.
To apply power
1 Check that the line voltage selector, located on the rear panel, is
on the correct setting and the correct fuse is installed.
456
Operator’s Service
Preparing For Use
2 Connect the power cord to the instrument and to the power
source.
This instrument is equipped with a three-wire power cable. When
connected to an appropriate ac power outlet, this cable grounds the
instrument cabinet. The type of power cable plug shipped with the
instrument depends on the country of destination.
3 Turn on the instrument power switch located on the front panel.
To clean the logic analyzer
With the instrument turned off and unplugged, use mild soap and water
to clean the front and cabinet of the logic analyzer.
Harsh soap might damage the water-base paint. Do not immerse the
logic analyzer in water.
To test the logic analyzer
If you require a test to verify the specifications, the Agilent
Technologies 1670G-Series Logic Analyzers Service Guide is required.
If you require a test to initially accept the operation, perform the selftests described in Troubleshooting in this chapter.
If the logic analyzer does not operate correctly, go to the flow charts
provided in Troubleshooting in this chapter.
457
Operator’s Service
Troubleshooting
Troubleshooting
This section helps you troubleshoot the logic analyzer to find the
problem. The troubleshooting consists of flowcharts, self-test
instructions, and tests.
If you suspect a problem, start at the top of the first flowchart. During
the troubleshooting instructions, the flowcharts will direct you to
perform other tests.
This instrument can be returned to Agilent Technologies for all service
work, including troubleshooting. Contact your nearest Agilent
Technologies Sales Office for more details.
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Troubleshooting
To use the flowcharts
Flowcharts are the primary tool used to isolate problems in the logic
analyzer. The flowcharts refer to other tests to help isolate the trouble.
The circled letters on the charts indicate connections with the other
flowcharts. Start your troubleshooting at the top of the first flowchart.
Troubleshooting Flowchart 1
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Troubleshooting Flowchart 2
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To check the power-up tests
The logic analyzer automatically performs power-up tests when you
apply power to the instrument. The revision number of the operating
system shows in the upper-right corner of the screen during these
power-up tests. As each test completes, either "passed" or "failed"
prints on the screen in front of the name of each test.
1 Disconnect all inputs, then insert a formatted disk into the
flexible disk drive.
2 Let the analyzer warm up for a few minutes, then cycle power by
turning off then turning on the power switch.
If the analyzer is not warmed up, the power-up test screen will
complete before you can view the screen.
3 As the tests complete, check if they pass or fail.
The Flexible Disk Test reports No Disk if a disk is not in the disk drive.
Performing Power-Up Self-Tests
passed
passed
passed
passed
passed
passed
No Disk
ROM text
RAM test
Interrupt test
Display test
PS2 Controller Test
Hard Disk Test
Flexible Disk Test
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To run the self-tests
Self-tests identify the correct operation of major functional areas of the
analyzer. You can run all self-tests without accessing the interior of the
instrument. If a self-test fails, the troubleshooting flowcharts instruct
you to change a part of the analyzer.
These procedures assume the files on the PV disk have been copied to
the /SYSTEM subdirectory on the hard disk drive. If they have not
already been copied, insert the PV disk in the flexible disk drive before
starting this procedure.
1 If you just did the power-up self-tests, go to step 2.
If you did not just do the power-up self-tests, disconnect all inputs,
then turn on the power switch. Wait until the power-up tests are
complete.
2 Press the System key, then select the field next to System. Then,
select Test in the pop-up menu.
3 Select the box labeled Load Test System, then select Continue.
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4 Press the System key, then select the field next to Sys PV. Select
System Test to access the system tests.
5 Select ROM Test. The ROM Test screen is displayed.
You can run all tests at one time by running All System Tests. To see
more details about each test, you can run each test individually. This
example shows how to run an individual test.
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6 Select Run, then select Single.
To run a test continuously, select Repetitive. Select Stop to halt a
repetitive test.
For a Single run, the test runs one time, and the screen shows the
results.
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7 To exit the ROM Test, select Done. Note that the status changes
to PASSED or FAILED.
8 Install a formatted disk that is not write-protected into the
flexible disk drive. Connect an RS-232-C loopback connector
onto the RS-232-C port. Run the remaining System Tests in the
same manner.
9 Select the Front Panel Test.
A screen duplicating the front panel appears on the screen.
a Press each key on the front panel. The corresponding key on
the screen will change from a light to a dark color.
b Test the knob by turning it in both directions.
c Note any failures, then press the Done key a second time to
exit the Front Panel Test. The test screen shows the Front
Panel Test status changed to TESTED.
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10 Select the Display Test.
A white grid pattern is displayed. These display screens can be used to
adjust the display.
a Select Continue and the screen changes to full bright.
b Select Continue and the screen changes to half bright.
c Select Continue and the test screen shows the Display Test
status changed to TESTED.
11 Select Sys PV, then select Analy PV in the pop-up menu. Select
Chip 2 Tests.
You can run all the analyzer tests at one time by selecting All Analyzer
Tests. To see more details about each test, you can run each test
individually. This example shows how to run Chip 2 Tests. Chip 3, 4,
and 5 Tests operate the same as Chip 2 Tests.
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12 In the Chip 2 Tests menu, select Run, then select Single. The
test runs one time, then the screen shows the results. When the
test is finished, select Done. Then, perform the other Chip Tests.
To run a test continuously, select Repetitive. Select Stop to halt a Run
Repetitive.
13 Select Board Tests, then select Run. When the Board Tests are
finished, select Done.
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14 Select Data Input Inspection. All lines should show activity.
Select Done to exit the Data Input Inspection.
15 If you do not have a 1670G-series logic analyzer with the
oscilloscope option, exit the tests by pressing the System key.
Select the field to the right of the Sys PV field. Select the Exit
Test System.
16 If you have a 1670G-series logic analyzer with the oscilloscope
option, select Analy PV, then select Scope PV in the pop up
menu. Select Functional Tests.
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17 Select one of the Scope PV tests.
You can run all of the tests at one time by selecting All Tests, or you can
run each test individually. For this example, select Data Memory Test.
18 In the Data Memory Test menu, select Run, then select Single.
The test runs one time, then the screen shows the results. When
the test is finished, select Done.
To run a test continuously, select Repetitive. Select Stop to halt a
Repetitive Run.
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19 To exit the tests, press the System key. Select the field to the
right of the Sys PV field.
20 Select the Exit Test System.
If you are performing the self-tests as part of the troubleshooting
flowchart, return to the flowchart.
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To test the auxiliary power
The +5 V auxiliary power is protected by a current overload protection
device. If the current on pins 1 and 39 exceed 0.33 amps, the circuit
will open. When the short is removed, the circuit will reset in
approximately 1 minute. There should be +5 V after the 1 minute reset
time.
Equipment Required
Equipment
Critical Specifications
Digital Multimeter
0.1 mV resolution,
better than 0.005%
accuracy
•
Recommended
Agilent Model/Part
3478A
Using the multimeter, verify the +5 V on pins 1 and 39 of the probe cables.
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472
Section 2
LAN
473
474
15
Introducing the LAN Interface
475
Introducing the LAN Interface
Introducing the LAN Interface
Introducing the LAN Interface
The Agilent Technologies Logic Analyzer LAN interface lets you
connect your logic analyzer to an Ethernet network that uses TCP/IP.
With the LAN Interface, you can:
•
Set up and run measurements using the logic analyzer's XWindow
interface.
•
Copy measurement data from the logic analyzer to your computer using
File Transfer Protocol program (ftp) or Network File System (NFS).
•
Save and restore configurations.
•
Program the logic analyzer.
Requirements
In order to use your 1670G logic analyzer on the LAN, you need the
following equipment and software:
•
Ethernet local area network using TCP/IP protocol.
•
If you are using a PC, NFS program or ftp program.
•
If you want to use the logic analyzer's XWindow interface, Xserver
program running on your computer.
Characteristics
Physical Connection.
•
RJ-45 connector for direct connection to 10Base-T ("ethertwist") networks
•
BNC connector for direct connection to 10Base2 ("thinlan") networks
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Introducing the LAN Interface
Introducing the LAN Interface
Supported Protocols.
•
Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP)
•
Network File System (NFS)
•
File Transfer Protocol (ftp)
•
X Window System Version 11, release 5 (X11R5)
•
Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP)
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Introducing the LAN Interface
Introducing the LAN Interface
LAN section overview
The chapters in the LAN section of this User’s Guide shows you how to
connect, use, and troubleshoot your logic analyzer via a Local Area
Network (LAN) connection. The following is a brief description of each
chapter.
Connecting and Configuring. Provides information about
connecting the logic analyzer to the network. To effectively use this
chapter, you should be familiar with your network setup and operation.
Accessing the Logic Analyzer File System. Shows you how to
access the logic analyzer’s file system. This is a prerequisite for some of
the other things you can do with a logic inlayer on the network.
Using the X Window Interface. Shows you how to display the
analyzer interface on an X Window server, and describes the basics of
using the interface.
Retrieving and Restoring Data. Shows you how to retrieve
measurement data, screen images, and status information from your
logic analyzer on the LAN, and how to copy and restore configurations.
Programming the Logic analyzer. Shows you methods for
programming the logic analyzer via the network connection.
Concepts. Contains additional information on the logic analyzer’s
directory structure and dynamic files.
Troubleshooting. Describes what to do if you have a problem using
the logic analyzer on your network.
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Connecting and Configuring the LAN
479
Connecting and Configuring the LAN
Connecting and Configuring the LAN
Connecting and Configuring the LAN
In order to use your logic analyzer's network capabilities, you need to
connect it to your network and configure the logic analyzer.
The following chart shows an overview of the process.
Connect
Connect the RJ-45 or BNC
connector from your network, then
turn on the logic analyzer.
Configure
Setup the configuration menus.
Ping
Verify connectivity with the ping
utility.
Ping OK?
No
Go to page 536,
“Troubleshooting the
LAN.”
No
Go to page 536,
“Troubleshooting the
LAN.”
Yes
Mount
Mount the logic analyzer.
Mount OK?
Yes
Ready to use.
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Connecting and Configuring the LAN
Connecting and Configuring the LAN
To connect to your network
1 Turn off the logic analyzer.
2 Connect the analyzer to your network using an RJ-45 or BNC
connector.
Ethertwist and thinlan are the two most common types of LAN
network connection. Ethertwist uses unshielded twisted pair and an
RJ-45 connector, and resembles a standard modular phone line.
Thinlan uses coaxial cable. If you are unsure what your network uses
for its physical connection, contact your local network administrator.
The logic analyzer LAN ports are on the back panel. The RJ-45
connector goes in the port labeled "LAN-TP" and the BNC attaches to
the port labeled "LAN-BNC".
3 Turn on the logic analyzer.
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Connecting and Configuring the LAN
Connecting and Configuring the LAN
To configure the network addresses
You can configure the logic analyzer to work with your network from
the front panel. Information entered in the configuration menus will be
stored in nonvolatile memory.
1 Go to the System External I/O menu and select LAN Settings.
a Turn on the analyzer and wait until the power-up tests are
complete.
b Press the System key.
c In the System External I/O menu, select the LAN Settings box.
System External I/O menu
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Connecting and Configuring the LAN
Connecting and Configuring the LAN
2 Set up the LAN Settings menu.
LAN Settings menu
Lan Port . The LAN Port toggles between LAN TP and LAN BNC. Set
it to whichever type you are using for the connection.
Analyzer IP Address. TCP/IP uses the Internet Protocol (IP)
Address for communication between network nodes and requires this
entry. Each IP address on a network must be unique - contact your
system administrator if you need to have one created for the logic
analyzer. The logic analyzer responds to messages sent to this IP
address.
Gateway IP Address. Gateways act as connections between different
physical subnets. If the logic analyzer is on a different subnet than the
computer you wish to use it with, you need to enter a gateway address.
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Connecting and Configuring the LAN
Connecting and Configuring the LAN
File Timeout. This is not the same as the network timeout, which is
set on the computer. The logic analyzer file timeout is how long the
analyzer keeps a file in the active portion of memory. For slow network
connections, a large file timeout decreases the total time for a file
transfer. Too high a file timeout for a fast network connection can
actually slow file transfers because too much is in active memory. A
good guideline for file timeout is 150% of the average time it takes for
packets to go from source to destination.
Analyzer Name. The Analyzer Name is for user reference only. It
appears in the status files of the logic analyzer, and in the X Window
display. It is not the same as the IP name.
3 If necessary, add the logic analyzer to your local network
configuration.
If you are doing a point-to-point connection, this step is unnecessary
because the computer and the logic analyzer only communicate with
each other.
For UNIX networks and PC networks based on a UNIX model, the
network software requires an entry for the logic analyzer before
another computer can talk to it. These entries are usually kept in a file
named /etc/hosts. The /etc/hosts file also associates an alias with the IP
address so that you can use a meaningful name rather than the IP
address.
Other styles of PC networks have different conventions. Consult your
LAN documentation or your local system administrator to see if you
need to do anything else.
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Connecting and Configuring the LAN
Connecting and Configuring the LAN
To verify connectivity with the ping utility
Use the ping utility to verify that the logic analyzer is on your network.
Refer to your network documentation for the exact syntax.
•
UNIX
ping [IP address|symbolic name]
•
MS-DOS
ping [IP address|symbolic name]
•
MS Windows
For a Windows environment, select the ping icon in your network menu.
Refer to your network documentation for more information about using
the ping utility.
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Connecting and Configuring the LAN
Connecting and Configuring the LAN
To mount the logic analyzer
NOTE:
Before Mounting
You need to wait at least 15 seconds after the Analyzer Configuration menu is
displayed before attempting to mount. If you try to mount too soon, you will
receive an error message.
You can mount the logic analyzer on your network for two different
levels of use, control or data. The logic analyzer accommodates one
control user and multiple data users. Control allows users to read and
write files to and from the analyzer, while data allows users to only read
files from the file system. Data users can also write files to the disk
drives of the logic analyzer.
If you have trouble, refer to chapter 7, "Troubleshooting."
For the exact syntax of the mount command for mount, refer to your
network documentation.
NOTE:
Mounting and Unmounting
You must unmount the logic analyzer before turning it off. After unmounting,
you can mount the analyzer 15 seconds after the Analyzer Configuration menu
is displayed when powering up the instrument. You can write a network script
that executes an unmount and mount procedure.
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Connecting and Configuring the LAN
Connecting and Configuring the LAN
•
UNIX
For UNIX, use your network's command for an NFS mount.
For example:
mount [analyzer name:]/[control|data][mount point]
Some UNIX workstations will not accept a straight IP address. You
must add an aliased name for the logic analyzer to the host file, then
use that name in your mount command.
Refer to your network documentation for more information.
•
MS-DOS
For a PC using MS-DOS and running PC-NFS, use a form of the net use
command.
For example, PC-NFS uses:
net use [drive specifier][IP address or a named alias]\
[control|data]
Refer to your PC-based NFS documentation for more information.
•
MS Windows
For an MS Windows environment, refer to your Windows-based NFS
documentation and File Manager documentation for mounting
instructions.
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Connecting and Configuring the LAN
Connecting and Configuring the LAN
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17
Accessing the Logic Analyzer File
System Using the LAN
489
Accessing the Logic Analyzer File System Using the LAN
Accessing the Logic Analyzer File System Using the LAN
Accessing the Logic Analyzer File System Using
the LAN
This chapter shows you how to:
NOTE:
•
Mount the file system via NFS.
•
Access the file system via ftp.
This chapter assumes that the logic analyzer is physically connected to your
local area network. If it is not connected, refer to Chapter 1 for information on
how to connect the system.
Control User vs. Data User
You can access the logic analyzer file system as either the control user
or a data user.
Control User
•
The control user can send programming commands.
•
The control user has read and write access to the file system.
•
There can only be one control user at any time.
Data User
•
The data user cannot send programming commands.
•
The data user has read access to the entire file system, but can only write
to \system\disk\hard and \system\disk\flexible directories (the logic
analyzer disk drives).
•
Multiple data users can access the logic analyzer simultaneously.
Password and File Protection
There is no password protection built into the logic analyzer. This
means that files are not protected against either deletion or being
written over.
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Accessing the Logic Analyzer File System Using the LAN
Accessing the Logic Analyzer File System Using the LAN
To mount the file system via NFS
NOTE:
The logic analyzer must be on and completely booted up before you can
mount the file system. Once power is applied and the Analyzer Configuration
menu is displayed, allow an additional 15 seconds before attempting to mount
the system.
NOTE:
Be sure to unmount the logic analyzer's file system before turning off the logic
analyzer. If you don't do this, you may get a "stale NFS file handle" error
message the next time you try to mount. If you get this message, unmount the
file system and try mounting again.
From Computers Running the UNIX Operating System
The syntax of the mount command is typically
mount [symbolic name|IP address]:/[control|data] /
[directory name]
The symbolic name is the host name of the logic analyzer as set up by
your system administrator. Typically, this name is found in the /etc/
hosts file on your computer or returned by a name server. It is
equivalent to the logic analyzer's IP (Internet Protocol) address.
The control or data option specifies the type of access you want.
The directory name is the name of an empty directory in your
computer's file system to which the logic analyzer's file system will be
mounted.
See the example on the next page.
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Accessing the Logic Analyzer File System Using the LAN
Accessing the Logic Analyzer File System Using the LAN
Example
Mounting the logic analyzer on a UNIX computer
To mount the analyzer named "1670G_1" as the control user to a
directory on your computer named /logic, enter the following command
at the UNIX command line:
mount 1670G_1:/control /logic
After you have entered this command, you will be able to see the logic
analyzer's file system under the /logic directory on your computer.
To unmount:
umount /logic
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Accessing the Logic Analyzer File System Using the LAN
Accessing the Logic Analyzer File System Using the LAN
From Computers Running the MS-DOS Operating System
NOTE:
To use the logic analyzer interface in an MS-DOS environment, you need to
install a program on your PC that allows you to use NFS protocol. One such
program is PC-NFS by SunSoft Inc.
To mount the logic analyzer file system from a PC running MS-DOS,
you must create a logical drive that points to it. A typical MS-DOS
command to do this would look like one of these two examples:
net use [drive name] [host name|IP address]:/
[control|data]
net use [drive name] \\[host name|IP
address]\[control|data]
The choice of drive name is up to you.
The host name of the logic analyzer is set up by your system
administrator. Typically, this name is found in the hosts file on your
computer or returned by a name server. It is equivalent to the logic
analyzer's IP (Internet Protocol) address.
The control or data option specifies the type of access you want.
Example
Mounting the logic analyzer with MS-DOS
To mount, as the control user, the logic analyzer whose IP address is
"15.6.254.150" to the logical drive "L:", enter the following command at
the MS-DOS prompt. In this example, the PC-NFS application is used.
net use L: 15.6.254.150:/control
After you have entered this command, you will be able to see the
analyzer's file system under the "L:" logical drive on your computer.
To unmount:
net use L: /d
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Accessing the Logic Analyzer File System Using the LAN
Accessing the Logic Analyzer File System Using the LAN
From Computers Running MS Windows NT
NOTE:
To use the logic analyzer in an MS Windows NT environment, you need to
install a program on your PC that allows you to use NFS protocol. One such
program is PC-NFS by SunSoft Inc.
To mount the logic analyzer's file system from a PC running MS
Windows NT, use the Network Connections menu in the Disk options of
File Manager.
To connect to the logic analyzer from the File Manager in MS Windows
NT perform the following steps:
1 Open Windows NT Explorer. Select Tool, and then
Map Network Drive...
2 In the "Drive" field of the pop-up menu, click on the Drive Letter
selection box and select the drive name you wish to use.
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Accessing the Logic Analyzer File System Using the LAN
Accessing the Logic Analyzer File System Using the LAN
3 In the Path field, type the name of the server that the logic
analyzer system is mounted on, followed by the analyzer's name
or IP address. At the end of the path, specify which kind of
connection you would like to establish, either "control" or "data".
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Accessing the Logic Analyzer File System Using the LAN
Accessing the Logic Analyzer File System Using the LAN
To access the file system via ftp
To access the logic analyzer's file system using ftp, enter the following
command on your computer:
ftp [symbolic name|IP address]
The symbolic name is the host name of the logic analyzer as set up by
your system administrator. Typically, this name is found in the hosts
file on your computer or returned by a name server. It is equivalent to
the analyzer's IP (Internet Protocol) address.
When the connection is made, you will be prompted for a login name.
Enter "control" or "data" depending on the type of access you want.
If you are prompted for a password, just press the Return or Enter key.
There is no password protection built into Agilent logic analyzers.
Example
Using ftp
To access the file system of the logic analyzer named 1670sys using ftp
enter:
ftp 1670sys
login name: data
ftp>
The exact commands you use within ftp depend on the software. If you
are not familiar with your ftp software, type "?" or "help" at the ftp
prompt to see a list of commands.
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Using the LAN’s X Window Interface
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Using the LAN’s X Window Interface
Using the LAN’s X Window Interface
Using the LAN’s X Window Interface
This chapter shows you how to:
•
Start the interface.
•
Close the interface.
•
Load the custom fonts.
Using the Mouse and Keyboard
Once you have started the XWindow interface and are displaying it on
your computer running the Xserver, you can use your computer's
keyboard and mouse to control the logic analyzer interface in the same
way you use the logic analyzer's keyboard and mouse. Refer to your
logic analyzer's User's Guide for a complete description of keyboard
and mouse operation.
Duplicating Front-Panel Knob Control
To duplicate turning the knob, hold down the right mouse button, and
move the mouse up or to the right for clockwise knob movement; move
the mouse down or to the left for counter-clockwise knob movement.
You can also use the keyboard's Shift-up or -right arrow keys to
duplicate clockwise knob movement. Use the Shift-down or -left arrow
keys to duplicate counter-clockwise knob movement.
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Using the LAN’s X Window Interface
Using the LAN’s X Window Interface
To start the interface from the front panel
From the Logic Analyzer Front Panel
1 Start the Xserver software on your host computer.
2 On your Xserver, enable analyzer-initiated windows.
Most Xserver packages have a security feature which stops unwanted
client-initiated windows from being displayed.
On computers running the UNIX operating system, you can enable the
analyzer to initiate windows by entering the xhost command:
xhost +<analyzer IP address>
On computers that aren't running the UNIX operating system, the
Xserver package documentation will explain its security features.
3 In the analyzer's System External I/O menu, select the X-Window
Settings field.
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Using the LAN’s X Window Interface
Using the LAN’s X Window Interface
4 In the X-Window Settings menu that pops up, enter the IP
address of the XWindows server, the display number, and the
screen number.
These values are saved for the next time you initiate an X Window. The
display number and the screen number are usually 0. The display
number is not zero when you have multiple displays. For some
workstations, screen number 1 is a black-and-white screen.
5 Select Done, then select Connect.
Your Xserver opens an analyzer window like the one below, and the
Connect field changes to Disconnect.
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Using the LAN’s X Window Interface
Using the LAN’s X Window Interface
To start the interface from the computer
1 On your Xserver, enable analyzer-initiated windows.
Most Xserver packages have a security feature which stops unwanted
client-initiated windows from being displayed.
On computers running the UNIX operating system, you can enable
analyzer-initiated windows by entering the xhost command:
xhost +<analyzer IP address>
On computers that aren't running the UNIX operating system, the
Xserver package documentation will explain its security features.
2 Send the XWIN ON programming command to the logic analyzer.
The syntax of the XWIN ON command is:
xwin on,"<Xserver IP address>:<display>.<screen>"
The IP (Internet Protocol) address is the address of the XWindows
server.
There are several methods for sending the XWIN ON command. The
easiest is using psuedo-telnet, but it can also be done using ftp or
writing to the NFS-mounted logic analyzer. See the following examples.
Example
NFS method using a UNIX computer
To enable windows to be initiated from the logic analyzer named
lp1670G, enter the following command on the computer running the
Xserver:
xhost +lp1670G
If you have NFS mounted the analyzer's file system to a directory
named /logic on your computer whose IP address is 15.6.253.146 (and
is running the Xserver), enter the following command to start the
XWindow interface:
echo "xwin on,'15.6.253.146:0.0'" > /logic/system/
program
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Using the LAN’s X Window Interface
Using the LAN’s X Window Interface
Example
Pseudo telnet method using a UNIX computer
To enable windows to be initiated from the logic analyzer named
lp1670G, enter the following command on the computer running the
Xserver :
xhost +lp1670G
To connect to the command parser socket of the logic analyzer named
lp1670G, enter:
telnet lp1670G 5025
NOTE:
Agilent Technologies logic analyzers are not telnet servers. The UNIX
command telnet is used to make a connection to the analyzer command
parser, which uses socket number 5025. A telnet server would normally not
need to have the socket specified.
To start the XWindow interface on the computer whose IP address is
15.6.253.146 (and is running the Xserver) enter:
xwin on,"15.6.253.146:0.0"
If you are not planning on sending more commands to the logic
analyzer, close the telnet connection by typing the escape character,
and then "quit" when the telnet prompt appears. The escape character
is often Control-]; your telnet program should tell you when it opens
the connection.
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Using the LAN’s X Window Interface
Using the LAN’s X Window Interface
Example
ftp method using a UNIX computer
File transfer protocol (ftp) can be used to start the X Window interface
from either a UNIX computer or a PC. The logic analyzer is named
lp1670G in this example. You will need to start the X server software on
a PC and may need to enable the analyzer-initiated window. On a UNIX
computer, you will need to enable the window initiated by the logic
analyzer by entering the following command:
xhost +lp1670G
Next, create a text file with the following contents (where 15.6.253.146
is the IP address of the X server with display 0 and screen 0 selected):
xwin on,'15.6.253.146:0.0'<cr>
Log in as “control”.
name: control
We will name the text file "startx" for this example. At an ftp command
prompt, copy this file from your local directory to a virtual file called
"program" in the logic analyzer \system directory as follows:
ftp> cd system
ftp> put startx program
This causes the contents of the file to be executed by the logic analyzer
command parser and a window to appear on the X server.
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Using the LAN’s X Window Interface
Using the LAN’s X Window Interface
To close the interface
From the XWindow Interface or Front Panel
1 Go to the System External I/O menu.
2 Select the Disconnect field.
The interface on your Xserver closes, and the Disconnect field changes
to Connect.
From a Remote Computer
•
Send the XWIN OFF programming command to the logic analyzer.
NOTE:
Note that simply closing the window that the interface is running in may leave
the logic analyzer hung up.
Example
ftp method
To end the session using ftp, create a second text file with the following
contents:
xwin off<cr>
The second text file is named "stopx". At an ftp command prompt, copy
this file from your local directory to a virtual file called "program" in the
logic analyzer \system directory as follows:
ftp> cd system
ftp> put stopx program
504
Using the LAN’s X Window Interface
Using the LAN’s X Window Interface
To load the custom fonts
1 From the computer running your Xserver software, access the
logic analyzer's file system.
Refer to the "Accessing the Logic Analyzer File System" chapter.
2 Copy the SM165.BDF and LG165.BDF files from the analyzer's
\system\disk\hard\system directory to a directory on your
computer.
3 Set up the Xserver so that it can read these fonts.
Refer to your XWindows server documentation for instructions on
loading and using custom fonts. Generally, the steps you will take are:
a Compile the .BDF files into the proper format.
b Build the font directory (FONTS.DIR) file.
c If the font directory is not in the current font path, add the
new directory to the font path.
The custom fonts make the analyzer's XWindow interface look identical
to the instrument's display. If the custom fonts are not loaded, you will
see odd characters in place of arrow symbols and may see out-ofbounds text in the XWindow image.
505
Using the LAN’s X Window Interface
Using the LAN’s X Window Interface
Example
Loading the fonts using ftp and UNIX
Suppose you have a UNIX computer running your Xserver software. Go
to the directory where you want to install the custom fonts. As the data
user, ftp to the analyzer and copy SM165.BDF and LG165.BDF from
the \system\disk\hard\system directory to your computer.
ftp lp1670G
220 Agilent 1670G V01.00 FUSION FTP server (Version 3.3)
ready.
Name (lp1670G:guest): data
230 User DATA logged in.
ftp> cd /system/disk/hard/system
200 Remote Directory changed to "/system/disk/hard/
system".
ftp> get lg165.bdf
200 PORT command ok.
150 Opening data connection for lg165.bdf
(15.6.253.146,1121) (20494 bytes).
226 Transfer complete.
23338 bytes received in 0.69 seconds (32.82 Kbytes/s)
ftp> get sm165.bdf
200 PORT command ok.
150 Opening data connection for sm165.bdf
(15.6.253.146,1122) (19595 bytes).
226 Transfer complete.
22311 bytes received in 0.32 seconds (68.04 Kbytes/s)
ftp> quit
To create a fonts.dir file in the current directory:
mkfontdir
To prepend the current directory to the font path:
xset +fp /users/guest/165fonts
To reset the font path to its current value:
xset fp rehash
506
Using the LAN’s X Window Interface
Using the LAN’s X Window Interface
Close the analyzer's XWindow interface and re-start it. You should now
see the same fonts that are used on the logic analyzer's front panel
display.
The xset commands must either be repeated each time X is restarted
or the fonts must be installed in the default X11 font directory, typically
found in /usr/lib/X11/fonts/misc. This directory is usually protected, so
your system administrator may have to perform the installation.
507
Using the LAN’s X Window Interface
Using the LAN’s X Window Interface
Additional Information
Color
The X Window that appears on your X Server is in color. If another
application such as a Web browser is using many colors, the X Window
may be unreadable when it appears. If so, close the X Window, free
some colors by closing another application, and restart the X Window.
Computers that are configured to support only 16 colors will substitute
for some default colors.
Window Dimensions and Content
The dimensions of the logic analyzer window are set at 640 x 480 pixels
and the X Window dimensions are 576 x 378. The actual size of the
window will vary with the physical and pixel dimensions of your
computer display. Re-sizing the window will not add more content.
508
19
Retrieving and Restoring Data Using
the LAN
509
Retrieving and Restoring Data Using the LAN
Retrieving and Restoring Data Using the LAN
Retrieving and Restoring Data Using the LAN
This chapter shows you how to:
•
Copy ASCII measurement data.
•
Copy raw measurement data.
•
Restore raw measurement data.
•
Copy screen images from \system\graphics.
•
Copy status information from \status.
•
Copy configurations from the logic analyzer.
•
Restore configurations to the logic analyzer.
Measurement data is available in binary format and also in ASCII
format. Screen images are available in TIFF, PCX, and Encapsulated
PostScript formats.
510
Retrieving and Restoring Data Using the LAN
Retrieving and Restoring Data Using the LAN
To copy ASCII measurement data
1 Set up the measurement you want to make, and run the analyzer
to acquire data.
For more information on setting up measurements, see the
Logic Analyzer section of this book.
2 Access the logic analyzer's file system.
Refer to the chapter "Accessing the Logic Analyzer File System".
You can do this from the XWindow interface, your computer using NFS
or ftp, from the front panel, or by programming the logic analyzer.
3 Copy the measurement data from the \slot_a\data.asc
subdirectory.
In the analyzer's file system, ASCII data files are located in
\slot_a\data.asc\{analyzer name}\{label name}.txt.
There is an ASCII data file corresponding to each label name you have
created in the measurement module. The data files for each label are
overwritten by the analyzer each time new data is acquired.
NOTE:
1670G-Series with the oscilloscope option only
Oscilloscope data is under \slot_b\data.asc. There is no subdirectory matching
{analyzer name} but there are files for both oscilloscope channels.
511
Retrieving and Restoring Data Using the LAN
Retrieving and Restoring Data Using the LAN
To copy raw measurement data
1 Set up the measurement you want to make, and run the analyzer
to acquire data.
For more information on setting up measurements, see the
Logic Analyzer section of this book. You can set up and run the
measurement from the analyzer's XWindow interface or front panel, or
by programming the analyzer.
2 Access the logic analyzer's file system.
Refer to the chapter "Accessing the Logic Analyzer File System".
3 Copy the data.raw file from the \slot_a directory for analyzer
data, or \slot_b directory for oscilloscope data.
Raw measurement data files are binary format files that can be
transferred to your computer and then reloaded into the logic analyzer
later. Because they are binary files, if you are using ftp to upload or
download them, set the type to binary by typing "bin" at the ftp prompt.
The data.raw file is overwritten each time new data is acquired.
512
Retrieving and Restoring Data Using the LAN
Retrieving and Restoring Data Using the LAN
To restore raw measurement data
1 Access the analyzer's file system as the control user.
Refer to the chapter "Accessing the Logic Analyzer File System".
2 Copy the data.raw file to the appropriate \slot_{x} directory.
For analyzer data, this would be the \slot_a directory. For oscilloscope
data, it would be \slot_b. If you copy the raw data to a different
directory than you originally got it from, the logic analyzer won't know
how to interpret it.
Raw measurement data files are binary format files. Because they are
binary files, if you are using ftp to upload or download them, set the
type to binary by typing "bin" at the ftp prompt.
The data.raw file is overwritten each time new data is acquired.
513
Retrieving and Restoring Data Using the LAN
Retrieving and Restoring Data Using the LAN
To copy screen images from \system\graphics
1 Access the logic analyzer's file system.
Refer to the chapter "Accessing the Logic Analyzer File System".
2 Set up the screen you want to copy.
3 Copy the screen image file from the \system\graphics directory.
The \system\graphics directory contains the following files:
NOTE:
•
screen.tif - a color TIFF file, in TIFF version 5.0 format.
•
screenbw.tif - a color TIFF file in TIFF version 5.0 format.
•
screen.pcx - a color PCX file.
•
screenbw.epi - a black-and-white Encapsulated PostScript file in EPS
version 3.0 format.
These graphics files contain the current display on the logic analyzer screen.
The contents of the files change whenever you change the display. When you
copy one of the graphics files, the display will freeze for a few moments to
make a copy of the current display.
514
Retrieving and Restoring Data Using the LAN
Retrieving and Restoring Data Using the LAN
To copy status information from \status
1 Access the logic analyzer's file system.
Refer to the chapter "Accessing the Logic Analyzer File System".
2 Copy the appropriate file from the \status directory.
The \status directory contains the following ASCII files:
Example
•
system.txt - shows whether the analyzer is running or stopped. It also
includes information about the Group Run and the relative trigger times of
each module if applicable.
•
frame.txt - shows what is mapped to each slot and the operating system
version.
•
mount.txt - lists all connections to the logic analyzer. The connection
information includes the IP address and user type. This information is also
available in the External I/O LAN Settings menu, under Show LAN
Connections.
An example system.txt file:
Analyzer name: LP LAN Analyzer
Execution Status:
slot_a - stopped
515
Retrieving and Restoring Data Using the LAN
Retrieving and Restoring Data Using the LAN
Example
An example frame.txt file:
Analyzer name: LP LAN Analyzer
Slot
======
CPU
slot_a
Example
Module Name
===========
System
Analyzer
Code Version
============
V01.00
V01.00
Card ID Code
============
032
An example mount.txt file:
Analyzer name: LP LAN Analyzer
Hostname
UID
========
======
FTP:(15.6.253.137,2710) 00000
516
GID
======
00000
Directory
=========
/data
Retrieving and Restoring Data Using the LAN
Retrieving and Restoring Data Using the LAN
To copy configurations from setup.raw
1 Set up the configuration.
You can do this from the XWindow interface or from the front panel.
2 Access the logic analyzer's file system.
Refer to the chapter "Accessing the Logic Analyzer File System".
3 Copy the setup.raw file from the appropriate directory.
For system configurations, the appropriate directory is \system . For
analyzer configurations, the appropriate directory is \slot_a . For
oscilloscope configurations, the appropriate directory is \slot_b .
Raw configuration files are binary format files that can be transferred
to your computer and then reloaded into the logic analyzer later. Raw
configuration files are not transferable between logic analyzer models.
The setup.raw file is overwritten whenever you change the
configuration.
Dynamic Configuration Files
Configuration files are dynamic files. When you look at the logic
analyzer file system, dynamic files show a file size of 1 or 0. 0 means
there isn't anything available and 1 means there is. When you request
the dynamic file, the logic analyzer creates it. While the analyzer is
creating the file, it will not respond to other requests. Because the
analyzer does not know the file size until it is created, some NFS
systems have trouble copying dynamic files. If the cp command does
not appear to work, try using dd.
517
Retrieving and Restoring Data Using the LAN
Retrieving and Restoring Data Using the LAN
To restore configurations
1 Access the logic analyzer's file system as the control user.
Refer to the chapter "Accessing the Logic Analyzer File System".
2 Copy the setup.raw file to the appropriate directory.
For system configurations, this would be the \system directory. For
analyzer configurations, this would be the \slot_a directory. For
oscilloscope configurations, it would be the \slot_b directory. If you
copy a configuration file to a different directory than it came from, the
analyzer will not know how to interpret it.
Example
Restoring an analyzer configuration
Suppose you want to load a configuration file called "486_bus" from
your local computer into the logic analyzer's analyzer. The analyzer is
always in slot A. The logic analyzer is mounted on your network as disk
drive L:.
To load the configuration file, at the MS-DOS prompt enter:
copy 486_bus L:\slot_a\setup.raw
If your computer is running the UNIX operating system, you might use
the cp command. In an MSWindows environment, you can use File
Manager.
518
20
Programming the Logic Analyzer
Using the LAN
519
Programming the Logic Analyzer Using the LAN
Programming the Logic Analyzer Using the LAN
Programming the Logic Analyzer Using the LAN
You can program the logic analyzer over the Local Area Network (LAN)
by sending commands to the \system\program file or by sending
commands to the command parser socket.
This chapter shows you how to:
•
Set up for Ethernet programming.
•
Enter commands directly using telnet.
•
Write programs that open the command parser socket.
The logic analyzer does not provide real-time programming control.
Due to the message handling protocol of the Ethernet LAN, messages
take varying, indeterminate amounts of time to reach their
destinations. There can be no guarantee that commands sent from your
computer will reach the logic analyzer in a timely way.
For information on your logic analyzer's programming commands, refer
to the appropriate Programmer's Guide.
The Command Parser Socket
You can telnet to the logic analyzer's command parser socket and send
programming commands directly, or you can write a program that
opens the socket and sends commands to it.
Connection to the command parser socket is, by definition, a control
user connection. Because only one control user connection is allowed,
you will not be able to connect to the command parser socket if
someone else is accessing the logic analyzer's file system as the control
user.
520
Programming the Logic Analyzer Using the LAN
Programming the Logic Analyzer Using the LAN
To set up for Ethernet LAN programming
Before you can send programming commands to the logic analyzer via
the LAN, you must set the controller to Ethernet.
1 In the System External I/O menu, select the Connected To: field
in the Controller box.
2 Select Ethernet from the pop-up menu.
521
Programming the Logic Analyzer Using the LAN
Programming the Logic Analyzer Using the LAN
To enter commands directly using telnet
The syntax of the telnet command is:
telnet [symbolic name|IP address] 5025
The symbolic name is the host name of the logic analyzer as set up by
your system administrator. Typically, this name is found in the hosts
file or returned by a name server. It is equivalent to the logic analyzer's
IP address.
5025 is the port identification number of the logic analyzer's command
parser socket. It must be specified because the logic analyzer is not a
fully functional telnet server. If you forget to specify the port, you will
get a connection refused message:
$ telnet 1670sys
Trying...
telnet: Unable to connect to remote host: Connection
refused
To enter commands directly using telnet, first open a telnet connection
using port 5025. A brief message appears confirming the connection,
and telling you how to break the telnet connection:
$ telnet 1670sys 5025
Trying...
Connected to 1670sys.col.hp.com
Escape character is '^]'.
When you connect to the logic analyzer, there is no prompt. Type logic
analyzer commands; query results appear on the next line. When you
are done, break the telnet connection using the escape character, and
type "quit".
See the detailed example on the next page.
522
Programming the Logic Analyzer Using the LAN
Programming the Logic Analyzer Using the LAN
Example
Programming the logic analyzer over a telnet connection
To connect to the logic analyzer named 1670sys, enter:
$ telnet 1670sys 5025
The computer responds with:
Trying...
Connected to 1670sys.col.hp.com.
Escape character is '^]'.
The connection was successful. Because the analyzer does not provide
a prompt, start entering programming commands. Typical commands
might be:
:system:header on
:system:longform on
:select 1
:menu?
MENU 1,3
:system:dsp 'Triggering on memory violation'
:system:print screen
The small program above turns on the header and longform for query
responses, selects the analyzer, checks which menu it is on, creates a
title for that screen, and then prints it to the default printer.
When you are done, close the telnet connection. Enter the escape
character to get the telnet prompt. The escape character (Control and
"]" in this example) does not print.
telnet> quit
The telnet connection closes and you see your regular prompt.
Connection closed.
$
523
Programming the Logic Analyzer Using the LAN
Programming the Logic Analyzer Using the LAN
To write programs that open the command
parser socket
The command parser socket of the logic analyzer is 5025.
Connection to the command parser socket is, by definition, a control
user connection. Because only one control user connection is allowed,
you will not be able to open the command parser socket if someone
else is accessing the logic analyzer's file system as the control user.
Example
The following C program opens a socket and sends the *IDN query
command to request the instrument's identity.
#include
#include
#include
#include
<stdio.h>
<sys/types.h>
<sys/socket.h>
<netinet/in.h>
typedef struct sockaddr_in tdSOCKET_ADDR;
#define PARSER_PORT 5025
#define SERV_HOST_ADDR "15.10.96.12"
#define PARSER_BUFFER_SIZE 100
char receiveBuffer[PARSER_BUFFER_SIZE],
*cmdString = { "*IDN?\r\n" };
main ()
{
int sockfd, port;
tdSOCKET_ADDR serv_addr;
char *addr;
/* Initialize a server socket */
port = PARSER_PORT;
addr = SERV_HOST_ADDR ;
serv_addr.sin_family = AF_INET;
serv_addr.sin_addr.s_addr = inet_addr ( addr );
serv_addr.sin_port = htons ( port );
524
Programming the Logic Analyzer Using the LAN
Programming the Logic Analyzer Using the LAN
/* Create an endpoint for communication */
sockfd = socket( AF_INET, SOCK_STREAM, 0 );
/* Initiate a connection on the created socket */
connect(sockfd,(tdSOCKET_ADDR *)&serv_addr, sizeof
(serv_addr));
/* Send a message from the created socket */
send ( sockfd, cmdString, strlen ( cmdString ), 0 );
/* Receive a message from the 16500B socket */
recv(sockfd,receiveBuffer,sizeof(receiveBuffer),0 );
printf ( "%s\n", receiveBuffer ); close ( sockfd );
}
525
Programming the Logic Analyzer Using the LAN
Programming the Logic Analyzer Using the LAN
526
21
LAN Concepts
527
LAN Concepts
LAN Concepts
LAN Concepts
This chapter describes:
•
Directory structure of the logic analyzer's file system
•
Dynamic files
•
New fields in the logic analyzer's system menus
528
LAN Concepts
LAN Concepts
Directory structure of the logic analyzer's file
system
Logic Analyzer Directory Structure
setup.raw. Binary configuration files. You can save and restore
configurations by copying these files.
\slot_x. Analyzer and oscilloscope subdirectories. All 1670G-series
logic analyzers have a \slot_a directory for the state/timing analyzer.
The 1670G-series with the oscilloscope option also have a \slot_b
directory for the oscilloscope.
\slot_x\data.raw. Binary measurement data files. You can save and
restore measurement data by copying these files.
\system\disk\hard. Same directory structure as System Hard Disk
menu.
\system\disk\flexible. Same directory structure as System Flexible
Disk menu.
529
LAN Concepts
LAN Concepts
\system\graphics. Image files for the current screen in TIFF, PCX,
and Encapsulated PostScript formats.
\status. Status information.
The directory structure of the logic analyzer is fixed. You cannot create
or delete directories or files except under the local hard and flexible
disk directories.
Analyzer (\slot_a) Subdirectories and Files
The slot_a directory contains a subdirectory called data.asc that
contains ASCII measurement data.
There are two subdirectories attached to the data.asc directory, one for
each of the two analyzers in the logic analyzer (if they are turned on in
the Configuration Menu). The default names of these subdirectories
are machine1 and machine2, but they will change whenever the
analyzer names are changed in the Configuration Menu.
{Root}
slot_a
data.asc
{analyzer 1}
{analyzer 2}
{label 1}.txt
{label 2}.txt
{label 3}.txt
.
.
.
1st_line.txt
line_num.txt
time_abs.txt
{label 1}.txt
{label 2}.txt
{label 3}.txt
.
.
.
1st_line.txt
line_num.txt
state_abs.txt
Analyzer Directory Structure
530
system
status
program
setup.raw
disk
graphics
frame.txt
mount.txt
system.txt
LAN Concepts
LAN Concepts
Label Data Files: \slot_a\data.asc\{analyzer name}\{label}.txt.
Both analyzer subdirectories contain files corresponding to the labels
you have set up in that analyzer's Format Menu. These files contain the
current measurement data for the channels assigned to each label.
Both state and timing data are available, and both kinds of data are
represented as a column of values. The numeric base ƒ hex, binary, etc.
ƒ in these files is the same as the base that is currently set in the Listing
Menu.
The 1st_line.txt File. The 1st_line.txt file lists the number of the
first line of the most recent data acquisition.
This file shows the number of states that occur before the trigger state,
which is always state zero (at line number 0). You can use this
information to align data from different measurements.
Time Tag and State Tag Data. If time tags have been turned on, the
time_abs.txt file contains a column of time values for the most current
state or timing measurement. Timing analyzers always have a
time_abs.txt file.
If state tags have been turned on, the state_abs.txt file contains a
column of state count values for the most current state measurement.
Line Numbers. The line_num.txt file contains line numbers
corresponding to the lines of data in a state listing.
531
LAN Concepts
LAN Concepts
Dynamic files
The logic analyzer's file system uses dynamic files for configuration
information and data. This means that applications such as File
Manager or a spreadsheet cannot determine the size of the files until
they are retrieved.
When you view the file statistics for these files, you will see file sizes of
0 bytes or 1 byte. The 0-byte size indicates that the file is empty. The 1byte size indicates that there is information in the file. If you transfer
the file of interest to your PC or workstation, you will be able to see the
actual file size.
Known Incompatibilities
Some operating systems and applications may exhibit unexpected
behavior when working with the dynamic files from the logic analyzer.
The "%complete" display may appear incorrect during file transfers.
This does not affect the transfer or the contents of the file. Once you
have saved the file in your local environment, the correct "% complete"
will be displayed during future retrievals.
Your applications might only retrieve one or two characters from a file
that you believe has many more characters in it. To work around this
problem, copy the file that you want to work with from the logic
analyzer to your local computer. Use the local copy as your working
copy.
SUN Operating Systems
The file copy commands in the SUN workstation and Solaris operating
systems will not work with the dynamic files like those used in the logic
analyzer. You can use the dd command instead of using the cp or cat
commands.
532
LAN Concepts
LAN Concepts
LAN-related fields in the logic analyzer's menus
When your logic analyzer has LAN, several additional menu choices are
available. These fields allow you to set up your LAN port and configure
the logic analyzer.
Controller Connection
You can set your logic analyzer to be controlled over the network. In
the System External I/O menu, when you select the Connected To: field
in the controller box the choices are now GPIB, RS-232C, and
Ethernet.
X-Window Box
LAN adds an X-Window box to the System External I/O menu. The XWindow box has two fields for configuring an X connection. Chapter3,
"Using the X Window Interface," explains how to set up an X Window
connection.
LAN Settings
LAN adds a LAN Settings box to the System External I/O menu so that
you can configure the logic analyzer to work with your network. The
LAN Settings menu is explained in Chapter1, "Connecting and
Configuring."
533
LAN Concepts
LAN Concepts
Time Zone Field
With LAN, a field labeled "Time Zone" appears in the Real Time Clock
setup menu. The Real Time Clock setup menu is accessed by selecting
the Real Time Clock Adjustments field in the System Utilities menu.
This field enables you to specify the time difference between your local
time and Greenwich Mean Time (Universal Coordinated Time) for
network operations. The Time Zone value can be varied from -12 to
+12. The number represents the number of hours difference between
your local time zone and Greenwich Mean Time. The time value is used
to timestamp files when they are stored to disk or transferred to your
computer, and to correctly display the time data of the logic analyzer
files when you NFS-mount the logic analyzer.
534
22
Troubleshooting the LAN Connection
535
Troubleshooting the LAN Connection
Troubleshooting the LAN Connection
Troubleshooting the LAN Connection
This chapter provides troubleshooting information for the LAN
connection. It is arranged in three sections:
•
Troubleshooting the initial connection
•
Solutions to common problems
•
Getting service support
536
Troubleshooting the LAN Connection
Troubleshooting the Initial Connection
Troubleshooting the Initial Connection
Getting the logic analyzer to work with your network often requires
detailed knowledge of your local network software. This section
attempts to help you with some common problems, but because of the
wide variety of network software available it cannot cover all problems
you may encounter.
Assess the problem
The LAN interface does not need or include any utilities or proprietary
driver software. The logic analyzer LAN interface was designed to
operate with common network utilities and drivers.
Either a hardware problem or a software problem can prevent the logic
analyzer's remote file server from communicating over the LAN.
NOTE:
Single server/single client network (point-to-point)
You can connect the logic analyzer to a single server/single client network. In
this configuration, the client is running an NFS application program. If you
have difficulties, check the troubleshooting procedures included with the
documentation for both the NFS application program and the communications
controller first. If the NFS application program is running in an MS Windows
environment, then also check the MS Windows documentation.
Timeout errors
Error messages such as "Device Timeout," "File Timeout," "Operation
Timeout," or other similar messages from workstations or PCs indicate
timeout problems with the computer. To increase your timeout period,
refer to your computer documentation for instructions.
537
Troubleshooting the LAN Connection
Troubleshooting the Initial Connection
Packets routinely lost
If packets are routinely lost, proceed to the troubleshooting section in
this chapter relating to your network.
Problems transferring or copying files
Copying files out of the logic analyzer
•
If you have problems copying files out of the logic analyzer, you might be
experiencing timeout problems. See the timeout section on the previous
page.
•
If you only receive 1 byte back when copying files, refer to "Dynamic Files"
later in this chapter.
Copying files into the logic analyzer
•
If you have problems copying files into the logic analyzer, such as copying
setup or data to change a configuration, then check the File Timeout
setting in the LAN Settings menu. Refer to "Configure the network
addresses" in Chapter 1 for more information.
Communications not established
If you have just installed and configured the LAN interface and you
have never been able to read the logic analyzer remote file server
directory, go directly to the troubleshooting section relating to your
network in this chapter.
If you have been able to read the logic analyzer remote file server
directory and now cannot do so, check the following:
•
Has any hardware been added or moved on your network? This includes
adding or removing any workstations or peripherals, or changing any
cabling.
•
Have software applications been added to the network?
538
Troubleshooting the LAN Connection
Troubleshooting the Initial Connection
•
Have any configuration files been modified?
•
Have any of the following files been deleted or overwritten?
UNIX:
/etc/hosts
/etc/inetd.conf
/etc/services
PCs:
dependent network files
If you know or suspect that something has changed on your network,
check the changes and adjust the configuration for the LAN interface
using the procedures in Chapter 1. Otherwise, proceed to the
troubleshooting section in this chapter relating to your network.
539
Troubleshooting the LAN Connection
Troubleshooting the Initial Connection
Troubleshooting in a workstation environment
1 Verify the communications link.
Verify the communications link between the computer and the logic
analyzer remote file server using the ping utility.
ping [hostname|IP Address] 64 10
Hostname is the name assigned to the logic analyzer remote file server
in the node names database (usually /etc/hosts). Most workstation
platforms permit an IP address to be used in place of hostname. In the
example above, packet size is 64 and 10 packets are transmitted.
To aid in troubleshooting, go to the LAN Settings Ethernet Statistics
menu on the logic analyzer. You can view transmit and receive activity
on this menu. If needed, refer to "Network Status Information" in this
section for more information about the Ethernet Statistics menu.
•
540
Normal Response
A normal response to the ping will be a total of 9, 10, or possibly 11 packets
received with a minimal average of round-trip time. The minimal average
will be different from network to network. LAN traffic will cause the
round-trip time to vary widely.
Because the number of packets received depends on your network traffic
and integrity, the normal number might be different for your network.
For every packet transmitted and received because of the ping command,
the Transmit Successful and Receive Successful fields in the logic analyzer
Ethernet Statistics menu increases by 1.
Go to step 2, "Attempt a remote NFS mount."
Troubleshooting the LAN Connection
Troubleshooting the Initial Connection
•
Error Messages
If error messages appear, then check the command syntax before
continuing with the troubleshooting. If the syntax is correct, then resolve
the error messages using your network documentation.
If an unknown host error message appears, then check the node names
database (usually /etc/hosts) to see that the hostname and IP address are
correctly entered.
•
No response
No packets received indicates no response from a ping.
If there is no response, type in the IP address with the ping command.
Check that the typed address matches the IPaddress assigned in the LAN
Settings menu, then check the other addresses in the menu.
Check that the hostname and IP address are correctly entered in the node
names database on your workstation (usually /etc/hosts).
Ping each node along the route between your workstation and the logic
analyzer, starting with the your workstation. Ping each gateway, then
attempt a ping of the remote file server.
If the logic analyzer still does not respond to ping, then you should suspect
a hardware problem with the logic analyzer. To check the logic analyzer
performance, refer to "Verify the logic analyzer performance" in this
section.
•
Intermittent Response
If you received 1 to 8 packets back, there is probably a problem with the
network. Because the number of packets received depends on your
network traffic and integrity, the number might be different for your
network.
Use a LAN analyzer or LAN management software to monitor activity and
determine where bottlenecks or other problems are occurring. The logic
analyzer will still function, but communications over the LAN will be
slower.
541
Troubleshooting the LAN Connection
Troubleshooting the Initial Connection
Troubleshooting in an MS-DOS environment
1 Verify the communications link.
Verify the communications link between the PC and the logic analyzer
using the ping utility or other similar echo request utility.
To aid in troubleshooting, go to the Ethernet Statistics menu under
LAN Settings on the logic analyzer. You can view transmit and receive
activity on this menu. If needed, refer to "Network Status Information"
in this chapter for more information about the Ethernet Statistics
menu.
If the ping utility is not available on the PC, then this is an indication
that the PC-based NFS software is not properly installed. Reinstall the
PC-based NFS software and attempt to verify the communications link.
The syntax of the ping command varies with the NFS software used.
Usually, the command requires at least the IP address. If the syntax
permits a specified number of echo requests, then specify 10 as the
number of echo requests. Refer to the NFS software documentation for
more information.
ping [IP address] 10
•
542
Normal Response
A normal response to the ping will be a total of 9, 10, or possibly 11 packets
received if 10 echo requests were specified. Because the number of
packets received depends on your network traffic and integrity, the normal
number might be different for your network.
For every packet transmitted and received because of the ping command,
the Transmit Successful and Receive Successful fields in the Ethernet
Statistics menu increases by 1.
Go to step 2, "Attempt a remote NFS mount."
Troubleshooting the LAN Connection
Troubleshooting the Initial Connection
•
Error Messages
If error messages appear, then check the command syntax before
continuing with the troubleshooting. If the syntax is correct, then resolve
the error messages using your NFS documentation.
Certain PC-based NFS software packages permit the use of hostname in
place of the IP address. In this case, if an unknown host error message
appears, then check the node names database to see that the hostname
and IP address are correctly entered.
Refer to the NFS software documentation for specific information on any
error messages.
•
No response
No packets received indicates no response from a ping.
If there is no response, type in the IP address with the ping command.
Check that the typed address matches the IPaddress assigned in the LAN
Settings menu, then check the other addresses in the menu.
Check that the hostname and IP address are correctly entered in the node
names database and that the IP address matches the IP address assigned
in the LAN Settings menu.
If the logic analyzer still does not respond to ping, then the problem is
possibly in the logic analyzer hardware. To check the logic analyzer, refer
to "Verify the logic analyzer performance" in this chapter.
•
Intermittent Response
On a multiclient network, receiving 1 to 8 packets indicates a problem with
the network. Because the number of packets received depends on your
network traffic and integrity, the number might be different for your
network.
Use a LAN analyzer or LAN management software to monitor activity and
determine where bottlenecks or other problems are occurring. The logic
analyzer still functions, but communications over the LAN will be slower.
On a single-client/single-server network, the most likely cause of
intermittent response to an echo request is a hardware problem with the
LAN module installed in the PC, the cable, or the logic analyzer. To check
the logic analyzer, refer to "Verify the logic analyzer performance" in this
chapter.
543
Troubleshooting the LAN Connection
Troubleshooting the Initial Connection
Troubleshooting in an MS Windows
environment
1 Verify the communications link.
Verify the communications link between the PC and the logic analyzer
using the ping utility or other similar echo request utility.
To aid in troubleshooting, go to the Ethernet Statistics menu under
LAN Settings on the logic analyzer. You can view transmit and receive
activity on this menu. If needed, refer to "Network Status Information"
in this chapter for more information about the Ethernet Statistics
menu.
If the ping utility is not available on the PC (the icon does not appear),
then this is an indication that the NFS software is not properly
installed. Reinstall the NFS software and attempt to verify the
communications link.
The syntax of the ping command varies with the NFS software used.
Usually, the command requires at least the IP address. If the syntax
permits a specified number of echo requests, then specify 10 as the
number of echo requests. Refer to your NFS software documentation
for more information.
•
544
Normal Response
A normal response to the ping will be a total of 9, 10, or possibly 11 packets
received if 10 echo requests were specified. Because the number of
packets received depends on your network traffic and integrity, the normal
number might be different for your network.
For every packet transmitted and received because of the ping command,
the Transmit Successful and Receive Successful fields in the Ethernet
Statistics menu increases by 1.
Go to step 2, "Attempt a remote NFS mount."
Troubleshooting the LAN Connection
Troubleshooting the Initial Connection
•
Error Messages
If error messages appear, then check the command syntax before
continuing with the troubleshooting. If the syntax is correct, then resolve
the error messages using your NFS documentation.
Certain NFS software packages permit the use of hostname in place of the
IP address. In this case, if an unknown host error message appears, then
check the node names database to see that the hostname and IP address
are correctly entered.
Refer to your NFS documentation for specific information on any error
messages.
•
No response
No packets received indicates no response from a ping.
If there is no response, type in the IP address with the ping command.
Check that the typed address matches the IPaddress assigned in the LAN
Settings menu, then check the other addresses in the menu.
Check that the hostname and IP address are correctly entered in the node
names database and that the IP address matches the IP address assigned
in the LAN Settings menu.
If the logic analyzer still does not respond to ping, then the problem is
possibly in the logic analyzer hardware. To check the logic analyzer, refer
to "Verify the logic analyzer performance" in this chapter.
•
Intermittent Response
On a multiclient network, receiving 1 to 8 packets indicates a problem with
the network. Because the number of packets received depends on your
network traffic and integrity, the number might be different for your
network.
Use a LAN analyzer or LAN management software to monitor activity and
determine where bottlenecks or other problems are occurring. The logic
analyzer still functions, but communications over the LAN will be slower.
On a single-client/single-server network, the most likely cause of
intermittent response to an echo request is a hardware problem with the
LAN module installed in the PC, the cable, or the logic analyzer. To check
the logic analyzer, refer to "Verify the logic analyzer performance" in this
chapter.
545
Troubleshooting the LAN Connection
Troubleshooting the Initial Connection
Verify the logic analyzer performance
The logic analyzer performance verification (self-test) is divided into
two sections. The first section tests the physical connections such as
the cable and termination. The second section tests the internal
functions of the LAN interface. When both sections of the self-test have
finished, a status message appears in the LAN Test field. The status
message indicates whether the test passed, if a failure occurred, and
which section failed.
The physical connection test depends on the LAN topology used. If
ThinLAN is used, then a test transmission signal is transmitted over the
LAN. If a reply is received, then the physical connection is considered
good. If EtherTwist (10Base-T) is used, then the logic analyzer will
listen for the heartbeat signal from the LAN. If a heartbeat is received,
then the physical connection is considered good.
The second section is tested using internal loopback features of the
LAN hardware. Transmitted packets are looped back to the receive
circuit of the LAN board. When the looped-back packets are received,
they are processed like a packet received from a remote client or
server. If the looped-back packet is recognized and processed, then the
LAN board and the LAN software are considered good.
Perform the following check before beginning the procedure.
❏ Check all network cables and connectors. Verify that all cables are
properly connected.
546
Troubleshooting the LAN Connection
Troubleshooting the Initial Connection
Procedure
This procedure verifies the performance of the LAN interface. To check
logic analyzer performance, refer to the logic analyzer's Service Guide.
1 Go to the System External I/O menu.
2 Verify that the LAN Settings box and the X-Window box are
available.
If these boxes appear, go to the next step. If the boxes are not there,
then the LAN interface is not properly installed. If the screen is
completely blank, then there might be loose cables.
3 Go to the System Test menu.
4 Select Load Test System.
If you do not have a copy of the performance verification files on the
hard disk, you need to insert the disk containing the performance
verification files into the flexible disk drive.
5 Select Analy PV, and then select Sys PV from the pop up.
6 Select External I/O, and then select System Test from the pop up.
7 Select LAN Test, then select Run.
8 Verify that the tests pass.
If all of the tests pass, then go to the next step. If any of the tests fail,
then the LAN hardware is suspect.
The status number in the LAN Test field indicates whether the LAN
hardware or software caused the failure.
•
To troubleshoot the failure using the status number, note the number, then
compare it with the status number descriptions and perform the
recommended action. Refer to "Status Number" on the next few pages for
status number descriptions and recommended actions.
•
To verify the LAN hardware, check that the LAN cable is good and that all
signal lines in the cable have electrical integrity.
547
Troubleshooting the LAN Connection
Troubleshooting the Initial Connection
9 Exit the Test System.
a Select System Test, then select Exit Test from the pop up.
b Select Exit Test System.
Status Number
When you run the LAN Test, the test menu reports a status number.
The following figure shows the bit positions of the hexidecimal status
word.
A "1" in a bit position signifies that the bit is set and the test failed.
A "0" in a bit position signifies that the bit is not set and the test passed.
Status Word
548
Troubleshooting the LAN Connection
Troubleshooting the Initial Connection
The following table describes each bit in the status number.
Status Bits
Bit 0
The internal registers of the LAN IC are loaded with known test
values and then are read. If this bit is not set, it implies that the LAN
IC is operating properly and that the microprocessor can
communicate with the LAN IC. If this bit is set, then the LAN module
is not operational and must be replaced.
Bit 1
he CAM (Content Addressable Memory) bit reports whether the
LAN address can be written from the LAN module Static RAM
(SRAM) to the internal memory of the LAN IC. Also, the CAM bit
reports whether the LAN address can be written to SRAM from the
LAN IC. If this bit is not set, it implies that both the SRAM and the
LAN IC internal memory are able to recognize and store the LAN
address. If this bit is set, then the LAN module is not operational
and must be replaced.
Bit 2
If this bit is not set, then the self-test has detected that the LAN
cable is properly connected to the LAN board. If this bit is set, then
the physical connection of the LAN cable must be checked.
Bit 3
If the Termination bit is set, then the self-test has detected an
excessive number of collisions. The most probable cause of
excessive collisions is an improperly terminated LAN cable.
Provide a proper termination of the LAN cable according to the
LAN topology being used.
Bit 4
The MAC (Media Access Control) bit indicates whether the Media
Access Control unit on the LAN IC is functioning. If this bit is not
set, it implies that both the transmit functions and receive functions
of the LAN IC are operating properly. If this bit is set, then the LAN
module is not able to properly transmit and receive packets and
must be replaced.
Bit 5
The ENDEC (Encoder/Decoder) bit indicates whether the encoder/
decoder internal to the LAN IC is functioning. The encoder/decoder
is the interface between the MAC and the Ethernet transceiver. If
this bit is set, then the ENDEC is not operating properly and the LAN
module must be replaced.
549
Troubleshooting the LAN Connection
Troubleshooting the Initial Connection
Status Bits (continued)
Status Bits
Bit 6
The TRANS (Transceiver, such as Ethernet transceiver) bit
indicates whether the circuitry between the LAN IC and the LAN
cable is functioning. If this bit is not set, then the path between the
LAN cable and the LAN IC is operating properly. If this bit is set,
then either the CPU board or the I/O board must be replaced.
Bit 7
Timeout bit. If the Timeout bit is set, then bits 4, 5, or 6 will also be
set. Refer to the appropriate bit for a suggested course of action.
Bit 8
The Tx bit indicates whether the transmission portion of the MAC,
ENDEC, or TRANS test failed. Therefore, the Tx bit is used in
conjunction with bits 4, 5, and 6. Refer to the appropriate bit for the
suggested course of action.
Bit 9
The Rx bit indicates whether the receive portion of the MAC,
ENDEC, or TRANS test failed. The Rx bit is used in conjunction with
bits 4, 5, and 6. Refer to the appropriate bit for the suggested
course of action.
Bit 10
The Parameters bit indicates the integrity of the LAN module selftest parameters. If this bit is not set, then the parameters sent to
the self-test routine are correct. If this bit is set, then contact your
nearest Agilent Technologies Sales and Service Office.
Bit 11
The EPROM that is used to hold the Ethernet address, IP address,
and gateway address has been corrupted. If this bit is set, the LAN
board must be replaced.
Bits 12-15
Not Used
550
Troubleshooting the LAN Connection
Troubleshooting the Initial Connection
Network Status Information
The Ethernet Statistics menu supports network troubleshooting
through the front-panel. To access the Ethernet Statistics menu:
1 Go to the System External I/O menu.
2 Select LAN Settings
3 Select Ethernet Statistics from the bottom of the pop-up menu.
See the Ethernet Statistics information on the next page for the
meaning of the various fields.
Ethernet Statistics menu
551
Troubleshooting the LAN Connection
Troubleshooting the Initial Connection
Information on the Ethernet Statistics menu
Status Bits
Ether Address
The logic analyzer's Ethernet address. This value is set by the factory
and cannot be changed.
Subnet Mask
The subnet mask being used by the logic analyzer. The logic analyzer
queries the network for this value when it is turned on. The value
cannot be changed.
Transmit
Successful
Number of successfully transmitted packets.
Not
successful
Number of packets not transmitted due to errors. The transmit not
successful field is tied primarily to transmit deferrals and possible
hardware problems. If a packet is deferred (not because of a
collision), then the packet is given a delay and retransmission is
attempted. After 15 deferrals, the not successful field is incremented.
Deferred
Number of packets deferred due to network traffic. After 15 deferrals,
the not successful field is incremented.
Collisions
Number of packets that had to be retransmitted due to network
traffic.
Late collisions
Number of illegal collisions that have occurred after 51.2 ms from
either the first bit of preamble or from SFD (Start of Frame Delimiter).
No heartbeat
Number of packets where the transceiver fails to provide a collision
pulse.
Receive
Successful
Number of successfully received packets.
Missed
packets
Number of packets that were dropped for lack of resources in the
logic analyzer.
Bad CRC
Number of corrupt packets.
Frame align
error
Number of packets with frame alignment error.
552
Troubleshooting the LAN Connection
Solutions to Common Problems
Solutions to Common Problems
This section describes common problems you may encounter when
using the logic analyzer LAN. It assumes you have been able to connect
to the logic analyzer in the past. If this is not so, refer to the previous
section first.
If you cannot connect to the logic analyzer
If you suspect a bad LAN connection between your computer and the
logic analyzer, you can verify the network connection by using the ping
command or another similar echo request utility.
If a bad connection is revealed:
❏ Make sure the logic analyzer is on.
❏ Check the physical connection to the LAN.
❏ Make sure the Internet (IP) Address of the logic analyzer is set up
correctly in the LAN Settings menu under System External I/O.
❏ If the logic analyzer and the computer are on different networks or
subnets, make sure the Gateway Address in the LAN Settings menu is set
to the address of the gateway machine. Get the address of gateway
machine from your system administrator.
553
Troubleshooting the LAN Connection
Solutions to Common Problems
If you cannot mount the logic analyzer file
system
If you get a "device busy" message:
❏ Make sure that another user is not already accessing the file system as the
control user or connected to the command parser socket.
If you get a "stale NFS file handle" message:
❏ Unmount the file system and try mounting again. The likely cause of this
error is turning off power to the logic analyzer before unmounting.
If you get a "server not responding" message:
❏ If the power to the logic analyzer was just turned on, make sure that you
wait 15 seconds after the Analyzer Configuration menu is displayed before
attempting the mount.
❏ Verify the LAN connection between your computer and the logic analyzer.
Refer to "If you cannot connect to the logic analyzer" earlier in this section.
If you cannot access the file system via ftp
If you get a "connection refused" message:
❏ If the power to the logic analyzer was just turned on, make sure that you
wait 15 seconds after the Analyzer Configuration menu is displayed before
attempting the connection.
If you get a "connection timed out" message:
❏ Verify the LAN connection between your computer and the logic analyzer.
Refer to "If you cannot connect to the logic analyzer" earlier in this section.
554
Troubleshooting the LAN Connection
Solutions to Common Problems
If you get an "already mounted" or "no more mounts available"
message:
❏ If you are trying to access the file system as the control user, try accessing
the file system as the data user instead. If another user is currently
accessing the logic analyzer file system as the control user, you will not be
able to access the file system as the control user.
If you cannot start the XWindow interface
If you get an "Unable to open window on <IP
address>.<display>.<screen>" message:
❏ Make sure that the logic analyzer has permission to open a window on the
Xserver. For example, you may have to enter an "xhost +<IPaddress>"
command on your Xserver machine.
If your X Window looks odd
If certain of the symbols, such as the activity indicators, look odd:
❏ Load the X Window fonts. See "To load custom fonts" on page 505.
If the X Window is only using two or three colors:
❏ Release colors by closing down some applications, and restart your X
Windows session.
555
Troubleshooting the LAN Connection
Solutions to Common Problems
If you cannot copy files from the logic analyzer
If you can only copy a few bytes of a file:
❏ Copy the file of interest to your PC or workstation, and use the new, local
copy as your working copy. Some applications cannot work directly with
the dynamic files from the logic analyzer.
❏ If you are on a UNIX workstation, try using dd instead of cp.
If you cannot restore raw files
If the setup.raw and data.raw files seem to be ignored when you copy
them to the logic analyzer:
❏ Verify the LAN connection between your computer and the logic analyzer.
Refer to "If you cannot connect to the logic analyzer" earlier in this section.
❏ Change the file time-out. To change the time-out:
1 Go to the logic analyzer System External I/O menu.
2 Select the LAN Settings field.
3 Set the file time out.
A value of about 1.5 seconds should be sufficient. Set the time out to
the minimum value that will allow network operations to work reliably.
556
Troubleshooting the LAN Connection
Solutions to Common Problems
If you get an "operation timed-out" message
❏ Check the LAN connection between the computer and logic analyzer.
Refer to "If you cannot connect to the logic analyzer" in this section.
❏ Increase the file time-out value on your PC or workstation.
If the logic analyzer begins to operate slowly
The logic analyzer may operate more slowly if multiple users are trying
to use the system at the same time.
❏ Check the number of network connections. Either copy the file
\system\mount.txt to your local computer and view it with a text editor, or
on the analyzer go to the LAN Settings menu and select Show LAN
Connections. Check to see if many other users are currently connected to
the system.
If the logic analyzer does not respond
❏ When the logic analyzer is transmitting a large file such as a deep- memory
acquisition or a screen image, or when it is transmitting a dynamic file, it
does not respond. Please be patient.
❏ If the analyzer does not respond after several minutes, cycle the power. It
may take up to twenty minutes to transmit.
557
Troubleshooting the LAN Connection
Solutions to Common Problems
If all else fails
❏ Contact your system administrator.
❏ If you still cannot solve the problem, contact an Agilent Technologies
Service Center for repair information.
558
Troubleshooting the LAN Connection
Getting Service Support
Getting Service Support
This section provides information about support services.
Return to Agilent service
The benchtop logic analyzers default to return to Agilent Technologies
service. With return to Agilent Technologies service, you return the
equipment to your nearest Agilent Technologies service center for
repair. During the warranty period, Agilent Technologies pays for parts
and labor needed for repair. After the warranty period, you are billed
for the parts and labor.
To arrange for Return to Agilent Technologies Service, contact your
local Agilent Technologies service representative. In the United States,
call 1-800-403-0801. In Japan call 81-426-56-7799.
Other local service representitives can be found on the World Wide
Web at http://www.agilent.com/find/clservice under
Contact Us.
559
Troubleshooting the LAN Connection
Getting Service Support
560
Section 3
Symbol Utility
561
562
23
Symbol Utility Introduction
563
Symbol Utility Introduction
Symbol Utility Introduction
Symbol Utility Introduction
The Symbol Utility provides you with a new way to view your logic
analysis data. The Symbol Utility maps trace data onto meaningful,
symbolic names. The symbols can include variable names, procedure or
function names, and source file names and line numbers. The linkage
between the symbol names and the trace data values comes from one
of two sources:
•
Object Module Format (OMF) files generated by your compiler and linker,
or
•
ASCII files that you create with a text editor
Using the symbol utility, you have two new capabilities:
•
you can view symbols from OMF files in a logic analyzer state listing
•
you can use the OMF symbols as trigger terms in a logic analyzer trigger
specification.
NOTE:
We assume that you are familiar with the operation of your logic analyzer. If
not, refer to the Logic Analyzer Training Kit for information on how to use the
logic analyzer interface or the appropriate User's Guide for details on the
system menus and functions.
NOTE:
Refer to your software tool documentation for information about how to
generate OMF files during compilation and linking.
Equipment Required
•
564
1670G-series logic analyzer
Symbol Utility Introduction
Symbol Utility Introduction
Supported Symbol File Formats
The Symbol Utility will support OMF files in the following formats:
ELF/DWARF. This OMF is a portable format consisting of ELF
(Executable and Linkable Format) and DWARF (Debugging
Information Format) for various processors, including Intel 80960,
PowerPC, and MIPS.
GPA. The General-Purpose ASCII file format, which can be used to
provide symbols for an Object Module Format which is not explicitly
supported. See the "General-Purpose ASCII Symbol File Format" on
page 605 for more details.
Agilent-MRI IEEE-695. The OMF produced by Agilent Technologies
and MRI cross-compilers and cross-assemblers. This format is fully
supported by the Symbol Utility's IEEE-695 reader.
IEEE-695. This OMF is usually produced by language tools for nonIntel microprocessors. Some language tools which claim to output this
format may deviate from the IEEE-695 standard in ways which make
the OMF file unreadable by the Symbol Utility's reader.
OMF286. This OMF is produced by language tools for Intel 80x86
series and Pentium microprocessors running in real and/or protected
mode. The supported OMF286 file types are Single-task Loadable and
Bootloadable.
OMF386. This OMF is produced by language tools for Intel 80x86
series and Pentium microprocessors running in real and/or protected
mode. The supported OMF386 file types are Loadable and Boot
loadable.
565
Symbol Utility Introduction
Symbol Utility Introduction
OMF86. This OMF is produced by language tools for Intel 80x86 series
and Pentium microprocessors running in real mode only.
OMF96. This OMF is produced by language tools for the Intel 80196
family of processors.
TI-COFF. This OMF is produced by language tools for Texas
Instruments microprocessors.
566
Symbol Utility Introduction
Symbol Utility Introduction
Symbol Utility section overview
The chapters in the Symbol Utility section of this User’s Guide provides
a detailed description of the features. The following is a brief
description of each chapter.
Getting Started. Describes how to locate the menus associated with
the Symbol Utility.
Using the Symbol Utility. Describes how to use the Symbol Utility to
perform common tasks like triggering on an OMF symbol.
Features and Functions. Describes the features and functions of the
Symbol Utility. It also provides a detailed description of the GeneralPurpose ASCII file format.
567
Symbol Utility Introduction
Symbol Utility Introduction
568
24
Getting Started with the Symbol
Utility
569
Getting Started with the Symbol Utility
Getting Started with the Symbol Utility
Getting Started with the Symbol Utility
You can use the OMF Symbol Load menu to load Object Module Format
(OMF) symbol files into the analyzer. Once you have loaded the files,
you can view the symbols in the Listing and Waveform menus. You can
use the OMF Symbol browser menu to create trigger conditions for
your logic analyzer.
See Also
The Logic Analyzer Training Kit for information on how to use the logic
analyzer interface.
The Logic Analyzer section of this book for information on the features
and functions of the logic analyzer.
570
Getting Started with the Symbol Utility
Getting Started with the Symbol Utility
To Access the Symbol File Load Menu
To begin working with symbols in the logic analyzer, you need to load
symbol files into the system. The OMF Symbol Load menu is used to do
this. There are two ways to access this menu.
Method 1: Using the Module Field
1 Select the Module field in the top left corner of the display.
If you are working with system-level menus, this field will say "System."
2 Choose Symbols from the pop-up.
571
Getting Started with the Symbol Utility
Getting Started with the Symbol Utility
3 Select the Specify Database field in the Symbol menu.
572
Getting Started with the Symbol Utility
Getting Started with the Symbol Utility
Method 2: Using the Symbol Field in the
Format Menu
1 Go to the Analyzer Format menu.
2 In the Format menu, select the Symbols field.
3 In the Symbols pop-up, select the large field at the top of the
display. Choose OMF Symbol Table from the pop-up.
573
Getting Started with the Symbol Utility
Getting Started with the Symbol Utility
The OMF Symbol Load menu appears. Use this menu to load an Object
Module Format (OMF) file into the logic analyzer.
OMF Symbol Load Menu
574
Getting Started with the Symbol Utility
Getting Started with the Symbol Utility
To Access the Symbol Browser
1 Go to the Analyzer Trigger menu.
2 Set the base for the label that you want to work with to "symbol."
3 Select a trigger term corresponding to the label and pattern term
that you want to use.
4 In the Symbol pop-up menu, select the large field at the top of
the pop-up and choose OMF Symbol Table from the pop-up
menu.
575
Getting Started with the Symbol Utility
Getting Started with the Symbol Utility
The OMF Symbol Browser menu appears. Use this menu to select an
OMF symbol as a trigger term.
576
25
Using the Symbol Utility
577
Using the Symbol Utility
To generate a symbol file
In order to view symbols from your software in the Listing or Waveform
menus of the logic analyzer, you need to create a symbol file in one of
the formats that are supported by the Symbol Utility. If your language
tools cannot generate an OMF symbol file which is compatible with the
Symbol utility, you may create a symbol file in the General-Purpose
ASCII (GPA) file format.
1 Compile, assemble, and link your program using the "generate
symbol file" option of your language tools.
2 Transfer the DOS-formatted symbol file to the logic analyzer. You
can put the file on a flexible disk, or use a LAN interface to
transfer the file directly to the hard disk.
NOTE:
If you need help creating OMF files, refer to your software tool documentation
for information about how to generate OMF files during compilation and
linking.
See also
"The General-Purpose ASCII File Format" on page 605 for a complete
description of the ASCII symbol file format.
"Supported Symbol File Formats," on page 565 for a list of the symbol
file formats that are supported.
578
Using the Symbol Utility
To Load a Symbol File
1 Access the OMF Symbol Load menu.
There are two methods available to access this menu. See "To Access
the Symbol File Load Menu," on page 571 for more information.
2 Select the disk drive that contains the symbol file.
3 Select the Label field and choose the label that you want to map
the OMF symbols to.
Typically, you will use the ADDR label for your system address bus.
579
Using the Symbol Utility
4 Select the OMF File field. In the pop-up, turn the knob to
highlight the desired file name. Select the Select field to choose
the file.
If necessary, use the knob and the Select field to choose a different
directory.
5 Select the Load field, then select Done.
580
Using the Symbol Utility
The symbol file is loaded into the analyzer. You can load several symbol
files into the analyzer.
When you load a symbol file, a database file is created by the logic
analyzer. Database files have an extension ".ns". If your OMF file was
loaded from the hard disk drive, the database file will appear in the
same subdirectory as your OMF file. If your OMF file was loaded from
the flexible disk drive, the database file will appear on the hard disk
drive in the same directory it was in on the flexible disk. The logic
analyzer creates any necessary subdirectories on the hard disk.
See Also
"To Access the Symbol File Load Menu" on page 571.
581
Using the Symbol Utility
To Display Symbols in the Trace List
1 Load the appropriate symbol file.
2 Display the trace listing in the Listing menu of the logic analyzer.
3 Select the base of the ADDR label.
If you have loaded the OMF symbols into a label other than ADDR,
select the base for that label.
4 Choose Symbol from the base pop-up field.
NOTE:
If you have created User Symbols that overlap with the OMF symbols, the User
Symbols take precedence and will be displayed in the listing instead of the
OMF symbols.
582
Using the Symbol Utility
To Trigger on a Symbol
You must load a symbol file into the analyzer before you can trigger on
OMF symbols.
1 Go to the Trigger Menu.
2 Set the base of the label that you want to specify a trigger term
with to Symbol.
Typically, you will use the ADDR label.
3 Select a trigger term that you want to use.
The trigger term is the field that corresponds to the term column on
the left side of the display, and the label row in the center of the
display.
583
Using the Symbol Utility
4 In the pop-up menu, select the User Symbol Table field. Choose
OMF Symbol Table.
5 Use the knob to scroll through the list of symbols and pick the
one that you want. Select Done.
The trigger term is now defined as one of your OMF symbols.
6 Use the symbol term in the trigger specification to trigger the
logic analyzer.
584
Using the Symbol Utility
To View a List of Symbol Files Currently
Loaded into the System
1 Access the OMF Symbol Load menu.
There are two methods available to access this menu. See "To Access
the Symbol File Load Menu" on page 571 for more information.
2 Select the Current Loaded Files field, in the bottom left corner of
the display.
A list of the symbol files that are currently loaded is displayed.
3 Select Done to return to the OMF Symbol Table menu.
585
Using the Symbol Utility
To Remove a Symbol File From the System
1 Access the OMF Symbol Load menu.
There are two methods available to access this menu. See "To Access
the Symbol File Load Menu" page 571 for more information.
2 Select the Current Loaded Files field, in the bottom left corner of
the display.
A list of the symbol files that are currently loaded is displayed.
3 Highlight the file name that you want to delete.
4 Select Delete to remove the symbol file from the system.
5 Select Done to return to the OMF Symbol Load menu.
586
26
Symbol Utility Features and Functions
587
Symbol Utility Features and Functions
Symbol Utility Features and Functions
Symbol Utility Features and Functions
The Symbol Utility adds two main menus to your logic analyzer. They
are the Symbol File Load menu and the Symbol Browser menu. This
chapter describes the features and functions of both of these menus.
The symbol utility also provides a General-Purpose ASCII (GPA)
symbol file format that you can use if your language tool chain does not
produce OMF files in one of the supported formats. The details of the
GPA file format are also described in this chapter.
See Also
The Logic Analyzer Training Kit for information on how to use the logic
analyzer interface.
The Logic Analyzer section of this book for information on the features
and functions of the logic analyzer.
588
Symbol Utility Features and Functions
The OMF Symbol File Load Menu
The OMF Symbol File Load Menu
The OMF Symbol Load menu is used to load the OMF files containing
the symbols that you want into the logic analyzer.
OMF Symbol File Load Menu
589
Symbol Utility Features and Functions
The OMF Symbol File Load Menu
OMF File Field
The OMF File field is used to select the OMF file that you would like to
load into the system. When you initially access the OMF Symbol Table
menu, the OMF File field will be blank. To use this field, select it. A File
Selection pop-up menu appears. The pop-up menu shows you a list of
files at the root of the drive that is currently selected in the Drive field.
Scroll the list of files to select the symbol file that you want to use. Use
the Select field to choose the file, or to choose a subdirectory to browse
through. Select Cancel to close the menu.
Refresh Field
The Refresh field causes the Symbol Utility to reread the contents of
the disk drive. Changes made to the disk drive contents are not
immediately read by the symbol utility. Use the Refresh key to re-read
the disk drive contents if they have changed.
Drive Field
Use this field to specify the disk drive that contains the OMF file that
you want to load. You can specify "Hard Disk" for the analyzer hard disk
drive, or "Flexible Disk" for the analyzer flexible disk drive.
590
Symbol Utility Features and Functions
The OMF Symbol File Load Menu
Label Field
Use this field to specify the data label that the symbols will correspond
to. In most cases you will use the ADDR label, since you will be loading
symbols into the system that correspond to the address bits of the
processor that you are working with. If you would like to load symbols
that correspond to another label, select this field then choose the label
that you want to use from the pop-up menu.
Module Field
This field is always Analyzer. Once the symbol file is loaded, you will be
able to view the symbols in the Listing and Trigger menus.
591
Symbol Utility Features and Functions
The OMF Symbol File Load Menu
Load Field
Select this field to load the symbol file into the logic analyzer. During
the load process, a symbol database file with a ".ns" extension will be
created by the Symbol Utility. You can load multiple symbol databases
into the system at the same time. One .ns database file will be created
for each symbol file that you load.
If the OMF symbol file is loaded from the hard disk drive, the .ns
database file will be created on the same subdirectory that the OMF file
is in. If the OMF file is loaded from the flexible disk drive, the directory
path from the flexible disk drive will be duplicated on the hard disk
drive. The .ns database file will be created on the hard disk drive, in the
same subdirectory that the OMF file was in on the flexible disk drive.
Once the .ns file is created, the Symbol Utility will use this file as its
working symbol database. The next time you need to load the symbols
into the system, you can load the .ns file explicitly, by placing the .ns
file name in the "OMF file" field. You can purge the OMF file from the
disk, once the .ns file is created.
OMF file versions
If you load an OMF file that has been loaded previously, the system will
compare the time stamps on the .ns file and the OMF file. If the OMF
file is newer than the existing .ns file, a new .ns file will be created and
the old one will be overwritten. If the OMF file being loaded has not
been updated since it was last loaded, the existing .ns file will be used.
Multiple files
You can load multiple symbol files into the analyzer. Symbols from each
of the files that you load will appear in the OMF Symbol Browser menu
and can be used to create trigger terms for the logic analyzer.
592
Symbol Utility Features and Functions
The OMF Symbol File Load Menu
Current Loaded Files Field
Select this field to view a list of the symbol files that are currently
loaded. The Loaded Database Files pop-up menu provides a Delete
field that you can use to remove a symbol database. Use the knob to
highlight the symbol file that you want to remove. Select the Delete
field to remove the file.
View Field
The View field is used to select the database that you want to be work
with in the OMF Symbol Table load menu. If more than one database
has been loaded, you can choose the database that you want to work
with by highlighting the analyzer and file name and selecting the View
field.
The file name that you select will appear in the OMF File field in the
main OMF Symbol Table load menu. You can now change the file
characteristics, such as the Section Relocation options.
593
Symbol Utility Features and Functions
The OMF Symbol File Load Menu
Section Relocation Option
The Section Relocation option allows you to add offset values to the
symbols in an OMF file. Use this option if some of the sections or
segments of your code is relocated in memory at run-time. This can
occur if your system dynamically loads parts of your code, so that the
memory addresses that the code is loaded into are not fixed.
To use this option, highlight the memory section that you want to
offset, then select the Select field. Choose one of the offset options
described below.
If you have loaded more than one symbol file, the Section Relocation
option applies to whichever file is currently displayed in the OMF File
field. To select a different file, use the View option in the Current
Loaded Files menu.
Section Relocation Menu
594
Symbol Utility Features and Functions
The OMF Symbol File Load Menu
Set Absolute Section Location
Use this option to set an absolute address for the start of the selected
section, when you know the run-time address of the section.
Offset This Section
Use this option to add an offset to the start of the selected section,
when you know the relocation offset of the section. The value entered
will be added to the section address that was contained in the OMF file.
All symbols falling within the address range of this section will be offset
by this value.
Offset All Sections
This option adds an offset to the starting addresses of all sections in the
selected OMF file. The values entered will be added to all relocatable
sections in your program. You will typically use this option if you have
PC relative code and data.
A section that contains symbols for hardware addresses will usually be
indicated as nonrelocatable in the OMF file. The symbols for these
sections will not be relocated.
595
Symbol Utility Features and Functions
The OMF Symbol Browser Menu
The OMF Symbol Browser Menu
The OMF Symbol Browser menu allows you to browse through the
symbols that have been loaded into the analyzer. You can use the
symbols as trigger terms in the Trigger menu. Search features and
wildcard characters are available to help you find the symbols that you
want.
Symbol Format
The OMF symbols can be viewed in one of two formats:
•
as global and local variables, or
•
as source file names with line numbers.
Select the large field at the bottom of the menu to toggle between the
two modes. Symbols will appear in trace listings in the format selected
here.
OMF Symbol Browser Menu
596
Symbol Utility Features and Functions
The OMF Symbol Browser Menu
Symbol Type Selection Field (User vs. OMF)
This field allows you to choose between the two types of symbols
available in the logic analyzer. The choices are:
•
"User Symbols," corresponding to the symbols that you can define in the
Format menu, and
•
"OMF Symbols," corresponding to the symbols in an OMF symbol file that
you have loaded using the Symbol Utility.
This field appears at the top of the pop-up menu, when you select a
trigger term.
Symbol Type Selection Pop-up
597
Symbol Utility Features and Functions
The OMF Symbol Browser Menu
Find Field
Use this field to locate particular symbols in the symbol databases that
you would like to use in a trigger specification. When you first access
the OMF Symbol Table menu, the Find field will display an asterisk (*).
The asterisk is a wildcard character that you can use in browsing the
symbol database for the symbol that you want. To begin using this field,
select it, type in the name of a file or symbol, then select Done. When
you type in a symbol name and select Done, the system searches the
symbol database for symbols that match this name.
Asterisk wildcard (*)
The asterisk wildcard represents "any characters." When you perform a
search on the symbol database using just the asterisk, you will see a list
of all symbols contained in the database. The asterisk can also be
added to a search word to find all symbols that begin or end with the
same letters.
Example
To find all of the symbols that begin with the letters "st", select the Find
field and type "st*". Select Done and the browse results look like this:
Highlight the symbol that you want and select Done to use the symbol
as a trigger term.
598
Symbol Utility Features and Functions
The OMF Symbol Browser Menu
Question mark wildcard (?)
If you are using a keyboard to control your logic analyzer, you can use
the question mark wildcard character. A question mark represents "any
single character." You can use more than one question mark in a symbol
database search; for example, "?ector?num" is a valid search string.
Example
Your symbol database contains many symbols that have names such as
"sym1," "sym17," and "sym20." To find all of the symbols that end in "5",
select the Find field and type "sym?5". Select Done and the browse
results look like this:
Notice that "sym5" was not matched. Highlight the symbol that you
want and select Done to use the symbol as a trigger term.
599
Symbol Utility Features and Functions
The OMF Symbol Browser Menu
Browse Results Display
This area of the display shows you a list of the symbols that satisfy the
search criteria that you have specified. Depending on the mode
selected in the large field at the bottom of the display, the browse
results display will show file names and line numbers, or the symbol
names. The field can be scrolled to view additional symbols that are
offscreen.
Scroll Files field
This field appears if the symbol mode field, at the bottom of the screen,
is set to "View Files and Line Numbers." Select this field to scroll the
listing of the browse results. If this field is not selected, then the Line
Number field can be scrolled.
600
Symbol Utility Features and Functions
The OMF Symbol Browser Menu
Align to xx Byte Option
Most processors do not fetch instructions from memory on byte
boundaries. In order to trigger a logic analyzer on a symbol at an oddnumbered address, the address must be masked off. The "Align to
Byte" option allows you to mask off an address.
Example
The symbol "main" occurs at address 100F. The processor being probed
is a 68040, which fetches instructions on long word (4-byte)
boundaries. In order to trigger on the address 100F, the address must
be masked off to the nearest 4-byte boundary. The Align to Byte option
would be set to "Align to 4 bytes." The Symbol Utility masks the
address of the symbol "main" to 100C hex before it is used as a trigger
term.
601
Symbol Utility Features and Functions
The OMF Symbol Browser Menu
Offset Option
The Offset option allows you to add an offset value to the starting point
of the symbol that you want to use as a trigger term. You might do this
in order to trigger on a point in a function that is beyond the preamble
of the function, or to trigger on a point that is past the prefetch depth
of the processor. Setting an offset helps to avoid false triggers in these
situations.
The offset specified in the Offset field is applied before the address
masking is done by the "Align to xx Byte" option.
Example
An 80386 processor has a prefetch depth of 16 bytes. Functions func1
and func2 are adjacent to each other in physical memory, with func2
following func1. In order to trigger on func2, without getting a false
trigger from a prefetch beyond the end of func1, you need to add an
offset value that is equal to or greater than the prefetch depth of the
processor to your trigger term. In this case you want to add an offset of
16 bytes, so you would set the value of the "Offset by" field to 10 hex.
When you specify func2 as your trigger term, the logic analyzer will
trigger on address func2+10.
602
Symbol Utility Features and Functions
The OMF Symbol Browser Menu
Context Display
The Context display, just below the Find field, indicates the original
OMF source file for the symbol that is currently highlighted in the
Browse Results display. A: indicates the flexible disk drive. C: indicates
the hard disk drive.
Some OMF formats, such as IEEE-695, provide information about the
path name of the original source files. If you are using one of these
OMF formats, you will see path information for the individual files in
the browse results display. The source file path name is separated from
the OMF path by a colon (:).
Example
An OMF file called symlop.x has been loaded from the hard disk drive
of the Agilent Technologies 16500B. One of the source files for the
OMF was called main.c. When you browse symbols from the symbol
database, the context display might look like this:
Context: C:\symlop.x:/users/fred/project/src/main.c
C:\symlop.x is the path for the OMF file on the 16500B hard disk. /
users/fred... is the path for the file main.c in the original environment
where it was compiled.
Address Display
The Address display indicates the address corresponding to the symbol
that is currently highlighted in the Browse Results display. The
addresses are displayed as physical values. Intel 80x86 segment:offset
values are converted to physical address values before they are
displayed.
603
Symbol Utility Features and Functions
The OMF Symbol Browser Menu
Symbol Mode Field
The OMF symbols can be viewed in one of two formats:
•
as global and local symbols, or
•
as source file names with line numbers
Select the large field at the bottom of the display to toggle between the
two modes. Symbols appear in the trace listing in the format that is
selected here.
When the "View Globals and Locals" mode is selected, the browse
results are displayed as symbolic names. When the "View Files and Line
Numbers" mode is selected, the browse results display lists source file
names from the OMF file. In the "View Files and Line Numbers" mode,
two additional fields appear in the OMF Symbol Browser menu.
The Scroll Files Field
Select this field to assign the knob to scroll the Browse Results listing.
Line Number Field
The Line Number field is used to select a line number of a source file as
a trigger term. Select the field once and it can be used to scroll through
the line numbers of valid, existing lines of code. Select the field a
second time and a keypad pop-up allows you to specify a particular line
number.
Not all lines in a source file have code associated with them. When you
type in a line number that contains no code, the field defaults to the
next highest line number that does contain code. If you select a line
number higher than any line number in the file, the field defaults to the
highest line number in the file.
604
Symbol Utility Features and Functions
The General-Purpose ASCII File Format
The General-Purpose ASCII File Format
The Symbol Utility supports a General-Purpose ASCII (GPA) file
format. If your language tool chain does not produce one of the
supported file types, you can create a GPA file to define symbols for the
Symbol Utility. You can also use a GPA file to define symbols which are
not included in a supported OMF file.
605
Symbol Utility Features and Functions
The General-Purpose ASCII File Format
Creating a GPA Symbol File
You can create a GPA symbol file using any text editor that supports
ASCII format text. Each entry in the file you create must consist of a
symbol name followed by an address or address range.
Each symbol name is a string of ASCII characters. The string can be
very long, but the logic analyzer will truncate the string and use only
the first 16 characters. The address or address range corresponding to
a given symbol is a hexadecimal number. The address must appear
immediately on the same line of the text file as the symbol name.
Addresses must be separated from symbol names by one or more blank
spaces or tabs. Address can be specified as a single hexadecimal value,
or as a range in the following format:
beginning address..ending address
It is possible to generate a GPA file from the symbol or load map output
of most language tools.
Simple Format
A GPA file can be a simple list of name/address pairs.
Example
main 00001000..00001009
test 00001010..0000101F
var1 00001E22
#this is a variable
This example defines two symbols that correspond to address ranges
and one point symbol that corresponds to a single address.
606
Symbol Utility Features and Functions
The General-Purpose ASCII File Format
GPA File Format
A GPA file can be divided into records using record headers. The
different records allow you to specify different kinds of symbols, with
differing characteristics. A GPA file can contain any of the following
kinds of records:
•
Sections
•
Functions
•
Variables
•
Source line numbers
•
Start address
The different kinds of symbols available are explained in the following
sections.
Each kind of symbol must be separated from the next by a key word,
called a record header. The record headers must be enclosed in square
brackets, like this: [HEADER]. If no record header is specified, the lines
are assumed to be symbol definitions in one of the following
VARIABLES formats:
variable address
variable start..end
variable start address size
607
Symbol Utility Features and Functions
The General-Purpose ASCII File Format
Example
Here is a GPA file that contains several different kinds of records.
[SECTIONS]
prog
00001000..0000101F
data
40002000..40009FFF
common FFFF0000..FFFF1000
[FUNCTIONS]
main
00001000..00001009
test
00001010..0000101F
[VARIABLES]
total 40002000 4
value 40008000 4
[SOURCE LINES]
File: main.c
10
00001000
11
00001002
14
0000100A
22
0000101E
File: test.c
5
00001010
7
00001012
11
0000101A
608
Symbol Utility Features and Functions
The General-Purpose ASCII File Format
Sections
Format
[SECTIONS]
section_name start..end attribute
Use SECTIONS to define symbols for regions of memory, such as
sections, segments, or classes.
section_name
A symbol representing the name of the section.
start
The first address of the section, in hexadecimal.
end
The last address of the section, in hexadecimal.
attribute
(optional) Attribute may be one of the following:
NORMAL (default)
The section is a normal, relocatable section, such as code or data.
NONRELOC
The section contains variables or code that cannot be relocated. In
other words, this is an absolute segment.
NOTE:
To enable section relocation, section definitions must appear before any other
definitions in the file.
609
Symbol Utility Features and Functions
The General-Purpose ASCII File Format
Example
NOTE:
[SECTIONS]
prog
data
display_io
00001000..00001FFF
00002000..00003FFF
00008000..0000801F
NONRELOC
If you use section definitions in a GPA symbol file, any subsequent function or
variable definitions must fall within the address ranges of one of the defined
sections. Those functions and variables that do not will be ignored by the
Symbol Utility.
610
Symbol Utility Features and Functions
The General-Purpose ASCII File Format
Functions
Format
[FUNCTIONS]
func_name start..end
Use FUNCTIONS to define symbols for program functions, procedures,
or subroutines.
func_name
A symbol representing the function name.
start
The first address of the function, in hexadecimal.
end
The last address of the function, in hexadecimal.
Example
[FUNCTIONS]
main
00001000..00001009
test
00001010..0000101F
611
Symbol Utility Features and Functions
The General-Purpose ASCII File Format
Variables
Format
[VARIABLES]
var_name
var_name
start [size]
start..end
You can specify symbols for variables, using the address of the variable,
the address and the size of the variable, or a range of addresses
occupied by the variable. If you give only the address of a variable, the
size is assumed to be 1 byte.
var_name
A symbol representing the variable name.
start
The first address of the variable, in hexadecimal.
end
The last address of the variable, in hexadecimal.
size
(optional) The size of the variable, in bytes, in decimal.
Example
[VARIABLES]
subtotal
total
data_array
status_char
612
40002000 4
40002004 4
40003000..4000302F
40002345
Symbol Utility Features and Functions
The General-Purpose ASCII File Format
Source Line Numbers
Format
[SOURCE LINES]
File: file_name
line# address
Use SOURCE LINES to associate addresses with lines in your source
files.
file_name
The name of a file.
line#
The number of a line in the file, in decimal.
address
The address of the source line, in hexadecimal.
Example
[SOURCE LINES]
File: main.c
10 00001000
11 00001002
14 0000100A
22 0000101E
613
Symbol Utility Features and Functions
The General-Purpose ASCII File Format
Start Address
Format
[START ADDRESS]address
address
The address of the program entry point, in hexadecimal.
Example
[START ADDRESS]
00001000
Comments
Format
#comment text
Any text following a # character is ignored by the Symbol Utility and
can be used to comment the file. Comments can appear on a line by
themselves, or on the same line, following a symbol entry.
Example
#This is a comment
614
Index
Symbols
* character, 598
.ns files, 581, 592
loading, 592
? character, 599
A
AC/DC Cal, 415
accessing menus, 47
System menus, 48
accessing symbol utility menus
browser menu, 575
load menu, 571
accessories, 438
Accumulate field, 334
Acquisition Control, 90
Acquisition Control field, 329
acquisition modes, 300
active probe power, 28
ADC Hybrid, 414
adding sequence levels, 78
ADDR label, 579, 582, 591
Address bus, 65
Address display, 603
Intel 80x86 addresses, 603
Align to Byte option, 601
example, 601
already mounted, 555
analyzer
configuration copying, 517
configuration restoring, 518
data files, 531
labels, 531
line numbers, 531
preparing for use, 455
Analyzer Configuration menu, 295
analyzer hardware
theory of operation, 403
analyzer IP address, 287
analyzer listing, 60
analyzer name field, 484
analyzer problems
capacitive loading, 425
intermittent data errors, 423
no activity on activity indicators,
424
no trace list display, 425
unwanted triggers, 424
analyzer Trigger menu, 312
anomalies
X Window, 508
arming another instrument, 84
arming control
between analyzers, 327
using external BNCs, 327
Arming Control field, 327
arming the oscilloscope with the
analyzer, 85
example, 86
arming two analyzers and an
oscilloscope, 86
ASCII data
copying, 511
ASCII file commands, 234
ASCII format
See General-Purpose ASCII
format assembling, 605
assembling the probing system, 255
assigning terms, 72
Attenuator/Preamp theory of
operation, 413
automatic measurements display
oscilloscope, 189
Autoscale algorithm
menus and fields changed, 155
auxiliary power, 471
Axis Control field
1670-series, 342
B
base, 583
Bit Editing field, 348
BNC cable
attaching to another instrument,
84
branch conditions
selectively store, 90
Branches Taken Stored / Not
Stored field, 330
Break Down Functions/ Restore
Functions, 313
browser menu, 596
using, 583
browser menu, using, 583
browsing the symbol database, 598
See also searching the symbol
database, 598
building test vectors and macros,
200
C
calibrating the oscilloscope, 147
default calibration factors, 148
Self Cal menu, 149
calibration
PROTECT/UNPROTECT switch,
147
calibration memory switch, 28
calibration outputs, 259
CAM (Contents Addressable
Memory)
bit, 552
Centronics interface, 285
change the trigger specification, 75
changing macros, 80
changing the trigger sequence, 77
Channel Menu
oscilloscope, 157
characteristics
logic analyzer, 442
oscilloscope, 443
pattern generator, 443
Chart menu, 340
charts
Label vs. Label, 340
615
Index
Label vs. State, 340
clean
logic analyzer, 457
cleaning the instrument, 627
clock circuit
pattern generator board theory,
418
Clock Inputs display, 301
color
setting, 294
color display
changing, 292
colors
default, 294
combination of terms, 397
command parser socket, 520
commands
programming, 520
comments
in General-Purpose ASCII
format, 614
common menu fields, 270
communications link
verifying in MS Windows, 544
verifying in MS-DOS, 542
verifying in workstations, 540
communications not established,
538
Compare Full/Compare Partial
field, 347
Compare menu, 344
comparing two listings, 63
compiling, 578
configuration
loading, 137
saving, 136
configuration capabilities, 246
configuration translation
between Agilent logic analyzers,
401
configurations
copying, 517
restoring, 518
616
connecting grabbers to probes, 258
connecting probe cables
to the logic analyzer, 256
connecting the probe tip assembly
to the probe cable, 256
connection
problems, 553
connection refused, 554
connection timed out, 554, 557
Connector
parallel printer, 28
RS-232-C, 28
Connectors
LAN, 28
Context display
example, 603
control user, 491, 493, 496, 515,
520
vs data user, 490
controller interface, 282
controller selection, 521
Copy Listing, 346
copying
ASCII data, 511
binary format data, 512
configuration file, 517
screen images, 514
copying files, 538
Count field, 331
Count Time, 83
cp
on SUN, 532
create a symbol, 55
creating an ASCII symbol file, 606
creating OMF symbol files, 578
Cross-Arming Trigger Examples,
118
Current Loaded Files field, 593
Delete field, 593
Delete option, 586
using, 585
View field, 593
cursor
moving, 267
custom fonts for X, 505
D
data
copying, 511
restoring, 513
Data bus, 65
data listing
symbols in, 582
data user, 493, 496, 515
vs control user, 490
data.raw, 556
default colors, 294
default setup, 282
define a term, 74
Delay field, 330, 335
Delete field, 593
deleting symbol files, 586
displaying OMF symbols, 582
Drive field, 590
dynamically loaded code, 594
using, 586
Demultiplex mode, 304
Device Busy, 554
Device Timeout, 537
difference listing, 64
Difference Listing field, 345
directories
hard and flexible drives, 388
directory structure
logic analyzer, 529
disconnecting probe leads, 257
disk drive operations, 275
Load and Store, 280
Pack, 279
display
color model, 292
color selection, 292
copying, 514
Done Key
description, 26
Index
Done key, 26
drive name, 493, 494
dynamic files, 517, 532
problems with SUN operating
systems, 532
E
edge terms, 395
Encapsulated PostScript files, 514
ENDEC (Encoder/Decoder) bit,
549
error messages, 432
Device Timeout, 537
File Timeout, 537
in MS Windows, 544
in MS-DOS, 543
in workstations, 541
unknown host, 541, 542, 545
error messages from ping
in MS-, 542
in MS Windows, 544
in MS-DOS, 542
Ethernet
setting up communications, 521
Ethernet LAN interface, 286
Ethernet statistics, 288
Ethernet Statistics menu, 551
example
listing, 62
External Trigger BNCs, 28
F
faulty cable
performance verification, 547
file commands
ASCII, 234
File Manager, 494
file names and line numbers, 596
file system, 387
accessing, 490
directory structure, 529
File Timeout, 537
file types, 389
file versions, 592
filename endings
.__, 390
._A, 390
._B, 390
.EPS, 390
.PCX, 390
.TIF, 390
filenames
endings, 390
files
copying, 538
protection, 490
reading, 486
receiving 1 byte, 538
transfering, 538
writing, 486
files and line numbers, 604
line number field, 604
valid line numbers, 604
Find Error field, 347
Find field, 598
first line of acquisition, 531
FISO memory, 414
flexible disk drive, 388
flowcharts
connecting and configuring, 480
fonts for X, 505
Format menu, 297
formats
screen images, 514
frame.txt file, 515
front panel
Done key, 26
knob, 26
Select key, 26
Shift key, 26
front-panel knob
duplicating, 498
ftp, 496
transfering files, 143
function library, 314
functions
changing, 80
in General_Purpose ASCII
format, 611
modifying, 319
timing trigger function library,
314
G
Gateway Address, 553
gateway IP address, 287
General-Purpose ASCII format,
588, 605
address format, 606
comments, 614
creating a file, 606
functions, 611
record headers, 607
sections, 609
simple example, 606
simple form, 606
source line numbers, 613
start address, 613
variables, 612
general-purpose probing
system description, 251
generating OMF symbols files, 578
global timers 1 and 2, 324
globals and locals, 596, 604
GPIB Connector, 28
GPIB interface, 283
grabbers, 253
graphics files, 514
grounding
probe and pod, 252
H
hard disk drive, 388
histogram display
interpreting, 375
hostname
in MS Windows, 544
617
Index
in MS-DOS, 542
in workstations, 540
hue
setting, 294
I
illegal configuration, 296
instrument, cleaning the, 627
interleave trace lists, 129
intermittent response from ping
in MS Windows, 545
in MS-DOS, 543
in workstations, 541
Intermodule configuration, 517
inverse assembler
using, 65
inverse assembler problems, 429
none or incorrect, 429
will not load or run, 431
K
keyboard
using, 498
keyboard overlays, 269
keyboard Shortcuts, 267
Knob
description, 27
knob
duplicating in X, 498
using, 27
L
label, 591
setting base, 582
label channel groups, 52
Label field, 591
Label fields, 310
label names, 531
label polarity fields, 311
LAN
connectors, 28
LAN connections
618
show, 288
LAN connectors, 28
LAN port, 287
LAN Settings menu, 483
limitations of programming over
the LAN, 520
Line Number field, 604
line numbers
GPA file, 613
line numbers of an acquisition, 531
line_num.txt, 531
linking, 578
lising
example, 62
listing
using, 60
Listing menu, 332
load a configuration, 137
load additional software, 141
Load field, 592
load menu, 589
accessing, 571, 573
load menu, using, 579
loading a symbol file
choosing a label, 591
choosing a measurement module,
591
Load field, 592
loading OMF symbol files, 579
logic analyzer
copying ASCII data, 511
directory structure, 529
programming, 520
setting time-zone, 534
setting up, 518
verifying it is on the network, 485
X Window interface, 498
logic analyzer description, 244
logic analyzer file system
accessing, 490
accessing via ftp, 496
mounting via NFS, 491
logical drive name, 493
login name
ftp, 496
loop register, 417
LP_END, 100
LP_EXIT, 101
LP_START, 100
luminosity fields, 294
M
MAC (Media Access Control) bit,
552
macros
Break Down Macros / Restore
Macros, 313
building, 200
state trigger macro library, 316
making a measurement
overview, 29
managing memory, 89
markers
Off, 333
pattern markers, 332
state analyzer markers, 332
timing analyzer markers, 333
X-O, 333
Markers field, 332
Markers/Range field, 341
Mask field, 348
masking off addresses, 601
Master and Slave Clock fields, 305
measurement data (ASCII)
copying, 511
measurement data (raw)
copying, 512
restoring, 513
measurement modules, 591
choosing, 591
memory
trigger position, 93
Memory Length field, 91
1670-series, 329
menus
Index
new, 533
Min and Max scaling fields, 341
mixed display
state and timing, 131
Mixed Display menu, 338
Modify Trigger field, 313
Module field, 591
module status, 515
mount
control user, 486
data user, 486
error message, 486
in UNIX, 486
mounting and unmounting, 486
mouse
using, 498
MS Windows
error messages from ping, 545
File Manager, 494
intermittent response from ping,
545
mount, 487, 494
no response from ping, 545
ping, 485
MS-DOS
error messages, 542
error messages from ping, 542
hostname, 542
intermittent response from ping,
543
mount, 487, 493
no response from ping, 543
normal response from ping, 542
ping, 485, 542
unknown host, 542
multiple OMF files, 592
multiple symbol files, 592
N
network
configuring the logic analyzer,
482, 484
connecting, 481
mounting, 486
statistics, 551
network addresses
accessing, 482
configuring, 482
no heartbeat, 552
no more mounts available, 555
no response from ping
in MS-DOS, 543
in workstations, 541
filename endings
, 390
normal response from ping
in MS-DOS, 542
in workstations, 540
numbers, 604
O
occurrence counters, 321
odd-numbered addresses, 601
offset
adding to address values, 594
all sections, 595
code section, 595
trigger term, 602
Offset All Sections option, 595
Offset option of browser menu, 602
example, 602
Offset This Section option, 595
OMF File field, 590
Refresh field, 590
using, 580
OMF Load field
using, 580
OMF symbol files
creating, 578
currently loaded, 585
deleting, 586
versions, 592
OMF Symbol Table
browser menu, 596
browser menu, accessing, 575
load menu, accessing, 571
OMF Symbol Table menus, 588
OMF symbols
browsing, 575, 598
loading into logic analyzer, 571,
579
symbol type, 597
operating environment, 452, 455
operation timed out, 557
Operation Timeout, 537
operator’s service, 453
oscilloscope
Accumulate mode, 161
automatic measurement
algorithms, 191
automatic measurements
display, 189
automatic time markers, 179
Autoscale, 154
Autoscale run, 152
Auto-Trig field, 171
Average mode, 160
calibrating, 147
channel label field, 187
Channel Menu, 157
Connect Dots field, 162
Count field, 170, 175
Coupling field, 158
coupling field selections, 158
Delay field, 156
Display Marker Values, 163
Display Options field, 163
Display Sample Period, 163
Displaying the waveform, 155
edge trigger mode, 165
Grid field, 162
immediate trigger mode, 166
manual time markers, 176
manual/automatic time markers,
184
Mode field, 160
Mode/Arm menu, 164
619
Index
Normal mode, 160
Occur field, 181
Offset field, 157
pattern trigger mode, 165
Preset field, 159
probe attenuation factor, 158
Probe field, 158
Run Until Time X-O field, 182
s/Div field, 156
Scope Marker Menu, 176
Set Channel Labels, 163
Single and Repetitive modes, 152
Slope field, 169
Source field, 169
Statistics field, 181
T Marker value display, 177
time base, 156
Trig to O field, 177
Trig to X field, 177
trigger marker, 164
Tx to To field, 176
Voltage Markers options, 185
voltage value, 167
When field, 172
oscilloscope acquisition, 413
oscilloscope board theory, 412
oscilloscope common menus
Run/Stop options, 152
oscilloscope Display Menu, 160
oscilloscope measurement
algorithms
Fall time, 193
Freq, 192
Negative Pulse Width, 193
Peak-to-Peak Voltage, 192
Period, 192
Positive Pulse Width (+Width),
193
Preshoot and Overshoot, 194
Rise time, 193
oscilloscope probes, 259
calibration outputs, 259
620
maximum probe input voltage,
259
probe inputs, 259
oscilloscope trigger menu, 164
output driver, 418
overview
making a measurement, 29
P
packets
corrupt, 552
receive, 552
transmit, 552
Page Up and Page Down keys, 268
parallel printer connector, 28
parameters bit, 550
password
ftp access, 496
protection, 490
path name
of OMF file, 603
of source files, 603
pattern generator, 196
ASCII files, 233
autoroll, 217
build a user macro, 207
clock, 197
Clock Frequency, 219
Clock Out Delay, 220
Clock Period, 219
Clock Source, 218
configurations, 197
edit a macro, 208
edit vector, 203
Format menu, 218
function name, 208
functions, 200
hardware instructions, 204
initialization sequence, 202
instructions, 227
label, 199
load a configuration, 216
main vector sequence, 201
modify parameters, 209, 211
place parameters in a vector, 210
probing system, 242
Sequence menu, 222
software instructions, 205
store a configuration, 215
symbols in a function, 214
symbols in a sequence, 213
test vector files, 222
test vectors, 200
User Functions menu, 231
user macro, 206
user symbol table, 212
vector data, 237
Vector Output Mode, 220
pattern generator board theory,
417
pattern generator output pod
characteristics, 261
pattern generator pods
connecting to a PC board, 260
pattern terms, 395
PC-relative code, 595
PCX files, 514
performance verification
during troubleshooting, 547
failures, 547
self-test description, 546
ping
in MS Windows, 485
in MS-DOS, 485
in UNIX, 485
in workstations, 540
not available in MS Windows, 544
not available in MS-DOS, 542
Pod clock field, 302
pod threshold field, 297
pod thresholds, 254
point-to-point, 537
port ID
command parser socket, 522, 524
PostScript files, 514
Index
power requirements, 455
power-up tests, 461
prefetch, 601
offsetting trigger term, 602
preprocessor problems, 426
erratic trace measurements, 428
slow clock, 427
target system boot up failure, 426
Print All, 272
Print Disk, 272
Print field, 271
Print Partial, 272
Print Screen, 271
printer interface, 282
probe and pod grounding, 252
probe cable, 253
probe leads, 252
probe tip assemblies, 251
probing, 248
assembling the probing system,
255
connecting grabbers to probes,
258
general-purpose, 249
grabbers, 253
maximum probe input voltage,
254
microprocessor and bus-specific
interfaces, 249
minimum signal amplitude, 253
oscilloscope probes, 259
pattern generator output pod
characteristics, 261
pod thresholds, 254
probe cable, 253
termination adapter, 250
programming
setting up, 521
PROTECT/UNPROTECT switch,
147
R
RAM
pattern generator board theory,
418
range terms, 395
raw measurement data
copying, 512
restoring, 513
reading files, 486
reading statistics, 551
read-only access to file system, 490
read-write access to file system,
490
Real Time Clock Adjustments field,
289
real-time limitations, 520
receive an arm signal
from another instrument, 87
receive packets, 552
record headers, 607
Reference Listing field, 345
Refresh field, 590
relative trigger time, 515
relocation of code, 594
removing symbol files, 586
Repetitive, 273
Rescale field, 343
Resource terms, 323
return to Agilent service, 559
Roll fields, 274
RS-232-C interface, 284
RS-232-C, GPIB, and Centronics
Interfaces, 282
Run/Stop field, 273
Rx bit, 550
S
sampling rates, 94
Saturation
setting, 294
save a configuration, 136
save a trace list in ASCII format,
139
Scope Auto Measure menu, 188
screen images, 514
Scroll Files field, 600, 604
searching the symbol database, 598
results, 600
sec/Div field, 334
Section Relocation Option, 594
Offset All Sections option, 595
Offset This Section option, 595
Set Absolute Section Location
option, 595
sections
in General-Purpose ASCII
format, 609
Select Key
description, 26
Select key, 26
self-tests, 462
Self-tests description, 420
sequence levels, 392
adding, 78
server not responding, 554
service
return to Agilent, 559
Set Absolute Section Location
option, 595
set the memory length, 91
set up time correlation
between a timing and a state
analyzer, 83
between two state analyzers, 82
setting
color, 294
hue, 294
saturation, 294
setting the manual/automatic time
markers
oscilloscope, 184
setup.raw, 556
setup.raw files
copying, 517
621
Index
restoring, 518
Setup/Hold field, 307
Shift Key
description, 27
Shift key, 27
single-client/single-server, 537,
543, 545
size of files, 532
slow operation, 557
socket, 520
command parser, 524
port ID number, 522, 524
source line numbers
in General-Purpose ASCII
format, 613
SPA (System Performance
Analysis)
changing between SPA and the
analyzer, 383
programming, 383
using in Group Runs, 384
using with other features, 383
special displays
interleaved trace lists, 128
Mixed Display mode, 128
specifications, 437
logic analyzer, 440
oscilloscope, 441
stale NFS file handle, 491
start address
in General-Purpose ASCII
format, 613
state acquisition modes, 298
state acquisitions
comparing, 63
State Histogram example, 365
State Histogram mode, 362
using, 376
state listings
interleaving, 338
State Overview mode
using, 373
state tags, 531
622
state trigger function library, 316
statistics markers, 333
status bits, 549
status information, 515
status number
description, 548
SUN workstations, 532
supplemental characteristics
logic analyzer, 445
oscilloscope, 450
support services, 559
symbol
create, 55
symbol base, 582
symbol browser menu
accessing, 575
using, 583
symbol database
.ns files, 581
creating, 592
symbol file load menu, 589
accessing, 571
using, 579
symbol format, 596
choosing, 604
symbol mode
choosing, 604
symbol type, 597
precedence, 582
symbols
browsing, 598
Symbols field, 308
system configuration, 517
System Performance Analysis
description, 352
labels, 358
measurement processes, 357
operating characteristics, 353
sampling and sorting, 358
State Histrogram mode, 354
State Overview example, 361
State Overview mode, 353, 359
three trace modes example, 370
Time Interval example, 369
Time Interval mode, 354, 366
System Performance Analysis
(SPA)
getting started using, 355
System Performance Analysis
(SPA) Software, 350
System Utilities, 289
system.txt file, 515
T
tags
Time and State, 331
term
define, 74
termination adapter, 250
termination bit, 552
terms
assigning, 72
assigning bit by bit, 325
bit pattern terms a-j, 323
changing names and values, 324
combination of terms, 326
edge terms 1 and 2, 324
range terms 1 and 2, 323
using preset values, 325
test
logic analyzer, 457
theory of operation, 404
logic acquisition board, 408
oscilloscope board, 412
pattern generator board, 417
TIFF files, 514
Time Correlation, 81
Time Interval mode
using, 379
time tags, 531
time_abs.txt, 531
time-correlated displays, 339
timeout bit, 550
timeout errors, 537
timers, 321, 395
Index
timing acquisition modes, 299
timing sampling rates, 94
timing trigger function library, 314
trace listing
symbols in, 582
trace lists
interleave, 129
trace modes (SPA), 357
TRANS (Transceiver) bit, 550
transfer files using ftp, 143
transferring files, 538
using the flexible disk drive, 135
using the LAN, 142
transmit packets, 552
trigger
customizing a basic trigger, 71
trigger example
nth recursive call of a recursive
function, 102
trigger examples
capture a write of known bad data
to a particular variable, 106
capture the waveform of a glitch,
123
detect a glitch, 122
detect bus contention, 117
execution of a subroutine, 98
expected data does not appear
when requested, 112
find the nth assertion of a chip
select line, 110
handshake violation, 116
look at control and status signals,
121
loop overrun, 107
minimum and maximum pulse
limits, 114
monitor two coprocessors in a
target system, 126
nth iteration of a loop, 100
software execution when a timing
violation occurs, 119
timing analysis of a count-down
on a set of data lines, 125
trigger after lines have finished
transitioning, 109
trigger on entry to a function, 104
verify correct return from a
function call, 108
verify the chip select line is
strobed after the address is
stable, 111
view your target system
processing an interrupt, 124
trigger functions
changing, 80
trigger position
start, center, end, 93
Trigger Position field, 329
trigger sequence
state analyzer, 400
timing analyzer, 400
trigger sequence levels, 312
trigger sequence specification, 392
trigger specification
changing, 75
trigger term, 583, 596
triggering on a symbol, 583
browser menu, 596
finding the symbol you want, 598
odd-numbered addresses, 601
triggers
branching, 321
troubleshooting, 422
analyzer problems, 423
error messages, 432
in MS Windows, 544
in MS-DOS, 542
in workstations, 540
inverse assembler problems, 429
preprocessor problems, 426
troubleshooting flowcharts, 458,
459
Tx bit, 550
U
unable to open window, 555
UNIX
mount, 486, 491
ping, 485
unknown host message
in MS Windows, 544
in MS-DOS, 542
in workstations, 540
unmount, 486
Update FLASH ROM field, 290
User Symbols, 582, 597
V
variable
General-Purpose ASCII format,
612
vector
place parameters, 210
vectors
building, 200
versions of OS, 515
versions of symbol files, 592
View field, 593
View Files and Line Numbers, 604
valid line numbers, 604
View Globals and Locals, 604
viewing OMF symbols, 582
Voltage Markers options
oscilloscope, 185
W
W Window interface
anomalies, 508
waveform
using, 57
Waveform display, 337
waveform label field, 335
Waveform menu, 334
waveform menu, 57
wildcard characters
*character, 598
623
Index
workstations
error messages, 541
error messages from ping, 541
hostname, 540
intermittent response from ping,
541
no response from ping, 541
normal response from ping, 540
troubleshooting in, 540
writing files, 486
X
X Window Interface
loading custom fonts, 505
X Window interface, 498
closing, 504
starting, 499
624
DECLARATION OF CONFORMITY
according to ISO/IEC Guide 22 and EN 45014
Manufacturer’s Name:
Agilent Technologies
Manufacturer’s Address:
Digital Design Product Generation Unit
1900 Garden of the Gods Road
Colorado Springs, CO 80907 USA
declares, that the product
Product Name:
Logic Analyzer/Oscilloscope/Pattern Generator
Model Number(s):
1670G, 1671G, 1672G, 1673G
Product Option(s):
All
conforms to the following Product Specifications:
Safety:
IEC 1010-1:1990+A1 / EN 61010-1:1993
UL3111
CSA-C22.2 No. 1010.1:1993
EMC:
CISPR 11:1990 / EN 55011:1991
Group 1 Class A
IEC 555-2:1982 + A1:1985 / EN 60555-2:1987
IEC 555-3:1982 + A1:1990 / EN 60555-3:1987 + A1:1991
IEC 801-2:1991 / EN 50082-1:1992
4 kV CD, 8 kV AD
IEC 801-3:1984 / EN 50082-1:1992
3 V/m, {1kHz 80% AM, 27-1000 MHz}
IEC 801-4:1998 / EN 50082-1:1992
0.5 kV Sig. Lines, 1 kV Power Lines
Supplementary Information:
The product herewith complies with the requirements of the Low Voltage Directive 73/23/EEC and the EMC
Directive 89/336/EEC and carries the CE marking accordingly.
This product was tested in a typical configuration with Agilent Technologies test systems.
Colorado Springs, 08/10/98
Ken Wyatt / Product Regulations Manager
European Contact: Your local Agilent Technologies Sales and Service Office or Agilent Technologies GmbH, Department ZQ /
Standards Europe, Herrenberger Strasse 130, D-71034 Bšblingen Germany (FAX: +49-7031-14-3143)
Product Regulations
Safety
IEC 1010-1:1990+A1 / EN 61010-1:1993
UL3111
CSA-C22.2 No. 1010.1:1993
EMC
This Product meets the requirement of the European Communities (EC)
EMC Directive 89/336/EEC.
Emissions
EN55011/CISPR 11 (ISM, Group 1, Class A equipment)
IEC 555-2 and IEC 555-3
Immunity
EN50082-1
Code1
IEC 801-2 (ESD) 8kV AD
IEC 801-3 (Rad.) 3V/m
IEC 801-4 (EFT) 1kV
1
1
1
1
Notes2
Performance Codes:
1 PASS - Normal operation, no effect.
2 PASS - Temporary degradation, self recoverable.
3 PASS - Temporary degradation, operator intervention required.
4 FAIL - Not recoverable, component damage.
2Notes:
Sound Pressure
Level
(none)
Less than 60 dBA
Regulatory Information for Canada
ICES/NMB-001
This ISM device complies with Canadian ICES-001.
Cet appareil ISM est confomre à la norme NMB-001 du Canada.
Regulatory Information for Australia/New Zealand
This ISM device complies with Australian/New Zealand AS/NZS 2064.1
Safety
Notices
This apparatus has been
designed and tested in accordance with IEC Publication 1010,
Safety Requirements for Measuring Apparatus, and has been
supplied in a safe condition.
This is a Safety Class I instrument (provided with terminal for
protective earthing). Before
applying power, verify that the
correct safety precautions are
taken (see the following warnings). In addition, note the
external markings on the instrument that are described under
"Safety Symbols."
Warnings
• Before turning on the instrument, you must connect the protective earth terminal of the
instrument to the protective conductor of the (mains) power
cord. The mains plug shall only
be inserted in a socket outlet
provided with a protective earth
contact. You must not negate
the protective action by using an
extension cord (power cable)
without a protective conductor
(grounding). Grounding one
conductor of a two-conductor
outlet is not sufficient protection.
• Only fuses with the required
rated current, voltage, and specified type (normal blow, time
delay, etc.) should be used. Do
not use repaired fuses or shortcircuited fuseholders. To do so
could cause a shock or fire hazard.
ground protection is impaired,
you must make the instrument
inoperative and secure it against
any unintended operation.
Safety Symbols
• Service instructions are for
trained service personnel. To
avoid dangerous electric shock,
do not perform any service
unless qualified to do so. Do not
attempt internal service or
adjustment unless another person, capable of rendering first
aid and resuscitation, is present.
Instruction manual symbol: the
product is marked with this symbol when it is necessary for you
to refer to the instruction manual in order to protect against
damage to the product..
• Do not install substitute parts
or perform any unauthorized
modification to the instrument.
Hazardous voltage symbol.
• Capacitors inside the instrument may retain a charge even if
the instrument is disconnected
from its source of supply.
• Do not operate the instrument
in the presence of flammable
gasses or fumes. Operation of
any electrical instrument in such
an environment constitutes a
definite safety hazard.
• Do not use the instrument in a
manner not specified by the
manufacturer.
To clean the instrument
If the instrument requires cleaning: (1) Remove power from the
instrument. (2) Clean the external surfaces of the instrument
with a soft cloth dampened with
a mixture of mild detergent and
water. (3) Make sure that the
instrument is completely dry
before reconnecting it to a
power source.
• If you energize this instrument
by an auto transformer (for voltage reduction or mains isolation), the common terminal must
be connected to the earth terminal of the power source.
• Whenever it is likely that the
Agilent Technologies
P.O. Box 2197
1900 Garden of the Gods Road
Colorado Springs, CO 80901-2197, U.S.A.
!
Earth terminal symbol: Used to
indicate a circuit common connected to grounded chassis.
Notices
DFAR 252.227-7015 (b)(2)
(November 1995), as applicable
in any technical data.
© Agilent Technologies, Inc. 2002
Document Warranty
No part of this manual may be
reproduced in any form or by any
means (including electronic
storage and retrieval or
translation into a foreign
language) without prior
agreement and written consent
from Agilent Technologies, Inc. as
governed by United States and
international copyright laws.
Manual Part Number
01670-97022, August 2002
Print History
01670-97020, November 2001
01670-97017, May 2001
01670-97016, January 2001
01670-97014, January 2000
Agilent Technologies, Inc.
1900 Garden of the Gods Road
Colorado Springs, CO 80907 USA
Restricted Rights Legend
If software is for use in the performance of a U.S. Government
prime contract or subcontract,
Software is delivered and
licensed as “Commercial computer software” as defined in
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