Midistart MIDI controller keyboard Specifications

Operation Manual
Mopho
Operation Manual
Version 1.1
August 2010
Dave Smith Instruments
1210 Cabrillo Hwy N
Half Moon Bay, CA 94019-1449
USA
©2010 Dave Smith Instruments
www.DaveSmithInstruments.com
Tested To Comply
With FCC Standards
FOR OFFICE USE
This device complies with Part 15 of the FCC Rules.
Operation is subject to the following two conditions:
(1) This device may not cause harmful interference and
(2) this device must accept any interference received,
including
interference
that
may
cause
undesired
operation.
This Class B digital apparatus meets all requirements of
the Canadian Interference-Causing Equipment Regulations.
Cet appareil numerique de la classe B respecte toutes
les exigences du Reglement sur le materiel brouilleur du
Canada.
For Technical Support, email: support@davesmithinstruments.com
Contents
Quick Start................................................................................................. 1
Getting Connected .................................................................................... 3
Basic Operation......................................................................................... 5
Global Parameters .................................................................................... 9
Oscillators................................................................................................ 13
Mixer........................................................................................................ 16
Filter ........................................................................................................ 17
Envelopes................................................................................................ 18
LFO ......................................................................................................... 19
Sequencer ............................................................................................... 21
Modulators............................................................................................... 26
Miscellaneous Modulators....................................................................... 27
Clock ....................................................................................................... 28
Miscellaneous Parameters...................................................................... 30
Modulation Sources ................................................................................ 32
Modulation Destinations.......................................................................... 33
Using USB............................................................................................... 35
Using Audio In ......................................................................................... 37
Using Poly Chain..................................................................................... 38
Support.................................................................................................... 41
MIDI Implementation ............................................................................... 43
MIDI Messages.................................................................................... 44
NRPN Messages ................................................................................. 47
Global Parameter Data........................................................................ 48
Program Parameter Data .................................................................... 50
Sysex Messages ................................................................................. 57
Packed Data Format............................................................................ 59
Quick Start
Thanks for purchasing your Mopho synthesizer! Listen to the sounds, twiddle
some knobs, have some fun!
Please Register!
Please go to www.davesmithinstruments.com and register your synth. If you
purchased directly from us, there is no need to register—we already have your
contact information.
Powering Up
Plug in the power supply, connect (in stereo!) to your mixer/sound system, and
start playing!
Try applying keyboard pressure (aftertouch) and the mod wheel. Many sounds
are fairly simple at first, then come alive when you use the controllers. With
other sounds, you may need to hold the notes a while to let the sound unfold.
Playing in different ways has a big effect on the programs.
Selecting and Editing Programs and Global Settings
You can use the increment and decrement (Inc/Yes and Dec/No) switches to
step through the programs. Use Param 1 to scroll quickly through the programs.
Param 2 changes banks. There are 3 banks of 128 programs.
If you want to edit a program, just turn any knob. The new value will be
displayed in the bottom line of the LCD (the top line displays the programmed
value for handy reference).
After turning knobs, just hit Program so the LCD goes back to the program/bank
screen, allowing you to change programs again.
Press and hold Program briefly to display the Global menu and change higher
level parameters such as MIDI channel number, Transpose/Detune, and so on.
The Param 1 knob changes the displayed page and Param 2 or increment and
decrement change the values. These settings are remembered when the synth is
turned off.
Summary
You should be up and running now; for more operation information, read on. Or,
just look up specific parameters for detailed notes. Pages 32 and 33 contain a
handy reference for mod sources and destinations. At some point you should
read through the manual to discover all the little features that you might not
notice at first.
1
Don’t forget you get a free editor for Mac OS or Windows with your purchase.
Download it from www.soundtower.com/mopho.
I should mention that this manual does not include explanations of basic analog
synthesizer functions. It assumes you already know what an oscillator is, how a
low-pass filter affects the sound, what an ADSR envelope looks like, and so on.
Fortunately, these days it is quite easy to find such resources on the Internet. If
you want to learn the lingo and the basics, just try a search in Google (or the
search engine of your choice), something like “analog synthesizer tutorial.”
You’ll find plenty of good reading material.
Have fun!
Dave Smith
Special thanks to:
The DSI Team: Chris Hector, Andrew McGowan, Joanne McGowan, and Tracy
Wadley. Thanks also to Alan Crarer and Jeff Tilley.
2
Getting Connected
Mopho has several inputs and outputs on its back panel.
Power Input — Connect the power supply included with your Mopho. The
power supply comes with different AC adaptor prongs that enable it to work
almost anywhere in the world. If for whatever reason you need to use a different
supply, it must match the specifications printed on the front panel.
Note: The power supply label says “Evolver” on it; we use the same
supply for the Mophos, mono Evolvers, Prophets, and Tetra.
USB—Mopho transmits and receives MIDI data via this standard, Type B, USB
receptacle. See Using USB on page 35 for more information.
MIDI In—To receive MIDI data from another device, connect this to the other
device's MIDI Out.
MIDI Out/Thru—To send MIDI data to another device, connect this to the other
device's MIDI In. This output can also be configured as a MIDI Thru using the
MIDI Out Select parameter in the Global menu.
Poly Chain—Multiple synths can be poly chained for increased polyphony. For
details, see Using Poly Chain on page 38.
Note: When Poly Chain is turned off in the Global menu, the Poly Chain
output simply mirrors the MIDI Out and transmits the same data.
Sustain—Accepts a momentary, normally open or normally closed footswitch
to control sustain or to latch the arpeggiator. See “Sustain” under Global
Parameters on page 9 for more information.
Pedal/CV—This input can be connected to two types of controllers: a standard
expression pedal that has a variable resistor on a TRS (tip-ring-sleeve) ¼ inch
phone plug, or a synthesizer or other device capable of producing a control
voltage. The control voltage range is 0 to 3.3 volts DC, and the input is protected
against higher and negative voltages. For more information, see “Pedal” in
Global Parameters on page 9 and Miscellaneous Parameters on page 30.
Note: This input is heavily filtered for smooth, clean operation, so there
is a limit to the speed at which it will respond.
Audio In—Mopho can be used as a signal processor. Audio is routed through the
filter, envelopes, and VCA and—when the signal level is high enough—a gate is
generated. See Using Audio In on page 37.
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Audio can also be used to advance the sequencer when Seq Trigger is set to
Audio In. See Sequencer on page 21 for more information.
Left Out/Right Out—Mopho’s unbalanced left and right outputs.
Phones—A ¼ inch stereo headphone jack.
4
Basic Operation
If you’re familiar with analog, subtractive synthesis there shouldn’t be anything
that looks terribly foreign or strange about Mopho’s front panel. All of the basic
building blocks are there. But one of the challenges of making a compact synth
is giving the user access to all the parameters within a limited amount of panel
area. Mopho has most of the parameters of the Prophet ’08, plus a couple more,
with a front panel that is more than 55% smaller!
Fortunately, several of the synth components have similar control requirements.
For example, Mopho has two oscillators and both oscillators have identical
control parameters. With a switch to select oscillator 1 or 2, one set of controls
can do double duty. Another set of controls handles most of the parameters for
all three envelope generators. And you can select both oscillators or all three
envelopes to edit a parameter simultaneously in all of them.
Other, less frequently used parameter names appear in light gray above the
corresponding knob or switch. Turn on Shift to access those parameters.
And finally, program-level parameters that are not typically performance
oriented are found in the Miscellaneous Parameters section.
The front panel is arranged so that the basic signal path components are in order
from left to right in the row closest to the keyboard: oscillators into mixer into
filter. (The VCA is the last part of the signal chain, but other than the Amplifier
Envelope, the only other control directly associated with the VCA is VCA
Level, which is in Miscellaneous Parameters.) The second row consists of
various modulators, including envelopes, LFOs, and the sequencer. The
remaining programmable parameters are for turning the arpeggiator and
sequencer on and off, setting the tempo and note value, and the aforementioned
Miscellaneous Parameters.
Non-Programmable Controls
The front panel controls can be divided into two groups, programmable and nonprogrammable. Everything contained within a gray “module” is programmable.
The non-programmable controls are for things like selecting programs and
transposing the keyboard. Their state—on, off, transposed, whatever—is not
saved along with the program.
Transpose—Allows the keyboard to be transposed in one octave increments
two octaves up or down. When transposed one octave, the corresponding LED
will be lighted, but dim. If the LED is brightly lit, Mopho is transposed two
octaves.
Shift—Used to access the shifted parameters.
5
Program—Press to return Mopho to program mode. Hold to select global mode.
Compare—When editing a Program, press Compare to hear the saved version.
Turn Compare off to return to the edited version. Compare can also be used to
audition write destinations when moving a program.
Write—Press Write to save the program and write any edits to memory. You can
write the program to the same location or choose a different program number
using Param 1; Param 2 chooses the bank. Press Inc/Yes to confirm the write
and Dec/No (or Write again) to abort.
While there is a write pending, press Compare to hear the program in the target
destination prior to saving. Just be sure to turn Compare off before you actually
hit the Inc/Yes switch to save.
Param 1— Used to scroll through programs in program mode. In global mode,
used for scrolling through the global menu items.
Param 2—Used to change banks in program mode and edit the displayed
parameter in edit and global modes.
Inc/Yes and Dec/No—Increment or decrement programs in program mode or
values in edit mode and global mode. Also used to confirm or cancel/abort an
operation.
Push It—Push It is a manual trigger. Its behavior depends upon the Push It
Mode, Note, and Velocity settings, which are programmable. Why is a manual
trigger necessary when there are already 32 other manual triggers (that is, the
keys)? It is surprsingly handy, especially in Toggle mode. It can be used to start
and stop the sequencer or to just latch a droning note on. And that frees up both
hands to twist knobs!
Tap Tempo—With Shift on, Push It becomes Tap Tempo for setting the internal
clock’s BPM.
If Push It is set to Toggle mode and Sequence and Shift are on, tap five times to
set the tempo and toggle the Push It Note on, starting the sequencer. That is, a 4count to set the tempo and then a tap on beat 1 to start. To stop, turn Shift off
and press Push It again.
Tap Tempo can also be used to change the tempo while a sequence is playing. If
Shift is on while a sequence is playing, tap the button 5 times and the sequence
speed will change to the tapped tempo on the fifth hit. You can continue to tap
the button, slowing down or speeding up, and the sequence tempo will adjust
accordingly. The sequence will average and smooth out any small timing
differences.
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Modes of Operation
Mopho has three operating modes: program, edit, and global. In program mode,
Param 1, Param 2, and Inc/Dec are used to change from one saved program to
another. As soon as any of the programmable parameters are edited, that
parameter is displayed on the LCD, with the programmed value on the top line,
and the new, edited value on the bottom line. That is edit mode. To exit edit
mode and return to program mode, just press Program.
To enter global mode, briefly press and hold Program until the light goes off and
a global parameter is displayed on the LCD. Param 1 scrolls through the items in
the global menu and Param 2 and Inc/Dec change the values. For more
information, see Global Parameters on page 9.
7
AUDIO IN
OSC 1
SUBOSC
OSC 2
SUBOSC
NOISE
FEEDBACK/
FEEDBACK/
EXT. IN GAIN EXT. IN VOLUME
SUB 1 VOLUME
OSC
MIX
SUB 2 VOLUME
NOISE VOLUME
VCA
FEEDBACK
FILTER
MOPHO SIGNAL FLOW DIAGRAM
(Modulation routing omitted for clarity)
PAN
VOLUME
L
AUDIO OUT
R
8
Global Parameters
Mopho’s Global parameters affect all programs globally. Examples include
MIDI channel and fine tune. To edit the Global parameters, hold down the
Program switch until Global Parameter is displayed. The Param 1 knob changes
the global parameter and Param 2 knob and increment and decrement buttons
change the value.
Transpose: -12…+12—Master Transpose control, 0 is centered. Steps in
semitones.
Fine Tune: -50…+50—Master Fine Tune control; 0 centered. Steps in cents (50
cents = 1/2 semitone).
MIDI Channel: ALL, 1…16—Selects which MIDI channel to send and receive
data, 1 to 16. All receives on all 16 channels.
Clock: see table—Sets the clock status.
Display
Internal
MIDI Out
MIDI In
Midi In/Out
MIDI Clock Setting
MIDI clock is neither sent nor received
MIDI clock is sent
MIDI clock is received
MIDI clock is received and transmitted
MIDI Parameter Send: NRPN, CC, Off—Changes to the values of Mopho’s front
panel controls are transmitted via MIDI as Non-registered Parameter Number
(NRPN) controllers or as Continuous Controllers (CC). Transmission of
parameters can also be turned off. See MIDI Implementation on page 43 for
details.
Note: NRPNs are the preferred method of parameter transmission, since
they cover the complete range of all parameters, while CCs only handle
the main parameters.
MIDI Parameter Receive: All, NRPN, CC, Off—Sets the method by which
Mopho receives parameter changes via MIDI. As with transmission, NRPNs are
the preferred method, though some controllers may only be able to send CCs.
MIDI Control: Off, On—When On, the synth will respond to MIDI controllers,
including Pitch Wheel, Mod Wheel, Pedal, Breath, Volume, and Expression.
MIDI SysEx: Off, On—When On, the synth will respond to received MIDI
SysEx messages, and will transmit them, when prompted, to the MIDI Out. See
Sysex Messages on page 57 for details.
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MIDI Out Select: Out, Thru—MIDI Out can be switched to MIDI Thru to
daisychain multiple MIDI devices.
Poly Chain: Off, Out 1, Out 4, Out 5, Out 8, Out 12, Out 16—Used to expand the
polyphony via the Poly Chain output and one or more DSI synths—Mopho,
Tetra, or Prophet. See Using Poly Chain on page 38 for more information.
Local Control: Off, On—When on (the default), the keyboard and front panel
controls directly affect Mopho. When off, the controls are transmitted via MIDI
but do not directly affect the “local” synth (that is, Mopho). This is primarily
useful for avoiding MIDI data loops that can occur with some external
sequencers.
Audio Out: Stereo, Mono—Mopho defaults to stereo operation. When set to
Mono, this parameter defeats all pan settings and modulation, effectively
making each of the outputs a mono output.
PotMode: Relative, Passthru, Jump—The rotary controls on Mopho’s front
panel are a mixture of “endless” rotary encoders and potentiometers or “pots.”
The pots are identifiable by their lined knobs and the fact that they have about
330°of travel. There are three pot modes to determine how the synth reacts when
the programmable parameters are edited. (Master volume is not programmable,
so these modes don’t apply.)
When set to Relative, changes are relative to the stored setting. In Relative
mode, the full value range is not available until either the minimum or maximum
value and the respective lower or upper limit of the pot’s travel is reached.
For example, the Resonance parameter has a value range of 0 to 127. Let’s say
the physical position of the Resonance pot is the equivalent of a value of 100. If
you switch to a program that has a stored Resonance setting of 63 and turn the
pot all the way up, it will only go to 90. To get to the maximum value of 127,
you first have to turn down until the value is at the other extreme and the pot is
at the limit of its travel (in this case, 0 and fully counter-clockwise,
respectively).
In Passthru mode, turning the pot has no effect until after the edited value equals
the preset value (that is, until the edited value “passes through” the stored
value).
Jump mode uses an absolute value based upon the position of the pot when
edited: turn a pot and the value jumps immediately from the stored value to the
edited value.
Sustain: Norm +, Norm -, Arp +, Arp - —A momentary footswitch connected to
Mopho’s Sustain input can be used either as a sustain pedal or to latch the
10
arpeggiator. Mopho can be configured for use with either normally open (+) or
normally closed (-) footswitches. When set to Arp+ or Arp-, the footswitch will
act as a sustain pedal when the Arpeggiator is off.
Pedal: see table—Sets the destination for the Pedal/CV input. Note that this
input is heavily filtered for clean operation, so there is a limit to the speed it will
respond to changes.
Display
FootCtrl
Breath
Expressn
Volume
LpFilter
LpF Half
Pedal Routing
Routed to the Foot Control Modulation
Routed to the Breath Control Modulation
Routed to the Expression Modulation
Controls Master Volume
Routed to the low-pass filter
Routed to the low-pass filter, but with half the range
The input will also accept control voltages in the range of 0 to 3.3 volts DC. It is
protected against higher or negative voltages.
MIDI Pressure: Off, On—When On, the Mopho will respond to received MIDI
pressure (aftertouch) messages and will transmit pressure from the keyboard to
MIDI Out.
Velocity Curve: 1…4—Sets one of the four velocity curves for the keyboard to
adjust the velocity response to your playing style.
Pressure Curve: 1…4—Sets one of the four pressure curves for the keyboard to
adjust the aftertouch to your playing style.
Basic Patch—Press the Write button to load a basic patch into the edit buffer.
The patch will not actually be written to the current program location unless
intentionally written to memory in program mode using the Write button.
Reset Globals—Mopho does not have a full hardware reset, but select this
parameter and press Write to reset the global parameters to their factory
defaults.
Balance Tweak: -14…14—Adjusts the left/right output balance by
approximately +/- 4 dB.
MIDI SysEx Dump: see table—Allows dumping of Programs in SysEx format
via MIDI. Also enables the translation of Mopho Keyboard programs into
formats readable by other DSI synths. Tetra’s voice architecture and voice
program parameters are basically the same as the Mopho Keyboard’s. The
desktop Mopho’s Feedback Gain is not programmable, so some tweaking of that
control may be necessary to match the sound to the keyboard. And the Prophet’s
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voice architecture is almost identical, but lacks the sub octave generators and
feedback.
Display
Current Program
Current Bank
All Banks
Current Prog P08
CurrentProgMopho
CurrentProgTetra
Current Bank P08
CurrentBankMopho
CurrentBankTetra
MIDI Transmit Operation
Dump current program
Dump all 128 programs in current bank
Dump all programs in all 3 banks
Dump the current program in Prophet ’08 format
Dump the current program in desktop Mopho format
Dump the current program in Tetra format
Dump the current bank in Prophet ’08 format
Dump the current bank in desktop Mopho format
Dump the current bank in Tetra format
Press Write to start transmission. This feature is handy for saving Programs on a
computer in SysEx format, or for sending them to another Mopho via a direct
MIDI connection. The dumps include Program and Bank numbers, so when
received, the programs will be stored in the same location.
12
Oscillators
The Oscillators section contains the primary controls for Mopho’s two digitally
controlled analog oscillators or DCOs. “Digitally controlled” does not mean the
oscillators themselves are digital, just that the oscillators’ frequencies are under
digital—rather than voltage—control. The advantage to that is that the tuning is
exceptionally stable over a ten-octave range without having to compensate for
variables like temperature. The audio signal path is still completely analog.
Oscillator Select—Choose oscillator 1, oscillator 2, of both. When both 1 and 2
are selected, changes made to the other oscillator parameters affect both
oscillators.
Frequency: C 0…C 10—Sets the base oscillator frequency over a 10 octave
range, from 8 Hz to 8KHz, stepping in semitones. C3 is middle C, the first
octave is 0 (C0, C#0, etc.), the second octave is 1 (C1, C#1, etc.), and so on.
Fine Frequency: -50…+50—Fine tune control with a range of a quartertone up
or down. Zero is centered. Steps are in cents (50 cents = 1/2 semitone).
Shape Select: Sawtooth, Triangle, Saw-Tri, Square, Off—Selects the oscillator
waveshape. If none of the shapes are lighted, the oscillator is off.
Sawtooth
Triangle
Saw-Triangle
Square
Pulse Width: 0...99—Sets the pulse width or duty cycle of the square wave. A
value of 50 results in a true square wave with equal alternating high and low
levels. Increasing or decreasing the value from 50 causes the waveshape to
become asymetrical. Lower values narrow the postive-going portion of the
13
wave, higher values widen it. At the extreme values, the pulse goes completely
flat, which allows for some interesting possibilities with pulse width modulation.
0
50
99
Pulse Width
Glide: 0...127—Sets the oscillator glide (portamento) rate. Glide can be set
independently for each oscillator. Low values are faster. See also “Glide Mode”
in Other Oscillator Parameters.
Sub Octave: 0...127—Controls the level of a square wave pitched one octave
below oscillator 1 or two octaves below oscillator 2.
Other Oscillator Parameters
These additional, less performance-oriented oscillator controls are found in the
Miscellaneous Parameters section.
Oscillator Sync: Off, On—Turns oscillator hard sync on. With sync on,
whenever oscillator 2 resets, oscillator 1 is forced to restart.
Oscillator 1
Oscillator 2
Oscillator 1
synced to
Oscillator 2
Tip: Try routing an envelope or the mod wheel to oscillator 1 frequency
for the familiar sync sweep sound.
Oscillator 1 Keyboard Tracking: Off, On—Turns keyboard tracking off or on
for oscillator 1.
Oscillator 2 Keyboard Tracking: Off, On—Turns keyboard tracking off or on
for oscillator 2.
Oscillator Slop: 0...5—The amount of random oscillator frequency tuning slop.
The analog oscillators in Mopho are very accurate, and will not drift. This works
great for accurate sounds, and allows precise de-tuning. Oscillator Slop allows
subtle amounts of frequency drift. For larger amounts, use a random LFO or
white noise mod.
14
Glide Mode: FixRate, FixRate A, FixTime, FixTime A—Determines how the
oscillators respond when Glide is on.
FixRate: The time to transition between notes varies with the interval between
the notes; the greater the interval, the longer the transition time. The glide rate is
fixed.
FixRate A: The same as FixRate, but glide is only applied when playing legato.
That is, glide only occurs when a note is held until the next note is played. This
effectively allows glide to be turned on and off from the keyboard.
FixTime: Glide is set to a fixed time, regardless of the interval between notes.
FixTime A: The same as FixTime, but glide only occurs when playing legato.
Pitch Wheel Range: 0...12—Sets the bend range, in semitones, of the pitch
wheel. The setting is the range in the positive or negative direction. For
example, a setting of 7 lets you bend a note up or down by a fifth.
Key Assign: Low Note, LowRetrig, HighNote, HighRetrig, LastNote,
LastRetrig—Key Assign (aka note priority) determines what note gets priority
when more than one note is played on the keyboard or via MIDI. Low-note
priority is most common in vintage synths and is often used for playing trills by
holding a note and repeatedly tapping a lower note. LowRetrig causes the
envelopes to be retriggered with each keystroke. HighNote and HighRetrig are
similar to the low note settings, except that the highest note is given priority.
And LastNote and LastRetrig give priority to the last note played.
15
Mixer
The Mixer section balances the levels of the outputs of the Oscillators section
and noise generator, and the Audio In/feedback loop before routing the summed
signals to the low-pass filter.
Mix: 0...127—Mixes the outputs of oscillators 1 and 2 in varying amounts. A
setting of 0 is equivalent to 100% oscillator 1 and 0% oscillator 2. A setting of
127 is just the opposite. A setting of 64 is a 50/50 mix of both oscillators.
Feedback Level/External Volume Level: 0...127—Left Out is normalled to
Audio In. (The Voice Architecture diagram on page 8 details Mopho’s signal
routing.) If nothing is plugged in to the Audio In jack, increasing the Feedback
Level causes more and more of the left output signal to be fed back into the
audio path pre-filter. As the level increases, so does the effect of the feedback.
When an audio cable is inserted in Audio In, the feedback loop is broken and the
audio is processed by Mopho’s filter and VCA. In conjunction with the gain
control, Audio In will accept a fairly wide range of signal levels from low-level
sources like guitars to hotter, line-level signals. For more information, see Using
Audio In on page 37.
Feedback Gain/External Input Gain: 0...127—Feedback Gain boosts the level
of the feedback signal and is interactive with and dependent upon Feedback
Volume. If Feedback Volume is set to 0, then Feedback Gain has no effect.
(There is no feedback signal to boost.) However, Feedback Gain combined with
higher levels of Feedback Volume can result in effects ranging from pleasing
distortion to squirrelly harmonic weirdness.
This control is also used to boost the gain of signals processed via Audio In. For
line-level signals, additional gain is typically unnecessary. For low-level signals,
such as those from passive guitars or basses, External Input Gain boosts the
signal to more useful levels.
Noise: 0...127—Controls the volume of the white noise generator.
16
Filter
Mopho features a selectable 2- or 4-pole, low-pass filter.
4-Pole—Selects the filter configuration. When lighted, the filter is in 4-pole
mode. A 4-pole, low-pass filter rolls off frequencies above the cutoff frequency
at a slope of 24dB/octave. When the light is off, the filter is in 2-pole mode and
has a slope of 12dB/octave and a more gradual rolloff of the higher frequencies.
Frequency: 0...164—Sets the base filter cutoff frequency over more than 13
octaves. This control steps in semitones when turned slowly, but smoothly
controls the filter without steps when turned at a faster rate.
Resonance: 0...127—Emphasizes a narrow band of frequencies around the
cutoff frequency. In 4-pole mode, high levels of resonance can cause the filter to
self oscillate. In 2-pole mode, resonance is much more subtle.
Audio Mod: 0...127—Controls the amount of audio from oscillator 1 used to
modulate the filter cutoff frequency. For filter-only audio, set the oscillator Mix
to 127, oscillator 2 Shape to Off, and oscillator 1 Shape to the desired
waveshape. This is useful for bell-like FM sounds. A wide range of sounds can
also be made using Audio Mod with the oscillators routed normally through the
filter.
Key Amount: 0...127—Sets the amount of modulation from the keyboard to the
filter cutoff. A setting of 64 will step the filter in one semitone increments for
each note, 32 would be quartertones, and so on.
17
Envelopes
Mopho has three 5-stage (Delay + ADSR) envelope generators. Two are
dedicated—one to the filter and the other to the amplifier—and the third is
assignable to any modulation destination.
Envelope Select—Selects the envelope to edit. When all three are lighted, the
other envelope parameters control all three envelopes simultaneously.
Amount: -127...127—Sets the amount of modulation from the envelope to the
destination: filter, amplifier, or the selected destination for envelope 3. The
modulation amount can be positive or negative, allowing for inverted envelope
control. (For the VCA, the range is 0-127, since you can't have a negative gain
on a VCA!)
Delay: 0...127—Sets a delay between the time the envelope is gated on and
when the Attack portion actually begins
Attack: 0...127—Sets the attack time of the selected envelope(s).
Decay: 0...127—Sets the decay time of the selected envelope(s).
Sustain: 0...127—Sets the sustain time of the selected envelope(s).
Release: 0...127—Sets the release time of the selected envelope(s).
Velocity: 0...127—Sets the amount of key velocity used to modulate the
envelope amount.
Other Envelope Parameters
There are two additional parameters for envelope 3 in the Miscellaneous
Parameters section.
Envelope 3 Destination—Sets the destination modulated by envelope 3. See
Modulation Destinations on page 33 for a list of possible destinations.
Envelope 3 Repeat: Off, On—When on, causes the delay, attack, decay, and
sustain portions of Envelope 3 to loop for as long as the envelope is gated on.
With repeat on, envelope 3 can even be used as a sort of complex LFO.
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LFO
Mopho has four low frequency oscillators (LFOs). The LFOs can be freerunning, synced to keystrokes, or synced to the sequencer and MIDI clock. To
edit the LFO parameters, choose LFO in the Modulation section.
LFO Select: 1, 2, 3, 4—Chooses the LFO to edit.
Tip: The four numbered lights above the Frequency knob pulse at the
frequency of the corresponding LFO. This can be a great aid in knowing
which LFO to select for editing.
Destination—See Modulation Destinations on page 33 for a list of possible
destinations.
Amount: 0...127—Sets the amount of LFO routed to the destination.
Shape: Triangle, Reverse Sawtooth, Sawtooth, Square, Sample and Hold—The
waveshape of the LFO. Sample and Hold generates a random value that changes
once per cycle.
Frequency: 0...150—Sets the LFO frequency. Speed ranges from slow (30
seconds) to very fast—at 90 (8 HZ, C-2) and above the speed steps in semitones,
up to 150 (261 Hz, middle C).
Note: Some of the analog functions may not respond well to the fastest
LFO speeds, due to speed limitations of the control voltages; but they
will certainly generate some interesting sounds.
Clock Sync—When on, the LFO syncs to the sequencer and clock—either the
internal clock or an external MIDI clock. When synced to the internal clock,
BPM and Clock Divide both affect LFO frequency. When synced to an external
clock, the external clock rate and Clock Divide affect the LFO frequency.
Editing Frequency shows the values in the following table.
19
Display
Timing Sync
32 Steps
16 Steps
8 Steps
6 Steps
4 Steps
3 Steps
2 Steps
1.5 Step
1 Step
2/3 Step
1/2 Step
1/3 Step
1/4 Step
1/6 Step
1/8 Step
1/16Step
Sequence speed divided by 32; one LFO cycle takes 32 steps
Sequence speed divided by 16
Sequence speed divided by 8
Sequence speed divided by 6
Sequence speed divided by 4
Sequence speed divided by 3
Sequence speed divided by 2
Sequence speed divided by 1.5
One cycle per step
Two cycles every three steps
Two cycles per step
Three cycles per step
Four cycles per step
Six cycles per step
Eight cycles per step
Sixteen cycles per step
Tip: Use Clock Sync to modulate a parameter in time with the sequencer.
For example, an LFO set to a triangle wave and a frequency of 16 steps
can modulate the filter frequency for a sweep that is perfectly synced to
the sequencer.
Key Sync—When on, the LFO is re-started each time a new note is played. Key
Sync is set independently on each LFO.
20
Sequencer
For many musicians, the term sequencer has become synonymous with MIDI
sequencer; that is, a computer-based application or dedicated hardware device
for recording and playing back notes and performance gestures via MIDI. But
sequencers were around long before MIDI. Mopho’s sequencer is much more
like the original analog sequencers typically associated with modular synthesizer
systems. The sequencer comprises four 16-step sequences that play in parallel.
Each sequence can be routed to a chosen destination, and each step in a
sequence can be set to a different value used to modulate that destination.
S
e
q
u
e
n
c
e
Steps
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16
1
Dest. 1
2
Dest. 2
3
Dest. 3
4
Dest. 4
v = step value
Strictly speaking, Mopho’s sequencer does not play notes, nor does it transmit
MIDI data. If none of the sequence destinations are routed to oscillator
frequency, the sequencer may not even affect the pitch. In Mopho terms, a
sequence is just a series of events at timed intervals that changes the value of
one of the synth’s parameters in discrete steps. Because the four sequences play
in parallel, up to four parameters can be affected by each step, one per sequence.
For the most part, the sequence destinations are the same as the modulation
destinations, which is appropriate: a sequence is just another modulation source.
For each sequence step, the envelopes are gated on for half the step’s duration.
The duration varies according to the BPM and Clock Divide settings (or the
MIDI clock, if synced to an external source). The envelope settings of the
current program ultimately determine how long each step plays, though, and
longer (more legato) or shorter (more staccato) effects can be achieved by
editing the envelope rates.
Mopho’s sequencer is a gated sequencer. That means it requires a note to be
gated on—that is played from the keyboard, the Push It button, or via MIDI—in
order for the sequencer to run. There is no dedicated start or play button and it
21
does not respond to MIDI start/stop/continue messages, but it can still sync to an
external clock. Simply turn on the sequencer and then play and hold a note to
start. Or use the Push It button’s toggle feature to latch a note on with one push
and release it with another; in this case, the Push It button is essentially a
Start/Stop control.
Reset and Rest
Sequences have a maximum of 16 steps, but they can have fewer—from 1 to
15—using Reset. (Sequences of 16 steps reset automatically.) Reset appears
immediately after the highest value setting for a step. Setting a step to Reset
causes the sequence to jump back to the first step and continue playing.
Reset is set separately for each of the four sequences, so it must be set at the
same step in all four sequences to shorten all the sequences equally. The
following illustration shows an example in which all the sequences are eight
steps in length.
S
e
q
u
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n
c
e
Steps
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16
1
Dest. 1
2
Dest. 2
3
Dest. 3
4
Dest. 4
v = step value; R = Reset
Tip: Using Reset while programming a sequence can be helpful. For
example, when programming a specific melodic line, start by shortening
the sequence to four or eight steps until those steps are set, and then
gradually move the reset point to lengthen the loop until the desired
number of steps is playing.
Sequences do not have to be the same length, however, which makes for some
very interesting, less repetitive patterns, particularly when sequences are set to
odd and even numbers of steps.
S
e
q
u
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n
c
e
Steps
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16
1
Dest. 1
2
Dest. 2
3
Dest. 3
4
Dest. 4
v = step value; R = Reset
22
Sequence one has an additional value, Rest, that appears in the list after Reset.
Rest prevents the envelopes from being gated by the corresponding step, so a
rest in sequence one affects all four sequences. If the sequences are the same
length, rests will occur in the same place in all four sequences as they loop. If
the sequences are different lengths, the rests in sequence one apply to whatever
the current step happens to be in sequences two through four, resulting in a more
random-sounding pattern (which can be really cool). In the following example,
sequence one is 16 steps long and rests occur at steps 2, 6, 9, and 12. However,
sequence two is only eight steps long, so rests occur at steps 2 and 6 the first
time it plays through and then at steps 1 and 4—corresponding to steps 9 and 12
in sequence one—the first time it repeats. As sequence two loops, the rests will
continue in the same alternating pattern.
S
e
q
u
e
n
c
e
Steps
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16
1
Dest. 1
2
Dest. 2
3
Dest. 3
4
Dest. 4
v = step value; r = rest; R = Reset
Programming the Sequencer
Programming the sequencer is easy, but there are a few things to consider before
you start. Most importantly, what do you want the sequence to do and what
modulation destinations will provide the results you’re seeking? For example, is
the sequencer going to control oscillator frequency? One sequence can control
the frequency of both oscillators or one sequence can control oscillator 1 and
another sequence can control oscillator 2 for harmonies or countermelodies. A
typical application of the sequencer might have sequence one routed to the
frequency of both oscillators, sequence two routed to filter cutoff, sequence
three routed to filter resonance, and sequence four routed to amplifier envelope
amount for accents. Many of the factory programs have sequences programmed,
so you can refer to those to see how certain effects are being achieved.
To program a sequence:
1.
Turn the sequencer on.
2.
Choose Sequencer in the Modulation section.
3.
Choose the sequence to program: 1, 2, 3, or 4.
4.
Play a note to start the sequence playing.
23
To avoid having to hold a key down, set the Push It Mode (Misc.
Parameters) to Toggle. Then use Push It to start and stop the sequencer.
You may also want to change the Push It Note, the BPM, and the Clock
Divide.
5.
Choose a destination for the sequence.
6.
Use the Step and Value controls to enter the desired values.
As the sequence loops, you will hear your edits.
7.
Choose another sequence and follow the same basic steps until you’re
happy with the results.
8.
Dont forget to write your edits to memory! Sequences are saved with
the related program. Just press Write and then Yes to save the program
and sequences.
More Sequencer Parameters
The previous section covers the basics of sequencer programming, but there are
some additional parameters that affect the sound and user interaction with the
sequencer.
Slew
In modular analog synthesizers, a lag processor or slew limiter is used to create
a time-varying change—a smooth transition—between successive, discrete
control voltage levels. The rate of change is called the slew rate and one
common application is to create a glide (aka portamento) effect between notes.
Among the possible destinations for Mopho sequences two and four is a
sequence-only parameter called Slew. Slew behaves a little differently from the
other modulation destinations, in that it is not really a destination at all; instead,
it affects the sequence above it. That is, if Slew is the chosen destination for
sequence two, it controls sequence one, and Slew in sequence four controls
sequence three.
In Mopho’s sequencer, Slew sets the slew rate between the previous step’s value
and the current step’s value when the step is gated on. Confused yet? This
should help: let’s say sequence one is routed to oscillator frequency and
sequence two to Slew. Increasing the Slew value for step four will cause the
oscillator frequency to glide from the step three value when step four is gated
on. The higher the Slew value, the slower the slew rate. And the slew rate can be
different for each step. But its not just for oscillator glide. Slew can be applied to
any of the destinations. For example, sequence three could be routed to filter
cutoff with Slew in sequence four used to create a less abrupt transition from
one step to the next.
24
Note: Depending upon the BPM and Clock Divide settings, the slew rate
can actually exceed the time the envelopes are gated on, causing a step in
the affected sequence to not reach its set value. For example, if Slew is
applied to oscillator frequency, high Slew values may cause a step to
sound flat or sharp. If that’s not what you want, simply reduce the Slew
value.
Sequencer Trigger Modes
The Sequencer Trigger mode determines how the sequencer reacts to triggers
and what constitutes a trigger. Sequencer Trigger is found in the Miscellaneous
Parameters section. The different modes are:
Normal–A note on, from either the local keyboard or via MIDI, causes the
sequencer to play from the first step. The sequencer resets to step one each time
a new note is played. Each sequence step gates the envelopes.
No Reset–As above, but the sequencer does not reset to step one for each note
played. The sequencer is effectively free running.
No Gate–The keyboard gates the envelopes, but the sequencer does not. The
sequencer resets to step one each time a new note is played.
NoGateNR–As above, but the sequencer does not reset to step one for each note
played. Again, the sequencer is effectively free running.
Key Step–Striking any key or playing a note via MIDI advances the sequencer
one step.
Audio In–Steps the sequencer and gates the envelopes when a signal at Audio In
exceeds a preset threshold. External Volume does not affect the trigger and can
be set at minimum. External Gain does boost the signal prior to the threshold
detector and so will affect the triggering. And the level of the input signal will
also have an effect.
Syncing an LFO to the Sequencer
One very useful way to modulate a parameter in sync with a sequence is using
an LFO with Clock Sync. A setting of 16 Steps for LFO Frequency with a
triangle wave selected and routed to the filter will provide a clean filter sweep
over a 16-step sequence, perfectly in sync! This is much easier (and smoother)
than manually programming a sequence to sweep the filter.
25
Modulators
Modulators lets you configure the modulation routing and amount for Mopho’s
four general-purpose modulation slots.
Since each Mopho modulation source has a single destination, the four general
purpose modulators provide a way to send a mod source (such as a sequence or
LFO) to additional destinations, with a different amount. There are also
additional mod sources available here, such as Noise, allowing a wide variety of
possibilities.
To configure a general-purpose modulation slot, select Modulators and choose
the appropriate modulator: 1, 2, 3, or 4. Then use the Source, Destination, and
Amount parameters to route the modulation as desired.
Source—Selects a modulation source. See Modulation Sources on page 32 for
possible sources.
Amount: -127…+127—Sets the amount of modulation.
Destination—Selects a modulation destination. See Modulation Destinations on
page 33 for a list of possible destinations.
26
Miscellaneous Modulators
There are certain standard controllers that Mopho consigns to dedicated
modulators, things like mod wheel, pressure (aka aftertouch), and velocity. The
most obvious benefits to doing this is it provides a shortcut to setting up
commonly used controllers and it frees up the four general-purpose mod slots
for other, more Mopho-specific applications. Select Misc Mod in the
Modulation section to get started.
Source: Mod Wheel (MIDI CC#1), Pressure, Breath Controller (MIDI CC#2),
Velocity, Foot Controller (MIDI CC#4)—Selects the modulation source. The
source can also be changed using the 1-4 button, though the 1-4 LEDs do not
change.
Note: There is a global parameter called Pedal for routing an expression
pedal to various controllers or directly to the filter cutoff. See Global
Parameters on page 9 for more information.
Destination—Chooses the destination to which the modulation source is routed.
See Modulation Destinations on page 33 for a list of possible destinations.
Amount: -127…+127—Sets the amount of modulation.
27
Clock
The Clock section contains the controls for the internal clock tempo and the note
value for the arpeggiator and sequencer (and LFO, when Clock Sync is on).
There are also switches to turn the arpeggiator and sequencer on and off.
Arpeggiator—Turns Mopho’s arpeggiator on and off. The tempo and note value
are determined by the BPM and Clock Divide settings. Arpeggiator Mode is set
in Miscellaneous Parameters. The different modes are:
Mode
Up
Down
Up Down
Assign
Random
2 Octaves Up
2 Octaves Down
2 Octaves Up Down
2 Octaves Assign
2 Octaves Random
3 Octaves Up
3 Octaves Down
3 Octaves Up Down
3 Octaves Assign
3 Octaves Random
Behavior
Plays from lowest to highest note.
Plays from highest to lowest note.
Plays from lowest to highest and back to lowest.
Plays notes in the order keys were pressed.
Randomly plays notes.
Plays keyed notes and the same notes one octave higher, from
lowest to highest.
Plays keyed notes and the same notes one octave higher, from
highest to lowest.
Plays keyed notes and the same notes one octave higher, from
lowest to highest and back to lowest.
Plays a keyed note, then the same note one octave higher, in
the order keys were pressed.
Randomly plays keyed notes and the same notes one octave
higher.
Plays keyed notes and the same notes one and two octaves
higher, from lowest to highest.
Plays keyed notes and the same notes one and two octaves
higher, from highest to lowest.
Plays keyed notes and the same notes one and two octaves
higher, from lowest to highest and back to lowest.
Plays a keyed note, then the same note one and two octaves
higher, in the order keys were pressed.
Randomly plays keyed notes and the same notes one and two
octaves higher.
Briefly hold the Arpeggiator switch down to latch arpeggiated notes. (The light
will blink when latched.) Playing additional notes while latched adds them to the
notes already playing.
28
The Arpeggiator can also be latched with a footswitch connected to the Sustain
jack. See “Sustain” in Global Parameters on page 9.
The Arpeggiator (and Sequencer) can also sync to MIDI clock from an external
sequencer or other device. See “Clock” in Global Parameters on page 9 for
more information.
Sequencer—Turns Mopho’s gated sequencer on and off. See Sequencer on
page 21 for more information.
BPM: 30…250—Sets the tempo for the sequencer in BPM (beats per minute).
The accompanying light flashes on the beat. When syncing to an external MIDI
clock source, the BPM control has no effect.
Clock Divide—Sets the note value for each sequencer or arpeggiator step
relative to the BPM. Also affects the LFO frequency when LFO Clock Sync is
on. Clock Divide works with both internal and external clock sources. The
following table lists the Clock Divide values.
Display
Half
Quartr
Eighth
8 half
8swing
8 trip
16th
16half
16swng
16trip
32nd
32trip
64trip
Tempo
BPM/2
BPM
BPM x 2
BPM x 2
BPM x 2
BPM x 3
BPM x 4
BPM x 4
BPM x 4
BPM x 6
BPM x 8
BPM x 12
BPM x 24
Timing Division
Half note
Quarter note
Eighth note
Eighth note, half swing timing
Eighth note, full swing timing
Eighth note triplets
Sixteenth note
Sixteenth note, half swing timing
Sixteenth note, full swing timing
Sixteenth note triplets
Thirty-second note
Thirty-second note triplets
Sixty-fourth note triplets
Note: BPM is based on quarter notes, so clock divisions are relative to a
quarter-note beat. For example, when Clock Divide is set to Eighth, two
notes or steps will play per beat.
29
Miscellaneous Parameters
Miscellaneous Parameters groups together programmable parameters that do not
conveniently fall into any obvious section or, if they do, are parameters that are
less frequently used. They are important, but generally not required for
performance.
Voice Volume: 0…127—Sets the volume of the current program to match
volumes between programs.
Note: There is enough gain in the synth voice that with some settings,
some mild clipping distortion may be heard. If this happens, try lowering
the Voice Volume, and/or the Amp Envelope Amount (or Amp Envelope
Velocity).
Name—The lower line of the LCD displays the name of the current program.
Use the Name parameter to edit the name. When Name is selected, a character
blinks to indicate that it is active. To edit the character, use the Value knob, the
Param 2 knob, or the +/Yes or -/No switches. Use the Param 1 knob to edit
another character.
Oscillator Sync, Keyboard Tracking, Slop, Glide Mode, Pitch Wheel Range,
and Key Assign are described under “Other Oscillator Parameters” in
Oscillators on page 14.
Sequence Trigger isdescribed under “Sequence Trigger Modes” in Sequencer
on page 25.
Arpeggiator Mode is part of the Arpeggiator description in Clock on page 28.
Envelope 3 Destination and Envelope 3 Repeat are described under “Other
Envelope Parameters” in Envelopes on page 18.
VCA Level: 0…127—Sets a base level for the VCA (Voltage Controlled
Amplifier). This essentially allows the VCA to be bypassed for programs that
drone.
Note: If VCA Level is on full, Envelope Amount has no effect. For
normal operation from the keyboard, VCA Level should be set to 0. For
30
droning sounds, or possibly when using Mopho to process external audio,
turn the VCA Level up.
Push It Mode: Normal, Toggle, Audio In—When set to Normal, Push It responds
like a key: press it and a note plays, release it and the note ends. But when set to
Toggle, Push It turns the note on with one press and off with a second press.
This is handy for making a note drone or for latching a gated sequence on.
Somewhat related, the Audio In setting will generate a gate from Audio In.
When the audio signal gets above a certain fixed level, the gate will go on.
When it drops below that level, the gate will go off.
Push It Note: C0…C10—Sets the note that plays when Push It is pressed.
Push It Velocity: 0…127—Sets the MIDI note-on velocity.
Unison On/Off—Why does a monophonic synthesizer need a Unison switch?
Because it might be poly chained to another DSI synth, the Tetra being the
obvious choice—five voices of analog power, in a very small footprint!
Unison Mode—Sets how voices are allocated and tuned when unison is on.
Display
1 Voice
All Voices
AllDetune1-3
Mode
Classic, two oscillator, monophonic mode
All available voices in unison
All available voices in unison with increasing
levels of detuning among the voices
31
Modulation Sources
Display
Off
Sequence1
Sequence2
Sequence3
Sequence4
LFO 1
LFO 2
LFO 3
LFO 4
Filt Env1
VCA Env 2
Envelope3
PitchBend
Mod Wheel
Pressure
MidBreath
Midi Foot
Midi Exp
Velocity
KeyNumber
Noise
EnvFollow
Peak Hold
32
Source
No source selected
Sequence 1
Sequence 2
Sequence 3
Sequence 4
LFO 1
LFO 2
LFO 3
LFO 4
Filter Envelope
Amp (VCA) Envelope
Envelope 3
Pitch Bend
Mod Wheel
Pressure (Aftertouch)
MIDI - Breath Controller
MIDI - Foot Controller
MIDI - Expression
Keyboard Note Velocity
Keyboard Note Number
Noise
Audio In Envelope Follower
Audio In Peak Hold
Modulation Destinations
Display
Off
Osc 1 Freq
Osc 2 Freq
OscAllFreq
Osc Mix
NoiseLevel
Osc1 PulsW
Osc2 PulsW
Osc All PW
Low Pass
Resonance
Audio Mod
VCA Level
Output Pan
LFO 1 Freq
LFO 2 Freq
LFO 3 Freq
LFO 4 Freq
LFOAllFreq
LFO 1 Amt
LFO 2 Amt
LFO 3 Amt
LFO 4 Amt
LFOAll Amt
Env 1 Amt
Env 2 Amt
Env 3 Amt
EnvAll Amt
Env1Attack
Env2Attack
Env3Attack
EnvAll Att
Env1 Decay
Env2 Decay
Env3 Decay
EnvAll Dec
Env1Releas
Env2Releas
Env3Releas
EnvAll Rel
Mod 1 Amt
Mod 2 Amt
Destination
No destination selected
Oscillator 1 Frequency
Oscillator 2 Frequency
Oscillator 1 and 2 Frequency
Oscillator Mix
Noise Level
Oscillator 1 Pulse Width
Oscillator 2 Pulse Width
All Oscillators Pulse Width
Lowpass Filter Frequency
Resonance
Audio Mod Amount
VCA Amount
Stereo Pan Position
LFO 1 Frequency
LFO 2 Frequency
LFO 3 Frequency
LFO 4 Frequency
All LFO Frequencies
LFO 1 Amount
LFO 2 Amount
LFO 3 Amount
LFO 4 Amount
All LFO Amounts
Envelope 1 Amount (Level)
Envelope 2 Amount (Level)
Envelope 3 Amount (Level)
All Envelope Amounts (Levels)
Envelope 1 Attack Rate
Envelope 2 Attack Rate
Envelope 3 Attack Rate
All Envelope Attack Rates
Envelope 1 Decay Rate
Envelope 2 Decay Rate
Envelope 3 Decay Rate
All Envelope Decay Rates
Envelope 1 Release Rate
Envelope 2 Release Rate
Envelope 3 Release Rate
All Envelope Release Rates
Modulator 1 Amount
Modulator 2 Amount
33
Mod 3 Amt
Mod 4 Amt
Fback Vol
Sub Osc 1
Sub Osc 2
Fback Gain
Slew
Modulator 3 Amount
Modulator 4 Amount
Feedback Volume
Sub Oscillator 1 Level
Sub Oscillator 2 Level
Feedback Gain
Sequencer Slew*
*Appears as a destination in sequences 2 and 4 only.
34
Using USB
Mopho’s USB 2.0 port enables bidirectional MIDI communication with a
computer. A MIDI interface and MIDI cables are not necessary, just a USB
cable. Mopho is a Class Compliant USB device. That means it does not require
any additional drivers to be installed to communicate with a Mac or Windows
computer.
Mopho transmits and receives MIDI data via USB, but does not transmit audio.
Note: MIDI In and USB should not be used at the same time, as
overlapping messages from different sources may cause Mopho to
respond unpredictably. MIDI Out and USB can be used at the same time
and transmit the same data. Poly Chain Out is an independent MIDI bus
and can be used regardless of the “normal” MIDI connection.
USB Notes
Under Mac OS X, Mopho will appear as a MIDI port when connected via USB
and can be configured using the Mac’s Audio MIDI Setup application (typically
found in Applications/Utilities).
Under Windows XP, the first time Mopho is connected via USB, the “Found
new hardware” alert appears and Mopho is automatically installed—somewhat
misleadingly—as “USB Audio Device.” If there is already another Class
Compliant USB device installed, Mopho will show up as “USB Audio
Device(2)” (or 3 or 4 or...).
To determine which USB Audio Device is Mopho:
1.
Open the System Control Panel
2.
Click the Hardware tab.
3.
Click Device Manager.
4.
Expand “Sound, video, and game controllers.”
5.
Right-click any “USB Audio Device” and choose Properties from the
pop-up menu.
The General tab of the USB Audio Device Properties window displays the
Device Type, Manufacturer, and Location. For Mopho, the Location should read
“Location n (DSI Mopho).”
35
Windows Vista and Windows 7 behave the same as XP, but the device name is
DSI Mopho rather than USB Audio Device.
In Windows, if you unplug the USB cable and plug it back in while a program
has the Mopho port open, you may have to resync. That usually means going to
the USB Audio Device (or DSI Mopho) Properties, as in the procedure above,
and clicking OK. If Mopho is no longer listed in the Device Manager under
“Sound, video, and game controllers,” power Mopho down and back up again
while it is connected via USB. It should be detected on power up.
36
Using Audio In
The Audio In jack on Mopho’s rear panel can take audio from a variety of
sources, including line level signals and guitars. But what happens to it once its
inside and how do you get it out again? Simply plugging a guitar in does not
mean you will actually hear something when you play it.
Mopho’s basic audio signal path goes from oscillators to mixer to filter to VCA.
Audio In goes into the mixer. (Mopho has no pitch detection capability, so the
oscillators cannot track the pitch of the incoming signal. A pitch-to-MIDI
converter is needed to play the synth from a guitar.) So the External Volume
level must be up for Audio In to work. But you probably still won’t be able to
hear it. There are two potential obstacles in the audio signal path: the filter and
the VCA. If the filter’s cutoff frequency is turned down, audio does not pass
through. And if the VCA Level (Misc. Parameters) is down or nothing is gating
the amplifier envelope, no audio will pass through the VCA. The two most
obvious ways around the VCA are to turn the VCA Level up, essentially
bypassing the VCA, or use the sequencer to gate the envelopes. (You could also
use the keyboard to gate the envelopes, but then you start to run out of hands!)
There are two programs in Bank 1 demonstrating ways in which to use Audio
In. Ext In Env Filt (Bank 1 Program 127) is a simple envelope filter. VCA Level
is turned all the way up, allowing the audio to pass through the VCA. Both
oscillators are turned off; if they were on, you’d hear them droning because
VCA Level is turned up. Modulator 1 Source is set to EnvFollow (envelope
follower) and the destination is set to Low Pass (the filter). That means the level
of the incoming audio controls the filter’s cutoff frequency. Resonance is also
set at a moderate level, so you should hear a nice, squirty, blat at the peaks. For
low-level signals like a passive guitar or bass, you will probably need to turn
External Gain up to make it work properly.
The other program, Ext In Sequence (Bank 1 Program 128) uses the sequencer
to gate the envelopes for a pulsing, rhythmic effect. Press Push It! to latch the
sequencer on. Noise level is up, providing little percussive noise bursts. The
oscillators are still turned off. LFO 1 is synced to the sequencer and controlling
the VCA’s output panning. Sequence 1 is controlling filter cutoff. Again, you
may need to turn up External Gain for low-level signals. You can have a ton of
fun playing with just Mopho and patches like this, but if you sync to an external
sequencer or delay or both, things really get interesting!
37
Using Poly Chain
Mopho’s Poly Chain output enables it to be connected to other DSI synths for up
to 17-voice polyphony. Products that can be chained include the Tetra, Prophet
'08 (module and keyboard), desktop Mopho, and a second keyboard Mopho. It
will not chain with the Evolvers and Poly Evolvers due to the different voice
structures.
Note data from Mopho’s keyboard is intelligently processed so that, when one
synth’s maximum polyphony is reached, additional notes are passed through the
Poly Chain output and routed to the next synth in the chain. All that is required
is a single MIDI cable for each of the chained synths and a mixer for combining
the audio outputs.
Tetra is the best candidate for poly chaining with the Mopho Keyboard; the
voice architecture and programmable parameters are identical. The desktop
Mopho or Prophet ’08 will also work, but there are some differences between
these synths and the Mopho Keyboard:
• The desktop Mopho’s Feedback Gain control is not programmable and may
need to be tweaked manually to match the Mopho Keyboard. Programs that
don’t use feedback sound the same on both models.
• The Prophet does not have feedback or sub octave generators.
• Both the Prophet and Tetra have two layers for stacked and split programs;
Mopho does not. When Prophet or Tetra programs are loaded into Mopho,
layer B is ignored.
You should have the same programs loaded into all the chained synths. The
easiest way to do that is to use the Dump command in the Global menu to dump
the programs via MIDI from one synth to the other(s).
The Poly Chain parameter is in the global menu. On the Mopho Keyboard, set
Poly Chain to the number of additional voices that will be chained: Out 1 (for
poly chaining a Mopho), Out 4, Out 5, Out 8, Out 12, or Out 16. Refer to the
illustration on page 40 for examples of the Poly Chain settings on the slave
units.
You can now virtually ignore the slave unit or units, since the controls on the
master will control all units as if they were a single synth. This includes saving a
program; if you save an edited program on the master, it will also save the
program on the slave(s).
38
Note: If syncing to an external MIDI clock, set MIDI Clock (Global
menu) on the master and any intermediate units to MIDI In/Out. Set the
last instrument in the chain to MIDI In.
When Poly Chain is set to Off, the Poly Chain MIDI out jack simply duplicates
the MIDI out jack.
39
Mopho Kybd.
2 Voices:
Poly
Chain
Out
Mopho
MIDI
In
Out 1
Mopho Kybd.
5 Voices:
6 Voices:
9 Voices:
9 Voices:
13 Voices:
13 Voices:
Poly
Chain
Out
MIDI
In
Out 4
In End
Mopho Kybd.
Tetra
Poly
Chain
Out
Poly
Chain
Out
MIDI
In
Out 5
InOut4
Mopho Kybd.
Tetra
Poly
Chain
Out
Poly
Chain
Out
MIDI
In
Out 8
InOut4
Mopho Kybd.
Prophet
Poly
Chain
Out
In
Mopho Kybd.
Tetra
Poly
Chain
Out
Mopho
MIDI
In
Tetra
MIDI
In
In End
MIDI
In
Out 8
MIDI
In
Poly
Chain
Out
Tetra
Poly
Chain
Out
MIDI
In
Out 12
InOut8
InOut4
Mopho Kybd.
Tetra
Prophet
Poly
Chain
Out
Out 12
40
Tetra
MIDI
In
Poly
Chain
Out
InOut8
MIDI
In
In
Tetra
MIDI
In
In End
Support
Troubleshooting
Here are a few suggestions for resolving problems that may occur.
The sequencer has stopped running.
Make sure Clock in the Global menu is set to Internal.
Some of the programs sound different.
Check the Mod Wheel position. The Mod Wheel can do a lot more than just add
vibrato. Also, some of the programs use the sequencer to shape the sound so
make sure Clock in the Global menu is set to Internal.
There is a ground hum in the audio output.
USB can cause ground loops, so try to resolve any grounding issues between the
computer and Mopho. Or use MIDI, which is opto-isolated.
Mopho is behaving erratically.
This is almost always caused by a MIDI data loop. Make sure that any MIDI
Thru functionality is turned off on the MIDI interface/hardware or in the MIDI
software application (sequencer or whatever). Disconnect all Mopho’s MIDI
connections—MIDI and USB cables—and see if the problem persists. You can
also monitor the MIDI traffic with MIDI Monitor (Mac OS) or MIDI-OX
(Windows) to see if Mopho is being overrun with duplicate messages.
An oscillator or the filter sounds strange or out of tune.
Hold Compare and press Osc Shape to run the calibration routine.
Note: It is not necessary to run the calibration routine on a regular basis.
You should only run it if you are experiencing problems.
Still experiencing a problem with Mopho? Reset the Global parameters (in the
Global menu).
Contacting Technical Support
If you are still having a problem with Mopho, contact Technical Support at
support@davesmithinstruments.com. Please include your Mopho’s serial
number, the version of the operating systems (Main and Voice displayed on
startup), and the purchase date.
Note: If you have not already reset the Global parameters and run the
calibration routine (see Troubleshooting above), you should do it before
contacting Technical Support. It’s probably the first thing they’ll ask you
to do.
41
Warranty Repair
Dave Smith Instruments warrants that Mopho will be free from defects in
materials and/or workmanship for 1 year from the date of purchase. Please
register your product online at www.davesmithinstruments.com to establish the
date of purchase. (This is not a requirement for warranty service, but it will help
expedite the process.)
Please contact support@davesmithinstruments.com to determine the best course
of action for getting your Mopho repaired. For your own protection, as well as
ours, please do not return any product to Dave Smith Instruments without a
return authorization (RA) number. To issue an RA number, Technical
Support needs:
• Your name
• Your return address
• Your email address
• A phone number where you can be reached
• Your Mopho’s serial number
• The date of purchase and where purchased
If you need to return your instrument for repair, you are responsible for getting it
to DSI. We highly recommend insuring it and packing in the original packaging.
Damage resulting from shipping a product with insufficient packaging is not
covered by warranty.
42
MIDI Implementation
Mopho receives MIDI data according to the mode controls under GLOBAL. In
addition, there is interaction between some of the Program parameters that
determine the overall response of Mopho to MIDI data.
Following are the Global parameters that affect response to MIDI:
MIDI Channel: ALL, 1…16 — Selects the MIDI channel to send and receive
data, 1 to 16. All receives on any channel.
Clock: see table — Selects the MIDI clock status as follows:
Display
Internal
MIDI Clock Setting
MIDI clock is neither sent nor received
MIDI Out
MIDI clock is sent
MIDI In
MIDIn/Out
MIDI clock is received
MIDI clock is received and transmitted
MIDI Parameter Send: NRPN, CC, Off — Changes to the values of Mopho’s
front panel controls are transmitted via MIDI as Non-registered Parameter
Number (NRPN) controllers or as Continuous Controllers (CC). Transmission of
parameters can also be turned off.
MIDI Parameter Receive: All, NRPN, CC, Off — Sets the method by which
Mopho receives parameter changes via MIDI. As with transmission, NRPNs are
the preferred method, though some controllers may only be able to send CCs.
MIDI Control: Off, On — When On, the synth will respond to MIDI controllers,
including Pitch Wheel, Mod Wheel, Pedal, Breath, Volume, and Expression.
MIDI SysEx: Off, On — When On, the synth will respond to received MIDI
SysEx messages, and will transmit them, when prompted, to the MIDI Out.
43
MIDI Messages
System Real-time Messages
Status
1111 1000
Description
MIDI Timing Clock
Received Channel Messages
Status
1000 nnnn
1001 nnnn
1010 nnnn
1011 nnnn
Second
0kkkkkkk
0kkkkkkk
0kkkkkkk
0vvvvvvv
1100 nnnn
0ppppppp
1101 nnnn
1110 nnnn
0vvvvvvv
0vvvvvvv
Notes:
0kkkkkkk
nnnn
Third
0vvvvvvv
0vvvvvvv
0vvvvvvv
0vvvvvvv
0vvvvvvv
Description
Note Off. Velocity is ignored
Note On. Note off if vvvvvvv = 0
Polyphonic Key Pressure
Control Change; see “Received Controller
Messages” table following
Program change, 0-127 for Programs 1-128
within current Bank
Channel Pressure
Pitch Bend LS Byte then MS Byte
Note number 0 — 127
Channel number 0 to 15 (MIDI channel 1-16). Ignored if MIDI
channel set to ALL
Value
0vvvvvvv
Received Controller Messages
Status
1011 nnnn
1011 nnnn
1011 nnnn
1011 nnnn
Second
1
2
4
7
Third
0vvvvvvv
0vvvvvvv
0vvvvvvv
0vvvvvvv
1011 nnnn
74
0vvvvvvv
1011 nnnn
11
0vvvvvvv
1011 nnnn
32
0vvvvvvv
1011 nnnn
64
0vvvvvvv
1011 nnnn
1011 nnnn
123
121
0vvvvvvv
0vvvvvvv
Description
Mod Wheel — directly assignable controller
Breath Controller — directly assignable controller
Foot Controller — directly assignable controller
Volume — Combined with Master Volume and
Voice Volume
Brightness — Added to low-pass filter cutoff
frequency
Expression Controller — directly assignable
controller
Bank Select — 0 - 2 select banks 1 - 3; others
ignored
Damper pedal — holds envelopes in Sustain if
0100 0000 or higher
All Notes Off — clear all MIDI notes
Reset All Controllers — clears all MIDI
controllers to 0, MIDI volume to maximum
See sections below for additional Continuous Controller (CC) and Nonregistered Parameter Number (NRPN) messages received.
44
Transmitted Channel Messages
Status
1000 nnnn
1001 nnnn
1011 nnnn
Second
0kkkkkkk
0kkkkkkk
0vvvvvvv
1100 nnnn
0ppppppp
1101 nnnn
1110 nnnn
0vvvvvvv
0vvvvvvv
Notes:
0kkkkkkk
nnnn
0vvvvvvv
Third
0000000
0vvvvvvv
0vvvvvvv
0vvvvvvv
Description
Note Off.
Note On.
Control Change; see “Transmitted Controller
Messages” table following
Program change, 0 – 127 for Programs 1 – 128
within current Bank
Channel Pressure
Pitch Bend LS Byte then MS Byte
Note number 0 - 127
Channel number 0 to 15 (MIDI channel 1-16). Ignored if MIDI
channel set to ALL
Value
Transmitted Controller Messages
Status
1011 nnnn
1011 nnnn
1011 nnnn
1011 nnnn
1011 nnnn
1011 nnnn
1011 nnnn
1011 nnnn
Second
0000 0001
0000 0010
0000 0100
0000 0111
0100 1010
0000 1101
0010 0000
0100 0000
Third
0vvvvvvv
0vvvvvvv
0vvvvvvv
0vvvvvvv
0vvvvvvv
0vvvvvvv
0vvvvvvv
0vvvvvvv
1011 nnnn
0000 0111
0vvvvvvv
Description
Mod Wheel
Breath Controller – when assigned to Pedal/CV
Foot Controller – when assigned to Pedal/CV
Volume – when assigned to Pedal/CV
Brightness – when assigned to Pedal/CV
Expression – when assigned to Pedal/CV
Bank Select – 0 to 2
Damper pedal – sends 0 if off, 0100 0000 when
on
Volume knob
See sections below for additional Continuous Controller (CC) and Nonregistered Parameter Number (NRPN) messages transmitted.
45
Additional Continuous Controllers
(CCs) Transmitted/Received
The following table details how CCs are mapped onto Mopho’s controls. They
are transmitted when MIDI Parameter Send is set to CC in Global, and
recognized when received when MIDI Parameter Receive is set to either CC or
All in Global.
Parameter
CC#
Parameter
CC#
Osc 1 Frequency
20
Env 3 Destination
85
Osc 1 Freq Fine
21
Env 3 Amt
86
Osc 1 Shape
22
Env 3 Velocity Amt
87
Glide 1
23
Env 3 Delay
88
Osc 2 Frequency
24
Env 3 Attack
89
Osc 2 Freq Fine
25
Env 3 Decay
90
Osc 2 Shape
26
Env 3 Sustain
77
Glide 2
27
Env 3 Release
78
Osc Mix
28
Noise Level
29
BPM
14
Sub Oscillator 1
30
Clock Divide
15
Sub Oscillator 2
31
Filter Frequency
102
Resonance
103
Filter Key Amt
104
Filter Audio Mod
105
Filter Env Amt
106
Filter Env Vel Amt
107
Filter Delay
108
Filter Attack
109
Filter Decay
110
Filter Sustain
111
Filter Release
112
VCA Level
113
Amp Env Amt
115
Amp Velocity Amt
116
Amp Delay
117
Amp Attack
118
Amp Decay
119
Amp Sustain
75
Amp Release
76
46
NRPN Messages
The Non-Registered Parameter Number (NRPN) MIDI messages are used to
transmit and receive both global and program parameters. They are transmitted
when MIDI Parameter Send is set to NRPN in Global, and received when MIDI
Parameter Receive is set to either NRPN or All in Global.
The messages are handled in standard MIDI format using the NRPN CC
commands in running status byte format. Below is the format used for
transmitting a NRPN parameter:
Transmitted NRPN Messages
Status
Description
1011 nnnn
Control Change
0110 0011
NRPN parameter number MSB CC
0vvv vvvv
Parameter Number MSB
0110 0010
NRPN parameter number LSB CC
0vvv vvvv
Parameter Number LSB
0000 0110
NRPN parameter value MSB CC
0vvv vvvv
Parameter value MSB
0010 0110
NRPN parameter value LSB CC
0vvv vvvv
Parameter value LSB
The parameter number can be found in the two tables below, one for Global
parameters, and the other for Program parameters. The parameter numbers and
the parameter values are broken into two 7-bit bytes for MIDI transmission; the
LSB has the seven least-significant bits, and the MSB has the seven mostsignificant bits, though in most cases the MSB will be zero or one, and never
more than two.
When receiving an NRPN, all messages do not necessarily need to be
transmitted, since the synth will track the most recent NRPN number, though it
is usually good practice to send the entire message above.
Once an NRPN is selected, the synth will also respond to NRPN Data Increment
and Decrement commands, which some controllers utilize. Finally, it responds
to one RPN (Registered Parameter Number) command, the RPN/NRPN Reset
command, which can be handy for resetting the currently selected parameter to a
known state.
47
Received NRPN Messages
Status
Second
Third
Description
1011 nnnn
0110 0011
0vvvvvvv
NRPN parameter number MSB CC
1011 nnnn
0110 0010
0vvvvvvv
NRPN parameter number LSB CC
1011 nnnn
0000 0110
0vvvvvvv
NRPN parameter value MSB CC
1011 nnnn
0010 0110
0vvvvvvv
NRPN parameter value LSB CC
1011 nnnn
0110 0000
0xxxxxxx
NRPN parameter value Increment
1011 nnnn
0110 0001
0xxxxxxx
NRPN parameter value Decrement
1011 nnnn
0010 0101
0111111
RPN parameter number MSB CC - Reset NRPN
parameter number (when both MSB and LSB
received)
1011 nnnn
0010 0100
0111111
RPN parameter number LSB CC - Reset NRPN
parameter number (when both MSB and LSB
received)
Global Parameter Data
The following table shows the Global data that is sent and received on global
parameter dumps, and the corresponding NRPN number when sent/received
individually.
Param
NRPN
0
384
0 - 24
Range
Master Transpose; 0 = -12 semitones (1 octave), 12
= 0 (no transpose), and 24 = +12 semitones.
Description
1
385
0 - 100
Master Fine Tune; 0 = -50 cents, 50 = 0 (centered),
100 = + 50 cents
2
386
0 - 16
MIDI Channel; if = 0, data received on all MIDI
channels. Otherwise = channel number 1 - 16.
3
388
0-3
MIDI clock select*
0 Use Internal clock, don’t send MIDI clock
1 Use Internal clock, send MIDI clock
2 Use MIDI clock In
3 Use MIDI clock In, and retransmit MIDI clock out
4
390
0-2
Parameter Send*:
0 NRPN
1 CC
2 Off
5
391
0-3
Parameter Receive†:
0 All
1 NRPN only
2 CC only
3 Off
6
394
0-1
MIDI Controller Send/Receive Off/On
7
395
0-1
MIDI Sysex Send/Receive Off/On
Param
NRPN
8
406
0-1
Range
MIDI Out Select*:
0 MIDI Out
1 MIDI Thru
9
387
0-6
Poly Chain*:
0 Off
1 Out 1
2 Out 4
3 Out 5
4 Out 8
5 Out 12
6 Out 16
10
389
0–1
Local Control* Off/On
11
400
0-1
Audio Outputs:
0 Stereo
1 Mono
12
404
0-2
Pot Mode:
0 Relative
1 PassThru
2 Jump
13
397
0-3
Damper Polarity:
0 Sustain, normally open
1 Sustain, normally closed
2 Arpeggiator latch, normally open
3 Arpeggiator latch, normally closed
14
396
0-5
Pedal Destination:
0 Foot Control
1 Breath Control
2 Expression
3 Volume
4 Filter Frequency
5 Filter Frequency/2
15
393
0–1
MIDI Pressure Send/Receive Off/On
16
399
0–3
Pressure Curve
17
398
0-3
Velocity Curve
18
Basic Patch
19
20
Description
Reset Globals
403
0 - 28
Balance Tweak*
*Received, but not sent.
†Sent, but ignored when received.
49
Program Parameter Data
The following table lists Mopho’s voice parameters. The parameter number in
the program and edit buffer dumps are different than the NRPN numbers as
seen; this was to maintain NRPN compatibility with the Prophet ’08 as much as
possible.
Param
0
NRPN
0
Range
0 - 120
1
1
0 - 100
2
2
0-103
3
4
5
6
3
4
114
5
0 - 127
0-1
0 - 127
0 - 120
7
6
0 - 100
8
7
0 - 103
9
10
11
12
13
8
9
115
10
11
0 - 127
0-1
0 - 127
0-1
0-3
14
15
12
93
0-5
0 - 12
Description
Oscillator 1 Frequency, 0 - 120 in semitones (10
octave range)
Oscillator 1 Fine Tune; 0 = -50 cents, 50 = 0
(centered), 100 = + 50 cents
Oscillator 1 Shape
0
Oscillator Off
1
Sawtooth
2
Triangle
3
Sawtooth/triangle mix
4 - 103 Pulse Wave, Pulse width 0 - 99
Oscillator 1 Glide
Oscillator 1 Keyboard Off/On
Sub Oscillator 1 Level
Oscillator 2 Frequency, 0 - 120 in semitones (10
octave range)
Oscillator 2 Fine Tune; 0 = -50 cents, 50 = 0
(centered), 100 = + 50 cents
Oscillator 2 Shape
0Oscillator Off
1
Sawtooth
2
Triangle
3
Sawtooth/triangle mix
4 - 103 Pulse Wave, Pulse width 0 - 99
Oscillator 2 Glide
Oscillator 2 Keyboard Off/On
Sub Oscillator 2 Level
Sync off/on
Glide Mode:
0
fixed rate
1
fixed rate auto
2
fixed time
3
fixed time auto
Oscillator Slop
Pitch Bend Range
16
17
18
19
13
14
116
110
0 - 127
0 - 127
0 - 127
0 - 127
Oscillator 1 - 2 Mix
Noise Level
Feedback/External Audio Volume
Feedback/External Audio Gain
20
21
15
16
0 - 164
0 - 127
Filter Frequency, steps in semitones
Resonance
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
0 - 127
0 - 127
0-1
0 - 254
0 - 127
0 - 127
0 - 127
0 - 127
0 - 127
0 - 127
Filter Keyboard Amount
Filter Audio Modulation
Filter Poles 0: 2-pole; 1: 4-pole
Filter Envelope Amount; -127 to +127
Filter Envelope Velocity Amount
Filter Envelope Delay
Filter Envelope Attack
Filter Envelope Decay
Filter Envelope Sustain
Filter Envelope Release
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
41
27
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
29
0 - 127
0 - 127
0 - 127
0 - 127
0 - 127
0 - 127
0 - 127
0 - 127
0 - 127
VCA Initial Level
VCA Envelope Amount
VCA Envelope Velocity Amount
VCA Envelope Delay
VCA Envelope Attack
VCA Envelope Decay
VCA Envelope Sustain
VCA Envelope Release
Voice Volume
42
37
0 - 166
43
38
0-4
44
45
39
40
0 - 127
0 - 47
46
47
48
49
41
42
43
44
0-1
0 - 166
0-4
0 - 127
LFO 1 Frequency; 0 - 150 un-synced frequencies
151 Sequence speed divided by 32
152 Sequence speed divided by 16
153 Sequence speed divided by 8
154 Sequence speed divided by 6
155 Sequence speed divided by 4
156 Sequence speed divided by 3
157 Sequence speed divided by 2
158 Sequence speed divided by 1.5
159 One cycle per step
160 Two cycles per three steps
161 Two cycles per step
162 Three cycles per step
163 Four cycles per step
164 Six cycles per step
165 Eight cycles per step
166 Sixteen cycles per step
LFO 1 Shape
0
Triangle
1
Reverse Sawtooth
2
Sawtooth
3
Pulse (square)
4 Random
LFO 1 Amount
LFO 1 Mod Destination; See Modulation Destination
list below
LFO 1 Key Sync Off/On
LFO 2 Frequency; same as LFO 1
LFO 2 Shape; same as LFO 1
LFO 2 Amount
51
50
45
0 - 47
51
52
53
54
55
46
47
48
49
50
0-1
0 - 166
0-4
0 - 127
0 - 47
56
57
58
59
60
51
52
53
54
55
0-1
0 - 166
0-4
0 - 127
0 - 47
61
56
0-1
62
57
0 - 47
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
98
0 - 254
0 - 127
0 - 127
0 - 127
0 - 127
0 - 127
0 - 127
0-1
71
72
73
65
66
67
0 - 22
0 - 254
0 - 47
74
75
76
68
69
70
0 - 22
0 - 254
0 - 47
77
78
79
71
72
73
0 - 22
0 - 254
0 - 47
80
81
82
74
75
76
0 - 22
0 - 254
0 - 47
83
84
81
82
0 - 254
0 - 47
85
83
0 - 254
LFO 2 Mod Destination; See Modulation Destination
list below
LFO 2 Key Sync Off/On
LFO 3 Frequency; same as LFO 1
LFO 3 Shape; same as LFO 1
LFO 3 Amount
LFO 3 Mod Destination; See Modulation Destination
list below
LFO 3 Key Sync Off/On
LFO 4 Frequency; same as LFO 1
LFO 4 Shape; same as LFO 1
LFO 4 Amount
LFO 4 Mod Destination; See Modulation Destination
list below
LFO 4 Key Sync Off/On
Envelope 3 Mod Destination; See Mod Destination
list below
Envelope 3 Amount; -127 to +127
Envelope 3 Velocity Amount
Envelope 3 Delay
Envelope 3 Attack
Envelope 3 Decay
Envelope 3 Sustain
Envelope 3 Release
Envelope 3 Repeat Off/On
Mod 1 Source; See Modulation Source list below
Mod 1 Amount; -127 to +127
Mod 1 Destination; See Modulation Destination list
below
Mod 2 Source; See Modulation Source list below
Mod 2 Amount; -127 to +127
Mod 2 Destination; See Modulation Destination list
below
Mod 3 Source; See Modulation Source list below
Mod3 Amount; -127 to +127
Mod 3 Destination; See Modulation Destination list
below
Mod 4 Source; See Modulation Source list below
Mod 4 Amount; -127 to +127
Mod 4 Destination; See Modulation Destination list
below
Mod Wheel Amount; -127 to +127
Mod Wheel Destination; See Modulation Destination
list below
Pressure Amount; -127 to +127
86
84
0 - 47
86
88
85
86
0 - 254
0 - 47
89
90
87
88
0 - 254
0 - 47
91
92
89
90
0 - 254
0 - 47
93
96
0-4
94
96
0-5
95
96
97
99
111
112
0-1
0 - 120
0 - 127
98
113
0-2
101
102
91
92
30 - 250
0 - 12
Pressure Destination; See Modulation Destination
list below
Breath Amount; -127 to +127
Breath Destination; See Modulation Destination list
below
Velocity Amount; -127 to +127
Velocity Destination; See Modulation Destination list
below
Foot Control Amount; -127 to +127
Foot Control Destination; See Modulation
Destination list below
Unison Mode:
0 1 voice
1 All voices
2 All voices detune1
3 All voices detune2
4 All voices detune3
Key Assign Mode:
0 Low note priority
1 Low note priority with re-trigger
2 High note priority
3 High note priority with re-trigger
4 Last note hit priority
5 Last note hit priority with re-trigger
Unison; off/on
Push It Switch Note Number
Push It Switch Velocity
Push It Switch Mode:
0 Normal
1 Toggle
2 Audio In
BPM tempo
Clock Divide:
0 Half Note
1 Quarter Note
2 Eighth Note
3 Eighth Note half swing
4 Eighth Note full swing
5 Eighth Note triplets
6 Sixteenth Note
7 Sixteenth Note half swing
8 Sixteenth Note full swing
9 Sixteenth Note triplets
10 Thirty-second Notes
11 Thirty-second Notes triplets
12 Sixty-Fourth note triplets
53
103
97
0 - 14
104
105
100
94
0-1
0-5
106
107
101
77
0-1
0 - 48
108
78
0 - 48
109
79
0 - 48
110
80
0 - 48
120 - 135
120 - 135
0 - 127
136 - 151
136 - 151
0 - 126
152 - 167
152 - 167
0 - 126
168 - 183
168 - 183
0 - 126
184 - 199
184 - 199
32 - 127
Arpeggiator Mode:
0 Up
1 Down
2 Up/Down
3 Assign
4 Random
5 Up 2 Octaves
6 Down 2 Octaves
7 Up/Down 2 Octaves
8 Assign 2 Octaves
9 Random 2 Octaves
10 Up 3 Octaves
11 Down 3 Octaves
12 Up/Down 3 Octaves
13 Assign 3 Octaves
14 Random 3 Octaves
Arpeggiator; Off/On
Sequencer Trigger:
0 Normal
1 Normal, no reset
2 No gate
3 No gate/no reset
4 Key Step
5 Audio In
Gated Sequencer; Off/On
Sequence 1 Destination; See Modulation Destination
list below
Sequence 2 Destination; See Modulation Destination
list below
Sequence 3 Destination; See Modulation Destination
list below
Sequence 4 Destination; See Modulation
Destination list below
Sequence Track1, steps 1-16
0 to 125: Normal sequence step value
126 Reset
127 Rest
Sequence Track 2, steps 1-16
0 to 125: Normal sequence step value
126
Reset
Sequence Track 3, steps 1-16
0 to 125: Normal sequence step value
126
Reset
Sequence Track 4, steps 1-16
0 to 125: Normal sequence step value
126
Reset
Name characters 1-16, in ASCII format
The following tables list the values used with the program parameters to specify
modulation destinations and sources.
Mod Destinations
Off
Osc 1 Freq
Osc 2 Freq
Osc 1 and 2 Freq
Osc Mix
Noise Level
Osc 1 Pulse Width
Osc 2 Pulse Width
Osc 1 and 2 Pulse Width
Filter Frequency
Resonance
Filter Audio Mod Amt
VCA Level
Pan Spread
LFO 1 Freq
LFO 2 Freq
LFO 3 Freq
LFO 4 Freq
All LFO Freq
LFO 1 Amt
LFO 2 Amt
LFO 3 Amt
LFO 3 Amt
All LFO Amt
Filter Env Amt
Amp Env Amt
Env 3 Amt
All Env Amounts
Env 1 Attack
Env 2 Attack
Env 3 Attack
All Env Attacks
Env 1 Decay
Env 2 Decay
Env 3 Decay
All Env Decays
Env 1 Release
Env 2 Release
Env 3 Release
All Env Releases
Value
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
55
Mod 1 Amt
Mod 2 Amt
Mod 3 Amt
Mod 4 Amt
External Audio In Level
Sub Osc 1 Level
Sub Osc 2 Level
Feedback Gain
Slew*
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
*Appears as a destination in sequences 2 and 4 only.
Mod Sources
Off
Sequence Track 1
Sequence Track 2
Sequence Track 3
Sequence Track 4
LFO 1
LFO 2
LFO 3
LFO 4
Filter Envelope
Amp Envelope
Envelope 3
Pitch Bend
Mod Wheel
Pressure
MIDI Breath
MIDI Foot
MIDI Expression
Velocity
Note Number
Noise
Audio In Envelope Follower
Audio In Peak Hold
Value
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
Sysex Messages
Universal System Exclusive Message (Device Inquiry)
Status
1111 0000
0111 1110
0vvv vvvv
0000 0110
0000 0001
1111 0111
Description
System Exclusive (SysEx)
Non-realtime message
If MIDI channel is set to 1 - 16, 0vvvvvvv must match (unless MIDI Channel
= ALL); always responds if 0vvvvvvv = 0111 1111.
Inquiry Message
Inquiry Request
End of Exclusive (EOX)
Mopho keyboard responds with:
Status
1111 0000
0111 1110
0vvv vvvv
0000 0110
0000 0010
0000 0001
0010 0111
0000 0001
0000 0000
0000 0000
0jjj nnnn
0000 0000
0000 0000
1111 0111
Description
System Exclusive (SysEx)
Non-realtime message
If MIDI Channel = ALL, 0vvvvvvv = 0111 1111. Otherwise 0vvvvvvv =
Channel Number 0 - 15.
Inquiry Message
Inquiry Reply
DSI ID
Mopho Keyboard ID (Family LS)
Family MS
Family Member LS
Family Member MS
Main Software version: jjj - Minor rev; nnnn - Major rev
Voice firmware version LS
Voice firmware version MS
End of Exclusive (EOX)
Request Program Dump
Status
Description
1111 0000
System Exclusive (SysEx)
0000 0001
DSI ID
0010 0111
Mopho Keyboard ID
0000 0101
Request Program Transmit
0000 00vv
Bank Number, 0 - 2
0vvv vvvv
Program Number, 0 - 127
1111 0111
End of Exclusive (EOX)
Mopho will respond by sending out the Program Data in the format described
below in Program Data Dump.
57
Request Program Edit Buffer Dump
Status
Description
1111 0000
System Exclusive (SysEx)
0000 0001
DSI ID
0010 0111
Mopho keyboard ID
0000 0110
Request Program Edit Buffer Transmit
1111 0111
End of Exclusive (EOX)
Mopho will respond by sending out the current Program edit buffer in the format
described below in Program Edit Buffer Data Dump.
Request Global Parameter Dump
Status
Description
1111 0000
System Exclusive (SysEx)
0000 0001
DSI ID
0010 0111
Mopho keyboard ID
0000 1110
Request Global Parameter Transmit
1111 0111
End of Exclusive (EOX)
Mopho will respond by sending out the current values of Global Parameters in
the format described below in Global Parameters Data Dump.
Program Data Dump
Status
Description
1111 0000
System Exclusive (SysEx)
0000 0001
DSI ID
0010 0111
Mopho keyboard ID
0000 0010
Program Data
0000 00vv
Bank Number, 0 - 2
0vvv vvvv
Program Number, 0 - 127
0vvv vvvv
256 bytes expanded to 293 MIDI bytes in “packed MS bit” format (see
page 59.)
1111 0111
End of Exclusive (EOX)
Program Edit Buffer Data Dump
Status
Description
1111 0000
System Exclusive (SysEx)
0000 0001
DSI ID
0010 0111
Mopho keyboard ID
0000 0011
Edit Buffer Data
0vvv vvvv
256 bytes expanded to 293 MIDI bytes in “packed MS bit” format (see
page 59.)
1111 0111
End of Exclusive (EOX)
Global Parameters Data Dump
Status
Description
1111 0000
System Exclusive (SysEx)
0000 0001
DSI ID
0010 0111
Mopho keyboard ID
0000 1111
Main Parameter Data
0vvv vvvv
42 nibbles (LS then MS) for 21 Global parameters. Global Parameters
are listed starting on page 48.
1111 0111
End of Exclusive (EOX)
Note: The Global Parameters Data Dump is not recognized when received; it is
only transmitted when requested. NRPN messages are used to change Globals.
Packed Data Format
Data is packed in 8 byte “packets”, with the MS bit stripped from 7 parameter
bytes, and packed into an eighth byte, which is sent at the start of the 8 byte
packet.
Example:
Input Data
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
A7
B7
C7
D7
E7
F7
G7
A6
B6
C6
D6
E6
F6
G6
A5
B5
C5
D5
E5
F5
G5
Packed MIDI data
A4
B4
C4
D4
E4
F4
G4
A3
B3
C3
D3
E3
F3
G3
A2
B2
C2
D2
E2
F2
G2
A1
B1
C1
D1
E1
F1
G1
A0
B0
C0
D0
E0
F0
G0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
00
00
00
00
00
00
00
00
G7
A6
B6
C6
D6
E6
F6
G6
F7
A5
B5
C5
D5
E5
F5
G5
E7
A4
B4
C4
D4
E4
F4
G4
D7
A3
B3
C3
D3
E3
F3
G3
C7
A2
B2
C2
D2
E2
F2
G2
B7
A1
B1
C1
D1
E1
F1
G1
A7
A0
B0
C0
D0
E0
F0
G0
This explains why it takes 293 MIDI bytes to transmit 256 Program data bytes.
59
Dave Smith Instruments
1210 Cabrillo Hwy N
Half Moon Bay, CA 94019-1449
USA
www.DaveSmithInstruments.com