600-2705 PCI Express Expansion System User’s Manual
Revision 1.0 February 2008
Cyclone P/N 800-2705
The information in this document has been carefully checked and is believed to be entirely reliable. However, no
responsibility is assumed for inaccuracies. Furthermore, Cyclone Microsystems, Inc. reserves the right to make
changes to any products herein to improve reliability, function, or design. Cyclone Microsystems, Inc. neither
assumes any liability arising out of the application or use of any product or circuit described herein, nor does it
convey any license under its right or the rights of others.
Copyright 2008 by Cyclone Microsystems, Inc.
CONTENTS
CHAPTER 1
1.1
INTRODUCTION ..............................................................................................................................1-1
1.2
SPECIFICATIONS............................................................................................................................1-3
1.3
STANDARDS ...................................................................................................................................1-3
CHAPTER 2
2.1
THEORY OF OPERATION ..............................................................................................................2-1
CHAPTER 3
3.1
600-2705 CHASSIS..........................................................................................................................3-1
3.2
POWER CONSIDERATIONS...........................................................................................................3-1
CHAPTER 4
4.1
SYSTEM POWER UP ......................................................................................................................4-1
4.2
SEATING OF CARDS ......................................................................................................................4-1
4.3
LINK INDICATION - LED DEFINITION PCIe-409 ............................................................................4-1
4.3.1 Down-Shifting the PCIe-409 ................................................................................................4-1
4.3.2 De-Emphasis .......................................................................................................................4-2
4.4
LINK INDICATION - LED DEFINITION PCIE-414............................................................................4-2
CHAPTER 5
5.1
PHYSICAL CONFIGURATION.........................................................................................................5-1
CHAPTER 6
6.1
i
REFERENCE MANUALS .................................................................................................................6-1
600-2705 PCI Express Expansion System User’s Manual
Revision 1.0, February 2008
CONTENTS
LIST OF FIGURES
Figure 1-1.
600-2705 Block Diagram .....................................................................................................1-1
Figure 5-1.
PCIe-414 Physical Configuration.........................................................................................5-1
Figure 5-2
PCIe-409 Front Panel..........................................................................................................5-2
Figure 5-3
600-2705 Chassis Drawing .................................................................................................5-2
Figure 5-4
600-2705 Chassis................................................................................................................5-3
LIST OF TABLES
Table 1-1.
Table 3-1.
Table 3-2
Table 3-3
ii
Specifications ......................................................................................................................1-3
PCIe-414 Power Requirements...........................................................................................3-1
PCIe-409 Power Requirements...........................................................................................3-1
Power Supplied Per PCIe Slot.............................................................................................3-1
600-2705 PCI Express Expansion System User’s Manual
Revision 1.0, February 2008
CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION
1.1
INTRODUCTION
The Cyclone Microsystems’ 2705 PCI Express Expansion System is a PCI Express (PCIe) Expansion
System that allows the user to add up to seven PCI Express add-in cards. Most PCs contain few PCI
Express slots making them poorly suited for embedded systems requiring a wealth of different I/O
boards and co-processor resources.
The 2705 PCI Express Expansion Systems permits system developers to use powerful and costeffective PCs as a foundation for a robust embedded system. The seven PCI Express slots are organized
as three x8 slots and four x4 slots. All expansion slots accommodate full length and full height cards and
are cooled by one 120 CFM and two 59 CFM fans. A 650 watt supply powers the rack mounted
expansion chassis.
The Expansion System supports 20 Gb/s bi-directional traffic to and from the host system and utilizes
non-blocking PCI Express switches for excellent peer-to-peer I/O bandwidth. For PCs with modern
BIOSs, the 2705 Expansion System is recognized by the host system upon boot-up, requires no
hardware specific drivers, and is entirely host operating system agnostic.
The 600-2705 system is composed from three elements: a PCI Express Host Bus Cable Adapter, an
Expansion System Cable and an Expansion Chassis. Our PCIe-409 Host Bus Cable Adapter is inserted
into a host computer’s x8 PCIe slot. PCIe expansion cable links the PCI host with the expansion chassis.
The expansion chassis is populated with the PCIe-414 Switched Backplane.
PCI Express is a high performance, general purpose I/O inter-connect defined for a wide variety of
computing and communication platforms. Key PCI attributes, such as its usage model, load-store architecture, and software interfaces are maintained, whereas its parallel bus implementation is replaced by a
serial interface. PCI Express take advantage of recent advances in point-to-point inter-connects, switchbased technology, and packetized protocol to deliver new levels of performance.
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INTRODUCTION
PCIe-409
PCI-E 401
x8
REPEATER
PCI-to-PCI
Bridge Link
Host PCI Express
System
PCI-Express x8
64-bit CompactPCI Bus
x8 PCI ExpressCable
PCIe-414 Expansion System
PCI-Express x8 Cable Interface
PCI-Express x8 Slot
x8
PCI-Express x8 Slot
x8
PCI-Express x8 Slot
x8
PCI-Express x8 Slot
x4
PCI-Express x8 Slot
x4
PCI-Express x8 Slot
PCI-Express x8 Slot
PCI-Express
Switch
x4
x4
Figure 1-1. 600-2705 Block Diagram
1-2
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INTRODUCTION
1.2
SPECIFICATIONS
The specifications in table 1-1detail the 600-2705 Expansion System chassis including the PCIe-414
expansion backplane and the 450W power supply. The chassis also includes one 120 CFM and two 59
CFM fans.
Table 1-1. Specifications
Physical
Electrical
Environmental
1.3
Height
7 inches
Width
17 inches
Depth
22 inches
Other
19 inch rack mountable
Voltage
115/230 VAC switch select
Frequency
60Hz/50Hz.
Input Current
9.0 A for 115 CVAC, 5.0 A for 230
VAC.
Inrush Current
60 A max. for 115 VAC
Operating Temperature
0 to 50 Degrees Celsius
Relative Humidity
0% to 95% (non-condensing)
Storage Temperature
-20 to 70 Degrees Celsius
STANDARDS
PCI Express Base Specification Revision 1.1
PCI Express Card Electro Mechanical Specification 1.1
PCI Express External Cabling Specification 1.0
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CHAPTER 2
THEORY OF OPERATION
2.1
THEORY OF OPERATION
The basic PCI Express Link consists of dual unidirectional differential links, implemented as a transmit
pair and a receive pair. The signaling rate for PCI Express is 2.5 Gigabits/second/Lane/direction. A
link supports at least one Lane.
The PCI Express link from the PCIe-409 over the cable to the PCIe-414 is an eight lane (x8) link. The
PCIe-414 provides three x8 slots and four four lane (x4) slots. Each slot can accommodate either single
lane (x1), x4 or x8 add-in cards. In the case where a x8 add-in card is installed into a x4 slot, only the
first four lanes on the add-in card will be utilized. This situation is termed “down-shifting”. Per the PCI
Express Specification, down-shifting is only allowed in this case. All slot connectors on the PCIe-414
are mechanically x8 with the x4 slots leaving the upper four lanes not connected. Up-plugging, i.e.,
plugging a smaller link card into a larger link connector, is fully allowed.
Once the PCIe-409 is installed into ahost x8 PCIe slot, the cable connected to the PCIe-414, the chassis
plugged into an AC power outlet and any desired add-in cards are installed, the system is ready to be
turned on. A number of things happen at this point. First, the PCI Express links are initialized. This is
a purely hardware initialization where each PCI Express link is set up following a negotiation of lane
widths by the two ends of each link. No firmware or operating system software is involved. Once the
links are initialized or “trained”, there are LED indicators on each of the Cyclone Microsystems’ cards
that indicate both the links that are trained and the individual lanes. A detailed explanation of the LEDs
follows later in this manual.
One essential requirement for system initialization is the ability of the Host system’s BIOS to be able to
enumerate the many bridges inherent in a complex PCI Express design. The links from the PCIe-409 to
the PCIe-414 are created with PCI Express Switches. Each link looks like a PCI-to-PCI bridge to the
Host’s BIOS. The number of bridges can add up quickly. Older BIOS may not have the ability to
handle the number of bridges. Make sure that the BIOS on the host computer has the latest updated
BIOS. If required, contact the host system’s manufacturer to make sure that the BIOS used can handle
the large number of bridges that it will see in the system.
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CHAPTER 3
EXPANSION SYSTEM OPERATION
3.1
600-2705 CHASSIS
The PCIe-414 is installed into a seven slot rack mountable chassis. The chassis provides access to three
x8 PCI Express slots and four x4 PCI Express slots. All slots can accommodate standard height and full
length PCI Express add-in cards. The chassis also contains three drive bays that may be used by the user
to install peripheral devices for their particular application. There are several ATX four pin peripheral
power connectors available from the power supply.
The chassis contains a 650W power supply. Tables 3-1 through 3-3 show the power consumption for the
Cyclone Microsystems boards and the power supplied to the PCI Express slots. Note that the PCIe-409
is installed in and powered by the host supply. Consequently, the PCIe-409 should not be included as a
component of the Expansion Chassis power budget. In a fully populated system, with each PCI Express
add-in card drawing 25W, there is an additional 70W of +5V and 100W of +12V available for use via
the peripheral power connectors.
3.2
POWER CONSIDERATIONS
Table 3-1. PCIe- 414 Power Requirements
Voltage
Current Typical
Current Maximum
+3.3V
0.33 Amps
0.40 Amps
+5V
1.03 Amps
1.56 Amps
+12V
0.02 Amps
0.04 Amps
Table 3-2. PCIe- 409 Power Requirements
Voltage
Current Typical
Current Maximum
+3.3V
0.55 Amps
0.77 Amps
+12V
0 Amps
0 Amps
*The PCIe-409 does not use +12V
Table 3-3. Power Supplied Per PCIe Slot
Voltage
Current Maximum
Voltage Tolerance
+3.3V
3.0 Amps
+/- 9%
+12V
2.1 Amps
+/- 8%
* Required by the PCI Express Card Electromechanical Specification Revision 1.0a. Note that the total
power for each PCIe shall not exceed 25W.
Airflow in the 600-2705 chassis is provided by one 120 CFM located at the front of the chassis and two
59 CFM fans located at the rear of the chassis.
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CHAPTER 4
SYSTEM POWER UP
4.1
SYSTEM POWER UP
The host PC with an installed PCIe-409 controls power-up for the entire system. The PCI Express cable
should be connected between the PCIe-409 and the PCIe-414 and the 600-2705 power cord should be
connected to the chassis and plugged in to a power socket. There is a power button on the front of the
600-2705 Expansion Chassis. However, it is not connected and serves no practical purpose in this application. When the host PC is powered on, a signal is sent over the PCI Express cable to turn on the 6002705. If the chassis does not power up, make sure that all cards are seated properly, the chassis is
plugged in and the PCI Express cable is connected properly. There is only one LED on the front of the
expansion chassis that has meaning. The green LED indicates that the chassis is powered.
4.2
SEATING OF CARDS
Unlike standard PC applications, the 2705 Expansion Systems has a narrow lower gate that precisely
engages the lower end of the PCI Express Add-In board’s face panel. The purpose is to insure correct
electrical connectoring mating of up-plugged boards. Failure to accurately mate the lower end of the
face panel with the chassis, lower gate will lead to the board not being recognized by the host.
4.3
LINK INDICATION - LED DEFINITION PCIE-409
The top (or right) LED on the front panel is the "Cable Power On" LED. This LED reflects the status of
the "CPWRON" signal in the PCIe Expansion Cable. When the LED is ON, it is indicating that the
"CPWRON" signal is asserted. The PCIe-409 asserts "CPWRON" to turn the expansion chassis ON. If
this LED is OFF, there may be a problem with +3.3V power in the host system or the PCIe-409 is not
inserted properly in it’s slot.
The bottom (or left) LED on the front panel is the "Cable Present Detect" LED. This LED reflects the
status of the "CPRSNT#" signal in the PCIe Expansion Cable. When the LED is ON, it is indicating that
the "CPRSNT#" signal is asserted. The expansion chassis asserts "CPRSNT#" to indicate that it is
present, the cable is connected and power is good. If this LED is OFF, there may be a problem with
+3.3V power in the expansion chassis or the PCIe Expansion Cable is not connected properly.
4.3.1
Down-Shifting the PCIe-409
Down-shifting the PCIe-409 does not work. Be sure the PCIe-409 is plugged into a fully routed x8
connector in the host system. The expansion chassis may not establish link if the PCIe-409 is plugged
into a x8 connector that is only routed as a x4 slot.
This is of special concern when using Apple’s Computers where the lane assignments are programmable. The PCIe-409 requires a x8 lane assignment.
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SYSTEM POWER UP
4.3.2
De-Emphasis
The transceiver silcon used on the PCIe-409 has four steps of programmable de-emphasis; 0dB, -3dB, 6dB and -9dB. Cyclone Microsystems has determined that 0dB is the correct setting for both 1m and 3m
PCIe cables shipped with Cyclone PCIe Expansion Systems. The PCIe-409 has a DIP switch that is
factory set for 0dB de-emphasis but permits a user to reselect to any of the four possible settings. Users
should not change the de-emphasis setting unless they have the proper test equipment to verify their
results. Nomenclature on the PCIe-409 shows show how to set the DIP switch for all four de-emphasis
steps. Users change de-emphasis at their own peril.
4.4
LINK INDICATION - LED DEFINITION PCIE-414
The PCIe-414 has eight surface mount LEDs located on the top side of the PCB see Figure 5-1. There is
one LED for each slot and one LED for the cable link. The LEDs are labeled SLOT A through SLOT G
and UP PORT. The UP PORT LED corresponds to the cable link to the PCIe-409. If the LED is on, the
Physical Layer of the link for the associated port has trained to at least x1 width.
The two LEDs that are seen through the back panel next to the PCI Express connector, CR1 and CR2,
also indicate that at least a x1 link between the PCIe-414 and the PCIe-409 has trained at least x1. CR1
and CR2 have identical functions.
4-2
600-2705 PCI Express Expansion System User’s Manual
Revision 1.0, February 2008
CHAPTER 5
PHYSICAL CONFIGURATION
5.1
PHYSICAL CONFIGURATION
Figure 5-1. PCIe-414 Physical Configuration
Figure 5-1 is a physical diagram (not to scale) of the PCIe-414 adapter, showing the location designators
of jumpers, connectors, and major ICs. Refer to this figure when component locations are referenced in
the manual text.
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PHYSICAL CONFIGURATION
Figure 5-2. PCIe-409 Front Panel
Figure 5-3. 600-2705 Chassis Drawing
5-2
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PHYSICAL CONFIGURATION
Figure 5-4. 600-2705 Chassis
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CHAPTER 6
REFERENCE
6.1
REFERENCE MANUALS
PEX 8548 Versatile PCI Express Switch Data Book Version 0.95
PLX Technology, Inc.
Sunnyvale, CA
(800) 759-3735
www.plxtech.com
PCI Express Base Specification Revision 1.0a
PCI Express Card Electromechanical Specification Revision 1.0a
PCI Express External Cabling Specification Revision 0.7
PCI Local Bus Specification Revision 2.2
PCI-X Addendum Revision 1.0
PCI Special Interest Group (PCISIG)
5440 SW Westgate Dr., #217 Portland OR 97221
(503) 291-2569
(503) 297-1090 (Fax)
www.pcisig.org
System Host Board PCI Express Specification PICMG 1.3 Revision 1.0
PCI Industrial Computer Manufacturers Group (PICMG)
5401 Edgewater Place, #600 Wakefield MA 01880
(781) 246-9318
(781) 224-1239 (Fax)
www.picmg.org
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