U- Pilot User Manual -
Table of Contents
1 General System Introduction.............................................................................................3
1.1 Concept of system operation......................................................................................4
2 Controllable Air vehicles.....................................................................................................5
2.1 Fixed wing...................................................................................................................5
2.1.1 Conventional configuration fixed wing.................................................................5
2.1.2 Flying wing configuration.....................................................................................5
2.2 Rotary wing.................................................................................................................5
2.2.1 Helicopter (Swash-plate 4)..................................................................................5
2.2.2 Helicopter (Swash-plate 3)..................................................................................5
2.2.3 Helicopter (Direct Drive)......................................................................................6
2.2.4 Quadcopter..........................................................................................................6
2.2.5 Hexacopter..........................................................................................................6
2.2.6 Octocopter...........................................................................................................7
3 U-Pilot.................................................................................................................................8
3.1 U-Pilot and U-Pilot OEM.............................................................................................8
3.2 Power supply..............................................................................................................8
3.3 Monitoring Engine Data..............................................................................................9
3.4 Microprocessors structure..........................................................................................9
3.5 Sensors.......................................................................................................................9
3.6 U-Pilot Connections..................................................................................................11
3.6.1 U-Pilot Main Connector.....................................................................................11
3.6.2 Pressure sensors connections..........................................................................14
3.6.2.1 U-Pilot (Box) pressure connections...........................................................14
3.6.2.2 U-Pilot OEM pressure connections............................................................14
3.6.3 Radio-link antenna connections........................................................................14
3.6.3.1 U-Pilot (Box) Radio-link connection...........................................................14
3.6.3.2 U-Pilot OEM Radio-link connection...........................................................14
3.6.4 GPS antenna connections.................................................................................14
3.6.4.1 U-Pilot (Box) GPS connection....................................................................15
3.6.4.2 U-Pilot OEM GPS connection....................................................................15
3.6.5 Magnetometer connections...............................................................................15
Appendix A Box Mechanical Drawing..................................................................................16
Appendix B OEM Mechanical Drawing................................................................................17
Appendix C Guide for determining servo reverse................................................................18
Fixed Wing servos...........................................................................................................18
Helicopter Servos............................................................................................................18
Direct Servos...............................................................................................................18
Swash-plate 4..............................................................................................................19
Swash-plate 3..............................................................................................................19
Quadcopter......................................................................................................................19
Hexacopter.......................................................................................................................19
Octocopter.......................................................................................................................20
Appendix D Changelog........................................................................................................21
2
U- Pilot User Manual - General System Introduction
1 General System Introduction
Airelectronics has developed a complete solution for both rotary and fixed wing UAVs. The
system is composed of:
•
U-Pilot or U-Pilot OEM
•
U-Ground or U-Ground OEM
•
U-See Software
U-Pilot manages and controls the vehicle from Take-off to Landing, being capable of
controlling any kind of aircraft including fixed wing, helicopters and multicopters.
U-Pilot is completely capable of following a flight plan with up to 200 real-time editable
points. Once the flight plan is loaded on U-Pilot, it is independent of operator instructions,
and in case of a communications failure, U-Pilot starts a Return Home and Land manoeuvre
which would safely land the UAV on the Runway Point.
Thanks to its versatility, U-Pilot can control any payload on board the UAV such as
cameras, parachutes or sensors. These devices can be real time controlled by a computer
operator or by U-Pilot automatically.
The FPGA technology used in U-Pilot and U-Ground allows the system to have several logic
working in parallel with the main processors. U-Pilot has working in parallel:
•
Up to 31 PWM (Pulse-Width Modulation) or GPIO (General Purpose Input / Output).
•
3 ADC inputs (Analogical Digital Converter) to monitor the voltages of 3 batteries on
the UAV.
•
4 serial ports RS232 to communicate with payloads, external magnetometers, etc.
•
A radio with up to 100 km1
•
GPS, dynamic and static pressure sensors, a magnetometer, gyroscopes and
accelerometers.
U-Pilot is built using a two parallel microprocessor approach:
•
One processor handling the state estimation and control of the UAV, using hardware
acceleration to calculate high speed algorithms.
•
A second processor handles of the mission at high level, communications with UGround and the Payload.
•
The processors do not spend time handling low-level tasks, as these tasks are
processed in parallel by dedicated logic of the FPGA.
Due to the fact that those two processors are working in parallel and there is dedicated
electronics processing the serial ports, sensors, inputs and outputs, the system is capable
of recalculating its position, orientation and closing control loops at 1000 Hz. This control
speed provides a great navigation accuracy and control.
On the ground segment, Airelectronics has both U-Ground and U-See.
U-Ground is a ground station that mainly acts as a relay of command and data between UPilot
and U-See software. Besides acting as data relay, U-Ground provides useful
1 Range may vary with the frequency band used. Default is 900 MHz but legal limitations in some countries may
change this.
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U- Pilot User Manual - General System Introduction
information to U-Pilot such as U-Ground position and pressures. U-Ground hardware is also
capable of handling a Antenna tracking system.
U-See software is a user friendly program that runs in any personal computer running
Windows or Linux.
Using U-See, the UAV operator can monitor the current state of the vehicle, control the
UAV or modify the vehicle mission in real time.
1.1 Concept of system operation
The system consists of an U-Pilot installed on an aircraft connected to a U-Ground through
a radio link. (See figure 1 attached below)
U-Ground has its own radio link to communicate with the U-Pilot and a RS-232 port to relay
the data and command between a PC running U-See and the U-Pilot on-board the vehicle.
Under certain circumstances such as aircraft integration and characterization, a Futaba
Emitter is recommended in order to provide manual override of the vehicle.
The mission operation team is usually formed by two people:
•
A External Pilot who will handle the Futaba Joystick in case a manual control of the
UAV is desired (specially during the development and adjustment phase).
•
A U-See operator that will command the mission using a computer.
When using the UAV for surveillance purposes, a camera operator is recommended.
4
U- Pilot User Manual - Controllable Air vehicles
2 Controllable Air vehicles
U-Pilot is able to control Fixed Wing and Rotary Wing vehicles. Each unit is configured for a
specific type of vehicle.
2.1 Fixed wing
Fixed wing can take-off automatically on a runway, hand launched or catapulted. The
automatic landing can be done using a parachute or on a runway.
At the time of performing the connections of the servos to the U-Pilot refer to U-Pilot
connections.
2.1.1 Conventional configuration fixed wing
Conventional configuration planes are supported with redundant elevator and separated
channels for left and right ailerons and flaps.
Other configurations/equipment are supported (spoilers support, parachute deployment for
landing, etc.) upon request. Please contact us for this kind of configuration.
2.1.2 Flying wing configuration
Tailless flying wing is supported and aileron control is separated in two channels per wing
to improve reliability and enable usage of butterfly air-brake deployment.
2.2 Rotary wing
Rotary wing configuration group different vehicles. U-Pilot can be configured for the
following type (extra configuration will be added in the future)
2.2.1 Helicopter (Swash-plate 4)
The helicopter has a swash-plate driven by four servos. These
servos should be connected to U-Pilot following the attached
schematic.
Servo 1 is forward mounted.
Servo 2 is right mounted.
Servo 3 is back mounted.
Servo 4 is left mounted.
The U-Pilot motors connection is detailed in U-Pilot connections.
2.2.2 Helicopter (Swash-plate 3)
The helicopter configured as swash-plate 3 has a swash-plate
driven by three servos. These servos should be connected to UPilot following the attached schematic.
Servo 1 is forward-right mounted.
Servo 2 is back mounted.
Servo 3 is forward-left mounted.
The U-Pilot motors connection is detailed in U-Pilot connections.
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U- Pilot User Manual - Controllable Air vehicles
2.2.3 Helicopter (Direct Drive)
The helicopter has a swash-plate driven by three servos. These
servos should be connected to U-Pilot following the attached
schematic.
Servo 1 drives cyclic pitch
Servo 2 drives cyclic roll
Servo 3 drives collective
Note that as every movement of the swash-plate is assigned
exclusively to a servo, you don't need to respect the right/left
or forward/back indications of the diagram, as you can always
check “inverse” in the servos adjustment step.
The U-Pilot
connections.
motors
connection
is
detailed
in
U-Pilot
2.2.4 Quadcopter
The quadcopter motors distribution and the rotation direction is
represented in the attached schematic.
The quadcopter motors distribution and the rotation direction is
represented in the attached schematic.
Notice that motors number 1-3 must turn clockwise and motors
number 2-4 must turn anticlockwise.
The U-Pilot motors connection is detailed in U-Pilot connections.
2.2.5 Hexacopter
The hexacopter motors distribution and the rotation direction is
represented in the attached schematic.
Notice that motors number 1-3-5 must turn clockwise and motors
number 2-4-6 must turn anticlockwise.
The U-Pilot motors connection is detailed in U-Pilot connections.
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U- Pilot User Manual - Controllable Air vehicles
2.2.6 Octocopter
The octocopter motors distribution and the rotation direction is
represented in the attached schematic.
Notice that motors number 1-3-5-7 must turn clockwise and motors
number 2-4-6-8 must turn anticlockwise.
The U-Pilot motors connection is detailed in U-Pilot connections.
7
U- Pilot User Manual - U-Pilot
3 U-Pilot
The U-Pilot is powered in the range from 6.0V to 24V,
view Power Supply. This allows the connection of UPilot directly to a 2S LiPo battery without adding
possible points of failure in the system.
If the system uses 6V servos, U-Pilot can be
connected directly to the servo power and save
weight.
The power installation can be done in several
different ways described in Power Supply section.
U-Pilot has three ADC available channels to monitor
system voltages, and it is possible to connect a HallEffect amperometer sensor to control the discharge
of battery in electric UAVs.
There are up to 31 PWM outputs signals at 50, 200,
300, 333 or 560Hz frequencies and 1500 or 760 us
pulses.
Figure 8: U-Pilot I/O Schematic
PWM at 50Hz is the most common way to control
servos and it will be accepted by almost any servo in
the market. This signal pulses every 20 ms
(milliseconds), and depending on the length of these
pulses the servo will move to different positions.
Digital servos (300Hz) can accept much faster control input and are the recommended
choice when control rotary wing aircraft.
Upon request, all the PWM lines can be reconfigured to output or input any other digital
signal.
There are 4 serial ports also available for additional devices use, such as cameras or
magnetometers.
Serial ports are automatically adapted to the baud rate of the devices connected to it. The
voltage levels for the serial ports are the standard +12V/-12V.
Connector pin configuration is detailed on U-Pilot Connections section.
3.1 U-Pilot and U-Pilot OEM
U-Pilot can be acquired in two versions, the standard version, enclosed in an aluminium
box, and the OEM version that is not enclosed, ready to be embedded into the customer
system.
Unless told otherwise, the explanations provided by this document are valid for both
versions. When different explanations are required, this document will state it.
3.2 Power supply
U-Pilot power supply accepts voltages in a range from 6.0V to 24V. Main power voltage is
directly connected to the ADC channel number 4, thus allowing monitor of AP battery and
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U- Pilot User Manual - U-Pilot
check for voltage supply stability. This level is displayed as an internal battery 4 on the USee state window (Consult U-See manual for details)
CAUTION: Power the Autopilot at a voltage OUT of range can cause IRREVERSIBLE
DAMAGE to the system. Please read carefully this manual and do not hesitate to contact us
(www.airelectronics.es) if needed.
Typical power consumption about 4 Watt, but the power system should be prepared to
withstand 7 Watts peaks. This consumption will mean an intensity consumption of 0.8
Amp. at 6V or 0.4 Amp. at 12 V.
3.3 Monitoring Engine Data
A better estimation of the battery status on electric vehicles is available by adding an
amperometer connected to the ADC3 on the U-Pilot. The amperometer is a linear hall
effect sensor supplied by Airelectronics.
This configuration allows the user to improve the efficiency of the flight. For further
information of its usage check the Engine Data section of the U-See manual.
3.4 Microprocessors structure
The Autopilot has two microprocessors (CPUs).
–
CPU Mission control. This CPU manages Communications to and from ground
segment, the management of payloads and, in general, operations that are not
flight related.
–
CPU Flight control. This CPU produces the surfaces commands and control the
attitude of the aircraft. This processor access all its sensors in a non-blocking way
and it is always evaluating current position, attitude and control.
3.5 Sensors
There are several sensors inside U-Pilot and all of them have their own electronics design
inside the system taking care of them, this gives the highest reliability and performance to
the system. The sensors are:
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U- Pilot User Manual - U-Pilot
–
Accelerometers
–
Gyroscopes
–
GPS with Satellite Based Augmentation System
–
Several Static Pressure Sensor to improve accuracy in different altitude ranges.
–
Several Dynamic Pressure Sensors for higher accuracy during take-off and landing
operations. Different sensors account for different speed segments of the mission.
These sensors are only used in Fixed Wing UAVs
Besides these internal sensors, for rotary wing we use an external magnetometer. It is
connected to the system through RS-232 port and interfaces with dedicated electronics in
U-Pilot. Due to the fact that this sensor is external it can be placed far from any
electromagnetic noise inside the UAV. However, it must be connected to the proper main
connector on U-Pilot. (See section 3.6)
If, for some reason, a external dynamic pressure sensor is needed, the system has the
provisions to make use of an Airelectronics external I2C sensor that can be mounted
separately from U-Pilot. This sensor is only provided upon request.
The sensor suite is very flexible and can be modified to reflect a customer requirement on
the system.
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U- Pilot User Manual - U-Pilot
3.6 U-Pilot Connections
This section provides the required information about U-Pilot connections, including:
•
Main connector connections
•
Pressure connections
•
Radio-Link connections
•
GPS antenna connections.
•
Magnetometer connections
3.6.1 U-Pilot Main Connector
The aerial part of connector used for the U-Pilot is provided in the Installation Kit. Cables in
the aerial connector are colour coded. The following table describes the function of every
pin in the main connector in U-Pilot and the corresponding colour coded cable in the
supplied aerial connector.
The pin configuration used depending on the UAV vehicle is detailed in the following table
and the corresponding connector diagram.
NOTE: Please, take into account than in these tables, Tx and Rx suffix are referred to UPilot. This is: a line marked as “Magnetometer Rx” is the pin dedicated to receive data
from the magnetometer, and thus, must be connected to the sending pin in the
magnetometer connector.
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U- Pilot User Manual - U-Pilot
PIN
I/O
FixedWing
Flying Wing
1
2
3
4
In
In
DC in
GND
ADC 2
ADC 1 / Battery
VIN
Ground
ADC 2
ADC 1 / Battery
VIN
Ground
5
In
Engine ECU Rx
Engine ECU Rx
6
7
8
9
10
11
Out
Out
GND
In
Out
GND
12
Out
13
14
15
16
17
18
In
Out
GND
NC
In
Out
19
In
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
DC in
In
In
Out
NC
NC
NC
NC
NC
NC
NC
NC
NC
NC
NC
35
Out
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
GND
Out
Out
Out
Out
Out
Out
Out
Out
Out
NC
NC
NC
NC
NC
NC
Engine ECU Tx
Engine ECU Tx
Engine Kill
Engine Kill
Ground
Ground
DGPS Rx
DGPS Rx
DGPS Tx
DGPS Tx
Ground
Ground
1-Wire
1-Wire
Temperature
Temperature
Sensor
Sensor
Payload Rx
Payload Rx
Payload Tx
Payload Tx
Ground
Ground
Reserved
Reserved
RS232 Port 1 Rx RS232 Port 1 Rx
RS232 Port 1 Tx RS232 Port 1 Tx
ADC 3 /
ADC 3 /
Amperimeter
Amperimeter
VIN
VIN
Camera Pan
Camera Pan
Camera Tilt
Camera Tilt
Camera Roll
Camera Roll
Camera Shutter Camera Shutter
Reserved
Reserved
Reserved
Reserved
Reserved
Reserved
Reserved
Reserved
Reserved
Reserved
Reserved
Reserved
Reserved
Reserved
Reserved
Reserved
Reserved
Reserved
Reserved
Reserved
DGPS-TTL
DGPS-TTL
Correction
Correction
Ground
Ground
Throttle
Throttle
Right Aileron
Out Right aileron
Elevator
In Left aileron
Rudder
Rudder
Left Aileron
Out Left aileron
Left Flap
Left Flap
Elevator 2
In Right Aileron
Right Flap
Right Flap
Nose Wheel
Nose Wheel
2nd Aileron Right
Reserved
2nd Aileron Left
Reserved
2nd Flap Right
Reserved
2nd Flap Left
Reserved
Reserved
Reserved
Reserved
Reserved
Helicopter
Swash-plate 4
Helicopter
Swash-plate 3
Helicopter
Direct Swashplate
ADC 2
ADC 1 / Battery
VIN
Ground
Magnetometer
Rx
Magnetometer Tx
Engine Kill
Ground
DGPS Rx
DGPS Tx
Ground
1-Wire
Temperature
Sensor
Payload Rx
Payload Tx
Ground
Reserved
RS232 Port 1 Rx
RS232 Port 1 Tx
ADC 3 /
Amperimeter
VIN
Camera Pan
Camera Tilt
Camera Roll
Camera Shutter
Reserved
Reserved
Reserved
Reserved
Reserved
Reserved
Reserved
Reserved
Reserved
Reserved
DGPS-TTL
Correction
Ground
Throttle
Swash-plate 1
Swash-plate 2
Tail Servo
Swash-plate 3
Swash-plate 4
Reserved
Reserved
Reserved
Reserved
Reserved
Reserved
Reserved
Reserved
Reserved
ADC 2
ADC 1 / Battery
VIN
Ground
Magnetometer
Rx
Magnetometer Tx
Engine Kill
Ground
DGPS Rx
DGPS Tx
Ground
1-Wire
Temperature
Sensor
Payload Rx
Payload Tx
Ground
Reserved
RS232 Port 1 Rx
RS232 Port 1 Tx
ADC 3 /
Amperimeter
VIN
Camera Pan
Camera Tilt
Camera Roll
Camera Shutter
Reserved
Reserved
Reserved
Reserved
Reserved
Reserved
Reserved
Reserved
Reserved
Reserved
DGPS-TTL
Correction
Ground
Throttle
Swash-plate 1
Swash-plate 2
Tail Servo
Swash-plate 3
Reserved
Reserved
Reserved
Reserved
Reserved
Reserved
Reserved
Reserved
Reserved
Reserved
ADC 2
ADC 1 / Battery
VIN
Ground
Magnetometer
Rx
Magnetometer Tx
Engine Kill
Ground
DGPS Rx
DGPS Tx
Ground
1-Wire
Temperature
Sensor
Payload Rx
Payload Tx
Ground
Reserved
RS232 Port 1 Rx
RS232 Port 1 Tx
ADC 3 /
Amperimeter
VIN
Camera Pan
Camera Tilt
Camera Roll
Camera Shutter
Reserved
Reserved
Reserved
Reserved
Reserved
Reserved
Reserved
Reserved
Reserved
Reserved
DGPS-TTL
Correction
Ground
Throttle
Cyclic Pitch
Cyclic Roll
Tail Servo
Collective
Reserved
Reserved
Reserved
Reserved
Reserved
Reserved
Reserved
Reserved
Reserved
Reserved
Cable
Colour
Black
Brown
Red
Orange
Yellow
Green
Blue
Purple
Grey
White
Black
Brown
Red
Orange
Yellow
Green
Blue
Purple
Grey
White
Black
Brown
Red
Orange
Yellow
Green
Blue
Purple
Grey
White
Black
Brown
Red
Orange
Yellow
Green
Blue
Purple
Grey
White
Black
Brown
Red
Orange
Yellow
Green
Blue
Purple
Grey
White
Black
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U- Pilot User Manual - U-Pilot
PIN
I/O
Quadcopter
Hexacopter
Octocopter
Cable Colour
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
In
In
DC in
GND
In
Out
Out
GND
In
Out
GND
Out
In
Out
GND
NC
In
Out
In
DC in
In
In
Out
NC
NC
NC
NC
NC
NC
NC
NC
NC
NC
NC
In
GND
Out
Out
Out
Out
Out
Out
Out
Out
Out
NC
NC
NC
NC
NC
NC
AADC 2
ADC 1 / Battery
VIN
Ground
Magnetometer Rx
Magnetometer Tx
Engine Kill
Ground
DGPS Rx
DGPS Tx
Ground
1-Wire Temperature Sensor
Payload Rx
Payload Tx
Ground
Reserved
RS232 Port 1 Rx
RS232 Port 1 Tx
ADC 3 / Amperimeter In
VIN
Camera Pan
Camera Tilt
Camera Roll
Camera Shutter
Reserved
Reserved
Reserved
Reserved
Reserved
Reserved
Reserved
Reserved
Reserved
Reserved
Reserved
Ground
Motor 1
Motor 2
Motor 3
Motor 4
Reserved
Reserved
Reserved
Reserved
Nose Wheel
Reserved
Reserved
Reserved
Reserved
Reserved
Reserved
ADC 2
ADC 1 / Battery
VIN
Ground
Magnetometer Rx
Magnetometer Tx
Engine Kill
Ground
DGPS Rx
DGPS Tx
Ground
1-Wire Temperature Sensor
Payload Rx
Payload Tx
Ground
Reserved
RS232 Port 1 Rx
RS232 Port 1 Tx
ADC 3 / Amperimeter In
VIN
Camera Pan
Camera Tilt
Camera Roll
Camera Shutter
Reserved
Reserved
Reserved
Reserved
Reserved
Reserved
Reserved
Reserved
Reserved
Reserved
Reserved
Ground
Motor 1
Motor 2
Motor 3
Motor 4
Motor 5
Motor 6
Reserved
Reserved
Nose Wheel
Reserved
Reserved
Reserved
Reserved
Reserved
Reserved
ADC 2
ADC 1 / Battery
VIN
Ground
Magnetometer Rx
Magnetometer Tx
Engine Kill
Ground
DGPS Rx
DGPS Tx
Ground
1-Wire Temperature Sensor
Payload Rx
Payload Tx
Ground
Reserved
RS232 Port 1 Rx
RS232 Port 1 Tx
ADC 3 / Amperimeter In
VIN
Camera Pan
Camera Tilt
Camera Roll
Camera Shutter
Reserved
Reserved
Reserved
Reserved
Reserved
Reserved
Reserved
Reserved
Reserved
Reserved
Reserved
Ground
Motor 1
Motor 2
Motor 3
Motor 4
Motor 5
Motor 6
Motor 7
Motor 8
Nose Wheel
Reserved
Reserved
Reserved
Reserved
Reserved
Reserved
Black
Brown
Red
Orange
Yellow
Green
Blue
Purple
Grey
White
Black
Brown
Red
Orange
Yellow
Green
Blue
Purple
Grey
White
Black
Brown
Red
Orange
Yellow
Green
Blue
Purple
Grey
White
Black
Brown
Red
Orange
Yellow
Green
Blue
Purple
Grey
White
Black
Brown
Red
Orange
Yellow
Green
Blue
Purple
Grey
White
Black
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U- Pilot User Manual - U-Pilot
3.6.2 Pressure sensors connections
U-Pilot has two pressure sensors:
•
Static pressure sensor
•
Dynamic pressure sensor
For fixed wing vehicles, static and dynamic pressure sensors are required.
For rotary wing vehicles only static pressure sensor is required.
The static pressure tap may be left unconnected if U-Pilot environment is not sealed or
pressurized. Otherwise it must be connected to the ambient pressure.
The dynamic pressure must be connected to a pitot tube, installed away from turbulent
flows such as propeller down-wash.
The pressure connection installations differ in U-Pilot and U-Pilot OEM. Depending on your
U-Ground version, you have to refer to the apropriate subsection
3.6.2.1 U-Pilot (Box) pressure connections
U-Pilot pressure connectors are properly labelled on the front face of the box: “STATIC” for
static pressure and “DYNAMIC” for dynamic pressure.
The static pressure sensor can be left unconnected if U-Pilot environment is not
pressurized or sealed.
3.6.2.2 U-Pilot OEM pressure connections
The OEM version of U-Pilot exposes directly the
pressure sensors. The sensors can be identified with
the image.
The static pressure sensor can be left unconnected if UPilot environment is not pressurized or sealed.
The dynamic pressure (pitot) must be connected to the
lower conduit of the sensor. The upper conduit must be
connected to the static tap, and may be left
unconnected under the same circumstances as the
static sensor.
3.6.3 Radio-link antenna connections
The radio-link antenna connection depends on the version of U-Pilot. Depending on your UGround version, please refer to the apropriate subsection.
3.6.3.1 U-Pilot (Box) Radio-link connection
The radio-link antenna must be connected to U-Pilot with an SMA-connector to the
connector labelled as “RADIO” in the front face of U-Pilot box.
3.6.3.2 U-Pilot OEM Radio-link connection
The radio-link antenna must be connected to the radio-module using and MMCX connector.
3.6.4 GPS antenna connections
The GPS antenna installation depends on the version of U-Pilot. Depending on your UGround version, please refer to the apropriate subsection.
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U- Pilot User Manual - U-Pilot
3.6.4.1 U-Pilot (Box) GPS connection
The GPS antenna must be connected to U-Pilot with an SMA-connector to the connector
labelled as “GPS” in the front face of U-Pilot box.
3.6.4.2 U-Pilot OEM GPS connection
U-Pilot OEM has two GPS connectors:
•
UFL connector.
•
SMA connector.
The GPS antenna can be connected to any of the two connectors but NOT BOTH. The
location of the UFL and SMA connectors is described in the mechanical drawings for the
OEM version.
3.6.5 Magnetometer connections
For rotary wing platforms, it is need to connect an external magnetometer to U-Pilot.
It is encased in metal and it interfaces and powers through a DB9 connector. Error: no se
encuentra la fuente de referencia and Error: no se encuentra la fuente de referencia detail
the proper wiring to connect the magnetometer to U-Pilot. Note, through, that this
magnetometer must be supplied with DC between 6.5V and 15V.
Magnetometer PIN
Function
Connected to
2
TX
Pin 6
(Magnetometer TX in main
connector)
3
RD
Pin 5
(Magnetometer RX in main
connector)
5
GND
Ground
Vcc
Magnetometer power supply.(6.5V15V)
9
Table 1: Magnetometer connection list
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U- Pilot User Manual - U-Pilot
Appendix A Box Mechanical Drawing
16
U- Pilot User Manual - U-Pilot
Appendix B OEM Mechanical Drawing
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U- Pilot User Manual - U-Pilot
Appendix C Guide for determining
servo reverse
When a new vehicle is configured with U-Pilot and U-See it is needed to determine if
“Reverse” check-box should be active. Follow the following tables to determine if your
servos need reversal.
Fixed Wing servos2
Conventional configuration
Servo
Min commanded action
Max Commanded action
Throttle
Carburator closed
Carburator opened
Aileron Right
Right aileron trailing edge up
Right aileron trailing edge down
Elevator
Elevator trailing edge up
Elevator trailing edge down
Rudder
Rudder trailing edge right
Rudder trailing edge left
Aileron Left
Left aileron trailing edge down
Left aileron trailing edge up
Wheel
Steer right
Steer left
Servo
Min commanded action
Max Commanded action
Throttle
Carburator closed / motor stopped
Carburator opened / motor at max speed
Outward Left aileron
Left aileron trailing edge down
Left aileron trailing edge up
Inward Left Aileron
Left aileron trailing edge down
Left aileron trailing edge up
Rudder
Rudder trailing edge right
Rudder trailing edge left
Outward Right Aileron
Right aileron trailing edge up
Right aileron trailing edge down
Inward Right Aileron
Right aileron trailing edge up
Right aileron trailing edge down
Wheel
Steer right
Steer left
Flying Wing
Helicopter Servos
When referring the swash-plate, left/right/front/back will be always referred as watching
the swash-plate from above and in the direction of forward movement of the vehicle
Direct Servos
Servo
Min commanded action
Max Commanded action
Throttle
Carburator closed
Carburator opened
Collective
Full Swash-plate down
Full Swash-plate up
Swash-plate tilts right
Swash-plate tilts left
Cyclic Pitch
Swash-plate tilts backwards
Swash-plate tilts forward
Rudder
Tail rotor acts to make tail rotates
clockwise
Tail rotor acts to make tail rotates anticlockwise
Cyclic Roll
2 This section assumes conventional aircraft configuration. Canard configurations require different settings, please
contact Airelectronics if that's your case
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U- Pilot User Manual - U-Pilot
Swash-plate 4
Servo
Min commanded action
Max Commanded action
Throttle
Carburator closed
Carburator opened
Swash-plate 1
Corresponding swash-plate section
moves down
Corresponding swash-plate section
moves up
Corresponding swash-plate section
moves down
Corresponding swash-plate section
moves up
Swash-plate 3
Corresponding swash-plate section
moves down
Corresponding swash-plate section
moves up
Swash-plate 4
Corresponding swash-plate section
moves down
Corresponding swash-plate section
moves up
Rudder
Tail rotor acts to make tail rotates
clockwise
Tail rotor acts to make tail rotates anticlockwise
Min commanded action
Max Commanded action
Swash-plate 2
Swash-plate 3
Servo
Throttle
Carburator closed
Carburator opened
Swash-plate 1
Corresponding swash-plate section
moves down
Corresponding swash-plate section
moves up
Corresponding swash-plate section
moves down
Corresponding swash-plate section
moves up
Swash-plate 3
Corresponding swash-plate section
moves down
Corresponding swash plate section
moves up
Rudder
Tail rotor acts to make tail rotates
clockwise
Tail rotor acts to make tail rotates anticlockwise
Servo
Min commanded action
Max Commanded action
Engine 1
Motor stopped
Motor at max speed
Engine 2
Motor stopped
Motor at max speed
Motor stopped
Motor at max speed
Motor stopped
Motor at max speed
Servo
Min commanded action
Max Commanded action
Engine 1
Motor stopped
Motor at max speed
Engine 2
Motor stopped
Motor at max speed
Motor stopped
Motor at max speed
Engine 4
Motor stopped
Motor at max speed
Engine 5
Motor stopped
Motor at max speed
Engine 6
Motor stopped
Motor at max speed
Swash-plate 2
Quadcopter
Engine 3
Engine 4
Hexacopter
Engine 3
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U- Pilot User Manual - U-Pilot
Octocopter
Servo
Min commanded action
Max Commanded action
Engine 1
Motor stopped
Motor at max speed
Engine 2
Motor stopped
Motor at max speed
Engine 6
Motor stopped
Motor at max speed
Engine 4
Motor stopped
Motor at max speed
Engine 5
Motor stopped
Motor at max speed
Engine 6
Motor stopped
Motor at max speed
Engine 7
Motor stopped
Motor at max speed
Engine 8
Motor stopped
Motor at max speed
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U- Pilot User Manual - U-Pilot
Appendix D Changelog
This annex describes changes introduced to this document.
Date
Changes
2015/02/19
•
•
•
•
Version of document up to 1.25
Changed wrong aileron sense for Flying wing.
Added GPS, Pressure and Radio-Link connections.
Added mechanical drawings for Box and OEM versions
2014/10/27
•
•
Version of document started 0.5
Created Document
If you need a previous
info@airelectronics.es
version
of
documentation,
please,
contact
us
at
21