Vermont Castings 1945 Operating instructions

Defiant
Woodburning Stove
Model 1945
Homeowner’s
Installation and
Operating Manual
For use in the
United States and Canada
SAFETY NOTICE: IF THIS APPLIANCE IS NOT PROPERLY INSTALLED, OPERATED AND
MAINTAINED, A HOUSE FIRE MAY RESULT.
TO REDUCE THE RISK OF FIRE, FOLLOW THE INSTALLATION INSTRUCTIONS. FAILURE TO
FOLLOW INSTRUCTIONS MAY RESULT IN PROPERTY DAMAGE, BODILY INJURY OR EVEN
DEATH. CONTACT LOCAL BUILDING OFFICIALS ABOUT RESTRICTIONS AND INSTALLATION
INSPECTION REQUIREMENTS IN YOUR AREA.
0968
Defiant cover
11/00
Do Not Discard This Manual: Retain for Future Use
30001693 7/08 Rev. 24
Defiant Woodburning Stove
Welcome
Congratulations on your choice of a Vermont Castings Defiant stove. With this purchase you have made a commitment to make the hearth a place of warmth, beauty and comfort in your home. At MHSC, we share that joy and appreciation for the hearth. We assure you that your cast-iron Vermont Castings stove has been made with the utmost care
and will provide you with many years of service.
As you become acquainted with your new stove, you will find that its appearance is matched by its functionality, due to
cast iron’s unique ability to absorb and radiate heat.
Also, MHSC products are among the cleanest-burning wood stoves and fireplaces available today. As an owner of a
Vermont Castings stove, you make a strong statement for pollution-free energy. However, clean burning depends on
both the manufacturer and the operator. Please read this manual carefully to understand how to properly operate and
maintain your stove.
At MHSC, we are equally committed to your satisfaction as a customer. That is why we maintain an exclusive network
of the finest dealers in the industry. Our dealers are chosen for their expertise and dedication to customer service.
They are factory-trained and knowledgeable about every MHSC product. Feel free to contact your Authorized Vermont
Castings Dealer anytime you have a particular question about your stove or its performance.
This manual contains valuable instructions on the installation and operation of your Vermont Castings Defiant. It also
contains useful information on maintenance. Please read the manual thoroughly and keep it as a reference.
Sincerely,
All of Us at MHSC
This manual describes the installation, operation, and maintenance of the Vermont Castings Defiant Model 1945 catalytic-equipped wood burning heater. This heater meets the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s emission limits for
wood heaters sold on or after July 1, 1990. Under specific test conditions this heater has been shown to deliver heat
at rates ranging from 10,600 to 55,000 Btu/hr.
The Defiant Model #1945 has been tested and is listed by Canadian Standards Association (CSA). The test standards
are ANSI/UL-1482 and ANSI/UL-737 for the United States, and ULC S627 and CAN/CSA-B366.2 for Canada. The
Defiant is listed for burning wood only. Do not burn other fuels. The Defiant is approved for use in manufactured (mobile) homes only in the United States, and only when installed with Vermont Castings Mobile Home Kit No. 1900.
Installation or service of this woodburning stove should only be completed by a qualified installer, preferably NFI or
WETT (Canada) certified.
Please read this entire manual before you install and use your new stove. Failure to follow instructions may result in
property damage, bodily injury, or even death.
Save These Instructions for Future Reference
2
30001693
Defiant Woodburning Stove
The Story of the Defiant
No wood-burning appliance, save for Ben Franklin’s Pennsylvania Fireplace, has a stronger heritage than the Vermont Castings Defiant. Named for a 19th-century steamship, the original Vermont Castings Defiant Wood Stove came
to epitomize America’s resolve and independence during the Energy Crisis of the 1970s.
The year was 1975. With energy prices going through the roof, and not an attractive or efficient wood stove to be
found anywhere, two entrepreneurs set out to create a stove that was a thing of beauty as well as utility. Finely crafted
from cast iron, the Defiant was the first wood stove to combine an artistically designed exterior with a methodically
engineered interior, using new technologies for efficient combustion.
Americans purchased over a quarter-million Defiants, as they rediscovered the common sense of heating with wood,
a home-grown fuel with none of the political and economic entanglements of foreign oil.
Thirteen years later, in 1988, Vermont Castings ‘retired’ the Defiant, replacing it with modern wood-burners such as
the Encore.
With its 1998 return, the new Defiant incorporates all the finest aesthetic, convenience, and performance features to
be found on any wood stove. In a sense, the new Defiant has been 23 years in the making.
Due to its significant role in American history, the original model Defiant is in the permanent collection of the Smithsonian Institution. Each new purchase of the Defiant stove continues that history.
Table of Contents
Specifications ................................................. 4
Installation ...................................................... 5
Clearance Charts ......................................... 14
Assembly ...................................................... 18
Operation ...................................................... 19
Maintenance ................................................. 29
Appendix: Catalytic Combustor .................... 35
Appendix:
Chimney & Fireplace Hazards ............... 36
Parts Diagram .............................................. 37
Proposition 65 Warning: Fuels used in gas, woodburning or oil fired appliances, and the products of
combustion of such fuels, contain chemicals known to
the State of California to cause cancer, birth defects
and other reproductive harm.
California Health & Safety Code Sec. 25249.6
30001693
Installation Accessories
Warming Shelf
#1560 Classic
#1562 Sand
#1555 Biscuit
#1565 Bordeaux
#1556 Chestnut Brown #1566 Forest Green
#1557 Ebony
#1567 Midnight Blue
#1558 Vt. Classic Green #1568 Suede Brown
#1900 Mobile Home Kit
#1904 Outside Air Adapter
#1905 Bottom Heat Shield Kit
#1901 Rear Heat Shield Kit
#1907 Firescreen
#1860 6” x 12” Oval Starter Pipe
A line of porcelain enamel stove pipe is also available.
3
Defiant Woodburning Stove
Specifications
Defiant, Model 1945
EPA Emissions rating ........................................8 GPH*
Range of heat output ...........10,600 to 44,400 Btu’s/hr.*
Maximum heat output ........................ 55,000 Btu’s/hr.**
Area heated .........................Up to 2,400 Square feet***
Fuel Size/type ...................................22 - 24” hardwood
Fuel capacity ................................................ 50 pounds
Loading ....................................................... Front or top
Chimney Connector:
for 8” flue collar .................... 8” (200 mm) diameter
Chimney Flue Size:
with 8” Chimney Connector ..8” (200 mm) minimum
with 6” Chimney Connector ..6” (150 mm) minimum
Flue exit position ........................................ Top or Rear
Primary Air ... Manually set, thermostatically maintained
Secondary Air .........................................Self-regulating
Ash handling system ..................... Removable ash pan
Glass panels ........................ High-temperature ceramic
Weight ............................................... 480 lbs. (220 kg.)
Width (leg to leg) ..................................... 33” (826 mm)
Depth (leg to leg) .................................. 19¹⁄₂” (362 mm)
Height to top of flue collar ..................... 30¹⁄₂” (775 mm)
*Under specific conditions during EPA emissions testing.
** This value can vary depending on how the stove
is operated, the type and moisture content of the fuel
used, as well as the design, construction and climatic
location of your home. Figures shown are based on
maximum fuel consumption obtained under laboratory
conditions and on average efficiencies.
*** These values are based on operation in building
code-conforming homes under typical winter climate
conditions in New England. If your home is of nonstandard construction (e.g. unusually well insulated, not insulated, built underground, etc.) or if you live in a more
severe or more temperate climate, these figures may
not apply. Since so many variables affect performance
consult your Authorized Dealer to determine realistic
expectations for your home.
U.S. and foreign design and mechanical patents pending.
Drawing Not to Scale
21���"
(546mm)
18���"
(464mm)
23���"
(591mm)
3���"
(96mm)
21���"
(546mm)
DEFIANT
DEFIANT
29"
(737mm)
28���"
(724 mm)
30���"
(768mm)
C
L
25���"
(654mm)
19���"
(489mm)
31"
(788mm)
32���"
(826 mm)
19���"
(489mm)
1693
Fig. 1 Defiant dimensions.
1693
Defiant dimensions
1/02
4
30001693
Defiant Woodburning Stove
Installation
Before you begin an installation, be sure that:
• Your stove and chimney connector will be far
enough from combustible material to meet all clearance requirements.
• The floor protector is large enough and is constructed properly to meet all requirements.
• You have all necessary permits from local authorities.
Your local building official is the final authority for approving your installation as safe and determining that it
meets local and state codes.
The metal label permanently attached to the back of
every Vermont Castings’ stove indicates that the stove
has been tested to current UL and ULC standards, and
gives the name of the testing laboratory. Clearance
and installation information also is printed on the label.
When the stove is installed according to the information
both on the label and in this manual, local authorities
usually will accept the label as evidence that the installation meets codes and can be approved.
However, codes vary in different areas. Before starting
the installation, review your plans with the local building
authority. Your local dealer can provide any additional
information needed.
For any unresolved installation issues, refer to the
National Fire Protection Association’s publication
ANSI/NFPA 211 Standard for Chimneys, Fireplaces,
Vents and Solid Fuel Burning Appliances. For Canada,
the equivalent publication is CSA CAN-B365 Installation
Code for Solid Fuel Burning Appliances and Equipment.
These standards are the basis for many national codes.
They are nationally recognized and are accepted by
most local authorities. Your local dealer or your local
building official may have a copy of these regulations.
IMPORTANT: Failure to follow these installation
instructions may result in a dangerous situation, including a chimney or house fire. Follow all instructions exactly, and do not allow makeshift compromises to endanger property and personal safety.
30001693
Outside Air
In some modern, super-insulated homes, there is inadequate air supply for combustion because of insufficient
air infiltration into the building. Such air enters a home
through unsealed cracks and openings. Exhaust fans
for kitchen or bath can compete with the stove for available air and compound the problem.
When poor draft is caused by a low infiltration rate,
opening a ground floor window on the windward side of
the house and near the stove will usually alleviate the
problem.
A better solution is to install a permanent outside air
supply to the stove and/or room. In fact, bringing air
for combustion from outside the home directly to the
air inlet of the stove is required for new construction in
some areas.
Pressure variations within the house do not affect a
stove equipped with an outside air supply, and improved stove performance often results. An Outside Air
Adapter Kit for the Defiant is available from your local
dealer.
Chimney Height
Altitude affects chimney performance. When using an
8” oval to 6” flue collar adapter on the Defiant, refer
to Figure 1 for suggested chimney heights at various
altitudes. Chimney height should be measured from the
flue collar to the top of the chimney. The recommended
minimum chimney height is 16 feet (5 meters).
30
25
Height
SAFETY NOTICE: IF YOUR DEFIANT IS NOT PROPERLY INSTALLED, A HOUSE FIRE MAY RESULT.
TO REDUCE THE RISK OF FIRE, FOLLOW THE
INSTALLATION INSTRUCTIONS. CONTACT LOCAL
BUILDING OR FIRE OFFICIALS ABOUT RESTRICTIONS AND INSTALLATION INSPECTION REQUIREMENTS IN YOUR AREA.
20
15
0
ST491
2000
4000
6000
8000
10000
12000
Altitude
Fig. 2 Chimney height requirements with 6” chimney and/or
chimney connector.
ST491
Defiant
chimney height
11/2/00 djt
5
Defiant Woodburning Stove
What Kind of Chimney to Use
Masonry Chimneys
You must connect the Defiant to a code-approved
masonry chimney with a flue liner, to a relined masonry
chimney that meets local codes, or to a prefabricated
metal chimney that complies with the requirements
for Type HT chimneys in the Standard for Chimneys,
Factory-Built, Residential Type and Building Heating
Appliance, UL 103. Figure 3 illustrates the two types.
The chimney and chimney connector must be in good
condition and kept clean.
If you use an existing masonry chimney, it must be
inspected to ensure it is in a safe condition before
the stove is installed. Your local professional chimney
sweep, building inspector, or fire department official
will be able to inspect the chimney or provide a referral to someone who can. See “Chimney and Fireplace
hazards”, in the appendix, for particulars.
A prefabricated doublewall insulated chimney
An inspection of the chimney must confirm that it has
a lining. Do not use an unlined chimney. The chimney
should have no cracks, loose mortar, other signs of
deterioration, and blockage. Repair any defects before
the chimney is used with your stove.
Unused openings in an existing masonry chimney must
be sealed with masonry to the thickness of the chimney
wall, and the chimney liner should be repaired. Openings sealed with pie plates or wallpaper are a hazard
and should be sealed with mortar or refractory cement.
In the event of a chimney fire, flames and smoke may
be forced out of these unused thimbles.
The chimney should be thoroughly cleaned before use.
A newly-built masonry chimney must conform to the
standards of your local building code or, in the absence
of a local code, to a recognized national code. Masonry
chimneys must be lined, either with code-approved
masonry or pre-cast refractory tiles, stainless steel
pipe, or a code-approved, “poured-in-place” liner. The
chimney’s clean-out door must seal tightly. A loose or
leaky clean-out door can weaken chimney draft to the
stove, causing performance problems.
Prefabricated Chimneys
A prefabricated metal chimney must be one tested and
listed for use with solid-fuel burning appliances to the
High-Temperature (H.T.) Chimney Standard UL-1031985 (2100°F) for the United States, and High Temperature (650°C) Standard ULC S-629 for Canada.
A tile-lined
masonry
chimney
ST241
Fig. 3 Approved chimney types.
The chimney must extend at least 3’ (194 mm) above
the highest pint where it passes through or past a roof,
and at least 3’ (610 mm)
higher than any part of a buildST241
ing within 10’ (3 m)chimney
horizontally.
types (Fig. 4)
12/13/99 djt
For proper draft and good performance, any chimney
used with a Defiant should extend at least 16’ (5 m)
above the flue collar of the stove.
0 To 10'
2' Min.
3'
Min.
3'
Min.
AC617
Fig. 4 The 2’-3’10’ Chimney Rule.
6
AC617
RLTSKC8
2/11/98
Chimney Size
An Defiant with an 8” (203 mm) flue collar is approved
for venting into a masonry chimney with a nominal flue
size of 8” x 8” (203 x 203 mm) or 8” x 12” (203 x 305
mm), and into a round flue with nominal flue size of 8”
(203 mm). An Defiant with a 6” (152 mm) flue collar is
approved for venting into a masonry chimney with a
nominal flue size of 8” x 8” (203 x 203 mm), and into a
round flue with nominal flue of 6” (152 mm).
NOTE: When installed with a 6” flue collar, the Defiant may not be operated with the front doors open.
0 To 10'
2' Min.
Reference
Point
DO NOT CONNECT THIS UNIT TO A CHIMNEY FLUE
SERVING ANOTHER APPLIANCE.
Whatever the flue collar size, an Defiant may be vented
into larger chimneys as well. However, chimneys
with liners larger than 8” x 12” (203 x 305 mm) may
experience rapid cooling of smoke and reduction in
draft, especially if the chimneys are located outside the
home. These large chimneys may need to be insulated
or have their flues relined for proper stove performance.
30001693
Defiant Woodburning Stove
Accessories to help make the connection between
stainless steel chimney liners and your Defiant are
available through your local dealer.
Chimney Connector Guidelines
A chimney connector is the single-wall pipe that connects the stove to the chimney. The chimney itself is the
masonry or prefabricated structure that encloses the
flue. Chimney connectors are used only to connect the
stove to the chimney.
Single-wall connectors should be made of 24 gauge
or heavier steel. Do not use galvanized connector; it
cannot withstand the high temperatures that can be
reached by smoke and exhaust gases, and may release toxic fumes under high heat. The connector may
be 6” (152 mm) or 8 “ (203 mm) in diameter.
If possible, do not pass the chimney connector through
a combustible wall or ceiling. If passage through a combustible wall is unavoidable, refer to the section on Wall
Pass-Throughs. Do not pass the connector through an
attic, a closet or similar concealed space. The whole
connector should be exposed and accessible for inspection and cleaning.
In horizontal runs of chimney connector, maintain a distance of 24” (610 mm) from the ceiling. Keep it as short
and direct as possible, with no more than two 90° turns.
Slope horizontal runs of connector upward 1/4” per foot
(6mm per meter) going from the stove toward the chimney. The recommended maximum length of a horizontal
run is 3’ (1 m), and the total length should be no longer
than 8’ (2.4 m). In cathedral ceiling installations, extend
the prefabricated chimney downward to within 8’ (2.4
m) of the stove. This will help maintain a good draft by
keeping the smoke warm, so that it rises readily.
Wear gloves and protective eyewear when drilling, cutting or joining sections of chimney connector.
Single-wall Chimney Connectors
• Begin assembly at the flue collar of the stove. Insert
the first crimped end into the stove’s flue collar, and
keep each crimped end pointing toward the stove.
(Fig. 5) Using the holes in the flue collar as guides,
drill 1/8” (3mm) holes in the bottom of the first section of chimney connector and secure it to the flue
collar with three #10 x 1/2” sheet metal screws.
Lift off the griddle, and shield the stove’s surface
between the griddle opening and the front of the flue
collar to protect the finish when you drill the front
hole.
• Fasten each joint between sections of chimney
connector, including telescoping joints, with at least
three (3) sheet metal screws. The pre-drilled holes in
the top of each section of chimney connector serve
as guides when you drill 1/8” (3mm) holes in the bottom of the next section.
30001693
• Fasten the chimney connector to the chimney.
•
Instructions for various installations follow. Figure 5
illustrates the general layout of chimney connector
parts.
Be sure the installed stove and chimney connector
are correct distances from nearby combustible materials.
NOTE: Special slip
pipes and thimble
sleeves that form telescoping joints between
sections of chimney
connector are available to simplify installations. They often
eliminate the need to
cut individual connector sections. Consult
your local dealer about
these special pieces.
Toward
Stove
Flue Gas
Direction
ST242
Fig. 5 Chimney connector.
ST242
Securing the Single-wall
Connector
to a
Chimney connector
12/13/99 djt
Prefabricated Chimney
Follow the installation instructions of the chimney
manufacturer exactly as you install the chimney. The
manufacturer of the chimney will supply the accessories to support the chimney, either from the roof of
the house, at the ceiling of the room where the stove is
installed, or from an exterior wall.
Special adapters are available from your local dealer
to make the connection between the prefabricated
chimney and the chimney connector. The top of such
adapters attaches directly to the chimney or to the
chimney’s ceiling support package, while the bottom of
the adapter is screwed to the chimney connector.
These adapters are designed so the top end will fit outside the inner wall of the chimney, and the bottom end
will fit inside the first section of chimney connector.
Securing the Single-wall Connector to a
Masonry Chimney
Both freestanding masonry chimneys and fireplace masonry chimneys may be used for your installation.
Freestanding Installations
If the chimney connector must pass through a combustible wall to reach the chimney, follow the recommendations in the Wall Pass-Through section that follows.
The opening through the chimney wall to the flue
(the “breech”) must be lined with either a ceramic or
metal cylinder, called the “thimble”, which is cemented
securely in place. Most chimney breeches incorporate
thimbles, but the fit must be snug and the joint between
the thimble and the chimney wall must be cemented
firmly.
7
Defiant Woodburning Stove
Chimney
Flue
Elbow
Flue Inner
Without a thimble, a suitable length of chimney connector can be extended through the breech to the inner
face of the flue liner, and cemented securely in place.
Additional pieces of connector are then attached with
sheet metal screws.
Fireplace Installations
Slip Pipe
Standard
Connector
Oval to
Round Adapter
Thimble
The chimney connector may be connected to the
chimney above the fireplace opening or through the
fireplace.
Above the Fireplace
Flue Collar
ST492
The Defiant may be connected to a chimney above
a fireplace opening. (Fig. 8) In such installations, the
stove is positioned on the hearth in front of the fireplace
and the chimney connector rises from the stove top and
then angles ninety degrees back into the chimney. The
chimney liner should extend to the point at which the
chimney connector enters the chimney.
Fig. 6 An exploded view of the chimney connection in a freestanding masonry installation.
ST492
Defiant
A special piece called the
“thimble sleeve,” slightly
freestanding
smaller in diameter thaninstallation
standard connectors and
most thimbles, will facilitate
11/00the removal of the chimney
connector system for inspection and cleaning. (fig. 7)
Thimble sleeves should be available from your local
dealer.
Check These
Clearances
*
*
To install a thimble sleeve, slide it into the breech until
it is flush with the inner flue wall. Do not extend it into
the actual flue passage, as this could interfere with the
draft.
Mantel
The thimble sleeve should protrude 1-2” (25-50 mm)
into the room. Use furnace cement and thin gasketing
to seal the sleeve in place in the thimble. Secure the
chimney connector to the outer end of the sleeve with
sheet metal screws.
• • • ••••
Seal
This Off
ST244a
Fig. 8 In this installation, the chimney connector attaches to
the chimney above the fireplace opening.
Thimble Sleeve
Flue
Chimney Connector
Keep
sleeve
end flush
with flue
tile
If the chimney connector in your installation enters the
ST244
chimney above a fireplace,
follow all the guidelines
Plymouth
mentioned above forfplc
freestanding
over mantel installations. In addition, give special consideration
to the following points:
12/99
• Check the clearance between the stove and the
•
ST243
Fig. 7 The thimble, made of either ceramic or metal, must be
cemented securely in place.
8
ST243
thinble connection
12/13/99 djt
•
chimney connector, and any combustible trim or
the mantel.
Check the clearance between the chimney connector and the ceiling. The clearance should be at
least 24” (610 mm).
The fireplace damper must be sealed to prevent
room air from escaping up the flue. However, it
must be possible to re-open the damper to inspect
or clean the chimney.
30001693
Defiant Woodburning Stove
Through the Fireplace
If your fireplace opening height is at least 29" (737 mm),
you may install a Defiant through the opening using a
“positive connection” kit, available from your local dealer. Positive connection kits ensure a tight fit between
the stove flue collar and the chimney flue. (Fig. 9)
Figure 10 shows one NFPA-recommended method. All
combustible material in the wall is cut away from the
single-wall connector to provide the required 12” (305
mm) clearance. Any material used to close up the opening must be noncombustible.
Wall Stud
Fireplace installations, whether connected to the flue
above or through the fireplace opening, have special
clearance requirements to adjacent trim and the mantel.
You’ll find the required safe clearances for Defiant fireplace installations on Page 12.
Chimney
Connector
Floor protection requirements also apply to fireplace
installations. This information is on Page 10.
DE
FIA N
12” of
Noncombustible
Material
Flexible
Connector
Floor Protection
ST493
Fig. 10 An approved wall pass-through for the United States.
Mantel Shield
Fireplace Adapter
Kit “Positive
Connection”
Three other methods are also approved by the NFPA:
• Placing a section of chimney connector inside a
•
ST245
Fig. 9 Through the fireplace installation.
Wall Pass-Throughs
Whenever possible, design
ST245your installation so the connector does not pass fireplace
through a combustible wall. If you
connector in your installation,
are considering a wallflex
pass-through
12/99
check with your building
inspector before you begin.
Also, check with the chimney connector manufacturer
for any specific requirements.
Accessories are available for use as wall passthroughs. If using one of these, make sure it has been
tested and listed for use as a wall pass-through.
In the United States, the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) has established guidelines for passing
chimney connectors through combustible walls. Many
building code inspectors follow these guidelines when
approving installations.
30001693
•
ventilated thimble, which in turn is separated from
combustibles by 6” (152mm)
ST493 of fiberglass insulating
material.
Brick pass thru
11/00 connector inside a
Placing a section of chimney
section of 9” (230mm) diameter, solid-insulated,
factory-built chimney, with 2” (50mm) of air space
between the chimney section and combustibles.
Using a section of solid-insulated double-wall high
temperature chimney, with an inside diameter the
same as the chimney connector, at least one inch
of solid insulation, and a minimum of 9” (229 mm)
air space between the outer wall of the chimney
section and combustibles.
In Canada, The Canadian Standards Association has
established different guidelines for wall pass-throughs.
Figure 11 shows one method, in which all combustible
material in the wall is cut away to provide the required
18” (457mm) clearance for the connector. The resulting
space must remain empty. A flush-mounted sheet metal
cover may be used on one side only. If covers must be
used on both sides, each cover must be mounted on
noncombustible spacers at least 1” (25mm) clear of the
wall.
9
Defiant Woodburning Stove
Protection requirements vary somewhat between the
Untied States and Canada as follows:
18” (460mm) clearance between pipe and
sides/top/bottom of
opening
In U. S. installations the floor protector is required
under the stove and must extend at least 16” (not
including the ash lip) from the front of the stove (“F”,
Fig. 12), and at least 6” from the sides and rear. (“D”
and “E”, Fig. 12)
It must also extend under the chimney connector and
2” to either side. (“C”, Fig. 12) For the 8” (203 mm)
connector, the protector must be a minimum of 12”
(305 mm) wide. For the 6” (152 mm) connector, the
protector must be 10” (254 mm) wide. The protector
must be centered under the connector.
T
DE
FIA N
ST494
Fig. 11 An approved wall pass-through for Canada.
Your local dealer or your local building inspector can
provide details for other ST494
approved methods of passing
steel a combustible wall in your
a chimney connector through
wall pass thru
area. In Canada, this type
of installation must conform
11/00
to CAN/CSA-B365, Installation Code for Solid Fuel
Burning Appliances and Equipment.
To meet these requirements, a floor protector must be
at least 42” wide and 43” deep.
In Canada: A noncombustible floor protector is required
under the stove as well. The floor protector must
extend 18” (457 mm) to the front (“F”, Fig. 12), and 8”
(203 mm) from the sides and rear. (“D” and “E”, Fig. 12)
To meet these requirements, a floor protector must be
at least 46” (1168 mm) wide and 47” (1194 mm) deep.
C
NOTE: Do not vent your Defiant into a factory-built
(zero-clearance) fireplace. These appliances and their
chimneys are specifically designed as a unit for use as
fireplaces. It may void the listing or be hazardous to
adapt them for any other use.
DO NOT CONNECT THE DEFIANT TO ANY AIR DISTRIBUTION DUCT OR SYSTEM.
Floor Protection
A tremendous amount of heat radiates from the bottom
plate of your stove. The floor area directly under and
around the stove will require protection from radiant
heat as well as from stray sparks or embers that may
escape the firebox.
Heat protection is provided through the use of a Vermont Castings Bottom Heat Shield #1905. Spark and
ember protection must be provided by a floor protector
constructed with noncombustible material as specified.
Most installations will require the bottom heat shield be
attached. Only when the stove is placed on a completely noncombustible surface such as unpainted concrete
over earth may it be used without the heat shield.
Even when the bottom heat shield is installed, you must
provide special protection to the floor beneath. For
installations with the heat shield attached, use a noncombustible floor protector such as 1/4” nonasbestos
mineral board or equivalent, or 24 gauge sheet metal.
The floor protector may be covered with a noncombustible decorative material if desired. Do not obstruct the
space under the heater.
10
D
B
E
E
E
E
F
F
A
U.S.
A. 42”
B. 43”
C. 12”
10”
D. 6”
E. 6”
F. 16”
A
Canada
46” (1168 mm)
47” (1194 mm)
12” (305 mm) 8” Connector
ST500
10” (254 mm) 6” Connector
Defiant
8” (203 mm)
floor protection
8” (203
mm)
1/31/02
djt
18” (460 mm)
ST500
Fig. 12 Required floor protection dimensions.
Floor Protection for Fireplace Installation
Do not assume that your fireplace hearth is completely
noncombustible. Many fireplace hearths do not satisfy
the “completely noncombustible’ requirement because
the brick or concrete in front of the fireplace opening
is supported by heavy wood framing. Because heat
passes readily through brick or concrete, it can easily
pass through to the wood. As a result, such fireplace
hearths can be a fire hazard and are considered a combustible floor.
30001693
Defiant Woodburning Stove
For all fireplace installations, follow the floor protection guidelines described above. Keep in mind that
many raised hearths will extend less than the required
clearance from the front of the heater. In such cases,
sufficient floor protection as described above must be
added in front of the hearth to satisfy the minimum floor
protector requirement from the front of the stove: 16”
(410 mm) in the United States and 18” (460 mm) in
Canada. Hearth rugs do not satisfy the requirement for
floor protection as they are not fire proof.
Fireplace installations also have special clearance
requirements to the side walls, side decorative trim and
fireplace mantel. Refer to the information on fireplace
and mantel trim shields in this section.
Keep the Stove a Safe Distance from Surrounding Materials
Both a stove and its chimney connector radiate heat in
all directions when operating, and nearby combustible
materials can overheat dangerously if they are too
close to the heat source. A safe installation requires
that adequate clearance be maintained between the hot
stove and its connector and nearby combustibles.
Clearance is the distance between either your stove or
chimney connector, and nearby walls, floors, the ceiling,
and any other fixed combustible surface. The Defiant
has specific clearance requirements that have been
established after careful research and testing. These
clearance requirements must be strictly observed.
In addition, keep furnishings and other combustible
materials away from the stove. In general, a distance
of 48” (1220 mm) must be maintained between the
stove and moveable combustible items such as drying
clothes, furniture, newspapers, firewood, etc. Keeping those clearance areas empty assures that nearby
surfaces and objects will not overheat.
Safe Ways to Reduce Clearances
Clearance requirements are established to meet every
installation possibility, and they involve the combination
of these variables:
• When the stove has no listed heat shield mounted on it.
• When the wall has no heat shield mounted on it.
• When the wall has a heat shield mounted on it.
• When the wall and stove have heat shields.
In general, the greatest clearance is required when you
place a stove and its connector near a wall with no heat
shield.
For example, when the Defiant is installed parallel to
the rear wall and no shield is used, it must be at least
33” (815 mm) from the wall behind it and at least 24”
(610 mm) from walls on either side.
30001693
If the Defiant is installed in a corner and no shield is
used, the corners of the stove must be at least 23” (585
mm) from nearby walls.
Clearances may be reduced only by means approved
by the regulatory authority, and in accordance with the
clearances listed in this manual. Refer to Pages 10 - 13
for approved clearance reduction specifications.
Use only Vermont Castings Defiant Rear Heat Shield
#000-1901.
NOTE: Alcove installation of the Defiant is not
permitted.
Wall Shields
One way to reduce clearances is with a wall shield
constructed of 24 gauge or heavier sheet metal, or of
another noncombustible material such as 1/2” (13 mm)
insulation board such as Durock® or Wonderboard®, or
common brick “laid on flat,” with the 3¹⁄₂" (90 mm) side
down.
Shields must be spaced out from the combustible
surface 1" (25 mm) on noncombustible spacers, as in
Figure 13. The spacers should not be directly behind
the stove or chimney connector.
Air must be able to flow between the wall and the
shield. At least 50% of the bottom 1" (25 mm) of the
shield must be open, and the shield must be open at
the top. Metal screening across the top will keep small
stray objects from being trapped behind the shield. (Fig.
13)
The shield must be a minimum of 48" (1220 mm) tall,
and must extend at least 20¹⁄₂" (520 mm) higher than
the top of the stove, whichever is higher. The shield
behind the chimney connector must be 30" (760 mm)
wide, centered behind the pipe; for installations that use
an approved prefabricated chimney to pass through the
ceiling, the shield behind the chimney connector must
stop 1" (25 mm) below the ceiling.
Air Flow
Screen
Wall Shield
Stud Wall
Framing
Noncombustible Spacers
and Fasteners
Shield
Metal Spacer
Drywall
Air Flow
ST248
Fig. 13 Approved wall shield construction.
ST248
wall shield construction
12/14/99 djt
11
Defiant Woodburning Stove
Fireplace and Mantel Trim Shields
A fireplace installation requires special clearance
between the side of the stove and the right and left
walls, between the side of the stove and the decorative
side trim on the fireplace face, and between the top of
the stove and the mantel.
Noncombustible shields installed 1” (25 mm) away from
the combustible surface on noncombustible spacers,
called ventilated shields, may be used to reduce
clearances.
To protect a mantel from the heat of a stove in a
fireplace installation, use a custom-made ventilated
mantel shield that is at least 48” (1220 mm) long,
centered over the stove. (Fig. 14) Ventilated shields for
side trim must extend the full length of the trim.
A
C
C
ST253b
Fireplace and Mantel Trim Clearances
A. Mantel
B. Top Trim
C. Side Trim
Unprotected
Protected
39” (991 mm)
23” (584 mm)
ST253b
39” (991
mm)
23” (584 mm)
Encore
14” (356
mm)
6” (152 mm)
trim clearances
02/01 djt
Fig. 15 Maintain clearances to combustible components of
the mantelpiece.
1" (25mm)
1/4" (6mm)
B
ST501
Fig. 14 A custom-formed mantel shield.
An unprotected mantel (“A”, Fig. 15) cannot be more
than 9” (230 mm) deep and must have a minimum
clearance of 39” (991 mm), measured from the stove’s
ST501
top plate. With a ventilated
mantelshield,
and this clearance may
be reduced safely to 23”
trim(584
shieldmm).
11/10/00
djt 9” (230 mm) or
Unprotected top trim (B)
protruding
less from the face of the fireplace must be a minimum
of 39” (991 mm) from the stove’s top surface. With a
ventilated trim shield, this clearance may be reduced
safely to 23” (584 mm).
Unprotected side trim (C) that protrudes 2” (51 mm) or
less from the face of a fireplace must have a minimum
clearance of 14” (356 mm), measured from the stove’s
top side edge. With a ventilated trim shield, the
clearance may be reduced safely to 6” (152 mm). If the
trim extends more than 2” (51 mm), it is subject to the
requirements for wall clearance.
The charts and sample installations that follow list all
the clearances required for the various installation
configurations of the Defiant.
12
30001693
Defiant Woodburning Stove
Defiant Clearance Chart
for use with either a 6” or 8” chimney connection
Stove Clearance
Unprotected Surfaces
Protected Surfaces
Stove Installed
Parallel to Wall
Stove
in
Corner
Side
Rear
Corners
Side
No stove
heat shields
(A) 24”
(610 mm)
(B) 33”
(840 mm)
(C) 23”
(585 mm)
(D) 14”
(355 mm)
(E) 28”
(710 mm)
(F) 18”
(460 mm)
Stove, top exit with rear
heat shield, no connector
heat shields
(G) 24”
(610 mm)
(H) 21”
(533 mm)
(I) 17”
(430 mm)
(J) 14”
(355 mm)
(K) 17”
(430 mm)
(L) 12”
(305 mm)
Stove, top exit with rear
heat shield, and heat
shields on connector
(M) 24”
(610 mm)
(N) 17”
(430 mm)
(O) 17”
(430 mm)
(P) 14”
(355 mm)
(Q) 17”
(430 mm)
(R) 12”
(305 mm)
Stove, top exit with rear
heat shield, and doublewall chimney connector*
Stove, rear exit with rear
heat shield only
(S) 24”
(610 mm)
(Y) 27”
(686 mm)
(T) 17”
(430 mm)
(Z) 24”
(610 mm)
(U) 17”
(430 mm)
N/A
Stove Installed
Parallel to Wall
Rear
(V) 14”
(355 mm)
(AA) 17”
(430 mm)
(W) 15”
(380 mm)
(BB) 20”
(508 mm)
Stove
in
Corner
Corners
(X) 12”
(305 mm)
N/A
Chimney Connector Clearance
Unprotected Vertical Surfaces
Protected Vertical Surfaces
Single-wall connector
30” (760 mm)
25” (635 mm)
Single-wall connector;
rear heat shield on
stove only
18” (460 mm)
14” (355 mm)
Single-wall connector
with shields, and rear heat
shield on stove
14” (355 mm)
14” (355 mm)
14” (355 mm)
12” (305 mm)
Double-wall chimney connector
Single-wall connector
Unprotected or Protected Ceiling Surfaces
24” (610 mm)
Clearance to Combustibles in Front of Stove
All Installations
48” (1220 mm)
* Using a listed double wall oval to round connector.
30001693
13
Defiant Woodburning Stove
Defiant Clearance Diagrams
for use with either a 6” or 8” chimney connection
Unprotected Surfaces
Stove Installed
Parallel to Wall
Protected Surfaces
Stove in Corner
Stove Installed Parallel
to Wall
Stove in Corner
Top Exit Installations, no heat shields
C
B
A
F
E
D
C
F
Top Exit Installations, heat shield on stove, no shields on single-wall connector
I
H
G
L
K
J
I
L
Top Exit Installations, heat shield on stove, heat shields on single-wall connector
O
N
M
R
Q
P
O
R
Top Exit Installations, heat shield on stove, double-wall chimney connector
U
T
S
X
W
V
U
X
Rear Exit Installations, rear heat shields
Z
BB
N/A
N/A
Y
AA
14
ST486a
30001693
ST486a
Defiant
Clearance
Defiant Woodburning Stove
48"
(1220mm)
48"
(1220mm)
48"
(1220mm)
48"
(1220mm)
48"
(1220mm)
48"
(1220mm)
48"
(1220mm)
48"
(1220mm)
ST499
ST497
Fig. 16 Parallel installation, vertical chimney connector, two
wall shields. Reduced clearances for both rear and side walls.
Wall shields may meet at corner if desired. Shielding for connector is centered behind connector.
Fig. 18 Corner installation, vertical chimney connector, two
wall shields. Reduced side clearances. Wall shield MUST
meet at corner.
ST499
Stove
Heat Shields
Defiant
Wall Shield C
The Vermont Castings11/00
Defiant Rear Heat Shield, shown
below, is one way to reduce the clearance to the rear
wall. The rear heat shield can be installed in any setting. However, since the chimney connector also radiates heat toward the wall, you must use a chimney connector shield whenever you use the rear heat shield.
ST497
Defiant
wall shield A
11/00
48"
(1220mm)
48"
(1220mm)
Clearance reductions with the rear heat shield apply
only to the wall to the rear in parallel installations. Neither the side clearance requirement nor the clearance
requirement in corner installations may be reduced.
48"
(1220mm)
Flue Collar Heat
Shield
ST498
Fig. 17 Parallel installation with rear wall pass-through, two
wall shields. Reduced clearances to both rear and side walls.
Wall shields may meet at corner if desired. Wall pass-through
ST498
must comply with codes. Defiant
Wall shield B
Refer to “Special Installations.”
Rear Heat
Shield
Bend
11/00
Spacers
Truss Head
Phillips Screws
KT287
Fig. 19 Defiant rear heat shield with flue collar heat shield for
top exit configuration.
30001693
15
Defiant Woodburning Stove
Distance from the Center of the Flue Collar to the Wall
The information on this page is helpful in planning stove placement, particularly in those installations with
chimneys that pass through the ceiling. However, this is not a clearance chart. Final stove clearances must
adhere to the guidelines in the clearance chart on Page 12.
Note that rear dimensions differ for installations with 6” or 8” chimney connectors.
Defiant with No Stove or Connector Heat Shields
Unprotected Surfaces
Parallel Installations
Corner
Installations
Side (A)
Rear (B)
Corner (C)
6”chimney:
39¹⁄₂” (1003 mm)
33” (838 mm)
34” (864 mm)
8” chimney:
34” (864 mm)
Protected Surfaces
Parallel Installations
Side (D)
29¹⁄₂” (749 mm)
Rear (E)
6” chimney:
28” (711 mm)
8” chimney:
29” (737 mm)
Corner
Installations
Corner (F)
29” (737 mm)
Defiant with Rear Heat Shield Only
Unprotected Surfaces
Parallel Installations
Corner
Installations
Side (A)
Rear (B)
Corner (C)
6”chimney:
39¹⁄₂” (1003 mm)
21” (533 mm)
28” (710 mm)
8” chimney:
22” (559 mm)
Protected Surfaces
Parallel Installations
Side (D)
29¹⁄₂” (749 mm)
Rear (E)
6” chimney:
17” (432 mm)
8” chimney:
18” (457 mm)
Corner
Installations
Corner (F)
23” (584 mm)
Defiant With Rear Heat Shield and Shielded Connector:
Side (A)
Rear (B)
Corner (C)
Side (D)
Rear (E)
Corner (F)
39¹⁄₂” (1003mm)
6” chimney:
17” (432 mm)
8” chimney:
18” (457 mm)
28” (710 mm)
29¹⁄₂” (749 mm)
6” chimney:
17” (432 mm)
8” chimney:
18” (457 mm)
23” (584 mm)
Defiant With Rear Heat Shield and Double-wall Connector:
Side (A)
Rear (B)
Corner (C)
Side (D)
Rear (E)
Corner (F)
39¹⁄₂” (1003mm)
6” chimney:
17” (432 mm)
8” chimney:
18” (457 mm)
28” (710 mm)
29¹⁄₂” (749 mm)
6” chimney:
15” (381 mm)
8” chimney:
16” (406 mm)
23” (584 mm)
A
B
*
D
C
E
F
*
* This distance, from the center of the flue collar to the front edge of the hearth, is the same for all installations on this
page: 34” (865 mm) in the United States and 36” (914 mm) in Canada.
16
30001693
ST511
Defiant Woodburning Stove
Assembly
Set Up Your Stove
Storing the Handle
Cast iron stoves are heavy, and it will take two to four
people to move your Defiant into position.
Wipe the protective coating of oil from the griddle with a
clean dry rag or a paper towel.
Use the removable handle to open or close the doors.
After using it, remove the handle so it will not get hot.
Store the handle in the handle holder installed behind
the right front leg. (Fig. 22)
Install the handle on the griddle. Slip the bolt through a
washer, a nylon bushing, then through the handle and
the other bushing, then through the steel spacer and
into the griddle tab. (Fig. 20) Tighten securely.
Bottom Heat Shield
Door Handle Holder
Spacer
Bushings
Leg Bolt and Washer
Knob
ST564
Fig. 22 Handle holder and heat shield positions.
Washer
Install the Optional
Bottom Heat Shield
ST564
Bolt
ST536
Fig. 20 Attach the griddle handle.
ST536
Install
Stove Legs
Attach
The stove is shipped with
the legs
attached. In some
griddle
handle
instances, the legs may
have
been
removed. Fol11/00
low these instructions to reattach the legs. Install the
stove legs (Fig. 21) using the hex head bolts from the
parts bag. Use 3/8” washers with all four legs; the door
handle holder installs on the right front leg. Position the
holder so the hole to accept the handle hub faces out
from the right side of the stove. Tighten the bolts firmly.
NOTE: The Bottom Heathandle
Shield is required
holderin most
installations. Refer to Floor Protection, Page 10, for
12/13/00
further details.
1. Remove the four 10-24 x 1/2” hex head bolts from
the corners
ant of the ash drop on the stove bottom.
Defi
2. Screw the four 1¹⁄₄" spacers into the holes from
which you removed the bolts, finger-tight.
3. Align the bottom heat shield against the spacers with
the stepped side toward the rear of the stove.
4. Secure the shield with the four hex head bolts
removed from the stove bottom previously. Tighten
securely. (Fig. 23)
CAUTION: Overtightening can strip tapped threads.
NOTE: When moving the stove, lift the stove to take
weight off the legs whenever possible. Dragging or
sliding the stove, especially across rough surfaces can
cause the legs to loosen or even break.
Spacers
ST537
Fig. 23 Attach the optional bottom heat shield.
Leg Bolt and
Washer
ST858
Fig. 21 Attach the stove legs.
30001693
�����
�����������
�����
ST537
Attach
Bottom Heat
Shield
11/00
17
Defiant Woodburning Stove
Install the Optional Ash Door Heat Shield
1. Remove the two Phillips pan head screws from the
ash door.
2. Insert the screws through the ash door heat shield
(from the painted side), place the 5/16” spacers over
the screws, and carefully thread them back into the
original holes. (Fig. 24) The curved lip should be
upward, under the ashlip of the stove.
3. Tighten securely.
IANT
DEF
ST539
Fig. 25 Attach the thermostat handle.
ST539
attach
thermostat
handle
11/00
Spacers
ST538
Fig. 24 Install the ashdoor heat shield.
ST540
Fig. 26 Assemble the front door handle.
Adjust theST539
Leg Levellers
Operation
Attach
Lift the stove slightly so there
is no weight on the leg
ash door
while making the adjustment.
heat shield
Reverse
11/00
ST540
The Defiant
Assembly Controls
the Flue Collar (If Necessary)
Reverse the flue collar by removing the two screws that
attach it to the back of the stove. Be sure the gasket
around the flue collar opening is in position when you
screw the collar back onto the stove.
handle
Two controls regulate
the performance of the Defiant: a
primary air control11/00
supplies oxygen for the fire, and a
damper directs air flow within the stove to activate and
deactivate the catalytic combustor. (Fig. 27)
Attach the Damper Handle
Symbols cast into the stove are reminders of the correct directions for using the controls. ‘Left’ and ‘right’ in
these directions mean as you face the stove.
Use the 1/4” -20 x 3” screw to attach the damper
handle to the damper stub on the left side.
Attach the Primary Air Thermostat Handle
The primary air thermostat handle is the smaller of the
two black handles. Secure the handle to the stub on
the right side of the stove with an 8-32 x 2” slot head
machine screw. (Fig. 25)
Damper
Handle
Griddle Handle
Air
Control
Lever
Andiron
Assemble the Removable Insert Handle
The ceramic removable insert handle opens and closes
the front doors. Remove after each use, and store it in
the handle holder behind the right front leg. Assemble
the handle by passing the 3³⁄₈" screw through the
ceramic shaft and into the bright metal nub. (Fig. 26)
Tighten carefully until snug.
Door Handle
Door Handle
Holder
(Behind
Leg)
Ash Door Handle
ST541
Fig. 27 The Defiant’s controls are conveniently located and
easy to operate.
18
ST541
Defiant
front view
controls
11/00
30001693
Defiant Woodburning Stove
A Single Air Control Regulates
Heat Output and Burn Time
The primary air control lever, on the right side of the
stove, controls the amount of incoming air for starting,
maintaining, and reviving a fire.
More air entering the stove makes the fire burn hotter
and faster, while less air prolongs the burn at a lower
heat output level. (Fig. 28)
The damper is closed when the handle points forward.
Smoke travels through the catalytic combustion system
where it can be further burned, before passing up the
chimney. (Fig. 29)
The damper is either fully open or fully closed.
There are no intermediate positions. When closing
the damper, be sure to pull firmly enough to snap
the handle into the locked position.
Damper Positions
For the greatest air supply and maximum heat output
(but the shortest burn time), move the lever toward the
front of the stove. For a fire that will last longer with
less heat, move the lever toward the rear of the stove.
The Defiant’s air control system includes an automatic
thermostat to ensure an even heat output at whatever
manual setting you select. The thermostat senses the
heating and cooling of the stove surface and adjusts
the air valve accordingly.
ST543
Closed
(Catalytic Mode)
Open
(Updraft Mode)
Fig. 29 The Defiant’s damper operating positions.
Two Ways to Add Fuel
Air Control Positions
Low Heat
Range
D E F I�A
��N
����T
D E F I�A
��N
����T
D�E� F� I� �
A�N�T
The Defiant’s griddle lifts
for convenient top-loading of
ST543
logs, and is the easiest Damper
way to add fuel. (Fig. 30)
positions
11/00
Def
iant
Medium Heat
Range
D�E� F� I� �
A�N�T
ST521
Fig. 30 Top loading is the best way to add fuel during regular
use. Front loading
is useful for kindling a fire.
ST521
High Heat
Range
D�E� F� I� �
A�N�T
ST542
Fig. 28 The handle also may be positioned anywhere between the two extremes for different heat levels.
ST541
A Damper Directs
Air Flow
thermostat
Within thesettings
Stove
11/00
The damper handle on the left
side of the stove operates the damper to direct air flow within the stove.
The damper is open when the handle points to the
rear, enabling smoke to pass directly into the chimney.
The damper must be open when starting or reviving a
fire, and whenever the griddle or doors are opened.
30001693
Intrepid
However, the front
doors open as well for adding an
occasional log loading
to a fire. If the stove is equipped with 8”
(203 mm) stove11/00
pipe, the front doors may be opened
(or even removed) and the optional Defiant spark
screen placed in the opening for open-fire viewing. The
Defiant is not approved for operation with the front
doors open if equipped with a 6” (152 mm) chimney
connector.
To open the front doors, insert the handle into the door
latch stub and turn it to the left and up. (Fig. 31)
To close them, always close the left door first. Turn the
handle in the right door to the left and up (to the open
position) and close it. Finally, push on the door as you
turn the handle to the right and down. The doors will
draw in slightly, and the handle should offer some resistance as you turn it to the closed position.
19
Defiant Woodburning Stove
Burn Only High-Quality Wood
Clockwise to
Open
The Defiant is designed to burn natural wood only; do
not burn fuels other than that for which it was designed.
Counterclockwise
to Close
ST544
Fig. 31 To open the front doors, turn the handle clockwise.
To reduce the risk of breaking the glass, avoid striking
the glass or slamming the doors.
When you’re not using the door handle, store it in the
holder behind the left front leg of the stove. Be careful
to not drop the handle, since it is breakable.
WARNING: Fireplace stoves equipped with doors
should be operated only with doors fully open or
doors fully closed. If doors are left partly open, gas
and flame may be drawn out of the fireplace stove
ST544
opening, creating risks from both fire and smoke.
open
The Defiant may be used as door
a fireplace
with the
front doors open or removed,
BUT only when it
11/00
is equipped with 8” (203mm) stove pipe and only
when the optional spark screen is placed correctly
in the opening to protect against the possibility of
sparks and embers leaving the stove.
Use only the Defiant spark screen, Item #1907, with
your Defiant.
You’ll enjoy the best results when burning wood that
has been adequately air-dried. The wood should be
22-24” (559-610 mm) in length. Avoid burning “green”
wood that has not been properly seasoned. Do not
burn construction materials; they often contain
chemicals and metals that can damage the catalytic
combustor or pollute the air. Do not burn ocean driftwood; when it burns, the salt it absorbs will attack the
cast iron.
The best hardwood fuels include oak, maple, beech,
ash, and hickory that has been split, stacked, and airdried outside under cover for at least one year.
If hardwood is not available, you can burn softwoods
that include tamarack, yellow pine, white pine, Eastern red cedar, fir, and redwood. These should also be
properly dried.
Store wood under cover to keep it dry. The longer it is
stored, the better heating and fire-viewing performance
you will enjoy. Even for short-term storage, however,
keep wood a safe distance from the heater and keep
it out of the areas around the heater used for refueling
and ash removal.
A Surface Thermometer is a Valuable
Guide to Operation
An optional surface thermometer tells you when to adjust the air control, and when to refuel. (Fig. 32)
Defiant spark screens are available from your Vermont Castings Dealer.
Infra-Red Reflective Glass Panels
for Clear Fire Viewing
The outer surfaces of the ceramic glass panels have
an infrared-reflective coating which keeps the inner
surfaces warm. This design, along with a pre-heated
‘airwash,’ makes clear fire viewing possible at most firing levels.
Andirons Help Protect the Glass
Your stove has andirons to keep logs away from the
glass panels. The andirons are essential to maintain
clear fireviewing, and should be left permanently in
place. Since the andirons may slightly hinder refueling
through the front doors, most stove owners will prefer
the convenience of top loading through the griddle. Do
not place fuel between the andirons and the doors.
20
ST523
Fig. 32 Take temperature readings with a thermometer located in the middle of the griddle.
For example, when the thermometer registers at least
450°F. (230°C) after start-up you know that the stove
is hot enough to begin catalytic combustion and that it
may be time to close the damper. Note that the stove
will warm up much sooner than the chimney, though; a
warm chimney is the key to easy, effective stove operation. Please review the draft management information
on Page 26 to see how the size, type, and location of
your chimney will affect your stove operation. When
thermometer readings drop below 350°F. (175°C) it’s
time to adjust the air control for a higher burn rate or to
reload the stove. A temperature reading over 750°F.
(385°C) is a sign to cut back on the air supply to slow
the burn rate.
ST523
Intrepid
temp readings
30001693
11/00
Defiant Woodburning Stove
Use the following temperature ranges as a guide:
• Readings in the 350°-500°F. (175°-260°C) range
•
•
indicate low to medium heat output.
500°-600°F. (260°-315°C) readings indicate medium
heat output.
Readings of 600°-750°F. (315-385°C) indicate high
heat output. Operating your Defiant continuously
at griddle temperatures of 750° F. (385°C) or higher
may damage the cast iron or enamel finish.
Use the Air Control Settings
that Work Best for You
Most installations do not require a large amount of
combustion air, especially if adequate draft is available.
Do not for any reason attempt to increase the firing
of your heater by altering the air control adjustment
range outlined in these directions.
Use the following air control settings as a starting point
to help determine the best settings for your installation.
Each is described as a fraction of the total distance the
lever may be moved from right to left.
Defiant Control Settings
(Refer to Figure 27, Page 19)
No single air control setting will fit every situation. Each
installation will differ depending on the quality of the
fuel, the amount of heat desired, and how long you wish
the fire to burn; outdoor air temperature and pressure
also affect draft.
Burn Rate
Low
The control setting also depends on your particular
installation’s “draft,” or the force that moves air from the
stove up through the chimney. Draft is affected by such
things as the length, type, and location of the chimney,
local geography, nearby obstructions, and other factors.
See Page 26 for details on how the installation affects
performance.
High
Too much draft may cause excessive temperatures in
the Defiant, and could even damage the combustor.
On the other hand, too little draft can cause backpuffing
into the room and/or the “plugging” of the chimney or
combustor.
How do you know if your draft is excessively high or
low? Symptoms of too much draft include an uncontrollable burn or a glowing-red stove part. Signs of weak
draft are smoke leaking into the room through the stove
or chimney connector joints, low heat, and dirty glass.
In some newer homes that are well-insulated and
weather-tight, poor draft may result from insufficient air
in the house. In such instances, an open window near
the stove on the windward side of the house will provide
the fresh air needed.
Another option for getting more combustion air to the
stove is to duct air directly from the outside to the stove.
In some areas provisions for outside combustion air are
required in all new construction.
With an optional outside air adapter, No. 1904, your
Defiant will accept a duct to deliver outside air for combustion.
When first using the stove, keep track of the air control
settings. You will quickly find that a specific setting will
give you a fixed amount of heat. It may take a week or
two to determine the amount of heat and the length of
burn you should expect from various settings.
30001693
Medium
Primary Air Control
From far right to 1/3 the distance
to left
From 1/3 to 2/3 the distance
to left
From 2/3 the distance
to left, to far left
High-Efficiency Wood Burning
with Catalytic Combustion
A Defiant leaves the factory with the combustor installed.
In the United States, it is against the law to operate this
wood heater in a manner inconsistent with operating
instructions in this manual, or if the catalytic combustor
is deactivated or removed. The components of the catalytic combustion system in your Defiant work together to
produce optimum conditions for secondary combustion.
When the damper is closed, smoke travels through
the catalytic element, which causes ignition of smoke
at temperatures of 500°-600° F (260°-315°C), half the
temperature normally required for unaided secondary
combustion.
The catalytic element is a ceramic “honeycomb” coated
with the catalytic material. The element is located in the
secondary combustion chamber, molded from a special
high-temperature insulating refractory material. The
chamber provides the correct environment necessary
for secondary combustion of the fuel (smoke).
Closing the damper exposes the smoke to the combustor. If the combustor is at least 600°F (315°C), it will
begin to burn the smoke.
Closing the stove damper may also reduce the draft, so
to avoid putting out the fire or deactivating the combustor, close the damper only when a fire is well-established and the chimney is thoroughly warmed. When
starting a fire, wait until the fire is well established and
there is an ember bed of at least 3-4 inches before closing the damper.
21
Defiant Woodburning Stove
Never kindle a fire with colored paper or paper that
has colored ink or a glossy surface, and never burn
treated wood, garbage, solvents, or trash. All of these
may poison the catalyst and prevent it from operating
properly. Never burn cardboard or loose paper except
for kindling purposes. Never burn coal; doing so can
produce soot or large flakes of char or fly ash that can
coat the combustor and cause smoke to spill into the
room. Coal smoke also can poison the catalyst so that it
won’t operate properly.
In general, the fire must be sufficiently well-established
to ensure that catalytic activity is initiated. When first
starting a fire, a medium- to high- firing rate must be
maintained until the stove, catalyst, and fuel are all
stabilized at the proper operating temperatures, and the
chimney is warmed.
Do not use chemicals or fluids to start the fire. Do
not burn garbage or flammable fluids such as gasoline, naphtha, or engine oil.
1. Open the stove damper, and open the primary air
control fully.
2. Place several sheets of crumpled newspaper in the
stove. Do NOT use glossy advertisements or colored
paper, as they can poison the catalyst. Place on the
paper six or eight pieces of dry kindling split to a fingerwidth size, and on the kindling lay two or three larger
sticks of split dry wood approximately 1-2” (25-50 mm)
in diameter. (Fig. 33)
Even though it is possible for the fire to get quite hot
within a few minutes after a fire is started, the combustor may stop working or the fire may go out if the fire
dies down immediately as a result of the damper being
closed. Once the combustor starts working, heat generated by burning the smoke will keep it working.
To determine whether the combustor is operating, observe the amount of smoke leaving the chimney when
the damper is activated and when it is not. This procedure is described on Page 30.
Avoid using a full load of very dry wood in the firebox.
This may result in continuous very high temperatures
in the secondary combustion area and damage the
combustor. Wood which has been split, and stored under cover for more than 18 months may be considered
very dry. If you must burn extra-dry wood, mix it with
greener wood for a longer fire and less stress on the
combustor. Also, do not use a full load of dry slab wood
or scrap wood. For long burns, use a mix of dry and
moderately dry wood.
Conditioning Your Stove
Cast iron is extremely strong, but it can be broken with
a sharp blow from a hammer or from the thermal shock
of rapid and extreme temperature change.
The cast plates expand and contract with changes in
temperature. When you first begin using your Defiant,
minimize thermal stress by letting the plates adjust
gradually during three or four initial break-in fires following Steps 1-3 below.
Starting and Maintaining a Wood Fire
Burn only solid wood in the Defiant, and burn it directly
on the grate. Do not elevate the fuel. Do not burn coal
or other fuels.
The damper must be open when starting a fire or when
refueling.
22
ST263
Fig. 33 Start the fire with newspaper and dry kindling.
Also, never use gasoline-type lantern fuel, kerosene,
charcoal lighter fluid, or similar liquids to start or “freshen up” a fire. Keep all such liquids well away from the
Defiant while it isST263
in use.
startingand
a fire
3. Light the newspaper
close the door. Gradually
build up the fire by
adding a few 3-5” (80-120 mm) di12/99
ameter splits. If this is one of the first few “break-in”
fires, let the fire burn brightly, and then let it die out.
During the break-in fires, do not let the stove get hotter
than 500°F. (260°C) as measured on an optional stovetop thermometer. Adjust the air control lever as necessary to control the fire.
Some odor from the stove’s hot metal, the paint, and
the cement is normal for the first few fires.
NOTE: Some chimneys must be “primed,” or warmed
up, before they will draw sufficiently to start a fire. To
correct this situation, roll up a couple pieces of newspaper, place them on top of the kindling and toward
the back of the stove, light them, and close the doors.
This will encourage the smoke to rise rapidly, making it
easier to establish a good draft.
Once the draft is established, open the front door and
light the rest of the fuel from the bottom. Do not light
the main bed of fuel until the chimney begins drawing,
and repeat the procedure as often as necessary if the
initial attempt is unsuccessful.
30001693
Defiant Woodburning Stove
4. If your Defiant has been broken-in previously using Steps 1-3, continue to build the fire gradually. Add
larger wood with a diameter of 3-4” (75-100 mm). Continue adding split logs of this size to the briskly-burning
fire until there is a glowing ember bed at least 3” (75
mm) deep. (Fig. 34) A good ember bed is necessary for
proper functioning of the catalytic system and may take
an hour or more to establish.
ST264
Fig. 34 Add larger pieces of wood as the fire begins to burn
well.
5. Close the damper when the griddle temperature
reaches 450°F (230°C).
6. Adjust the airST264
control for your desired heat output.
NOTE: Stove installations
good firevary widely, and the operating guidance given
here is only a starting point . The
12/99
draft management information on Page 26 will explain
in detail how the features of your installation may help
or hinder good draft, and how you may need to vary
your firing technique if your installation doesn’t encourage a good draft.
Do not break the charcoal into very small pieces or
pound or compress the charcoal bed.
It is important that air can circulate through the charcoal
bed during the burn. Larger pieces of charcoal allow
more air to circulate under the wood, resulting in the
fire reviving more quickly. (Fig. 35)
For best results when refueling, wear long-cuffed stove
gloves to protect your hands and forearms, add fuel
while the stove still has plenty of glowing embers to
re-kindle the fire, and include some smaller pieces of
wood in the new fuel load to help the stove regain its
operating temperature quickly. Use this sequence as a
guide to successful refueling:
1. Open the damper.
2. De-ash the stove as described above. Open the
ashdoor and check the level of ash in the ash pan.
Empty the pan if necessary and replace it in the
stove. Close the ash door.
3. Open the griddle, load the wood (smaller pieces
first), and close the griddle.
4. Close the damper.
5. When the surface temperature reaches 450°F.
(230°C), adjust the air control for the amount of heat
you desire.
NOTE: If the remaining charcoal bed is relatively thick
and if your fuel is well seasoned, it is possible to add
fresh fuel (smaller pieces first), close the door and
damper, and reset the primary air thermostat for the
desired heat output.
WARNING: Operate your Defiant only with the
doors either fully open or fully closed.
CAUTION: The Defiant will be hot while in operation. Keep children, clothing and furniture away.
Contact may cause skin burns.
DO NOT OVERFIRE THIS HEATER. Overfiring may
cause a house fire, or can result in permanent damage to the stove and to the catalytic combustor. If any
part of the Defiant other than the baffle and/or catalytic
combustor glows, you are overfiring.
ST264a
Fig. 35 Add full size logs after the ember bed is 3” (75mm)
deep.
Refuel While the Embers Are Still Hot
When reloading, best results will be achieved if you first
ST264a
de-ash the stove by stirring the fuel bed to allow ash to
addinto
wood
firepan.
fall through the grate
the ash
11/00
30001693
The throat is made of a special cast iron which can
withstand higher temperatures than most other parts
of your stove. It protects the catalytic element from
direct flame impingement, which can shorten the
catalyst’s life. Since the throat is in the direct path of
flame between the firebox and the catalyst, it reaches
higher temperatures than other firebox parts, and it may
glow at times. If it does glow, you will see this directly
through the front doors. The glow is normal and does
not indicate a problem.
At times you may see a glow from the catalyst shining
through the ports of the throat. This is also normal and
does not indicate a problem. The catalytic element,
23
Defiant Woodburning Stove
located below and behind the throat, can glow at high
temperatures. This is also normal. However, the element can be active and operate properly without glowing. The lack of a glow does not indicate that the catalyst isn’t working. Note that the catalyst is most likely to
glow at its higher temperatures, which it reaches when
the firebox is in its lower range - the catalyst is an afterburner, and the more waste fuel there is in the smoke,
the hotter the catalyst gets.
We strongly advise the use of a stove-top thermometer
as a guide to stove performance. Normal operating
temperatures are between 450°F (220°C) and 700°F
(370°C). Lower temperatures can indicate incomplete
combustion and weak draft; higher temperatures can
shorten the life of the castings.
Ash Disposal
Routine ash removal is important for ease of maintenance, and is important for the stove’s durability.
Remove ash before it reaches the top of the ash pan.
Check the level at least once a day. Every few days,
clear any ash from the outer edges of the firebox. Most
of the ash will fall through the grate. Slice or stir the
ash with a shovel or poker so that it falls through the
grate slots.
IMPORTANT: Check the level of ash in the ash pan
before reloading the stove. If the ash level is close to
the top edge of the pan, empty the pan according to this
procedure:
• Open the damper.
• Open the griddle or front doors, and use a shovel or
•
•
poker to stir excess ash through the ash slots in the
grate down into the ash pan.
Close the griddle or doors, and unlatch the ash door.
(Fig. 36) It will pivot, swinging the ash pan out of the
stove.
Slide the cover onto the pan, making sure it is securely closed. (Fig. 37)
ST566
Fig. 37 Be sure the cover is securely attached before removing the ash pan.
• Remove the ash pan, making sure to keep it level.
ST566
• To keep the cover from
sliding off and to keep ash
from falling on the Remove
floor, do not tilt the ash pan forAshpan
ward.
12/00 close the ash door while
• If the stove is in operation,
disposing of the ash. You may need to lift the latch
end of the door slightly to align the latch with the
mating part on the stove bottom.
• Properly dispose of the ash in a metal container with
a tight-fitting lid. Store the container outdoors away
from all combustible material.
• Return the ash pan to its original position in the
stove, and close and latch the ash door. (Fig. 37)
• Do not operate the stove with the ash door open.
This will result in over-firing, and could cause damage to the stove, void the warranty, or even lead to a
house fire.
Empty the ash pan regularly, typically every one to
three days. The frequency will vary depending on how
you operate your Defiant: ash will accumulate faster at
higher heat outputs.
Remove ash frequently and place it outdoors in a
metal container with a tight-fitting lid. Place the closed
container of ash on a noncombustible floor or on the
ground, well away from all combustible materials, pending final disposal. If the ash is disposed of by burial in
soil or otherwise locally dispersed, it should be kept in
the closed container until all cinders have thoroughly
cooled.
You can use wood ash as a garden fertilizer.
Open
CAUTION: Never use your household or shop vacuum
cleaner to remove ash from the stove; always remove
and dispose of the ash properly.
Close
ST545
Fig. 36 Turn the ashdoor handle clockwise to open and counterclockwise to close.
24
ST545
ashdoor
30001693
Defiant Woodburning Stove
Draft Management
A stove is part of a system, which includes the chimney,
the operator, the fuel, and the home. The other parts of
the system will affect how well the stove works. When
there is a good match between all the parts, the system
works well.
Wood stove or insert operation depends on natural
(unforced) draft. Natural draft occurs when the smoke
is hotter (and therefore lighter) than the outdoor air at
the top of the chimney. The bigger the temperature
difference, the stronger the draft. As the smoke rises
from the chimney it provides suction or ‘draw’ that pulls
air into the stove for combustion. A slow, lazy fire with
the stove’s air inlets fully open indicates a weak draft.
A brisk fire, supported only by air entering the stove
through the normal inlets, indicates a good draft. The
stove’s air inlets are passive; they regulate how much
air can enter the stove, but they don’t move air into it.
Depending on the features of your installation - steel
or masonry chimney, inside or outside the house,
matched to the stove’s outlet or oversized - your
system may warm up quickly, or it may take a while to
warm up and operate well. With an ‘airtight’ stove, one
which restricts the amount of air getting into the firebox,
the chimney must keep the smoke warm all the way to
the outdoors in order for the stove to work well. Some
chimneys do this better than others. Here’s a list of
features and their effects.
Masonry Chimney
Masonry is a traditional material for chimneys, but it
can perform poorly when it serves an ‘airtight’ stove.
Masonry is a very effective ‘heat sink’ - it absorbs a lot
of heat. It can cool the smoke enough to diminish draft.
The bigger the chimney, the longer it takes to warm up.
It’s often very difficult to warm up an outdoor masonry
chimney, especially an oversized one, and keep it
warm enough to maintain an adequate draft.
Steel Chimney
Most factory-made steel chimneys have a layer of
insulation around the inner flue. This insulation keeps
the smoke warm. The insulation is less dense than masonry, so a steel chimney warms up more quickly than
a masonry chimney. Steel doesn’t have the good looks
of masonry, but it performs much better.
Indoor/Outdoor Location
Because the chimney must keep the smoke warm, it’s
best to locate it inside the house. This uses the house
as insulation for the flue and allows some heat release
into the home. An indoor chimney won’t lose its heat
to the outdoors, so it takes less heat from the stove to
heat it up and keep it warm.
30001693
Chimney Height
The common wisdom tells us that a taller flue draws
better than a short one. This isn’t necessarily so. If a
chimney is tall enough to meet the safety requirements
of the 2/3/10 foot rule, then adding more height isn’t the
right answer to a draft problem. In fact it could make the
problem worse, by adding more mass to the chimney
system, which the smoke must warm up, at the far end
from the heat source (the stove). Don’t make a chimney
taller unless you must to meet the safety rules, or unless there’s some nearby feature causing a downdraft.
Even then, there are downdraft-preventing chimney
caps available, which are probably the smarter choice.
Flue Sizing
The inside size of a chimney for an ‘airtight’ stove
should match the size of the stove’s flue outlet. When
a chimney serves an airtight stove, more is not better;
in fact, it can be a disadvantage. Hot gases lose heat
through expansion; if we vent a stove with a six-inch
flue collar (28 square inch area) into a 10 x 10” flue,
the gases expand to over three times their original size.
This cools the gases, which weakens draft strength. If
an oversized flue is also outside the house, the heat it
absorbs gets transferred to the outdoor air and the flue
usually stays cool.
It’s common for a masonry flue, especially one serving
a fireplace, to be oversized for the stove. It can take
quite a while to warm up such a flue, and the results
can be disappointing. The best solution to an oversized
flue is an insulated steel chimney liner, the same diameter as the stove or insert’s flue outlet; the liner keeps
the smoke warm, and the result is a stronger draft. An
uninsulated liner is a second choice - the liner keeps
the smoke restricted to its original size, but the smoke
still must warm up the air around the liner. This makes
the warm-up process take longer.
Pipe & Chimney Layout
Every turn the smoke must take as it travels to the
chimney top will slow it down. The ideal pipe and chimney layout is straight up from the stove, to a completely
straight chimney. If you’re starting from scratch, use this
layout if possible. If the stovepipe must elbow to enter a
chimney, locate the thimble about midway between the
stove top and the ceiling. This achieves several goals:
it lets the smoke speed up before it must turn, it leaves
some pipe in the room for heat transfer, and it gives you
long-term flexibility for installing a different stove without
relocating the thimble.
25
Defiant Woodburning Stove
There should be no more than eight feet of single-wall
stove pipe between the stove and a chimney; longer
runs can cool the smoke enough to cause draft and
creosote problems. With prefabricated chimney, bring it
down to six to eight feet from the stove. With a masonry
chimney, arrange the pipe layout to elbow into the chimney within eight feet of the stove.
Single Venting
Each ‘airtight’ stove requires its own flue. If an airtight
stove is vented to a flue that also serves an open fireplace, or a leakier stove, it’s easier for the chimney draft
to pull air in through those channels than it is to pull air
through the airtight, and performance suffers. Imagine
a vacuum cleaner with a hole in the hose to see the effect here. In some cases the other appliance can even
cause a negative draft through the airtight, and result in
a dangerous draft reversal.
Creosote
Creosote is a by-product of slow wood-burning. It’s an
organic tar that can condense in the flue if it’s dense in
the smoke, and slow-moving, and cools off to less than
290°F (130°C). Condensed creosote is volatile, and
can generate chimney fires if it gets hot enough. All the
features that affect chimney draft also affect creosote
condensation - so use whatever combination of installation features and operational steps will encourage good
draft and minimize creosote production.
Because letting the smoke cool off and slow down is
one of the keys to creosote production, it makes sense
to line a chimney to match the stove’s outlet size, for
safety reasons as well as performance. Canadian law
requires a matching liner to serve any stove or insert
vented through a fireplace chimney; in the US, the
National Fire Protection Association recommends one if
the flue is more than three times bigger (in square area)
than the outlet on the stove or insert. Some localities
enforce the NFPA guidelines as part of their building
codes.
Fuel
Even the best stove installation will not perform well
with poor fuel. The best fuel is hardwood that has airdried 12-18 months. Softwood burns, but not as long as
hardwood. Fairly ‘green’ wood has a lot of moisture in
it; it will burn, but some of the heat potential is used to
drive the remaining moisture off the wood. This reduces
the amount of heat that reaches your home and can
contribute to a creosote problem. There are moisture
meters available for firewood; you can also judge your
wood by its appearance and weight. If you get it green,
lift a piece and get a sense of its weight; it can lose a
third or more of its weight as it dries. Also look at the
26
ends of a log; as it dries it shrinks and often cracks. The
more weathered and cracked a piece is, the drier it is.
Dry wood burns readily with a good chimney draft. But
with modern stoves, especially catalytic ones, the wood
can be too dry. While extra-dry wood has little creosote
in it, the remainder can ‘gas out’ from the wood quickly
and densely enough to overload the catalytic burner.
If you hear a rumbling or roaring noise, like a propane
torch, from the stove, that is a sign that the catalyst is
seriously overfiring. The catalyst is a platinum film on a
ceramic base; the metal can get to higher temperatures
than the ceramic can take, and overfiring the catalyst
can break it. Dry wood can also burn out faster than
you want. If your dry wood burns out too quickly or
overloads the catalyst you can mix in greener wood to
slow the fire down.
Back-puffing
Back-puffing results when the fire produces volatile
gases faster than the chimney draft pulls them out of
the firebox. The gases back up in the firebox till they’re
dense enough and hot enough to ignite. If your stove
back-puffs, you should open up the damper to let the
smoke rise to the flue more quickly, let more air into the
firebox, and avoid big loads of firewood. You should
always see lively, dancing flames in the firebox; a lazy,
smoky fire is inefficient and can contribute to creosote
buildup in the chimney.
Draft Testing
An easy way to test your chimney draft is to close the
stove’s damper, wait a few minutes to let the airflow
stabilize, then see whether you can vary the strength of
the fire by swinging the air control open and closed. Results are not always instant; you may need to wait a few
minutes for a change in the air control setting to have
an effect on the fire. If there’s no change, then the draft
isn’t strong enough yet to let you close the damper, and
you’ll need to open it for a while longer and manage the
fire with the air inlet until the draft strengthens. If you
keep track of your burning habits and relate them to
their effects on the stove’s operation, you’ll be rewarded
with good performance and a safe system.
30001693
Defiant Woodburning Stove
Negative Pressure
Good draft also depends on a supply of air to the
stove; a chimney can’t pull in more air than is available to it. Sluggish draft results when a house is tight
enough to prevent the ready flow of air to the stove, or
by competition between the stove and other equipment
that sends indoor air outside - especially power-driven
equipment like range hoods, clothes dryers, etc. If the
chimney draws well with all other equipment turned
off (or sealed, in the case of fireplaces and/or other
stoves), then you simply need to be careful with timing
the use of the other gear. If you need to crack a nearby
window or door to enable the chimney to pull well, that’s
a sign that you should install an outside-air intake to
bring combustion air directly to the stove. An outside air
adapter will attach to the stove to connect an air duct
for outdoor combustion air.
Conclusion
Wood-burning is an art rather than a science. Once the
stove and chimney system are in place, you can only
vary your technique, mostly your timing, to achieve
good results. If you keep track of your burning habits
and relate them to their effects on the stove’s operation,
you’ll be rewarded with good performance and a safe
system.
30001693
27
Defiant Woodburning Stove
Maintenance
Keep Your Stove Looking New
and Working Its Best
Let the fire in the stove go out and allow the stove to
cool completely before beginning any maintenance
procedure.
Care of the Cast Iron Surface
An occasional dusting with a dry rag will keep the
painted cast iron of your Defiant looking new.
The stove’s paint can be touched up as needed. First,
mask the areas, such as enamelled parts, glass, or
handles, around the spot to be painted. Clean the spot
with a wire brush. Remove the griddle and set it aside.
It is normal for the griddle to darken after use. You can
clean it with a fine-bristle wire brush, or steel wool.
Then, touch up the stove with Vermont Castings’ high
temperature stove paint. Apply the paint sparingly; two
light coats of paint are better than a single heavy one.
Care of the Porcelain Enamel Surface
Use a dry or slightly damp rag or soft brush to remove
spills or stains. For difficult jobs that require a cleaning
agent, use only a kitchen appliance cleaner or polish
recommended for use on enamel surfaces.
Removing the Glass
1. Remove the right and left door assemblies by raising the door until the lower hinge pin clears its hole;
then, angle the door bottom slightly outward and pull
down to release the upper hinge pin. Place the doors
face down on a padded work surface. Be especially
careful with enamelled doors.
2. Remove the screws that hold the glass retainer clips
in place, and remove the clips.
3. Carefully lift the broken glass panel from the door.
Installing the Glass
Check the gasket around the window; it should be soft
and resilient so that the glass will seal properly against
the door. Replace the gasket if it has hardened or if it is
compressed.
1. Center the glass on the gasket. Be sure to place the
glass so that the infrared reflective coating is on the
exterior side, facing toward the room.
2. Secure the glass on both doors with the retainer
clips. Tighten all screws. (Fig. 38)
3. Replace the doors on the stove.
4. Open and close the doors to check that they fit and
work properly. Adjust as necessary.
Cleaning the Glass
Most of the carbon deposits on the glass will burn off
during hot fires.
Door Gasket
Right Door
However, the ash residue that accumulates on the
glass surface should be removed regularly to prevent
etching. To clean the glass, follow this procedure:
• Be sure the glass is completely cool.
• Clean the glass with water or a cleaner made espe-
•
•
cially for this purpose. Do not use abrasive cleaners.
Use cleaning agents sparingly and be sure to keep
them off the outer surfaces of the stove.
Rinse the glass thoroughly.
Dry the glass completely.
Replace Broken Glass Immediately
Do not operate your stove if the glass in the doors is
damaged.
If you need to replace the glass, use only the high
temperature ceramic glass supplied by Vermont Castings. Do not use substitutes. Be sure to specify left or
right glass; the panels are not interchangeable, due to a
heat-reflective coating on the side toward the room.
28
Left Door
Glass Gasket
Glass Panel
Retainer Clip
Retainer Clip
ST547
Fig. 38 An exploded view of the glass assembly.
ST547
door install
11/00
30001693
Defiant Woodburning Stove
Check the Operation of the
Primary Air Shutter
The primary air shutter is at the back of the ash drop
and is visible from the back of the stove. (Fig. 39) The
shutter must open and close freely when you move the
thermostat lever. If it doesn’t, remove any obstruction. If
you need assistance, consult your local Vermont Castings Authorized Dealer.
Do not change the adjustment of the cable in an attempt to gain increased firing. The air shutter controls
how much air can enter the stove, but chimney draft
is the force that pulls air into the stove. If changing the
thermostat handle position does not lead to changes in
the fire’s intensity within four or five minutes, it’s probably due to weak chimney draft (in the case of a weak
fire you can’t increase) or an air leak in the stove (in the
case of a fire you can’t decrease).
Pressure Adjusting Screw
Lock Nut
Allen
Wrench
Damper
ST554
Fig. 40 Adjust the damper with the Allen wrench.
Tighten the Damper Handle as Needed
A handle on the left side of the stove controls the
damper. The handle attaches to the damper rod with a
set screw. Periodically check the set screw and tighten
as necessary.
How to Adjust the Door Latches
AN
DEFI
The Defiant’s doors should close securely to prevent
accidental opening and to keep air from leaking into
the stove. On adequately adjusted doors, the handles
should resist slightly as they are turned to the closed
position and the doors themselves should be drawn
slightly toward the stove.
T
Over time, the gasket around the doors will compress
ST554
and the latches may need adjustment.
ST548
Primary Air Shutter
Fig. 39 The primary air shutter must move freely.
ST548 as Needed
Adjust the Damper
check air
The tension on the Defiant’s damper is adjustable to
shutter
compensate for compression of the gasket that seals
11/00
the damper to the upper
fireback. To adjust the damper:
1. Remove the griddle. Loosen the lock nut at the center of the damper. (Fig. 40)
2. Turn the pressure screw approximately one half turn
clockwise with an Allen wrench provided with your
stove.
3. Tighten the lock nut. Prevent the pressure screw
from turning as you tighten the nut. Re-test the
damper.
Damper
adjustment
To adjust the latches, loosen
the small
lock nut, rotate
the striker screw a half-turn,
and re-tighten the small
11/00
lock nut. (Fig. 41) Your stove kit includes an Allen
wrench for latch adjustments. Hold the striker screw to
keep it from turning as you tighten the lock nut. Make
repeated small adjustments until the setting is right.
Pawl
Small Locking Nut
Striker Screw
Large
Locking
Nut
Set Screw
Handle Stub
ST531
Fig. 41 Turn the door latch striker screw in or out to tighten or
loosen the screw.
30001693
ST531
Door Pawl
11/00
29
Defiant Woodburning Stove
The
Catalytic Element
This wood heater contains a catalytic combustor, which
needs periodic inspection and replacement for proper
operation. In the United States it is against the law to
operate this wood heater in a manner inconsistent with
the operating instructions in this manual, or if the catalytic element is deactivated or removed.
Under normal operating conditions, the catalytic combustor should remain active for two to six years (depending on the amount of wood burned). However, it
is important to monitor the combustor periodically to
ensure that it is functioning properly, as well as to determine when it needs to be replaced. A non-functioning
combustor will result in a loss of heating efficiency, and
an increase in creosote and emissions.
Inspection and Cleaning
Inspect the combustor “in place” for fly ash accumulation and physical damage three times per year. Clean
the combustor as needed. Do not remove the combustor unless a more detailed inspection is warranted
because of diminished performance as outlined in the
next section.
Burning “green” (insufficiently seasoned) wood will
result in poorer performance than burning properly
seasoned fuel. You may have to run your stove hotter
(more air) to achieve acceptable performance using
green or wet wood.
Also, consider any changes in your operating routine.
Once you have ruled out any other possible causes for
a decline in performance, inspect and clean the combustor if necessary. Be sure to protect any surface you
use for setting the stove parts aside.
Inspecting the Combustor
1. Lift the throat off its support brackets, and then
remove it from the stove and place it on a protected
surface. (Fig. 42)
2. Use a flashlight, and a mirror if necessary, to examine the combustor. If no fly ash or damage is visible,
the inspection is complete and you may replace the
baffle. If closer examination or cleaning is needed,
go to the next section.
Baffle Support
Brackets
The refractory package that houses the catalytic combustor should be inspected annually for a buildup of fly
ash and cleaned if necessary. This may be done when
you examine the combustor.
When to Suspect a Combustor Problem
The best way to evaluate the performance of your
Defiant’s combustor is to observe the amount of smoke
leaving the chimney — both when the combustor has
“lighted-off” and when it has not. Follow these steps:
• With a fire going and the combustor properly activated, with the damper closed to route smoke through
it as described in the Operation Section, go outside
and observe the smoke leaving the chimney.
Catalytic
Element
ST555
Fig. 42 Lift the baffle off its supports to inspect the catlyst.
• Then, open the stove damper and once again check
the smoke leaving the chimney.
You should see significantly more smoke when the
stove damper is open and exhaust does not pass
through the combustor. However, be careful not to
confuse smoke with steam from wet wood. Steam dissipates in the air quickly; smoke does not.
If this test indicates a problem, consider other possible
factors as well, such as the weather or a change in the
quality of your fuel. In warm weather, draft is weaker
than it is in colder winter weather, and fires can burn
sluggishly. Small, hot fires are a good solution under
these conditions.
30
Removing and Cleaning
the Combustor
ST555
Inspect
1. Remove the firebricks.
Lift off the steel clip and
remove the bricks individually.
(Fig. 43)
Catalytic element
2. Tap the left and right11/00
wedges upward, and remove
the lower fireback by pulling it forward. You can
either let it lie face down on the firebox floor, or remove it from the stove, through the front door opening. (Fig. 44)
30001693
Defiant Woodburning Stove
Alignment Notches
Left Wedge
Right Wedge
Catalytic Element
Brick Guide
Brick Clip
Catalytic Access
Panel
ST558
Bricks
ST556
Fig. 45 Remove and inspect
ST558 the catalytic element.
Inspect
5. Inspect the element
for damage
or degradation.
Catalytic
element
Although small hairline
cracks
will
not affect per4
formance, the element
should
be
essentially
intact.
11/00
If the element is broken in pieces or has sections
missing, it should be replaced. Call your local Vermont Castings Authorized Dealer for a replacement
element.
Fig. 43 Remove the bricks and the brick retainer.
St556
inspect
catalytic element
2
11/00
Lower Fireback
ST557
Fig. 44 Remove the lower fireback.
3. Carefully remove theSt557
catalytic combustor’s refractory access cover, then remove the combustor. The
inspect
refractory material is brittle; handle it carefully. (Fig.
catalytic ele
45)
3 honeycomb-like element
4. Check the combustor’s
for a buildup of fly ash.
If any is evident, take the
11/00
combustor outside and clean it by blowing air gently
through it. Do not push anything through the honeycomb; do not use compressed air to clear the passages. Such abrasion can scrape the thin coating of
platinum (the catalyst) off the ceramic base, shortening the catalyst’s life and reducing its effectiveness.
While the catalytic element is removed, check the
condition of the secondary air probe. Use an inspection mirror to locate the probe within the combustion
chamber. (Fig. 46) The probe should extend 1” to 1¹⁄₂”
into the chamber and show no signs of excessive deterioration, such as warping, corrosion, or short length.
A damaged secondary air probe can affect catalytic
performance. If the probe needs replacement, contact
your local dealer.
1"
ST559
Fig. 46 Use an inspection mirror to check the reflected view
of the secondary probe.
30001693
ST559
Secondary
Probe inspection
11/00
31
Defiant Woodburning Stove
6. If the element is in good condition and clean, re-install it in the stove and replace the refractory access
cover.
7. Replace the fireback, the five bricks and their clip,
the left and right wedges, and the throat. When you
install the lower fireback, be sure to align the two
slight recesses in its bottom forward edge behind
the mating tabs on the firebox floor. (Fig. 43) When
you install the wedges, be sure to place their rear
vertical edges against the outermost left and right
edges of the lower fireback, to ensure a good seal
between the lower fireback and the stove’s outer
back. Tap them downward to seat them snugly, but
not overly tight.
8. Clean the chimney and chimney connector.
Wait until the fire is out and the stove has cooled. Be
sure to follow the standard safety procedure for working
with dusty materials: wear safety goggles and a dust
mask.
The procedure for replacing gaskets is the same,
regardless of the gasket location. Follow these eight
steps:
1. Remove the existing gasket by grasping an end and
pulling firmly. (Fig. 47)
2. Use a wire brush or the tip of a screwdriver to clean
the channel of any remaining cement or bits of
gasket. Remove stubborn deposits of cement with a
cold chisel if necessary. (Fig. 47)
Operate the stove in your usual manner for two weeks,
inspecting the chimney and the chimney connector
frequently during this period.
If creosote does not build up as fast, it is likely that the
performance change was caused by fly ash deposits
on the catalytic element. However, continue the inspections of the chimney system for a few weeks to ensure
that proper performance continues.
If you continue to find a significant creosote buildup or if
you continue to see excessive smoke from the chimney,
the catalytic element will need to be replaced. Contact
your nearest Vermont Castings’ Authorized Dealer for
information about a replacement element.
NOTE: Use only the replacement catalyst supplied by a
Vermont Castings dealer.
Replace the Stove Gaskets as Needed
Your Defiant uses fiberglass rope gaskets to make
a tight seal between some parts. With use, particularly on moving parts, gaskets can become brittle and
compressed and can begin to lose their effectiveness.
These will need periodic replacement.
The sizes of replaceable gasket are listed below, along
with their applications.
ST560
Fig. 47 Remove gasket then clean channel with wire brush.
ST559
3. Determine the correctRemove
length of the appropriate-sized
gasket by laying it outgasket
in the channel. Allow an extra
11/30/00 djt
1-2” (25-50 mm), and mark the spot to be cut.
4. Remove the gasket from the channel, place it on a
wood cutting surface, and cut it at the marked spot
with a utility knife.
Twist the ends slightly to keep the gasket from unraveling.
5. Lay an unbroken 1/8” (3 mm) bead of gasket cement
in the newly-cleaned channel. (Fig. 48)
6. Starting at one end, press the gasket into the channel. (Fig. 48) Ensure a good joint where the gasket
meets before trimming any excess. Do not overlap
the gasket ends or leave ends with ragged edges.
Gasket Diameter... ...And the Parts it Seals
5/16”
The griddle to the stove top
(wire reinforced gasket)
5/16”
The damper to the upper fireback; the
front doors to the stove front; and the
doors to each other.
3/8”
The ash door to the front of the bottom
panel
3/16”
The outer glass panes to the door
If you need to change a gasket, first obtain an appropriate replacement from your Vermont Castings, Authorized Dealer.
32
et
ask
ve G ent
Sto Cem
ST561
Fig. 48 Lay a bead of gasket cement then press gasket in
place.
ST559
Remove
gasket
11/30/00 djt
30001693
Defiant Woodburning Stove
7. Press the gasketed part firmly against its normal
mating surface to seat the gasket evenly in its channel. Close and latch the door to do this, or tap other
parts with the rubber mallet (or hammer/block of
wood).
8. Clean any excess cement from around the channel,
then let the cement that holds the new gasket dry
thoroughly.
Adjust the Door Latch If Necessary
The stove’s doors may need adjustment after you have
regasketed them. Initially, it may require loosening
the latch to accommodate the new gasket; after a few
weeks, it may need tightening to compensate for compression of the new gasket. The directions for adjusting
the latches are on page 28.
Permanent Defiant Gaskets
Other gaskets form seals between non-moving parts,
but these are not subject to the same wear and deterioration as gaskets on moving parts. It is unlikely that
you will ever need to replace these gaskets unless the
involved parts are disassembled and then put back
together. If this is the case, the job should be done only
by a qualified service technician.
5/16” diameter gasket seals the following parts:
• The lower fireback to the back panel
• The left and right air plates (inner sides)
The Chimney System
Creosote
Your Defiant is designed to reduce creosote build-up
significantly. However, regular chimney inspection and
maintenance must still be performed. For safety, good
stove performance, and to protect your chimney and
chimney connector, inspect your chimney and chimney
connector on a regular schedule. Clean the system if
necessary. Failure to keep the chimney and connector
system clean can result in a serious chimney fire.
When wood is burned slowly, it produces tar, organic
vapors and moisture that combine to form creosote.
The creosote vapors condense in the relatively cool
chimney flue of a slow-burning fire. As a result, creosote residue accumulates on the flue lining. When ignited, this creosote makes an extremely hot fire within the
flue system that can damage the chimney and overheat
adjacent combustible material. If a significant layer of
creosote has accumulated —1/8” (3 mm) or more — it
should be removed to reduce the risk of a chimney fire.
If you do experience a chimney fire, act promptly to:
• Close the damper and thermostat lever.
• Get everyone out of the house.
• Call the Fire Department.
30001693
Inspect the system every two weeks during the heating season as part of a regular maintenance schedule.
To inspect the chimney, let the stove cool completely.
Then, using a mirror and a strong light, sight up through
the flue collar into the chimney flue. If you cannot inspect the flue system in this fashion, the stove must be
disconnected to provide better viewing access.
Clean the chimney using a brush the same size and
shape as the flue liner. Flexible fiberglass rods are used
to run the brush up and down the liner, causing any
deposits to fall to the bottom of the chimney where they
can be removed through the clean-out door.
Clean the chimney connector by disconnecting the sections, taking them outside, and removing any deposits
with a stiff wire brush. Reinstall the connector sections
after cleaning, being sure to secure the joints between
individual sections with sheet metal screws.
If you cannot inspect or clean the chimney yourself,
contact your local Vermont Castings dealer or a professional chimney sweep.
Annual Maintenance
Every Spring, at the end of the heating season, perform
a thorough cleaning, inspection and repair:
• Thoroughly clean the chimney and chimney connector.
• Inspect the chimney for damage and deterioration.
Replace weak sections of prefabricated chimney.
Have a mason make repairs to a masonry chimney.
• Inspect the chimney connector and replace any
damaged sections.
• Check gasketing for wear or compression, and replace if necessary.
• Inspect and clean the catalytic element. Lightly clean
the refractory assembly that houses the element
but be careful not to damage the refractory material,
which is very fragile.
• Clean the glass. Ash left on the glass can etch it,
resulting in a chalky appearance. Also check for
cracking; replace if needed.
• Check door and damper handles for tightness. Adjust if needed.
• Check heat shield screws. Tighten as necessary.
• Clean dust from the inner sides of bottom, rear and
connector heat shields.
• Use a clean, dry, fine-bristle wire brush to remove
any built-up accumulation on the top of the griddle. It
is normal for the griddle to darken with use, and this
is not treatable.
• Remove ashes from the ash pan and replace with
moisture absorbing material (such as cat litter) to
keep the stove interior dry.
• Touch up the paint on black stoves.
33
Defiant Woodburning Stove
Appendix: Catalytic Combustor
In any chemical reaction, including the combustion
process, there are certain conditions which must be
met before the reaction can take place. For example, a
reaction may require a certain temperature, or a certain
concentration of the reactants (the combustion gases
and oxygen), or a certain amount of time. Catalysts
act at a molecular level to change these requirements,
though they are not changed themselves during the reaction. In the Defiant’s secondary combustion chamber
the catalyst reduces the temperature at which secondary combustion can start from the 1000° - 1200° F.
(540° - 650° C) range to the 500° - 600°F. (260° - 315°
C) range, increasing efficiency, and reducing creosote
and emissions.
The catalytic reaction does have some limitations of
its own. Primary among these is that the reactants
(the gases) come into close physical contact with the
catalyst itself.
To ensure the necessary contact, the catalytic element
in your Defiant is a ceramic base in the shape of a
honeycomb. Each of the honeycomb’s many surfaces
carries a coating of the catalyst (usually a noble metal
such as platinum or palladium). The large surface area
exposed in this way ensures that the combustion gases
have the greatest opportunity to come in contact with
the catalyst.
Loss of catalytic activity will be apparent in several
ways. First you may notice an increase in fuel consumption. Second, there will be a visible increase
in the rate at which creosote builds up in your chimney connector system. You may also notice a heavy
discharge of smoke from the chimney. There are a
number of catalytic problems which can cause loss of
activity:
Blockage
While the honeycomb pattern ensures good contact, it
also increases the resistance to flow of the combustion
gases, and, because of the many surfaces, provides
more places for creosote and fly ash to deposit. It is
important to follow the operating instructions in order
to minimize these deposits, and to periodically inspect
your catalyst for signs of blockage.
Masking and Poisoning
While the catalyst itself does not enter into the combustion process, certain elements, such as lead and sulfur,
can attach to the active sites on the surface of the honeycomb. Though the catalyst is still there, it is covered,
or masked, by the contaminant, and cannot function.
To avoid this situation, it is important not to burn anything in your Defiant that is a source of these contaminants. Particularly avoid painted or treated wood, coal,
34
household trash, colored papers, metal foils, or plastics.
Chemical chimney cleaners may also contain harmful
elements. The safest approach is to burn only untreated, natural wood.
Flame Impingement
The catalytic element is not designed for exposure to
direct flame. If you continually overfire your Defiant, the
chemistry of the catalyst coating may be altered, inhibiting the combustion process. Do not use your Defiant
with the baffle removed or damaged, as it shields the
catalytic element from direct flame.
Thermal degradation of the ceramic base may also occur, causing the element to disintegrate. Stay within the
recommended guidelines of the Operation section.
Overfiring
At low firing rates, especially with a large load of fuel,
the catalytic element can become overloaded with
gases which do not burn in the firebox. This puts
increased strain on the catalytic element, causing it to
operate near or even beyond the high end of its normal temperature range. An immediate sign of this is a
low rumbling sound, or a sound like a small gas torch,
coming from the stove’s rear chamber. If you frequently
hear such a sound, or continually see a bright glow
through the baffle, open up the stove’s primary air valve
to make the fire burn more cleanly in the firebox, and
cut back on the size of your firewood load. Essentially
the catalyst is an afterburner, and will last longer under
lighter loads.
Mechanical Damage
If the element is mishandled, damage may occur.
Always treat the element carefully. Remember the
catalyst is made of a ceramic material; treat it as you
would fine china. Hairline cracks will not affect the
performance of the catalyst, as long as the steel sleeve
holds the element in the proper position.
Peeling
The surface coat may peel if the catalytic element is
frequently subjected to excessive temperatures. Follow
the operating instructions carefully to avoid this type of
damage.
General
Every Vermont Castings’ Defiant is equipped with either
a Corning “Long-Life”® or an Applied Ceramics combustor. The products are equivalent.
If you must ship your catalytic element for any reason,
remember its fragile nature. Place the element in a
plastic bag, and package it with a generous amount of
shock absorbing material.
30001693
Defiant Woodburning Stove
Appendix: Chimney and Fireplace Hazards
General B
A. Improper chimney height. The top of the chimney
must be at least 3 feet higher than the spot where it
passes through or past the roof, or two feet higher
than everything else within ten feet horizontally,
whichever is higher.
B. Deteriorated chimney cap
C. Structural defects indicated by creosote stains on
outside of chimney
D. Blockage within chimney
E. Improper clearance between chimney and nearby
combustibles (less than 2” - check local codes)
K. Loose or leaky cleanout door
A
C
E
For a fireplace -
D
F. Improper clearance between smoke chamber and
framing materials - (less than 2” - check local codes)
G. Creosote buildup on smoke shelf
H. Structural deterioration
I. Loose or broken bricks or mortar
J. Insufficient hearth depth. The hearth must extend
16” (18”/460mm in Canada) beyond the fireplace
opening. With a fireplace insert, or a free-standing
stove vented through a fireplace, the hearth must
extend 16” (18”/460mm in Canada) beyond the front
door opening of the stove or insert.
F
G
H
I
J
K
H
ST562
ST562
Chimney hazards
12/14/00 djt
30001693
35
Defiant Woodburning Stove
14
13
15
17
25
21
18
86
87
5
16
28
69
1
2
22
6
23
20
3
23
24
19
37
8
12
4
90
34
26
9
36
63
45
47
7
84
35
10
11
32
79
91
27
44
31
72
66
46
52
81
73
30
75 82
59
80
29
61
39 38
50
77
48
91 52
68
83
51
33
78
88
54
70
42
62
71
74
64
85
66
40
43
53
41
76
60
56
75
70
55
80
65
57
68
49
58
78
67
78
MHSC reserves the right to make changes in design, materials, specifications, prices and discontinue colors and products at any time, without
notice.
1693
Defiant Woodburning Stove Model 1945
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
36
Item Description
Secondary Air Cover Plate
Secondary Air Probe Assy
Secondary Air Link
Secondary Air Flap
Griddle Gasket
Defiant 1945
parts
8/02
Part Number
1601492
1601489
1601486
1601490
1203668
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
Item Description
Back
Left Heat Deflector
Right Heat Deflector
Refractory Assy (Body only)
Catalytic Combustor (Boxed)
Part Number
30001581
1608629
1608630
1602512
30001152
30001693
Defiant Woodburning Stove
Defiant Woodburning Stove
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
27.
28.
29.
30.
31.
32.
33.
34.
35.
36.
37.
38.
39.
40.
41.
42.
43.
44.
45.
46.
47.
48.
49.
50.
51.
52.
53.
54.
55.
56.
57.
58.
59.
60.
61.
62.
Item Description
Refractory Access Panel
Thermostat Friction Spring
Left Griddle Quadrant
Right Griddle Quadrant
Griddle
Griddle Handle
Griddle Handle Spacer
Griddle Handle Bolt
Upper Fireback Assy
Damper Ramp1
Upper Firebrick1
Damper1
Damper Tab1
Damper Rod1
Griddle Handle Bushing
Throat Baffle
Lower Fireback
Upper Fireback Bolt
Damper Handle Screw
Damper Handle
Damper Handle Base Assy
Left Side
Left Air Plate (Inner Side)
Right Air Plate (Inner Side)
Right Side
Thermostat Handle Base Assy
Thermostat Assy
Grate
Primary Air Cover Plate
Top Ashdoor Hinge Support
Door Handle Holder
Bottom
Ashlip
Left Side Wedge
Right Side Wedge
Firebrick (1¹⁄₄” x 4¹⁄₂” x 9”)
Firebrick Retainer
Andiron
Andiron Shelf
Leg Leveller
Ashdoor Handle Shaft
Door Latch Assy
Ashdoor
Ashdoor Handle (Wood)
Ashdoor Hinge Rod
Cotter Pin, Ashdoor
Ashdoor Bottom Hinge Support
Ashpan Bracket
Primary Air Valve Assy
Primary Air Frame3
Primary Air Rod3
Primary Air Valve3
30001693
Model 1945 (continued)
Part Number
1602511
1201846
1301807
1301832
1301641
1600657
1600070
1200907
5000030
1300643
1300633
1300634
1601488
1600065
1201895
1300635
1300638
1201374
1201310
1600664
30002720
See Chart Pg. 38
1300637
1300636
See Chart Pg. 38
30002716
5005470
1300639
1300622
30001689
1600600
30001577
See Chart Pg. 38
1300628
1300644
1601103
1600066
1300646
1300640
1201745
1600622
5004025
1300619
1600663
30004028
30001749
1300642
30001908
5000024
1307411
1600058
1307412
63.
64.
65.
66.
67.
68.
69.
70.
71.
72.
73.
74.
75.
76.
77.
78.
79.
80.
81.
82.
83.
84.
85.
86.
87.
88.
89.
90.
91.
92.
93.
94.
95.
Item Description
Thermostat Handle (Wood)
Airwash Manifold
Front
Thermostat Cable
Left Door
Door Hinge Strip
Top
Glass Clip
Glass Clip (Right Door only)
Front Door Handle & Shaft
Right Door
Door Gasket
Gasket, Fiberglas 3/16 4nd, Blk
Left Door Glass2
Right Door Glass2
Lower Door Hinge Pin
Spacer (for Damper Rod)
Upper Door Hinge Pin
Handle Base Stub
Wood Handle
Handle Bolt
Thermostat Handle Bolt
Ash Pan Assy5
Flat Washer
Flue Collar
Leg
Finish Bag
Washer, 1/4 Flat
Hex Head Jam Nut
Bottom Heat Shield (not shown)
Ashdoor Heat Shield (not shown)
HS Spacer 1.25” (not shown)
Control Spacer (not shown)
Part Number
1600660
1300627
See Chart Pg. 38
5005471
See Chart Pg. 38
1300645
See Chart Pg. 38
30001715
30001716
30002717
See Chart Pg. 38
1203588
1203556
1600064
1600062
30002727
1201779
30002727
30002714
1600664
1201310
1201243
30001690
1202475
See Chart Pg. 38
See Chart Pg. 38
30001695
1202471
1203290
1400008
1401911
1601755
1201781
NOTES:
In this diagram and throughout this manual, ‘left’ and
‘right’ mean as you face the stove.
When ordering parts, be sure to mention the stove’s
model number. When ordering external pars, be sure to
specify color.
1. Included in Item #19, #5000030 Upper Fireback Assy.
2. Not interchangeable, due to a heat-reflective coating on
the room side of the glass.
3. Included in Item #59, 5000024 Primary Air Assy.
The hardware in the Defiant is in standard sizes; most
bolts are 1/4” diameter by 20 threads per inch. Any
hardware store can supply replacement hardware if you
specify bolt diameter, number of threads per inch and
length.
37
Defiant Woodburning Stove
Defiant Woodburning Stove
Shell Enamel Parts - Defiant
Enamel
Color
Top
Classic
30001582
Biscuit
30002967
Bordeaux
30002957
Chestnut Brown 30002977
Ebony
30002987
Forest Green
30001627
Midnight Blue
30001621
Sand
30001615
Suede Brown
30002578
Vermont
Classic Green
30002997
Shell Enamel Parts - Defiant
Enamel
Color
Flue Collar
Classic
30001576
Biscuit
30002947
Bordeaux
30002921
Chestnut Brown
30002932
Ebony
30002910
Forest Green
30001623
Midnight Blue
30001617
Sand
30001611
Suede Brown
30002579
Vermont
Classic Green
30002943
Model 1945 (continued)
Left Side
30001580
30002963
30002953
30002973
30002983
30001626
30001620
30001614
30002574
Right Side
30001579
30002962
30002952
30002972
30002982
30001625
30001619
30001613
30002573
Front
30001578
30002964
30002954
30002974
30002984
30001624
30001618
30001612
30002575
Ashlip
1300621
30002961
30002951
30002971
30002981
2310621
2370621
1320621
30002583
Leg
30001583
30002968
30002958
30002978
30002988
30001628
30001622
30001616
30002580
30002993
30002992
30002994
30002991
30002998
Left Door
Subassembly
30001719*
30002970
30002960
30002980
30002990
30001725
30001723
30001721
30002582
Left Door
Only
1300626
30002966
30002956
30002976
30002986
2310626
2370626
1320626
30002577
Right Door
Subassembly
30001718*
30002969
30002959
30002979
30002989
30001724
30001722
30001720
30002581
Right Door
Only
1300625
30002965
30002955
30002975
30002985
2310625
2370625
1320625
30002576
30003000
30002996
30002999
30002995
*NOTE: Does not contain glass or glass gasket.
38
30001693
Defiant Woodburning Stove
Warranty
Limited 3 Year Warranty
MHSC warrants that this woodburning stove will be free of defects
in material and workmanship for a period of three years from the
date you receive it, except that the catalyst, thermostat assembly,
handles, glass door panels, cement, and gasketing shall be warranted as described below.
MHSC will repair or replace, at its option, any part found to be defective
upon inspection by a Vermont Castings, Authorized Dealer. The customer must return the defective part or the stove, with shipping prepaid,
to the Authorized Dealer or pay for any Authorized Dealer in-home
travel fees or service charges for in-home repair work. It is the dealer’s
option whether the repair work will be done in the customer’s home or
in the dealer’s shop. If, upon inspection, the damage is found to be the
fault of the manufacturer, repairs will be authorized at no charge to the
customer for parts and/or labor.
Any woodburning stove or part thereof that is repaired or replaced during the limited warranty period will be warranted under the terms of the
limited warranty for a period not to exceed the remaining term of the
original limited warranty or six (6) months, whichever is longer.
Limited 1 Year Warranty
The following parts of the woodburning stove are warranted to be free
of defects in material and workmanship for a period of one year from
the date you receive it: The thermostat assembly, handles, glass door
panels, cement, and gasketing. Any of these items found to be defective will be repaired or replaced at no charge, upon the return of the part
with postage prepaid to a Vermont Castings Authorized Dealer.
Any part repaired or replaced during the limited warranty period will
be warranted under the terms of the limited warranty for a period not
to exceed the remaining term of the original limited warranty or six (6)
months, whichever is longer.
Limited Catalyst Warranty
The catalyst will be warranted for a six year period as follows: If the
original catalyst or a replacement catalyst proves defective or ceases to
maintain 70% of its particulate emission reduction activity (as measured
by an approved testing procedure) within 24 months from the date the
stove is received, the catalyst itself will be replaced free.
From 25 - 72 months a pro-rated credit will be allowed against a replacement catalyst and the cost of labor necessary for its installation at
the time of replacement.
For stove purchases made after June 30, 1990, a third year
(25 - 36 months) of no charge replacement will be made when combustor failure is due to thermal degradation of the substrate (crumbling of
ceramic material). The customer must pay for any in-home travel fees,
service charges, or transportation costs for returning the stove to the
Authorized Dealer.
Amount of Time
Credit Towards
Since Purchase
Replacement Cost
0 - 36 months
100%
37 - 48 months
30%
49 - 60 months
20%
61 - 72 months
10%
Any replacement catalyst will be warranted under the terms of the
catalyst warranty for the remaining term of the original warranty. The
purchaser must provide the following information in order to receive a
replacement catalyst under the terms of this limited warranty:
1. Name, address and telephone number.
2. Proof of original purchase date.
3. Date of failure of catalyst.
4. Any relevant information or circumstances regarding determination of failure.
5. In addition, the owner must return the failed catalyst.
30001693
Exclusions & Limitations
1. This product must be installed or serviced by a qualified installer,
preferably NFI or WETT (Canada) certified, as prescribed by the
local jurisdiction. It must be installed and operated at all times in accordance with the Installation and Operating instructions furnished
with the product any alterion, willful abuse, accident or misuse of
this product shall nullify this warranty.
2. This warranty is transferable; however, proof of original retail purchase is required.
3. This warranty does not cover misuse of the stove. Misuse includes
overfiring which will result if the stove is used in such a manner as
to cause one or more of the plates to glow red. Overfiring can be
identified later by warped plates and areas where the paint pigment
has burned off. Overfiring in enamel fireplaces is identified by bubbling, cracking, chipping and discoloration of the porcelain enamel
finish. MHSC offers no warranty on chipping of enamel surfaces.
Inspect your woodburning stove prior to accepting it for any damage
to the enamel.
4. This warranty does not cover misuse of the stove as described
in the Owner’s Guide, nor does it cover an stove which has been
modified unless authorized by a MHSC representative in writing.
This warranty does not cover damage to the stove caused by burning salt saturated wood, chemically treated wood, or any fuel not
recommended in the Owner’s Guide.
5. This warranty does not cover a stove repaired by someone other
than a Vermont Castings Authorized Dealer.
6. Damage to the unit while in transit is not covered by this warranty
but is subject to a claim against the common carrier. Contact
Vermont Castings Authorized Dealer from whom you purchased
your stove or MHSC if the purchase was direct. (Do not operate the
stove as this may negate the ability to process the claim with the
carrier.)
7. Claims are not valid where the installation does not conform to local
building and fire codes or, in their absence, to the recommendations
in our Owner’s Guide.
8. The salt air environment of coastal areas, or a high-humidity environment, can be corrosive to the porcelain enamel finish. These
conditions can cause rusting of the cast iron beneath the porcelain
enamel finish, which will cause the porcelain enamel finish to flake
off. This warranty does not cover damage caused by a salt air or
high-humidity environment.
9. MHSC shall have no obligation to enhance or update any unit once
manufactured.
IN NO EVENT SHALL MHSC BE LIABLE FOR INCIDENTAL AND CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES. ALL IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING
THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS,
ARE LIMITED TO THE DURATION OF THIS WRITTEN WARRANTY.
THIS WARRANTY SUPERCEDES ALL OTHER ORAL OR WRITTEN
WARRANTIES.
Some states do not allow the exclusion or limitations of incidential and
consequential damages or limitations on how long an implied warranty
lasts, so the above limitations may not apply to you. This warranty gives
you specific rights and you may have other rights which vary from state
to state.
How to Obtain Service
If a defect is noted within the warranty period, the customer should
contact a Vermont Castings Authorized Dealer or MHSC if the purchase
was direct with the following information:
1. Name, address, and telephone number of the purchaser.
2. Date of purchase.
3. Serial number from the label on the back.
4. Nature of the defect or damage.
5. Any relevant information or circumstances, e.g., installation,
mode of operation when defect was noted.
A warranty claim will then start in process. MHSC reserves the right to
withhold final approval of a warranty claim pending a visual inspection
of the defect by authorized representatives.
39
MHSC
149 Cleveland Drive • Paris, Kentucky 40361
www.mhsc.com