HP SG3-200 - Desktop PC User manual

CANDU-9 COMPACT SIMULATOR USER MANUAL Lecture Notes
prepared by:
Dr. George Bereznai
Dean, Energy Management and
Nuclear Science, at the University of
Ontario Institute of Technology,
Canada
george.bereznai@uoit.ca
CONTENTS
1.
2.
INTRODUCTION
1.1 SIMULATOR STARTUP
1.2 SIMULATOR INITIALIZATION
1.3
LIST OF CANDU 9 COMPACT SIMULATOR DISPLAY SCREENS
1.4 COMPACT SIMULATOR DISPLAY COMMON FEATURES
SIMULATOR DISPLAY PAGES
2.1 PLANT OVERVIEW PAGE
2.2 SHUTDOWN RODS PAGE
2.3 REACTIVITY CONTROL PAGE
2.4
PHT MAIN CIRCUIT
2.5 PHT FEED AND BLEED
2.6
PHT INVENTORY CONTROL
2.7
PHT PRESSURE CONTROL
2.8 BLEED CONDENSER CONTROL
2.9 STEAM GENERATOR FEED PUMPS PAGE
2.10 STEAM GENERATOR LEVEL CONTROL PAGE
2.11 STEAM GENERATOR LEVEL TRENDS PAGE
2.12 STEAM GENERATOR LEVEL MANUAL.
2.13
EXTRACTION STEAM PAGE CONTROL
2.14 TURBINE GENERATOR PAGE
2.15 RRS / DPR PAGE
2.16 UPR PAGE
2.17 TREND
Simulator User Manual
1.
INTRODUCTION
The CANDU-9 Compact Simulator was originally developed to assist Atomic Energy
of Canada Limited (AECL) in the design of the plant display system. The
specification for the Simulator required that the software be capable of execution on
a Personal Computer (Pentium 100 or equivalent), to operate essentially in real time,
and to have a dynamic response with sufficient fidelity to provide realistic signals to
the plant display system. The Simulator also had to have a user-machine interface
that mimicked the actual control panel instrumentation, including the plant display
system, to a degree that permitted the development and operation of the simulator in
a stand-alone mode, i.e. in the absence of the plant display system equipment.
These features also made the Simulator suitable as an educational and training tool.
The minimum hardware configuration for the Simulator consists of an IBM
compatible Personal Computer, 16 Mbytes RAM with 256 external Cache, at least
0.5 Mbytes enhanced IDE hard drive, 2 Mbytes VRAM, hi-resolution video card
(capable of 1024x768), 15 inch or larger high resolution SVGA colour monitor,
keyboard and mouse. The operating system is Windows for Workgroups 3.11 or
Windows 95.
The requirement of having a single PC to execute the models and display the main
plant parameters in real time on a high resolution monitor implied that the models
had to be as simple as possible, while having realistic dynamic response. The
emphasis in developing the simulation models was on giving the desired level of
realism to the user. That meant being able to display those plant parameters which
are most critical to operating the unit, including the ones that characterize the main
process, control and protective systems. The current configuration of the Simulator is
able to respond to the operating conditions normally encountered in power plant
operations, as well as to many malfunctions conditions, as summarized in Table 1.
The simulation uses an on object oriented approach: basic models for each type of
device and process to be represented are developed in FORTRAN. These basic
models are a combination of first order differential equations, logical and algebraic
relations. The appropriate parameters and input-output relationships are assigned to
each model as demanded by a particular system application.
The interaction between the user and the Simulator is via a combination of monitor
displays, mouse and keyboard. Parameter monitoring and operator controls
implemented via the plant display system at the generating station are represented
in a virtually identical manner on the Simulator. Control panel instruments and
control devices, such as push-buttons and hand-switches, are shown as stylized
pictures, and are operated via special pop-up menus and dialog boxes in response
to user inputs.
This Operating Manual assumes that the user is familiar with the main characteristics
of thermal nuclear power plants, as well as understanding the unique features of the
CANadian Deuterium Uranium(CANDU) reactors.
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Table 1: Summary of Simulator Features.
SYSTEM
SIMULATION SCOPE
DISPLAY
PAGES
• neutron flux levels over a
range of 0.001 to 110% full
power, 6 delayed neutron
groups
• decay heat (3 groups)
• all reactivity control devices
• xenon and boron poison
• reactor regulating system
• reactor shutdown system
HEAT
• two phase main circuit loop
TRANSPORT with four pumps, four steam
generators, four equivalent
reactor coolant channels
• pressure and inventory
control (pressurizer, degasser
condenser, feed & bleed
control, pressure relief)
• operating range is zero
power hot to full power
• reactivity
control devices
• shutdown rods
• reactor
regulating
system
STEAM & • boiler dynamics, including
FEEDWATER shrink and swell effects
• steam supply to turbine and
reheater
• turbine by-pass to condenser
• steam relief to atmosphere
• extraction steam to feed
heating
• steam generator pressure
control
• steam generator level control
• boiler feed system
• steam generator
feed pumps
• steam generator
level control
• steam generator
level trends
• steam generator
pressure control
• extraction steam
REACTOR
• main circuit
• pressure control
• pressurizer
control
• feed and bleed
control
• inventory
control
• degasser
condenser
control
TURBINE • very simple turbine model
• turbineGENERATOR • mechanical power and
generator
generator output are
proportional to steam flow
• speeder gear and governor
valve allow synchronized
and non-synchronized
operation
OVERALL • fully dynamic interaction
• overall unit
UNIT
between all simulated
• unit power
systems
regulator
• unit power regulator
• unit annunciation
• computer control of all major
system functions
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OPERATOR
CONTROLS
MALFUNCTIONS
• reactor power and
rate of change
(input to control
computer)
• manual control of
reactivity devices
• reactor trip
• reactor setback
• reactor stepback
• circulating pumps
• pressurizing pumps
• pressurizer pressure
• pressurizer level
• degas cond.
pressure
• degas cond. level
• feed & bleed bias
• isolation valves for:
pressurizer,
degasser cond., feed
and bleed
• level controller
mode: computer or
manual
• manual level control
gain & reset time
• level control valve
selection
• level control
isolation valve
opening
• extraction steam
valves
• feed pump
operation
• turbine trip
• turbine run-back
• turbine run-up and
synchronization
• atmospheric and
condenser steam
discharge valves
• reactor setback and
stepback fail
• one bank of control
rods drop into the
reactor
• main circuit relief
valve fails open
• pressurizer relief
valve fails open
• pressurizer isolation
valve fails closed
• feed valve fails
open
• bleed valve fails
open
• reactor header break
• all level control
isolation valves fail
closed
• one level control
valve fails open
• one level control
valve fails closed
• all feed pumps trip
• all safety valves
open
• steam header break
• flow transmitter
fails
• turbine spurious trip
• turbine spurious
run-back
Simulator User Manual
1.1
SIMULATOR STARTUP
• select program ‘CANDU-9’ for execution
• click anywhere on ‘CANDU-9 Compact Simulator” screen
• click ‘OK’ to ‘Load Full Power IC?’
• the Simulator will display the ‘Plant Overview’ screen with all parameters initialized to
100% Full Power
• at the bottom right hand corner click on ‘Run’ to start the simulator
1.2
SIMULATOR INITIALIZATION
If at any time you need to return the Simulator to one of the stored Initialization
Points, do the following:
• ‘Freeze’ the Simulator
• click on ‘IC’
• click on ‘Load IC’
• click on ‘FP_100.IC’ for 100% full power initial state
• click ‘OK’ to ‘Load C:\AECL_P2\FP_100.IC’
• click ‘YES’
• click ‘Return’
• Start the Simulator operating by selecting ‘Run’.
1.3
LIST OF CANDU 9 COMPACT SIMULATOR DISPLAY SCREENS
1. Plant Overview
2. Shutdown Rods
3. Reactivity Control
4. PHT Main Circuit
5. PHT Feed & Bleed
6. PHT lnventory Control
7. PHT Pressure Control
8. Bleed Condenser Control
9. Steam Generator Feed Pumps
10. Steam Generator Level Control Steam
11. Generator Level Trends
12. Steam Generator Level Manual Ctrl
13. Extraction Steam
14. Turbine Generator
15. RRS / DPR
16. UPR
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1.4
COMPACT SIMULATOR DISPLAY COMMON FEATURES
The CANDU 9 Compact Simulator is made up of 16 interactive display screens or
pages. All of these screens have the same information at the top and bottom of the
displays, as follows:
• top of the screen contains 21 plant alarms and annunciations; these indicate
important status changes in plant parameters that require operator actions; each of
these alarms will be discussed as part of the system that is generating it and/or is
involved in the corrective action;
• top right hand corner shows the simulator status:
⇒ the window under ‘Labview’ (this is the proprietary software that generates the
screen displays) has a counter that is incrementing when Labview is running; if
Labview is frozen (i.e. the displays cannot be changed) the counter will not be
incrementing;
⇒ the window displaying ‘CASSIM’ (this is the proprietary software that computes
the simulation responses) will be green and the counter under it will not be
incrementing when the simulator is frozen (i.e. the model programs are not
executing), and will turn red and the counter will increment when the simulator is
running;
• to stop (freeze) Labview click once on the ‘STOP’ sign at the top left hand corner; to
restart ‘Labview’ click on the ⇒ symbol at the top left hand corner;
• to start the simulation click on ‘Run’ at the bottom right hand corner; to ‘Stop’ the simulation click on ‘Freeze’ at the bottom right hand corner; • the bottom of the screen shows the values of the following major plant parameters:
⇒ Reactor Neutron Power (%)
⇒ Reactor Thermal Power (%)
⇒ Generator Output (%)
⇒ Main Steam Header Pressure (kPa)
⇒ Steam Generator Level (m)
⇒ OUC Mode (‘Normal’ or ‘Alternate’)
• the bottom left hand corner allows the initiation of two major plant events:
⇒ ‘Reactor Trip’
⇒ ‘Turbine Trip’ these correspond to hardwired push buttons in the actual control room; • the box above the Trip buttons shows the display currently selected (i.e. ‘Plant Overview’); by clicking and holding on the arrow in this box the titles of the other displays will be shown, and a new one can be selected by highlighting it; • the remaining buttons in the bottom right hand corner allow control of the simulation
one iteration at a time (‘Iterate’); the selection of initialization points (‘IC’); insertion of
malfunctions (‘Malf’); and calling up the ‘Help’ screen.
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2.
SIMULATOR DISPLAY PAGES
2.1
PLANT OVERVIEW PAGE
Shows a ‘line diagram’ of the main plant systems and parameters. No inputs are associated
with this display. The systems and parameters displayed are as follows (starting at the
bottom left hand corner):
• MODERATOR system is not simulated
• REACTOR is a point kinetic model with six groups of delayed neutrons, the decay heat model uses a three group approximation; reactivity calculations include reactivity control and safety devices, Xenon, voiding in channels and power level changes. The parameters displayed are: ⇒ Average Zone Level (% full)
⇒ Neutron Power (% full power)
⇒ Neutron Power Rate (%/ second)
• Heat Transport main loop, pressure and inventory control systems are shown as a single loop on the Plant Overview display, additional details will be shown on subsequent displays. The parameters displayed are: ⇒ Reactor Outlet Header (ROH) and Reactor Inlet Header (RIH) average
Temperature (°C) and Pressure (kPa)
⇒ Pressurizer Level (m) and Pressure (kPa); D2O Storage Tank level (m)
• The four Steam Generators are individually modeled, but only the level measurements are shown separately, for the flows, pressures and temperatures average values are shown. The parameters displayed are: ⇒ ⇒ ⇒ ⇒ ⇒ ⇒ Boiler 1, 2, 3, 4 Level (m)
Steam Flow (kg/sec)
Steam Pressure (kPa)
Steam Temperature (°C)
Moisture Separator and Reheater (MSR) Drains Flow (kg/sec)
Status of control valves is indicated by their colour: green is closed, red is open;
the following valves are shown for the Steam System: Main Steam Stop Valves (MSV) status only Condenser Steam Discharge Valves (CSDV) status and % open Atmospheric Steam Discharge Valves (ASDV) status and % open • Generator output (MW) is calculated from the steam flow to the turbine
• Condenser and Condensate Extraction Pump (CEP) are not simulated
• Simulation of the feedwater system is very much simplified; the parameters displayed
on the Plant Overview screen are:
⇒ Total Feedwater flow to the steam generators (kg/sec)
⇒ Average Feedwater temperature after High Pressure Heater (HPHX)
⇒ Status of Boiler Feed Pumps (BFP) is indicated as red if any pumps are ‘ON’ or
green if all the pumps are ‘OFF’
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Six trend displays show the following parameters:
•
Reactor Neutron Power and Reactor Thermal Power (0-100%)
•
Turbine Power (0-100%)
•
Boiler Levels - actual and setpoint (m)
•
Main Steam Header Pressure (kPa)
•
Pressurizer and Reactor Outlet Header (average) Pressure (kPa)
•
Pressurizer Level - actual and setpoint (m)
Note that while the simulator is in the ‘Run’ mode, all parameters are being
continually computed and all the displays are available for viewing and inputting
changes.
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2.2
SHUTDOWN RODS PAGE
The screen shows the status of SDS#1, as well as the reactivity contributions of
each device and physical phenomenon that is relevant to reactor operations.
• The positions of each of the two SDS1 SHUTDOWN ROD banks are shown
relative to their normal (fully withdrawn) position.
• REACTOR TRIP status is shown as NO (green) or YES (yellow), the trip can
be reset here (as well as on the RRS / DPR page); note that SDS1 RESET
must also be activated before RRS will begin withdrawing the Shutdown
Rods.
• The REACTIVITY CHANGE of each device and parameter from the initial 100% full power steady state is shown, as well as the range of its potential value. ⇒ Note that reactivity is a computed not a measured parameter, it can be
displayed on a simulator but is not directly available at an actual plant.
⇒ Note also that when the reactor is critical the Total reactivity must be zero.
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2.3
REACTIVITY CONTROL PAGE
This screen shows the Limit Control Diagram, and the status of the three reactivity
control devices that are under the control of RRS.
• The Limit Control Diagram displays the Operating Point in terms of Power Error and Average Liquid Zone level. POWER ERROR = ACTUAL POWER - DEMANDED POWER
⇒ If power error is negative, more (positive) reactivity is needed, hence
liquid zone level will decrease and if this is insufficient, absorber rods and
adjuster rods will be withdrawn from the reactor.
⇒ If power error is positive, negative reactivity is needed, hence liquid zone
level will increase and if this is insufficient, absorber rods and adjuster
rods will be driven into the reactor.
⇒ The Power Error computation includes the difference between the
magnitudes and rates of change of the actual and demande powers, each
multiplied by a controller constant. The above simple fomula is written
only as a quick reminder of the meaning of the power error term.
• The ABSORBERS are moved in two banks, and are normally outside the
core. They are moved by RRS if AUTO is selected, or can be moved manually
if their control is placed into the MANUAL mode. Note that reactor power
should not exceed 80%FP if either of the Control Absorbers is not fully out of
the core.
• The ADJUSTERS are moved in eight banks, and are normally fully inserted
into the core. They are moved by RRS if AUTO is selected, or manually if they
are placed in MANUAL mode. Note that maximum reactor power should be
reduced by 5%FP for each Adjuster Rod bank that is not in the fully inserted
position.
• The liquid zone system is simlified on this model of the Simulator, and
includes only one zone that represents all of the 14 liquid zones. The average
zone level, water outflow and inflow rates are displayed. When the inlet valve
is in the AUTO position, it is under the control of RRS. By selecting manual
control, the openingof the inlet vale and hence the zone level can be manually
controlled.
• The speed of the Absorbers and Adjusters is displayed but cannot be controlled from this page. page 12
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2.4
PHT MAIN CIRCUIT
This screen shows a simplified layout of the main heat transport system: the 480
coolant channels are represented by only four channels, two per loop showing the
opposite directions of flow in the figure of eight configuration of each loop.
Starting from fuel channel number 1 at the reactor and following the direction of
coolant flow, the system components and parameters shown are:
• average channel exit temperature (°C)
• ROH2 (note that ROH2 pressure and temperature are shown in the box below
the reactor)
• SG2
• P2 (selection allows ‘START’, ‘STOP’ and ‘RESET’ operations)
• Pressure (kPa) and temperature (°C) at the outlet of P2
• RIH2 (note that RIH2 pressure and temperature are shown in the box below
the reactor)
• fuel channel number 2
• average channel exit temperature (°C)
• ROH1 (note that ROH1 pressure and temperature are shown in the box above the reactor) • SG1
• Feed flow into main loop (kg/sec)
• P1 (selection allows ‘START’, ‘STOP’ and ‘RESET’ operations)
• Pressure (kPa) and temperature (°C) at the outlet of P1
• RIH1 (note that RIH1 pressure and temperature are shown in the box above
the reactor)
• flow returns to fuel channel number 1
The same equipment and parameters are shown in the lower loop, except that
instead of feed flow into this loop there is bleed flow out (kg/sec).
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2.5
PHT FEED AND BLEED
This screen shows the Heat Transport pressure control system, including the
pressurizer, bleed (or de-gasser) condenser, pressure relief, feed and bleed circuits
and D2O storage tank.
• Starting with the storage tank at the bottom left hand corner, it level is
displayed in meters. The tank supplies the flow and suction pressure for the
Feed (or Pressuring) pumps P1 and P2: normally one pump is running, the
popup menu allows START, STOP and RESET operations.
• The Flow (kg/sec) and Temperature (°C) of the feed flow are displayed. Part
of the flow goes to the Bleed Condenser to provide spray cooling (via CV14,
kg/sec) and reflux cooling (via CV11, kg/sec), with the reflux flow being
returned to the feed line past the feed control valve CV12; the feed flow then
passes through the feed isolation valve MV18 before entering the main circuit
at the suction of the main circulating pump 1.
• Proceeding in an anti-clockwise direction, the Pressure (kPa) and
Temperature (°C) of ROH#1 are shown. Flow from the Outlet header is
normally to and from the Pressurizer via MV1, a negative flow (kg/sec)
indicating flow out of the pressurizer. In case of excessive heat transport
header pressure, relief valve CV20 opens and discharges flow (kg/sec) to the
Bleed Condenser. Pressurizer Pressure (kPa), Temperature(°C) and Level
(m) are displayed.
• Pressurizer pressure is maintained by heaters (in case the pressure falls) and
by steam discharge valves CV22 and CV23 if the pressure is too high.
• Bleed Condenser pressure relief is provided via RV1. Parameters displayed
for the Bleed Condenser are: Pressure (kPa), Temperature(°C) and Level (m).
Feed flow from main circuit pump 3 (header pressure in kPa) flows (kg/sec)
via Bleed Control valves CV5, CV6 and MV8. Bleed Condenser by-pass is via
MV7.
• The outflow from the Bleed Condenser is via MV9, the Bleed Cooler and the
Bleed Condenser Level Control valve CV15 to the Purification Circuit. The
values of Temperature(°C) and Flow (kg/sec) into the Purification System are
displayed.
• Heat Transport pressure control in NORMAL mode is via the Pressurizer; via
the PHT MODE popup menu SOLID mode can be selected. PRESSURIZER
LEVEL SETPOINT and ROH PRESSURE SETPOINT are also shown.
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2.6
PHT INVENTORY CONTROL
The screen shows the parameters relevant to controlling the inventory in the main
heat transport loop. Either NORMAL or SOLID modes of operation may be selected.
Note that in NORMAL mode, inventory control is achieved by controlling Pressurizer
Level, while in SOLID mode inventory control is by means of maintaining main heat
transport pressure via the feed and bleed valves.
• Pressurizer Level is normally under computer control, with the setpoint being
ramped as a function of reactor power and the expected shrink and swell
resulting from the corresponding temperature changes. Level control may be
transferred to MANUAL and the SETPOINT can then be controlled manually.
• The amount of feed and bleed is controlled about a bias value that is set to
provide a steady flow of bleed to the Purification System. The amount of flow
may be adjusted by changing the value of the BIAS. The positions of feed and
bleed valves are normally under AUTO control, but may be changed to
MANUAL using the popup menus.
• In SOLID mode the ROH PRESSURE (kPa) may be controlled manually via
the popup menu.
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2.7
PHT PRESSURE CONTROL
This screen is similar to the previous one in terms of the ability to select PHT
Pressure Control MODE and SOLID MODE ROH PRESSURE CONTROL. The
difference arise in the control of Pressurizer pressure.
• The six HEATERS are normally in AUTO, with the variable Heater (#1)
modulating. The other five heaters are either ON or OFF, and under AUTO
control. Via the popup menus MANUAL operation can be selected, and each
heater may be selected to START, STOP or RESET.
• STEAM BLEED CONTROL is via CV22 and CV23. These are normally in
AUTO mode, but may be placed on MANUAL and the valve opening manually
controlled via popup menus.
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2.8
BLEED CONDENSER CONTROL
The parameters required to control Bleed Condenser Pressure and Level are shown
on this screen.
• PRESSURE CONTROL is normally achieved via altering the REFLUX flow,
and SPRAY flow only takes place if REFLUX flow is unable to maintain
pressure control. To achieve such a split mode of operation, the SETPOINT
for the Reflux valve, denoted as BLEED CONDENSER PRESSURE
SETPOINT (kPa) is set at a value lower than the BLEED CONDENSER
PRESSURE SETPOINT FOR SPRAY VALVE (kPa). Both valves are normally
on AUTO, but may be selected to MANUAL and the valve opening controlled
directly via popup menus.
• LEVEL CONTROL is normally in the AUTO mode about the specified
SETPOINT. However if the BLEED TEMPERATURE AT COOLER EXIT
exceeds a preset value (68°C), the control mode is switched to
TEMPERATURE CONTROL mode, which restricts the valve opening so as to
protect the ion exchanger resin.
• The LEVEL CONTROL VALVE may be placed on MANUAL for direct control
of the valve’s position.
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2.9
STEAM GENERATOR FEED PUMPS PAGE
Screen shows the portion of the feedwater system that includes the Deaerator, the
boiler feed pumps, the high pressure heaters and associated valves, with the output
of the HP heaters going to the Steam Generator Level Control Valves. The following
parameters are displayed:
• Deaerator Level (m)
• Boiler Feedpump Suction Header Pressure (kPa)
• Boiler Feed Pump inlet valves (MV63 to MV68), outlet valves (MV13 to MV18)
and associated popup menus allowing them to be opened or closed
• Main Boiler Feed Pumps (P1 to P4) and Auxiliary Boiler Feed Pumps p1 and
p2 with associated popup menus for control selections
• Recirculating flow control valves FCV153, 253, 353, 453, 553, 653; pressure
control valves PCV555, 565; and associated popup menus for
AUTO/MANUAL selection and controller parameter tuning
• High Pressure Heaters HX5A and HX5B and popup menus to select either or
both heaters to be in-service
• HP Heater isolation valves MV29 to MV32 and popup menus for open and close control • Pressure at inlet and outlet of HP heaters (kPa)
• Flow at inlet header to Steam Generator Level Control Valves (kg/sec)
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2.10
STEAM GENERATOR LEVEL CONTROL PAGE
Screen shows each of the four boilers and associated level control valves. The
following parameters are described (starting near the top of the screen) for Steam
Generator 1, the same applies to SG 2, 3 and 4.
• Steam Generator Flow (kg/sec)
• Steam Generator Level (m)
• Reheater Flow (kg/sec)
• Feedwater Flow (kg/sec)
• Large Level Control Valve (LCV103) Status and Opening (%)
• Large Level Control Isolation Motorized Valve (MV53) Status and AUTO/MANUAL Controller Popup Menu • Large Level Control Valve (LCV101) Status and Opening (%)
• Large Level Control Isolation Motorized Valve (MV45) Status and AUTO/MANUAL Controller Popup Menu • Small Level Control Valve (LCV102) Status and Opening (%)
• Small Level Control Isolation Motorized Valve (MV49) Status and AUTO/MANUAL Controller Popup Menu • Steam Generator 1 Level Control (SG1 SGLC) Popup Menu
• Steam Generator Level Control Setpoint (SGLC SP) Select Popup Menu
Total Steam Flow (kg/sec) and Total feedwater Flow (kg/sec) to all four Boilers is
shown at the bottom left hand corner.
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2.11
STEAM GENERATOR LEVEL TRENDS PAGE
Screen shows the steam generator level displays, including the actual level, the
alarm, control and trip points. These points are identified as follows:
•
TT - Turbine Trip
•
HA - High steam generator level Alarm
•
CP - Control (or set) Point
•
VT - Valve Transfer Point
•
LA - Low Steam generator level Alarm
•
SB - SetBack reactor
•
SDS1 - ShutDown System 1 trip
•
SDS2 - ShutDown System 2 trip
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2.12
• • • • • STEAM GENERATOR LEVEL MANUAL CONTROL
This screen allows the manual control of the level in each of the four steam
generators. Since the actions are the same for any one steam generator, SG1
is the only one described here.
Under normal operating conditions all level control valves are under DCC Control. At full power normally one large valve (LCV103 for SG1 at the 100%FP Initial Condition) is in control, the other large valve and the small valve are closed. While under DCC control the MAN O/P (Manual Output) station tracks the DCC signal. Transferring control from DCC to MANUAL allows direct control of the valve’s
position by the operator.
For the small valves, transfer from DCC to AUTO allows for tuning of the
controller, and valve control to be transferred from the DCC to either AUTO or
MANUAL control.
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2.13
• • • • • • • • • • EXTRACTION STEAM PAGE
Screen shows the extraction steam flows from the Main Steam system to the
Deaerator and the High Pressure Heaters in addition to the steam flow to the
Turbine. The following parameters are displayed:
Main Steam Header Pressure (MPa)
Steam Flow to the Turbine (kg/sec)
Steam flow to the Deaerator from the Main Steam Header (kg/sec)
Extraction Steam flow to the Deaerator (kg/sec)
Extraction Steam flow to the High Pressure Heaters (kg/sec)
Deaerator Level (m)
Deaerator Pressure (kPa)
Valve Status for MSV (Motorized or Emergency Stop Valve) and HPCV (High
Pressure Turbine Control or Governor Valve)
Valve status and popup menus to provide for manual control of motorized valves MV1, 2 and 3 Valve status and popup menu for AUTO/MANUAL selection and controller parameter tuning page 32
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2.14
TURBINE GENERATOR PAGE
Shows the main parameters and controls associated with the Turbine and the
generator. The parameters displayed are:
• Boiler 1, 2, 3, 4 Level (m)
• status of Main Steam Safety Valves (MSSV)
• status, opening and flow through the Atmospheric Steam Discharge Valves
(ASDV) and the Condenser Steam Discharge Valves (CSDV)
• Steam Flow to the Turbine (kg/sec)
• Governor Control Valve Position (% open)
• Generator Output (MW)
• Turbine/Generator Speed of Rotation (rpm)
• Generator Breaker Trip Status
• Turbine Trip Status
• Turbine Control Status
• All the trend displays have been covered elsewhere or are self explanatory
The following pop-up menus are provided:
• TURBINE RUNBACK - sets Target (%) and Rate (%/sec) of runback when ‘Accept’ is selected • TURBINE TRIP STATUS - Trip or Reset
• ASDV and CSDV AUTO/MANUAL Control - AUTO Select, following which the
Manual Position of the valve may be set
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2.15
RRS / DPR PAGE
This screen permits control of reactor power setpoint and its rate of change while under
Reactor Regulating System (RRS) control, i.e. in ‘alternate’ mode. Several of the parameters
key to RRS operation are displayed on this page.
• The status of reactor control is indicated by the four blocks marked MODE, SETBACK, STEPBACK AND TRIP. They are normally green but will turn yellow when in the abnormal state. ⇒ MODE will indicate whether the reactor is under NORMAL to ALTERNATE
control, this status can also be changed here.
⇒ SETBACK status is indicated by YES or NO; Setback is initiated automatically
under the prescribed conditions by RRS, but at times the operator needs to
initiate a manual Setback, which is done from this page on the Simulator: the
Target value (%) and Rate (%/sec) need to be input.
⇒ STEPBACK status is indicated by YES or NO; Stepback is initiated automatically
under the prescribed conditions by RRS, but at times the operator needs to
initiate a manual Stepback, which is done from this page on the Simulator: the
Target value (%) need to be input.
⇒ TRIP status is indicated by YES or NO; trip is initiated by the Shutdown
Systems, if the condition clears, it can be reset from here. Note however, that
the tripped SDS#1 must also be reset before RRS will pull out the shutdown
rods, this must be done on the Shutdown Rods Page
•
Key components of RRS and DPR control algorithm are also shown on this screen.
⇒ The ACTUAL SETPOINT is set equal to the NORMAL SETPOINT under UPR
control (‘normal mode’), the upper and lower limits on this setpoint can be
specified here.
⇒ The ACTUAL SETPOINT is set equal to the ALTERNATE SETPOINT under
RRS control (‘alternate mode’); the value of ALTERNATE SETPOINT is input on
this page.
⇒ Operation of HOLD POWER while in ‘normal mode’ selects ‘alternate mode’ and
sets DEMANDED POWER SETPOINT equal to the measured Neutron Power.
However, in ‘alternate mode’ it does not respond as it should.
⇒ The computed values of DEMANDED POWER SETPOINT, DEMANDED RATE
SETPOINT and POWER ERROR are shown on this page, both on the block
diagram and on the trend plots.
⇒ The Absorbers, the Liquid Zones and the Adjusters can be placed on Manual, but
no manual operation of these devises is possible on this page.
⇒ Neutron Power, and Thermal are displayed as part of the block diagram, these
readings are the same as at the bottom of each page. However, PWR LOG
RATE can only be observed on this page.
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2.16
UPR PAGE
This screen permits control of station load setpoint and its rate of change
while under Unit Power Regulator (UPR) control, i.e. ‘normal’ mode. Control
of the Main Steam Header Pressure is also through this screen, but this is not
usually changed under normal operating conditions.
• OUC (overall Unit Control) MODE can be changed from NORMAL to ALTERNATE. • TARGET LOAD - on selection Station Load (%) and Rate of Change (%/sec)
can be specified; change becomes effective when ‘Accept’ is selected.
⇒ The OPERATOR INP TARGET is the desired setpoint inserted by the
operator; the CURRENT TARGET will be changed at a POWER RATE
specified by the operator.
⇒ Note that the RANGE is only an advisory comment, numbers outside the
indicated range of values may be input on the Simulator.
• MAIN STEAM HEADER PRESSURE SETPOINT (MPa) - alters the setpoint,
which is rarely done during power operation. Caution must be exercised when
using this feature on the Simulator, since the requested change takes place in
a step fashion as soon as the change is made; changes should be made in
increments of 0.1 MPa.
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2.17
TREND
This screen shows the trend plots for eight simulated plant parameters. The list below gives
the parameter names that may be selected for plotting on any one of the eight trend
displays. The list can be displayed by pointing to the black triangle at the top right hand
corner of the selected plot, holding down the left mouse button and highlighting the desired
parameter.
Note that the vertical axis on each plot has its scale adjusted automatically to correspond to
the maximum and minimum values of the parameter during the time segment indicated by
the horizontal axis.
This trend feature should be used whenever parameters from different systems need to be
viewed on the one display, and none of the other pages has the required combination of
parameters.
Reactor Power (Normalized)
Total Delta mK (mK)
Xenon Load (mK)
Thermal Power Release In Nuclear Fuel
(Normalized)
RIH#1 Coolant Temp (Deg C)
RIH#2 Coolant Temp (Deg C)
RIH#3 Coolant Temp (Deg C)
RIH#4 Coolant Temp (Deg C)
ROH#I Coolant Temp (Deg C]
ROH#2 Coolant Temp (Deg C)
ROH#1 Pressure (kPa)
ROH#2 Pressure (kPa)
RIH#1 Pressure (kPa)
RIH#2 Pressure (kPa)
RIH#3 Pressure (kPa)
RIH#4 Pressure (kPa)
Measured Reactor Thermal Power
(Normalized)
Coolant Flow Rate to Quadrant 1 (kg/s)
Coolant Flow Rate to Quadrant 2 (kg/s)
Coolant Flow Rate to Quadrant 3 (kg/s)
Coolant Flow Rate to Quadrant 4 (kg/s)
Exit Quality in Channel #1 (Normalized)
Exit Quality in Channel #2 (Normalized)
Exit Quality in Channel #3 (Normalized)
Exit Quality in Channel #4 (Normalized)
Pressurizer Pressure (kPa)
Pressurizer Temperature (Deg C)
Pressurizer Level (m)
Pressurizer Level Set Point (m)
PHT Liquid Bleed Flow (kg/s)
PHT Total Liquid Feed Flow (kg/s)
PHT Reflux feed fIow (kg/s)
PHT Liquid Relief Flow (kg/s)
Bleed Condenser Spray Flow (kg/s)
Bleed Condenser Pressure (kPa)
Bleed Condenser Level (m)
Bleed Cooler Outlet Temp (Deg C)
Bleed Condenser Outlet Flow (kg/s)
Deaerator Pressure (kPa)
Deaerator Level (m)
Main Stm to Deaerator PCV Pos (Norm)
Ave Temp of Feedwater at HPHX Outlet (Deg C)
Feed water Flow to Boiler#1 (kg/s)
Feed water Flow to Boiler# 2(kg/s)
Feed water Flow to Boiler#3 (kg/s)
Feed water Flow to Boiler#4 (kg/s)
Boiler#1 Drum Level (m)
Boiler#2 Drum Level (m)
Boiler#3 Drum Level (m)
Boiler#4 Drum Level (m)
Boiler#1 Drum Level Set Point (m)
Boiler#2 Drum Level Set Point (m)
Boiler#3 Drum Level Set Point (m)
Boiler#4 Drum Level Set Point (m)
Main Steam Header Temp(Deg C)
Main Steam Header Pressure (kPa)
Pressure at MSV inlet (kPa)
Steam Flow through ASDV (kg/s)
Steam Flow through CSDV (kg/s)
Total Steam Flow through Relief Valves (kg/s)
Total Steam Flow from Boiler (kg/s)
Steam Flow to Turbine (kg/s)
Turbine Mechanical Power (Normalized)
Turbine Gross Electrical Power (Normalized)
Turbine Speed (RPM)
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CANDU-9 COMPACT SIMULATOR EXERCISES Lecture Notes
prepared by:
Dr. George Bereznai
Dean, Energy Management and
Nuclear Science, at the University of
Ontario Institute of Technology,
Canada
george.bereznai@uoit.ca
CONTENTS
1.
OVERALL UNIT CONTROL
1.1 POWER MANEUVER
1.2
RESPONSE TO POWER MANEUVER (NORMAL MODE)
1.3 TEMPERATURE PROFILE ACROSS A CANDU 9 UNIT
2.
REACTOR REGULATING SYSTEM OPERATION
2.1 POWER MANEUVER IN ‘ALTERNATE’ MODE
2.2 RESPONSE OF RRS CONTROL ALGORITHM
2.3 REACTOR AND RRS RESPONSE TO POWER MANEUVER
2.4 POWER MANEUVER UNDER MANUAL CONTROL
2.5 MANUAL WITHDRAWAL OF ADJUSTER RODS
3.
REACTOR REGULATING SYSTEM MALFUNCTIONS AND TRIPS
3.1 FAIL OPEN LIQUID ZONE INLET VALVES
3.2
FAIL CLOSED LIQUID ZONE INLET VALVES
3.3 ONE BANK OF ABSORBER RODS DROP
3.4 SDS#1 REACTOR TRIP AND RECOVERY
3.5 SDS#1 REACTOR TRIP AND POISON-OUT
3.6 SDS#1 REACTOR TRIP AND POISON OVERRIDE
4.
HEAT TRANSPORT SYSTEM EXERCISES
4.1 PHT LRV (CV20) FAILS OPEN
4.2 PHT STEAM BLEED VALVE (CV22) FAILS OPEN
4.3 PHT FEED VALVE (CV12) FAILS OPEN
4.4 PRZR SURGE VALVE (MV1) FAILS CLOSED
4.5 PHT BLEED VALVE (CV5) FAILS OPEN
5.
STEAM AND FEEDWATER SYSTEM EXERCISES
5.1 FW LCV101 FAILS OPEN
5.2 FW LCV101 FAILS CLOSED
5.3 STEAM GENERATOR #1 FW FT IRRATIONAL
5.4 STEAM GENERATOR PRESSURE CONTROL EXERCISE
5.5 REACTOR TRIP AND UNIT RECOVERY
6.
OVERALL UNIT EXERCISES
6.1 FAIL CLOSED ALL F/W LEVEL CONTROL MOTORIZED VALVES
6.2
ALL MAIN BFPs TRIP
6.3 TURBINE SPURIOUS TRIP
6.4 THROTTLE PT (PRESSURE TRANSMITTER) FAILS LOW
6.5 RIH#1 SMALL BREAK
6.6 MAIN STEAM HEADER BREAK
1. OVERALL UNIT CONTROL
1.1 POWER MANEUVER: 10% Power Reduction and Return to Full Power
(1) Initialize Simulator to 100% full power;
(2) verify that all parameters are consistent with full power operation;
(3) select the UPR page, and change the scale on the “Reactor Pwr & Thermal Pwr” and
“Current Target Load & Turbine Pwr” graphs to be between 80 and 110 percent, the
“Main Steam Hdr Pressure & SP” to 4500 and 5000 kPa, “Boiler Level” to 13 and 15
meters, and set “Resolution” to “Max Out”;
(4) reduce unit power in the ‘normal’ mode, i.e.
• using the UPR display
• select ‘TARGET LOAD (%)’ pop-up menu
• in pop-up menu lower ‘target’ to 90.00% at a ‘Rate’ of 1.0 %/sec
• ‘Accept’ and ‘Return’
(5) observe the response of the displayed parameters until the transients in Reactor
Power and Steam Pressure are completed (approximately 4 minutes and full time
scale on the graph) without freezing the Simulator and/or stopping Labview, and
explain the main changes;
(6) continuing the above operation, raise “UNIT POWER” to 100% at a rate of
1.0%FP/sec.
ASSIGNMENT:
(a) What is the maximum value of Steam Generator Pressure during the above set of
maneuvers and at what stage of the transients does it occur?
(b) What is the minimum value of Steam Generator Pressure during the above set of
maneuvers and at what stage of the transients does it occur?
(c) Is the turbine leading the reactor or the reactor leading the turbine in the above
transients? Please explain on what parameter observations do you base your answer.
1.2 RESPONSE TO POWER MANEUVER (NORMAL MODE)
• Initialize the Simulator to 100%FP, reduce power using UPR in 25% steps at 0.5%/sec
(trip the reactor for the 0% state) and record the following values:
Parameter
Unit 100% 75% 50% 25%
Reactor Power
%
ROH Pressure
MPa
ROH Temperature
RIH Pressure
Comments
°C
MPa
RIH Temperature
°C
Pressurizer Level
m
HT Pump Flow
Mg/s
Boiler Pressure
MPa
Boiler Temperature
°C
Boiler Level
m
Steam Flow
kg/s
Feedwater Flow
kg/s
Turbine-Generator
Power
0%
%
ASSIGNMENT:
Under “Comments” please note the type of parameter change as a function of reactor
power 0% → 100%FP: constant, linear increase or decrease, non-linear increase or
decrease.
1.3 TEMPERATURE PROFILE ACROSS A CANDU 9 UNIT AT FULL POWER
(1) Initialize the Simulator to 100% Full Power;
(2) record the missing values of the parameters in the table below.
Station Equipment
Pressure (kPa)
Temperature (°C)
HP Turbine Exhaust
900
170
LP Turbine Inlet
900
230
5
35
700
100
Reactor Inlet Header
Reactor Outlet Header
Steam Generator
Condenser
LP Heater Outlet
Deaerator
Boiler Feedpump Inlet
HP Heater Outlet
Preheater Outlet
ASSIGNMENT: Plot these parameters on the attached grid. 130
350 300 250
200
Temp
°C
150
100
50
0
Pump
Suction
Header
PRIMARY SIDE
Reactor Reactor Pump
Inlet
Outlet Suction
Hdr
Hdr
Hdr
Steam
Gen
HP
Turb
Outlet
LP
Turb
Inlet
SECONDARY SIDE
ConLP
Dedenser
Heater
aerOutlet
ator
Boiler
HP
Feed
Heater
Pump
Outlet
Suction
Preheat
Outlet
2.
REACTOR REGULATING SYSTEM OPERATION
2.1 POWER MANEUVER IN ‘ALTERNATE’ MODE
(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) Initialize the Simulator to 100%FP, select ‘ALTERNATE MODE”, and record
parameter values in column (1);
reduce power using RRS to 50% at 0.5%/sec, observe parameter changes during
transient, freeze the Simulator as soon as Reactor Neutron Power reaches 50% and
record parameter values column (2);
unfreeze and let parameters stabilize, record parameter values column (3);
return reactor power to 100%FP at 0.5%/sec, freeze as soon as Reactor Neutron
Power reaches 100% and record parameter values column (4);
unfreeze and let parameters stabilize, record parameter values column (5).
Parameter
Reactor Neutron
Power
Reactor Thermal
Power
Average Zone
Level
Actual Setpoint
Unit
%
%
%
%
Demanded Power
%
Setpoint
Demanded Rate %/sec
Setpoint
Power Error
%
Boiler Pressure
MPa
Boiler
Temperature
Boiler Level
°C
Steam Flow
kg/s
Feedwater Flow
kg/s
Governor valve
opening
TurbineGenerator Power
%
m
%
(1)
100%
(2)
50%
(3)
50%
(4)
(5)
100% 100%
Comments
ASSIGNMENT:
(a) Explain the changes in Average Zone Level between each operating state (column):
•
(1) → (2)
•
(2) → (3)
•
(3) → (4)
•
(4) → (5)
(b) In Column (2) Reactor Neutron Power is much lower than Turbine-Generator Power.
Where is the extra energy coming from?
2.2 RESPONSE OF RRS CONTROL ALGORITHM TO POWER MANEUVER
(1) Initialize the Simulator to 100%FP and from the Reactivity Control page note the
position of the operating point on the attached diagram (confirm the value of Average
Zone Level on the Plant Overview page);
(2) insert a power reduction request using RRS to 70%FP at 0.8%/sec and freeze the
simulator (remember that “ALTERNATE MODE” must be selected if power level
change is to be requested via RRS);
(3) go to the Reactivity Control page, unfreeze, and note the path of the operating point on
the attached diagram, until power error has stabilized at or near zero (about 3 - 4
minutes);
(4) confirm the value of average zone level on the Plant Overview page.
100
90
80
70
R2
AVE
60
ZONE
LEVEL 50
(%)
R1
40
30
20
10
0
-7.0 -6.0 -5.0 -4.0 -3.0 -2.0 -1.0
0.0
1.0
2.0
3.0
4.0
5.0
6.0
7.0
POWER ERROR (%FP) = ACTUAL - DEMANDED
(error amplitude and rate)
ASSIGNMENT:
(a) Why does the operating point start out in Region R1, then go to Region R2?
(b) What is the final value of the average zone level?
final zone level higher than the original zone level?
Why is the
2.3 REACTOR AND RRS RESPONSE TO POWER MANEUVER
(1) Initialize the Simulator to 100%FP and from the Reactivity Control page note the
position of the operating point on the attached diagram;
(2) insert a power reduction request using RRS to 10%FP at 0.8%/sec and freeze the
simulator;
(3) go to the Reactivity Control page, unfreeze, and note the path of the operating point on
the attached diagram, until at least one Adjuster Rod bank is out of the reactor (about
20 minutes) - once the first Adjuster Bank is more than 50% withdrawn, place
Absorbers on Manual and drive them fully OUT.
100
90
80
70
AVE
60
ZONE
LEVEL 50
(%)
40
30
20
10
0
-7.0 -6.0 -5.0 -4.0 -3.0 -2.0 -1.0 0.0
1.0
2.0
3.0
4.0
5.0
6.0
7.0
POWER ERROR (%FP) = ACTUAL - DEMANDED
(error amplitude and rate)
ASSIGNMENT:
(a) Compare the response to case 2.2 and explain the main differences, particularly the
‘end’ state.
(b) Explain what would happen to the reactor if the setpoint remained at 10%FP for
several hours.
2.4 POWER MANEUVER UNDER MANUAL CONTROL
(1) Initialize the Simulator to 100%FP and select ALTERNATE MODE. On the Reactivity
Control page place the controllers for LIQUID ZONE, ABSORBERS and ADJUSTERS
on MANUAL. Do not use liquid zone control during this exercise;
(2) using Absorber and Adjuster drives on Manual, maneuver reactor power so as to
reduce generator power to a level between 80+1%FP and Main Stm Header Pressur
between 4700+50 kPa (if the CSDVs open, place them on MANUAL and keep them
closed).
ASSIGNMENT:
(a) Note the time taken from the start of lowering reactor power until steady operation
within the specified error limits is achieved as compared with a power reduction rate of
0.5%FP/sec;
(b) note any difficulties in controlling the unit.
2.5 MANUAL WITHDRAWAL OF ADJUSTER RODS
(1) Initialize the Simulator to 100%FP and select ALTERNATE MODE. On the Reactivity
Control page place the controllers for LIQUID ZONE, ABSORBERS and ADJUSTERS
on MANUAL. Do not use liquid zone control during this exercise;
(2) manually withdraw the Adjuster rods.
ASSIGNMENT: Describe and explain the response of the Reactor and related systems. 3. REACTOR REGULATING SYSTEM MALFUNCTIONS AND TRIPS
3.1 FAIL OPEN LIQUID ZONE INLET VALVES
(1) Initialize the Simulator to 100%FP, select ALTERNATE MODE and go to the Reactivity
Control page;
(2) place LIQUID ZONE controller on MANUAL and select Control Valve Position Manual
Output to 100%;
(3) record the following data:
Time (min)
0
0.5
1
2
4
6
8
10
Average Zone Level (%)
Reactor Neutron Power (%FP)
Reactor Power Error (%)
Generator Output (%FP)
ASSIGNMENT:
(a) What happens to Reactor Neutron Power and how the Reactor Regulating responds?
(b) Explain why reactor power oscillates after the initial transient is over?
(c) What should the operator do to stop the oscillations in reactor power?
3.2 FAIL CLOSED LIQUID ZONE INLET VALVES
(1) Initialize the Simulator to 100%FP, select ALTERNATE MODE, and go to the
Reactivity Control page;
(2) place LIQUID ZONE controller on MANUAL and select Control Valve Position Manual
Output to 0%;
(3) record the following data:
Time (sec)
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
120
Average Zone Level (%)
Reactor Neutron Power (%FP)
Reactor Power Error (%)
Generator Output (%FP)
ASSIGNMENT:
(a) Describe the responses of the Reactor and Reactor Regulating System.
(b) Explain the differences between Exercise 3-1 and 3-2, noting the difference in reactor
physics response.
(c) Why does the reactor trip?
3.3 ONE BANK OF ABSORBER RODS DROP
(1) Initialize the Simulator to 100%FP and from the Reactivity Control page note the
position of the operating point on the attached diagram;
(2) insert the Malfunction “One Bank of Absorber Rods Drop” (use a five second time
delay) and the note the time;
(3) observe system response on the Reactivity Control page and note the path of the
operating point on the attached diagram;
(4) note OUC mode and reactor power level;
(5) clear the malfunction;
(6) once the Absorbers have fully withdrawn from the reactor, raise reactor power to a
level dependent on the number of Absorber banks out of the reactor and note the time
when maximum reactor power level is reached;
(7) for each bank partially or fully out, reactor power is limited by 5% (i.e. one bank 95%FP, two banks - 90%FP, etc).
100
90
80
70
AVE
60
ZONE
LEVEL 50
(%)
40
30
20
10
0
-7.0 -6.0 -5.0 -4.0 -3.0 -2.0 -1.0 0.0
1.0
2.0
3.0
4.0
5.0
6.0
7.0
POWER ERROR (%FP) = ACTUAL - DEMANDED
(error amplitude and rate)
ASSIGNMENT:
(a) Explain what happened to OUC MODE and Reactor Power after the malfunction was
inserted.
(b) What is the maximum power level that you could achieve?
______
(c) How many Adjuster Rods were out of the core?
______
(d) How long after the insertion of the Malfunction was maximum
reactor power achieved?
______
3.4 SDS#1 REACTOR TRIP AND RECOVERY
Check the time calibration factor of the Simulator on your computer, and compute the real
time response by multiplying all time measurements taken during this exercise by the time
calibration factor.
(1) Initialize the Simulator to 100%FP;
(2) manually trip the reactor;
(3) observe the response of the overall unit;
(4) wait until Generator power is zero and reactor neuron power less than 0.1%;
(5) reset Reactor Trip and SDS#1;
(6) record the time (using the display under the chart recorders) needed to withdraw all
shutdown rods, and compute the real time from the measured time;
(7) raise reactor power to 60%FP, using the following rates of power level setpoint
increases:
Actual Neutron Power
N < 0.5 %FP
0.5 < N < 5 %FP Rate of Target Increase
0.01 %FP/sec 0.1 %FP/sec
5 < N < 20 %FP
0.2 %FP/sec 20 < N < 60 %FP
0.8 %FP/sec (8) observe the response of the reactor regulating system and the reactivity changes that
take place.
ASSIGNMENT:
(a) what is the (real) time taken to withdraw all the adjuster rods from the reactor?
(b) what is the (real) time needed to raise reactor power to 60%FP after the shutdown
rods have been withdrawn?
3.5 SDS#1 REACTOR TRIP AND POISON-OUT
(1) Initialize the Simulator to 100%FP;
(2) manually trip the reactor;
(3) observe the response of the overall unit;
(4) record the value of Xenon reactivity every ten minutes following the reactor trip;
Time (min)
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
Xenon (mk)
(5) wait one hour (real time, i.e. measured time X TCF) before resetting Reactor Trip and
SDS#1;
(6) after the shutdown rods have been withdrawn observe the status of the reactivity
control devices;
(7) attempt to raise reactor power – note response;
(8) note the reactivity changes that have taken place, in particular note the magnitude and
estimate the rate of change of Xenon reactivity build-up.
ASSIGNMENT:
(a) How many minutes after the reactor trip did the last Adjust Rod bank drive out?
(b) What was the rate of increase of Xenon reactivity at that time (mk/minute)?
(c) Why is it not possible to raise reactor power one hour after the reactor trip?
3.6 SDS#1 REACTOR TRIP AND POISON OVERRIDE
Before starting this exercise make sure that you do a time calibration of your simulator and
that all times calculated and measured are corrected by the appropriate time calibration
factor.
(1) Using the data from the previous two exercises, estimate the time available to the
operator from the initiation of the reactor trip until the trip must be reset to avoid a
poison outage: the desired end state of this exercise is reactor power at 60%FP and
less than one bank of adjuster rods left in the core (i.e. the last bank is partially
withdrawn);
(2) initialize the Simulator to 100%FP;
(3) manually trip the reactor;
(4) wait until the above calculated time has expired;
(5) reset Reactor Trip and SDS#1;
(6) raise reactor power to 60%FP;
(7) note the final state of the adjuster rods and Average Liquid Zone level.
ASSIGNMENT:
Note and explain any differences between Poison Override time you computed and the
result you obtained, i.e. record the time that elapses between tripping the reactor and
recovering reactor power to 60%FP, as well as the number of Adjuster Rod banks not fully
withdrawn from the core.
4.
HEAT TRANSPORT SYSTEM EXERCISES
4.1 PHT LRV (CV20) FAILS OPEN
(1) Initialize the Simulator to the 100% full power state;
(2) record the initial parameter values;
(3) insert malfunction “PHT LRV (CV20) FAILS OPEN”;
(4) record the following parameters.
PARAMETER
START
2 min
5 min
10 min
End
Reactor Neutron Power
Heat Transport (ROH)
Pressure
Pressurizer Pressure
Pressurizer Level
Bleed Condenser
Pressure
Bleed Condenser Level
Feed Flow
Bleed Flow
Storage Tank Level
ASSIGNMENT:
(a) Why are all Pressurizer Heaters switched ON shortly after the start of the event?
(b) Why does Pressurizer Level fall?
(c) After “Bleed Cdzr Pressure” reaches about 8.5 MPa, why does it fluctuate?
(d) What will happen if this condition is allowed to continue for several hours?
(e) What should the unit operator do to ensure reactor safety?
4.2 PHT STEAM BLEED VALVE (CV22) FAILS OPEN
(1) Initialize the Simulator to the 100% full power state;
(2) record the initial parameter values;
(3) insert malfunction “PHT STEAM BLEED VALVE (CV22) FAILS OPEN”;
(4) record the following parameters.
PARAMETER
START
2 min
5 min
10 min
End
Reactor Neutron Power
Heat Transport (ROH)
Pressure
Pressurizer Pressure
Pressurizer Level
Bleed Condenser
Pressure
Bleed Condenser Level
Feed Flow
Bleed Flow
Storage Tank Level
ASSIGNMENT:
(a) Why is Pressurizer Level decreasing after the malfunction is inserted?
(b) Why is ROH Pressure decreasing?
(c) Why does the Reactor Trip?
(d) What corrective action should the unit operator perform to prevent the Reactor Trip?
4.3 PHT FEED VALVE (CV12) FAILS OPEN
(1) Initialize the Simulator to the 100% full power state;
(2) record the initial parameter values;
(3) insert malfunction “PHT FEED VALVE (CV12) FAILS OPEN”;
(4) record the following parameters.
PARAMETER
START
2 min
5 min
10 min
End
Reactor Neutron Power
Heat Transport (ROH)
Pressure
Pressurizer Pressure
Pressurizer Level
Bleed Condenser
Pressure
Bleed Condenser Level
Feed Flow
Bleed Flow
Storage Tank Level
ASSIGNMENT:
(a) What are the initial consequences of the increased Feed flow?
(b) Which control system responds to correct the excess Feed flow? What is the controller
action?
(c) What corrective action could the unit operator take?
4.4 PRZR SURGE VALVE (MV1) FAILS CLOSED
(1) Initialize the Simulator to the 100% full power state;
(2) record the initial parameter values;
(3) insert malfunction “PRZR SURGE VALVE (MV1) FAILS CLOSED”;
(4) in “NORMAL” OUC Mode lower generator output to 50% at a rate of 0.5%FP/sec;
(5) record and explain the changes in the following parameters.
PARAMETER
START
2 min
5 min
10 min
End
Reactor Neutron Power
Heat Transport (ROH)
Pressure
Pressurizer Pressure
Pressurizer Level
Bleed Condenser
Pressure
Bleed Condenser Level
Feed Flow
Bleed Flow
Storage Tank Level
ASSIGNMENT:
(a) What is the consequence of this malfunction if there is no change in reactor power
level?
(b) What is the consequence of this malfunction when the power level is changed?
(c) What corrective action should the unit operator take?
4.5 PHT BLEED VALVE (CV5) FAILS OPEN
(1) Initialize the Simulator to the 100% full power state;
(2) record the initial parameter values;
(3) insert malfunction “PHT BLEED VALVE (CV5) FAILS OPEN”;
(4) record and explain the changes in the following parameters.
PARAMETER
START
2 min
5 min
10 min
End
Reactor Neutron Power
Heat Transport (ROH)
Pressure
Pressurizer Pressure
Pressurizer Level
Bleed Condenser
Pressure
Bleed Condenser Level
Feed Flow
Bleed Flow
Storage Tank Level
ASSIGNMENT:
(a) What are the initial consequences of the increased Bleed flow?
(b) Which control system responds to correct the excess Bleed flow? What is the controller
action?
(c) What corrective action could the unit operator take?
5. STEAM AND FEEDWATER SYSTEM EXERCISES
5.1 FW LCV101 FAILS OPEN
(1) From a Simulator Initial state of 100% full power, insert the malfunction
“FW LCV101 FAILS OPEN”;
(2) observe unit response on “Steam Generator Level Control” and “Steam Generator
Level Trend” displays.
ASSIGNMENT:
(a) What are the main system responses?
(b) What would the Operator need to do to maintain power production?
(3) Repeat the above but view only the “Plant Overview” page until the alarm
“Stm Gen Level Hi” is received.
(4) Take the appropriate Operator actions to maintain power production.
5.2 FW LCV101 FAILS CLOSED
(1) Initialize the Simulator to 100 %FP;
(2) change ‘Control Mode Select’ to OPERator and select 3-ELEment control for SG1 and
SG3;
(3) for SG1 change selection of LCV from #3 to #1;
(4) after feedwater and boiler level transients are over, insert malfunction
LCV101 FAILS CLOSED”.
“FW
ASSIGNMENT:
(a) Explain the responses of feedwater flow, steam flow and pressure, and boiler level on
all four steam generators.
(5) Initialization the Simulator to 100 %FP;
(6) change ‘Control Mode Select’ to OPERator and select 1-ELEment control for SG1 and
SG3;
(7) for SG1 change selection of LCV from #3 to #1;
(8) after feedwater and boiler level transients are over, insert malfunction
LCV101 FAILS CLOSED”.
“FW
ASSIGNMENT:
(b) Explain the responses of feedwater flow, steam flow and pressure, and boiler level on
all four steam generators.
(c) Explain the main differences in response between (a) and (b).
5.3 STEAM GENERATOR #1 FW FT IRRATIONAL
(1) Initialize the Simulator to 100 %FP;
(2) insert malfunction “STEAM GENERATOR #1 FW FT IRRATIONAL”.
ASSIGNMENT:
(a) Explain the responses of feedwater flow, steam flow and pressure, and boiler level on
all four steam generators.
(b) What would be the correct operator action?
(3) Initialization the Simulator to 100 %FP;
(4) insert malfunction “STEAM GENERATOR #1 FW FT IRRATIONAL”;
(5) perform the correct operator action.
ASSIGNMENT:
(c) Explain the responses of feedwater flow, steam flow and pressure, and boiler level on
all four steam generators.
(d) Explain the main differences in response between (a) and (c).
5.4 STEAM GENERATOR PRESSURE CONTROL EXERCISE
Using Simulator pages ‘Plant Overview’, ‘Turbine-Generator’ and ‘UPR’, design a procedure
to verify the following features of the Steam Generator Pressure Control program:
(1) the boiler pressure error at which the ASDVs open
(2) the boiler pressure error at which the CSDVs open
(3) the % reactor power to which the steam flow through 100% open ASDVs corresponds
•
final reactor power
•
final generator power
•
% reactor power through ASDVs
•
governor valve opening
ASSIGNMENT: Describe your procedure and record the results. 5.5 REACTOR TRIP AND UNIT RECOVERY
(1) Initialize the Simulator to 100 %FP;
(2) manually Trip the Reactor;
(3) confirm Reactor Trip (neutron power decreasing rapidly, all shutdown rods in the core);
(4) once Neutron Power is below 0.01 %FP and Turbine speed is at 5 RPM, begin power
recovery operation;
(5) reset Reactor Trip;
(6) raise Reactor Power to 10 %FP, using the following rates of power level setpoint
increases:
Actual Neutron Power
N < 0.5 %FP
0.5 < N < 5 %FP 5 < N < 10 %FP
Rate of Target Increase
0.01 %FP/sec 0.1 %FP/sec 0.2 %FP/sec (7) reset Turbine Trip, select ‘TRU ENABLE’, synchronize the generator and load to about
10 %FP;
(8) in ALTERNATE mode raise Reactor Power and Generator Power to a level determined
by the number of Adjuster Rod banks not fully in the core:
FINAL POWER = 100%FP - (5 x number of rod banks not fully in core)%
ASSIGNMENT:
(a) Record the reactor (%FP) and generator power level (%FP and MW) reached when
power recovery has been completed.
(b) Ensure that for the allowed reactor power the generator is producing the maximum
power.
(c) How many Adjuster Rod banks were not fully in the core when the maximum power
production recorded in (b) was achieved?
6.
OVERALL UNIT EXERCISES
Begin each of the following exercises from the Plant Overview page. Initialize the Simulator
to 100% FP. Before inserting the specific malfunction, change the plot parameter limits as
follows:
Reactor Power minimum value
80 %
Turbine Power minimum value
80 %
Main Steam Header Pressure lower limit
4000 kPa
Pressurizer and ROH Pressure lower limit
9000 kPa
Pressurizer level and Setpoint
6m
After inserting the malfunction (use a 5 second delay), note the main system responses,
and how you can identify each malfunction, or at least identify the system (and simulator
display) where the malfunction is most likely to be found.
6.1 FAIL CLOSED ALL FEEDWATER LEVEL CONTROL VALVE MOTORIZED VALVES
(1) Observe the main parameter changes that take place in the first minute, in particular
Reactor Neutron and Thermal Power, Presssurizer Level and Setpoint, Boiler Levels,
PRZR/ROH Pressure, Steam Generator Pressure, Feedwater Flow.
(2) Once Reactor Setback is initiated, freeze the simulator.
ASSIGNMENT:
(a) Describe the main parameter changes including the above, and write a brief
explanation for the parameter changes in terms of the process system responses and
the control system responses.
(3) Unfreeze (RUN) the simulator and clear the malfunction.
(4) Place each SG level control MV on Manual and OPEN.
ASSIGNMENT:
(b) In what sequence should the MVs be open? Why?
(5) Raise reactor power and generator output to 100% FP and return to Turbine-leadingReactor mode of unit control.
(6) Check that all equipment states and parameter values are consistent with 100% FP
condition.
6.2 ALL MAIN BFPs TRIP
ASSIGNMENT:
Describe the unit’s response and explain the main differences between the responses to
this malfunction and the one in exercise 6.1.
6.3 TURBINE SPURIOUS TRIP
ASSIGNMENT:
(a) List the initial alarms after the malfunction had been inserted.
(b) Describe the “state” (main energy balance) of the unit.
- Reactor Power
- Heat Transport ROH Pressure
- Steam Generator Pressure
- Generator output
One minute after inserting the malfunction, freeze the simulator.
(c) Describe the response and effect of each of the main control programs:
- BPC
- UPR
- RRS
- TRU
- BLC
- PHTP&I
- PRZR Level
Run the simulator for 5 minutes and again observe the response and effect of each of the
main control programs.
(d) Briefly describe and explain the response and effect of each of the main control
programs. Note the value of key parameters after one and further five minutes.
(e) What operator actions are required?
Remove the malfunction and return the unit to maximum generator output permitted by the
reactor (i.e. 100 %FP - 5% for each Adjuster bank not fully in the core).
(f) What was the maximum power level reached above and how many Adjuster Rod
banks were not fully in the core?
6.4 THROTTLE PT (PRESSURE TRANSMITTER) FAILS LOW
ASSIGNMENT:
(a) List the initial alarms after the malfunction had been inserted.
(b) Describe the “state” (main energy balance) of the unit:
- Reactor Power
- Heat Transport ROH Pressure
- Steam Generator Pressure
- Generator output
(c) Observe and explain the response and effect of each of the main control programs:
- BPC
- UPR
- RRS
- TRU
- BLC
- PHTP&I
- PRZR Level
When Main Steam Header Pressure recovers to < 5000 kPa, Clear the malfunction.
Raise Reactor power to 60 %FP. Reset turbine trip. Load generator to 60 %FP. (d) Explain what further steps and precautions you would take in raising unit output to
100%FP.
6.5 RIH#1 SMALL BREAK
(a) List the initial alarms after the malfunction had been inserted.
(b) Describe the “state” (main energy balance) of the unit.
- Reactor Power
- Heat Transport ROH Pressure
- Steam Generator Pressure
- Generator output
(c) Observe and explain the response and effect of each of the main control programs:
- BPC
- UPR
- RRS
- TRU
- BLC
- PHTP&I
- PRZR Level
(d) What specific Heat Transport System parameter(s) identify the loss of coolant from the
main circuit?
After the malfunction is identified (5 - 10 minutes) remove the malfunction and return the
unit to full power operations.
(e) Explain what precautions you would take in raising unit output to 100%FP.
6.6 MAIN STEAM HEADER BREAK
(a) List the initial alarms after the malfunction had been inserted.
(b) Describes the “state” (main energy balance) of the unit.
- Reactor Power
- Heat Transport ROH Pressure
- Steam Generator Pressure
- Generator output
(c) Observe and explain the response and effect of each of the main control programs:
- BPC
- UPR
- RRS
- TRU
- BLC
- PHTP&I
- PRZR Level
(d) What specific Steam System parameter(s) identify the loss of steam from the system?