Casio FX 2.0 - Algebra FX 2.0 Graphing Calculator User`s guide

ALGEBRA FX 2.0 PLUS
FX 1.0 PLUS
User’s Guide
E
http://world.casio.com/edu_e/
GUIDELINES LAID DOWN BY FCC RULES FOR USE OF THE UNIT IN THE U.S.A. (not applicable to other areas).
NOTICE
This equipment has been tested and found to comply with the limits for a Class B digital device,
pursuant to Part 15 of the FCC Rules. These limits are designed to provide reasonable protection against harmful interference in a residential installation. This equipment generates, uses
and can radiate radio frequency energy and, if not installed and used in accordance with the
instructions, may cause harmful interference to radio communications. However, there is no
guarantee that interference will not occur in a particular installation. If this equipment does
cause harmful interference to radio or television reception, which can be determined by turning
the equipment off and on, the user is encouraged to try to correct the interference by one or more
of the following measures:
• Reorient or relocate the receiving antenna.
• Increase the separation between the equipment and receiver.
• Connect the equipment into an outlet on a circuit different from that to which the receiver is
connected.
• Consult the dealer or an experienced radio/TV technician for help.
FCC WARNING
Changes or modifications not expressly approved by the party responsible for compliance could
void the user’s authority to operate the equipment.
Proper connectors must be used for connection to host computer and/or peripherals in order to
meet FCC emission limits.
Connector SB-62
Connector FA-123
Power Graphic Unit to Power Graphic Unit
Power Graphic Unit to PC for IBM/Macintosh Machine
Declaration of Conformity
Model Number:
Trade Name:
Responsible party:
Address:
Telephone number:
ALGEBRA FX 2.0 PLUS / FX 1.0 PLUS
CASIO COMPUTER CO., LTD.
CASIO, INC.
570 MT. PLEASANT AVENUE, DOVER, NEW JERSEY 07801
973-361-5400
This device complies with Part 15 of the FCC Rules. Operation is subject to the
following two conditions: (1) This device may not cause harmful interference, and
(2) this device must accept any interference received, including interference that may
cause undesired operation.
IBM is a registered trademark of International Business Machines Corporation.
Macintosh is a registered trademark of Apple Computer, Inc.
BEFORE USING THE CALCULATOR
FOR THE FIRST TIME...
This calculator does not contain any main batteries when you purchase it. Be sure to
perform the following procedure to load batteries, reset the calculator, and adjust the
contrast before trying to use the calculator for the first time.
1. Making sure that you do not accidently press the o key, slide the case onto the
calculator and then turn the calculator over. Remove the back cover from the calculator
by pulling with your finger at the point marked 1.
1
P
2. Load the four batteries that come with calculator.
• Make sure that the positive (+) and negative (–) ends of the batteries are facing correctly.
BACK UP
3. Remove the insulating sheet at the location marked “BACK UP” by pulling in the direction indicated by the arrow.
BACK UP
4. Replace the back cover, making sure that its tabs enter the holes marked 2 and turn
the calculator front side up. The calculator should automatically turn on power and
perform the memory reset operation.
2
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5. Press m.
• If the Main Menu shown to the right is not on the display,
press the P button on the back of the calculator to
perform memory reset.
P button
* The above shows the ALGEBRA
FX 2.0 PLUS screen.
6. Use the cursor keys (f, c, d, e) to select the SYSTEM icon and press
w, then press 2(
) to display the contrast adjustment screen.
7. Adjust the contrast.
• The e cursor key makes display contrast darker.
• The d cursor key makes display contrast lighter.
• 1(INIT) returns display contrast to its initial default.
8. To exit display contrast adjustment, press m.
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Quick-Start
Turning Power On And Off
Using Modes
Basic Calculations
Replay Feature
Fraction Calculations
Exponents
Graph Functions
Dual Graph
Box Zoom
Dynamic Graph
Table Function
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Quick-Start
Quick-Start
Welcome to the world of graphing calculators.
Quick-Start is not a complete tutorial, but it takes you through many of the most common
functions, from turning the power on, and on to graphing complex equations. When
you’re done, you’ll have mastered the basic operation of this calculator and will be ready
to proceed with the rest of this user’s guide to learn the entire spectrum of functions
available.
Each step of the examples in Quick-Start is shown graphically to help you follow along
quickly and easily. When you need to enter the number 57, for example, we’ve indicated it as follows:
Press
fh
Whenever necessary, we’ve included samples of what your screen should look like.
If you find that your screen doesn’t match the sample, you can restart from the beginning by pressing the “All Clear” button
.
o
TURNING POWER ON AND OFF
o.
To turn power off, press !o.
To turn power on, press
OFF
Calculator power turns off automatically if you do not perform any operation within the
Auto Power Off trigger time you specify. You can specify either six minutes or 60
minutes as the trigger time.
USING MODES
This calculator makes it easy to perform a wide range of calculations by simply
selecting the appropriate mode. Before getting into actual calculations and operation
examples, let’s take a look at how to navigate around the modes.
To select the RUN • MAT Mode
1. Press
m to display the Main Menu.
* The above shows the ALGEBRA
FX 2.0 PLUS screen.
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2
Quick-Start
defc to highlight RUN
and then press w.
2. Use
•
MAT
This is the initial screen of the RUN • MAT Mode,
where you can perform manual calculations,
matrix calculations, and run programs.
BASIC CALCULATIONS
With manual calculations, you input formulas from left to right, just as they are written
on paper. With formulas that include mixed arithmetic operators and parentheses, the
calculator automatically applies true algebraic logic to calculate the result.
Example: 15 × 3 + 61
1. Press
o to clear the calculator.
2. Press
bf*d+gbw.
Parentheses Calculations
Example: 15 × (3 + 61)
1. Press
bf*(d
+gb)w.
Built-In Functions
This calculator includes a number of built-in scientific functions, including trigonometric
and logarithmic functions.
Example: 25 × sin 45˚
Important!
Be sure that you specify Deg (degrees) as the angle unit before you try this
example.
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Quick-Start
SET UP
u3 to display the SET UP screen.
1. Press
2. Press
cccc1 (Deg) to specify
degrees as the angle unit.
3. Press
i to clear the menu.
4. Press
o to clear the unit.
5. Press
cf*sefw.
REPLAY FEATURE
d e
With the replay feature, simply press
or
to recall the last calculation that
was performed so you can make changes or re-execute it as it is.
Example: To change the calculation in the last example from (25 × sin 45˚) to
(25 × sin 55˚)
1. Press
d to display the last calculation.
2. Press
d twice to move the cursor (t) to 4.
3. Press
D to delete 4.
4. Press
f.
5. Press
w to execute the calculation again.
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REPLAY
4
Quick-Start
FRACTION CALCULATIONS
$
You can use the
key to input fractions into calculations. The symbol “ { ” is used
to separate the various parts of a fraction.
Example: 1 15/16 + 37/9
1. Press
2. Press
o.
b$bf$
bg+dh$
jw.
Indicates 6 7/ 144
Converting a Mixed Fraction to an Improper Fraction
d/c
While a mixed fraction is shown on the display, press
improper fraction.
!$to convert it to an
d/c
Press
!$again to convert back to a mixed fraction.
Converting a Fraction to Its Decimal Equivalent
While a fraction is shown on the display, press
equivalent.
Press
$ to convert it to its decimal
$ again to convert back to a fraction.
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Quick-Start
EXPONENTS
Example: 1250 × 2.065
1. Press
o.
2. Press
bcfa*c.ag.
3. Press
M and the ^ indicator appears on the display.
4. Press
f. The ^5 on the display indicates that 5 is an exponent.
5. Press
w.
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Quick-Start
GRAPH FUNCTIONS
The graphing capabilities of this calculator makes it possible to draw complex graphs
using either rectangular coordinates (horizontal axis: x ; vertical axis: y) or polar
coordinates (angle: θ ; distance from origin: r).
All of the following graphing examples are performed starting from the calculator setup
in effect immediately following a reset operation.
Example 1: To graph Y = X(X + 1)(X – 2)
1. Press
m.
defc to highlight
GRPH TBL, and then press w.
2. Use
•
3. Input the formula.
v (v+b)
(v -c)w
4. Press
5(DRAW) or w to draw the graph.
Example 2: To determine the roots of Y = X(X + 1)(X – 2)
1. Press
4(G-SLV) to display the pull-up menu.
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Quick-Start
b(Root).
Press e for other roots.
2. Press
Example 3: Determine the area bounded by the origin and the X = –1 root obtained
for Y = X(X + 1)(X – 2)
1. Press
i4(G-SLV)c.
2. Press
i(∫dx).
d to move the pointer to the location where
X = –1, and then press w. Next, use e to
3. Use
move the pointer to the location where X = 0, and
then press
w to input the integration range,
which becomes shaded on the display.
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Quick-Start
DUAL GRAPH
With this function you can split the display between two areas and display two graphs
on the same screen.
Example: To draw the following two graphs and determine the points of intersection
Y1 = X(X + 1)(X – 2)
Y2 = X + 1.2
SET UP
u3ccc2
1. Press
(G+G)
to specify “G+G” for the Dual Screen setting.
i, and then input the two functions.
v(v+b)
(v-c)w
v+b.cw
2. Press
3. Press
5(DRAW) or w to draw the graphs.
BOX ZOOM
Use the Box Zoom function to specify areas of a graph for enlargement.
1. Press
2(ZOOM) b(Box).
defc
to move the pointer
2. Use
to one corner of the area you want to specify and
.
then press
w
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Quick-Start
defc
3. Use
to move the pointer
again. As you do, a box appears on the display.
Move the pointer so the box encloses the area
you want to enlarge.
w
4. Press
, and the enlarged area appears in the
inactive (right side) screen.
DYNAMIC GRAPH
Dynamic Graph lets you see how the shape of a graph is affected as the value
assigned to one of the coefficients of its function changes.
Example: To draw graphs as the value of coefficient A in the following function changes
from 1 to 3
Y = AX2
1. Press
2. Use
m.
d e f c to highlight DYNA,
w.
and then press
3. Input the formula.
A
avvxw
12356
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Quick-Start
4
bw to assign an initial value
4. Press
(VAR)
of 1 to coefficient A.
5. Press
2(RANG) bwdwb
w
to specify the range and increment of change
in coefficient A.
6. Press
i.
6
(DYNA) to start Dynamic Graph drawing.
7. Press
The graphs are drawn 10 times.
↓
↓↑
↓↑
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Quick-Start
TABLE FUNCTION
The Table Function makes it possible to generate a table of solutions as different
values are assigned to the variables of a function.
Example: To create a number table for the following function
Y = X (X+1) (X–2)
1. Press
m.
defc to highlight
GRPH TBL, and then press w.
2. Use
•
3. Input the formula.
v(v+b)
(v-c)w
4. Press
table.
6(g)5(TABL) to generate the number
To learn all about the many powerful features of this calculator, read on and explore!
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Handling Precautions
• Your calculator is made up of precision components. Never try to take it apart.
• Avoid dropping your calculator and subjecting it to strong impact.
• Do not store the calculator or leave it in areas exposed to high temperatures or humidity, or
large amounts of dust. When exposed to low temperatures, the calculator may require more time
to display results and may even fail to operate. Correct operation will resume once the calculator
is brought back to normal temperature.
• The display will go blank and keys will not operate during calculations. When you are operating
the keyboard, be sure to watch the display to make sure that all your key operations are being
performed correctly.
• Replace the main batteries once every 2 years regardless of how much the calculator is used
during that period. Never leave dead batteries in the battery compartment. They can leak and
damage the unit.
• Keep batteries out of the reach of small children. If swallowed, consult a physician immediately.
• Avoid using volatile liquids such as thinner or benzine to clean the unit. Wipe it with a soft, dry
cloth, or with a cloth that has been moistened with a solution of water and a neutral detergent
and wrung out.
• Always be gentle when wiping dust off the display to avoid scratching it.
• In no event will the manufacturer and its suppliers be liable to you or any other person for any
damages, expenses, lost profits, lost savings or any other damages arising out of loss of data
and/or formulas arising out of malfunction, repairs, or battery replacement. It is up to you to
prepare physical records of data to protect against such data loss.
• Never dispose of batteries, the liquid crystal panel, or other components by burning them.
• When the “Low Main Batteries!” message or the “Low Backup Battery!” message appears on the
display, replace the main power supply batteries or the back up battery as soon as possible.
• Be sure that the power switch is set to OFF when replacing batteries.
• If the calculator is exposed to a strong electrostatic charge, its memory contents may be
damaged or the keys may stop working. In such a case, perform the Reset operation to clear the
memory and restore normal key operation.
• If the calculator stops operating correctly for some reason, use a thin, pointed object to press
the P button on the back of the calculator. Note, however, that this clears all the data in
calculator memory.
• Note that strong vibration or impact during program execution can cause execution to stop or
can damage the calculator’s memory contents.
• Using the calculator near a television or radio can cause interference with TV or radio reception.
• Before assuming malfunction of the unit, be sure to carefully reread this user’s guide and ensure
that the problem is not due to insufficient battery power, programming or operational errors.
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Be sure to keep physical records of all important data!
Low battery power or incorrect replacement of the batteries that power the unit can cause the
data stored in memory to be corrupted or even lost entirely. Stored data can also be affected by
strong electrostatic charge or strong impact. It is up to you to keep back up copies of data to
protect against its loss.
In no event shall CASIO Computer Co., Ltd. be liable to anyone for special, collateral, incidental,
or consequential damages in connection with or arising out of the purchase or use of these
materials. Moreover, CASIO Computer Co., Ltd. shall not be liable for any claim of any kind
whatsoever against the use of these materials by any other party.
• The contents of this user’s guide are subject to change without notice.
• No part of this user’s guide may be reproduced in any form without the express written
consent of the manufacturer.
• The options described in Chapter 10 of this user’s guide may not be available in certain
geographic areas. For full details on availability in your area, contact your nearest CASIO
dealer or distributor.
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FX 1.0 PLUS
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Contents
Contents
Getting Acquainted — Read This First!
Chapter 1 Basic Operation
1-1
1-2
1-3
1-4
1-5
1-6
1-7
1-8
Keys ................................................................................................. 1-1-1
Display .............................................................................................. 1-2-1
Inputting and Editing Calculations .................................................... 1-3-1
Option (OPTN) Menu ....................................................................... 1-4-1
Variable Data (VARS) Menu ............................................................. 1-5-1
Program (PRGM) Menu ................................................................... 1-6-1
Using the Set Up Screen .................................................................. 1-7-1
When you keep having problems… ................................................. 1-8-1
Chapter 2 Manual Calculations
2-1
2-2
2-3
2-4
2-5
2-6
2-7
2-8
Basic Calculations ............................................................................ 2-1-1
Special Functions ............................................................................. 2-2-1
Specifying the Angle Unit and Display Format ................................. 2-3-1
Function Calculations ....................................................................... 2-4-1
Numerical Calculations ..................................................................... 2-5-1
Complex Number Calculations ......................................................... 2-6-1
Binary, Octal, Decimal, and Hexadecimal Calculations
with Integers ..................................................................................... 2-7-1
Matrix Calculations ........................................................................... 2-8-1
Chapter 3 List Function
3-1
3-2
3-3
3-4
Inputting and Editing a List ............................................................... 3-1-1
Manipulating List Data ...................................................................... 3-2-1
Arithmetic Calculations Using Lists .................................................. 3-3-1
Switching Between List Files ............................................................ 3-4-1
Chapter 4 Equation Calculations
4-1
4-2
4-3
4-4
Simultaneous Linear Equations ........................................................ 4-1-1
Higher Degree Equations ................................................................. 4-2-1
Solve Calculations ............................................................................ 4-3-1
What to Do When an Error Occurs ................................................... 4-4-1
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2
Contents
Chapter 5 Graphing
5-1
5-2
5-3
5-4
5-5
5-6
5-7
5-8
5-9
5-10
5-11
Sample Graphs ................................................................................ 5-1-1
Controlling What Appears on a Graph Screen ................................. 5-2-1
Drawing a Graph .............................................................................. 5-3-1
Storing a Graph in Picture Memory .................................................. 5-4-1
Drawing Two Graphs on the Same Screen ...................................... 5-5-1
Manual Graphing .............................................................................. 5-6-1
Using Tables ..................................................................................... 5-7-1
Dynamic Graphing ............................................................................ 5-8-1
Graphing a Recursion Formula ........................................................ 5-9-1
Changing the Appearance of a Graph ............................................ 5-10-1
Function Analysis ........................................................................... 5-11-1
Chapter 6 Statistical Graphs and Calculations
6-1
6-2
6-3
6-4
Before Performing Statistical Calculations ....................................... 6-1-1
Calculating and Graphing Single-Variable Statistical Data ............... 6-2-1
Calculating and Graphing Paired-Variable Statistical Data .............. 6-3-1
Performing Statistical Calculations ................................................... 6-4-1
Chapter 7 Computer Algebra System and Tutorial Modes
(ALGEBRA FX 2.0 PLUS only)
7-1
7-2
7-3
7-4
Using the CAS (Computer Algebra System) Mode .......................... 7-1-1
Algebra Mode ................................................................................... 7-2-1
Tutorial Mode.................................................................................... 7-3-1
Algebra System Precautions ............................................................ 7-4-1
Chapter 8 Programming
8-1
8-2
8-3
8-4
8-5
8-6
8-7
8-8
Basic Programming Steps ................................................................ 8-1-1
Program Mode Function Keys .......................................................... 8-2-1
Editing Program Contents ................................................................ 8-3-1
File Management .............................................................................. 8-4-1
Command Reference ....................................................................... 8-5-1
Using Calculator Functions in Programs .......................................... 8-6-1
Program Mode Command List ......................................................... 8-7-1
Program Library ................................................................................ 8-8-1
Chapter 9 System Settings Menu
9-1
9-2
9-3
9-4
9-5
Using the System Settings Menu ..................................................... 9-1-1
Memory Operations .......................................................................... 9-2-1
System Settings ............................................................................... 9-3-1
Reset ................................................................................................ 9-4-1
Tutorial Lock (ALGEBRA FX 2.0 PLUS only) ................................... 9-5-1
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Contents
Chapter 10
10-1
10-2
10-3
10-4
10-5
10-6
10-7
10-8
Data Communications
Connecting Two Units .................................................................. 10-1-1
Connecting the Unit with a CASIO Label Printer .......................... 10-2-1
Connecting the Unit to a Personal Computer ............................... 10-3-1
Performing a Data Communication Operation ............................. 10-4-1
Data Communications Precautions .............................................. 10-5-1
Sending a Screen Shot ................................................................ 10-6-1
Add-ins ......................................................................................... 10-7-1
MEMORY Mode ........................................................................... 10-8-1
Appendix
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
Error Message Table ........................................................................... α-1-1
Input Ranges ....................................................................................... α-2-1
Specifications ....................................................................................... α-3-1
Index .................................................................................................... α-4-1
Key Index ............................................................................................. α-5-1
P Button (In case of hang up) ............................................................. α-6-1
Power Supply ....................................................................................... α-7-1
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Getting Acquainted
— Read This First!
About this User’s Guide
u! x(
)
The above indicates you should press ! and then x, which will input a
symbol. All
multiple-key input operations are indicated like this. Key cap markings are shown, followed
by the input character or command in parentheses.
uFunction Keys and Menus
• Many of the operations performed by this calculator can be executed by pressing function
keys 1 through 6. The operation assigned to each function key changes according to
the mode the calculator is in, and current operation assignments are indicated by function
menus that appear at the bottom of the display.
• This user’s guide shows the current operation assigned to a function key in parentheses
following the key cap for that key. 1(Comp), for example, indicates that pressing 1
selects {Comp}, which is also indicated in the function menu.
• When (g) is indicated in the function menu for key 6, it means that pressing 6 displays
the next page or previous page of menu options.
u Menu Titles
• Menu titles in this user’s guide include the key operation required to display the menu
being explained. The key operation for a menu that is displayed by pressing K and then
{MAT} would be shown as: [OPTN]-[MAT].
• 6(g) key operations to change to another menu page are not shown in menu title key
operations.
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Getting Acquainted
uGraphs
As a general rule, graph operations are shown on
facing pages, with actual graph examples on the right
hand page. You can produce the same graph on your
calculator by performing the steps under the Procedure
above the graph.
Look for the type of graph you want on the right hand
page, and then go to the page indicated for that graph.
The steps under “Procedure” always use initial RESET
settings.
5-1-1
Sample Graphs
5-1 Sample Graphs
5-1-2
Sample Graphs
Example
To graph y = 3x2
Procedure
k How to draw a simple graph (1)
1 m GRPH-TBL
2 dvxw
Description
3 5(DRAW) (or w)
To draw a graph, simply input the applicable function.
Result Screen
Set Up
1. From the Main Menu, enter the GRPH • TBL Mode.
Execution
2. Input the function you want to graph.
Here you would use the V-Window to specify the range and other parameters of the
graph. See 5-3-1.
3. Draw the graph.
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The step numbers in the “SET UP” and “Execution” sections on the left hand page
correspond to the “Procedure” step numbers on the right hand page.
Example:
Left hand page
Right hand page
3. Draw the graph.
3 5(DRAW)(or w)
u Command List
The Program Mode Command List (page 8-7) provides a graphic flowchart of the various
function key menus and shows how to maneuver to the menu of commands you need.
Example: The following operation displays Xfct: [VARS]-[FACT]-[Xfct]
u Page Contents
Three-part page numbers are centered at the top of
each page. The page number “1-2-3”, for example,
indicates Chapter 1, Section 2, page 3.
1-2-2
Display
The following explains the meaning of each icon.
Icon
Mode Name
RUN
STATistics
Use this mode for arithmetic calculations and function
calculations, and for calculations involving binary, octal,
decimal, and hexadecimal values and matrices.
Use this mode to perform single-variable (standard
deviation) and paired-variable (regression) statistical
calculations, to perform tests, to analyze data and to draw
statistical graphs.
GRaPH-TaBLe
Use this mode to store functions, to generate a numeric
table of different solutions as the values assigned to
variables in a function change, and to draw graphs.
DYNAmic graph
Use this mode to store graph functions and to draw
multiple versions of a graph by changing the values
assigned to the variables in a function.
RECURsion
Use this mode to store recursion formulas, to generate a
numeric table of different solutions as the values assigned
to variables in a function change, and to draw graphs.
Use this mode to draw graphs of implicit functions.
CONICS
1-2-3
Display
k About the Function Menu
Description
EQUAtion
Use this mode to solve linear equations with two through
six unknowns, quadratic equations, and cubic equations.
PRoGraM
Use this mode to store programs in th program area and
to run programs.
Computer Algebra Use this mode to perform algebraic calculations.
Syetem
ALGEBRA
Use this mode for step-by-step solution of expressions.
TUTORial
Use this mode to determine the expression type and
solve mode, and for interactive equation solutions.
LINK
Use this mode for step-by-step solution of expressions.
MEMORY
Use this mode to manage data stored in memory.
SYSTEM
Use this mode to initialize memory, adjust contrast, and
to make other system settings.
Use the function keys (1 to 6) to access the menus and commands in the menu bar
along the bottom of the display screen. You can tell whether a menu bar item is a menu or a
command by its appearance.
• Command (Example:
)
Pressing a function key that corresponds to a menu bar command executes the command.
• Pull-up Menu (Example:
)
Pressing a function key that corresponds to a pull-up menu opens the menu.
You can use either of the following two methods to select a command from a pull-up menu.
• Input the key to the left of the command on the pull-up menu.
• Use the f and c cursor keys to move the highlighting to the command you want, and then
press w.
The symbol ' to the right of a command indicates that executing the command displays a
submenu.
To cancel the pull-up menu without inputting the command, press i.
k About Display Screens
This calculator uses two types of display screens: a text screen and a graphic screen. The
text screen can show 21 columns and 8 lines of characters, with the bottom line used for the
function key menu. The graph screen uses an area that measures 127 (W) × 63 (H) dots.
Text Screen
Graph Screen
The contents of each type of screen are stored in independent memory areas.
The contents of each type of screen are stored in independent memory areas.
#The contents of each type of screen
are stored in independent memory
#The contents of each type of screen
are stored in independent memory
areas.
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u Supplementary Information
Supplementary information is shown at the bottom of each page in a “
19981001
(Notes)” block.
indicates a note about a term that appears in the same page as the note.
*# indicates
a note that provides general information about topic covered in the same section
as the note.
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