Advantech L-Band Satellite Modulator Specifications

SBM75e Series Modulator
L-Band Satellite Modulator
32 k – 45 M Symbol
BPSK/QPSK /8PSK/16APSK/32APSK
Installation and Operation Manual
Version 1.1
March 2009
Copyright © 2008 AdvantechAMT. All rights reserved.
AP.TP-xxxx.1
Preliminary Pages
Preface
Thank you for purchasing a Modulator from Advantech AMT. These products build on the success
of the SL/QD series, the industry’s first L-band digital satellite modems. Advantech Advanced
Microwave Technology is an international company specializing in the development of satellite
communication systems.
The following information provides the document part number, revision, the copyright notices,
along with the pertinent FCC, English, German, and French compliance, and the serviceability of
the Modulator.
Document Revision
ii
Revision
Date
Content/Modifications
1.0
November 2008
First Issue.
1.1
March 2009
Added all ACM/VCM content
SBM75e Series Modulator Installation and Operation Manual
Preliminary Pages
Copyright Notice
Copyright © 2004-2008 AdvantechAMT. All rights reserved. This manual may not be reproduced or
disclosed in whole or in part by any means without the written consent of AdvantechAMT, Inc.
Customer Support
The staff at Advantech AMT is committed to producing the highest quality products and may be
contacted for product service, support and assistance at the following locations:
Head Office
AdvantechAMT
657 Orly Avenue
Dorval, Quebec
H9P 1G1
Tel: 1 (514) 420 0045
Fax: 1 (514) 420 0073
Email : info@advantechAMT.com
The following offices also provide technical support for the modems and other RF products:
U.S. Office
AdvantechAMT U.S., Inc.
4710 E. Elwood Street
Suite 14
Phoenix, AZ, 85040
European Office
AdvantechAMT Europe Ltd.
39 Edison Road
St. Ives, Huntingdon
Cambridgeshire, PE27 3LF
Tel: 1 (480) 784-4646
Fax: 1 (480) 784-1010
Tel: 44 (1480) 357 600
Fax: 44 (1480) 357 601
You can also visit our website at http://www.advantechamt.com
SBM75e Series Modulator Installation and Operation Manual
iii
Preliminary Pages
Warranty and Service
Advantech AMT warrants to the Purchaser that the Products and any Repaired Products (Repairs) will
be free from defects in material and workmanship for a period of two years from the date of shipment
to the Purchaser.
Advantech AMT’s obligation under this warranty is limited to replacing or repairing, at ADVANTECH
AMT’s option, Products or Repairs found by Advantech AMT to be defective within the warranty
period. All such replacements and repairs shall be performed at facilities designated by ADVANTECH
AMT and shall be performed only after the customer has received a Return Material Authorization
(RMA) number from Advantech AMT and has returned the Product to Advantech AMT, shipping and
insurance prepaid by Purchaser.
The returned Product must be accompanied by the customer's name, address and telephone
number, the model and serial number of the Product, a statement of the purchase date and a
detailed description of the problem. Products and Repairs returned by Purchaser shall be repaired by
ADVANTECH AMT using new or refurbished parts and shall be returned to Purchaser by ADVANTECH
AMT, shipping prepaid by ADVANTECH AMT.
This warranty shall immediately become null and void if, in ADVANTECH AMT’s sole judgement, the
Product has been subject to unauthorised modification, misuse, abuse, neglect, accident, improper
installation or application, alteration or neglect in use, storage, transportation or handling, or if the
serial number and/or other Product markings have been removed, defaced or altered.
ADVANTECH AMT may, at its discretion, perform out-of-warranty repairs at ADVANTECH AMT facilities in
exchange of customary charges, or offer a written agreement extending the terms of this warranty at
a price stated in such agreement. All repairs performed out of warranty or pursuant to an extended
warranty agreement shall be subject to all of the applicable limitations and procedures of this
Agreement.
The above warranties are in lieu of all other warranties, expressed, implied, or statutory or arising by
custom of trade usage, including any warranty of merchantability of fitness for any unique, special or
express purpose, and of all other obligations of liabilities whether in contract, tort or otherwise
including, without limitation, liability for damages (whether general or special, direct or indirect,
consequential, incidental, exemplary) or any claim for the loss of profits or business or for damage to
goodwill.
Extended Warranty Options
Please contact Customer Service or your reseller for information on optional extended
warranties.
Service
To return a Product for service or repair, obtain an RMA number from ADVANTECH AMT’s
Customer Service Department.
The following information will be requested:
ƒ Customer name, address, telephone number
ƒ Model number
ƒ Serial number
ƒ Detailed description of problem
All customer-returned units must be shipped to ADVANTECH AMT freight prepaid, in the original
carton or equivalent. ADVANTECH AMT is not responsible for damage in transit.
ADVANTECH AMT will accept only completely assembled units for repair.
iv
SBM75e Series Modulator Installation and Operation Manual
Preliminary Pages
Safety Notices
Radio Frequency (RF) Interference
This equipment generates, uses and can radiate radio frequency energy, and, if not installed in
accordance with the instructions contained herein, may cause interference to radio communications.
It has been tested and found to comply with the limits for a Class A computing device pursuant to
Subpart J of Part 15 of the Federal Communications Commission rules, which are designed to provide
reasonable protection against such interference, when operating in a commercial environment.
Operation of this equipment in a residential area is likely to cause interference. In this case, the user is
required to take whatever measures are necessary to correct the interference at the user’s expense.
If radio frequency interference is encountered after the installation of this equipment, corrective
measures are required to reduce the interference. Information on recommended measures can be
obtained from the manufacturer.
United Kingdom
WARNING
1.
TO ENSURE ADEQUATE COOLING OF THE EQUIPMENT, A 2.0-INCH UNOBSTRUCTED SPACE MUST
BE PROVIDED AROUND ALL SIDES OF THE UNIT.
2.
THE AC POWER SOCKET SHALL BE INSTALLED NEAR THE EQUIPMENT AND SHALL BE EASILY
ACCESSIBLE.
3.
REMOVE POWER PLUG FROM THE POWER SOCKET BEFORE PERFORMING ANY SERVICE WORK
ON THE UNIT.
4.
ONLY FACTORY AUTHORIZED SERVICE PERSONNEL SHOULD PERFORM SERVICE ON THIS UNIT.
FAILURE TO OBSERVE THIS WARNING CAN RESULT IN MALFUNCTION TO THE UNIT AS WELL AS
ELECTROCUTION TO PERSONNEL.
France
AVERTISSEMENT
1.
AFIN DE NE PAS NUIRE AU PROCESSUS DE REFROIDISSEMENT, IL EST NÉCESSAIRE DE LAISSER
UN ESPACE D’ENVIRON 5 CM DE CHAQUE CÔTÉ DE L’APPAREIL.
2.
PLACEZ L’APPAREIL PRÈS D’UNE PRISE DE COURANT FACILEMENT ACCESSIBLE.
3.
DÉBRANCHEZ L’APPAREIL AVANT DE L’OUVRIR.
4.
CET APPAREIL NE PEUT ÊTRE EXAMINÉ OU RÉPARÉ QUE PAR UN EMPLOYÉ AUTORISÉ DU
FABRICANT. SI CETTE CONSIGNE N’EST PAS RESPECTÉE, IL Y A RISQUE DE PANNE ET/OU
D’ÉLECTROCUTION.
Germany
VORSICH
1.
UM DIE KÜHLUNG DES GERÄTES NICHT ZU BEEINTRÄCHTIGEN, IST ES NOTWENDIG, AN ALLEN
SEITEN DES GERÄTES CA. 5 CM RAUM ZU LASSEN.
2.
STELLEN SIE DAS GERÄT IN DER NÄHE EINES GEERDETEN SCHUTZKONTAKTSTECKERS SO AUF,
DASS DER STECKER LEICHT ERREICHBAR UND ZUGÄNGLICH IST.
3.
VORM ÖFFNEN DES GERÄTES MUSS DER NETZSTECKER VOM STROMNETZ GETRENNT WERDEN.
4.
DIESES GERÄT DARF NUR DURCH DAS BEVOLLMÄCHTIGTE KUNDENDIENSTPERSONAL DER
FABRIK INSTANDGEHALTEN WERDEN. DIE NICHTBEACHTUNG DIESER VORSCHRIFT KANN ZU
FEHLFUNKTIONEN DES GERÄTES FÜHREN UND DAS PERSONAL DURCH STROMSCHLÄGE
GEFÄHRDEN.
SBM75e Series Modulator Installation and Operation Manual
v
Preliminary Pages
Contents
Chapter 1 Getting Started
Describes the function of the equipment and its purpose within the system. It also provides a
guided tour of the base unit front and rear panel controls, indicators and connectors.
Chapter 2 Installation
Details the procedures for installing the equipment, including important safety information,
details the base unit connectors and cables.
Chapter 3 Front Panel Monitoring & Control
Describes how to configure the unit using the front panel display.
Chapter 4 Web GUI Monitoring & Control
Describes how to configure the unit using the Web Graphical User Interface.
Appendix A Technical Specification
Details the technical specification for the equipment, including performance, signals, power,
physical, environmental and standards compliance.
Appendix B Glossary
Provides a description of the abbreviations ands terms used in this manual.
vi
SBM75e Series Modulator Installation and Operation Manual
CHAPTER 1: Getting
Started
List of Contents
List of Figures
1.1
1.1.1
1.1.2
1.1.3
1.1.4
1.1.4.1
1.1.4.2
Scope of this Manual ............................................... 1-2
Who Should Use This Manual ................................... 1-2
Version Information ................................................... 1-2
Equipment Covered by this Manual ...................... 1-2
RF/IF Interface Options............................................. 1-2
Modulator L Band Output ....................................... 1-2
Modulator IF Output ................................................. 1-2
Figure 1.1: SBM75e Modulator Block Diagram ......................... 1-3
Figure 1.2: SBM75e Modulator Front Panel ............................... 1-4
Figure 1.3: Front Panel LED Indicators ........................................ 1-4
Figure 1.4: Front Panel Keypad ................................................... 1-4
Figure 1.5: SBM75e Modulator Rear Panel ................................ 1-6
Figure 1.6: Modulator Signal Interconnections ......................... 1-7
1.2
1.2.1
Summary of Features ................................................ 1-3
Overview .................................................................... 1-3
1.3
1.3.1
1.3.2
1.3.2.1
1.3.2.2
1.3.2.3
1.3.3
Guided Tour ............................................................... 1-3
Enclosure .................................................................... 1-3
Front Panel Description ............................................ 1-3
Vacuum Fluorescent Display (VFD) ....................... 1-4
LED Indicators ............................................................ 1-4
Keypad ....................................................................... 1-4
Rear Panel Description............................................. 1-6
1.4
Typical System Setup ................................................ 1-7
SBM75e Series Modulator Installation and Operation Manual
List of Tables
Table 1.1: SBM75e Front Panel LEDs ........................................... 1-4
Table 1.2: Front Panel Keypad Functions .................................. 1-5
1-1
Getting Started
1.1
Scope of this Manual
1.1.1
Who Should Use This Manual
This manual is intended for operators/users of the SBM75e of Network L-Band and 70/140 MHz
Satellite Modulators to assist in the installation, operation, fault-finding and maintenance of the
equipment. Throughout this manual, this product is referred to as the ‘SBM75e Modulator ’.
WARNING
DO NOT REMOVE THE COVERS OF THIS EQUIPMENT. HAZARDOUS VOLTAGES ARE PRESENT WITHIN
THIS EQUIPMENT AND MAY BE EXPOSED IF THE COVERS ARE REMOVED. ONLY ADVANTECH AMT
TRAINED PERSONNEL AND APPROVED SERVICE ENGINEERS ARE PERMITED TO SERVICE THIS
EQUIPMENT.
Caution
Unauthorised maintenance or the use of non-approved replacements may affect the equipment
specification and invalidate any warranties.
This Installation and Operation Manual does not include any procedures which require the
removal of any equipment covers.
1.1.2
Version Information
This manual has been written to cover Software Version 1.0.7 and later.
1.1.3
Equipment Covered by this Manual
This manual covers the SBM75e L-Band Satellite Modulator (16” unit) and the L-Band and
70/140 MHz Satellite Modulator (20” unit).
1.1.4
RF/IF Interface Options
The SBM75e Modulator is provided with the following outputs:
ƒ L-Band (950 – 2000 MHz)
ƒ IF (70/140 MHz)
1.1.4.1
Modulator L Band Output
The L-Band output signal is presented on the rear panel of the Modulator (BNC female, 50Ω). If
the Modulator has been ordered with the BUC power option then the DC voltage is switched
onto the inner conductor of this connector. When installing the Modulator to the system, BUC
power should be turned off.
1.1.4.2
Modulator IF Output
The IF output signal is presented on the rear panel of the Modulator (BNC female, 50Ω).
Caution
With BUC power enabled, there is a potentially damaging DC voltage applied to the
Modulator output. When connecting test equipment, or a local Modulator (or any DC
coupled devices), always use appropriate DC blocks, and disable BUC powering.
1-2
SBM75e Series Modulator Installation and Operation Manual
Getting Started
1.2
Summary of Features
1.2.1
Overview
The SBM75e Modulator supports all the major satellite standards, both Intelsat and DVB, in a one
rack unit chassis, if the appropriate options are enabled.
Figure 1.1: SBM75e Modulator Block Diagram
1.3
Guided Tour
1.3.1
Enclosure
The SBM75e Modulator can be fitted into a 1U high enclosure and may be used on a desktop or
rack mounted.
1.3.2
Front Panel Description
The SBM75e Modulator is provided with a VFD 40 x 2 character display, 7 status LEDs and a 16
button keypad.
VFD
SBM75e Series Modulator Installation and Operation Manual
LED
Indicators
Keypad
1-3
Getting Started
Figure 1.2: SBM75e Modulator Front Panel
1.3.2.1
Vacuum Fluorescent Display (VFD)
The VFD can display two lines of up to 40 characters each and has a wide viewing angle.
1.3.2.2
LED Indicators
The LEDs on the front panel indicate the summary status of major Modulator conditions. LEDs that
illuminate GREEN indicate that the function is in operation. LEDs that illuminate RED indicate a
fault condition.
Figure 1.3: Front Panel LED Indicators
Table 1.1: SBM75e Front Panel LEDs
1.3.2.3
LED Name
Colour
Description
BUC Power
Green
Indicates that the BUC power is enabled
LNB Power
Green
Indicates that the LNB power is enabled
Transmit On
Green
Indicates that the Modulator is transmitting
Receive 1 Fault
Red
Indicates that the Demodulator channel is not locked to a received signal
Receive 2 Fault
Red
Reserved
Transmit Fault
Red
Indicates that the Modulator is not transmitting due to a fault (or user
intervention)
Prime Power
Green
Indicates that the power supply current is being received by the
management card
Keypad
The front panel 16-button keypad allows for navigation of the display and data input.
Figure 1.4: Front Panel Keypad
1-4
SBM75e Series Modulator Installation and Operation Manual
Getting Started
Table 1.2: Front Panel Keypad Functions
Keys
Description
ENTER
This key will enter a submenu or enter an editing mode of a parameter. The Parameter is
only set once ENTER is pressed again otherwise changes will not be saved. Commands
such as reconfigure and reset will activate once the ENTER key is pressed.
CLEAR
This Key will return to the previous display or exit out of an editing mode without changing
the parameter.
ST
These keys are used to navigate the menus. The → symbol on the display is used to
point to the current selection. The ↓↑symbols on the display indicate options above and
below. On some menus with a large number of options then the selection will wrap
around. These keys can also be used when editing parameters either from a list or
numerically incrementing or decrementing values including hexadecimal. When a
parameter requires a +/- indicator then these keys are used to toggle between them.
WX
These keys are used to navigate a parameter value once it has been selected. The X key
will also enter a submenu in the same way as the ENTER key.
0 to 9
When editing a parameter field with a numerical value, these keys allow the number to be
entered directly.
Note
If a parameter is changed and the CLEAR key pressed before ENTER, the parameter change will be
cancelled and the display returned to parameter selection mode.
SBM75e Series Modulator Installation and Operation Manual
1-5
Getting Started
1.3.3
Rear Panel Description
The SBM75e Modulator rear panel provides a number of connectors Further details, including pinouts are described in Chapter 2, Installation
AC Power
Connector
Redundancy
Connector
1 PPS in
Connector
Ethernet
Connector
ON/OFF
Switch
M&C Modulator
Connector
Ext Ref in 70/140 MHz
Connector Out connector
ALARM
Connector
ASI 1/2/3/4
Connectors
RS485
Connector
L-Band out
Connector
Figure 1.5: SBM75e Modulator Rear Panel
1-6
SBM75e Series Modulator Installation and Operation Manual
Getting Started
1.4
Typical System Setup
The following diagram shows a typical system setup and signal interconnections. For detailed
connector information, see Chapter 2, Installation.
Figure 1.6: Modulator Signal Interconnections
SBM75e Series Modulator Installation and Operation Manual
1-7
Getting Started
1-8
SBM75e Series Modulator Installation and Operation Manual
CHAPTER 2: Installation
List of Contents
2.6.6 2.6.7 2.6.8 2.6.9 2.6.10 RF (L-Band) Output Connector ............................. 2-12 ASI Input Connector ............................................... 2-12 1Pulse Per Second (1PPS) InputConnector ......... 2-12 External Reference Input Connector ................... 2-13 70/140 MHz (IF) Output Connector ...................... 2-13 2.7 Configuring the Modulator for Best
Performance ............................................................ 2-13 Bringing the Modulator Online .............................. 2-13 Choice of FEC .......................................................... 2-14 Pilots Insertion ........................................................... 2-15 2.1 2.1.1 2.1.2 2.1.3 2.1.3.1 2.1.3.2 2.1.4 2.1.4.1 2.1.4.2 Introduction ............................................................... 2-2 Read This First! ............................................................ 2-2 General ...................................................................... 2-2 Site Requirements ..................................................... 2-2 Power Supplies .......................................................... 2-2 Environment ............................................................... 2-2 EMC Compliance Statements ................................ 2-2 EN 55022 ..................................................................... 2-2 FCC ............................................................................. 2-2 2.2 2.2.1 2.2.2 Preliminary Checks ................................................... 2-3 Mechanical Inspection ............................................ 2-3 Moving the Equipment Safely ................................. 2-3 2.3 2.3.1 2.3.2 Unpacking and Inspection ...................................... 2-3 Unpacking .................................................................. 2-3 Inventory..................................................................... 2-4 Figure 2.1: Rack Mount Support Kit ............................................ 2-5 Figure 2.2: Air Path Through the Enclosure ................................ 2-6 Figure 2.3: Location of AC power connector .......................... 2-7 Figure 2.4: Location of Technical Earth ..................................... 2-8 2.4 2.4.1 2.4.2 2.4.3 2.4.4 Installing the equipment .......................................... 2-4 Modulator Rack Mounting Support Kit .................. 2-4 Cable Routing ........................................................... 2-5 Equipment Access .................................................... 2-5 Ventilation .................................................................. 2-5 List of Tables
2.5 2.5.1 2.5.2 2.5.2.1 2.5.2.2 2.5.2.3 Power Requirements and Earthing ........................ 2-6 Power Cables ............................................................ 2-6 AC Power ................................................................... 2-7 Connecting the SBM75e Modulator to the AC
power Supply ............................................................. 2-7 General ...................................................................... 2-7 Protective Earth/Technical Earth............................ 2-8 2.6 2.6.1 2.6.2 2.6.3 2.6.4 2.6.5 Signal Connections ................................................... 2-9 M&C Connector - RS232 .......................................... 2-9 M&C Connector – RS485 ......................................... 2-9 M&C Connector - 10/100BaseT Ethernet ............ 2-10 Monitor and Control Alarms .................................. 2-10 Redundancy ............................................................ 2-11 SBD75e Series Modulator Installation and Operation Manual
2.7.1 2.7.2 2.7.3 List of Figures
Table 2.1: SBM75e Modulator Rack Mounting Support Kits .... 2-4 Table 2.2: Supply Cable Wiring Colours ..................................... 2-8 Table 2.3: Non Standard Supply Cord Wire Colours ................ 2-8 Table 2.4: M&C Connector RS232 .............................................. 2-9 Table 2.5: M&C Connector – RS485 ........................................... 2-9 Table 2.6: M&C Connector - 10/100BaseT Ethernet .............. 2-10 Table 2.8: Alarm Connector Pin-outs ....................................... 2-10 Table 2.9: RF (L-Band) Output Connector............................... 2-12 Table 2.10: ASI Input Connector ............................................... 2-12 Table 2.11: 1PPS Input Connector ........................................... 2-13 Table 2.12: Ext Ref In Connector............................................... 2-13 Table 2.13: 70/140 MHz (IF) Output Connector ...................... 2-13 Table 2.14: FEC/Mode/Rate Configuration Values ............... 2-15 2-1
Installation
2.1
Introduction
This chapter describes the unpacking, inspection and installation considerations.
2.1.1
Read This First!
The SBM75e Modulator must be handled carefully and thoughtfully to prevent safety hazards
and damage. Ensure the personnel designated to install the unit have the appropriate skills and
knowledge. If in any doubt, contact Advantech AMT Customer Support.
Follow the instructions for installation and only use installation accessories recommended by the
manufacturers.
2.1.2
General
Advantech AMT personnel normally perform installation of the SBM75e Modulator. This chapter
provides configuration and connection information for planning installations, checking the final
set-up in the event of a fault, modifying the requirements or moving the equipment to another
location. In the event of problems, contact Customer Support.
2.1.3
Site Requirements
2.1.3.1
Power Supplies
See Appendix A, Technical Specification for a full specification.
2.1.3.2
Environment
See Appendix A, Technical Specification for a full specification.
Do not install this product in areas of high humidity or where there is danger of water ingress.
The installation site should be compatible with the location used for other electronic equipment.
That is, the building should be free from excessive dust and moisture. The room should not
exceed the recommended temperature range (defined in Appendix B Technical Specifications).
The installation location should allow for ample airflow. Also, allow extra room for service access
to cables and wiring.
2.1.4
EMC Compliance Statements
2.1.4.1
EN 55022
1
This equipment is a Class A product. In a domestic environment this product may cause radio
interference in which case the user may be required to take adequate measures.
2.1.4.2
FCC
This equipment has been tested and found to comply with the limits for a Class A digital device,
pursuant to Part 15 of the FCC Rules. These limits are designed to provide reasonable protection
against harmful interference when the equipment is operated in a commercial environment.
This equipment generates, uses, and can radiate radio frequency energy and, if not installed
and used in accordance with the instruction manual, may cause harmful interference to radio
communications. Operation of this equipment in a residential area is likely to cause harmful
interference in which case the user will be required to correct the interference at his own
expense.
1
The EMC information was correct at the time of manufacture. The EMC tests were performed with the Technical earth attached.
2-2
SBD75e Series Modulator Installation and Operation Manual
Installation
2.2
Preliminary Checks
2.2.1
Mechanical Inspection
When taking delivery of an SBM75e Modulator, check the equipment items delivered against the
enclosed delivery note. Inspect the equipment for damage in transit. If in doubt, contact
Customer Support (see Preliminary Pages).
NOTE…
Do not remove the covers of this equipment as doing so may invalidate any warranties, cause a safety
hazard and/or affect the EMC performance. It may also invalidate any safety tests. Check with
Customer Support beforehand.
2.2.2
Moving the Equipment Safely
Do not place this product on an unstable cart, stand, bracket, or table. The
product may fall, causing serious injury and serious damage to the product. Use
only with a cart, stand, bracket or table recommended by Advantech AMT
An appliance and cart combination should be moved with care. Quick stops, excessive force,
and uneven surfaces may cause the appliance and cart combination to overturn.
Do not move or carry the equipment whilst it is still connected to the supply or other leads, is live
or is in operation.
2.3
Unpacking and Inspection
Check for damage to the outside and the inside of the shipping container. If there is any
damage, contact Customer Service and the shipping carrier to report it.
2.3.1
Unpacking
To insure safety and proper operation of this equipment, use the following unpacking and
repackaging guidelines:
ƒ
The equipment is shipped in a high-quality cardboard container and packed with
high-density moulded foam. This type of packing material can withstand impairments such
as vibration and impact associated with long-distance shipment. The packing box and
foam is the only suitable type of packing that should be used for shipping the equipment.
ƒ
While unpacking, observe how the equipment is packed. In order to avoid damage, it must
be repackaged in exactly the same manner if you need to ship the unit to another location
or return it to the factory.
The packing consists of one large cardboard box, two foam side caps, and one accessory box.
Please retain these items for future use
SBD75e Series Modulator Installation and Operation Manual
2-3
Installation
2.3.2
Inventory
Take inventory of the complete package to ensure that all necessary parts are present. A quick
review of your pre-installation site survey form, purchase order, and shipping list should reveal any
discrepancies. The box should contain the modulator, a power cord, a fan filter kit, and this
manual. If any additional kits have been ordered such as the Rear Support Kit verify the contents
using the packing slip
2.4
Installing the equipment
Move the unit to the location where it will be installed. Ideally, the unit will be installed into an
equipment rack or a shelf. Prior to installing the SBM75e Modulator, determine the depth of the
supporting structure. A Rack Mount Support Kit may be required (if this has not been supplied
with your modulator when purchased, see Preliminary Pages for ordering information. If
necessary, prior to installation into the rack or shelf, remove the three coloured screws on the
bottom side of the chassis. The removal of these screws frees up the anti-vibration mount that
was secured during shipping. Install the fan filters onto the external fans, if a regular maintenance
schedule can be provided to clean or replace the fans. Do not install the filters at a remote
location unless quarterly preventative maintenance is performed. Follow the additional
precautions shown below:
ƒ
Do not block the air holes or the fan cut outs the back panel of the unit. These openings
must be kept clear for the proper cooling of the equipment.
ƒ
Do not place the units beside each other or on top of each other. The exhaust from one unit
can be drawn into the air intake of another.
Make sure the room is properly cooled. Normal cooling may not be sufficient for locations
where the electrical equipment is installed.
2.4.1
ƒ
Always make sure the unit’s top cover is installed and secured in place.
ƒ
If it has not already been done, label each cable that will be attached to the unit. This will
prevent confusion and ensures proper connection.
Modulator Rack Mounting Support Kit
Rack support kits are available to secure the SBM75e Modulator securely into the supporting
structure. See Table 2.1 for details of the kit required for various rack sizes.
Table 2.1: SBM75e Modulator Rack Mounting Support Kits
2-4
Rack Depth
Kit
600mm
19A-230001-001
700mm
19A-230021-001
800mm
19A-230011-001
SBD75e Series Modulator Installation and Operation Manual
Installation
Figure 2.1: Rack Mount Support Kit
The left and right mounting kit supports are attached to the SBM75e Modulator with two #6-32 x
5/16” Phillips countersunk screws. Each angle is attached to a support by one #8-32 x ½” screw,
one #8 lock washer, one#8 flat washer 3/8” OD, one #8 flat washer ½” OD and one #8-32
hexagonal nut.
Do not use this product as a support for any other equipment.
2.4.2
Cable Routing
Power supply cables should be routed so that they are not likely to be walked on or pinched by
items placed upon or against them. Pay particular attention to cables at plugs, convenience
receptacles, and the point where they exit from the appliance.
Do not run AC power cables in the same duct as signal leads.
2.4.3
Equipment Access
Ensure that the SBM75e Modulator is installed in such a way as to allow access to the rear of the
unit and the connectors.
2.4.4
Ventilation
WARNING...
NEVER PUSH OBJECTS OF ANY KIND INTO THIS EQUIPMENT THROUGH OPENINGS AS THEY MAY
TOUCH DANGEROUS VOLTAGE POINTS OR SHORT-OUT PARTS THAT COULD RESULT IN A FIRE OR
ELECTRIC SHOCK. NEVER SPILL LIQUID OF ANY KIND ON THE PRODUCT.
Cautions
1.
Openings in the cabinet are provided for ventilation and to ensure reliable operation of the
product and to protect it from overheating, and these openings must not be blocked or
covered. This product should never be placed near or over a radiator or heat register. This
product should not be placed in a built-in installation such as a rack unless proper
ventilation is provided or the instructions have been adhered to.
SBD75e Series Modulator Installation and Operation Manual
2-5
Installation
2.
Do not install equipment so that the air intake of one aligns with the outlet on another.
Provide baffles and adequate spacing.
3.
The fans contained within this unit are not fitted with a dust/insect filter. Pay particular
attention to the environment in which it is to be used.
The unit is designed for stationary or fixed use only. Ensure it is firmly and safely located and has
an adequate through-flow of air. Allow at least 50 mm free air-space at each side of the
equipment. Units in racks can be stacked without ventilation panels between. Racks containing
stacked equipment may need to be forced-air cooled to reduce the operating ambient
temperature. For stacking constraints contact Advantech Customer Support.
Warm air is
exhausted via
side vents
Cool air is
brought into the
unit via fans
Figure 2.2: Air Path Through the Enclosure
2.5
Power Requirements and Earthing
Caution
This product should be operated only from the type of power source indicated on the marking
label. If you are not sure of the type of power supply to your business, consult a qualified
electrical engineer or your local power company.
The SBM75e Modulator is available in an AC powered version which may be operated with any
regular worldwide office or domestic supply.
2.5.1
Power Cables
WARNINGS
2-6
1.
THIS UNIT MUST BE CORRECTLY EARTHED THROUGH THE MOULDED PLUG SUPPLIED. IF THE
LOCAL MAINS SUPPLY DOES NOT HAVE AN EARTH CONDUCTOR DO NOT CONNECT THE UNIT.
CONTACT CUSTOMER SUPPORT FOR ADVICE.
2.
BEFORE CONNECTING THE UNIT TO THE SUPPLY, CHECK THE SUPPLY REQUIREMENTS IN ANNEX
B, TECHNICAL SPECIFICATION.
SBD75e Series Modulator Installation and Operation Manual
Installation
2.5.2
AC Power
AC power is supplied to the modulator via socket JP1 (IEC 320(M) on the rear panel.
WARNING
UNDER NO CIRCUMSTANCES SHOULD THE EARTHING PIN OF A 3-PIN PLUG BE REMOVED TO OPERATE
WITH A 2-PIN SOCKET.
Caution
The SBM75e Series Modulators are shipped with a North American standard 3-pin power cable
that is designed to work with 100-120V power supplies only. If you are in a country or territory
that does not support this power cable design or voltage supply, please provide your own
appropriate 3-pin power cable for powering the unit.
Figure 2.3: Location of AC power connector
For AC units, the modulator requires a supply voltage in the range 96-263 VAC, 47-63 Hz.
Modulators without the optional internal Block-Up Converter (BUC) power supply will produce up
to 110 W loading on the AC supply. Modulators with internal BUC power supplies can increase
this loading to a maximum of 220 W.
2.5.2.1
Connecting the SBM75e Modulator to the AC power Supply
WARNINGS
3.
DO NOT OVERLOAD WALL OUTLETS AND EXTENSION CABLES AS THIS CAN RESULT IN FIRE OR
ELECTRIC SHOCK
4.
AS NO MAINS SWITCH IS FITTED TO THIS UNIT, ENSURE THE LOCAL AC POWER SUPPLY IS
SWITCHED OFF BEFORE CONNECTING THE POWER CABLE.
5.
THIS UNIT IS NOT FITTED WITH AN ON/OFF SWITCH. ENSURE THAT THE SOCKET OUTLET IS
INSTALLED NEAR THE EQUIPMENT SO THAT IT IS EASILY ACCESSIBLE. FAILURE TO ISOLATE THE
EQUIPMENT CORRECTLY MAY CAUSE A SAFETY HAZARD.
To connect the unit to the local ac power supply:
2.5.2.2
1.
Ensure the local ac supply is switched OFF.
2.
Ensure the correct fuse type and rating has been fitted to both the equipment and the a.c.
power cables.
3.
Connect the ac power leads to the SBM75e Modulator mains input connector and then to
the local mains supply.
General
Check that the AC power cable is suitable for the country in which the unit is to be used.
The unit is supplied with a detachable mains-supply cable fitted with a moulded plug suitable for
the USA, UK or Europe as appropriate.
The wires in the mains-supply cable are coloured in accordance with the wire colour code
shown in Table 2.2.
SBD75e Series Modulator Installation and Operation Manual
2-7
Installation
Table 2.2: Supply Cable Wiring Colours
UK
(BS 1363)
EUROPE
(CEE 7/7)
USA
(NEMA 5-15P)
Earth:
Green-and-yellow
Green-and-yellow
Green
Neutral:
Blue
Blue
White
Live:
Brown
Brown
Black
If the colours do not correspond with the coloured markings identifying the terminals in a locally
supplied plug, proceed as in Table 2.3 (included for reference).
Table 2.3: Non Standard Supply Cord Wire Colours
2.5.2.3
Wire Colour (UK)
Action
Green-and-yellow
Must be connected to the terminal in the plug which is marked
with the letter E or the safety earth symbol
or coloured
green or green-and-yellow.
Blue
Must be connected to the terminal in the plug which is marked
with the letter N or coloured black.
Brown
Must be connected to the terminal in the plug which is marked
with the letter L or coloured red.
Protective Earth/Technical Earth
Connect the SBM75e Modulator technical earth to a suitable point.
WARNINGS
1.
THIS UNIT MUST BE CORRECTLY EARTHED THROUGH THE MOULDED PLUG SUPPLIED. IF THE
LOCAL MAINS SUPPLY DOES NOT HAVE AN EARTH CONDUCTOR DO NOT CONNECT THE UNIT.
CONTACT CUSTOMER SUPPORT FOR ADVICE.
2.
BEFORE CONNECTING THE UNIT TO THE SUPPLY, CHECK THE SUPPLY REQUIREMENTS IN ANNEX
B, TECHNICAL SPECIFICATION.
The unit has a Technical earth terminal (marked with ) located adjacent to the rear-panel
mains inputs. Its use is recommended. This is NOT a Protective earth for electric shock protection.
The terminal is provided to:
ƒ Ensure all equipment chassis fixed within a rack are at the same Technical earth potential.
To do this, connect a wire between the Technical earth terminal and a suitable point on the
rack.
ƒ Eliminate the migration of stray charges when connecting between equipment.
Figure 2.4: Location of Technical Earth
2-8
SBD75e Series Modulator Installation and Operation Manual
Installation
2.6
Signal Connections
The majority of signal connectors are located on the rear panel of the SBM75e Modulator,
except for one monitor and control connector located on the front panel.
Note
Always use the specified cables supplied for signal integrity and compliance with EMC requirements
(see appendix A, Technical Specification).
2.6.1
M&C Connector - RS232
A 9-pin D RS-232 connector is located at the top, right of centre, rear panel of the modulator
and is provided to support the connection of ANSII 3.64 VT-100 terminals.
Table 2.4: M&C Connector RS232
2.6.2
Item
Specification
Connector type:
9-way, D-type, Female
Connector designation:
M&C RS232
Standard:
RS232
Configuration:
DCE
Pin-outs:
1
Not Used
6
Not Used
2
Tx Data
7
Not Used
3
Rx Data
8
Not Used
4
Not Used
9
+5 VDC @ 100 mA
5
Ground
5
1
6
9
M&C Connector – RS485
A 9-pin D Dual function RS-485 connector is provided immediately under the RS-232 Monitor and
Control connector on the rear panel. This port is configured for 4-wire operation and may be
controlled by different protocols, packet protocol mode or BUC control.
Using the RS-485 port with the command or packet protocol allows a number of modulators to
be controlled from a client PC. Each modulator being controlled on the same bus must have a
unique address.
Table 2.5: M&C Connector – RS485
SBD75e Series Modulator Installation and Operation Manual
2-9
Installation
2.6.3
Item
Specification
Connector type:
9-way, D-type, Female
Connector designation:
M&C RS485
Standard:
RS485
Configuration:
DCE
Pin-outs:
1
Signal Ground
6
Power Detector +
2
Power Detector
7
Not Used
3
Not Used
8
RS-485 Rx+
4
RS-485 Tx+
9
RS-485 Rx-
5
RS-485 Tx-
1
5
6
9
M&C Connector - 10/100BaseT Ethernet
There are two 10/100BaseT Ethernet M&C ports on the rear panel. One is labeled ETHERNET, and
the other is labelled M&C DEMOD (both are RJ-45 connectors; see Table 2.7 for pin-outs). The
M&C DEMOD connector is used during manufacturing and upgrades, and relates to the
demodulator (if fitted) only, and should not be used in the field. The ETHERNET connector
provides Ethernet capabilities for all functions of the modulator, including the modulator,
demodulator, and interface cards (if fitted).
Table 2.6: M&C Connector - 10/100BaseT Ethernet
Item
Specification
Connector type:
RJ-45 socket
Connector designation:
ETHERNET
Standard:
10/100BaseT
Configuration:
-
1
8
Pin-outs:
RJ-45 Pin Number
Description
Wire Color Codes
Crossover Cable Pins
1
TX +
White W/Orange
3
2
TX -
Orange
6
3
RX +
White W/Green
1
4
Blue
5
White W/Blue
6
2.6.4
RX -
Green
2
7
White W/Brown
8
Brown
Monitor and Control Alarms
The connector labelled P5, a 15-pin D-sub (F) provides Form C relay outputs of the modulator’s
status. Refer to Table 2.8 for pin-outs and signal description.
Table 2.7: Alarm Connector Pin-outs
2-10
SBD75e Series Modulator Installation and Operation Manual
Installation
Item
Specification
Connector
type:
9-way, D-sub type, Female
Connector
designation:
ALARMS
Standard:
Custom
Configuratio
n:
-
Relay 1: Not
Ued
1
Common
6
Normally Open
8
Normally Closed
2
Common
7
Normally Open
3
Normally Closed
5
Common
4
Normally open
9
Normally closed
Relay 2:
Modulator
Relay 3: Not
Used
2.6.5
1
5
9
6
Redundancy
This is an optional feature, although the connector appears on the rear panel (REDUNDANCY, a
15-pin D-sub female). A redundancy kit can be purchased from Advantech AMT to allow two
modulators to be connected in a 1:1 redundancy configuration.
Table 2.8: Redundancy Connector Pin-outs
Item
Specification
Connector type:
9-way, D-sub type,
Female
Connector designation:
ALARMS
Standard:
Custom
Configuration:
-
DB15 (A)
DB15 (B)
RF SWITCH
Note
1
2
AV1
RF SW Drive, unit A
2
1
AV2
RF SW Drive, unit B
3
3
COM
6
14
--
Signal Ground
Future Use
7
13
--
Future Use
8
15
--
B --> A Redundancy
9
9
+C
11
12
1
RF Relay O/P NC
12
11
2
RF Relay O/P NO
13
7
--
Future Use
14
6
--
Future Use
15
8
--
A --> B Redundancy
SBD75e Series Modulator Installation and Operation Manual
RF SW +12V
2-11
Installation
2.6.6
RF (L-Band) Output Connector
The connector labelled as L-Band OUT transmits RF signals to the antenna. For signal
specification, see Appendix A: Technical Specification.
Table 2.9: RF (L-Band) Output Connector
2.6.7
Item
Specification
Connector type:
F-type 50 Ω female socket
Connector designation:
L-BAND OUTPUT
Pin-outs:
Centre
RF Signal
Shield
Ground/Chassis
ASI Input Connector
One or more ASI inputs may be provided on the rear panel, labelled as ASI 1, ASI 2, etc., to
receive transport streams. For signal specification, see Appendix A: Technical Specification.
Table 2.10: ASI Input Connector
2.6.8
Item
Specification
Connector type:
BNC 50 Ω socket
Connector designation:
ASI IN 1
ASI IN 2
ASI IN 3
ASI IN 4
Pin-outs:
Centre
Video Signal
Shield
Ground/Chassis
1Pulse Per Second (1PPS) InputConnector
One connector is provided to receive a 1PPS signal reference. For signal specification, see
Appendix A: Technical Specification.
2-12
SBD75e Series Modulator Installation and Operation Manual
Installation
Table 2.11: 1PPS Input Connector
2.6.9
Item
Specification
Connector type:
BNC 50 Ω socket
Connector designation:
1PPS IN
Pin-outs:
Centre
Video Signal
Shield
Ground/Chassis
External Reference Input Connector
One connector is provided to receive an external reference signal. For signal specification, see
Appendix A: Technical Specification.
Table 2.12: Ext Ref In Connector
2.6.10
Item
Specification
Connector type:
BNC 50 Ω socket
Connector designation:
EXT_REF_IN
Pin-outs:
Centre
Video Signal
Shield
Ground/Chassis
70/140 MHz (IF) Output Connector
One IF output connector provides an IF output. For signal specification, see Appendix A:
Technical Specification.
Table 2.13: 70/140 MHz (IF) Output Connector
Item
Specification
Connector type:
BNC 50 Ω socket
Connector designation:
70/140 MHz OUT
Pin-outs:
Centre
Video Signal
Shield
Ground/Chassis
2.7
Configuring the Modulator for Best Performance
2.7.1
Bringing the Modulator Online
When bringing a transmit carrier on line, the following sequence must be followed:
1.
Power on the modulator for five minutes to allow the oscillator to stabilize.
2.
Before connecting the L-band cable to the BUC, verify that:
ƒ The Symbol rate and the frequency of the modulator are correctly set
SBD75e Series Modulator Installation and Operation Manual
2-13
Installation
ƒ BUC power is off (bucpower off)
ƒ 10 MHz reference is off (tfref off)
3.
Set modulator power to -25 dBm (tlevel -25)
4.
If required and if the option is fitted, turn on DC power to BUC (bucpower on).
5.
If required and if the option is fitted, turn on 10 MHz reference to the BUC (tfref on).
6.
Increase modulator output power to desired level (tlevel < desired level >).
Note
Before attempting to bring the modulator on line, the operator should become familiar with
the operation of the modulator while off line. Refer to the manual to obtain a thorough
understanding of modulator operation using a terminal emulator (or PC with terminal
emulation program).
2.7.2
Choice of FEC
The SBM75e modulator will always support a traditional basic DVB-S (RSV) coding scheme with
BPSK and QPSK modulation – either Intelsat IESS-308/9, or DVB-S (or both). Traditionally Intelsat
systems have been used for telecommunications data (multiple 64kbps streams and T1/E1 traffic)
while DVB-S has been used for MPEG digital video broadcasting. However, DVB systems are
increasingly also being used to transmit data both in MPEG format and as raw data.
DVB FEC systems always concatenate RS and Viterbi coding whereas the Intelsat systems support
RS as an option. Operation without RS can be important when transmitting low-latency services
such as voice traffic: removing the RS decoding overhead.
With BPSK and QPSK modulation, DVB-S supports ½, 2/3, ¾, 5/6 and 7/8 inner code rates with a RS
(204,188) outer code. Intelsat supports ½, ¾ and 7/8 inner code rates with various outer RS code
rates including RS (126,112) and RS (219,201). The Intelsat system without RS codes offers a few
100 data bits of latency. With RS coding, an interleaver of depth 4 or 8 can be chosen to trade
off latency and performance. The DVB system has approximately 32kbits of latency (code-rate
dependent).
The modulator can transmit RS-530 or HSSI data using either DVB-S or Intelsat. DVB systems outperform (by approximately 1dB) Intelsat systems because they include a better interleaver
between the constituent Viterbi and RS codes.
The SBM75e modulator also supports higher order modulation systems, such as 8PSK and 16QAM.
These systems are typically used when the link budget permits since, in combination with
appropriate FEC, they permit higher spectral efficiency and hence reduce the required satellite
bandwidth.
8PSK modulation is currently more popular than 16QAM as it does not require high-linearity
amplifiers and transponders. The AMT-70 modulator can be enabled to support IESS-310 8PSK
systems (a PTCM 2/3 code, with an RS (219,201) outer code) giving about 2 bits/s/Hz. It can also
support DVB-DSNG (PTCM 2/3, 5/6 and 8/9 rates, with the RS (204,188) code) and eTPC rates
0.75,0.79, 0.87 and 0.92. Turbo modes are about 1dB better than the roughly equivalent DVBDSNG systems. The Intelsat system is about 1.5dB inferior to the DVB system, due to differences in
the interleaving structure.
The SBM75e modulator also supports 16QAM in two coding modes: DVB-DSNG and eTPC. DVBDSNG 16QAM supports ¾ and 7/8 rates with the RS (204,188) outer code. 16QAM with eTPC can
usefully operate in 4 rates: 0.75, 0.78, 0.87 and 0.92.
2-14
SBD75e Series Modulator Installation and Operation Manual
Installation
Note
The DVB system can be configured to transmit both MPEG-2 and non MPEG-2 data. When using
DVB modes to transmit non MPEG-2 data it is necessary to turn DVB REMOVE MARK ON in the
modulator (command RRMVMK ON). This is required, since DVB FEC utilizes the MPEG framing
structure, which must therefore be imposed by the modulator (and similarly removed by the
modulator). There is a performance overhead associated with the sync byte, but it is only 0.5% of data
rate.
Table 2.14: FEC/Mode/Rate Configuration Values
2.7.3
Mode
Modulation
Rates
Intelsat 308/309
BPSK, QPSK
OQPSK
Rates:
½, ¾ and 7/8 are valid along with
the option of Reed-Solomon OFF/
219 or 126
Intelsat 310
8PSK
Rates:
2/3 and again with the option of
Reed-Solomon OFF/ 219 or 126
DVB-S
QPSK
OQPSK
Rates:
½, 2/3, ¾, 5/6 and 7/8
DVB-DSNG
8PSK and 16QAM
Rates
2/3, 5/6 8/9 in 8PSK and ¾ and
7/8 in 16QAM.
DVB-S2S
QPSK, 8PSK, 16APSK, 32APSK
Rates
¼, 1/2. 3/5 2/3, ¾, 4/5, 5/6, 8/9
DVB-S2N
QPSK, 8PSK, 16APSK, 32APSK
Rates
1/2. 3/5 2/3, ¾, 4/5, 5/6, 8/9, 9/10,
1/4
TPC4K
BPSK,QPSK, oQPSK, 8PSK and
16QAM
Rate 4/5 and 3/4
TPC16K
BPSK,QPSK, oQPSK, 8PSK and
16QAM
Rate 2/5, 3/5, 8/9, 7/8 and 19/20.
OM73
BPSK, oQPSK and QPSK
and NONE
NONE, 1/2 and 3/4
Pilots Insertion
To aid carrier recovery and a physical layer framing synchronization, the DVB-S2 standards
proposes optional insertion of pilot symbols. The system provides a regular physical layer framing
structure, based on SLOTs of M = 90 modulated symbols, allowing reliable receiver
synchronization on the FEC block structure. A slot is devoted to physical layer signalling,
including Start-of-Frame delimitation and transmission mode definition. This mechanism is
suitable also for VCM and ACM demodulator setting. Carrier recovery in the receivers may be
facilitated by the introduction of a regular raster of pilot symbols (P = 36 pilot symbols every 16
SLOTs of 90 symbols), while a pilot-less transmission mode is also available, offering an additional
2,4 % useful capacity. The pilot presence/absence in VCM and ACM can be changed on a
frame-by-frame basis.
SBD75e Series Modulator Installation and Operation Manual
2-15
Installation
With the receiver algorithms taken into consideration, carrier synchronization can be achieved in
presence of phase noise of existing outdoor equipment, including the LNB and worst-case
thermal noise for any DVB-S2 mode. Some of the transmission modes, such as for example 8PSK
rate 3/5 and rate 2/3, 16APSK rate 3/4 and 32APSK 4/5 required the use of pilot symbols to avoid
cycle slips. For ACM operation, the use of pilot symbols can guarantee continuous receiver
synchronization.
2-16
SBD75e Series Modulator Installation and Operation Manual
CHAPTER 3: Front
Panel Monitoring & Control
List of Contents
List of Tables
3.1 Introduction ............................................................... 3-2 3.2 Powering up the Modulator .................................... 3-3 3.3 3.3.1 3.3.2 3.3.2.1 3.3.2.2 3.3.2.3 3.3.2.3.1 3.3.2.3.2 3.3.2.4 3.3.2.5 3.3.2.5.1 3.3.2.5.2 3.3.2.5.3 3.3.2.5.4 3.3.2.5.5 3.3.2.5.6 3.3.2.5.7 3.3.2.5.8 3.3.2.5.9 3.3.2.5.10 3.3.2.5.11 3.3.2.5.12 3.3.2.5.13 3.3.2.5.14 3.3.2.5.15 3.3.2.5.16 3.3.2.6 3.3.2.7 3.3.2.8 3.3.3 Basic Front Panel Operation ................................... 3-3 Overview .................................................................... 3-3 Select Board .............................................................. 3-3 Card Information ...................................................... 3-4 Status........................................................................... 3-4 Configure ................................................................... 3-5 Profiles ......................................................................... 3-5 Coding ........................................................................ 3-7 Settings ..................................................................... 3-11 BISS ............................................................................ 3-11 Status......................................................................... 3-11 Configure ................................................................. 3-12 BISS Mode Selection ............................................... 3-12 Off.............................................................................. 3-12 BISS-0 ......................................................................... 3-12 BISS-1 ......................................................................... 3-12 BISS-E ......................................................................... 3-12 Odd/Even-1 ............................................................. 3-13 Odd/Even-E ............................................................. 3-13 User-1 ........................................................................ 3-13 User-E......................................................................... 3-13 Processing ................................................................ 3-13 BISS Insertion Period ................................................ 3-13 BISS Active Key ........................................................ 3-13 Entering keys and ID’s ............................................ 3-13 Configure BISS.......................................................... 3-14 Reboot card ............................................................ 3-14 Reset to factory defaults ....................................... 3-14 System Setup ........................................................... 3-14 Chassis Info............................................................... 3-14 Table 3.1:Top Level Menu ............................................................ 3-3 Table 3.2: Select Board Menu ..................................................... 3-3 Table 3.3: Status Menu ................................................................. 3-4 Table 3.6: Configure Sub-menu .................................................. 3-5 Table 3.5: Profiles Sub-menu ........................................................ 3-5 Table 3.9: Coding Types. .............................................................. 3-7 Table 3.10: Coding Options ......................................................... 3-7 Table 3.11: Stream X Sub-menu ................................................ 3-10 Table 3.9: Output Sub-menu ..................................................... 3-11 Table 3.10: BISS status values ..................................................... 3-11 Table 3.13: Chassis Info Sub-menu ........................................... 3-14 SBM75e Series Modulator Installation and Operation Manual
3-1
Front Panel Monitoring & Control
3.1
Introduction
The SBM75e Modulator is equipped with an active front panel (LCD screen and keypad) which
provides an easy way to setup the Modulator without the need for a PC or generic control
system. This chapter is intended to allow maintenance personnel or users to quickly set up the
Modulator for initial use.
Switch On
Advantech AMTTM SBM-75
Overview:
Press any key to continue.....
Overview : (para. 3.3.1)
Select Board > (para. 3.3.2)
Chassis Info > (para. 3.3.3)
Set Brightness : (para. 3.3.4)
Chassis Info >
Board Temperature:
LED Test:
Fan Speed:
Set Brightness:
Settings >(para. 3.3.2.3)
Output Power:
Output Enable:
CW Mode:
Ref. Setting:
Ref. Internal Ref.:
Ref. Store to ini:
BISS->(para. 3.3.2.5)
Status>
State:
Key State:
Processing:
Extraction:
Stream Info:
PMT Info:
Configure>
Mode:
Processing:
Insertion Period:
Session word:
Injected ID:
Encrypted Word:
Active Key:
Even Session Word:
Odd Session Word:
Even ESW:
ODD ESW:
Configure BISS>
Reboot card> (para. 3.3.2.6)
Reset to Factory defaults>(para. 3.3.2.7)
System Setup>
(para 3.3.2.5)
Network Address:
Subnet Address:
Gateway:
3-2
Select Board >
Card Information
Version:
Support Features>
Feature list
Status > (para. 3.3.2.1)
Status >
FPGA:
Input:
Self test:
Prog Baud Rate:
Prog Bit Rate:
Actual Baud Rate:
Board Temp:
Core Temp:
Version:
Configure > (para. 3.3.2.2)
Profiles > (para. 5.3.2.2.1)
Load Profile >
Create Profile >
Delete Profile >
Reconfigure>
Coding > (para. 3.3.2.2.3)
Modulation :
Data Rate :
Input :
Redundant Input :
Input Type:
Reset Input On Error:
Pilots :
PRBS Polynomial :
Stream X > :
Input:
Redundant Input:
Block Size:
FEC Rate:
Modulation:
Pilots:
ISI:
PRBS Polynomial:
Rate limiter:
Cut off rate:
Packet Type:
ISSY Type:
Packet Length:
Packet Sync:
Reconfigure Stream:
Frequency:
Spectrum:
Alpha:
PLS Seed:
Reconfigure:
SBM75e Series Modulator Installation and Operation Manual
Front Panel Monitoring & Control
3.2
Powering up the Modulator
When power is applied to the Modulator (in accordance with the instructions given in Chapter 2,
Installation), approximately 90 seconds should be allowed for the system to boot-up, complete
internal checks, allow the internal crystal oven to reach operating temperature and the
frequency of the crystal to stabilize. The following screen is then displayed:
Advantech AMTTM SBM-75
Press any key to continue.....
3.3
Basic Front Panel Operation
When the Modulator has completed the boot-up process, pressing any key will cause the top
level menu to be displayed. The options available from this menu are shown in Table 3.1.
Note
When a key is pressed following start-up, the start-up screen will not be displayed again unless the
unit undergoes a power cycle.
Table 3.1:Top Level Menu
Menu Item
Operations
Overview :
This is a monitor function which reports the overall status of the unit. This will report
unlocked if any of the cards within the chassis is unlocked.
Select Board >
This will list all available cards with the user specified names. From this menu these
units can be monitored and controlled. At present each card has an individual
network address which is set within this menu.
Chassis Info >
General Chassis information which is not specific to a card is displayed here such
as Fan speeds etc. Also tests such as LED tests are set within this menu.
Set Brightness:
3.3.1
Allows the user to adjust the brightness of the display.
Overview
This option reports an overall summary of the system. At present, if any card is unlocked then it
will report as unlocked.
3.3.2
Select Board
The chassis has been designed to be highly configurable and can be used with a range of
Modulators and miscellaneous interface cards. These cards can have user specified names
which are set within the GUI. The Select Board functions may be viewed by clicking on the Select
Board option from the Overview screen. The options available from this menu are detailed in
Table 3.2.
Table 3.2: Select Board Menu
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3.3.2.1
Menu Item
Operations
Card Information >
Reports card information such as feature keys and software version
Status >
Lists the status of the input and configuration. All parameters in this menu are
read only.
Configure >
Allows configuration of various parameters within the unit.
Settings >
All the instantaneous commands such as power level and output enable are
controlled here
BISS >
BISS controls and status displayed if enabled
Reboot Card >
Reset To Factory
Defaults >
System Setup >
Will prompt a question to reboot the card
Will prompt a question to reset the unit to the factory defaults
Allows configuration of card Ethernet address.
Card Information
The Software version of the card is displayed as well as all supported feature keys.
3.3.2.2
Status
Table 3.3: Status Menu
Menu Item
Operations
FPGA :
The FPGA has been programmed and is functioning correctly. If it fails this suggests
a hardware fault or faulty upgrade. Read only.
Input:
The status of the input. If unlocked then this suggests the input bit rate is not as
expected. Read only.
Self Test :
The report of the self test which was run at start up, if this fails then please report
this to Advantech support.
Output Power :
If this does not report calibrated then please report this to Advantech support
Prog Baud Rate:
The programmed Baud rate in Sym/S. Read Only.
Prog Bit Rate:
Actual Baud
Rate:
Board Temp:
The programmed bit rate in b/s. Read Only.
Core1 Temp:
The FPGA Core temperature in Celsius. Read Only.
Achieved Power :
The actual power level transmitted which should match the required power level
when operating within the calibrated range.
Ref. Setting :
Reports if the frequency is locked to an internal source or external
Re. Clock :
Reports the status of the reference source if it is locked.
Ref. Signal :
Reports if a signal is present at the reference source
CCM State >
Sub directory listing the status of CCM settings
STREAM x State
The Actual Baud rate which is required to match the incoming bit rate. Read Only.
The Temperature of the board in Celsius. Read Only.
Input Type ;
Off: not used; Main: Main input used; Spare: Redundant input
used.
Overflow :
This will report OK or FIFO FULL
Sync :
This will report the input is synchronised
Rate Measure :
This will report the incoming bit rate in Kbit/s
Sub directory listing the status of the settings for Stream X, this is only applicable if
ACM has been configured.
Input Type ;
3-4
Off: not used; Main: Main input used; Spare: Redundant input
used.
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Menu Item
3.3.2.3
Operations
Overflow :
This will report OK or FIFO FULL
Sync :
This will report the input is synchronised
Rate Measure :
This will report the incoming bit rate in Kbit/s
Rate Limit :
This will report on the status of the rate limiter which will state
either “Not Enabled”, “Rate Exceeded” or OK
Configure
All options selected within this menu are pending settings and will not take effect until the unit is
reconfigured. The settings are only saved when the unit is reconfigured and will be lost if the user
exits out of the configure menu or the unit is power cycled.
The options in this Menu will vary and depend upon the chosen coding scheme; this is stated in
the list below. It is recommended that the entry be done from top to bottom ensuring that only
applicable menus will be displayed. The Configure sub-menu may be viewed by selecting the
Configure option from the Select Board menu. The available options are detailed in Table 3.6.
Table 3.4: Configure Sub-menu
3.3.2.3.1
Menu Item
Operations
Profiles >
Different operational profiles can be saved and loaded via this submenu.
Coding:
The coding scheme is chosen from a list which is dependant upon the feature keys
that are installed.
Profiles
The user can store and recall configurations with clear user definable names. The stored file is
shared by all user interfaces so the GUI could be used to clone a configuration to several units
and the front panel could be used to retrieve this setting. The Profiles sub-menu allows the user to
access these configurations.
Note
The front panel is slightly more restrictive than the GUI due to a limited display and the key entry
system but is still easy to use.
To load, delete or create profiles:
1.
Select the Profiles option from the Configure sub-menu. The options displayed are detailed
in Table 3.7.
Table 3.5: Profiles Sub-menu
Menu Item
Load Profile >
Operations
This option will only be displayed if there are stored profiles.
Create Profile >
This submenu will allow a name to be created and the configuration to be stored to
non-volatile memory on the card.
Delete Profile >
This submenu is only displayed if profiles have been stored. It will allow unwanted
profiles to be deleted. A profile should first be loaded then it can be deleted from the
memory on the card.
Reconfigure >
Allows the profiles to be configured
2.
Select the Load Profile option. The following screen is displayed.
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MUX_A:
MUX_B:
Note
The down arrow indicates that there are more profiles available. 10 profiles are currently supported.
3.
Select the required profile. The following warning screen is displayed.
Loading Profile: MUX_A
ENTER = Confirm : CLEAR = Cancel
The new configuration will be pending until the unit is reconfigured.
To create and save a new profile:
1.
Select the Create Profile option from the Profiles sub-menu. The following screen is displayed.
Name Profile:
Save Profile:
Note
Until a profile has been named, it cannot be saved and will not appear on the menu.
2.
Select the Name Profile option. The following screen is displayed.
MUX_B
ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ
Delete
Select
3.
Use the left and right arrows to navigate to the character required or use the numeric pad
0-9 to enter numbers.
4.
Press the down arrow to select the character and the up arrow to delete.
5.
When the name entry is complete, press the ENTER key.
Note
A total of 30 upper case characters can be entered on the front panel display. When using the GUI, up
to 64 upper and lower case characters may be entered.
6.
Select the Save option. The following screen is displayed.
Saving Profile: MUX_B
ENTER = Confirm : CLEAR = Cancel
To delete a profile:
1.
Select the Delete option from the Profiles sub-menu. The following screen is displayed.
Deleting Profile: MUX_B
ENTER = Confirm : CLEAR = Cancel
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3.3.2.3.2
Coding
When Coding is selected then the coding type is highlighted. By using the up and down arrows
this coding type can be altered. The options are dependant upon the feature keys installed but
the possible list is detailed in Table 3.9.
Table 3.6: Coding Types.
Coding Type
Remarks
Supported Code rates
DVBS
DVB-S
½, 2/3, ¾, 5/6, 7/8
DSNG
DVB-DSNG
2/3, ¾, 5/6, 7/8, 8/9
DVBS2S
DVB-S2, Short Frames (16K)
¼, 1/3, 2/5, ½, 3/5, 2/3, ¾, 4/5, 5/6, 8/9, ACM
DVBS2N
DVB-S2, Normal Frames (64K)
¼, 1/3, 2/5, ½, 3/5, 2/3, ¾, 4/5, 5/6, 8/9, 9/10,
ACM
To view and alter the coding type:
1.
Select Coding from the Configure sub-menu. One of the following screens is displayed:
Coding: [DVBS2N 9/10]
Coding: [DVBS2N 9/10]
2.
Using the right arrow highlight the required code rate.
3.
Using the up and down arrows, select the required code rate.
4.
Press ENTER. A list of options, detailed in Table 3.10 is displayed.
Note
When selecting a code rate, note that only legal values are selectable. ACM is a special case for DVBS2.
Table 3.7: Coding Options
Menu Item
Modulation :
Data Rate :
Operations
This option does not appear if ACM has been selected. Only the possible
combinations for the chosen code type and rate will appear. This may also be
limited by the feature keys installed. The possible range is BPSK, QPSK, 8PSK,
16QAM, 16APSK and 32APSK.
This sets either the data rate in bits per second or symbol rate in symbols per
second. The data rate can either be set by the numerical value or by the up/down
arrows. Once the value is set then the units can be changed from BPS to SPS by
moving the cursor to the end and then using the up/down arrows. For ACM the
value must be set as SPS.
-> Data Rate: [199000000 BPS]
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Menu Item
Operations
-> Data Rate: [199000000 BPS]
Input :
This entry does not appear in ACM mode. This allows the selection of the source of
the input. The options are OFF, ASI1, ASI2, ASI3, ASI4, PRBS. The number of ASI
is dependant upon unit configuration.
Redundant Input
:
This entry does not appear in ACM mode. This allows the selection of the source of
the input. The options are OFF, ASI1, ASI2, ASI3, ASI4, PRBS. The number of ASI
is dependant upon unit configuration.
Input Type :
This is the method of locking to the incoming data.
VBR
Variable bit rate mode will add Mpeg Null
packets to guarantee a fixed symbol rate.
The data rate has to be set to SPS, not BPS.
The PCR values are re-stamped to meet the
PCR jitter requirements. The reset on error
tick box is only valid in this mode. If this box is
ticked and the input is removed then the
output will be disabled - otherwise null
packets are transmitted continuously.
204 byte Mpeg packets are automatically
accepted and converted to 188 byte
packets, the bit rate assumes the transmission
of 188 byte packets.
Normal
The transmitted carrier is frequency locked to
the input data rate. The data rate can be set
as BPS or SPS and the calculation is
performed. This operation acts as a seed and
the actual symbol rate is reported in the
status window. The data stream is not
modified. In DVB-S2 the data will be
transmitted as Transport streams and sync
detection is performed.
The VBR on Error tick box will only appear in
this mode, when the input is removed and
the box ticked then Null packets will be
transmitted until the signal is replaced.
204 byte Mpeg packets are automatically
accepted and converted to 188 byte
packets, the bit rate assumes the transmission
of 188 byte packets.
Unframmed
3-8
In DVB-S mode the data is required to be in a
MPEG transport stream format i.e. a 0x47
Sync mark every 188 bytes. In Unframed
mode a sync mark is inserted which needs to
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Menu Item
Operations
be removed within the demodulator. In DVBS2 the data is transmitted without
modification and no sync detection is
performed. The data will be transmitted as
Generic Stream Continuous.
Reset Input on
Error :
This is only valid when the input type is selected to VBR, when ON then the unit will
reset when the input is removed otherwise it will transmit null packets until the input
returns.
VBR on Error :
This is only valid when the input type is set to Normal. When the input is removed
then null packets will be transmitted until the input returns.
Pilots:
This entry will only appear when DVBS2S or DVBS2N is selected and not ACM.
This enables or disables pilot insertion.
PRBS Polynomial
:
This option is only available if the input has been selected to be PRBS. This is the
pseudo Random sequence which conforms to the DVB guidelines. The options are:
18
23
17
20
14
17
14
15
5
6
1+X +X , 1+X +X , 1+X +X , 1+X +X , 1+X +X or the inverted version of
these.
Stream X >
A submenu that only appears for ACM. It is used to configure Stream X, there is a
submenu per stream.
Frequency:
The carrier frequency can be set from 950Mhz to 2150Mhz.
Spectrum:
The Spectrum can be selected as Normal or Inverted.
Alpha:
The roll off factor can be selected from 0.12 to 0.35, this is set using the up/down
arrows.
PLS Seed:
Physical Layer Scrambling Seed is only available in DVB-S2 modes. This should be
used with caution and the default value is 0. The range for this value is 0 to 262141
and the value is entered in decimal. The demodulator will have to use the same
seed value to lock otherwise the transmitted modulation and code rate will not be
decoded.
Reconfigure:
This button will activate all the pending options described above.
When all of the options in Table 3.10 have been set:
1.
Select Reconfigure. The following screen is displayed:
Reconfigure?
ENTER = Confirm : CLEAR = cancel
2.
Select ENTER. The unit is reconfigured with the pending settings; this will cause a break in the
reception. All the pending settings are then stored and will be reused if a power cycle
occurs. If the unit was not reconfigured then the pending settings are discarded if the unit is
power cycled or the user exits out of the CONFIGURE menu.
Stream X
This mode is only available when ACM in DVB-S2 is selected. Currently three streams are
supported but more will be added in the future. All streams have the same menu structure but
are independent. All changes within this menu will remain pending if exited up to the configure
menu but they will be lost if exited out of the configure menu.
The Stream X options may be viewed by selecting Stream X from the coding sub-menu. A list of
options, detailed in Table 3.11 is displayed.
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Table 3.8: Stream X Sub-menu
Menu Item
Operations
Input:
The selection can be off, PRBS, ASI X for stream X, ASI 1, ASI X L2 and ASI 1 L2.
Setting Off will prevent any transmission of that stream. Setting PRBS will output a
random stream and the rate will be set by cut off rate if the rate limit is set otherwise
the PRBS will fill all available bandwidth.
Redundant Input:
The input is selected from off or ASI N where N is the redundant ASI pair e.g. for
stream 1 the redundant input would be ASI 2. If the main input is removed then the
unit will switch to the redundant input, which will cause an alarm to be raised. When
the main input is restored the unit will continue to use the redundant input until this
stream is reconfigured.
Block Size:
In theory each stream can independently be controlled to use either a short (16K)
block size or Normal (64K) but in reality most receivers will only be able to handle a
constant block size. The options are Short or Normal.
FEC Rate:
All the DVB-S2 rates are available
Modulation
Pilots:
ISI:
PRBS Polynomial:
Pilots can be enabled on a per stream basis but it is highly recommended to use
Pilots in ACM and VCM.
This is the Input Stream Identifier. Each Stream should have a unique value from 0
to 255. If two streams have the same ISI value then it will be impossible to decode
both streams.
This option is only available if the input of the stream has been selected to be
PRBS. This is the pseudo Random sequence which conforms to the DVB
18
23
17
20
14
17
14
15
5
6
guidelines. The options are: 1+X +X , 1+X +X , 1+X +X , 1+X +X , 1+X +X
or the inverted version of these.
Rate Limiter
When this is selected the data rate will be limited to the rate set in the cut off rate
text entry box. This is intended to limit a stream to a set bit rate and prevent it
stealing bandwidth from a fellow stream. This is also used to set the bit rate for the
PRBS sequence.
Cut off rate:
This is only available if the rate limiter has been selected. This will set the maximum
rate and input will be allowed before data is discarded. The value is set in bits per
second. This also sets the rate of the PRBS sequence.
Packet Type:
ISSY Type:
Packet Length:
Packet Sync:
3-10
The Available options are QPSK, 8PSK, 16APSK and 32APSK
Packet type can either be TS (transport Streams), GSC (Generic Stream
Continuous), GSP (Generic Stream Packetized). TS mode will expect packets which
are 188 bytes long with a 0x47 Sync mark. GSC will have no framing structure. GSP
will have a programmable structure set by the packet length and the packet Sync.
This is for Input Stream Synchronisation which is used in DVB-S2 ACM and VCM to
give a constant latency. This is only applicable for Transport Streams. The options
are off, short or long. Short will add 2 bytes per packet and long will add 3 bytes.
The Packet length is only applicable if the packet type is GSP. This length is in
bytes. A value of 0 means there is no structure.
This is the expected Sync mark expected in the incoming data stream with a
frequency set by the packet length. This is only applicable if the packet type is set to
GSP. If this Sync mark is set to 0 then this is a special case where no sync is
expected but a CRC byte is inserted with a frequency set by packet length. This is
then removed by the receiver and this will produce a PER (Packet Error Rate).
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3.3.2.4
Settings
This option allows setting of output parameters. These parameters may be viewed by selecting
the Output option from the Select Board sub-menu. The parameters available are displayed in
the following Table 3.12.
Table 3.9: Output Sub-menu
3.3.2.5
Menu Item
Operations
Output power:
Set the output power in dBm.
Output Enable:
Enable the output, this is selectable between ON and OFF
CW Mode:
To enable Continuous Wave Test Mode set to ON
Ref. Setting:
A highly accurate internal clock source can be used by selecting Internal or an
External 10 MHz reference can be used by selecting External. If an external
reference is used then this frequency can be held by selecting hold, this would then
allow the external reference to be removed.
Ref. Internal
Ref.:
The Internal timing can either be free running or aligned to a stored frequency which
was derived from an external reference and then stored via the store frequency
button.
Ref. Store to
ini:
This stores the frequency of the reference for future use.
BISS
This heading contains all the information to configure and monitor the BISS encryption.
3.3.2.5.1
Status
Table 3.10: BISS status values
Property
Status
Description
Uninitialized
Error condition, BISS failure
Idle : illegal in
this mode
BISS cannot be used in this mode
Idle
BISS is turned off
Configured
BISS is active, this will include BISS-0 Mode
Active
SI extraction is active
Inactive
no SI extraction
Keys
OK
Valid keys present, this should always be OK
stream info
PAT not found
The PAT is not detected, critical failure
Corrupted tables
At least one of the PMT listed in the PAT cannot be extracted or
At least one of the PMT has a bad structure or a CRC error
No CAT
detected
CAT is not found, this can be normal
OK
Transport stream is OK
Ciphering
The block cipher is engaged and ciphering
Unciphering
The block cipher is engaged and deciphering
State
Extraction
processing
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Property
PMT info
Status
Description
None
The block cipher is not engaged
Too many
PMT(s)
too many PMT(s) are received for the playout RAM (overflow)
Incorrect PMT(s)
A PMT cannot be modified to add/remove BISS SI (PIDs listed in the PMT
would not be ciphered/deciphered)
Missing PMT(s)
A PMT listed in the PAT could not be retrieved
OK
All is OK
3.3.2.5.2
Configure
3.3.2.5.3
BISS Mode Selection
The options for the BISS mode are Off, Mode-0, Mode-1, Mode-E, Odd/Even-1, Odd/Even-E, User1 and User-E. Depending upon the selection, the available options will change
Note
All session words, injected ID and Encrypted session words cannot be read back and are not echoed
back to the display. These values are also not stored in the profiles but will be reused after a power
cycle. To comply with the specification the keys cannot be changed more than ten times in a 5-minute
period and that there is a minimum of 10 seconds between changes. The keys are transmitted in the
clear via the GUI so should be used with caution, perhaps by setting the Injected ID up only on the
front panel and never via the GUI.
3.3.2.5.4
Off
BISS is fully disabled and the transport stream will be unmodified. If BISS is subsequently enabled
then the modification in the transport stream may cause a momentary glitch in the video. It is
preferable to use BISS-0 which will modify the transport stream without encrypting the video.
3.3.2.5.5
BISS-0
The transport stream will not encrypt in this mode but is modified to add signalling about BISS. In
this mode encryption can be enabled seamlessly.
3.3.2.5.6
BISS-1
The transport stream is encrypted using the session word which is a 12 digit hex value. If the key is
not present then the last entered value will be used. This session word is independent from the
key generated when using BISS-E and will be retained.
3.3.2.5.7
BISS-E
The transport stream is encrypted by a calculated session word. This session word is generated
from an injected ID and an Encrypted session word. This is fundamentally more secure as both
the Injected ID and Encrypted session words are required for decryption and each receiver
could have a unique Encrypted session word. The Injected ID is a 14 digit Hex value and the
Encrypted Session Word (ESW) is a 16 digit hex value. If the key or the ID is not present then the
last entered values will be used.
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3.3.2.5.8
Odd/Even-1
This mode is not part of the BISS standard but has been successfully interoperated with other
manufacturers who have similar variants. Each MPEG packet has a field in the header which
indicates if it is in the clear, encrypted using an ODD key or encrypted using an even key. While
BISS only uses the one key, this mode allows two independent keys. The advantage of this mode
is that it allows keys to be programmed offline while using the other key for decryption. Both the
odd and the even session word will require a 12 digit hex value. The even key is the same key as
that used for BISS-1.
3.3.2.5.9
Odd/Even-E
Odd/Even-E also uses the odd and even keys in the same way as Odd/Even-1 mode but each
key is encrypted using the same Injected Id. The Injected Id will require a 14 digit hex value and
the ESWs will both require 16 digit hex values. The even key is the same key as used for BISS-E.
3.3.2.5.10
User-1
This enables a specific user mode where specific PIDs are decrypted. The SI information is not
altered so this mode is not BISS compliant. The actual PIDs to be decrypted are specified only on
the command line. A 12 digit hex value is required for the session word. The even key is the same
key as used for BISS-1.
This mode is used to guarantee that the decrypted transport stream will match the original.
3.3.2.5.11
User-E
This is identical to the User-1 mode except a 16 digit hex value is required for the ESW and a 14
digit hex value is required for the injected ID. The even key is the same key as used for BISS-E.
3.3.2.5.12
Processing
This will be set for Encode for encryption and decode for decryption. This setting will depend
upon supported feature keys.
3.3.2.5.13
BISS Insertion Period
This sets the frequency that the Program Association Table (PAT), Programme Map Table (PMT)
and Conditional Access Table (CAT) will be inserted into the stream. The default is 200 ms and this
value should be suitable in most circumstances.
3.3.2.5.14
BISS Active Key
When the BISS Mode is either Mode-E or ODD/EVEN-E or User-E then the BISS Active Key can be
selected. This determines which key shall be used.
3.3.2.5.15
Entering keys and ID’s
A5824D3290B2
0123456789ABCDEF
Delete
Select
The Keys are entered using a hexadecimal notation. Use the left and right arrows to select the
required character then use the down arrow to select the character. This can be deleted using
the up arrow. When the Key or Id is complete then press ENTER.
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3.3.2.5.16
Configure BISS
Use this configure to activate all the BIS settings. All settings will be stored and reused after a
power-cycle. These values will not be stored in the profiles as keys can not be stored, they must
be manually re-entered.
3.3.2.6
Reboot card
The card is rebooted. This will be required after a software upgrade and will not effect other
cards within the chassis.
3.3.2.7
Reset to factory defaults
The card is reset to the factory default mode
3.3.2.8
System Setup
The card Ethernet address can be configured from this menu. The current settings may be
viewed by selecting the System Setup option from the Select Board Menu. The following screen is
displayed:
Network Address: [010.000.014.017]
Subnet Mask
: 255.255.000.000
Gateway
: 000.000.000.000
3.3.3
Chassis Info
This option allows the viewing of various board parameters by selecting the Chassis Info option
from the Top Level menu. The Parameters are displayed in the following Table 3.13.
Table 3.11: Chassis Info Sub-menu
Menu Item
Operations
Board
Temperature:
LED test:
Reports the overall temperature of the chassis as opposed to specific cards.
Fan Speed
This will report the speed of up to 4 Fans. Note not all fans are fitted as this is a
manufacturing option dependent upon the system configuration.
The front panel LED will flash in turn.
If the Fan Speed option is selected, the following screen is displayed showing the speeds of all
fans fitted within the unit.
Fan
Fan
Fan
Fan
3-14
1
2
3
4
Speed:
Speed:
Speed:
Speed:
0
0
0
0
rpm
rpm
rpm
rpm
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CHAPTER 4: Web
List of Contents
4.1 Introduction ............................................................... 4-3 4.2 4.2.1 Requirements for Accessing the GUI ..................... 4-3 Accessing the GUI .................................................... 4-3 4.3 4.3.1 4.3.2 4.3.3 Overview .................................................................... 4-4 Overview: Information.............................................. 4-4 Overview: Alarms ...................................................... 4-5 Overview: Status ....................................................... 4-6 4.4 4.4.1 4.4.1.1 4.4.1.2 4.4.1.3 4.4.1.4 4.4.1.5 4.4.1.6 SBM-75: Information .................................................. 4-7 Information ................................................................. 4-7 Setting the Unit Name .............................................. 4-8 Version ........................................................................ 4-8 MAC Address ............................................................. 4-8 Supported Features .................................................. 4-9 Capture System Snapshot ....................................... 4-9 Factory defaults ........................................................ 4-9 4.5 4.5.1 SBM-75: Status ............................................................ 4-9 Status monitoring .................................................... 4-10 4.6 4.6.1 4.6.2 4.6.3 4.6.3.1 4.6.3.2 4.6.3.3 4.6.3.4 4.6.3.5 4.6.3.6 4.6.3.7 4.6.3.8 4.6.4 4.6.4.1 4.6.4.2 4.6.4.3 4.6.4.4 4.6.4.5 4.6.4.6 SBM-75: Alarms ........................................................ 4-11 Setting Alarms .......................................................... 4-11 Setting Warnings ..................................................... 4-11 General .................................................................... 4-12 Lock State ................................................................ 4-12 FPGA Loading Failed .............................................. 4-12 FPGA Done Line Failure.......................................... 4-12 Board Temperature ................................................ 4-12 FPGA Temperature ................................................. 4-12 Output disabled ...................................................... 4-12 Output Calibration ................................................. 4-12 Output power out of specification ...................... 4-13 Advanced Alarms................................................... 4-13 Active unit failure .................................................... 4-13 Redundant unit failure ........................................... 4-13 Redundancy cable disconnected ...................... 4-13 RF Switch unreadable ............................................ 4-13 RF Switch Shorted .................................................... 4-13 NTP Server error ....................................................... 4-13 SBM75e Series Modulator Installation and Operation Manual
GUI Monitoring & Control
4.6.4.7 4.6.4.8 4.6.4.9 4.6.5 NTP Time error .......................................................... 4-14 NCR not detected .................................................. 4-14 NCR 1pps not detected ......................................... 4-14 Alarm Status ............................................................. 4-14 4.7 4.7.1 4.7.2 4.7.2.1 4.7.2.2 4.7.2.3 4.7.3 4.7.4 4.7.5 4.7.6 4.7.6.1 4.7.6.2 4.7.6.3 4.7.6.4 4.7.6.5 4.7.6.6 4.7.6.7 4.7.6.8 4.7.6.9 4.7.6.10 4.7.7 4.7.7.1 4.7.7.2 4.7.7.3 4.7.7.4 4.7.7.5 4.7.8 4.7.8.1 4.7.8.2 4.7.8.3 4.7.8.4 4.7.8.5 SBM-75: Configuration ............................................ 4-14 Main .......................................................................... 4-14 Input Data Type ....................................................... 4-15 VBR ............................................................................ 4-15 Normal ...................................................................... 4-15 Unframed.................................................................. 4-15 Input Type ................................................................. 4-16 Redundant Input ..................................................... 4-16 PLS Seed ................................................................... 4-16 ACM .......................................................................... 4-16 Input .......................................................................... 4-17 Redundant Input ..................................................... 4-17 ISI ................................................................................ 4-17 PRBS Mode ............................................................... 4-17 Rate Limiter............................................................... 4-17 Cut off rate ............................................................... 4-17 Packet ....................................................................... 4-17 Packet Len ............................................................... 4-17 Packet Sync ............................................................. 4-17 ISSY ............................................................................. 4-17 Profiles ....................................................................... 4-18 Saving and Overwriting Profiles ............................ 4-18 Loading Existing Profiles .......................................... 4-19 Downloading a Profile ............................................ 4-20 Uploading a Profile ................................................. 4-21 Factory Defaults ...................................................... 4-22 Settings ...................................................................... 4-22 Output Power .......................................................... 4-22 Output Enable ......................................................... 4-22 CW Mode ................................................................. 4-22 Clock source ............................................................ 4-22 Internal Ref. Source ................................................. 4-23 4.8 4.8.1 4.8.2 BISS Encryption ......................................................... 4-23 BISS Mode Selection ............................................... 4-24 Off .............................................................................. 4-24 4-1
Web GUI Monitoring & Control
4.8.3 4.8.4 4.8.5 4.8.6 4.8.7 4.8.8 4.8.9 4.8.10 4.8.11 4.8.12 4.8.13 BISS-0 ......................................................................... 4-24 BISS-1 ......................................................................... 4-24 BISS-E ......................................................................... 4-25 Odd/Even-1 ............................................................. 4-25 Odd/Even-E ............................................................. 4-25 User-1 ........................................................................ 4-25 User-E......................................................................... 4-26 BISS Insertion Period ................................................ 4-26 BISS Active Key ........................................................ 4-26 BISS Status ................................................................. 4-26 Encrypted Session Word Generator ..................... 4-27 List of Tables
Table 4.1: Optional Supported Features ................................... 4-9 Table 4.2: Status monitoring values .......................................... 4-10 Table 4.3: BISS Status ................................................................... 4-26 List of Figures
Figure 4.1: SBM-75 Login Window ............................................... 4-4 Figure 4.2: Entry Level Window showing Information for
the SBM-75 .................................................................... 4-4 4-2
Figure 4.3: Alarms and Warnings Monitoring Window............. 4-5 Figure 4.4: Changing Alarm Monitoring Window ..................... 4-6 Figure 4.5: Status Window ............................................................ 4-7 Figure 4.6: SBM-75 Management Window ................................ 4-8 Figure 4.7: Setting the Unit Name Window ............................... 4-8 Figure 4.8: SBM-75 Status Window ............................................ 4-10 Figure 4.9: Alarms and Warnings Monitoring Window........... 4-12 Figure 4.10: Output Alarms Window ......................................... 4-13 Figure 4.11: Configuration Main Window ................................ 4-15 Figure 4.12: ACM Configuration Window................................ 4-16 Figure 4.13: Profiles Main Window ............................................ 4-18 Figure 4.14: Saving a New Profile.............................................. 4-19 Figure 4.15: Loading an Existing Profile .................................... 4-20 Figure 4.16: Downloading a Profile .......................................... 4-20 Figure 4.17: Downloaded Profiles List ....................................... 4-21 Figure 4.18: Choose file Window .............................................. 4-21 Figure 4.19: Output Window ...................................................... 4-22 Figure 4.20: BISS Window ............................................................ 4-24 Figure 4.21: BISS Mode Selection Window .............................. 4-24 Figure 4.22: Odd/Even-E Selected ........................................... 4-25 Figure 4.23: Encrypted Word Session Generator Window .... 4-27 SBM75e Series Modulator Installation and Operation Manual
Web GUI Monitoring & Control
4.1
Introduction
This chapter is provided to guide the user through the functions of the Graphical User Interface
(GUI). Following the information given for accessing the GUI, those web pages which deal
specifically with chassis functions will be described. Subsequent sections focus specifically on the
operation of the SBM-75 in DVB-S2 modes.
4.2
Requirements for Accessing the GUI
Any of the following popular web browsing clients have been tested for accessing the GUI:
ƒ Microsoft Internet Explorer (Version 6 or 7)
ƒ Mozilla Firefox (Version 1.0, 1.5 or 2.0)
ƒ Safari (Version 2.0)
ƒ Opera (Version 9.0)
Note:
The analyser feature (see Section ***) requires Java support. The JRE used must be version 1.4 or
higher. Any virtual machine could be used, but the Sun Microsystems JVM is recommended, and is
the only one officially supported.
4.2.1
Accessing the GUI
To access the GUI:
1.
Enter the IP address or name of the SBR to be controlled in the browser address bar.
Note
The web server of the SBM-75 can be found at the default address http://port followed by the port
number i.e. port 80.
The following window is displayed.
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Figure 4.1: SBM-75 Login Window
2.
Enter the default Username: sbt 75 and the default Password: sbt 75. The entry level screen is
displayed. The alarm status of the chassis and each installed functional unit is shown in the
monitor bar on the left-hand side of the window.
Note
If a green tick is displayed in the ‘Overview’ tab of the monitor bar, this indicates that all equipment is
working correctly.
4.3
Overview
4.3.1
Overview: Information
This section describes those web pages which are relevant to the unit chassis as a whole. These
are used to view summary information, alarms and status for each installed functional unit.
Unit information may be viewed by selecting the ‘Overview’ tab from the monitor bar. A window,
similar to that shown in Figure 4.2, is displayed. In this example one SBM-75s is working correctly as
indicated by the green tick.
Figure 4.2: Entry Level Window showing Information for the SBM-75
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4.3.2
Overview: Alarms
The alarm status of the units displayed in Figure 4.2 may be viewed by selecting the Alarms tab. A
window similar to the one shown in Figure 4.3 is displayed.
Figure 4.3: Alarms and Warnings Monitoring Window
In this window each of the properties listed may be monitored on two levels - alarm or warning.
The thresholds of some of these properties are adjustable by the user. The Status column shows
that the ‘Fan Fault’ alarm status is satisfactory i.e. warning monitoring is not being performed for
this property, and that ‘Board Temp’ alarm and warning monitoring are also satisfactory.
An example is given below to illustrate the process of applying monitoring to other properties on
the window.
To apply ‘Fan too fast’ monitoring to fan number 2:
1.
Check the Alarm and Warning boxes in the appropriate row of the window shown above.
2.
Check the ‘Monitor Fan 2’ box.
3.
Select the ‘Update Monitor’ tab on the top right-hand side of the window. A window similar
to the one shown in Figure 4.4 is displayed.
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Figure 4.4: Changing Alarm Monitoring Window
Additional information has now appeared in the ‘Status’ column, indicating that the ‘Fan too
fast’ alarm is clear (shown by the green tick), and that the ‘Fan too fast’ warning has been
asserted (shown by the yellow cross). The ‘Overview’ tab in the monitor bar on the left of the
main panel now reflects this new warning state (shown by a yellow cross and a yellow fan
symbol).
4.3.3
Overview: Status
The summary status information for installed functional units may be viewed by selecting the
status tab from the Alarm and Warnings Monitoring window. A window, similar to that shown in
Figure 4.5 is displayed.
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Figure 4.5: Status Window
4.4
SBM-75: Information
The following web page menus are provided to enable the user to view and change the various
properties of the SBM-75 functional unit.
4.4.1
Information
By selecting the SBM-75 tab from the monitor bar on the left-hand side of the main panel, the
user is able to set the name of the unit, check the software version and available optional
features or capture a system snapshot. When the tab is selected, a window similar to that shown
in Figure 4.6 is displayed.
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Figure 4.6: SBM-75 Management Window
4.4.1.1
Setting the Unit Name
The default name of the functional unit is SBM-75. The name of the unit may be changed by
entering the desired name in the ‘Name’ box and selecting the ‘Update’ tab. The new name
should appear in the monitor bar on the left-hand side of the main panel as shown in the
example in Figure 4.7.
Figure 4.7: Setting the Unit Name Window
4.4.1.2
Version
The relevant software version number is shown in this window.
4.4.1.3
MAC Address
The external MAC address of the Ethernet Interface of the SBM-75 is displayed below the version
number in standard 6 octet format.
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4.4.1.4
Supported Features
A list of optional features supported by the unit is shown below the MAC address and is detailed
in Table 4.1.
Table 4.1: Optional Supported Features
4.4.1.5
Feature
Operations
DVB-s
If the text ‘DVB-S’ is displayed, this indicates that the SBM-75 is able to
operate in DVB-S mode.
DVB-S (QPSK, 8PSK)
If the text ‘DVB-S (QPSK, 8PSK)’ is displayed, this indicates that the SBM75 is able to operate in this mode.
BISS (Basic
Interoperable Scrambling
System)
If the text ‘BISS’ is displayed, this indicates that the SBM-75 is able to
operate in this mode.
Capture System Snapshot
By activating this link a snapshot of the unit set up will be saved, this will create a binary file which
can be sent if there are any support issues.
.
4.4.1.6
Factory defaults
This will put the unit into a default state
4.5
SBM-75: Status
A basic summary of the operation of the SBM-75 may be viewed by selecting the Status Tab from
the window shown in Figure 4.6. A window, similar to that shown in Figure 4.8 is displayed.
i
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Figure 4.8: SBM-75 Status Window
This page will give a summary of the unit status.
4.5.1
Status monitoring
Table 4.2: Status monitoring values
FPGA
Self Test
Input
Output Power
Programmed Baud Rate
Actual Baud Rate
Board Temperature
Core1 Temperature
Clock Source
Ext Clock Source
Ref. In state
Input
CCM State
Overflow
Sync
Rate
4-10
Field Programmable Gate Array have programmed correctly
Diagnostic check passed
This will indicate locked if the data rate Is valid otherwise
unlocked will be reported.
This should always read calibrated. If it reads uncalibrated then
please contact support
This is the programmed baud rate. If the unit was programmed
with a bit rate this is the calculated rate.
The Actual Baud rate can be proportional to the incoming bit
rate and hence may be different to the programmed rate.
This is the temperature as measured on the modulator card.
This is the temperature on the silicon surface of the FPGA.
Internal: High stability OCXO used for reference
External: External 10Mhz reference used
Hold: Stores the frequency of the 10MHz reference.
Indicates if the External 10MHz reference is locked.
Signal / No Signal. Is there any signal on the reference?
N/A: Input not used in this mode
Off: Input disabled
Main: Main input in use
Spare: Redundant input in use
X: Input rate exceeded √: Input rate below limit
X: Sync not detected √: Sync Detected
Rate in kb/s
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4.6
SBM-75: Alarms
From the ‘Alarms’ window the user may configure alarms and/or warnings based on the
behaviour and status of the modulator. Warnings are displayed to the user while alarms initiate
the alarm relay.
Alarms or warnings may be viewed by selecting the Alarms tab on the window shown above. A
window, similar to that shown in Figure 4.9 is displayed.
4.6.1
Setting Alarms
To set an alarm:
1.
Check the ‘Alarm Monitoring’ box next to the property on which you wish to generate an
alarm.
2.
Change the default alarm threshold, if required. The units of the threshold are displayed to
the right of the text entry box.
Note
Some alarms have no user threshold.
4.6.2
3.
Repeat steps 2 and 3 to add all required alarms
4.
Select the ‘Update Monitor’ tab. This is necessary for successful arming of the alarms.
Setting Warnings
To set a Warning:
1.
Check the ‘Warning Monitoring’ box next to the property on which you wish to generate a
warning.
2.
Change the default warning threshold, if required. The units of the threshold are displayed to
the right of the text entry box.
Note
Some warnings have no user threshold.
3.
Repeat steps 2 and 3 to add all required warnings.
4.
Select the ‘Update Monitor’ tab. This is necessary for successful arming of the warnings.
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Figure 4.9: Alarms and Warnings Monitoring Window
4.6.3
General
The following paragraphs detail the general alarms shown in Figure 4.9.
4.6.3.1
Lock State
This property allows an alarm or warning to be raised if the modulator is unlocked.
4.6.3.2
FPGA Loading Failed
This property allows an alarm or warning to be raised if one or more of the FPGA devices in the
modulator fail to configure correctly.
4.6.3.3
FPGA Done Line Failure
This property allows an alarm or warning to be raised if the FPGA devices in the modulator fail to
exit the programming mode.
4.6.3.4
Board Temperature
This property allows an alarm or warning to be raised if the temperature of the modulator board
exceeds the user specified temperature limit.
4.6.3.5
FPGA Temperature
This property allows an alarm or warning to be raised if the core temperature of one or more of
the FPGA devices exceeds the design limit.
4.6.3.6
Output disabled
This property allows an alarm or warning to be raised if the output of the modulator is disabled.
For example the input data stream is removed.
4.6.3.7
Output Calibration
This property allows an alarm or warning to be raised if the modulator is uncalibrated
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4.6.3.8
Output power out of specification
This property allows an alarm or warning to be raised if the output power level is outside the
calibration range.
4.6.4
Advanced Alarms
The alarm/warning properties of the 1:1 redundancy unit may be viewed by selecting the
Advanced alarm tab. A window, similar to that shown in Figure 4.10 is displayed.
Figure 4.10: Output Alarms Window
4.6.4.1
Active unit failure
This event allows an alarm or warning to be raised if the active unit is not locked.
4.6.4.2
Redundant unit failure
This event allows an alarm or warning to be raised if the redundant unit is not locked.
4.6.4.3
Redundancy cable disconnected
This event allows an alarm or warning to be raised if the redundancy cable is removed.
4.6.4.4
RF Switch unreadable
This event allows an alarm or warning to be raised if the redundancy RF switch can not be
monitored.
4.6.4.5
RF Switch Shorted
This event allows an alarm or warning to be raised if the RF switch is shorted.
4.6.4.6
NTP Server error
An alarm or warning will be generated when contact with the NTP server has been lost.
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4.6.4.7
NTP Time error
An alarm or warning will be generated when the returned time from the NTP server does not
match the internal Time.
4.6.4.8
NCR not detected
An alarm or warning will be generated when the programmed NCR is not detected.
4.6.4.9
NCR 1pps not detected
An alarm or warning will be generated if the 1PPS is not detected.
4.6.5
Alarm Status
A summary of the alarm and warning status is visible at all times in the monitor bar at the left side
of the main panel. If no warnings or alarms are active, the summary for the relevant functional
unit should appear as a green tick as shown below.
If any alarms are present, the green tick will be replaced by a red cross and the alarm relay will
be activated. If any warnings are present, the green tick will be replaced by a cross, which will
be yellow if no alarms are indicated.
4.7
SBM-75: Configuration
4.7.1
Main
The Configuration Main window allows the user to set the conventional modulator parameters
such as:
ƒ Carrier frequency and spectrum direction
ƒ Symbol rate
ƒ Modulation and FEC modes
ƒ Alpha, the roll-off factor
ƒ PL scrambling seed
The Configuration window may be viewed by selecting the ‘Configuration’ tab on the main
window. A window, similar to that shown in Figure 4.11 is displayed.
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Figure 4.11: Configuration Main Window
4.7.2
Input Data Type
This is the method of locking to the incoming data.
4.7.2.1
VBR
Variable bit rate mode will add Mpeg Null packets to guarantee a fixed symbol rate. The data
rate has to be set to SPS, not BPS. The PCR values are re-stamped to meet the PCR jitter
requirements. The reset on error tick box is only valid in this mode. If this box is ticked and the
input is removed then the output will be disabled - otherwise null packets are transmitted
continuously.
204 byte Mpeg packets are automatically accepted and converted to 188 byte packets, the bit
rate assumes the transmission of 188 byte packets.
4.7.2.2
Normal
The transmitted carrier is frequency locked to the input data rate. The data rate can be set as
BPS or SPS and the calculation is performed. This operation acts as a seed and the actual symbol
rate is reported in the status window. The data stream is not modified. In DVB-S2 the data will be
transmitted as Transport streams and sync detection is performed.
The VBR on Error tick box will only appear in this mode, when the input is removed and the box
ticked then Null packets will be transmitted until the signal is replaced.
204 byte Mpeg packets are automatically accepted and converted to 188 byte packets, the bit
rate assumes the transmission of 188 byte packets.
4.7.2.3
Unframed
In DVB-S mode the data is required to be in a MPEG transport stream format i.e. a 0x47 Sync
mark every 188 bytes. In Unframed mode a sync mark is inserted which needs to be removed
within the demodulator. In DVB-S2 the data is transmitted without modification and no sync
detection is performed. The data will be transmitted as Generic Stream Continuous.
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4.7.3
Input Type
The input is selected from off, PRBS, ASI1,…,ASIX where X is the number of ASI inputs for the
modulator. If PRBS is selected then a Pseudo Random Bit Stream will be generated, if the input
type is normal then this pattern will be MPEG framed and transmitted as a Transport Stream. If
unframed is selected then it will be transmitted as Generic Stream Continuous.
4.7.4
Redundant Input
The input is selected from off, PRBS, ASI1,…,ASIX where X is the number of ASI inputs for the
modulator. If the main input is removed then the unit will switch to the redundant input, which will
cause an alarm to be raised. When the main input is restored the unit will continue to use the
redundant input until the modulator is reconfigured.
4.7.5
PLS Seed
The DVB-S2 physical layer specification makes provision for the application of user specific
physical layer scrambling.
To apply user specific physical layer scrambling:
1.
4.7.6
Enter the appropriate value in the PLS Seed Text box on the advanced window. The value of
the seed entered must match the value of the seed employed at the corresponding
modulator.
ACM
When the FEC is set to either “DVBS2 64K ACM” or “DVBS2 16K ACM” then the following is
displayed in Figure 4.12.
Figure 4.12: ACM Configuration Window
There is now a tab for each stream which can be independently configured without affecting
other streams. For each stream can have independent code rate, modulation and pilots but it is
worth noting that most DVB-S2 ACM/VCM receivers highly recommend the use of pilots.
Once a stream has been configured then press configure stream, this will only affect the stream
in question, all other streams will be unaffected.
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4.7.6.1
Input
The selection can be off, PRBS, ASI X for stream X, ASI 1, ASI X L2 and ASI 1 L2. Setting Off will
prevent any transmission of that stream. Setting PRBS will output a random stream and the rate
will be set by cut off rate if the rate limit is set otherwise the PRBS will fill all available bandwidth.
4.7.6.2
Redundant Input
The input is selected from off or ASI N where N is the redundant ASI pair e.g. for stream 1 the
redundant input would be ASI 2. If the main input is removed then the unit will switch to the
redundant input, which will cause an alarm to be raised. When the main input is restored the unit
will continue to use the redundant input until this stream is reconfigured.
4.7.6.3
ISI
Input Stream Identifier is a value from 0 to 255 which should be unique for each stream. This is
defined within the DVB-S2 standard.
4.7.6.4
PRBS Mode
This is the polynomial used for the PRBS sequence. This option is only available if PRBS has been
selected for the input.
4.7.6.5
Rate Limiter
When this is selected the data rate will be limited to the rate set in the cut off rate text entry box.
This is intended to limit a stream to a set bit rate and prevent it stealing bandwidth from a fellow
stream. This is also used to set the bit rate for the PRBS sequence.
4.7.6.6
Cut off rate
This is only available if the rate limiter has been selected. This will set the maximum rate and input
will be allowed before data is discarded. The value is set in bits per second. This also sets the rate
of the PRBS sequence.
4.7.6.7
Packet
The data can be transmitted as TS (Transport streams), GSC (Generic Stream Continuous) or GSP
(Generic Stream Packetised).
4.7.6.8
Packet Len
This mode is only valid if the packet selected is GSP. It sets the packet length in bytes.
4.7.6.9
Packet Sync
This mode is only valid if the packet selected is GSP. It sets the Sync mark expected in the
incoming data stream.
4.7.6.10
ISSY
Input Stream Synchronisation (ISSY) is a time stamp used for a constant delay when using
ACM/VCM. It is recommended that it be used for Video. Short adds 2 bytes per MPEG packet
while Long adds 3 bytes per packet.
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4.7.7
Profiles
This option allows the user to save and recall a variety of operational profiles and exchange
profiles between different chassis via a host computer. To make use of this option the Profiles tab
may be selected from the main configuration window. A window, similar to that shown in Figure
4.12 is displayed.
Figure 4.13: Profiles Main Window
4.7.7.1
Saving and Overwriting Profiles
When modulator configuration is complete, the user can save the configuration into a named
profile.
To create a new profile:
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1.
Select the ‘New Profile’ option from the list shown in Figure 4.12.
2.
Enter a profile name (e.g. MuxA) in the adjacent text box.
3.
Select ‘Save’. The new profile will appear in the profile list as shown in Figure 4.13.
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Figure 4.14: Saving a New Profile
To overwrite an existing profile:
4.7.7.2
1.
Select the profile to be overwritten from the main Profiles window.
2.
Enter a new profile name (e.g. MuxA) in the adjacent text box.
3.
Select ‘Save’.
Loading Existing Profiles
To load an existing named profile:
1.
Select the profile to be loaded from the main Profiles window. A window similar to that
shown in Figure 4.14 is displayed.
2.
Select ‘Load’.
3.
Select ‘Configure’ to activate the profile.
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Figure 4.15: Loading an Existing Profile
4.7.7.3
Downloading a Profile
Occasionally it is necessary to clone a profile, or a set of profiles, amongst a family of units.
To clone a profile:
1.
Select the profile to be cloned from the profiles main window. A window similar to that
shown in Figure 4.15 is displayed.
Figure 4.16: Downloading a Profile
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2.
Select the Download link. A window similar to that shown in Figure 4.16 is displayed.
Figure 4.17: Downloaded Profiles List
3.
4.7.7.4
Select all displayed files and save to a network file.
Uploading a Profile
Uploading is essentially the second stage in cloning a profile.
To upload a profile:
1.
Select the ‘Browse’ button. A window similar to that shown in Figure 4.17 is displayed.
Figure 4.18: Choose file Window
2.
Select the file selected in the download operation.
3.
Select ‘Send’ to upload the file and create a new profile.
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4.7.7.5
Factory Defaults
This is a special profile which cannot be deleted or modified.
4.7.8
Settings
The output levels of the SBM-75 may be viewed and set by selecting the Output Tab from the
main Configuration window. A screen similar to that shown in Figure 4.18 below is displayed.
Figure 4.19: Output Window
4.7.8.1
Output Power
The output power may be set by entering the required level in dBm and selecting Set. The
current calibrated range is -25 dBm to 0 dBm but you can enter values outside of this range, an
alarm can be triggered if desired when this occurs.
4.7.8.2
Output Enable
The Output Level may be disabled by un-checking the appropriate box. This setting will take
effect instantaneously.
4.7.8.3
CW Mode
The Continuous Wave (CW) test mode may be enabled by checking the appropriate box. This
setting will take effect instantaneously.
4.7.8.4
Clock source
A highly accurate internal clock source can be used by selecting Internal or an External 10 MHz
reference can be used by selecting External. If an external reference is used then this frequency
can be held by selecting hold, this would then allow the external reference to be removed.
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4.7.8.5
Internal Ref. Source
The Internal timing can either be free running or aligned to a stored frequency which was
derived from an external reference and then stored via the store frequency button.
4.8
BISS Encryption
Basic Interoperable Scrambling System (BISS) is a satellite signal scrambling system developed by
the European Broadcasting Union and a consortium of hardware manufacturers.
When using BISS the transmission is protected by a 12 digit "session word" that is agreed by the
transmitting and receiving parties prior to transmission. The key is entered into both the encoder
and decoder, this key then forms part of the encryption of the digital TV signal and only receivers
with the correct key will decrypt the signal.
The rapid increase in the use of Digital Satellite News Gathering (DSNG) technology resulted in
the availability of digital codec equipment from a number of vendors. At the same time, the
absence of standard methods for the securing and scrambling of DSNG broadcasts spawned
the development of several different proprietary security mechanisms. The widespread
acceptance of DVB standards made it possible to propose and provide a security mechanism
that offered interoperability between the equipment of different DSNG vendors. This enabled
broadcasters to combine equipment from several vendors, while making systems more futureproof.
BISS is based on the DVB-CSA specification, and the use of fixed clear keys called Session Words
(SWs). BISS specification Mode 1 is used for DSNG. BISS specification Mode E (BISS with Encrypted
keys – referred to as BISS-E) introduces an additional mechanism to accept the insertion of
Encrypted Session Words (ESWs) while, at the same time, conserving interoperability. This
mechanism is backward compatible with BISS specification Mode 1.
The BISS option will appear on the tabs if the feature key is installed and may be viewed by
selecting the BISS tab. A window similar to the shown in Figure 4.20 is displayed. The BISS window
can be split into 3. The top is for selecting the BISS mode, the middle is a status view and the
bottom is an application for generating Encrypted Session words.
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Figure 4.20: BISS Window
4.8.1
BISS Mode Selection
The options for the BISS mode are Off, Mode-0, Mode-1, Mode-E, Odd/Even-1, Odd/Even-E, User1 and User-E. Depending upon the selection, the available options will change within this section
of the window.
Figure 4.21: BISS Mode Selection Window
Note
All session words, injected ID and Encrypted session words cannot be read back and are not echoed
back to the display. These values are also not stored in the profiles but will be reused after a power
cycle. To comply with the specification the keys cannot be changed more than ten times in a 5-minute
period and that there is a minimum of 10 seconds between changes. The keys are transmitted in the
clear via the GUI so should be used with caution, perhaps by setting the Injected ID up only on the
front panel and never via the GUI.
4.8.2
Off
BISS is fully disabled and the transport stream will be unmodified. If BISS is subsequently enabled
then the modification in the transport stream may cause a momentary glitch in the video. It is
preferable to use BISS-0 which will modify the transport stream without encrypting the video.
4.8.3
BISS-0
The transport stream will not encrypt in this mode but is modified to add signalling about BISS. In
this mode encryption can be enabled seamlessly.
4.8.4
BISS-1
The transport stream is encrypted using the session word which is a 12 digit hex value. If the key is
not present then the last entered value will be used. This session word is independent from the
key generated when using BISS-E and will be retained.
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4.8.5
BISS-E
The transport stream is encrypted by a calculated session word. This session word is generated
from an injected ID and an Encrypted session word. This is fundamentally more secure as both
the Injected ID and Encrypted session words are required for decryption and each receiver
could have a unique Encrypted session word. The Injected ID is a 14 digit Hex value and the
Encrypted Session Word (ESW) is a 16 digit hex value. If the key or the ID is not present then the
last entered values will be used.
4.8.6
Odd/Even-1
This mode is not part of the BISS standard but has been successfully interoperated with other
manufacturers who have similar variants. Each MPEG packet has a field in the header which
indicates if it is in the clear, encrypted using an ODD key or encrypted using an even key. While
BISS only uses the one key, this mode allows two independent keys. The advantage of this mode
is that it allows keys to be programmed offline while using the other key for decryption. Both the
odd and the even session word will require a 12 digit hex value. The even key is the same key as
that used for BISS-1.
4.8.7
Odd/Even-E
Odd/Even-E also uses the odd and even keys in the same way as Odd/Even-1 mode but each
key is encrypted using the same Injected Id. The Injected Id will require a 14 digit hex value and
the ESWs will both require 16 digit hex values. The even key is the same key as used for BISS-E.
Figure 4.22: Odd/Even-E Selected
4.8.8
User-1
This enables a specific user mode where specific PIDs are decrypted. The SI information is not
altered so this mode is not BISS compliant. The actual PIDs to be decrypted are specified only on
the command line. A 12 digit hex value is required for the session word. The even key is the same
key as used for BISS-1.
This mode is used to guarantee that the decrypted transport stream will match the original.
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4.8.9
User-E
This is identical to the User-1 mode except a 16 digit hex value is required for the ESW and a 14
digit hex value is required for the injected ID. The even key is the same key as used for BISS-E.
4.8.10
BISS Insertion Period
This sets the frequency that the Program Association Table (PAT), Programme Map Table (PMT)
and Conditional Access Table (CAT) will be inserted into the stream. The default is 200 ms and this
value should be suitable in most circumstances.
4.8.11
BISS Active Key
When the BISS Mode is either Mode-E or ODD/EVEN-E or User-E then the BISS Active Key can be
selected. This determines which key shall be used.
4.8.12
BISS Status
Table 4.3: BISS Status
Property
Status
Description
Uninitialized
Error condition, BISS failure
Idle : illegal in
this mode
BISS cannot be used in this mode
Idle
BISS is turned off
Configured
BISS is active, this will include BISS-0 Mode
Active
SI extraction is active
Inactive
no SI extraction
Keys
OK
Valid keys present, this should always be OK
stream info
PAT not found
The PAT is not detected, critical failure
Corrupted tables
At least one of the PMT listed in the PAT cannot be extracted or
At least one of the PMT has a bad structure or a CRC error
No CAT
detected
CAT is not found, this can be normal
OK
Transport stream is OK
Ciphering
The block cipher is engaged and ciphering
Unciphering
The block cipher is engaged and deciphering
None
The block cipher is not engaged
Too many
PMT(s)
too many PMT(s) are received for the playout RAM (overflow)
Incorrect PMT(s)
A PMT cannot be modified to add/remove BISS SI (PIDs listed in the PMT
would not be ciphered/deciphered)
Missing PMT(s)
A PMT listed in the PAT could not be retrieved
OK
All is OK
State
Extraction
processing
PMT info
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4.8.13
Encrypted Session Word Generator
The Encrypted Session Word generator is an application which runs locally on the web browser
and requires no network access. Consequently, the generated keys will have to be manually
programmed into the unit via the front panel, GUI, SNMP or CLI. A 12 digit Hex value is entered in
the Clear Session Word field and a 14 digit hex value is entered in the injected ID field. Clicking
on the Generate ESW Key will produce a 16 digit hex value.
Note
This process requires a random seed which will produce a different ESW every time it is generated. It
is not deterministic. No keys are stored in this process.
Figure 4.23: Encrypted Word Session Generator Window
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SBM75e Series Modulator Installation and Operation Manual
APPENDIX A: Technical
Specification
List of Contents
List of Tables
A.1
Introduction ............................................................... A-2
Table A.1: Technical Specification ............................................ A-2
A.2
Technical Specification ........................................... A-2
A.3
Standards Compliance............................................ A-3
SBM75e Series Modulator Installation and Operation Manual
A-1
Technical Specification
A.1
Introduction
This chapter details the technical specification and the standards with which it is compliant.
A.2
Technical Specification
The following table details the technical specification.
Table A.1: Technical Specification
Description
Specification
Modulator
Data Rate
16 Kbps to 200 Mbps
Data Rate Options
16 kbps to 10 Mbps, 20 Mbps, 52 Mbps and 140 Mbps
Symbol Rate
128 KSymbol to 40 MSymbol
Data Interfaces
ASI (standard)
(Optional to support up to 8)
Local / Remote Monitor
& Control Interfaces
9 pin D-sub (F) for RS-232 Serial interface
9 pin /d-sub (F) for RS-485 Serial interface (Terminal mode and packet
protocol mode)
9 pin D-sub (F) for Alarm interface (switch-over contact)
15 pin D-sub (F) for redundancy connector
RJ-45 10/100BaseT Ethernet
Data Connector
BNC (F) - 75 Ω for ASI and E3/T3 G.703 interfaces
DVB-S2 Modulation Type
& FEC Rate
Continuous Wave (CW)
QPSK:
64 Kbps to 80 Mbps
DVB-S2 SHORT and NORMAL FEC Block
1 2 1 3 2 4 5 8
SHORT Block 16kbit ¼, /3, /5, /2, /5, /3, /5, /6, /9
NORMAL Block 64kbit ¼,1/3,2/5,1/2,3/5,2/3,4/5,5/6,8/9,9/10
8PSK:
256 kbps to 120 Mbps
DVB-S2 SHORT and NORMAL FEC Block
3 2 3 5 8
SHORT Block 16kbit /5, /3, /4, /6, /9
3 2 3 5 8 9
NORMAL Block 64kbit /5, /3, /4, /6, /9, /10
16APSK:
340 kbps to 160 Mbps
DVB-S2 SHORT and NORMAL FEC Block
2
3 4 5 8
SHORT Block 16kbit /3, /4, /5, /6, /9
2
3 4 5 8 9
NORMAL Block 64kbit /3, /4, /5, /6, /9, /10
32APSK:
A-2
SBM75e Series Modulator Installation and Operation Manual
Technical Specification
Description
Specification
470 kbps to 200 Mbps
DVB-S2 SHORT and NORMAL FEC Block
3 4 5 8
SHORT Block 16kbit /4, /5, /6, /9
3 4 5 8 9
NORMAL Block 64kbit /4, /5, /6, /9, /10
Modulation Type & FEC
Rate
QPSK :
DVB 1/2, 2/3, 3/4, 5/6, 7/8 with RS (204,188), Optional
8PSK:
DVB-DSNG PTCM Rate 2/3, 5/6, 8/9 with RS(204,188), Optional
16QAM, Optional:
DVB-DSNG PTCM Rate 3/4, 7/8 with RS(204,188) code
Modulation Roll-Off
Factor
12% to 35% with 1% resolution
Configurable Forward
Error Correction
DVB-S/DVB-DSNG Coding
DVB-S2 SHORT and NORMAL FEC Block
* 1 * 2 * 1 * 3 2 4 5 7 8
SHORT Block 16kbit ¼ , /3 , /5 , /2 , /5, /3, /5, /6, /8, /9
NORMAL Block 64kbit ¼*,1/3*,2/5*,1/2*,3/5,2/3,4/5,5/6,7/8,8/9,9/10
* Only available in QPSK according to DVB-S2 Specification
Data Management Interfaces
Monitoring & Control
(M&C)
Front Panel: as standard
External M&C Interface: 10/100Base-T, RS-232, RS-485, SNMP
Receiver ASI Interface
Encoded Line Rate: 270 MSymbol ± 100 ppm
Min Sensitivity (D21.5 idle pattern): 200 mV
Max Input Voltage: 880 mV p-p
Discrete Connector Return Loss: ≥15 dB
Max. Distance: 150 m
Power, Physical & Environmental
Power
AC option: Auto sensing 95-265 V AC, 50-60 Hz
DC option: 48 V DC nominal (range +32 to +72 V DC)
Typical Power Dissipation
25 W
Physical
The SBM75e is a rack-mountable 1RU EIA chassis.
Height: 4.4 cm (1.75”)
Width: 43.2 cm (17”) without ears and 48.26 cm (19”) with ears
Depth: Configuration Dependent – 40.6 cm (16”) to 50.8 cm (20”) max.
Weight: 5 kg (11lb) maximum
Environmental
Operating:
SBM75e Series Modulator Installation and Operation Manual
A-3
Technical Specification
Description
Specification
Temperature: 0°C to 45°C (32°F to 122°F)
RH: up to 90% non-condensing
Altitude: Up to 3,045 m (10,000 ft)
Storage / Transit:
Temperature: -25°C to 85°C (-13°F to 185°F)
RH: up to 95% non-condensing
Altitude: Up to 12,180 m (40,000 ft)
A.3
Standards Compliance
The AMT-70 modem is compliant to the following Telecommunication Interface Standards:
ƒ IEEE RS-422 / RS-449 / RS-530 and CCITT/ITU V.35 interface standards
ƒ 10/100Base-T Ethernet: IEEE Standard for Information technology--Telecommunications and
information exchange between systems--Local and metropolitan area networks--Specific
requirements--Part 3: Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection (CSMA/CD)
Access Method and Physical Layer Specifications
ƒ DVB-DSNG: ETSI Standards EN310 210 v1.1.1 Digital Video Broadcasting (DVB); Framing
structure, channel coding and modulation for Digital Satellite News Gathering (DSNG) and
other contribution applications by satellite
A-4
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Technical Specification
SBM75e Series Modulator Installation and Operation Manual
A-5
APPENDIX B: Glossary
List of Contents
B.1
Introduction ............................................................... B-2
B.2
Abbreviations and Technical Terms ....................... B-2
SBM75e Series Modulator Installation and Operation Manual
List of Tables
Table B.1: Glossary ........................................................................ B-2
B-1
Glossary
B.1
Introduction
This appendix provides a brief explaination of the abbreviations and technical terms used in this
manual
B.2
Abbreviations and Technical Terms
The following table details the glossary.
Table B.1: Glossary
B-2
Term
Description
16-QAM
16 Quadrature Amplitude Modulation: A modulation scheme used for the
transmission of digital data, which modifies the amplitude and phase of
an RF sinusoidal carrier frequency to represent data symbols. 4 different
phases and 4 different amplitudes are used for a total of 16 possible
symbols.
8-PSK
8 Phase Shift Keying: A modulation scheme used for the transmission of
digital data, which modifies the phase of an RF sinusoidal carrier
frequency to represent data symbols. 8 different phases are used for a
total of 8 possible symbols.
ASI
Asynchronous Serial Interface. A streaming data format which often
carries an MPEG Transport Stream (MPEG-TS). It is electrically identical to
an SDI signal and is always 270 Mbit/s. There are two transmission formats
commonly used by the ASI interface, the 188 byte format (more
common) and the 204 byte format (optional data included).
baud rate
The rate of transfer of digital data when the data comprises information
symbols that may consist of a number of possible states. Equivalent to bitrate when the symbols only have two states (1 and 0). Measured in Baud.
BDC
Block Down-Converter: A component of a dish antenna that
downconverts the output of a LNA to a suitable frequency to
communicate to an Receiver, Demodulator or IRD (typically L-BAND 950
MHz - 1600 MHz).
BER
Bit Error Rate: A measure of transmission quality. The number of erroneous
bits received divided by the total number of bits transmitted over a link. It
is generally shown as a negative exponent, (e.g., BER = 10-7 means that 1
in 10,000,000 bits are in error).
BISS
Basic Interoperable Scrambling System: A satellite signal scrambling
system developed by the European Broadcasting Union and a
consortium of hardware manufacturers. EBU (Tech3290). Using BISS the
transmission is protected by a 12 digit "session key" that is agreed by the
transmitting and receiving parties. The key is entered into both the
encoder and decoder, this key then forms part of the encryption of the
digital TV signal and only receivers with the correct key will decrypt the
signal.
Bit-rate
The rate of transfer of digital data when the data comprises two logic
states, 1 and 0. Measured in bit/s.
SBM75e Series Modulator Installation and Operation Manual
Glossary
Term
Description
BPSK
Binary Phase Shift Keying: A modulation technique used to
communicate data over long distances by altering the phase of a
carrier signal according to the data binary states. The simplest form of
phase shift keying, it uses two phases which are separated by 180° and
so can also be termed 2-PSK. Sometimes called PRK, Phase Reversal
Keying.
BW
Bandwidth: The transmission capacity of an electronic line such as
(among others) a communications network, computer bus, or broadcast
link. It is expressed in bits per second, bytes per second or in Hertz (cycles
per second). When expressed in Hertz, the frequency may be a greater
number than the actual bits per second, because the bandwidth is the
difference between the lowest and highest frequencies transmitted. High
bandwidth allows fast transmission or high-volume transmission.
CA
Conditional Access: The technology used to control the access to
viewing services to authorised subscribers through the transmission of
encrypted signals and the programmable regulation of their decryption
by a system such as viewing cards.
C-Band
The portion of the electromagnetic spectrum, which spans the
frequency range of approximately 5.250-5.925 GHz (as defined by the
ITU). Used by communications satellites and preferred in tropical climates
because it is not susceptible to fading.
CRC
Cyclic Redundancy Check: An error-detecting code use to check the
accuracy of transmitted, or stored, data. An algorithm computes a
numerical value based on the data bits in a block of data. This number is
then added to the block of data as check bits and transmitted across
the link. The receiver uses the check bits, and the same algorithm, to
check the accuracy of the received data by comparing the results of
the algorithm and the data received. If a mismatch occurs, an error in
transmission is presumed.
dB
Decibels: A ratio of one quantity to another using logarithmic scales to
give results related to human aural or visual perception. dB is a ratio
whereas dBm, for example, is an absolute value, quoted as a ratio to a
fixed point of 0 dBm. 0 dBm is 1 mW at 1 kHz terminated in 600Ω. 0 dBmV
is 1 mV terminated in 75Ω.
DCE
Data Communications Equipment: A classification of equipment used by
the RS-232 standard (and others) to identify equipment types and their
communications interface requirements. It establishes, maintains and
terminates a session on a network but is not the source (see DTE) or
destination (transmission circuit) of signals. A DCE device may typically
be a modem, a codec, or convert signals to comply with the
transmission path (network) format.
DCT
Discrete Cosine Transform: A technique for expressing a waveform as a
weighted sum of cosines. Raw video data is not readily compressible.
DCT is not in itself a compression technique but is used to process the
video data so that it is compressible by an encoder. DCT processes the
picture on an 8x8-pixel block basis, converting the data from an
uncompressible X Y form (as displayed by an oscilloscope) to a
compressible frequency domain form (as displayed by a spectrum
analyser). Can be forward DCT or inverse DCT.
SBM75e Series Modulator Installation and Operation Manual
B-3
Glossary
B-4
Term
Description
Decoder
A unit containing the electronic circuitry necessary to decode encrypted
signals. Some Decoders are separate from the receiver but in satellite TV
broadcasting, the term is often used interchangeably as a name for an
Integrated Receiver Decoder (IRD). The term IRD, or IRD / Decoder, is
usually associated with satellite TV broadcasting while Cable systems are
based on Converters or on Set-Top Boxes / Converters.
Differential Coding
Method of coding using the difference between the value of a sample
and a predicted value.
DIL
Dual In Line: The most common type of package for small and medium
scale integrated circuits. The pins hang vertically from the two long sides
of the rectangular package, spaced at intervals of 0.1 inch.
DIN
Deutsches Institut für Normung: German Standards Institute.
Downlink
The part of the satellite communications circuit that extends from the
satellite to an Earth station.
Downconverter
A unit containing the electronic circuitry necessary to transform the
carrier frequency of a broadcast transport stream from a high (radio)
frequency - suitable for long-distance transmission - to a low
(intermediate) frequency - suitable for extraction of the data.
DSNG
Digital Satellite News-Gathering.
DTE
Data circuit Terminating Equipment: A classification of equipment used
by the RS-232 standard (and others) to identify equipment types and
their communications interface requirements. A communications device
that originates (is the source) or is the end receiving unit (destination) of
signals on a network. It is typically a terminal or computer.
DTH
Direct-To-Home. The term used to describe uninterrupted transmission
from the satellite directly to the subscriber, that is, no intermediary cable
or terrestrial network utilised.
DVB
Digital Video Broadcasting: A European project which defines
transmission standards for digital broadcasting systems using satellite
(DVB-S), cable (DVB-C) and terrestrial (DVB-T) medium, created by the
EP-DVB group and approved by the ITU. It specifies modulation, error
correction, etc. (see EN 300 421 for satellite, EN 300 429 for cable and
EN 300 744 for terrestrial).
DVB-S2
Digital Video Broadcasting – Satellite – Second Generation: An
enhanced specification to replace the DVB-S standard, developed in
2003 and ratified by ETSI (EN 302307) in March 2005. The development of
DVB-S2 coincided with the introduction of HDTV and H.264 (MPEG-4
AVC) video codecs. The system allows transmission of one or more
MPEG-2 audio/video streams, using QPSK or 8PSK or MAPSK (M-ary
amplitude and phase shift keying) modulation with concatenated
encoding.
DVB SI
Digital Video Broadcasting Service Information.
DVB-PI
DVB-Professional Interfaces: TTV Lan search shows – DVB Physical
Interfaces
SBM75e Series Modulator Installation and Operation Manual
Glossary
Term
Description
Earth
Technical Earth: A connection that ensures all equipment chassis within a
rack are at the same potential (“commoned”), usually by connecting a
wire between the technical earth terminal and a suitable point on the
rack. Also called a Functional Earth.
Protective Earth: A connection that ensures all exposed conductive
surfaces are at the same electrical potential as the surface of the Earth,
to avoid the risk of electrical shock if a person touches a device in which
an insulation fault has occurred. In the vent of an insulation fault (a “short
circuit”), a very high current flows, which triggers an overcurrent
protection device (fuse, circuit breaker, etc.) that disconnects the power
supply. Also called a Safety Earth.
EBU
European Broadcast Union.
EIA
Electronics Industries Association (USA).
EMC
Electromagnetic Compatibility.
Encryption
Encoding of a transmission to prevent access without the appropriate
decryption equipment and authorisation.
Ethernet
The most widely used local area network (LAN) defined by the IEEE as the
802.3 standard. Transmission speeds vary according to the configuration.
Ethernet uses copper or fibre-optic cables.
ETSI
European Telecommunications Standards Institute. Body created in 1988,
responsible for standardization of Information and Communication
Technologies (ICT) within Europe. These technologies include
telecommunications and broadcasting.
FCC
Federal Communications Commission. A US government agency,
established by the Communications Act of 1934 and is responsible for
regulating all non-Federal Government use of the radio spectrum
(including radio and television broadcasting), and all interstate
telecommunications (wire, satellite and cable) as well as all international
communications that originate or terminate in the United States.
FDM
Frequency Division Multiplex: A common communication channel for a
number of signals, each with its own allotted frequency.
FEC
Forward Error Correction: A method of detecting and correcting errors in
a transmission. The data to be transmitted is processed through an
algorithm that generates code bits that are added to the message. The
code bits are used at the receiving end to check the accuracy of the
transmission and correct any errors.
Footprint
The area of the Earth’s surface covered by a satellite’s downlink
transmission. Also (generally) the area from which the satellite can
receive uplink transmissions.
FTP
File Transfer Protocol: A protocol used to transfer files over a TCP/IP
network (Internet, UNIX, etc.). For example, after developing the HTML
pages for a Web site on a local machine, they are typically uploaded to
the Web server, using FTP. Unlike e-mail programs in which graphics and
program files have to be attached, FTP is designed to handle binary files
directly and does not add the overhead of encoding and decoding the
data.
G.703
The ITU-T standard which defines the physical and electrical
characteristics of hierarchical digital interfaces.
SBM75e Series Modulator Installation and Operation Manual
B-5
Glossary
B-6
Term
Description
GUI
Graphical User Interface: The use of pictures rather than just words to
represent the input and output of a program. A program with a GUI runs
under a windowing system and has a screen interface capable of
displaying graphics in the form of icons, drop-down menus and a
movable pointer. The on-screen information is usually controlled /
manipulated by a mouse or keyboard.
HSSI
High Speed Serial Interface: A differential ECL serial interface standard
developed by Cisco Systems and T3plus Networking primarily for use in
WAN router connections. It is capable of speeds up to 52 Mbit/s with
cables up to 50 feet in length. While HSSI uses 50-pin connector physically
similar to that used by SCSI-2, it requires a cable with an impedance of
11 Ω (as opposed to the 75 Ω of a SCSI-2 cable).
IEC
International Electrotechnical Committee.
IF
Intermediate Frequency: A frequency, commonly 70/140 MHz, to which a
carrier frequency is shifted as an intermediate step in transmission or
reception. The intermediate frequency is created by mixing the carrier
signal with a local oscillator signal, resulting in a signal at the difference
frequency.
IP
Internet Protocol: The IP part of TCP/IP. IP implements the network layer
(layer 3) of the protocol, which contains a network address and is used
to route a message to a different network or sub-network. IP accepts
packets from the layer 4 transport protocol (TCP or UDP), adds its own
header to it and delivers a datagram to the layer 2 data link protocol. It
may also break the packet into fragments to support the Maximum
Transmission / Transfer Unit (MTU) of the network.
IRD
Integrated Receiver Decoder: The Receiver with an internal MPEG
Decoder, which is connected to the subscriber’s TV. The IRD is
responsible for receiving and de-multiplexing all signals. The unit receives
the incoming signal and if CA is active, decodes the signal when
provided with a control word by the viewing card.
Domestic IRDs are also known as Set-Top Units or Set-Top Boxes.
ISDN
Integrated Services Digital Network: The basic ISDN service is BRI (Basic
Rate Interface), which is made up of two 64 kbit/s B channels and one 16
kbit/s D channel (2B+D). If both channels are combined into one, called
bonding, the total data rate becomes 128 kbit/s and is four and a half
times the bandwidth of a V.34 modem
(28.8 kbit/s).
The ISDN high-speed service is PRI (Primary Rate Interface). It provides 23
B channels and one 64 kbit/s D channel (23B+D), which is equivalent to
the 24 channels of a T1 line. When several channels are bonded
together, high data rates can be achieved. For example, it is common
to bond six channels for quality videoconferencing at 384 kbit/s. In
Europe, PRI includes 30 B channels and one D channel, equivalent to an
E1 line.
ISO
International Standards Organisation.
ITU-R
International Telecommunications Union - Radiocommunications Study
Groups (was CCIR).
ITU-T
International Telecommunications Union - Telecommunications
Standardisation Sector (was CCITT).
SBM75e Series Modulator Installation and Operation Manual
Glossary
Term
Description
JPEG
Joint Photographic Experts Group: ISO/ITU standard for compressing still
images. It has a high compression capability. Using discrete cosine
transform, it provides user specified compression ratios up to around
100:1 (there is a trade-off between image quality and file size).
kbit/s
1000 bits per second.
Kbit
1024 bits, usually refers to memory capacity or allocation.
Ku-band
ITU-defined frequency range from 12 GHz to 18 GHz. Used by
communications satellites, this range of frequency is less susceptible to
interference.
LAN
Local Area Network: A network, which provides facilities for
communications within a defined building or group of buildings in close
proximity.
L-Band
ITU-defined frequency range from 950 MHz to 2150 MHz. The normal
input-frequency-range of a domestic IRD. The incoming signal from the
satellite is down-converted to L-band by the LNB.
LCD
Liquid Crystal Display. A thin, flat display device made up of any number
of colour or monochrome pixels arrayed in front of a light source or
reflector. Often utilized in battery-powered electronic devices because it
uses very small amounts of electric power.
LED
Light Emitting Diode. A semiconductor diode that emits light when an
electric current is applied in the forward direction of the device.
Link Budget
The accounting of all of the gains and losses from the transmitter,
through the medium (free space, cable, waveguide, fiber, etc.) to the
receiver in a telecommunication system. It accounts for the attenuation
of the transmitted signal due to propagation, as well as the antenna
gains, feedline and miscellaneous losses. Randomly varying channel
gains such as fading are taken into account by adding some margin
depending on the anticipated severity of its effects. The amount of
margin required can be reduced by the use of mitigating techniques
such as antenna diversity or frequency hopping.
LNA
Low-Noise Amplifier: A component of a dish antenna that amplifies the
weak signals received from a satellite (or microwave transmitter). It is
often located very close to, or on, the antenna (immediately behind the
feed horn) so that further losses, due to the signal travelling down the
feed line, are minimised.
LNB
Low-Noise Block Down-Converter: A combination of Low Noise Amplifier
(LNA) and a Block Down-Converter (BDC) usually mounted on a dish
antenna to enable it to amplify and downconvert the received signal to
a suitable frequency to communicate to a Receiver, Demodulator or IRD
(typically L-BAND 950 MHz - 1600 MHz).
LNBF
Low-Noise Block Down-Converter and Feed: A combination of Low Noise
Amplifier, Block Down-Converter and Feed, mounted on a dish antenna.
LO
Local Oscillator.
LVDS
Low Voltage Differential Signal: LVDS is a generic multi-purpose Interface
standard for high speed / low power data transmission. It was
standardised in ANSI/TIA/EIA-644-1995 Standard (aka RS-644).
M&C
Monitor and Control.
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Glossary
Term
Description
Mbit/s
Million bits per second.
MCPC
Multiple Channels Per Carrier.
MIB
Management Information Base: A type of database used to manage the
devices in a communications network. It comprises a collection of
objects in a (virtual) database used to manage entities (such as routers
and switches) in a network.
MP@ML
Main Profile at Main Level: A subset of the MPEG-2 standard, which
supports digital video storage (DVD etc.) and transmissions up to 15
Mbit/s over various mediums.
MP@HL
Main Profile at High Level: A subset of the MPEG-2 standard, which
supports digital video storage (DVD etc.) and transmissions up to 80
Mbit/s over various mediums.
MPEG
Moving Pictures Experts Group: The name of the ISO/IEC working group
which sets up the international standards for digital television source
coding.
MPEG-2
Industry standard for video and audio source coding using compression
and multiplexing techniques to minimise video signal bit-rate in
preparation for broadcasting. Specified in ISO/IEC 13818. The standard is
split into layers and profiles defining bit-rates and picture resolutions.
Msymbol/s
(Msym/s) Mega (million) Symbols per second (106 Symbols per second).
Multiplex
A number of discrete data streams (typically 8 to 12), from encoders,
that are compressed together in a single DVB compliant transport stream
for delivery to a Modulator.
Mux
Multiplexer: Transmission Multiplexer: receives EMMs from the ACC, ECMs
from the BCC, video/audio data from the encoders, and the SI stream
from the SIC. It then multiplexes them all into a single DVB-compliant
transport stream, and delivers the signal to the uplink after modulation.
The Multiplexer also contains the cypher card, which scrambles the
services according to the control words supplied by the BCC.
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NTSC
National Television Systems Committee: The group, which developed
analogue standards used in television broadcast systems in the United
States. Also adopted in other countries (e.g. Mexico, Canada, Japan).
This system uses 525 picture lines and a 59.97 Hz field frequency.
NVOD
Near Video On Demand: Method of offering multiple showings of movies
or events. The showings are timed to start at set intervals, determined by
the broadcaster. Each showing of a movie or event can be sold to
subscribers separately.
ODU
Outdoor Unit
OFDM
Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplex: A modulation technique used
for digital TV transmission in Europe, Japan and Australia; more spectrally
efficient than FDM. In OFDM, data is distributed over a large number of
carriers spaced apart at precise frequencies. The carriers are arranged
with overlapping sidebands in such a way that the signals can be
received without adjacent channel interference.
OPPV
Order ahead Pay Per View: An advance purchase of encrypted onetime events with an expiry date.
SBM75e Series Modulator Installation and Operation Manual
Glossary
Term
Description
OQPSK
Offset Quadrature Phase Shift Keying: A variant of phase-shift keying
modulation using 4 different values of the phase to transmit. It is
sometimes called Staggered quadrature phase-shift keying (SQPSK).
OSD
On-screen display: Messages and graphics, typically originating from the
SMS, and displayed on the subscriber’s TV screen by the IRD, to inform
the subscriber of problems or instruct the subscriber to contact the SMS.
PCM
Pulse Code Modulation: A process in which a signal is sampled, each
sample is quantised independently of other samples, and the resulting
succession of quantised values is encoded into a digital signal.
PCR
Program Clock Reference: A time-stamp in the transport stream from
which the Decoder timing is derived.
PES
Packetised Elementary Stream: A sequential stream of data bytes that
has been converted from original elementary streams of audio and
video access units and transported as packets. Each PES packet consists
of a header and a payload of variable length and subject to a
maximum of 64 kbytes. A time-stamp is provided by the MPEG-2 systems
layer to ensure correct synchronisation between related elementary
streams at the Decoder.
PID
Packet Identifier: The header on a packet in an elementary data stream,
which identifies that data stream. An MPEG-2 / DVB standard.
PLL
Phase-Locked Loop. A phase-locked loop is a control system which
controls the rotation of an object by comparing its rotational position
(phase) with another rotating object as in the case of a sine wave or
other repeating signal. This type of control system can synchronise not
only the speed, but also the angular position of two waveforms that are
not derived from the same source.
Program
PC - A sequence of instructions for a computer.
TV - A concept having a precise definition within ISO 13818-1 (MPEG-2).
For a transport stream, the timebase is defined by the PCR. The use of the
PCR for timing information creates a virtual channel within the stream.
Programme
A linking of one or more events under the control of a broadcaster. For
example, football match, news, film show. In the MPEG-2 concept, the
collection of elementary streams comprising the programme, have a
common start and end time. A series of programmes are referred to as
events.
PS
Program Stream: A combination of one or more PESs with a common
timebase.
PSK
Phase Shift Keying: A method of modulating digital signals particularly
suited to satellite transmission.
PSR
Professional Satellite Receiver: See also: IRD.
PSU
Power Supply Unit.
QAM
Quadrature Amplitude Modulation: A method of modulating digital
signals, which uses combined techniques of phase modulation and
amplitude modulation. It is particularly suited to cable networks.
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Glossary
B-10
Term
Description
QPSK
Quadrature Phase Shift Keying: A modulation technique used to
communicate data over long distances by altering the phase of a
carrier signal according to the four data states. Sometimes known as
quaternary or quadriphase PSK, 4-PSK, or 4-QAM.
RF
Radio Frequency.
RS
Reed-Solomon coding: An error detection and correction, coding
system. 16 bytes of Reed-Solomon Forward Error Correction code are
appended to the packet before transmission bringing the packet length
to 204 bytes. The 16 bytes are used at the receiving end to correct any
errors. Up to eight corrupted bytes can be corrected.
RLC
Run Length Coding: Minimisation of the length of a bit-stream by
replacing repeated characters with an instruction of the form ‘repeat
character x y times’.
RX
Receive or Receiver.
SCPC
Single Channel Per Carrier. Use of a single signal at a given frequency
and bandwidth. Most often, this is used on broadcast satellites to
indicate that radio stations are not multiplexed as subcarriers onto a
single video carrier, but instead independently share a transponder. It
may also be used on other communications satellites, or occasionally on
non-satellite transmissions
Scrambling
Alteration of the characteristics of a television signal in order to prevent
unauthorised reception of the information in clear form.
SDI
Serial Digital Interface.
SELV
Safety Extra Low Voltage (EN 60950).
STB
Set-Top Box: A box that sits on top of a television set and is the interface
between the home television and the cable TV company. New
technologies evolving for set-top boxes are video-on-demand, video
games, educational services, database searches, and home shopping.
The cable equivalent of the IRD.
SFN
Single Frequency Network: The SFN technique allows large geographic
areas to be served with a common transmission multiplex. All transmitters
in the network are synchronously modulated with the same signal and
they all radiate on the same frequency. Due to the multi-path capability
of the multi-carrier transmission system (COFDM), signals from several
transmitters arriving at a receiving antenna may contribute
constructively to the total wanted signal. The SFN technique is not only
frequency efficient but also power efficient because fades in the field
strength of one transmitter may be filled by another transmitter.
SNG
Satellite News-Gathering.
SNMP
Simple Network Management Protocol. A ‘layered’ protocol used in
software applications that facilitates the exchange of management
information between network devices. It is part of the Transmission
Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) protocol suite. SNMP enables
network administrators to manage network performance and resolve
network problems.
SBM75e Series Modulator Installation and Operation Manual
Glossary
Term
Description
Spectral Scrambling
A process (in digital transmission) used to combine a digital signal with a
pseudo-random sequence, producing a randomised digital signal that
conveys the original information in a form optimised for a broadcast
channel.
TCP / IP
Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol: A set of communications
protocols used to connect different computers over networks (in
particular the internet). TCP/IP consists of four layers: from lowest to
highest, these are the Link Layer, the Internet Layer, the Transport Layer,
and the Application Layer.
TS
Transport Stream. A multiplex of video, audio and data (elementary)
streams combined (packetized) into a single synchronous transmission bit
stream. It is defined by the MPEG-2 compression and multiplexing
standard for the transmission of digital broadcast streams over satellite
links, terrestrial networks, and cable networks. These Packetised
Elementary Streams (PES) and System Information (SI) streams may
comprise more than one programme, but with common synchronisation
and error protection. The data structure is defined in ISO/IEC 13818-1 [1]
and is the basis of the ETSI Digital Video Broadcasting (DVB) standards.
TX
Transmit or Transmitter.
U
44.45 mm (rack height standard).
Upconverter
A unit containing the electronic circuitry necessary to transform the
carrier frequency of a broadcast transport stream from a low
(intermediate) frequency to a high (radio) frequency - suitable for longdistance transmission.
Uplink
The part of the communications satellite circuit that extends from the
Earth to the satellite.
UPS
Uninterruptable Power Supply: A method of supplying backup power
when the electrical power fails or drops to an unacceptable voltage
level. Small UPS systems provide battery power for a few minutes; enough
to power down the computer in an orderly manner. This is particularly
important where write back cache is used.
Write back cache is where modified data intended for the disk is
temporarily stored in RAM and can be lost in the event of a power
failure. Sophisticated systems are tied to electrical generators that can
provide power for days. UPS systems typically provide surge suppression
and may provide voltage regulation.
UTC
Universal Time Co-ordinate: An internationally agreed basis for
timekeeping introduced in 1972 and based on international atomic time
(corresponds to Greenwich Mean Time or GMT).
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Glossary
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SBM75e Series Modulator Installation and Operation Manual