Apollo
SL50 and SL60
GPS Receiver and
VHF Communications
Transceiver
User’s Guide
560-0955-00
March 1997
No part of this document may be reproduced in any
form or by any means without the express written
consent of II Morrow Inc.
II Morrow and Apollo are trademarks of II Morrow Inc.
© 1997 by II Morrow Inc. All rights reserved.
Printed in the U.S.A.
II Morrow Inc.
Consumer Products Division
2345 Turner Road, S.E.
Salem, OR 97302
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International
FAX
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Send comments about this manual by email to:
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II MORROW
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Welcome ...
Welcome ...
Welcome to a new era of aviation navigation
communication. Once again, II Morrow Inc. has set
new standards in features and ease of use for the
general aviation public. The Apollo SL50 and SL60
are unequaled in providing the features, level of
performance, and reliability that aviation users
require. The Apollo slim line series of avionics sets
a precedent that will be the standard that all other
avionics will be compared to. The Apollo SL50 is a
full-featured slim line GPS receiver. The Apollo
SL60 combines the capabilities of our outstanding
GPS receiver with a state-of-the-art VHF
communications transceiver in the same small
package. You can be confident in knowing that you
are the owner of the state-of-the-art in aviation
navigation and communication. Our products are
built to last and to satisfy your navigation needs.
i
History of Revisions
History of Revisions
March 1997
April 1997
Original Release
Rev -01
Ordering Information
To receive additional copies of the Apollo SL50/60
manuals order the following part numbers:
User’s Guide
560-0955-xx
User’s Guide Binder (3/4”)
560-9002-xx
Installation Manual
560-0957-xx
SL50 Quick Reference
561-0235-xx
SL60 Quick Reference
561-0239-xx
Important Notice
The Global Positioning System (GPS) is operated by the United States Department of Defense which is solely
responsible for the accuracy, daily operation, and maintenance of the satellite constellation. System accuracy
is affected by the Department of Defense’s Selective Availability (SA) and the Dilution of Precision (DOP)
attributed to poor satellite geometry.
Due to implementation of Selective Availability by the United States Department of Defense (DoD), all GPS
receivers may suffer degradation of position accuracy. The DoD has stated that 95% of the time horizontal
accuracy will not be degraded more than 100 m and 99.9% of the time accuracy will not be degraded more
than 300 m.
Installations of TSO C-129 authorized Apollo SL50/60’s may be approved for supplemental navigation only.
The Apollo SL50/60 may be used as the primary navigation data display, however, other means of navigation
appropriate to the intended route of flight must be installed and operational. It is not required that these other
systems be monitored.
FCC Notice
This equipment has been tested and found to comply with the limits for a Class B digital device, pursuant to
part 15 of the FCC Rules. These limits are designed to provide reasonable protection against harmful
interference during residential use. Operation is subject to the following two conditions: (1) this device may not
cause harmful interference, and (2) this device must accept any interference received, including interference
that may cause undesired operation. This equipment generates, uses and can radiate radio frequency energy
and, if not installed and used in accordance with the instructions, may cause harmful interference to radio
communications. However, there is no guarantee that interference will not occur in a particular installation. If
this equipment does cause harmful interference to radio or television reception, which can be determined by
turning the equipment off and on, the user is encouraged to try to correct the interference by one or more of
the following measures:
• Reorient or relocate the receiving antenna.
• Increase the separation between the equipment and receiver.
• Connect the equipment into an outlet on a circuit different from the one the receiver is connected.
• Consult the dealer or an experienced radio/TV technician for help.
Changes or modifications to this equipment not expressly approved by II Morrow Inc. could void the user’s
authority to operate this equipment.
DOC Notice
This digital apparatus does not exceed the Class B limits for radio noise emissions from digital apparatus as
set out in the radio interference regulations of the Canadian Department of Communications.
ii
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Welcome ... · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · i
History of Revisions · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · ii
Ordering Information· · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · ii
Introduction· · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 1
SL50 · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 1
SL60 · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 2
Display · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 2
Annunciators · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 3
Relative Bearing Indicator· · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 3
Controls· · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 4
Power Knob (SL50)· · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 4
Small and Large Knobs · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 4
Keys · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 4
Flip/Flop (Arrows) - SL60 · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 4
NRST (Nearest Waypoint) - SL50 · · · · · · · · · · 4
COM (Communications Radio Mode) - SL60 · 4
WPT (Waypoint) - SL50 · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 5
NAV (Navigation) · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 5
SYS (System Mode) · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 5
MSG (Message)· · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 5
DIRECT-TO · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 5
INFO (Information) · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 5
i
SEL (Select) · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 5
ENT (Enter) · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 5
Apollo SL50/60 Features · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 6
Getting Started the First Time · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 9
Power Up · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 9
Seed Position · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 9
Entering a Seed Position · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 10
Change Reference Waypoint· · · · · · · · · · · · · · 10
Change Lat/Lon Reference Position · · · · · · · · 11
Checking GPS Signal Strength · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 13
Entering a Destination Waypoint· · · · · · · · · · · · · · 14
Using the Nearest Waypoint Function · · · · · · 14
· · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 14
Using the Direct-To Function · · · · · · · · · · · · · 15
Navigation Basics · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 17
About the Navigation Function · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 17
About the Navigation Function Displays· · · · · · · · 17
Nav Home Page · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 17
Autonav · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 18
Nav Pages· · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 19
Nav Display Choices · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 19
Emergency Search · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 25
Starting Emergency Search · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 25
Searching Around a Reference Waypoint · · · · 26
ii
Setting Runway Limits · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 27
Special Use Airspace · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 28
Parallel Track Offset · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 29
GPS Position · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 30
Countdown Timer · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 30
From/To/Next Waypoint · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 32
Creating From/To/Next Waypoints· · · · · · · · · 32
Placing the To Waypoint on Hold · · · · · · · · · · 35
Using Direct-To · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 36
Direct-To OBS · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 36
Waypoint Functions · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 37
Waypoint Information · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 37
Available Waypoint Information · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 37
ARPT Waypoint Information · · · · · · · · · · · · · 37
Getting Information about a Waypoint · · · · · · · · · 39
Database Update · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 40
Nearest (Emergency Search) Waypoint · · · · · · · · · 41
Starting Emergency Search · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 41
Create User Waypoint by Lat/Lon · · · · · · · · · · · · · 42
Create User Waypoint by Radial/Distance · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 44
Delete User Waypoint · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 45
Modify User Waypoint · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 46
iii
Waypoint Comments · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 46
Flight Plan Functions · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 47
Flight Plan Pages · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 47
Reaching the Flight Plan Function · · · · · · · · · 47
Active Flight Plan · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 48
Creating a Flight Plan · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 48
Flight Plan Leg Information· · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 50
ETA · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 51
ETA? · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 51
Leg ETE · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 51
Leg ETE?· · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 51
ETE · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 51
ETE? · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 52
Fuel? · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 52
Direct-To · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 53
Manual Leg Activation · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 53
Flight Plan Editing · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 53
Changing Existing Flight Plan Legs · · · · · · · · 54
Inserting a New Waypoint· · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 54
Deleting a Waypoint · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 55
Flight Plan Options · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 56
Activate · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 56
Rev Activate · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 56
Reactivate · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 56
iv
Rename · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 56
Copy Plan · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 57
Estimate Ground Speed · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 57
Clear Waypoints · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 57
Reverse Flight Plan · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 57
Estimated Fuel Flow · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 57
Delete Plan · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 58
Hold · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 58
Continue · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 59
Destination Waypoint Information · · · · · · · · · · · · 59
Flight Plan Comments · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 59
Copying the Active Flight Plan · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 60
System Functions· · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 61
Flight Plans · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 61
Waypoint Database · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 61
Com Radio Information (SL60 Only) · · · · · · · 62
Software Version · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 63
RF Signal Strength · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 63
Audio Noise Level· · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 63
Intercom Squelch Level Adjustment · · · · · · · · 63
Sidetone Level Adjustment · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 64
Navigation Information · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 65
Airspace Setup· · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 65
Airspace Buffers · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 65
v
Airspace Selections · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 66
Autonav Time · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 67
Navigation Mode Programmable Pages and
Autonav Pages · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 67
Creating a New Custom Nav Page · · · · · · · · · 69
Setting Units · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 71
Magnetic Variation · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 71
Flight Timer Trigger · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 72
Direct-To Entry Options · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 73
CDI Scaling · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 74
System Information · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 75
Date and Time · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 75
Software Version · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 76
Fuel Measure Units · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 77
Test Display· · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 77
Owner Information · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 77
GPS Sensor · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 79
Satellite Search Status · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 80
GPS Date and Time Page · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 80
GPS Normal Reset Page · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 80
Comm Radio Operation· · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 81
Power On/Off· · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 81
Volume· · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 81
vi
Small and Large Knobs · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 81
Selecting Frequencies · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 81
Frequency Monitoring · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 82
Recalling a Frequency · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 83
TO, FROM, and INFO Frequency Database· · 83
Auto Stored Frequencies (Auto) · · · · · · · · · 85
User Stored Frequencies · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 86
Weather Channels · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 87
Emergency Channel · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 87
Intercom Function · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 88
Introduction to GPS Navigation · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 89
GPS Overview · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 89
GPS System Accuracy · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 90
Summary · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 90
Start Up Displays · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 91
Owner Message · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 91
Memory Tests · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 91
Software Memory Test · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 92
Non-Volatile RAM Tests · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 93
User Database Memory Failure· · · · · · · · · · · · 93
Miscellaneous NVRAM Memory Failure · · · · 94
Database Test · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 94
Special Use Airspace Displays · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 95
Database Message · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 95
vii
IFR Output Tests · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 95
Message Function · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 97
New Messages · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 98
Old Messages · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 98
Messages · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 98
Special Use Airspace Messages · · · · · · · · · · · 98
Soon· · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 98
· · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 98
· · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 98
Close · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 99
Inside · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 99
Empty To Waypoint: Cannot Compute Nav · · 99
GPS Communications Failure · · · · · · · · · · · · · 99
GPS Command Failure · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 99
GPS Self Test Failure · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 100
GPS Sensor Lat/Lon Failure · · · · · · · · · · · · · 100
GPS RAIM Not Available· · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 100
GPS RAIM Position Error· · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 100
GPS HDOP Position Error · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 101
Arrival At the To Waypoint · · · · · · · · · · · · · 101
Holding at the To Waypoint · · · · · · · · · · · · · 101
To Waypoint Sequence · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 102
Auto OBS Crossing Holding Waypoint · · · · 102
viii
User Database Memory Loss · · · · · · · · · · · · 102
Comm Radio Failure (SL60 only)· · · · · · · · · 102
Flight Plan Memory Loss · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 103
User Memory Failure · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 103
Database Expired· · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 103
Database Invalid · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 103
Manual Magnetic Variation· · · · · · · · · · · · · · 104
Low Internal Battery Voltage · · · · · · · · · · · · 104
High Battery Voltage· · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 104
Countdown Timer Expired · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 104
Flight Simulator · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 105
About the Flight Simulator · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 105
Starting the Flight Simulation · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 106
Flight Simulator Operations· · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 107
Troubleshooting · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 109
Contacting the Factory · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 109
Glossary of Navigation Terms · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 111
ix
Introduction
Introduction
This guide describes the operation of the Apollo
SL50 GPS Receiver and the Apollo SL60 GPS
Receiver and VHF Communication Transceiver.
The Apollo SL50 is a high performance GPS
receiver with a high intensity LED display packed
into a 1.3 inch high by 6.25 inch wide package that
conserves panel space. The SL50 uses the same
8-channel GPS engine that is used in II Morrow’s
high end TSO C129 terminal and enroute certified
products. The 32 character alphanumeric LED
display uses an automatic intensity control to keep
it easily readable in all conditions from direct
sunlight to the dark of night.
SL50
The Apollo SL50 has a wealth of easy to use
Information
Display
Message
Annunciator
GPS
Ete SLE
00:22
Large, Outer
Knob
A POLLO SL50
Brg 082
Small, Inner
Knob
74 nm
OFF/ON
Photocell
NRST
Power
Nearest
Waypoint
Waypoint
Mode
WPT
NAV
SYS
System
Mode
Navigation
Mode
INFO
D
MSG
SEL
Direct To
Message
Mode
Info
Mode
ENT
Select
Enter
Apollo SL50 Front Panel Description
features that every pilot needs. The large waypoint
database has information about airports, VORs,
NDBs, intersections, and special use airspaces that
makes the Apollo SL50 an encyclopedia of
aviation. The database can be updated by
connecting the SL50 serial port to a computer with
II Morrow’s innovative Waypoint Manager
software. The database can also include 200 custom
1
Introduction
waypoints created by the user. Ten flight plans can
be saved with up to twenty legs for setting up
custom tailored routes. The detailed Navigation
information displays are also customizable and can
be set to automatically scroll through the desired
information. The Emergency Search feature,
invented by II Morrow, when used with the
Direct-To feature makes it easy to quickly select an
airport as a new destination whether because of a
change in plans, or to react to an emergency.
The Apollo SL60 combines all of the features of the
SL50 with a state-of-the-art VHF communications
transceiver in the same compact package. The VHF
comm radio covers all 760 channels with 8+ watts
(10 W typical for most frequencies) without any
external cooling devices required. A built-in
intercom capability works either with or replaces an
audio panel. The features and packaging of the
SL60 keeps your power requirements and
installation costs low. You can easily switch
between active and standby frequencies, select a
weather channel, activate the emergency channel, or
choose from one of ten customized frequencies or
one of the last ten used.
SL60
Display
Standby
Transmit
Annunciator Frequency
Message
Annunciator
Large, Outer Small, Inner
Knob
Knob
NAV
Info
Active
Frequency
GPS/COMM
119.80
PULL SQUELCH
A POLLO SL60
s121.50
BRG 210' 17.1nm
TX
VOL
Photocell
COM
NAV
SYS
INFO
D
MSG
SEL
ENT
OFF
Power/Volume/Squelch
Flip/Flop
Frequency
Comm Xcvr
Mode
System
Mode
Navigation
Mode
Apollo SL60 Front Panel Description
2
Direct To
Message
Mode
Info
Mode
Select
Enter
Introduction
The display is a 1-line by 32-character 5x7 dot
matrix alphanumeric display. A photocell is located
in the top left corner of the front panel display. The
photocell automatically controls the light intensity
of the display LEDs from low brightness at night to
high brightness during daylight operation.
Annunciators
Several annunciators are used to help indicate the
operating modes of your SL60. The TX (Transmit)
annunciator is lighted whenever you are
transmitting. If the avionics bus drops below 9
VDC, the SL60 will not transmit. An LED will be
lighted above the WPT/COM, NAV, SYS, or MSG
keys when they are pressed. An “s” normally
appears to the left of the Standby frequency. An “I”
appears to the left of the Standby frequency when
the Intercom function is active. An “m” will appear
to the left of the Standby frequency when you are
using the Monitor function.
TX - Transmit (SL60)
s - Standby Frequency (SL60)
m - Monitor Mode (SL60)
I - Intercom (SL60)
Relative Bearing Indicator
The Relative Bearing Indicator indicates an
approximate bearing to a waypoint or airspace
relative to the aircraft’s current Track when your
current ground speed is more than 5 knots. The
following illustration describes the bearing range
for each arrow.
M
N
O
P
Q
R
\
T
23º to
68º to
112º
113º
to
157º
158º
to
202º
203º
to
247º
248º
to
292º
293º
to
337º
338º
to
22º
67º
3
Introduction
Controls
Power/Volume/Squelch Knob(SL60)
The knob on the left side of the SL60 controls power
on/off, volume, and squelch test. Rotate the knob
clockwise (CW) past the detent to turn the power on.
Continue rotating the knob to the right to increase
speaker and headphone amplifier volume level.
Rotate the knob to the left to reduce the volume
level. Pull the knob out to disable automatic squelch.
Power Knob (SL50)
The knob on the left side of the SL50 controls
power on/off. Rotate the knob clockwise (CW) past
the detent to turn the power on. Rotate the knob
fully counterclockwise to turn the power off.
Small and Large Knobs
The dual concentric knobs on the right side of the
front panel are used to select pages, edit characters
and values, or other options.
Keys
Nine backlighted keys allow you access the
functions in your Apollo SL50/60.
Flip/Flop (Arrows) - SL60
Press the Flip/Flop key to switch between the
active (left-most) and standby (right-most)
frequency while in the Nav or Com functions. You
may use an optional external Flip/Flop key for the
same operation as the front panel control. Switching
between frequencies is disabled while you are
transmitting or editing in any function.
NRST
COM
4
NRST (Nearest Waypoint) - SL50
The Nearest Waypoint (Emergency) mode displays
the closest waypoints to your position.
COM (Communications Radio Mode) - SL60
Press the COM key to operate the Communications
radio functions.
Introduction
WPT
NAV
SYS
MSG
D
INFO
SEL
WPT (Waypoint) - SL50
The Waypoint key allows access to the waypoint
database. (SL60 accesses the database from within
the System function - see page 39.)
NAV (Navigation)
Press the NAV key to reach the navigation
functions.
SYS (System Mode)
Press the SYS key to reach the System mode
functions. System mode is used to make system
level adjustments, setup flight plans, access the
database, and modify Nav function displays.
MSG (Message)
Press the MSG key to reach the Message functions.
The MSG annunciator will flash when a new
message is provided. In the SL60, pressing MSG
twice will start the Nearest Waypoint mode just as
pressing NRST will on the SL50.
DIRECT-TO
The DIRECT-TO key is used to define a direct
course from your present position to a waypoint.
INFO (Information)
The Info function accesses
information about a waypoint.
supplementary
SEL (Select)
The SELECT key activates editing or the selection
of options. Editing is active on the items that flash
on the display.
In the SL60 when the COM function is active,
pressing the SEL key will recall stored frequencies.
ENT
ENT (Enter)
The ENT key enters and saves the information
flashing on the display. If the ENT key is not
pressed after editing, any changes made are not
saved.
In the SL60 when the COM function is active,
pressing the ENT key will save the standby
frequency into the Auto Stack list.
5
Apollo SL50/60 Features
Apollo SL50/60 Features
SL50/60 GPS Navigation Features
10 Reversible Flight Plans with 20 Legs
Automatic Waypoint Sequencing
200 User-Defined Waypoints
Nav Displays
Lat/Lon
Bearing and Distance
Ground Speed and Track Angle
Desired Track and Distance
Internal CDI Display
32-Character High-Intensity Alphanumeric LED Display
Automatic Display Intensity Control
User-Selectable Nav Displays
User-Defineable Distance and Speed Settings:
nm, km (distance)
knots, kph (speed)
Clock and Countdown Timer
Auto/Manual Magnetic Variation Settings
Direct-To Nav Function
Parallel Track
Nearest Waypoint Search
Internal Database of Airports, VORs, NDBs, Intersections,
Frequencies, and Airport Info
Update the database through the serial port
SL50/60 GPS Receiver Performance Specifications
8-Channel Parallel GPS Receiver
Certified TSO C129 Class A2 for En Route and Terminal
Operation
6
Apollo SL50/60 Features
SL60 Comm Radio Features
760 Communication Channels
Frequency Range: 118 to 136.975 MHz
Weather Channels: Receive only
Active and Standby Flip/Flop Frequencies
Volume Control
32-Character High-Intensity Alphanumeric LED Display
Transmit Status Indicator
Backlit Keypad Controls
Automatic Display Intensity Control
2x10 Frequency Memory and Recall
Stores/Recalls Ten User-Defined Frequencies
Stores/Recalls Previous Ten Frequencies
Frequency Monitor Function (listens to standby while
monitoring the active)
Squelch Test Function
Stuck Mic Time-Out - 35 seconds
SL60 Comm Radio Performance
Transmit Power: 8 watts Carrier Power (35 watts Input Power)
Input Voltage Range: 10 to 40 VDC
Operating Temperature Range: -20° to +55° C
Certified TSO C37d (transmitting)
Certified TSO C38d (receiving)
Certified TSO C128 (microphone)
Physical Specifications
Height: 1.3 inches
Width:
6.25 inches
Depth: 11.45 inches
Weight:
SL50: 2.3 pounds
SL60: 2.8 pounds
Interfaces
External:
CDI Left/Right
TO/FROM Flag
Nav Valid Flag
Nav Superflag
Three External Annunciators
RS-232 Bi-Directional Serial Ports
Optional External:
Flip/Flop Switch
OBS/Hold
7
Apollo SL50/60 Features
Notes
8
Getting Started the First Time
Getting Started the First Time
This section explains how to get started using your
Apollo SL50/60. Information in this section
explains how to startup the unit, check signals from
the GPS satellites, enter a seed position, and GOTO
a destination waypoint.
•
•
•
•
•
•
It is necessary to enter a seed position and the
current time the first time you turn the unit on.
Power on
Enter a seed position (your dealer may have already
completed this step for you), if necessary
Enter the current time
Check satellite signal strength
Enter a “GOTO” waypoint
Begin navigating
Power Up
Turn the Power knob clockwise to switch the unit
on. The startup screen, testing, position, and
database information shows on the display for
several seconds and then will go into the Navigation
function.
Seed
Position
Each time the Apollo SL50/60 is switched on, it must
locate satellites in the sky to acquire signals before
determining a position fix in a complex process
involving lengthy mathematical operations. Without a
seed position and the current UTC time and date, this
process can take 10 minutes or more to complete.
Enter a Seed Position to allow the receiver to quickly
locate and track available satellites.
Note
The seed position and current time only
need to be entered the first time the receiver
is switched on. This information is stored in
memory and need not be entered again. If
you move about three hundred miles
without the Apollo SL50/60 turned on and
tracking its position, reenter the seed
position.
9
Getting Started the First Time
Entering a
Seed
Position
After the start up tests, you will always have the
choice of entering a Seed Position. The Seed
Position is a starting reference point so the GPS
receiver knows what satellites it is looking for. If a
Seed Position has been previously entered, you do
not need to select a new Present Position or a
Reference Waypoint. If you do not make any
selections, the Apollo SL50/60 will automatically
progress into the Navigation function.
1. The previous Seed Position will display with the
choice of SEL/ENT for a few seconds. If you don’t
do anything, the Apollo SL50/60 will continue
normally. You can also press ENT to accept the
current position, though this is not required.
0.3nm 2770 To SLE
SEL
SEL/ENT
2. Press SEL to change the Seed Position.
3. The current Reference Position will be displayed
and the Chg? prompt will flash.
44054.46N 122059.69W
ENT
ENT
Press ENT to change the Reference Waypoint or
turn the Large knob to change to Lat/Lon
Reference Position. Use the appropriate following
description: Change Reference Waypoint or Change
Lat/Lon Reference Position.
Change Reference Waypoint
1. After pressing ENT, the first character of the
Reference Waypoint name will flash. You can
change the waypoint type by turning the Large
knob ccw one click and the turning the Small
knob.
aPDX
10
Ref: Chg?
c PORTLAND
OR USA
Getting Started the First Time
2. Turn the Large knob to each character of the
waypoint name. Change the character with the
Small knob.
aSLE
c SALEM
OR USA
3. Note that you can change the character just before
the airport name to either a “c” or an “f.” The “c”
indicates a “city” and the “f” indicates a “facility.”
Waypoint Type
(Airport shown here)
aSLE
Waypoint
Indentifier
ENT
"c" = City
"f" = Facility
City or Facility
Name
c SALEM
Underline indicates
flashing character
State
OR USA
Country
4. When you have entered the waypoint name, press
ENT.
Change Lat/Lon Reference Position
1. Set the latitude and longitude coordinates near to
your current position. After turning the Large
knob, the first character of the Reference Position
Lat/Lon will flash.
44054.46N 122059.69W
Ref: Chg?
2. Change the character with the Small knob. Turn the
Large knob to move to each character of the Lat/Lon
position and change it with the Small knob.
45054.46N 122059.69W
ENT
3. When you have entered the Lat/Lon position,
press ENT.
11
Getting Started the First Time
ENT
4. After entering the Seed Position, you will be
prompted next to clear the active flight plan.
Choose Yes or No with the Small knob. Press
ENT to now continue normal operations.
Clear Active Flight Plan YES?
12
Getting Started the First Time
Checking
GPS Signal
Strength
SYS
The unit shows the GPS signal strength screen in
the GPS Sensor function. Make it a habit to check
this screen to make sure that the unit is properly
tracking visible satellites before you fly. The Apollo
SL50/60 requires signals from at least four satellites
to calculate a 3D position fix (Lat/Lon and GPS
altitude). More details are available in the GPS
Sensor part of the System section of this manual,
see page 79.
1. Press SYS and turn the Large knob to display the
GPS Sensor function. Press ENT.
GPS Sensor:
Press ENT
ENT
2. The GPS Health page is shown if GPS
information is received. The GPS number and
dimension (2D, 3D, or no position), number of
healthy, and number of visible satellites are
shown.
GPS 3D Pos Healthy: 25
Vis: 8 Y
3. Turn the Small knob to view the GPS Satellites
Used for Position fixes page.
GPS SVs: 31,27,26,19,07,02
4. Turn the Small knob again to view the GPS
Satellite Status, Elevation, SNR, and Azimuth
page. Turn the Small knob to view information
about each available satellite.
SV31 DATA el:210 sig:055 az:0430
13
Getting Started the First Time
Note
The GPS antenna must be able to “see”
each satellite it is tracking. If a satellite is
“shaded” by the wing or fuselage during a
turn, it may temporarily lose track of that
satellite. If this happens, or if the geometry
of the satellites available is poor, the unit
may temporarily calculate a “2D Fix” and
Nav information will not be available. A
NAV INVALID FLAG will be generated and
all Nav information will be dashed.
Entering a
Destination
Waypoint
With a seed position and the current UTC time and
date set, the Apollo SL50/60 is ready to begin
navigating a trip. Prepare for trip navigation by
entering a destination waypoint.
Using the Nearest Waypoint Function
1. Press the NRST key in the SL50 or press MSG
twice in the SL60. The GOTO Nearest Waypoint
function is displayed with the distance and
bearing from your present position to the
indicated waypoint. See page 41 in the Waypoint
section for a more complete description of using
the Nearest Waypoint function.
ARPT
1 SLE
Brg 3520
5.4nm
2. Turn the Large knob to view the different
waypoint types.
VOR
1 UBG
Brg 3440
26.6nm
3. Turn the Small knob to view the 20 nearest
waypoints.
VOR
14
2 CVO
Brg 1890
27.5nm
Getting Started the First Time
D
Using the Direct-To Function
1. Press the Direct-To key. Change the waypoint
type by moving to the character to the left of the
waypoint name with the Large knob.
vUBG
f NEWBERG
OR USA
2. Change the type of destination waypoint by
turning the Small knob to select: airport (a), NDB
(n), VOR (v), INT (i), or USER (u). For instance,
with ARPT (a) indicated as the type of
destination waypoint, only airports show on the
display as you select identifier characters.
aSLE
c Salem
OR USA
3. Turn the Large knob to each character of the
waypoint identifier. Change the character with
the Small knob.
aPAE
c EVERETT
WA USA
4. Turn the Large knob to the “c” or “f” character
before the waypoint city (c) or facility (f) name.
Change the character with the Small knob. A
plus (+) will appear when the same name is
available for multiple waypoints.
aPDX
+c PORTLAND
OR USA
5. You can also then turn the Large knob to each
character of the city/facility name. Change the
character with the Small knob.
aPDX
+c PORTLAND
OR USA
15
Getting Started the First Time
SEL
6. Press SEL again to select the entire city name.
aPDX
+c PORTLAND
OR USA
7. Turn the Small knob to view each airport with
the current city name. The city name can be a
maximum of 16 characters. Longer names will be
truncated.
aHIO
ENT
+c PORTLAND
8. When you have entered the waypoint name, press
ENT. Your Apollo SL50/60 will now switch to
the Navigation function and show information
based on your present position to the Direct-To
destination waypoint.
ete HIO
16
OR USA
00:13 Brg 345
36.6nm
Navigation Basics
Navigation Basics
About the
Navigation
Function
This section explores the navigation function and
describes the powerful features it contains. When
you become comfortable operating the unit, you
may wish to “fly” the Apollo SL50/60 using the
built-in simulator. Follow the instructions in the
Simulator section for using the simulator.
The navigation function is always active. When you
use other functions, the navigation function
continues to run “in the background” calculating
your present position, navigating your programmed
route (if active), and alerting you to events or
conditions important to navigation. When you
finish using other functions and return to the
navigation function, the last navigation display used
is shown.
About the
Navigation
Function
Displays
While you navigate, the Apollo SL50/60 gives you
information in the Navigation function displays.
The navigation information displays and
sequencing speed are user-programmable. See the
Nav info section of the System Functions chapter
(see page 65). The Large knob will select the
higher level Nav functions: Nav pages, Emergency
Search, Parallel Track Offset, GPS Position,
Countdown Timer, and the From/To/Next
Waypoints. The Small knob will look at the pages
available for each function; a diamond will be
shown on the right side of the display if more pages
are available.
Nav Home
Page
The Nav Home Page is a default page that is the
first page available in the Navigation function. The
Nav Home Page is not customizable. The
information in the Home Page shows the
Destination Waypoint identifier, Estimated Time
Enroute, Bearing, and Range (distance) to the
destination waypoint.
Ete EUG
00:22 Brg 082
74nm Y
17
Navigation Basics
Turn the Small knob to view the other available
Navigation displays.
North
TO
WPT
TAE = Difference between Track
and Desired Track
Course
Bearing = Direction to waypoint
Course = Desired Track between
specific waypoints
TRK
BRG
Desired Track = Course direction
Heading = Direction the aircraft is
pointed
DTK
Distance Off Track or
Cross Track Deviation
FROM
WPT
Track
Angle
Error
(Tae)
DTK
Track = Direction the aircraft is going
Heading
Present
Position
Navigation Terms and Abbreviations
Autonav
ENT
The Autonav feature lets you select certain Nav
display choices and have them rotate in sequence
displaying each one from one to nine seconds. The
selection of displays and sequencing time is
performed in the Nav Info part of the System
Functions (see page 67).
1. Start Autonav by pressing ENT while displaying
the Nav Home Page, or one of its sub-pages.
Ete EUG
00:22 Brg 082
74nm Y
2. Stop Autonav rotation by pressing any key or
turning either knob.
18
Navigation Basics
Nav Pages
Nav Display Choices
Estimated Time Enroute (Ete)
ETE is to the current TO (destination) waypoint
from your present position based on the current
ground speed. The units shown are in hours and
minutes, 00:00 to 99:59. If the ground speed is less
than or equal to 5 knots, the GPS receiver does not
have a valid position, or there is no TO waypoint,
the ETE value will be shown as dashes. If there is
no TO waypoint, the TO identifier location will be
replaced by dashes.
Estimated Time
Enroute Label
Estimated Time
Enroute Value
ete EUG
Waypoint
Indentifier
Bearing Label
00:16 Brg 173
Bearing Value
Range to Destination
Waypoint from your
Present Position
45.5nm Y
"Diamond" indicates
more pages can be
selected with the
Small knob.
Bearing (Brg)
Bearing is the angle from your present position to
the TO waypoint. Bearing is shown from 0 to 359
degrees in one degree increments. Bearing is
computed using the magnetic variation at the
Present Position. The Bearing value will be dashed
if the FROM or TO waypoints are blank or the GPS
receiver does not have a valid position.
19
Navigation Basics
Range (Rge)
The distance from your present position to the TO
waypoint. Units can be set as either nautical miles
or kilometers in the Nav Info section of the System
functions (see page 71). Nautical mile units are 0.00
to 9.00 nm in 0.01 nm increments, 10.0 to 99.9 nm
in 0.1 nm increments, and 100 to 9999 nm in 1 nm
increments. Kilometer units are 0.00 to 99.99 km in
0.01 km increments, 100.0 to 999.9 km in 0.1 km
increments, and 1000 to 9999 km in 1 km
increments. The Range value will be dashed if the
FROM or TO waypoints are blank or the GPS
receiver does not have a valid position.
Course Deviation Indicator (CDI) and Distance Off
Track
The airplane symbol (A) referenced to a bar graph
shows your position relative to being on-course.
When the airplane is to the right of the center bar,
you must fly left to return on-course; the bar graph
indicates you are off-course to the right. Fly the
aircraft in the direction of the bar graph to return
on-course.
#### A
Brg 173
42.4nm
CDI Sensitivity =
0.3 nm
each 7 = 0.01 nm
each 6 = 0.04 nm
CDI Sensitivity =
1.0 nm
each $ = 0.05 nm
each z = 0.14 nm
A zzzzzz
A BBBBB
(full scale) = 0.3 nm
(full scale) = 1.0 nm
(full scale) = 5.0 nm
A 66666
CDI Sensitivity =
5.0 nm
each H = 0.24 nm
each B = 0.71 nm
A single dot thickness bar indicates that CDI
sensitivity is set to 0.3 nm full scale per side. The
two dot bar indicates a sensitivity of 1.0 nm full
scale per side. The three dot bar indicates a
sensitivity of 5.0 nm full scale per side. The manual
sensitivity of the CDI may be set to 0.3, 1.0, or 5.0
20
Navigation Basics
nm full scale per side. The airplane symbol is also
used as a To-From indicator. When the airplane is
facing up, you are on the “To” side of the
destination waypoint. When the airplane is facing
upside down, you are on the “From” side of the
destination waypoint.
TO
(destination)
WPT
To side of destination
waypoint
A
From side of destination
waypoint
L
FROM
(origin)
WPT
The number shown on the edge of the display
opposite from the airplane symbol shows the
distance off track. The range is 0.000 to 0.999 nm at
0.001 nm resolution, 1.0 to 9.99 nm at 0.01 nm
resolution, and 10.0 to 99.9 nm at 0.1 nm
resolution.
1.6
<<<A
Brg 173
42.4nm
If the GPS sensor is not sending a valid position, or
the current TO waypoint is blank, the CDI will
display “—Nav Flagged—”.
TO
WPT
North
FROM
WPT
Distance
Off Track
21
Navigation Basics
Desired Track (Dtk)
Desired Track is the course angle between the
FROM and TO waypoints referenced to the
magnetic variation at the current FROM waypoint.
Desired Track is shown from 0 to 359 degrees in
one degree increments.
Dtk 173
Desired Track
Label
48.0nm Trk 173 TAE 000
Desired Track
Distance from
Origin to Destination
Dtk 173
Desired Track
Angle from Origin
to Destination
Track Angle
Label
Track Angle
Error Label
48.0nm Trk 174 Tae 001
Track Angle
Value
Track Angle
Error Value
From-To Distance
The distance from the departure (origin) waypoint
to the destination waypoint is shown as a value, but
does not show any label. The nautical mile units are
0.00 to 9.99 nm at 0.01 nm resolution, 10.0 to 99.9
nm at 0.1 nm resolution, and 100 to 9999 nm at one
nm resolution. Kilometer units are 0.00 to 99.99 km
at 0.01 km resolution, 100.0 to 999.9 km at 0.1 km
resolution, and 1000 to 9999 km at 1 km resolution.
See page 71 for details on changing units of
measurement.
22
Navigation Basics
Track (Trk) Angle
Track Angle is the angle of your actual direction of
travel. Track is shown from 0 to 359 degrees in one
degree increments. Track is computed using the
magnetic variation at the Present Position. The
Track value will be dashed if the FROM or TO
waypoints are blank, if the GPS receiver does not
have a valid position, or if ground speed is less than
5 knots.
Track Angle Error (Tae)
Track Angle Error is the difference between the
Desired Track and Track Angle (Dtk - Trk). Track
Angle Error is shown from 0 to 359 degrees in one
degree increments. Track Angle Error is computed
using the magnetic variation at the Present Position.
The Track Angle Error value will be dashed if the
FROM or TO waypoints are blank, if the GPS
receiver does not have a valid position, or if ground
speed is less than 5 knots.
Ground Speed (GS)
Ground Speed is the measure of your progress over
the ground, not airspeed. Ground Speed units are
from 0 to 999 knots in 1 knot increments. The
Ground Speed value will be replaced with dashes if
the speed is less than 5 knots, there is no valid GPS
position, or the TO waypoint is blank. See page 71
for details on changing units of measurement.
Trk 173 173 Ground Sp 170 kts
23
Navigation Basics
Minimum Safe Altitude (MSA)
The elevation of the highest obstruction near the
aircraft plus a 1,000 or 2,000 foot buffer added for
safety. In non-mountainous terrain, a 1,000 foot
buffer is added. In mountainous terrain, a 2,000 foot
buffer is added. The result is rounded to the nearest
100 feet. The value will be replaced with dashes if
there is no valid GPS position, the TO waypoint is
blank, or the current position is outside of the
database coverage area.
MinSafeA
5700«
EnrtSafeA
5700«
Minimum Enroute Safe Altitude (MESA)
Minimum Enroute Safe Altitude is the highest MSA
for every point between the aircraft present position
and the “TO” waypoint with a 5 nm buffer around
the course. The value will be replaced with dashes
if there is no valid GPS position, the TO waypoint
is blank, or the current position is outside of the
database coverage area.
Flight Time
Flight Time shows the elapsed time in hours and
minutes (00:00 to 99:59) from departure. If the
Flight Timer is not started the value will be
replaced with dashes. The Flight Timer options are
set in the System Functions (see page 72).
Flt Time 00:07
Time 13:15 UTC
Time UTC
Time is displayed using the 24 hour clock based on
Universal Coordinated Time. Units are hours and
minutes (00:00 to 23:59).
24
Navigation Basics
Estimated Time of Arrival (ETA)
The first ETA is to the current TO waypoint at the
current Ground Speed from the present position.
The second ETA uses the total flight plan distance
remaining to the last waypoint in the flight plan
based on the current Ground Speed. The destination
waypoint is displayed. Units are hours and minutes
(00:00 to 23:59) based on the UTC 24 hour clock.
The values will be replaced with dashes if the speed
is less than 5 knots, there is no valid GPS position,
or the TO and destination waypoints are blank.
eta EUG
Emergency
Search
NRST
MSG MSG
ENT
00:11
An important safety feature of the SL50/60 is its
ability to locate waypoints closest to your position.
Should you have to land quickly, you can use this
feature to locate a nearby waypoint, assign it as a
destination, and quickly navigate to it. Besides the
nearest waypoints to your present position, you can
also select a reference waypoint from the database
and search for waypoints near to it. You can set up
the Emergency Search function to filter for certain
airport types you select, such as: runway length,
lighting, and surface type.
Starting Emergency Search
1. In the SL50, press the NRST key. In the SL60,
press the MSG key twice. Turn the Large knob
to display the waypoint type and options: Airport
(ARPT), VOR, NDB, Intersection (INT), User
(USER), Choose Reference Waypoint, Runway
Limits, and Special Use Airspace.
ARPT
1 SLE
Brg 0750 T 17.3nm
2. Turn the Small knob to display the nearest 20
waypoints. The waypoints must be within 600
25
Navigation Basics
ENT
miles of your present position. The Bearing and
Distance to the displayed waypoint is shown on
the right side of the display. Press ENT to set the
displayed waypoint as the new destination (TO)
waypoint.
Searching Around a Reference Waypoint
Use this function to search for the 20 nearest
waypoints within 600 miles of a reference waypoint
selected from the database.
ENT
1. While in the Emergency Search function, turn the
Large knob to view “Choose Reference
Waypoint” and press ENT.
Choose Reference Wpt:
Press ENT
2. The first character of the airport identifier will
flash. You can also press SEL a second time to
make the entire field flash. Turn the Small knob
to change characters. Turn the Large knob to
select another field to change.
aSLE
c SALEM
OR USA
3. Turn the Large knob to cause the waypoint type to
flash. Turn the Small knob to choose Airport (a),
VOR (v), NDB (n), or User (u) waypoint type.
aBOI
ENT
ID USA
4. Press ENT to accept the displayed waypoint as
the reference waypoint.
ARPT
26
c BOISE
1 BOI
Brg 3440
0.0nm
Navigation Basics
5. Turn the Small knob to view the nearest 20
waypoints.
Setting Runway Limits
Narrow the type of airports that you will accept by
choosing the runway length, lighting, and surface
type.
1. While in the Emergency Search function, turn the
Large knob to view the “Runway Limits”
display.
Rwy Limits:H/S/W Ft:0
SEL
Lit:No
2. Press SEL. The runway length value will flash.
Turn the Small knob to select the minimum
runway length you want considered. Choosing a
length of 0 feet means you will accept any
runway length.
Rwy Limits:H/S/W Ft:3500
Lit:No
3. Turn the Large knob to move to the next
selection. With the “Lit” value flashing, turn the
Small knob to choose “Yes” or “No” for the
runway lighting requirement.
Rwy Limits:H/S/W Ft:3500
Lit:Yes
4. Turn the Large knob to cause the runway surface
type to flash. Turn the Small knob to choose
from the Hard (H), Soft (S), or Water (W)
surface types. Soft refers to grass, dirt, or gravel
runways.
Rwy Limits:H/S Ft:3500
ENT
Lit:Yes
5. Press ENT to save your choices.
27
Navigation Basics
Special Use
Airspace
When searching around your present position, the
first ten airspaces within 100 miles are displayed. If
you are using the Simulator, the first 20 airspaces
within 100 miles are displayed. While searching for
airspaces, the keys and knobs are disabled and the
following display will appear.
Searching for Airspaces...
The information for airspaces includes: name,
position in the list (1-10), type, and proximity.
Proximity is indicated as either: Soon, Outside,
Inside, or Close. Criteria for airspace searches is set
in the System functions (see pages 66 and 98).
KANSAS CITY
INFO
1 Class B OUTSIDE
1. Press the INFO key to view information about the
airspace. Bearing and Distance values are towards the
closest point on the airspace boundary, whether you
are inside or outside the airspace.
KANSAS CITY
1 Brg 2100T17.1nm
2. Turn the Small knob to view more information
about the airspace. “MSL” stands for feet above
Mean Sea Level. “AGL” stands for feet Above
Ground Level.
KANSAS CITY
1 Ceil: 8000«msl
Values for ceiling and floor may be any number of
positive feet less than 100,000. Values may also be
Unlimited, Ground, FL (Flight Level, followed by a
number such as 050), Unknown, or NOTAM.
KANSAS CITY
28
1 Floor:UNLIMITED
Navigation Basics
The Nearest Airspace list is updated periodically as
your aircraft moves and the following display will
appear.
Re-Organizing Airspaces...
Parallel
Track Offset
This function allows you to create a parallel course
offset to the left or right from your current
FROM-TO course from 0.1 to 20.0 nm. You must
have FROM and TO waypoints defined. Parallel
Track cannot be activated if you set a course using
Direct-To. Transitions between flight plan legs
cannot be greater than 120 degrees. Parallel tracks
that would force backtracking are not allowed. You
select Parallel Track to be “In Use” or on “Standby,”
choose Left or Right of the current course, and the
offset distance. The PTK annunciator (if installed)
will turn on when Parallel Track is enabled.
1. In the Nav function, turn the Large knob to
display Parallel Track.
PTK Offset RIGHT 12.4nm
SEL
ENT
2. Press SEL. The activation field will flash. Two
states are available: In Use or Standby. If Parallel
Track is in use, “Standby” will flash. If Parallel
Track is on Standby, “In Use?” will flash. Turn
the Large knob to choose In Use or Standby.
Press ENT to activate the Parallel Track settings
when you are finished.
PTK Offset RIGHT 12.4nm
SEL
Standby
Use?
3. Press SEL and then turn the Large knob to the
direction field. Turn the Small knob to choose
Left or Right.
PTK Offset LEFT 12.4nm
In Use
29
Navigation Basics
4. Turn the Large knob to the distance field. Turn
the Small knob to select the offset distance.
PTK Offset LEFT
ENT
GPS
Position
2.5nm
In Use
5. After making your choices, press ENT. A “p” will
replace the waypoint type to indicate that Parallel
Track is in use. The MSG annunciator will flash
and a message will state that Parallel Track is in
use. Using Direct-To will cancel Parallel Track.
The GPS Position page shows the calculated Latitude
and Longitude, as well as its Position Dilution of
Precision (PDOP). Lower PDOP values are better
than higher values. See the Glossary for more details.
In the Navigation function, turn the Large knob to
display the GPS Position page.
44010.11N 123015.84W
Countdown
Timer
PDOP
0.0
The Countdown Timer allows you to set a timer
that will alert you when it expires with a flashing
MSG annunciator. The maximum time is 99:59:59
(hours, minutes, seconds). The default time on
power up is the previous time that was entered. The
factory default time is 00:03:00 (3 minutes).
Pressing SEL will reset the Countdown Timer to
your last selected value.
1. While in the Navigation function, turn the Large
knob to view the Countdown Timer page.
SEL
2. Press SEL to start editing. The minutes value
will flash.
Countdown Timer
30
00:03:00
Navigation Basics
3. Turn the Large knob to move between the time
value fields.
Countdown Timer
00:05:00
4. Turn the Small knob to edit the hours, minutes,
or seconds value.
Countdown Timer
ENT
MSG
01:05:00
5. Press ENT to start the timer at the selected time
value.
6. After the Countdown Timer value expires, press
the MSG key to note the time out message.
31
Navigation Basics
From/To/Next
Waypoint
The From/To/Next Waypoint page allows you to
create a three waypoint mini-flightplan while within
the Nav function. These waypoints are like a three
waypoint window into your Active Flight Plan.
Changes to this page or to the Active Flight Plan
changes the other one. Select waypoints from the
database including the following types: airport (a),
VOR (v), NDB (n), Intersection (i), and
User-defined (u). You can search for waypoints by
facility identifier, waypoint type, or by facility
name.
NEXT
WPT
TO
WPT
aPDX
vUBG
Present
Position
aSLE
FROM
WPT
aSLE
to
vUBG
next aPDX
Creating From/To/Next Waypoints
From Waypoint
1. While in the Navigation function, turn the Large
knob to view the From/To/Next page.
_____
SEL
ENT
32
to
_____
next
_____
2. Press SEL to start editing. Turn the Large knob
to select the From (first) waypoint position. Turn
the Small knob so the flashing selection shows
Ins? (Insert). Press ENT.
Ins?
to
_____
next
_____
Navigation Basics
3. Turn the Large knob ccw one position to the
waypoint type. Choose Airport (a), VOR (v),
NDB (n), Intersection (i), or User-defined (u)
with the Small knob.
vABA
f ARUBA
ANTILL
4. Turn the Large knob clockwise one click to
move to the first character of the waypoint name.
The first character of the waypoint name will
flash. Turn the Small knob to select the desired
character.
a6S4
c GATES
OR USA
5. Turn the Large knob clockwise one click to
move to the next character. Turn the Small knob
to select the desired character. Continue to select
additional characters.
aEUF
c EUFAULA
AL USA
6. Turn the Large knob clockwise one click to
move to the next character. Turn the Small knob
to select the desired character. Continue to select
the needed characters.
aEUG
ENT
c EUGENE
AL USA
8. Press ENT when you have selected the desired
departure waypoint.
aEUG
to
_____
next
_____
33
Navigation Basics
To Waypoint
SEL
1. Press SEL and move to the To waypoint with the
Large knob.
aEUG
ENT
ENT
to
Ins?
next
_____
2. The insert (Ins?) choice will flash. Press ENT
and then select the To waypoint as you did for
the From waypoint.
3. After selecting a To waypoint, press ENT.
aEUG
to
aSLE
next
_____
Next Waypoint
SEL
1. Press SEL and move to the Next waypoint with
the Large knob.
aEUG
ENT
ENT
aSLE
next
Ins?
2. The insert (Ins?) choice will flash. Press ENT
and then select the Next waypoint as you did for
the From waypoint.
3. After selecting a Next waypoint, press ENT.
aEUG
34
to
to
aSLE
next
HIO
Navigation Basics
Editing
1. While in the Navigation function, turn the Large
knob to view the From/To/Next page.
SEL
2. Press SEL to start editing.
3. Turn the Large knob to select the From, To, or
Next waypoint field to edit.
4. The flashing selection will ask you to choose
between Ins (Insert), Chg (Change), or Del
(Delete). The TO waypoint can also be placed on
Hold or To (active). When a waypoint is deleted,
its position will be replaced by dashes.
SEL
Placing the To Waypoint on Hold
1. Press SEL and move to the To designation with
the Large knob. You can also place the To
waypoint on hold by pressing the external WPT
SEQ button, when it is installed. The HOLD
annunciator will light when it is installed.
aEUG
to
aSLE
next
HIO
2. Turn the Small knob to choose Hold? Placing the
To waypoint on Hold suspends waypoint
sequencing.
aEUG
ENT
hold?
aSLE
next
HIO
3. Press ENT.
Reverse the operation to return to normal
sequencing.
35
Navigation Basics
Using
Direct-To
D
Pressing the Direct-To key sets the From location
as your present position. When using the Direct-To
function, the From waypoint identifier is
overwritten with the word “Direct.” If you remove
the Direct-To position with the Del? option, the old
From waypoint is returned to that position. If you
edit the From position, Direct-To navigation will be
replaced by the new entered waypoint. Activating
Direct-To will disable Parallel Track.
1. Press the Direct-To key.
2. Select the waypoint using the Small and Large
knobs.
ENT
Direct-To
OBS
D
3. Press ENT.
Pressing the Direct-To key twice starts the OBS
desired track editor. This feature is useful for
defining the inbound course for holding patterns.
OBS Desired Track allows entry of a desired track
to the current To waypoint. The current desired
track in the navigation pages will be replaced by the
OBS Desired Track value entered. Waypoint
sequencing at the To waypoint is automatically
inhibited; placed on Hold.
1. Press Direct-To twice. The first character of the
Desired Track value will flash. Turn the Small knob
to change the value. This value defaults to the
current inbound course for the active waypoint.
OBS DTK: 3290
to SLE
2. Turn the Large knob to move to the next character.
Turn the Small knob to change the value.
OBS DTK: 2790
ENT
36
to SLE
3. Press ENT when the desired track value is
complete.
Waypoint Functions
Waypoint Functions
Waypoint
Information
•
•
•
•
•
Available
Waypoint
Information
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
The Apollo SL50/60 provides an extensive built-in
database of waypoint information to aid the
navigator. Waypoints in the database are divided
into 5 categories. This structure allows you to easily
select a waypoint as a destination, search for
waypoint information, search for nearest waypoints,
or insert waypoints into a flight plan.
The waypoint types are:
Airports (ARPTs)
Very high frequency omniranges (VORs)
Non-directional beacons (NDBs)
Enroute intersections (INTs)
User created (USERs)
The following information is available for each
waypoint type. Use the waypoint INFO function to
get this information as the Introduction describes in
“Waypoint Information.”
ARPT Waypoint Information
Bearing and distance from present position
Airport type
Airport elevation
Fuel availability by type
Runway length(s) and surface type
Radio communication frequencies (an asterisk at
the frequency indicates part-time availability)
Lat/Lon coordinates
Identifier
City/Facility name
Waypoint comments
37
Waypoint Functions
38
•
•
•
•
•
•
VOR Waypoint Information
Identifier
Name
Radial and distance from the VOR
Bearing and distance from present position
Operating frequency
Lat/Lon coordinates
•
•
•
•
•
NDB Waypoint Information
Bearing and distance from present position
Operating frequency
Lat/Lon coordinates
Identifier
Name
•
•
•
•
INT Waypoint Information
Country
Bearing and distance from present position
Identifier
Lat/Lon coordinates
•
•
•
•
•
•
USER Waypoint Information
Bearing and distance from present position
Distance from present position
Lat/Lon coordinates
Runway Length
Identifier
Waypoint comments
Waypoint Functions
Getting
Information
about a
Waypoint
You can access the Waypoint database by either
looking directly or by using a feature that draws
information from the database, such as using
Emergency Search or creating a Flightplan. This
section will describe going directly into the
database, the other methods of using the waypoint
database will be covered in the sections about the
specific features.
1. In the SL50, press the WPT key. In the SL60,
press the SYS key, turn the Large knob to view
the “Access Database” page, and then press
ENT.
aAAF
c APALACHICOLA
FL USA
2. Select the waypoint type. Turn the Large knob
one click ccw. Choose Airport (a), VOR (v),
NDB (n), Intersection (i), or User-defined (u)
with the Small knob.
aAAF
c APALACHICOLA
FL USA
3. Turn the Large knob clockwise one click to
move to the first character of the waypoint name.
Turn the Small knob to select the desired
character.
aPAE
c EVERETT
WS USA
4. Turn the Large knob clockwise one click to
move to the next character. Turn the Small knob
to select the desired character. Continue to select
the needed characters.
aPDX
c PORTLAND
OR USA
39
Waypoint Functions
5. You can also select the waypoint by the facility
name. As you turn the Large knob to the “c”, a
“+” may appear.
aPDX
+c PORTLAND
OR USA
Multiple facilities or cities with the same name will
have a “+” beside the name.
SEL
6. Press SEL so the whole name flashes.
aPDX
+c PORTLAND
OR USA
7. Turn the Small knob to view the waypoints with
the same city or facility name.
aHIO
INFO
OR USA
8. Press INFO to view information about the
selected waypoint.
aHIO
Database
Update
+c PORTLAND
+f PORTLAND-HILLSBORO OR USA
9. Press ENT or INFO to leave the function.
The SL50/60 can have its waypoint database
updated to allow you to keep your information
current. Connect your SL50/60 to the serial port of
a PC with the appropriate cable. Use II Morrow’s
Waypoint Manager software to perform the update.
1. In the Waypoint Database, turn the Large knob
to the Database Update page. Press ENT to start
the updating. No controls may be used until the
update is complete.
Database UPDATE:
40
Press ENT
Waypoint Functions
Nearest
(Emergency
Search)
Waypoint
NRST
MSG
2. The SL50/60 will provide a series of displays
showing your progress during the update process.
Follow the directions in the Waypoint Manager
documentation.
An important safety feature of the SL50/60 is its
ability to locate waypoints closest to your position.
Should you have to land quickly, you can use this
feature to locate a nearby waypoint, assign it as a
destination, and quickly navigate to it. Besides the
nearest waypoints to your present position, you can
also select a reference waypoint from the database
and search for waypoints near to it. You can set up
the Emergency Search function to filter for certain
airport types you select, such as: runway length,
lighting, and surface type. See page 25 in the
Navigation Basics section for more details on using
Emergency Search.
Starting Emergency Search
1. In the SL50, press the NRST key. In the SL60,
press the MSG key twice.
MSG
2. Turn the Large knob to display the waypoint
type and options: Airport, VOR, NDB,
Intersection (INT), User waypoints, Choose
Reference Waypoint, Runway Limits, and
Special Use Airspace.
D
ENT
3. Turn the Small knob to display the nearest 20
waypoints. The waypoints must be within 600
miles of your present position. The Bearing and
Distance to the displayed waypoint is shown on
the right side of the display. Press Direct-To and
then ENT to set the displayed waypoint as the
new destination (TO) waypoint.
41
Waypoint Functions
Create User
Waypoint by
Lat/Lon
The Apollo SL50/60 allows you to create up to 200
of your own waypoints to the waypoint database.
You can create a waypoint based on a Lat/Lon or
using a radial and distance from another waypoint.
You can also add the runway length.
1. In the SL50, press the WPT key. In the SL60,
press the SYS key, turn the Large knob to view
the “Waypoint Database” page, and then press
ENT.
2. Turn the Large knob to view the “Create User
Wpt By Lat/Lon” page.
Create User Wpt By Lat/Lon:
ENT
ENT
3. Press ENT.
#000
USER
44024.29N 122051.52W
4. Turn the Small knob to select the desired
character.
H000
USER
44024.29N 122051.52W
5. Turn the Large knob clockwise one click to
move to the next character. Turn the Small knob
to select the desired character. Continue to select
the needed characters for the Waypoint Name,
Latitude, Longitude, and Runway Length.
HOME
42
USER
44024.29N 122051.52W
Waypoint Functions
5. Runway Length is not shown on the first page of
the waypoint. Turn the Large knob cw past the
last Lat/Lon value or ccw before the first
character of the waypoint name to view the
Runway Length.
HOME
USER Rwy Length:
0000 ft
6. A Runway Length digit will flash. Turn the
Small knob to change the value. Turn the Large
knob to move to another character.
HOME
ENT
USER Rwy Length:
3500 ft
7. Press ENT when you have finished entering the
waypoint information.
43
Waypoint Functions
Create User
Waypoint by
Radial/Distance
ENT
1. In the SL50, press the WPT key. In the SL60,
press the SYS key, turn the Large knob to view
the “Waypoint Database” page, and then press
ENT.
2. Turn the Large knob to view the “Create User
Wpt By Rad/Dis” page. Press ENT. The first
character of the radial will flash.
Ref Wpt: AAF
ENT
000.00
000.0nm
3. Select the Reference Waypoint. Turn the Large
knob ccw one click to select the waypoint
identifier which will be replaced by the change
prompt (Chg?). Press ENT to change the
waypoint identifier.
Ref Wpt: Chg?
000.00
000.0nm
4. Turn the Small knob to select the desired
character. Turn the Large knob clockwise one
click to move to the next character. Turn the
Small knob to select the next desired character.
After the reference waypoint name is chosen,
press ENT.
ENT
Ref Wpt: SLE
000.00
000.0nm
5. Now select the needed characters for the Radial
and Distance. Turn the Small knob to change
characters. Turn the Large knob to move to the
next character.
Ref Wpt: SLE
44
040.00
012.0nm
Waypoint Functions
ENT
6. Press ENT when you have finished entering the
waypoint information. You will be prompted to
create a name for the waypoint.
#000
USER
44010.96N 121043.35W
7. Now, use the Large and Small knobs to enter the
waypoint name. You can also adjust Lat/Lon and
add the Runway Length. Press ENT when you
are finished.
ENT
CABIN
USER
44010.96N 121043.35W
Note
You should never create a Radial/Distance
User waypoint from another Radial/Distance
User waypoint. “Chaining” this type of
waypoint in a string may cause additive
errors in the waypoint position.
Delete User
Waypoint
1. In the SL50, press the WPT key. In the SL60,
press the SYS key, turn the Large knob to view
the “Waypoint” page, and then press ENT.
2. Turn the Large knob to view the “Delete User
Waypoint” page.
Delete User Wpt:
ENT
3. Press ENT. Turn the Small knob to view the
User waypoints.
WPT to Delete: CABIN
ENT
Press ENT
Press ENT
4. When the waypoint to delete is displayed, press
ENT.
45
Waypoint Functions
Modify User
Waypoint
1. In the SL50, press the WPT key. In the SL60, press
the SYS key, turn the Large knob to view the
“Waypoint Database” page, and then press ENT.
2. Turn the Large knob to view the “Modify User
Waypoint” page. Press ENT.
ENT
Modify User Wpt:
Press ENT
3. Turn the Small knob to view the User waypoints.
WPT to Modify: CABIN
ENT
Press ENT
4. When the waypoint to modify is displayed, press
ENT.
5. Turn the Small knob to select the desired
character.
6. Turn the Large knob clockwise one click to
move to the next character. Turn the Small knob
to select the desired character. After the correct
characters are chosen, press ENT.
ENT
Waypoint
Comments
INFO
SEL
You may add comments to up to 200 waypoints.
The comments are added while viewing the Info for
a waypoint.
1. While viewing the desired waypoint, press
INFO. Turn the Small knob to the Waypoint
Comment page and press SEL.
Waypoint Comment:
Press SEL
2. Turn the Large and Small knobs to edit the
comment. Press ENT to save the comment.
ENT
46
900FT TOWER 14NM NW OF AIRPORT
Flight Plan Functions
Flight Plan Functions
Flight plans are specific routes between waypoints
you may store in the Apollo SL50/60’s memory.
This information is used to calculate useful flight
statistics. The Flight Plan function allows you to
have up to 10 stored flight plans. Each flight plan
may have up to 20 legs. The Active flight plan is
always used for the current flight. Inactive flight
plans may be activated in the Flight Plan function to
be copied into the Active flight plan. The
From-To-Next waypoint page in the Nav function is
a two-leg window of the Active Flight Plan
showing the current and next leg.
Flight Plan Leg pages show the leg number and
From and To waypoint identifiers on the display,
along with the bearing and distance between the
From and To waypoints. One asterisk (*) next to the
leg number means that the displayed leg is in the
Active flight plan. Two asterisks (**) mean that the
displayed leg shows the current From and To
waypoints which are being used for navigation.
Flight Plan
Pages
SYS
The first page of each flight plan is the Name Page.
The Name Page displays the flight plan name, total
distance, and the destination waypoint. Distance is
displayed as 0.0 to 99.9 nm at 0.1 nm resolution and
100 to 99999 nm at 1 nm resolution. A diamond Y
at the right side of the display indicates that more
pages can be viewed by turning the Small knob.
Reaching the Flight Plan Function
1. Press SYS to reach the System function and then
press SYS a second time, or turn the Large knob,
to reach the Flight Plan access display.
Flight Plans:
ENT
Press ENT
2. Press ENT to enter into the Flight Plan function.
47
Flight Plan Functions
Active Flight Plan
The first plan in the Flight Plan function is the
Active plan and is noted by the name *Active* with
asterisks. This name cannot be changed in the
Active page.
*Active*
Creating a
Flight Plan
259nm
Dest: PDT
Y
The basic steps for creating a flight plan include:
entering the plan name and inserting waypoints.
You may then view flight plan information, activate
the plan, and use the other options.
WPT5
Leg 4
WPT4
Leg 3
Present
Position
WPT3
WPT2
Leg 2
Leg 1
WPT1
(Departure WPT)
SYS
1. In the Flight Plan function, turn the Large knob to
view the “Create a New Flightplan: SEL” page.
Create a New Flightplan:
SEL
2. Press SEL.
SEL
________
48
Enter a New Plan Name
Flight Plan Functions
3. Turn the Small knob to select the first flight plan
name character.
R_______
Enter a New Plan Name
4. Turn the Large knob clockwise one click to
move to the next character position. Turn the
Small knob to select the next name character.
You can have up to eight characters in the flight
plan name.
ROUTE 2
ENT
Enter a New Plan Name
5. Press ENT when the name is complete. A message
will display telling you to turn the Small knob to
insert waypoints or to press SEL for options.
Options can be selected later.
Sml Knob: Ins Wpts
ENT
SEL: Options
6. After turning the Small knob, the Ins? Prompt
will flash in the From waypoint position. Press
ENT to insert a From waypoint.
1
Ins?
N
_____
Press SEL
7. Turn the Small knob to select the first character.
1
aE___
N
_____
0000
0.0nm
8. Turn the Large knob clockwise one click to
move to the next character position. Turn the
Small knob to select the next name character.
After selecting the waypoint name, press ENT.
ENT
1
aEU__
N
_____
0000
0.0nm
49
Flight Plan Functions
ENT
9. The Ins? Prompt will flash in the To waypoint
position. Press ENT.
1
aEUG
N
Ins?
0000
0.0nm
10. Repeat steps 7-9 for the remaining waypoints in
your flight plan.
SEL
Flight Plan
Leg
Information
SEL
11. Press SEL when your flight plan is complete.
Two types of information are available within flight
plan legs. Pressing INFO will provide information
about the destination waypoint. Information about
the ETA, ETE, Ground Speed, and Fuel is also
available for each leg by selecting which option you
like to view in the leg display.
1. While viewing a flight plan leg, press SEL. The
From waypoint field will flash.
1**
Chg?
N aSLE
3530 48.0nm
2. Turn the Large knob ccw one click to choose the
Bearing and Distance field for selection.
1**
Chg?
N aSLE
3530 48.0nm
3. Turn the Small knob to choose from the list of
available leg information options.
1**
ENT
50
Chg?
N aSLE
LegETE 00:28
4. Press ENT to keep your choice displayed or
press SEL to cancel viewing and return to the
Bearing and Distance information.
Flight Plan Functions
ETA
Estimated Time of Arrival is for the displayed To
waypoint. It is available only in the Active flight
plan and requires an actual ground speed of more
than 5 knots. If there is no valid ETA for the leg,
dashes will replace the value.
1 ** aEUG
N
aSLE
ETA 00:26
ETA?
ETA? is the same as ETA, except the Estimated
Ground Speed is used for the calculation.
1 ** aEUG
N
aSLE
ETA? 00:27
Leg ETE
The Estimated Time Enroute between the displayed
From and To waypoints. Leg ETE requires an
actual ground speed of more than 5 knots. If there is
no valid ETA for the leg, dashes will replace the
value.
1 ** aEUG
N
aSLE
LegETE 00:28
Leg ETE?
Leg ETE? is the same as ETE, except the Estimated
Ground Speed is used for the calculation.
1 ** aEUG
N
aSLE
LegETE?00:30
ETE
Estimated Time Enroute in the Active flight plan is
from your present position. In an inactive flight
plan, ETE uses the From waypoint. ETE requires an
actual ground speed of more than 5 knots. If there is
no valid ETE for the leg, dashes will replace the
value.
1 ** aEUG
N
aSLE
ETE 00:24
51
Flight Plan Functions
ETE?
ETE? is the same as ETE, except the Estimated
Ground Speed is used for the calculation.
1 ** aEUG
N
aSLE
ETE? 00:24
Fuel?
Fuel? shows the amount of fuel required to get from
the From waypoint to the To waypoint for an
inactive plan or from the present position to the To
waypoint for the Active flight plan. Legs previous
to the current one are dashed.
1 ** aEUG
N
aSLE
Fuel?^-5usg
In the Active flight plan, the Fuel? calculation uses
the Estimated Fuel Usage value and the actual
ground speed. The Estimated Fuel Usage value
must be greater than zero, and the actual ground
speed must be greater than 5 knots. If there is no
valid Fuel? for the leg, dashes will replace the
value. See Estimated Fuel Flow on page 57.
In an inactive flight plan, the Fuel? calculation uses
the Estimated Fuel Usage value and the estimated
ground speed. The Estimated Fuel Usage value
must be greater than zero, and the actual ground
speed must be greater than 5 knots. If there is no
valid Fuel? for the leg, dashes will replace the
value. See Estimated Ground Speed on page 57.
52
Flight Plan Functions
Direct-To
If the leg page displayed is the currently active leg
of the Active flight plan, and a Direct-To waypoint
has been entered, the From waypoint will say
“Direct.” The leg just prior to the currently active
leg displays the leg as if the “direct” waypoint did
not exist. After sequencing, the “Direct” disappears,
and the currently active leg once again displays the
waypoint identifier. See page 36 for more details on
using the Direct-To function.
1** Direct N a6S4
Manual Leg
Activation
0340 39.3nm
While viewing a leg page of the Active flight plan,
pressing ENT will provide the option for making
the displayed leg the active leg.
3*
Press ENT to Activate leg
Flight Plan
Editing
You can alter any of the information you entered
into the flight plans. The editing options include:
Chg?, Ins?, and Del?
•
•
Chg? - An existing waypoint can be changed.
Ins? - A waypoint can be inserted before an existing
waypoint. Inserting a new waypoint into the Active
flight plan before or after the current leg does not
affect the currently active leg. Inserting a new
waypoint before the active leg’s To waypoint will
immediately change navigation to the new To
waypoint.
Del? - An existing waypoint can be deleted if it is
not one of only two waypoints in the Active flight
plan. A Direct-To waypoint can always be deleted.
When the “Direct” indicator is deleted, the
waypoint that was overwritten by “Direct” will
return as the original From waypoint. If you delete
the current To waypoint, the Next waypoint, if
available, becomes the current To waypoint. If the
last To waypoint is deleted, the previous From
waypoint becomes the current To waypoint and the
•
53
Flight Plan Functions
active leg number will be reduced (i.e. from leg 7 to
leg 6).
Changing Existing Flight Plan Legs
1. In the Flight Plan function, turn the Large knob
to a flight plan and then use the Small knob to
display the leg of the plan that you want to edit.
2*
SEL
N
aHIO
3450 37.9nm
2. Press SEL. The From waypoint will flash with
the Chg? prompt. Turn the Large knob to the
desired waypoint.
2*
ENT
aSLE
Chg?
N
aHIO
3450 37.9nm
3. Press ENT. This takes you into the waypoint
database. Use the Large and Small knobs to
select the desired waypoint and then press ENT.
a6S4
c GATES
OR USA
ENT
Inserting a New Waypoint
1. In the Flight Plan function, display the leg of the
plan that you want to edit.
3*
SEL
N
aPDT
0500
162nm
2. Press SEL. The From waypoint will flash with
the Ins? prompt. Turn the Large knob if
necessary to the waypoint you want changed.
3*
54
a6S4
a6S4
N
Ins?
0500
162nm
Flight Plan Functions
3. If another option was last used, turn the Small
knob to choose Ins?.
3*
ENT
a6S4
Ins?
0500
162nm
5. Press ENT. Use the Large and Small knobs to
select the desired waypoint.
a5J0
ENT
N
c JOHN DAY
OR USA
6. After selecting the waypoint name, press ENT.
3*
a6S4
N a5J0
0790
149nm
Deleting a Waypoint
1. In the Flight Plan function, display the leg of the
plan that you want to edit.
3*
SEL
N a5J0
0790
149nm
2. Press SEL. The From waypoint will flash with
the Chg? prompt. Turn the Large knob to the
waypoint you want changed.
3*
ENT
a6S4
a6S4
N
Del?
0790
149nm
3. Turn the Small knob to choose Del?. Press ENT.
The waypoint will be deleted. Each flight plan
leg will shift back to replace the deleted leg, i.e.
after deleting leg 3, leg 4 will then become leg 3.
3*
a6S4
N
aPDT
0500
162nm
55
Flight Plan Functions
Flight Plan
Options
In the Flight Plan function you may make changes
to the active flight plan.
1. In the Flight Plan function turn the Large knob
to the active flight plan.
2. Press SEL and then turn the Small knob to view
the available functions.
SEL
ENT
3. Press ENT to activate the option.
Activate
Pressing ENT when the “Activate” option is
displayed copies the selected inactive flight plan to
the active plan and activates the plan starting at Leg
1. If you have gone past a given leg, the next
appropriate leg will be activated. In the Flight Plan
function, turn the Large knob to view the available
flight plans.
Route 2
259nm
Activate?
Rev Activate
Pressing ENT when the “Rev Activate” option is
displayed copies the selected flight plan to the active
plan in reverse waypoint order and starts it at leg 1.
Route 2
259nm
Rev Activate?
Reactivate
Pressing ENT when the “Reactivate” option is
displayed resets the active leg to leg 1 and allows
waypoint sequencing.
Route 2
259nm
Reactivate?
Rename
Pressing ENT when the “Rename Plan” option is
displayed lets you rename the flight plan. Duplicate
names are not allowed.
Route 2
56
259nm
Rename Plan?
Flight Plan Functions
Copy Plan
Pressing ENT when the “Copy Plan” option is
displayed allows you to copy any existing plan into
the current plan, overwriting all of the current
plan’s waypoints.
Route 2
259nm
Copy Plan?
Estimate Ground Speed
Pressing ENT when the “Est Gr Speed” option is
displayed allows you to enter an estimated ground
speed value to be used in estimating some leg info
options, such as estimated fuel flow.
Route 2
259nm
Est Gr Speed?
The estimated ground speed can be entered from
000 to 999 knots.
Clear Waypoints
Pressing ENT will delete all waypoints in the
selected flight plan. The plan name will remain.
Route 2
259nm
Clear Wpts?
Reverse Flight Plan
Pressing ENT when the “Reverse” option is
displayed reverses all the waypoints in the current
flight plan. This option is available only on inactive
flight plans with two or more waypoints.
Route 2
259nm
Reverse?
Estimated Fuel Flow
Pressing ENT when the “Est Fuel Flow” option is
displayed allows you to enter an estimated fuel
usage value to be used in estimating one of the leg
info options.
Route 2
259nm
Est Fuel Flow?
57
Flight Plan Functions
The estimated fuel flow can be selected from 0000
to 9999 units per hour. The units may be set in the
System function (see page 71). Pressing ENT saves
the entered value if the value entered is less than or
equal to 999 US gallons per hour, after any
necessary conversions are performed. If the value is
too large when ENT is pressed, it is truncated to the
largest possible value for the units selected, and
remains flashing for editing.
After entering the Estimated Fuel Flow, a four
second help screen indicates either “Fuel To Uses
Actual Gr Speed” or “Fuel To Uses Est Gr Speed,”
depending on whether the current flight plan is
active or not.
Delete Plan
Pressing ENT when the “Delete Plan” option is
displayed deletes the current flight plan. The
display returns to the previous flight plan’s name
(or first) page. The *Active* flight plan cannot be
deleted, in which case this option is not displayed.
Route 2
259nm
Delete Plan?
Hold
The Hold option is available for the Active flight
plan when the flight plan status is Active (waypoint
sequencing allowed). This function is used while
viewing the Name Page.
1. In the Flight Plan function, turn the Large knob
to display the Name Page.
*Active*
SEL
Dest: PDT
Y
2. Press SEL. The “Hold?” option will flash.
*Active*
58
259nm
259nm
Hold?
Flight Plan Functions
ENT
3. Press ENT to place the active flight plan on hold.
Waypoint sequencing will be inhibited. Waypoint
sequencing remains inhibited until it is reenabled,
even if you change waypoints or legs manually.
*Active*
Holding
Dest: PDT
Y
Continue
The Continue option is available for the Active
flight plan when the flight plan status is Holding
(waypoint sequencing is not allowed). Pressing
ENT when this option is displayed renews
waypoint sequencing.
1. In the Flight Plan function, turn the Large knob
to display the Name Page.
*Active*
SEL
INFO
Flight Plan
Comments
Y
259nm
Continue?
3. Press ENT to continue on the previously active
flight plan. Waypoint sequencing will be enabled.
*Active*
Destination
Waypoint
Information
Dest: PDT
2. Press SEL. The “Continue?” option will flash.
*Active*
ENT
Holding
259nm
Dest: PDT
Y
Normal waypoint information about the destination
waypoint can be viewed by pressing INFO when
the Plan Name Page is displayed. This is the same
as pressing INFO to view information about a To
waypoint, except that the Plan Comment page is
available by turning the Large knob.
A flight plan comment page can be viewed and
edited for each flight plan by pressing INFO when
the Plan Name Page is displayed and the turning the
Large knob.
59
Flight Plan Functions
If no plan comment has been entered, press SEL to
create one.
1. While viewing the desired flight plan, press
INFO.
INFO
SEL
2. Turn the Large knob to choose the Comment
page and press SEL.
3. Turn the Small knob to select the first character.
4. Turn the Large knob clockwise one click to
move to the next character position. Turn the
Small knob to select the next name character.
5. After selecting the waypoint name, press ENT.
ENT
Copying the
Active Flight
Plan
You may copy the Active flight plan into an
existing or new flight plan. This feature is useful if
you have made changes en route that you want to
keep.
1. Create a new flight plan or turn to an existing one
to copy over.
SEL
2. Press SEL. Turn the Small knob to reach the
“Copy Plan?” option.
New Wpt
ENT
60
Copy Plan?
3. Press ENT. The name “*Active*” will flash.
New Wpt
ENT
0.0nm
0.0nm
4. Press ENT accept the copy.
*Active*
System Functions
System Functions
Pressing the SYS key allows you to access the
System functions. After pressing the SYS key, turn
the Large knob to view the available functions.
Press ENT when viewing the desired System
function.
Flight Plans
Press ENT to reach the Flight Plan functions. The
available pages include: the Active flight plan,
inactive flight plans, and the page to create new
flight plans. Complete details on using the Flight
Plan function are available in the Flight Plan
section.
Flight Plans:
Waypoint
Database
Press ENT
The Waypoint Database page allows you to view all
of the waypoint information in the database. In the
Apollo SL50, pressing the WPT key will take you
into the Waypoint database. In the SL60, press
SYS, turn the Large knob to the Waypoint
Database page, and then press ENT.
Access Database:
Press ENT
1. The first character of the waypoint name flashes.
Turn the Large knob ccw one click to select the
waypoint type character. Turn the Small knob to
select the Waypoint type.
aPDT
c PENDLETON
OR USA
2. Turn the Large knob clockwise to move to the
first character of the waypoint name.
aPDT
c PENDLETON
OR USA
61
System Functions
4. Turn the Small knob to select the first character.
aSAA
c SARATOGA
WY USA
5. Turn the Large knob clockwise one click to
move to the next character position. Turn the
Small knob to select the next name character.
aS20
c GOLDENDALE
WA USA
ENT
6. After selecting the waypoint name, press ENT.
INFO
7. Press INFO to view information about the
waypoint.
aS21
c SUNRIVER
OR USA
See the section on the Waypoint Functions for
complete details (page 37).
Com Radio Information (SL60 Only)
The Com Radio information page provides system
level details about the operation of the Comm radio
function. Information includes: software version, rf
signal strength, audio noise level, side tone
adjustment, intercom squelch, and headphone
level.
SYS
1. Press SYS and then turn the Large knob to reach
the Com Radio Information page.
COM Radio Info:
Press ENT
2. Press ENT.
ENT
COM Radio SW Version:
62
X.X
System Functions
3. Turn the Large knob to view the available pages.
Software Version
SYS
1. Press SYS and then turn the Large knob to reach
the Com Radio Information page. Press ENT.
COM Radio SW Version:
ENT
X.X
2. Software Version information is displayed.
RF Signal Strength
The RF Signal Level function shows the relative
signal strength of the frequency you are listening to.
The range displayed is between 0 and 255. The
value will constantly change while you are viewing
it as signal conditions change.
119.10
RF Signal Level:
087
Audio Noise Level
The Noise Level function shows the relative
received noise level of the frequency you are
listening to. The range displayed is between 0 and
255. The value will constantly change as you are
viewing it as signal conditions change. A higher
number indicates more noise.
119.10
Audio Noise Level:
087
Intercom Squelch Level Adjustment
The Intercom Squelch Level Adjustment page is
used to display and adjust the Intercom Squelch
level to match the sensitivity for your system and
personal needs. The typical useful range is from
approximately 230 to 250, with the higher number
being more sensitive.
63
System Functions
1. In the Com Radio Information function, turn the
Large knob to the Intercom Squelch Level page.
Intercom Squelch:
187
2. Turn the Small knob to adjust the level.
Intercom Squelch:
197
3. The desired level will be activated as selected.
You do not need to press ENT.
Sidetone Level Adjustment
The Sidetone Level Adjustment page is used to display
and adjust the headphone sidetone level.
1. In the Com Radio Information function, turn the
Large knob to view the Sidetone Level
Adjustment page.
Sidetone Level:
187
2. Turn the Small knob to adjust the level.
Sidetone Level:
197
3. The desired level will be activated as selected. You
do not need to press ENT.
64
System Functions
Navigation
Information
SYS
The Navigation Information function allows to
make adjustments on the way information is shown
in the Navigation function. The pages available
include: Airspace Setup, Autonav Time, Nav Mode
Display Programming, Magnetic Variation, Flight
Timer Trigger, Direct-To Entry Option, and CDI
Scaling.
1. Press the SYS key.
2. Turn the Large knob to reach the Navigation
Information page and then press ENT.
ENT
Navigation Info:
Press ENT
Airspace Setup
The Airspace Setup selections allows you to turn
Airspace notification On or Off, select the distance
and time buffers, and to choose the Airspace types
that will be used.
SYS
1. Press the SYS key. Turn the Large knob to reach
the Navigation Information page and then press
ENT.
ENT
2. Turn the Small knob to view the pages for
Airspace Setup.
Airspace Setup
Alerts: ON
Y
Airspace Buffers
Three values may be adjusted for Airspace Buffers for
determining CLOSE information: distance, elevation,
and time. CLOSE distance may be from 0 to 99 nm at
one nm intervals. Time values are from 0 to 20
minutes in one minute intervals.
65
System Functions
SEL
1. While viewing the Airspace Buffer page, press
SEL.
Airspc Buffers:
2nm
10min
2. Turn the Large knob to select the desired value to
change. Turn the Small knob to change the value.
Airspc Buffers:
ENT
3nm
10min
3. Press ENT when the desired values have been
selected.
Airspace Selections
Thirteen Airspaces are available for selection: Class B,
B Outer, Class C, C Outer, MOA, Training, Unknown,
Alert, Caution, Danger, Restricted, Prohibited, and
Warning. When Class B or C are “On”, the airspace
warning will be activated when your aircraft crosses the
boundary of each airspace. Altitude is not used as a
factor. When the Outer choice is selected, the airspace
warning will be activated when your aircraft crosses the
outside boundary of the airspace (see page 98).
1. Turn the Small knob to view the desired
Airspace selection page.
CLASS B
SEL
: OFF
B OUTER
: ON
2. Press SEL to activate selection.
CLASS B
: OFF
B OUTER
: ON
3. Turn the Large knob to choose the Airspace
type. Turn the Small knob to select ON or OFF.
CLASS B
66
: OFF
B OUTER
: OFF
System Functions
ENT
4. Press ENT after selecting ON or OFF for each
Airspace type. Turn the Small knob to view the
other Airspace pages.
Autonav Time
Autonav Time is the delay time that each
Navigation page will be displayed before rotating to
the next page. Time may be selected from one to
nine seconds.
SEL
1. While viewing the Autonav Time page, press
SEL.
Autonav Time:
4 Seconds/Page
2. Turn the Small knob to select the delay time.
Autonav Time:
7 Seconds/Page
ENT
3. Press ENT when finished.
NAV
4. Press NAV. While viewing the Nav functions,
Press ENT to start Autonav scrolling. Press ENT
again to stop Autonav scrolling.
ENT
Navigation Mode Programmable Pages and
Autonav Pages
This function allows you to customize both the look
of the programmable basic navigation pages and the
selection of pages used in the Autonav function. All
basic Nav pages are programmable except the first
(home) page.
Customizing Navigation Pages
SYS
1. Press the SYS key. Turn the Large knob to reach
the Navigation Information page and then press
ENT.
ENT
67
System Functions
2. Turn the Large knob to reach Nav Mode Display
Pages.
Nav Mode Display Pages
Y
3. Turn the Small knob cw to view the second (first
editable) Nav page.
A
SEL
0.002 Brg 128
77.5nm
4. Press SEL to activate editing. The first Nav field
will flash.
A
0.002 Brg 128
77.5nm
5. Turn the Small knob to select the desired Nav
information to be displayed in that field.
GroundSp 100kts Brg 128
77.5nm
6. Turn the Large knob to move to the next field to
edit. Turn the Small knob to select the Nav
information.
GroundSp 100kts ete 8S3
ENT
00:44
7. When you are finished selecting Nav page
information, press ENT. You will be prompted to
decide if you want to include this page in the
Autonav scrolling.
Nav Page 2 in Autonav Pages?
Yes
9. Turn the Small knob to choose between Yes and
No. Press ENT.
ENT
68
System Functions
10. Turn the Small knob to view another Nav page
and repeat steps 4-9.
Selecting Autonav Pages
SEL
1. While you are viewing a Nav page information
page, press SEL and then ENT.
ENT
2. You will be prompted to decide if you want to
include this page in the Autonav scrolling. Turn
the Small knob to choose between Yes and No.
Nav Page 4 in Autonav Pages?
ENT
Yes
3. Press ENT.
Creating a New Custom Nav Page
Besides being able to customize most of the Nav pages,
you can also create an entirely new one. You can select
information for up to four fields on the display.
1. Press SYS. Turn the Large knob to Nav Info and
press ENT. Turn the Large knob to the Nav
Mode Display Pages.
SYS
ENT
Nav Mode Display Pages
Y
2. Turn the Small knob to reach the new Nav Page
display.
<Blank Nav Page>
SEL
Y
2. Press SEL to start editing. The first field will
flash showing a series of dashes.
______
69
System Functions
3. Turn the Small knob to select the desired Nav
information to be displayed in that field.
100kts
4. Turn the Large knob to move to the next field.
100kts ______
5. Turn the Small knob to select the desired Nav
information to be displayed in the field.
100kts Brg 353
6. Use the Large and Small knobs to select
information for the next field, if desired.
100kts Brg 353 ete SLE
ENT
ENT
00:22
7. Press ENT when you have finished selecting
information for your custom Nav display. Choose
Yes or No with the Small knob and then press ENT.
NavPage 8 in Autonav Pages?
Yes
Restoring Default Nav Pages
1. While viewing the Nav Mode Display Pages, turn
the Small knob to reach the Restoring Default
Nav Pages display.
Restore Default Nav Pages:
ENT
70
ENT
2. Press ENT to delete any changes you have made
in the Nav display pages and revert to the
original (default) pages.
System Functions
Setting Units
Nav displays that show distance may be selected to
show either nautical miles or kilometers.
1. Press SYS. Turn the Large knob to Nav Info and
press ENT. Turn the Large knob to the Nav
Mode Display Pages.
SYS
ENT
Nav Mode Display Pages
Y
2. Turn the Small knob to reach a programmable
Nav page.
Dtk 353
SEL
48.0nm Trk 353 tae 000
3. Press SEL to start field selection. Turn the Large
knob to the desired field.
Dtk 353
48.0nm Trk 353 tae 000
4. Turn the Small knob to select the field with
different units. Press SEL to stop editing.
Dtk 353 89.10km Trk 353 tae 000
Magnetic Variation
Automatic or Manual Magnetic Variation can be set
in this page. Automatic is the default setting on
power-up, unless the database is invalid.
SYS
SEL
1. Press the SYS key. Turn the Large knob to reach
the Magnetic Variation page and then press SEL.
Mag Variation:
Auto
180E
71
System Functions
3. Turn the Small knob to select Auto or Manual
Magnetic Variation and then press ENT.
ENT
Mag Variation:
Manual
180E
4. If you selected Manual Magnetic Variation, turn the
Large knob to move to the variation value field.
Mag Variation:
Manual
18
5. Select the variation value with the Small knob.
Mag Variation:
ENT
Manual
190E
6. Turn the Large knob to move to the E or W
direction field. Turn the Small knob to select E
or W and then press ENT. The MSG annunciator
will flash and a message will note that you have
selected manual magnetic variation.
Mag Variation:
Manual
190E
Flight Timer Trigger
The following procedure is used to edit the flight
timer trigger speed. The flight timer may be set to
start at power-up, or when the ground speed exceeds
from 10 to 500 knots. The default (factory) setting is
60 knots. The feature may also be turned off.
SYS
1. Press the SYS key.
Flt Timer Trigger:
At
60kts
2. Turn the Large knob to reach the Flight Timer
Trigger page and then press SEL.
SEL
72
Flt Timer Trigger:
At
60kts
System Functions
3. Turn the Small knob to select the speed value,
“At Power On,” or “OFF” and then press ENT.
ENT
Direct-To Entry Options
When you use Direct-To, the Active flight plan
(and the From, To, Next information) is
automatically updated.
If you use Direct-To to center the CDI needle for
the current “To” waypoint, or skip past the To
waypoint to another waypoint already in the Active
flight plan, the current leg number of the Active
flight plan will be updated, if needed, so that the
Direct-To waypoint matches the current “To”
waypoint. In these cases, the Direct-To Entry
Option is not a factor.
The Direct-To Entry Option becomes a factor if you
go Direct-To a waypoint which is not in the Active
flight plan.
With the May Clear Direct-To Entry Option, the
Direct-To waypoint will be inserted in the Active
flight plan, and all of the other waypoints will be
deleted from the Active flight plan.
With the Never Clears Direct-To option, the
Direct-To waypoint is inserted before the current
To waypoint.
The May Clear option is useful for the pilot who
uses the Direct-To function for the majority of
flight planning, and doesn’t want to be bothered
with a steadily increasing number of waypoints in
the Active flight plan. The Never Clears option is
useful when you need to vector off from the Active
flight plan’s path temporarily, resuming the
previously entered flight plan at a later time, such as
for a “cleared direct to the xyz VOR, rest of route
unchanged” type of clearance.
The default setting for the Direct-To Entry is Never
Clears. The Apollo SL50/60 retains the last
73
System Functions
Direct-To Entry Option setting when it is powered
up.
SYS
1. Press the SYS key. Turn the Large knob to reach
the Direct-To page and then press SEL.
Direct-To Never Clears Active
SEL
2. Turn the Small knob to select “May Clear” or
“Never Clears” and then press ENT.
ENT
Direct-To
May Clear
Active
CDI Scaling
The CDI Scaling option allows you to select manual
or automatic full scale deflection of the internal
CDI. Manual full scale deflection options include:
0.30 nm, 1.00 nm, and 5.00 nm. Automatic scaling
will use 5.00 nm as the setting.
SYS
1. Press the SYS key. Turn the Large knob to reach
the CDI Scaling page and then press SEL.
CDI Scaling: Auto
GGGGG 5.00nm
SEL
2. Turn the Small knob to select Automatic or
Manual.
CDI Scaling: Manual GGGGG 5.00nm
3. If you chose manual, turn the Large knob to
move to the distance value.
CDI Scaling: Manual GGGGG 5.00nm
74
System Functions
4. Turn the Small knob to select the distance value
and then press ENT.
ENT
System
Information
SYS
CDI Scaling: Manual ##### 1.00nm
The System Information area provides the
following pages: Date and Time, Software and
Database Version, Display test, and Owner Info.
Date and Time
1. Press the SYS key. Turn the Large knob to reach
the System Information function and press ENT.
You cannot change the values in Simulator mode.
This information is provided by the satellites and
you will not usually need to change it.
ENT
System Info:
SEL
Press ENT
2. Press SEL to reset the date and time. The Day
value will flash.
12 MAY 97
23:24 UTC
4. Turn the Small knob to choose the day.
15 MAY 97
23:24 UTC
5. Turn the Large knob to move to the Month
value. Turn the Small knob to choose the month.
15 JUN 97
23:24 UTC
6. Turn the Large knob to move to the Year value.
Turn the Small knob to choose the year.
15 JUN 97
23:24 UTC
75
System Functions
7. Turn the Large knob to move to the Time-Hours
value. Turn the Small knob to choose the hours.
15 JUN 97
20:24 UTC
8. Turn the Large knob to move to the
Time-Minutes value. Turn the Small knob to
choose the minutes.
15 JUN 97
ENT
20:24 UTC
9. After completing your entries, press ENT.
15 JUN 97
20:24 UTC
Software Version
The Software Version function provides version
information about the Apollo software, serial number,
database, GPS sensor, display software, and Com
Radio software for the Apollo SL60.
1. In the System Information function turn the
Large knob to reach Software Version page.
Apollo SL50/60
SW Vers
X.X
Y
2. Turn the Small knob cw one click to view the
Serial Number page.
Serial Number:
XXXXXXXX
3. Turn the Small knob cw one click to view the
Database Version page.
Americas DB
76
Exp: xx/xx/xx
System Functions
4. Turn the Small knob cw one click to view the
GPS Software Version page.
GPS Sensor SW: x.x
PN:123456789
5. Turn the Small knob cw one click to view the
Display Software Version page.
Display SW Version:
X.X
6. Turn the Small knob cw one click to view the
Com Radio Software Version page (SL60 only).
COMM Software Version:
X.X
Fuel Measure Units
Fuel Measure Units for the appropriate displays can
be selected as: US Gallons (usg), Imperial Gallons
(img), Liters (ltr), Pounds AvGas (lbs), Pounds Jet
Fuel A (lbs), Pounds JP4 (lbs), Kilograms AvGas
(kgs), Kilos JetFuelA (kgs), or Kilos JP4 (kgs).
ENT
SEL
1. In the System function, turn the Large knob to
reach the Fuel Measure Units page. Press SEL.
ENT
2. Turn the Small knob to change and press ENT.
Test Display
The Test Display page allows you to initiate a test
of the display segments. In the System function,
turn the Large knob to reach the Test Display page.
Press ENT to start the test. Pressing any key or
turning any knob will cancel the test.
Test Display:
Press ENT
Owner Information
The Owner Information function allows the user to
enter their Name, Address, City, Phone, and Aircraft.
As a security feature, the user must enter a password
to enable editing of the Owner Information.
77
System Functions
1. In the System function, turn the Large knob to
reach the Owner Information page.
Owner: WILBUR WRIGHT
Y
2. Turn the Small knob to view the Owner
Information.
Address: 2345 TURNER RD SE
SEL
3. Start editing by pressing SEL.
User Must First Enter Password..
4. The password entry page is then ready. Select
the characters with the Small knob and move to
the next character to the right by turning the
Large knob cw. When you turn the Large
knob, the last character is erased to enforce
secrecy of your password.
Enter Password: ______
ENT
SEL
5. Press ENT when you finish entering the
password. If the entered password does not
match the true password, you will be given
another chance. You can cancel by pressing
SEL. If the entered password matches, the
screen flashes a message for about two seconds
followed by the last displayed owner info page.
Once the correct password is entered, editing is
allowed until your Apollo SL50/60 is turned off.
Password OK
SEL
78
Editing Enabled
6. Press SEL to start editing.
System Functions
7. Select the characters with the Small knob and
move to the next character to the right by turning
the Large knob cw. Press ENT to save the
information.
ENT
8. Turn the Small knob to go to the next Owner
Information page you want to edit.
SEL
ENT
GPS Sensor
9. Press SEL to start editing.
10. Select the characters with the Small knob and
move to the next character to the right by turning
the Large knob cw. Press ENT to save the
information.
The GPS Sensor selection provides information
about GPS satellite health, the GPS satellites
available, information on each satellite, GPS Time,
and GPS Reset. See the Introduction to GPS section
on page 89.
1. In the System function, turn the Large knob to
reach the GPS Sensor page. Press ENT.
ENT
GPS Sensors:
Press ENT
2. The GPS Health page is shown if GPS information
is received. The GPS number and dimension (2D,
3D, or no position), number of healthy, and number
of visible satellites are shown.
GPS 3D Pos Healthy: 25
Vis: 8 Y
3. Turn the Small knob to view the GPS Satellites
Used for Position fixes page. SV means space
vehicle, which is the same as a GPS satellite in
this case.
GPS SVs: 31,27,26,19,07,02
79
System Functions
4. Turn the Small knob again to view the GPS
Satellite Status, Elevation, SNR, and Azimuth
page. Turn the Small knob to view information
about each available satellite.
SV31 DATA el:210 sig:055 az:0430
•
•
•
•
Satellite Search Status
SRCH
Receiver is searching for the satellite
ACQR
receiver is acquiring the signal
TRCK
receiver has locked to the satellite’s data sequence
DATA
receiver is locked and downloading data from the
satellite
Until data is received by the receiver, a display may
look like the following:
Third Sat
Not Available
GPS Date and Time Page
In the GPS Sensor Information function, turn the
Small knob to view the GPS Date and Time page.
GPS Time(UTC) 13 May 96 17:54:27
GPS Normal Reset Page
Resetting the GPS receiver deletes all GPS
information and forces a new search of the
satellites. Use this function when it appears that the
GPS receiver is locked up or seems to be taking far
longer than it should to lock onto the signals.
1. In the GPS Sensor Information function, turn the
Small knob to view the GPS Normal Reset page.
Press ENT to do Normal GPS Reset
ENT
80
2. Press ENT to reset the GPS receiver.
Comm Radio Operation
Comm Radio Operation
Power
On/Off
Volume
This section introduces the basic operating details
of the VHF Communications Transceiver portion of
the Apollo SL60.
Turn the Power/Volume control clockwise past the
OFF detent.
Turn the Power/Volume control clockwise to
increase the volume level and counterclockwise to
decrease volume.
Small and Large Knobs
The dual concentric knobs on the right side of the
SL60 are used to select frequencies or other
options. The Large outer knob is used to change the
MHz value in 1 MHz steps.
The Small inner knob changes the kHz values in 25
kHz steps.
Selecting
Frequencies
COM
In both the SL50 and SL60, the Large and Small
knobs are used to view different functions and for
editing. Other functions will be described in the
affected section.
New frequencies are first selected as a Standby
frequency and then toggled to the Active side when
desired. While viewing the frequency display, use
the Large and Small knobs on the right side of the
SL60 to select the desired frequency.
1. Press COM to reach the Comm radio function.
119.80 s121.30
Brg 353
46.3nm
2. Turn the Large knob to change the values in one
MHz increments. The MHz selection range is
between 118 and 136 in one MHz steps.
119.80 s121.30
Brg 353
46.3nm
81
Comm Radio Operation
2. Turn the Small knob to change the values in
25 kHz increments. The kHz selection range is
between 000 and 975 kHz in 25 kHz steps. Note
that only two digits are displayed to the right of
the decimal point.
119.80 s122.30
Brg 353
46.3nm
Turn the Large and Small knobs clockwise to
increase and counterclockwise to decrease the
frequency values. Standby frequency selection is
not inhibited during transmit.
119.80 s122.40
Brg 353
46.3nm
Press the Flip/Flop key to toggle the Standby or
recalled frequency to the Active frequency.
122.40 s119.80
Frequency
Monitoring
COM
Brg 353
46.3nm
The Frequency Monitoring function allows you to
listen to the Standby frequency, while monitoring
the Active frequency for activity.
Press the COM key in the COM function to listen
to the standby frequency. A small “m” is displayed
in front of the Standby frequency.
119.10 m123.85
Brg 353
46.3nmY
When the Active frequency receives a signal, the
unit will switch automatically to the Active
frequency. The volume and sound quality will be
slightly less for the Standby frequency. The Active
frequency quality is not affected. The Frequency
Monitor function is inhibited while you are
transmitting.
82
Comm Radio Operation
Recalling a
Frequency
The SL60 can access several areas of stored
frequencies. The SL60 can access airport
frequencies from its database of: TO, FROM,
INFO, automatically stored active, User stored,
weather, and emergency frequencies.
SEL
TO
Frequencies
FROM
Frequencies
INFO
Frequencies
Auto Stored
List
(AUTO)
User
Memory
(USER)
Freq 1
Freq 1
Freq 1
Freq 1
Freq 1
Freq 15
Freq 15
Freq 15
Freq 10
Freq 10
SEL
Weather
Emerg.
Channel
1. Press SEL to recall frequencies in the COM
function.
2. Turn the Large knob view the frequency types.
3. Turn the Small knob to view the frequencies
available for each type.
ENT
4. Press ENT to load the displayed frequency into
the Standby position.
or
5. Press the Flip/Flop key to load the displayed
frequency into the Active position.
TO, FROM, and INFO Frequency Database
You can access up to 15 airport frequencies
referenced to your TO and FROM waypoints, as
well as the last 15 frequencies viewed by pressing
INFO.
SEL
1. In the COM function, press SEL to view the
Frequency Database. The diamond on the right
side of the display indicates that more
frequencies are available. If there are no other
frequencies, the diamond will not appear.
119.80 s121.30
SLE twr
119.10Y
83
Comm Radio Operation
2. Turn the Large knob to select the frequency
type. Turn the Small knob to display the
available frequencies. The waypoint identifier,
type, and frequency are displayed.
119.80 s121.30
ENT
SLE atis 124.55
3. Press ENT to move the database frequency into
the Standby frequency position.
119.80 s124.55
SLE atis 124.55
or
Press the Flip/Flop key to move it into the Active
position.
124.55 s121.30
SLE atis 124.55
Frequency Abbreviations
TWR - Tower frequency (* indicates part time)
GRND - Ground frequency
ATIS - ATIS frequency
ATF - Air Traffic Frequency
APPR - Approach
ARR - Arrival
AWOS - Automatic Weather Station
CLR - Clearance/Delivery
CTAF - Common Traffic Advisory Frequency
DEP - Departure frequency
FSS - Flight Service Station
RFSS - Remote Flight Service Station
UNIC - Unicom frequency
MF - Mandatory Frequency
UNKN - Unknown
UNDF - Undefined
84
Comm Radio Operation
Auto Stored Frequencies (Auto)
The SL60 keeps track of the last ten Active
frequencies and stores them in a stack. When a new
frequency is used, it becomes number one on the
stack and the old number ten frequency is removed.
Each time a new Active frequency is used, the last
(tenth) frequency is automatically dropped off the
list. Duplicate frequencies are not stored; one
instance of the selected frequency does become
Freq 1 on the list.
NEW
Freq 1
Freq 2
Freq 9
Freq 10
D
OL
ENT
1. In the Comm function, press ENT and then turn the
Large knob to display the Auto Stack List (Auto).
119.80 s121.30
auto 1
123.85Y
2. Turn the Small knob to view the stored
frequencies. The last used frequency is shown at
the top of the list.
85
Comm Radio Operation
User Stored Frequencies
When you press the ENT key the Standby
frequency is stored in User memory. The SL60
stores the last ten frequencies selected by the user.
The next time a new User frequency is stored, the
last (tenth) frequency is automatically dropped off
the list. Duplicate frequencies are not stored.
ENT
1. Press ENT to prepare to store the Standby
frequency.
119.80 s121.30
ENT
3. Press ENT again to store the displayed
frequency.
119.80 s121.30
SEL
Store 121.300?
121.300 Stored
4. Press SEL and then turn the Large knob to view
the last stored User frequency.
119.80 s121.30
user 1
130.85Y
5. Turn the Small knob to view the other User
stored frequencies.
86
Comm Radio Operation
Weather Channels
The standard weather channels are stored in the
memory of the SL60. You cannot transmit on a
weather channel frequency.
ENT
1. Press ENT and then turn the Large knob to
display the Weather channel memory.
119.80 s121.30
weather
162.40Y
2. Then, turn the Small knob to view the available
weather channels.
Weather Frequencies
162.400 MHz
162.425 MHz
162.450 MHz
162.475 MHz
162.500 MHz
162.525 MHz
162.550 MHz
Emergency Channel
The standard emergency channel (121.50 MHz) is
stored in the memory of the SL60.
SEL
1. In the COM function, press SEL and then turn
the Large knob to display the Emergency
channel memory.
119.80 s121.30
EMG Chan 121.50
2. Press the Flip/Flop key to load the Emergency
Channel into the Active frequency.
121.50 s121.30
EMG Chan 121.50
87
Comm Radio Operation
Intercom
Function
When two headphone and microphone jacks are
connected to the SL60, these headsets can be used
as a voice-activated intercom.
When you select the Intercom function with the
installed selector switch, the intercom function is
enabled. The Volume control will control the
headphone listening level. The receive function will
automatically become active when a signal is
detected. Frequency monitoring will be disabled
when the intercom is selected. An “I” is displayed
in front of the Standby frequency to indicate the
Intercom function is selected.
119.10 i122.85
Brg 2100
17.1nm
The Intercom Squelch Sensitivity can be set in the
System Functions.
Stuck Mic
The SL60 helps protect you from a situation where
the microphone may get stuck in the ON or
Transmit position. If the microphone is keyed for
longer than 35 seconds, the SL60 will return to the
receive mode on the selected frequency.
A flashing “Stuc Mic” message will display until
the transmit key is released.
119.10 STUC MIC
88
Brg 2100
17.1nm
Introduction to GPS Navigation
Introduction to GPS Navigation
GPS
Overview
The Global Positioning System (GPS) is a
constellation of 24 satellites in six orbit lanes
10,898 nautical miles above the earth at an
inclination angle of about 55 degrees from the
equator. Each satellite orbits the earth twice in 24
hours.
The GPS was developed and the satellites launched
by the U.S. Department of Defense with the original
intent of supplying highly accurate position fix
information for military applications. In recent
years, commercial applications for the information
provided by this system have steadily increased in
the civilian sector. Some of the more popular
civilian uses of the system include surveying and
position fix data recording for civil engineering
applications, and a broad range of marine, aviation,
and terrestrial navigation applications.
While orbiting the earth, each GPS satellite
transmits complex streams of data containing the
operational status and orbital location of all the
satellites in the system. The Apollo SL50/60
89
Introduction to GPS Navigation
receives this data stream and processes the
information to determine which satellites are
“visible” to the receiver’s antenna. With this
determination made, the receiver chooses satellites
to calculate a position fix. Using information
transmitted from three or more satellites, the unit
can calculate latitude and longitude (usually
abbreviated Lat/Lon); with four or more satellites,
GPS altitude can also be calculated.
GPS System The GPS allows a high degree of position fix
Accuracy
accuracy. The system can produce a position fix
accurate to within less than one meter. Due to
concern for national security, the U.S. Department
of Defense introduces constant errors to the
transmitted satellite data to degrade the accuracy of
the system. Called Selective Availability, this
practice limits GPS position fix accuracy to about
100 meters, although the relative position of the
satellites to one another, their elevation above the
horizon, and other factors can also affect accuracy
of the position fix. Under optimal conditions,
accuracy can improve to within 10 meters. GPS
position fix accuracy is not affected by atmospheric
conditions.
Summary
90
GPS altitude is based on a mathematical model of
the sphere of the earth. Including intentional
degradation, GPS altitude may differ from
barometric altitude by several hundred feet.
Unlike navigation aids providing a position fix with
data from land-based sources, the Apollo GPS can
provide an accurate position fix over land or sea
anywhere in the world. The unit includes an
extensive database of useful waypoint information
and allows you to create up to 200 “customized”
waypoints of your own. With the power of this
navigation device in the cockpit, you can easily
navigate with unsurpassed accuracy.
Start Up Displays
Start Up Displays
The Start Up Sequence runs each time the unit is
powered on. Until the Start Up Sequence is
completed, no other editing or mode selections
work. The Start Up Sequence varies between units
due to installation differences. The initial start up
message is displayed for about three seconds.
Apollo SL60
Owner
Message
By II Morrow
If the owner name has been previously entered (in
System Mode), this page with your name is
displayed for three seconds. No owner info screen is
displayed if the user has not entered the owner
data.
Owner: II Morrow Inc
Memory
Tests
Memory tests are preceded by the following two
second display.
Starting Memory Tests
While the Starting Memory Tests message is
displayed, you may press ENT to bypass most of
the normal tests and go directly to normal
operation.
Note
Bypassing the complete series of tests
should only be done in the case of an
emergency. Use of your Apollo SL50/60 for
IFR flight requires that all of the tests be
performed and passed.
91
Start Up Displays
Software Memory Test
This is a checksum test of the code memory region.
The following screen is displayed for the duration
of this test.
Software Test In Progress...
If the checksum passes, the next screen is displayed
for two seconds.
Software Test Passed
Failure to pass the software checksum test indicates
that the software memory is corrupted. The GPS
board will not continue operation when the
following screen is displayed.
Nav SW Failed: Contact II Morrow
If the Nav software checksum test fails, the COM
board will function properly, but the GPS board
will not operate. The display will only show the
active and standby frequencies.
92
Start Up Displays
Non-Volatile RAM Tests
The non-volatile RAM validation code does the
following checks every time the unit is powered up.
Any tests which detect a failure reset the failed
values. Generally, the non-volatile RAM test pages
are not displayed, since in most cases the tests pass.
User Database Memory Failure
User waypoint checksums exist for each User
waypoint. If the checksums do not match, the User
waypoint is deleted. If this occurs, any flight plan
which references this user waypoint is also deleted.
In addition, User comment checksums exist for
each user-defined waypoint comment. The
comment is deleted if the calculated checksum does
not match the saved checksum.
User DB Test Failed:
Press ENT
If the User DB checksum test fails, both the COM
board and the GPS board continue to function.
Flight Plan Memory Failure
Flight plan checksums exist for all flight plan
information. If a particular flight plan checksum
does not match the calculated checksum, the flight
plan is deleted, or in the case of the Active Flight
Plan, the plan is reinitialized. The following
message is then displayed until you press ENT.
Flight Plan Memory Failed:
ENT
If the flight plan memory checksum test fails, both
the COM board and the GPS board continue to
function.
93
Start Up Displays
Miscellaneous NVRAM Memory Failure
All other user input values which are held in
non-volatile RAM are checked for validity,
producing the following message if any of the
values needed to be reset.
Memory Test Failed:
Press ENT
If the memory checksum test fails, both the COM
board and the GPS board continue to function.
Database Test
This checksum test compares the stored database
checksum with the calculated database checksum.
Since this test may take several seconds to
complete, the following screen is displayed until the
test is completed.
Database Test In Progress...
If the checksum test passes, the next screen is
displayed for two seconds.
Database Test Passed
Failure to pass the database checksum test indicates
that memory in the database is corrupted, and the
following message is displayed until you press
ENT.
Database Failed:
Press ENT
If the database checksum test fails, both the COM
board and the GPS board continue to function.
94
Start Up Displays
Special Use
Airspace
Displays
This display indicates whether Airspace Alerts have
been selected.
Airspace Alrts OFF: SEL to Reset
Database
Message
This page shows the database name and expiration
date. If the database has expired, the message
“Press ENT” will flash. Press ENT to continue
operation.
Americas DB
IFR Output
Tests
mm/dd/yy
A series of tests covering connections for IFR flight
are tested if your Apollo SL50/60 has been installed
for IFR flight.
Starting IFR Output Tests
After the completion of all tests the Apollo SL50/60
will start normal navigation operation.
95
Start Up Displays
Notes
96
Message Function
Message Function
Message function is responsible for warning the
user of changing conditions which require
immediate attention.
When a new message exists, the MSG annunciator
flashes on and off approximately twice per second,
until either the user views the new message, or the
condition causing the message goes away. If
multiple messages exist, the annunciator continues
to flash until all new messages have been viewed.
Most new messages continue to be relevant
following viewing of the new message, and are put
into the old message list, where they remain until
the condition causing the message goes away. Other
messages are cleared from the message list as soon
as they are viewed (they don’t become old
messages). The decision whether a new message
becomes an old message after viewing is described
for each individual case below in the List of
Messages section. The formats of all messages are
the same if they are in the new or old message list.
While any old message exists, the MSG annunciator
remains steadily on at all times unless new
messages arrive or all old message conditions go
away.
The home page in message mode is the first new
message, if one exists, or the New Message
Summary page if no new messages exist.
97
Message Function
New
Messages
MSG
The New Message page shows how many new
messages are stored.
1. Press MSG. Turn the Large knob to switch
between Old and New messages.
2. Turn the Small knob to view each message.
Old
Messages
MSG
The Old Message page shows how many old
messages are stored.
1. Press MSG. Turn the Large knob to switch
between Old and New messages.
2. Turn the Small knob to view each message.
Messages
The following is a summary of the conditions that
cause a message warning, and examples of the
messages generated for each condition.
Special Use Airspace Messages
Following is a list of the types of airspace messages
which can be generated. All of the airspace
messages become old messages after they are
viewed. The Airspace Messages are unique in
Message Mode in that they are the only messages
which the INFO key is used to find out more
information concerning the message.
Soon
This condition occurs when penetration of the
airspace is within 10 minutes (or user-selected limit
in System Mode)
Within 10 Min
98
GABBS CENTRAL
Message Function
Close
This condition occurs when the airspace is less than
2 nm (or user-selected limit in System Mode, see
page 65).
Within 2 nm
SUNDANCE
Inside
This condition occurs when the plane penetrates the
airspace.
Inside
NORTON AFB
Empty To Waypoint: Cannot Compute Nav
Anytime the current To waypoint is empty, this
message is generated. It becomes an old message
after viewing.
Empty To Waypoint: Cannot Compute Nav
GPS Communications Failure
When the GPS sensor stops communicating (after it
has established communications), this message is
generated. It becomes an old message after viewing.
GPS Communications Failure
GPS Command Failure
When data is being received from the GPS sensor
but responses to commands sent to the GPS sensor
are not being received, this message is generated.
This problem indicates that the GPS is not receiving
transmissions and cannot be used for IFR flight. It
becomes an old message after viewing and remains
an old message even if the condition does not
persist.
Tx to GPS Failed:
Not for IFR
99
Message Function
GPS Self Test Failure
If the GPS self-test fails, a message displays
indicating the cause of the failure in four hex digits.
It becomes an old message after viewing.
GPS Self Test Failure: 1FFF
GPS Sensor Lat/Lon Failure
When the GPS sensor cannot compute the latitude
and longitude, the following message displays. It
becomes an old message after viewing.
GPS Cannot Compute Lat/Lon
GPS RAIM Not Available
When RAIM detection is not available for the GPS
sensor, a warning is generated. The current flight
phase is displayed first (either Terminal or
Enroute). It becomes an old message after viewing.
Enroute GPS RAIM Not Available
GPS RAIM Position Error
When RAIM detection is available for the GPS
sensor and it detects a RAIM alarm, a warning is
generated. The current flight phase is displayed first
(either Terminal or Enroute). It becomes an old
message after viewing.
Terminal GPS RAIM Position Error
100
Message Function
GPS HDOP Position Error
When the HDOP for the GPS sensor exceeds
current flight phase HDOP requirements, a warning
is generated. The current flight phase is displayed
first (either Terminal or Enroute). It becomes an old
message after viewing.
Terminal GPS HDOP Position Error
Arrival At the To Waypoint
The arrival message is generated when within 36
seconds of arrival at the current To waypoint. It is
cleared after viewing it; it does not become an old
message after viewing. The arrival condition will
also go away without viewing the message after
crossing the angle bisector.
Not Holding at the To Waypoint
This form of the Arrival Alert is provided when not
holding at the current To waypoint. In addition to
the arrival waypoint identifier, the next leg’s
desired track is shown, when available; otherwise, it
is dashed.
Arrival: SLE
Next Dtk: 321
Holding at the To Waypoint
This form of the Arrival Alert is provided when
holding at the current To waypoint.
Arrival: SLE
- Holding -
101
Message Function
To Waypoint Sequence
When a waypoint sequence occurs and the user has
not viewed the arrival alert, the following alert is
provided if you are traveling faster than 5 knots
(this reduces the chance of nuisance alerts). The
new waypoint, bearing and desired track are
provided. This message does not become an old
message after viewing.
New Wpt: SLE
Brg 073
Dtk 069
Auto OBS Crossing Holding Waypoint
When a waypoint on hold is crossed to the From
side the first time, the following message is
provided. If you press ENT, the OBS Desired Track
screen is displayed. This message does not become
an old message after viewing.
Push ENT to set OBS Course
User Database Memory Loss
This message indicates that one or more user
waypoints or user-defined comments had a
checksum error. This message is cleared after the
message is viewed.
User DB Memory Loss:
2 Deleted
Comm Radio Failure (SL60 only)
This message indicates that the Comm Radio
module has failed. Call factory service.
Comm radio failure! : Service Now
102
Message Function
Flight Plan Memory Loss
This message indicates that one or more flight plans
had a checksum error. This message is cleared after
the message is viewed.
Flt Plan Memory Loss:
1 Deleted
User Memory Failure
This message indicates that one or more user
settings were not within valid limits at power-up
and needed to be reset. This message is cleared after
the message is viewed.
Memory Failure: Setups Reset
Database Expired
This message indicates that the internal waypoint
database’s expiration date is before the current UTC
date. This message is cleared after the message is
viewed.
Americas DB
Exp: 03/30/97
Database Invalid
This message indicates that the internal waypoint
database’s memory has been corrupted. It becomes
an old message after being viewed. Contact your
dealer or the factory for service.
Database Invalid:
Mem Corrupted
103
Message Function
Manual Magnetic Variation
This message indicates that magnetic variation is on
a manual setting. This occurs when the database is
not valid, or when the user selects manual magnetic
variation in System Mode. It becomes an old
message after being viewed.
Using Manual Mag Var:
130 E
Low Internal Battery Voltage
This message is generated when low internal
battery voltage is detected. It becomes an old
message after being viewed. Battery voltage is
checked every 15 seconds. This battery backs up
the memory for information added by the user.
Low Battery Voltage: Service Now
High Battery Voltage
This message is generated when high battery
voltage is detected. It becomes an old message after
being viewed. Battery voltage is checked every 15
seconds.
Battery Failure:
Turn Off Unit!
Countdown Timer Expired
This message is generated when the Countdown
Timer (which must have been counting down) goes
to 0. The message is cleared when the user views
the message or reactivates the Countdown Timer.
Countdown Timer Expired
104
Flight Simulator
Flight Simulator
About the
Flight
Simulator
Your Apollo SL50/60 is provided with a Flight
Simulation program that allows you to “fly” your
unit by simulating your ground speed. This section
describes the procedures used to run the Flight
Simulator, and re-install the unit.
The Flight Simulator is programmed into your
Apollo SL50/60 at the factory. Your Apollo must
be removed from the front panel of your aircraft
and connected to a power supply with the
appropriate power cable. The Flight Simulator is
activated during start up.
The Apollo SL50/60 “asks” you to input a ground
speed and altitude each time it is powered-up. This
speed and altitude information will remain constant
throughout the simulation. The Apollo SL50/60
uses a simulated GPS sensor to provide position,
speed, and course information. As no external
sensors are connected while the simulation is
running, no information is displayed about external
sensors. The simulated altitude does not change
while the Flight Simulator is running.
The Apollo SL50/60 uses the position of the first
From waypoint in the Active flight plan as the
initial position and simulates flight along the
desired track to each successive To waypoint.
While “en route,” the Apollo SL50/60 generates
updated navigation information and alert messages
consistent with the simulated flight path. When the
Apollo SL50/60 “arrives” at the final waypoint of
your flight plan, it stops waypoint sequencing. The
Apollo SL50/60 continues to simulate flight past
the waypoint and provides bearing and distance
information to the last To waypoint.
105
Flight Simulator
Starting the
Flight
Simulation
The following procedure is used to start the flight
simulation. It is recommended that you have a data
card properly inserted into the data card slot so you
can use the appropriate functions.
1. Remove the Apollo SL50/60 from the front panel
of your aircraft. Use a 3/32” hex driver
(p/n 998-0048 included with installation kit).
Mounting Screw
GPS/COMM
119.80
PULL SQUELCH
A POLLO SL60
s121.50
BRG 210' 17.1nm
TX
VOL
COM
NAV
SYS
MSG
D
INFO
ENT
SEL
OFF
2. Connect the Power/PC Cable (p/n 500-4026-xx)
to the connector on the back of your Apollo
SL50/60.
3. Turn on the power for the power supply. Turn on
the power for the Apollo SL50/60.
4. The Apollo SL50/60 will run its database and
memory tests. The display will then shown that it
is ready to start the Flight Simulator.
Simulator - NOT FOR FLIGHT
SEL
SEL
5. Press SEL to start the Flight Simulator. The
default ground speed will be displayed. The
ground speed value will flash. Turn the Small
knob to display the desired ground speed. Speed
values are changed in 10 kt increments.
Simulation Ground Speed
106
-
100kts
Flight Simulator
ENT
6. Press ENT to enter the displayed ground speed
values and start the flight simulation.
Simulation Ground Speed
ENT
7. You will prompted to use or clear the previous
Flight Plan. Turn the Small knob to choose Yes
or No. Press ENT. If you do nothing, the Apollo
SL50/60 will automatically retain the previous
Flight Plan and switch to the Nav function. The
Apollo SL50/60 will go to the Nav function and a
simulated GPS sensor begins tracking your
position from the first From waypoint in the
Active flight plan.
Clear Active Flight Plan?
Flight
Simulator
Operations
140kts
Yes
Once you’ve started the flight simulator, you may
practice the various operating procedures, such as
activating flight plans, entering Direct-To courses,
and inserting/deleting/changing waypoints in the
Active flight plan. The simulator is also useful for
planning purposes; you may create and edit flight
plans in the comfort of your office or home.
Changes made to flight plans and waypoints while
the simulator is running are retained when the
Apollo SL50/60 is reinstalled in the aircraft.
107
Flight Simulator
Notes
108
Troubleshooting
Troubleshooting
Contacting
the Factory
This section contains information to troubleshoot
your Apollo GPS Receiver when improper
operation is observed. The following table lists
possible problems you could encounter while
operating the unit. Examine the possible causes of
the problem and take the action listed to correct the
trouble. If you cannot correct the problem, contact
your dealer. If your dealer is unavailable, contact
the II Morrow factory at the address and phone
number listed.
If efforts to resolve the problem fail, contact your
dealer or the factory weekdays from 8:00 A.M. until
5:00 P.M. Pacific time for technical assistance. The
II Morrow technical service staff will gladly assist
you.
Please have the following information ready:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
System configuration (products, antennas, mounting
locations, etc.)
Model No., part number, and serial number
Software versions
Description of the problem
Efforts made to isolate/solve the problem
Computed Lat/Lon position shown on your Apollo
Local time, UTC time, and date
II Morrow Inc.
Technical Service Department
2345 Turner Road S.E.
Salem, OR 97302 U.S.A.
U.S.A. Toll Free 800-525-6726
Canada Toll Free 800-654-3415
FAX (503) 364-2138
International (503) 391-3411
109
Troubleshooting
Problem
Unit does not
power on
Possible Cause
Open in power
supply circuit
Faulty electrical
wiring or
connection
110
No GPS signal
reception
Obstructed signal
path
Search for nearest
waypoints reveals
too few or wrong
types of waypoints
Incorrect seed
position, time, or
UTC differential
entered
If using a wrong
antenna: faulty
external antenna,
wiring, or
connections
Incorrect selection
of waypoint types
to show after
search
Position fix seems
inaccurate
Waypoints
sequencing is
erratic
Wrong seed
position
Direct-To entry
option setting may
not be correct
Wrong bearing
and track values
Incorrect magnetic
variation entered
Can’t change
active frequency
Comm Radio not
communicating
Action
Check circuit
breaker - reset if
necessary
Contact your
dealer to perform
electrical system
test
Move aircraft out
of hangar or away
from buildings to
provide an
unobstructed view
of the sky for the
antenna
Check these
settings, if
necessary
Contact your
dealer to check the
antenna and other
wiring
Check “Airspace
Setup” function
and verify that the
desired waypoint
type to search is
“ON”
Re-enter seed
position
If you are flying
Direct-To, the
option should be
set to “May Clear”,
see page 73
Check Magnetic
Var option - select
“Automatic” or
enter correct value
Contact dealer.
Glossary of Navigation Terms
Glossary of Navigation Terms
A
Altitude (GPS ALT): Altitude, as calculated by the
Apollo SL50/60, based upon a mathematical model
of the earth’s surface curvature. A substantial
difference between this altitude value and altitude
referenced to sea level may exist.
Almanac: Data transmitted by a GPS satellite
including orbit information on all satellites, clock
correction, and atmospheric delays.
Automatic Terminal Information Service
(ATIS): Recorded information about weather and
other conditions at an airport, periodically updated
when conditions change.
Autonav: The function that allows you to set the
SL50/60 to scroll automatically through selected
navigation displays .
Azimuth: an arc, as measured clockwise from true
or magnetic north.
B
Bearing (BRG): The direction to any point, usually
measured in degrees relative to true or magnetic
north.
C
Circular Error Probable (CEP): As applied to
GPS position fix accuracy, the radius of a circle
inside of which there exists a 50 percent chance of
being located.
Constellation: A group of stars or objects, such as
GPS satellites, in the heavens.
Coordinates: Values for latitude and longitude that
describe a geographical point on the surface of the
earth.
Course: The planned direction of travel between
the departure and destination waypoints.
111
Glossary of Navigation Terms
Course Deviation: A measurement of distance left
or right from the desired course of travel.
Course Deviation Indicator (CDI): A graphic
indicator of course deviation typically shown as a
graduated horizontal bar with an icon indicating the
deviation distance left or right of course.
Common Traffic Advisory Frequency (CTAF)
D
Database: A collection of data structured in such a
way as to allow quick and convenient access to any
particular record or records. The Apollo SL50/60
contains a built-in database of waypoints and
waypoint information. Users may add waypoints to
this database.
Degree: 1/360th of a circle.
Departure: The first waypoint in the active route.
Desired Track (DTK): The desired course of
navigation between a point of origin and a
destination waypoint.
Destination: The last waypoint in the active route.
Dilution of Precision (DOP): A merit value for the
calculated position based on the geometrical
configuration of the satellites used; 3 is considered
good, greater than 7 is considered poor. Also called
Position Dilution of Precision or PDOP.
Direct-To: The function or procedure that directs
you from your present position to the designated
TO, or destination, waypoint.
Distance: A measure of interval in space. Also
referred to as range.
DME - Distance Measuring Equipment
112
Glossary of Navigation Terms
Drift: Displacement from the intended course of
travel.
E
Elevation: The angle of a GPS satellite above the
horizon.
Emergency Search: The function that allows to
immediately navigate to the nearest airport in the
case of an emergency.
Ephemeris: A list of accurate positions or locations
of a celestial object as function of time.
Estimated Time of Arrival (ETA) - The estimated
time from your present position to the destination
(TO) waypoint.
Estimated Time Enroute (ETE) - The estimated
time from your starting (FROM) waypoint to the
destination (TO) waypoint.
F
Fix: A geographical location determined by either
visual reference or by electronic navigation aids.
Flight Time: Flight Time shows the elapsed time in
hours and minutes (00:00 to 99:59) from departure.
If the Flight Timer is not started the value will be
replaced with dashes. The Flight Timer options are
set in the System Functions (see page 72).
Flight Plan: A series of two or more waypoints.
G
GDOP: Geometric Dilution of Precision. The
relationship between errors in receiver position and
time and in satellite range.
Global Positioning System (GPS): Also known as
NAVSTAR. A constellation of satellites launched by
the U.S. Department of Defense into six orbit lanes
(four satellites per plane) at an altitude of 10,898 nm
above the earth.
Greenwich Mean Time (GMT): See Universal
Time Coordinate (UTC).
113
Glossary of Navigation Terms
Ground (GRND):
frequency
Ground
communication
Ground Speed (GS): Speed of travel across the
ground. In aviation, the relation between ground
speed and air speed is affected by the prevailing
winds.
H
HDOP: Horizontal Dilution of Precision. See
Dilution Of Precision.
Heading: The direction that the aircraft is pointing.
I
Identifier: A name, typically abbreviated, assigned
to a waypoint. The identifier may consist of
numbers and alpha characters, up to six in length.
For example, the airport identifier for Los Angeles
International Airport is LAX.
Instrument Flight Rules (IFR)
Intersection (INT): A point defined by any
combination of courses, radials, or bearings of two or
more navigational aids.
K
Knot (kt): A unit of speed equal to one nautical
mile per hour.
L
Latitude (Lat): Any line circling the earth parallel
to the equator, measured in degrees, minutes, and
seconds north and south of the equator.
LFAC: Landing FACility.
Longitude (Lon): Any line from the north to the
south pole, measured in degrees, minutes, and
seconds of a circle, east or west of the Prime
Meridian (Greenwich, England).
M
114
Magnetic North: The region, some distance from
the geographic north pole where the earth’s
Glossary of Navigation Terms
magnetic lines concentrate. A magnetic compass
points to the magnetic north.
Magnetic Variation (Mag Var): The angle
between the magnetic and true north. At various
points on the earth it is different due to local
magnetic disturbances. It is shown on charts as
isogonic lines marked with degrees of variation,
either east or west. These degrees must be added to
or subtracted from the true course to get the
magnetic course. (Easterly variations are deducted,
and westerly variations are added.) The Apollo
SL50/60 automatically sets magnetic variation to 0
degrees at positions above 70 degrees north or south
latitude.
Map Datum: A mathematical model of the earth
used for the purpose of creating navigation charts
and maps. The Apollo SL50/60 uses the WGS84
map datum.
MESA: Minimum Enroute Safe Altitude is the
highest MSA for every point between the aircraft
present position and the “TO” waypoint with a 5
nm buffer around the course.
Meter (m): A metric distance measurement equal
to 39.37 inches.
Minute: 1/60th of a degree.
MSA: Minimum Safe Altitude. The elevation of the
highest obstruction near the aircraft plus a 1,000 or
2,000 foot buffer added for safety. In
non-mountainous terrain, a 1,000 foot buffer is
added. In mountainous terrain, a 2,000 foot buffer is
added. The result is rounded to the nearest 100 feet.
N
Nautical Mile (nm): A distance measurement equal
to 6,076 feet, or 1.15 statute mile. One nautical mile
is also equal to one minute of latitude.
115
Glossary of Navigation Terms
NAVSTAR: The name given to GPS satellites
formed from the acronym for NAVigation System
with Time And Ranging.
Non-Directional Beacon (NDB): A low
frequency/medium frequency navigation aid
sending non-directional signals that can be used for
navigation.
O
OBS: Omni-Bearing Selector.
P
Parallel Track Offset: A course that is parallel to
the designated course, but offset to the right or left
by a given distance.
PDOP: Position Dilution of Precision. See Dilution
of Precision.
R
Radial: Any of the 360 magnetic courses from a
VOR or similar navigational aid, beginning at the
navigational aid and proceeding outward in a
straight line.
RAIM:
Receiver
Autonomous
Integrity
Monitoring. A method of predicting possible
system accuracy errors that may be caused by bad
satellite data. The RAIM algorithm requires that
more satellites are available and usable than
required for a normal GPS position fix.
Range (RNG): The distance from the present
position to a destination waypoint.
S
Second: 1/60th of a minute of a degree.
Seed Position: A latitude and longitude position fix
approximately equal to the current position that the
Apollo SL50/60 uses to determine the location of
available satellites from which signals may be
received.
116
Glossary of Navigation Terms
Selective Availability (SA): The degradation of
accuracy of GPS position fix data by the United
States Department of Defense for civilian use.
Space Vehicle (SV): A GPS satellite.
Statute Mile: A distance measurement equal to
5,280 feet or 0.87 of a nautical mile.
T
Three-dimensional (3D) Position Fix: A position
fix defined by latitude, longitude, and altitude.
Track (TRK): The imaginary line that the flight
path of an airplane makes over the earth.
Track Angle: The angle of your actual direction of
travel. Track angle is computed using the magnetic
variation at the Present Position.
Track Angle Error (TAE): The difference
between the Desired Track and the Track Angle
(Dtk - Trk = Tae). Track angle is computed using
the magnetic variation at the Present Position.
True North: Geographic north, at the earth’s north
pole.
Tower (TWR): Airport tower communication
frequency
U
UNICOM: The radio frequencies assigned to
aeronautical advisory stations for communication
with aircraft. Unicoms may provide such airport
information as active runway, wind direction and
velocity and other conditions of importance to
pilots.
Universal Time Coordinate (UTC): Greenwich
Mean Time, or the time at the Prime Meridian in
Greenwich, England. Also referred to as Zulu time.
UTC Differential: The difference in time between
that at the present position and UTC.
117
Glossary of Navigation Terms
Universal Transverse Mercator Map Projection
System (UTM): Also known as Military Grid
Coordinates, the UTM grid consists of 60
north-south/east-west zones, each six degrees wide
in longitude.
V
Very High Frequency Omnirange (VOR): A
navigational aid that transmits signals such that a
receiver can indicate its current radial or bearing
from the transmitter.
VHF: Very High Frequency. The range of
frequencies between 30 and 300 MHz.
W
118
Waypoint: A navigation fix used in area navigation
and defined by latitude and longitude coordinates.
INDEX
Info62
A
Key4
Airspace95
Sidetone level64
Buffers65
Signal strength63
Selections66
Software version63
Setup65
Airspace 96
Comm Radio81, 82, 83, 84, 85,
86, 87, 88
Close99
Auto stack list85
Inside99
Frequency
abbreviations84
Soon98
Intercom88
Altitude90
Annunciators3
Monitoring frequencies
82
Arriving at To wpt101
Recalling frequencies83
Autonav18, 67
B
Bar graph20
Remote frequencies83
Battery voltage104
Squelch88
Bearing19
Stuc mic88
Selecting frequencies81
C
User frequencies86
CDI20
Scaling74
Controls4
Sensitivity20
Countdown timer30
City name15, 16
Com
Cross track distance21
D
Database message95
Audio noise level63
Database test94
Headphone level63
Database version76
119
Date and Time75
Emergency search25, 41
Description
Enter key5
Cross track distance21
Estimate ground speed57
Desired track22
Estimated time enroute19, 51,
52
Nav display19
Nav terms18
SL501
SL602
To-From switching21
Waypoint11
Desired track22
Direct-To15, 36, 53, 73
Key5
OBS36
Direct-To 15, 36, 53, 73
May Clear73
Never Clears73
Display2
Test77
Display software version77
Distance off track20
E
E-Mailii
Emergency channel87
Estimated time of arrival25, 51
F
Facility name15
Factory109
Flight plan61
Active48
Comments59
Continue59
Creating48
Deleting legs55
Editing53, 54
Hold58
Inserting legs54
Leg info50
Manual leg53
Options56
Flight plan 6147, 48, 49, 50,
51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58,
59, 60
Activate56
Clear waypoints57
120
Copy plan57
Health13
Delete plan58
Introduction89
Estimate ground speed
57
Position30
Reset80
Estimated fuel flow57
Satellites13, 80
Pages47
Signal strength13
Reactivate56
GPS 79, 80, 89
Rename56
Health79
Rev activate56
Time79
Reverse flight plan57
GPS software version77
Flight Simulation106
Flight simulator105, 106, 107,
108
Ground speed23
H
History of Revisionsii
Operation107
Hold35
Starting106
Flight time24, 72
Holding at To wpt101
I
IFR output tests95
Flip/Flop key4
Info28, 37, 40, 59, 62, 98
From/To/Next32, 35
Key5
From-To distance22
Info 28, 37, 40, 60, 62, 9883
Fuel52
Intercom3
Fuel measure units77
G
Glossary111, 112, 113, 114,
115, 116, 117, 118
GPS79, 80, 89
Failure100
K
Key4
M
Magnetic variation71
Memory test91
Memory test 9294
121
Message5, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101,
102, 103, 104
Part numbersii
Password78
Minimum enroute safe altitude
24
Password 7778
Minimum safe altitude24
PDOP30
Monitor3
Plus sign15
Multiple facilities40
N
Navigation17, 65
Power Up9
R
Range20
Customizing pages69
Reference Waypoint10, 26
Home page17
Reference Waypoint 10, 2611
Pages19, 70
Relative Bearing Indicator3
Navigation 17, 64
Remove unit from aircraft106
Empty To waypoint99
Runway length43
Programmable pages67
Runway limits27
Key4
Runway surface27
S
Seed Position9, 10
Nearest
Nearest waypoint14
Select key5
Non-volatile RAM test93
O
Ordering Informationii
Serial number76
Owner information77
Software memory test92
Owner message91
P
Pages 19, 7069
Software version76
Parallel track29
Parallel track 2930
122
Setting units71
Special use airspace28
Specifications6, 7, 8
Squelch knob4
Standby29
Next34
Standby 293
To34
Start up displays91, 92, 93, 94,
95, 96
Type32
User42, 44, 45, 46
Symbol
User info38
Airplane20
VOR info38
System61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66,
67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74,
75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80
T
Track angle23
Track angle error23
Waypoint 61, 90
Auto OBS crossing102
Comments46
To102
Transmit3
Weather channel87
Troubleshooting109, 110
U
User database memory failure93
Web Pageii
UTC time24
V
Volume knob4
W
Waypoint61, 90
Airport info37
Destination14, 59
Getting info39
Information37
Intersection info38
NDB info38
Nearest14
123
II MORROW
V
I
S
I
O
N
A
R
Y
T
H
I
N
K
I
N
G
T
O
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© 1997 by II Morrow Inc.
2345 Turner Rd., S.E.
Salem, OR 97302
U.S.A.
Phone 503.581.8101
800.525.6726
In Canada 800.654.3415
FAX 503.364.2138
http://www.iimorrow.com
Part #560-0955-01
April 1997
A
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