May/June 1999 - Extron Electronics

MAY/JUNE 1999
VOLUME 10
NUMBER 3
The Most Versatile Architectural Interfaces Ever!
Extron’s new RGB 500 Series with ADSP™
Extron’s new RGB 500 Series interfaces are designed to be the most
advanced and versatile series of architectural interfaces ever. By using
advanced technology, the RGB 500
Series interfaces overcome most of the
limitations that can arise when using
architectural interfaces. Limitations
such as fitting them into an electrical
box or very thin walls, or incompatibility with LCD/DLP/Plasma displays.
Wouldn’t you like to have the choice
between using a universal 9-pin input
connector or a standard 15-pin HD
input connector? What about custom
configuring auxiliary connections and
two-unit side by side mounting? And
then there’s the challenge of integrating interfaces into the European
electrical channels. If you have had to
work around any of these limitations
and have been faced with such chal-
Included Wall
Mounting Bracket
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Audio (3.5mm
Captive Screw
Connector)
Power (3.5mm
Captive Screw
Connector)
5 BNC Output
17 Conductor
Plenum Install
Cable
RGB 550
The RGB 550 with ADSP (Advanced Digital Sync Processing)
is a universal, mountable HD 15 input interface that combines
the flexibility found in all of Extron's Architectural Series
products with our latest innovations in technology.
(continued on page 12–
See “RGB 500 Series”)
Extron‘s New Digital Video Scaler with
PC, HDTV and Plasma Video Output Rates
Video technology has made leaps and
bounds over the last decade. A good
illustration of this is the evolution of
digital display technology, i.e., LCD,
DLP, Plasma and ILA. Only a few years
ago LCD projectors were regarded as
glorified carry-ons for the travelling
presenter. Now, they take center stage in
churches, educational facilities, boardrooms, control centers and many other
high-end A/V installs.
Along with the improvement of display
technology, video too will see its day of
refinement. With the impending arrival
of HDTV A/V professionals will soon be
able to take advantage of the benefits
better-looking video has to offer. With
that in mind, Extron’s new DVS 100
digital video scaler is about to catapult
A/V system design into the year 2006.
(continued on page 2– See “DVS 100”)
DVS 100
In This Issue:
Tweeker Use ............................................................3
Taking the Strain Out ..............................................4
Comb Filters—Part 4 ..............................................5
New Products ..........................................................6
Tech Corner: Scaler Technology ..............................9
Unique Techniques: Extron Goes Hollywood..........10
New News..............................................................14
E X T R O N E W S M AY / J U N E 1 9 9 9
DVS 100–
continued from page 1
In 2006 all TV stations must be in conformity with the new HDTV format standards
according to the FCC (Federal
Communications Commission). So what
does all this have to do with a video scaler?
Nothing, unless the video scaler is the
Extron DVS 100 with HDTV output rates.
The DVS 100 provides three HDTV output
rates including 480p, 720p and 1080p.
Pretty soon all those cool, futuristic looking
displays with the 16:9 aspect ratio will no
longer be an expensive novelty. They are
increasingly becoming part of the technobuzz lexicon; the "I got to have that"
accessory amongst A/V professionals, home
theater zealots and Fortune 500 executives
alike. In fact, you too may long to hang a
Plasma display right above the fireplace.
But just because the digital bug has bitten
does not mean we have to throw out all of
the existing analog-based components. The
key is to bring systems up to speed by
incorporating new products that convert
standard NTSC/PAL/SECAM video into
something we can really use for digital
displays; something that provides the video
quality we desire.
WHAT THE DVS 100 DOES
The abridged definition of a scaler is a
device that ‘up-converts’, or ‘scales up’,
interlaced NTSC/PAL/SECAM video to
non-interlaced RGB video. Similar to a
computer’s video output, non-interlaced
video provides greater resolution and a
video image that far surpasses interlaced
video quality. In this conversion process,
the DVS 100 up-converts standard video
resolutions to computer-video, progressive
HDTV or Plasma resolutions. Standard
video is scaled up to computer-video
refresh rates of 60 Hz and 75 Hz at resolutions of 640 x 480, 800 x 600, 832 x 624,
1024 x 768 and 1280 x 1024. HDTV output
rates include 480p, 720p and 1080p. And to
match the resolutions and timings of Plasma
displays from Fujitsu, NEC, Pioneer, and
others, the DVS 100 provides Plasma
output rates including 852 x 480, 848 x
480, 1280 x768 and 1360 x 765.
Extron’s DVS 100 optimizes the video
signal for a given display’s "sweet spot."
The sweet spot, or native resolution, is a
2
specific resolution for which the projector
best performs. Digital displays are
somewhat finicky and require specific resolutions and video signals to output the best
picture. Typically, the desired resolutions
are in the ranges of 640 x 480 up to 1280 x
1024 with signals decoded into separate
RGBHV. Resolutions are scaled up by
taking the horizontal & vertical sync
timing, and number of lines from the
standard video input, then converting them
into higher resolution formats. The scaling
method used by Extron’s DVS 100 provides
exceptional motion compensation so
moving video images have "jaggie-free,"
smooth edges.
how your image will appear on a display
screen. Not all of the video input’s lines are
used for image information. Some of the
lines at the top and bottom, the blanking
lines, are used to encode other information,
such as closed-captioning. With variable top
and bottom vertical blanking, the user can
add black lines at the top and bottom of the
screen until all of the edge noise is eliminated. Therefore, LCD, DLP, Plasma and
other display devices are able to display
images true to their original detail.
DVS 100
Not only does the DVS 100 scale video, it
also de-interlaces the signal so that the
number of lines is expanded. Expanded
lines provide two benefits: a brighter
picture and absence of distortion. More
visible lines mean more pixels are illuminated-which gives you a brighter picture.
More visible lines also mean that the information is able to fill the screen both horizontally and vertically eliminating image
distortion.
ExtroNews™
INPUTS, OUTPUTS AND DECODING
As mentioned, most digital displays like to
see separate RGBHV. However, most installations, if not all, are using one or more
forms of standard video, i.e., composite,
S-video or component. The DVS 100
accepts all three of these video-input
formats and decodes them. The scaled
output is provided simultaneously in
RGBHV on a 15-pin HD connector and
RGBHV, RGBS or RGsB on six BNCs.
Standard video has a tendency to contain
chroma noise and artifact. To help eliminate
these image impairments, the DVS 100 uses
a high quality decoder with a three-line
adaptive comb filter for Y/C separation.
This ensures a more clean, stable image.
Additionally, the DVS 100’s decoder is
quad-standard and therefore compatible
with NTSC, NTSC 4.43, PAL and SECAM.
VARIABLE BLANKING
The DVS 100’s variable top and bottom
vertical blanking gives you control over
(continued on next page)
Managing Editors: Amy Kramer,
Carol Hubben
Technical Editors: Jim Scrivner,
Roger McCarten, Pat Charlton,
Joe da Silva, Mike Fitzgerald
Graphic Designers: Jill Streit, Cyme Azar
Technical Illustrator: Randy Drumm
Technical Writers: Bill Field, June Lee
President: Andrew Edwards
V.P., Finance: Ed Ellingwood
V.P., Operations: Bob Nichols
V.P., Product Development: Dave Pincek
V.P., R&D: Brian Taraci
V.P., Engineering: Steve Somers
V.P., Human Resources: Joanne Grush
V.P., Information Technologies: Ivan Perez
National Sales Managers:
Jeff Gibson, Mandi Speer
Int’l Sales Manager: Geoff Abbott
We welcome your comments and
contributions! Please submit ideas to
Carol Hübben • 714.491.1500
800.633.9876
Volume 10, Number 3 May/June, 1999
ExtroNews is published by Extron
Electronics/ RGB Systems Inc. 1230 South
Lewis Street, Anaheim, CA 92805. All rights
reserved. No portion of this newsletter may
be reproduced in any form without written
permission from the managing editor of
Extron Electronics’ ExtroNews. Every effort
has been made to ensure accuracy in content; however, Extron assumes no responsibility for errors and omissions in the information provided herein. ExtroNews is sent
free of charge to communication industry
professionals and end-users. Send address
changes, requests for copies, and editorial
correspondence to: Marketing Dept., Extron
Electronics, at the address above, or call
714.491.1500 or 800.633.9876; FAX
714.491.1978. Printed in the United States
of America.
E X T R O N E W S M AY / J U N E 1 9 9 9
RS-232 Control
or Computer
LCD Display
or
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DVS 100
Plasma Display
or
VCR
Laser Disk Player
Video Monitor
DVS 100 Application Diagram
SYSTEM DESIGN
The DVS 100 was designed as an integral
component to an A/V system. It comes in a
rack mountable, metal enclosure and
provides an internal (100-240 VAC, 50/60
Hz) auto-switchable power supply. It
provides RS-232, contact closure and front
panel control. RS-232 control may be
achieved through Extron’s own Simple
Instruction Set (SIS™) or a Windows®based control program. The DVS 100 also
has two non-volatile memory inputs for
storing specific decoder settings.
Other features of the DVS 100 include
picture controls for color, tint, contrast,
brightness, horizontal shift and vertical
shift; advanced menu controls; LCD panel
control graphic; and an executive mode
lock out.
Extron’s new DVS 100 (PN: 60-304-01)
lists for $2,325 and will debut at ICIA’s
1999 INFOCOMM International® in
booth #2069.
Reggi Baika from Crimson Tech of Cambridge, MA
has transformed an Extron tweeker
into the body of a high-flying S3 machine.
No doubt the Extron Flyer is still
soaring through the wild blue yonder.
Send us your photograph
of how you use the Tweeker.
If we publish it in a
future issue of ExtroNews,
we’ll give you a free VTG 150.
Send entries
(along with your explanation)
to: Extron Tweeker Contest
1230 S. Lewis Street
Anaheim, CA 92805
http://www.extron.com/product/dvs100.stm
3
E X T R O N E W S M AY / J U N E 1 9 9 9
Taking the Strain Out
by Mandi Speer,
National Sales Manager
A cable with strain relief is better
than a cable without strain relief,
right? Not quite. Understanding what
strain relief is, and what to look for,
will help you evaluate the effectiveness of a cable’s strain relief. All strain
relief cables aren’t created equal.
Although two strain reliefs may look
the same, one may be effective while
the second may provide little or no
strain relief. Figures 1–3 each show a
cable that is being pulled at a 90
degree angle to the BNC connector.
The way the cable responds depends
on whether proper strain relief is
present, and on the quality of the strain
relief.
Figure 1 shows a cable without a
strain relief. Note how sharply the
cable is bent. This is referred to as a
small bend radius. The small radius is
displayed on the graph within figure 1.
The coaxial cable may be crushed, torn
or completely severed at the point of
the bend since it is being pressed
against the sharp edge of the BNC
connector. The dielectric will most
likely be crushed by the bend,
changing the distance between the
cable’s shield and the center conductor.
This will change the impedance,
resulting in signal reflection. The
Small bend radius
FIGURE 1.
A cable without a strain relief
4
result will be signal degradation or
signal loss. Considering the number of
cables in a typical AV system, the
potential for such a problem is considerable. In a complex system locating a
damaged cable could take substantial
time.
MANDI SPEER
Good strain relief increases the bend
radius, preventing the cable from
being damaged. Figure 2 shows
Extron’s new BNC cable which
features strain relief. Strain relief is
accomplished by means of a boot. The
boot is a semi-rigid protective
covering at the BNC-cable connection.
Note that the bend radius is now
increased, even with tension on the
cable. The cable no longer has the
sharp bend. Notice how the
sections/notches of the strain relief
boot compress evenly, so there is no
kink at any point. The result is a more
gradual and consistent bend, which
prevents damage to the cable. Good
strain relief results when the boot is
neither too rigid nor too flexible.
boot is too rigid and does not bend,
so the cable still kinks. All that has
changed is that the point of the kink
has been moved away from the
connector. Other cables may have
boots that are too flexible, allowing
sharp bends within the boot section.
Again, proper strain relief does not
occur. The best way to test the
quality of a cable’s strain relief is to
bend it at a 90 degree angle to the
connector. Watch for binding
between the sections and resulting
sharp kinks. Cable with proper
strain relief will always produce the
result seen in Figure 2.
As was stated earlier, all strain reliefs
are not created equal. Consider Figure 3.
This cable appears to have a strain
relief. However, when actually tested,
the cable still bends too sharply. The
Extron’s BNC-4 HR cable and
BNC-5 HR cable feature strain
relief. Feel free to test the quality
of our strain relief. We are sure you
will be pleased with the results.
Bend radius increased
through the use of
strain relief
FIGURE 2.
A cable with Extron's strain relief
Small bend radius
FIGURE 3.
A cable with an ineffective strain relief
E X T R O N E W S M AY / J U N E 1 9 9 9
Comb Filters:
NTSC Decoding Basics
by Steve Somers, V.P. Engineering
Adaptive Comb Filter
Decoders (Part 4)
This is the last installment of our
series on NTSC decoding basics, and
Y/C separation in particular.
Meanwhile the quest for high quality
decoders continues on into the sunset
of NTSC. The emphasis here is on
the first step in the process known as
Y/C (luma/chroma) separation since it
does represent the most crucial step in
realizing the full potential of the
transmission medium. The earlier
installments covered NTSC signal
creation, notch/bandpass filtering, and
line comb filters.
Implementation of high-speed digital
processing and low cost memory
components facilitated many improvements in Y/C separation. These strides
in decoding performance involve
decision-making, called adaption,
Composite
NTSC
based upon image content. Moreover,
having more image memory available
means that video processing can now
take place beyond the original 2D
boundaries (i.e. the information within
a picture field). Processing decisions
now extend into the temporal realm, or
from picture frame to picture frame.
This means more intelligence in Y/C
separation as subject matter moves
across the screen from frame to frame.
2D OR NOT 2D?
Since conventional (line type) comb
filters have problems handling diagonal
lines and vertical color changes, it
seems the first order of business would
be to tackle these tricky situations.
Remember that when processing
diagonal lines, succeeding luma (Y)
information is shifted in time and does
1-H
Delay
1-H
Delay
1
/2
1
/4
+
Y CHANNEL
1
/4
1
/2
1
/4
-
C CHANNEL
STEVE SOMERS
not properly cancel line-to-line or fieldto-field. This results in Y information
being interpreted as chroma (C) information. The outcome is “cross color”
or the rainbow effect in the region of
the diagonal lines. The vertical color
changes, which do not match in time at
the transition point, result in chroma
information being interpreted as Y
information. Hence, you see the
“hanging dots” at the color boundary.
Now, suppose we take the two-line
comb design discussed previously
(see Figure 1). This design is
comparing data between two stored
lines and the incoming data. It utilizes
averaging to soften the transition
between colors. If we add a system
called a correlator, data between the
three lines can be tested before any
actual averaging or summation takes
place (see Figure 2). Here, if there is
significant correlation of data value
between Line 1 and Line 2, then CF= 0
and a difference between Line 2 and
Line 1 is used. But, if Line 2 and Line
3 correlate to a higher degree, CF= 1
and the difference between Line 2 and
Line 3 is used. If there is no correlation
1
/4
FIGURE 1. 2-LINE COMB FILTER
(continued on page 18–
See “Comb Filters”)
5
E X T R O N E W S M AY / J U N E 1 9 9 9
For more information on these, or any other products,
contact your local Extron Representative at 714.491.1500 or 800.633.9876 (Extron USA)
+31.33.453.4040 (Extron Europe) +65.226.0015 (Extron Asia).
Five New Interfaces with ADSP™
(Advanced Digital Sync Processing)
At Extron, we see universal interfaces as not
only needing to work with all types of
computers, but with all types of displays. As a
result, ADSP™, Advanced Digital Sync
Processing has been built into our new
RGB 130xi, 134xi, 138xi, 150xi, and 158xi
universal interfaces. Each of these has 300 MHz
(-3dB) of video bandwidth, and is compatible
with a wide variety of computer signals
including SVGA, XGA, SXGA, XGA-2, Mac,
SUN, SGI, and more. All of these products
include audio interfacing, with unbalanced,
computer-generated audio being automatically
converted to balanced line level audio. Other
features include three-position level/peaking
control, horizontal shift and automatic sync
stripping on all color lines. Six BNC connectors provide simultaneous composite and
separate sync, with sync on green also
available.
RGB 130xi Interface
The RGB 130xi is a full-featured
universal interface in a compact
package. In addition to the other
features mentioned, the RGB 130xi
includes horizontal and vertical shift
with dip switch selectable 75 ohm input
termination. The RGB 130xi also
provides a monitor breakout cable
power output jack for use with Extron
buffered MBCs. The RGB 130xi
(PN: 60-290-01) lists for $720.
http://www.extron.com/product/rgb130xi.stm
RGB 134xi Interface
The RGB 134xi features all of the functionality and capabilities of the
RGB 130xi, but also provides two sets of simultaneous use BNC
outputs. With the RGB 134xi, two outputs are available without the
need for a distribution amplifier. The RGB 134xi (PN: 60-291-01)
lists for $995.
http://www.extron.com/product/RGB134xi.stm
RGB 138xi Interface
The RGB 138xi takes the capabilities
of the RGB 130xi and adds several key
features. First, the interface includes
two double-size architectural adapter
plates for use with up to four sets of
optional signal pass-through connectors. These plates are available with
many of the pass-through connectors
needed for most audio/visual systems.
Second, the RGB 138xi includes an
unswitched AC outlet on its front panel
(600 watts max). This outlet provides a
convenient method of powering a
laptop or other device. The RGB 138xi
(PN: 60-292-01) lists for $860.
http://www.extron.com/product/rgb138xi.stm
6
E X T R O N E W S M AY / J U N E 1 9 9 9
RGB 150xi Interface
its monitor without needing a separate
cable to split the signal before reaching
the interface. The RGB 150xi also
provides ID bit termination on pins 4
and 11 of its 15-pin HD input. This is
necessary for use with computers that
will not operate properly should a local
monitor not be detected. The RGB
150xi (PN: 60-293-01) lists for $795.
The RGB 150xi is similar to the RGB
130xi in that it includes peaking, audio
interfacing and a signal detection
standby/lock indicator. However, the
RGB 150xi uses the 15-pin HD
connector found on many VGA cables.
This model also provides a buffered
15-pin HD local monitor output,
allowing the attached computer to use
http://www.extron.com/product/rgb150xi.stm
RGB 158xi Interface
The RGB 158xi takes the features of
the RGB 150xi and adds two doublesize architectural adapter plates for use
with up to four sets of optional signal
pass-through connectors. These adapter
plates are similar to those found on the
RGB 138xi, and allow cables to be
plugged into the front panel of the
enclosure. In addition to the adapter
for $125 without audio and $140 with
audio. The 13W3 adapter cable kit
(PN: 70-079-01) lists for $155 and
$170 with audio. The RGB 158xi (PN:
60-294-01) lists for $895.
plates, the RGB 158xi includes an
unswitched AC outlet on its front panel
(600 watts max). A Macintosh adapter
cable kit (PN: 70-078-01) is available
for the RGB 150xi and 158xi, and lists
http://www.extron.com/product/rgb150xi.stm
Optional Mounting Kits
Through-desk or
Rack Mounted
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Optional mounting kits are available for
all five interfaces, including an underdesk kit (PN: 70-077-01), a throughdesk kit (PN: 70-077-02), and a
through-desk/rack mount kit for the
RGB 138xi, 158xi and MCP 1000
(PN: 70-077-03). These detachable
mounting tabs affix to the sides of each
interface and allow them to be mounted
in racks, underneath or through any flat
surface.
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Under Desk Kit
Through-desk Kit
Through-desk/rack mount Kit
7
E X T R O N E W S M AY / J U N E 1 9 9 9
DDS 100
Digital Display Scaler
You need to display your high-resolution SUN
workstation computer-video on your Plasma
display—but your lower-resolution Plasma
display won’t lock to the high resolution signal.
Solution: Use Extron’s DDS 100, a digital
display scaler that scales computer video signals
up or down to match the native resolution of
your Plasma display.
The DDS 100 is ideal for viewing images on
display devices such as Plasma displays,
LCDs, and DLPs. The DDS 100 accepts any
computer resolution up to 1600 x 1280, with
horizontal scan rates up to 100 kHz and
vertical rates up to 120 Hz. The DDS 100
features BNCs for RGB input and local monitor
loop-out. The DDS 100 offers these computervideo scalable outputs: 640 x 480, 800 x 600,
832 x 624, 720p (HDTV), and 1024 x 768. For
Plasma displays, the DDS 100 provides these
Plasma rates: 848 x 480, 852 x 480, 1280 x 768,
and 1360 x 765. RGsB, RGBS, or RGBHV
output is available simultaneously on five BNCs
and a female VGA connector.
The DDS 100 features four levels of horizontal
and ten levels of vertical filters to prevent detail
loss and reduce flicker. The DDS 100 offers zoom
control, centering/pan controls, and 130 memory
locations—30 user-set and 100 factory presets.
The DDS 100 (PN: 60-305-01) lists for
$2995.00 (US Dollars).
http://www.extron.com/product/dds100.stm
MCP 1000 Control Panel
The Setting: University classroom with multiple
computers, one large-screen projector, and an
Extron switcher for routing computer, video,
and audio signals. The Application: You need to
install an easy-to-use remote control of the
Extron switcher at the front podium, and your
switching equipment is in the back of the room.
The Solution: The MCP 1000, a programmable
remote control panel that controls any Extron
switching system with RS-232 or MKP
1000/Comm-Link remote ports. The MCP 1000
works with all Extron switchers and is compatible with multiple MCP 1000 and MKP 1000
(Matrix Keypad) units.
You can quickly and easily select switching
options using the MCP 1000’s one-button crosspoint operation and one-button operation per
preset for global or room presets. The MCP
1000 operates in these modes: I/O switching for
a particular output, global presets, room presets
(Matrix 3200/6400 only), and custom configuration mode (RS-232 only). The rack, underdesk, and through-desk mounting brackets in
combination with its compact, 1U enclosure
with a 5" depth make the MCP 1000 convenient
for space-restrictive installations. (See page 7,
Optional Mounting Kits)
The MCP 1000 (PN: 60-298-01) lists for
$995.00 (US Dollars), and the MCP
1000 Slave (PN: 60-298-02) lists for
$815.00 (US Dollars).
http://www.extron.com/product/mcp-mkp.stm
6-Conductor
High Resolution Cable
You need to run 300 feet of cable for distribution
of 1280 x 1024 computer-video signals, but the
Super High Resolution cable doesn’t fit into your
budget and the Mini High Resolution cable
doesn’t deliver the performance you need. What
to do? Consider Extron’s Six Conductor High
Resolution Cable, which fills the niche between
the Mini High Res and SHR cables. The High
Res cable’s attenuation of –3dB/100 feet @ 100
MHz allows it to maintain system bandwidth of
the original signal. With a built-in ripcord and
sequential numbering, the High Res cable offers
high performance, flexibility, and value.
The High Resolution cable is comprised of six
coax conductors, each wrapped in SuperFlex
jacket material. Three 20-gauge coaxial conductors carry the R,G, and B, while three 26-gauge
coaxial conductors carry the horizontal sync, the
vertical sync, and an additional signal, such as
composite video.
Available in bulk rolls of 500 feet (153 meters) the
High Resolution cable (PN:22-124-02) lists for
$1750.00 (US Dollars).
http://www.extron.com/product/hiresc.stm
8
E X T R O N E W S M AY / J U N E 1 9 9 9
Image Scaling
Technology
by Roger McCarten,
Product Manager
Recent advances in video processing technology have brought the price of image
scalers down to the point where they can be
considered in even low to mid price AV
systems. As scalers have become more
prevalent in AV systems, questions and
misconceptions have arisen regarding scaler
operation. Therefore, this column will be
devoted to providing a basic and accurate
understanding of scaler operation and applications.
SCALER TECHNOLOGY
Scalers operate similar to a line doubler or
line quadrupler. Like a line doubler/quadrupler, a scaler takes an interlaced video signal
(NTSC, PAL and SECAM) and outputs a
progressive scanned signal and varies the
number of scan lines to change resolution.
The signal processing technique is essentially
the same. In fact, a line doubler/quadrupler
can be thought of as a fixed resolution scaler.
A scaler does not process pixels and then
transmit an image in pixel form. The output of
a scaler is a video signal.
Most upscalers will accept a composite or
S-video signal and convert it to any of a
number of output resolutions. However,
scalers are not limited to accepting composite
or S-video, and then converting them to
computer signals. Some scalers will accept
computer signals, and down-convert them to
composite, S-video, or even up-scale and
down-scale them to other computer resolutions, like Extron’s VSC 300. Other scalers
will accept computer signals and either upscale or down-scale them as needed, like
Extron’s DDS 100.
SCALER FEATURES
The main advantage of a scaler is that it can
change its output rate to match the abilities of
a display device. This is especially advantageous in the case of digital display devices.
Digital display devices produce images on a
DDS 100—Digital Scaler
fixed matrix. In order for the digital display
device to provide optimal light output, the
entire matrix should be used (Figure 1). To
do this, the digital display device uses its
internal pixel map processor to do scaling.
An external scaler is designed to do the same
thing, but generally provides better decoding,
more user control, and will store picture
settings information. This increases flexibility, making changing sources and
changing image attributes easier.
Since a scaler can scale the output both horizontally and vertically, this allows it to
change aspect ratios. So a scaler can take a
standard NTSC video signal and convert it to
a 16 x 9 HDTV output. If a system has a
HDTV type of display, but sources include
NTSC, PAL or SECAM, this feature can be
particularly useful. Extron's new scaler, the
DVS 100 offers HDTV output. HDTV output
resolutions include 480p, 720p, and 1080p.
(Both of Extron’s new scalers, the DDS 100
and the DVS 100, have been preprogrammed
for the most common LCD, DLP and plasma
displays. They will output an image that will
fit the display area exactly).
Another advantage a scaler can offer is the
ability to adjust horizontal and vertical size
and positioning, for a variety of video inputs.
Many digital display devices don't have the
memory to adjust for multiple input signals.
This makes it necessary to make adjustments
for each new signal. Extron’s DDS 100 has
the capability to store settings for up to 30
sources. Each source can be set up in terms of
horizontal and vertical sizing, and position.
The horizontal and vertical filtering settings
will also be automatically saved for each
source. Once each source is set up, the DDS
100 will recall the settings for the appropriate
source signal when its reconnected.
THE DVS 100 AND THE DDS 100
Extron will be introducing two scalers at
Infocomm, the DVS 100 and the DDS 100
(see articles on page 1 and page 8). These
scalers will allow you to considerably simplify
your AV system. NTSC, PAL, SECAM and
computer sources can be converted into any
of the major computer or HDTV, LCD, DLP
or Plasma resolutions, to match other signals
in the system. This will make signal routing
and display device selection much easier.
Digital display device
Pixel
matrix
Image
A scaler can
match an image
exactly to the
pixel matrix
FIGURE 1. Converting image's resolution to match display device's native resolution
9
E X T R O N E W S M AY / J U N E 1 9 9 9
Unique Techniques:
Extron Goes Hollywood
Planet Hollywood to be exact. This
issue’s look into an installation covers
the design and later upgrade of one of the
chain’s newest sites: Cape Town, South
Africa. The system was designed by Pro
Systems of Pretoria, South Africa and
Pro Sound Ltd. of Johannesburg, South
Africa, and includes several Extron
products. The initial installation was seen
in the October 1998 issue of Sound &
Communication.
The goal of most Planet Hollywood (PH)
installs is to distribute a common video
and audio signal throughout the restaurant, usually comprised of movie clips
featuring the founding celebrities: Arnold
Swartzenegger, Sylvester Stallone, Bruce
Willis, etc. How Pro Systems and Pro
Sound designed the system was left to
their discretion, but the price had to be
reasonable and the quality had to be
mind-blowing. PH was very particular
about this, and before getting started, Pro
Sound was required to visit other sites to
see just what PH wanted. Sub par sound
or video quality was not acceptable. This
focus on quality is due to the fact that
audio and video are considered integral
to the PH experience. It was up to Pro
Systems and Pro Sound to make it work,
and do so without any structural changes
to the site—a 19th century waterfront
warehouse.
Display devices at PH include two Sony
VPH-1001 QM projectors using 120 inch
Stewart rear projection screens, eight
Mitsubishi VS-6043 rear projection televisions, and two Sony KV-F 29 inch televisions. System inputs include a Sony
SVO-2100 S-VHS player, a Kalatel
KTA-6C2C color Cyberdome camera, a
Marantz CC38 CD player, a Pioneer 50
10
John Buckley (right) and Jimmy Diti of Pro Systems in front of Planet Hollywood,
Cape Town. These two have worked together in the A/V industry since 1974,
and use Extron products in many of their designs and installations.
laser disc “jukebox,” a PAL to NTSC
converter for use with non-dedicated
sources, and an Extron Emotia 800 Jr.
scan converter. The latter was used to
display computer generated graphics over
the displays during source changes. To
switch and keep everything under
control, an Extron MAV 62 audio video
matrix switcher was chosen. This is a
six-input, two-output composite video
switcher with balanced audio. Having
fewer outputs than display devices was
not considered a problem, as all of the
devices were to use the same signals.
Distribution amplifiers were used to split
the MAV 62’s outputs to all of the
displays.
Audio signals were also routed through
the MAV 62, which were then fed into a
DBX 166 stereo compressor/limiter, and
then to a Rane RPE 228 equalizer. From
the Rane EQ the signals were split by a
pair of 1x3 VCA controllers, fed to six
Rane ME 15B micrographic EQs, and
finally to Crown 460 and 1400 amplifiers. The speakers were all made by
Electro-Voice and included 76 S-40
2-ways, and 26 DL12W sub-bass loudspeakers.
Once completed, PH expressed their
profound satisfaction to Pro Systems and
Pro Sound. The company representative
responsible for declaring the system “up
to spec” claimed that it was one of the
best he’d personally seen in a Planet
Hollywood. “We have received many
compliments from people who say [the
system] is better than any other Planet
Hollywood’s, save some very high budget
restaurants in places like Orlando, Florida,
and Los Angeles,” adds John Buckley of
Pro Systems. This is great praise, especially when considering that the poor
exchange rate between the U.S. Dollar
and the South African Rand almost meant
the show wouldn’t go on. Ultimately it
E X T R O N E W S M AY / J U N E 1 9 9 9
did, and at under half the cost of the
system originally recommended by Planet
Hollywood USA’s A/V consultant.
While everyone was happy with the
install, Pro Systems and Pro Sounds were
contracted to return for some necessary
upgrades following the tragic bombing of
PH Cape Town last August. While most
of the video equipment survived the
explosion, several changes were made.
First, the MAV 62 and its distribution
amplifiers were exchanged for an Extron
Matrix 50 12x8 composite video and
stereo audio switcher. This was necessary
so that some of the displays could be
used for sports and other television
programming and the remainder would
use the company S-VHS tapes. “South
Africa is a sports mad country, and
people love to watch on the big screens,”
says Buckley. At the same time PH
decided to stop using laser disc programming entirely in favor of S-VHS tapes,
so a second Sony SVO S-VHS player
was added. Lastly, four of the Mitsubishi
VS-6043s damaged in the bombing were
replaced with Sony KP-EF61s when
replacement Mitsubishis where not
readily available.
Understandably, security became a major
concern following the bombing. Two
An Extron Matrix 50
(center) provides centralized
control over Planet Hollywood's
various video and audio sources.
Vidamax CD-530 color surveillance
cameras were attached to secondary
inputs on the two Sony KV-F 29 inch
televisions. This allows patrons to see
themselves as they enter the restaurant
and pass through newly installed metal
detectors. The images are then recorded
on time-lapse VHS recorders. “Planet
Hollywood Cape Town has gone to
great expense with security personnel
and measures to prevent the re-occur-
rence of such a terrible event,” says
Buckley.
While there are currently no further plans
to expand PH Cape Town, Pro Systems is
keeping busy, using Extron products in
many of their installs. “We like the wide
bandwidth, low noise, reliability and
user-friendliness of Extron Products,”
explains Buckley. “The service we get
from Extron Europe is also excellent.”
Would you like to see your installation covered here? Do you have a unique method
of using Extron products? Tell us about it! Call Carol Hubben at 714.491.1500 and
your unique technique may be in the next issue of ExtroNews.
11
E X T R O N E W S M AY / J U N E 1 9 9 9
RGB 500 Series–
continued from page 1
lenges when installing architectural interfaces—fear not. The RGB 500 Series is the
solution.
RGB 500 Interface
interfaces are more adaptable to existing
spaces and connection requirements.
Because architecture and design play
increasingly important roles in technological considerations, the RGB 500 Series
offers a clean, streamlined approach to
computer-video interfacing that meets the
demands of boardrooms, auditoriums and
classrooms alike. Sleek, subtle and
extremely flexible, this new interface series
has more than good looks up its sleeve.
These streamlined computervideo interfaces offer models
with either 15-pin HD or 9pin input connectors, variable
connection plates, dual
interface models and special
mounting capabilities for
European installations—all
RGB 550 Interface
behind a clean, subtly
designed faceplate. But don’t
judge them solely on their slick
features and good looks. The RGB
500 Series interfaces offer high
performance and complete compatibility with digital displays, such as
LCD, DLP and Plasma, thanks to the
addition of Extron’s own Advanced
Digital Signal Processing (ADSP™).
Each interface is only two inches thick and
can be mounted directly to the drywall—no
need to rely on finding a wall stud for
junction box installment. With the 500
Series you simply cut a hole in the desired
location, mount a “mud-ring” bracket to the
drywall pull the necessary cables leaving a
short service loop, connect the cables to the
interface (all interface signal connections
are on the bottom of the interface) and
attach the interface to the bracket. A sleek
faceplate, with input connectors, covers the
interface for a neat and tidy final presentation. The smaller design and mounting flexibility of these interfaces are invaluable for
RGB 558 Interface
The 500 Series is comprised of the
RGB 500, RGB 550, RGB 508 and RGB
558. This series reflects Extron’s earlier “inthe-wall” interface designs, but these new
(continued on next page)
Per gli Europei (For the Europeans):
RGB 500 Series Euro Channel
The building construction methods used in Europe are such that wiring
inside of an exterior wall is not possible. Therefore, electrical wiring
and cabling are accomplished via channels that run along the
outside of a wall, along baseboards or just below windows.
These channels route the wires, cable and connections
necessary for electricity, lights, computer networks, A/V
components, etc.
AUTO
H. SHIFT
INPUT
ID PIN 11
ID PIN 4
CS PIN 9
LO
IFT POWER
H. SH
O
AUDI
C
MT
INP
UT
DSP
HA
IN 11
WIT
ID P IN 4
00
ID P9
GR B 5
IN
5 B RG
SP
00
PS
RGB 500
D
RE R
FFE O
BU MONIT
L
CA
AUTO
RGB 550EC
TM
IW
HT
DA
Euro Channel
5 BNC Output
Extron has taken the nature of these channels into consideration. Along with its new RGB 500 Architectural Series of interfaces are special interfaces with connecting faceplates that fit
right into the 12 and17 centimeter space of these channels. Now, an
installer can use an RGB 500, 508, 550 or 558 to interface video, audio,
network connection, computers, etc.
12
BUFFERED
LOCAL MONITOR
POWER
AUDIO
Power (3.5mm Captive
Screw Connector)
Audio (3.5mm Captive
Screw Connector)
WITH ADSP TM
E X T R O N E W S M AY / J U N E 1 9 9 9
RGB 500 Series–
continued from previous page
many situations where space is a precious
commodity.
BUFFERED
LOCAL MONITOR
H. SHIFT
AUTO
Now, let’s talk performance. All four of the
interfaces provide 300 MHz (-3dB) video
bandwidth, auto power, 75 ohm termination, horizontal shift control, active PC
audio interfacing to convert unbalanced
audio into balanced audio and three levels
of gain and peaking. Each interface also
provides Extron’s exclusive Advanced
Digital Sync Processing (ADSP™) for
universal digital device compatibility as
well as Digital Display Sync Processing
(DDSP™) for use with devices requiring
unmodified sync signals.
POWER
AUDIO
INPUT
CS PIN 9
ID PIN 11
ID PIN 4
RGB 558
RGB 558
The RGB 500 and RGB 550 provide singlewidth faceplates (about 4" x 4") with
Sample Modular Connector Plates
2 - BNC
2 - 3.5mm Stereo mini
2 - RCA
DB9
2 - S-Video
HD15
2 - F Connectors
1 - S-Video / 2 - RCA
SVGA Compatible Computer w/ Audio
(continued on page 16)
RGB 558 Application Diagram
“We Like It!”
HB Communications Take on Extron's New BNC-5 SuperFlex Plenum Cable
by Kevin Collins, HB Communications
HB Communications uses Extron’s BNC-5
SuperFlex HR Plenum Cable for all types
of installations, such as staging, rental,
trade shows, and meetings. Our standard
installation is a 5-wire projector system—
5-wire to work with all kinds of equipment
and to deal with sync differences.
Our technical and engineering staff noticed
several helpful features of the Extron’s new
BNC-5 plenum cable.
The flexibility of the SuperFlex jacket is a
plus when maneuvering the cable through
tight corners. During our initial tests we
worked the cable to see if it would bend
several times without splitting the jacket—
this is a key feature of the plenum cable—
and we put lots of pressure on the cable
during long cable runs. Well, the BNC-5
cable passed both tests—it didn’t sacrifice
durability for flexibility.
We use the plenum-rated cable for installs that
require CL2P (National Electric Code) cable.
One thing about the BNC-5 plenum cable that
our installers are impressed with is how
UNLIKE the usual plenum cable Extron’s
BNC-5 plenum cable is. Extron’s BNC-5
plenum cable is so much more flexible and
easier to work with than typical plenum cable.
When the installers are stripping the cable for
termination, the ripcord helps them open up
only the outside jacket, so they don’t accidentally nick any of the inner cables. This is a big
help when we are using sub-contractors to
install the base building AV wiring or we are
asked to use the “in-house” electrical
contractor.
calculate the cable length without
measuring it. By looking at the ends of
the cable, we always know how much is
left on a spool. Plus, when we put in a
bid, what we do is look at the blueprints
and estimate how much cable to use for
the cable path. Sometimes we end up
using a great deal more cable, because
of obstructions or variances with the
conduit plan. With sequential
numbering, it’s easy to see how much
more cable than anticipated we’ve
actually used in a given pull. That also
helps make our cable inventory
numbers more accurate, and
there’s no guessing game as to
which spool has enough cable
left for a particular job.
Another useful feature is the
sequential numbering. The
numbers are printed a foot apart
on the cable jacket, so we can
13
E X T R O N E W S M AY / J U N E 1 9 9 9
ExtroNews publishes information about new
products that are relative to the Extron product
line in the New News section. If you would like
a new product to be reviewed for New News,
please send a press release, literature, contact
name and a four color slide or photo to:
DIGITAL PROJECTION
MITSUBISHI
PROXIMA
Digital Projection has recently introduced
the POWER 5gvC, a 3-chip Digital
Micromirror Device (DMD) projector.
The POWER 5gvC has a horizontal scan
range of 15–64 kHz, a vertical scan range
of 24–100 Hz and a native resolution of
1024 x 768. It offers 4500 ANSI lumens
brightness output and advanced video
decoding by Faroudja Laboratories. The
projector offers three independently
configurable inputs on 5 BNC connectors,
which are selectable via remote control.
The projector will accept RGB,
component video, S-video, and composite
video. The suggested list price is $64,995.
Mitsubishi has recently announced the
Diamond Pro 2020u, a 22" flat-faced
desktop monitor. The new Diamond Pro
2020u is compatible with IBM, Apple
Macintosh, Power Macintosh, Windows
95 and high-resolution third-party
graphics standards. It offers a 30–121 kHz
horizontal scanning range, a 50–160 Hz
vertical scanning range and a maximum
non-interlaced addressable resolution of
1800 x 1440. The monitor has an
attached 15-pin HD (VGA) input cable.
The “u” following the monitor name is
significant, indicating that this monitor
features a USB hub. Mitsubishi has
equipped the self-powered USB hub
with an exclusive arrangement of two
upstream and three downstream ports so
two independent computers may share a
single set of USB devices. The
suggested list price is $1,499.
Proxima has recently introduced the Pro
AV 9400 LCD multimedia projector. The
Pro AV 9400 is the first projector to
utilize the PanelLink industry standard.
PanelLink technology makes possible the
low-cost, high-quality, standardized, alldigital end-to-end link between computers
or other digital electronics devices, and
digital displays. The Pro AV 9400 has a
horizontal scan range of 15–80 kHz, a
vertical scan range of 50–100 Hz, a
native resolution of 1280 x 1024 and
2300 ANSI lumens brightness output. The
projectors offers two computer inputs
channels: RGB (15-pin HD)/DFP (Digital
PanelLink Interface) and RGBHV/BNC.
It also offers two video input channels
which include 3 BNC for component and
composite video and one mini DIN 4-pin
for S-video. The suggested list price is
$23,999.
Recommended Extron accessories:
For VGA, use the P/2 DA2 Plus, VGA
Switchers and VGA Plenum cables. For
Mac, use the Mac DA2 Plus and our
Mac/VGA adapters. For RGBHV
systems, use the RGB 130xi and
15HDM-RGBHVF adapter. To get
video into the VGA switcher, use the
VLD 50.
Recommended Extron accessories:
For VGA, use the P/2 DA2 Plus, VGA
Switchers and VGA Plenum cables. For
Mac, use the MacDA2 Plus and our
Mac/VGA adapters. For RGBHV
systems, use the RGB 130xi and
15HDM-RGBHVF adapter. To get video
into the VGA switcher, use the VLD 50.
For complete system control, use the
System 5cr.
Recommended Extron accessories:
For computer connection use RGB 202xi,
RGB 302/304 or Architectural Series
interfaces. For RGB distribution use ADA
distribution amplifiers, BNC extension
cables. Use Lanciaxi line doubler or
Sentosaxi line quadruper to enhance video
signals.
POWER 5gvC
14
Pat Charlton, New News
Extron Electronics
1230 South Lewis Street
Anaheim, CA 92805
Phone: (714) 491-1500 ext. 6244
2020U
PRO AV 9400
E X T R O N E W S M AY / J U N E 1 9 9 9
RFI RADIO SALLY SYSTEMS, INC.
SIM2 MULTIMEDIA
SONY
RSI unveils the MediaPro 384
Videoconferencing Series for use with
Laptop computers. The Mediapro 384
codec is H.320 standards-based and
internalizes all videoconferencing
hardware electronics, inverse multiplexer (IMUX) and network terminal
adapters (NTI). It attaches via the SCSI
port to laptops or PCs and allows
videoconferencing over ISDN lines at
384 kbs. The laptop or PC’s output can
then be connected to display devices
such as projectors or monitors. The
MediaPro 384 starts at $4,995.00.
SIM2 Multimedia has recently introduced the SMP420ID 42" plasma
display. The SMP420ID offers a native
16:9 resolution (852 x 480 pixels).
Typical use will be to process and
display information, also over the
network, thanks to the integrated
computer. It sports a 2 GB hard disk,
floppy disk drive, CD-ROM, integrated
stereo audio (2 built-in 5W speakers),
Ethernet network connection capability,
keyboard and mouse connection and
more. Touchscreen capability and
software personalization come as
options. It offers a CVBS and S-VHS
video input on RCA connectors for
PAL, SECAM and NTSC and an analog
VGA video output on a 15-pin HD
connector. The suggested list price is
$16,000 USD.
Sony has recently introduced the
VPL-X1000U LCD projector. The
VPL-X1000U offers a horizontal scan
range of 15–91 kHz, a vertical scan
range of 43–85 Hz and a native resolution of 1024 x 768. It provides 1100
ANSI lumens brightness output and
can handle VGA, SVGA, XGA and
SVGA (compressed), as well as
composite video, Y/C video and
component video signals. The
projector inputs are: RGB/Component
(15-pin HD x2), composite video
(RCA) and S-video (4-pin DIN). The
suggested list price is $8,990 with a
1.3x lens. A variety of optional lenses
are available for use with the
VPL-X1000U.
Recommended Extron accessories:
For RGB distribution, use the P/2 DA2
Plus, VGA Switchers and VGA Plenum
cables or ADA distribution amplifiers
and BNC extension cables. For integration with large screen displays, use the
RGB 130xi. For integrating external
video sources to the codec, use the
MAV 62 video and audio matrix and
YCS SW6 MX.
MEDIAPRO384
Recommended Extron accessories:
For VGA, use the P/2 DA2 Plus, VGA
Switchers and VGA Plenum cables.
For Mac, use the Mac DA 2 Plus and
our Mac/VGA adapters. For RGBHV
systems, use the RGB 130xi and
15HDM-RGBHVF adapter. To get
video into the VGA switcher, use the
VLD 50.
SMP420ID
Recommended Extron accessories:
For VGA, use the P/2 DA2 Plus, VGA
Switchers and VGA Plenum cables.
For Mac, use the Mac DA 2 Plus and
our Mac/VGA adapters. For RGBHV
systems, use the RGB 130xi and
15HDM-RGBHVF adapter. To get
video into the VGA switcher, use the
VLD 50.
VPL-X1000U
15
E X T R O N E W S M AY / J U N E 1 9 9 9
RGB 500 Series–
continued from page 13
computer-video and audio input connectors.
The RGB 500 uses a 9-pin universal
connector with which the appropriate
monitor/laptop breakout cable must also be
ordered, and the RGB 550 uses the popular
15-pin HD connector. The RGB 550 also
offers a buffered local monitor output
connector so video images can be viewed
on the main display and monitor simultaneously. It provides ID bit termination for pins
4 and 11 from the front panel and can be
used to interface Apple/Mac and 13W3
style workstations (SUN, SGI, and IBM
PowerPC) with available adapter cables.
The dual faceplate design and
removable/adaptable plates of the RGB 508
and RGB 558 provide extended connection
flexibility and versatility. For example, you
can configure the interface with passthrough connections for S-video and
left/right audio. Or, configure the interface
to accommodate computer-video and
network connections as well as RGBHV.
Two other major advantages of the 500
Series are dual interface design and compatibility with European channel mounting
systems. Designed on 4-gang size face-
plates, these dual interfaces can be found in
the RGB 500 and 550 models. This dual
interface design is particularly convenient
when you need more than one interface in a
single location.
Faceplates in Extron grey, white and black
are available for all models. The plates
mount with small screws that are indistinguishable when secured for a more aesthetically pleasing appearance. See how well
these 2" interfaces will fit into your next
installation. The RGB 500 Series interfaces
debut at INFOCOMM ’99, booth #2069.
http://www.extron.com/product/rgb500.stm • http://www.extron.com/product/rgb508.stm • http://www.extron.com/product/rgb550.stm • http://www.extron.com/product/rgb558.stm
New Catalog, ExtronCD, and
Handbook Now Available
Extron has released its 1999-2000 Product
Catalog and ExtronCD in both USA/domestic
and international versions. The Catalog
features all of Extron’s new products and
current product lines. There are also crossreference lists for monitors, computers, and
projectors. The ExtronCD includes the Catalog as
well as brochures, product images, application
diagrams, and user’s manuals.
Also released, Extron’s Handbook VI of Computer
Interfacing and Video Distribution on CD is loaded
with new training materials, updated articles from
Handbook Volumes I-V, over 100 pages of expanded
cross-reference lists, and a glossary of industry terms.
New articles discuss topics such as digital video, video
equalizing, and matrix switching. This Handbook CD is an
excellent resource for veteran and new A/V professionals
alike.
The 1999-2000 Extron Product Catalog and ExtronCD are
available free of charge. The Handbook Vol. VI (Domestic PN:
67-051-01 and International PN: 67-051-02) lists for $60.00
(US Dollars).
16
Extron’s New Sync Stabilizer
SS 200 with ADSP™
Extron’s SS 200 Sync Stabilizer with Advanced Digital Sync
Processing (ADSP™) compensates for the sync processing limitations of digital display devices. LCDs, DLPs, and Plasma
Displays often have trouble with sync signals that have been
altered through previous processing or interfacing.
Projector
Mounting
Bracket
Through Extron’s exclusive ADSP™ technology, the SS 200
cleans up sync so that clear, stable images are produced, and reestablishes the proper timing relationship between the video and
sync signals. Common image problems—such as hooking,
tearing, or bending at the top of the screen are eliminated.
The SS 200 provides these advantages:
VGA / 5 BNC
Output To
Projector
Mounting
Bolt
4 BNC
Input
Ceiling
• Bandwidth: 300 MHz (-3dB)
• Compatible with any analog RGB signal with horizontal
frequency between 15-145 kHz and vertical frequency
between 30-170 Hz
• RsGsBs, RGsB, RGBS, or RGBHV input on five BNCs
• Digitally restored RGBHV or RGBS output simultaneously
on five BNCs and 15-pin HD female connector
• Horizontal shift control
• 75 or 510 ohm sync termination, switch-selectable
• Detachable bracket for mounting near projector included
• Provides power jack for 12VDC (detachable 120-240VAC
desktop power supply included)
SS 200
The SS 200 lists for $695.00. For complete details,
visit our website at http://www.extron.com/product/ss200.stm
800.633.9876
EXTRON ELECTRONICS/RGB SYSTEMS, INC.
1230 South Lewis Street, Anaheim, CA 92805
800.633.9876 714.491.1500 FAX 714.491.1517
U.S.A.
EXTRON ELECTRONICS, EUROPE
Beeldschermweg 6C, 3821 AH Amersfoort
+31.33.453.4040 FAX +31.33.453.4050
The Netherlands
EXTRON ELECTRONICS, ASIA
41B Kreta Ayer Road, Singapore 089003
+65.226.0015 FAX +65.226.0019
Singapore
EXTRON ELECTRONIC INFORMATION
EXTRONWEB™: www.extron.com
EXTRONFAX™: 714.491.0192
24-hour access—worldwide!
E X T R O N E W S M AY / J U N E 1 9 9 9
Comb Filters–
Continued from page 5
at all, then CF= 0 and the difference
between Line 2 and Line 1 is used.
This type of adaptive system works
only within a picture field and is called
intrafield filtering. Additional logic is
usually added to detect whether the
system sampling of data is stable
enough to perform proper combing. If
not, the system switches back to the
notch/bandpass filtering method. This
is quite common when decoding video
from the typical VHS VCR.
The term “2D” indicates that the filter
implements detection of both horizontal transitions (along horizontal
lines) and vertical transitions (between
horizontal lines) within the picture
field of interest. The term adaptive
carries wide meaning in that comb
filter manufacturers create unique
methods that enable the filter to make
better decisions as to which process
algorithms to use. Adaptive processing
can lead to increased noise or graininess in the image. To combat this, a
system function may be added called
coring. The coring function modifies
(or outputs the equivalent of zeroes)
the data values near a transition so as
to remove the random artifacts. This,
in conjunction with a contouring
circuit, adjusts the values to provide a
much more pleasing image transition.
So, the 2D adaptive filter attempts to
eliminate the hanging dots at color
transitions. If a situation occurs where
there are different colors on three
successive lines, the filter fails and
artifacts appear. The problem will be
most noticeable on specific, abrupt
color changes and not so obvious on
gradual color transitions. On diagonal
lines, the 2D adaptive filter is less
effective. There is typically not much
luma correlation from one line to
Line 1
Line 2
Line 3
CORRELATION
DETECTOR
Composite
NTSC
1-H
Delay
1-H
Delay
Line 1
-
Line 2
Line 3
CF (Correlation Factor)
+
MULTIPLEXER
-
C CHANNEL
+
+
Y CHANNEL
FIGURE 2.
2D Adaptive comb filter
another. Although some averaging
occurs, this filter type is only marginally
better than a regular line comb.
CURE FOR MOTION SICKNESS?
3D motion adaptive comb filters represent
the most sophisticated comb technology
available. While still pricey compared to
previously discussed filter types, they can
provide near perfect separation of Y and
C for still frame images. In 3D comb
filtering, picture information is taken and
compared to information in successive
frames (called inter-frame filtering), as
opposed to 2D filters which process data
taken from successive lines within a field
or frame (intra-frame filtering).
For still images, the picture data from one
frame to the next is essentially identical.
Since it has a high degree of correlation,
making comparisons (similar in topology
to the line comb examples) provides near
perfect output of correlated Y and C. In
this case, diagonal lines and color transitions can be matched very well. This is
the key advantage over the 2D filter.
However, if there is picture movement or
color changes between frames, the 3D
system will produce noticeable errors.
Here is where the motion adaptation
comes into play. The 3D filter compares
the data of several video frames to
determine correlation (still image) or lack
of it (motion present). If motion or
serious color changes are detected, the
system switches to 2D adaptive filter
operation. Under this condition the 3D
filter may perform no better than the 2D
filter. Different implementations of the
filter will use different algorithms for the
determination of motion or color changes.
This motion detection is not a trivial
pursuit and will separate the good 3D
comb filter from the not-so-good one.
YOU TOO CAN BECOME AN EXPERT
After all the foregoing, what does it mean
to you? How can you tell one filter from
another? That is probably the most
important question on your mind.
Further, it’s one thing to recognize the
type of comb filter design and quite
another to determine if it’s performing
correctly. Let’s see if I can provide you
with “something to walk away with”.
Refer to the table on the opposite page for
a compilation of features and problems
with each of the topologies discussed in
this series on Y/C separation in the NTSC
decoding process. While you may not
find that memorizing the various features
is any advantage to you, pay particular
attention to those features that help
identify the comb filter type of most
interest to you. You never know when
and where you’ll see a good comb filter.
For past articles, go to http://www.extron.com/extronews/index.html
18
E X T R O N E W S M AY / J U N E 1 9 9 9
BASIC Y/C FILTERING CHARACTERISTICS
Y/C Filter Types
Characteristics
How to Identify?
Which Test Signals?
Notch/ Bandpass
• Low luma bandwidth
• Soft edge definition
• High amounts of cross-color
and cross-luma
• Gross amounts of dot crawl
around text and at vertical color
boundaries
Multi-burst: look for grey band at
3.58 MHz band region
• Regions with closely spaced lines
go grey
Simple Line Comb
• Increased horizontal
resolution
• Hanging dots at color
boundaries
• Vertical dot crawl
• Severe artifacts at vertical color
transitions
2-Line & 3-Line Type
• Increased horizontal
resolution, but less
vertical resolution
• Better color transitions
• Hanging dots
• Dot crawl
2D Adaptive
• Can better see closely spaced
lines, although lots of crosscolor
• False colors at vertical color
transitions
Color Bars: heavy dot crawl on vertical
transitions; poor green/magenta
transition
Resolution Wedge: cross-color in
wedge along with rapid loss of
resolution near the wedge end
Multi-burst: improved horizontal
resolution; clarity of all bursts
Color Bars: dot crawl on vertical edges;
abrupt color errors between upper &
lower bar colors
• Better BW than notch
Resolution Wedge: some resolution
improvement, but lots of cross-color
• Can better see closely spaced lines,
although some cross-color
Multi-burst: good horizontal resolution;
clarity of all bursts
• Improved color transitions
Color Bars: improved vertical color
transitions; hanging dots along the
vertical color transitions
• Better BW than notch
• Lower vertical resolution
• Hanging dots on vertical color
transition
Resolution Wedge: lower vertical
resolution; still visible cross-color
• Good horizontal bandwidth
• Fails to eliminate dots in regions
of high detail
Multi-burst: good horizontal resolution
and clarity of all bursts
• Improved cross-color
performance
• Nearly no dots at base of text
or other color transitions
Color Bars: near elimination of hanging
dots; cleaner color transitions; some
vertical dot crawl
• Nearly no hanging dots
Resolution Wedge: some cross-color
and loss of vertical resolution; good
horizontal resolution and correlation
3D Adaptive
• Near perfect on still images
• Switches to 2D during motion
• Improved vertical resolution
• Best H&V BW with no dot crawl
or hanging dots
Multi-burst: good horizontal resolution
and clarity of all bursts
• Possible artifacts around moving
objects
Color Bars: virtually no dots vertical or
horizontal; smooth color transitions;
good green/magenta transition
Resolution Wedge: when stationary,
full resolution w/o cross-color artifacts;
when moving, same as 2D
19
E X T R O N E W S M AY / J U N E 1 9 9 9
of moving images from movie and video created especially for HD.
Used to all the darkness that shrouds the Shoot-Out? The large
venue projection categories, including the HDTV demo category,
will have lighting throughout the hall varied from zero to as much
as forty-percent allowing viewers to observe how bright each
projector’s light output is and how well they handle ambient light.
Think you’ve seen
everything at the
Projection Shoot-Out?
The format for the ’99 tutorial is depicted in a sort of story line
and will support five different languages including English,
Spanish, German, Japanese and Mandarin Chinese.
Think again. Steve Somers, Extron Electronics’ Vice
President of Engineering and Chairman for the
International Communications Industries
Association’s (ICIA) INFOCOMM International
Projection Shoot-Out® talks about what’s new
for ‘99.
"This year Shoot-Out attendees can expect to see
a new HDTV demo category; learn pointers from
a multi-lingual tutorial CD; encounter specially
controlled lighting; and listen to background
narration provided by none other than, AOL’s
Elwood Edwards" explains Somers.
Here’s a quick run down on ’99:
New HDTV category highlights new twenty-seven
feet wide by fifteen feet high (16:9 aspect ratio)
screens from Stewart Filmscreen. Imagery consists
Elwood Edwards, the ”voice of AOL“ will be in the background
audio describing some of the salient concepts and features of the
test patterns and images seen during the show.
INFOCOMM ‘99 will be held at the Orange County Convention
Center in Orlando, Florida. Show dates are as follow: Thursday,
June 10 from 10:00am to 6:00pm; Friday, June 11 from 9:00am
to 6:00pm; and Saturday, June 12 from 9:00am to 4:00pm. The
Shoot-Out will be open during show hours to INFOCOMM
attendees.
The 1999 Shoot-Out CD and Tutorial CD will be available for
purchase at the show and through Extron Electronics. Prices and
part numbers for the CDs are as follows: Shoot-Out Evaluation
Software 29-046-01 ($99); Shoot-Out Tutorial (multi-lingual)
29-046-02 ($69); and the bundle package (-01 & -02) price
29-046-03 ($149)– all in US dollars. Call 800.633.9876 for more
information or stop by Extron’s booth #2069.
Extron School and Extron School
On the Road Schedules
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Sept. 30-Oct. 1 ..................................Extron
Oct. 11-12 ..........................................Extron
Oct. 25-26 ..........................................Extron
Oct. 27-28 ..........................................Extron
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