Casio fx-115WA User`s guide

fx-115WA
fx-991WA
User’s Guide
E
Removing and Replacing
the Calculator’s Cover
• To Remove the cover
Grasp the top of the cover, and slide the unit out from the
bottom.
• To Replace the cover
Grasp the top of the cover, and slide the unit in from the
bottom.
Always slide the unit into the cover with the unit’s display
end first. Never slide the keyboard end of the unit into the
cover.
CASIO ELECTRONICS CO., LTD.
Unit 6, 1000 North Circular Road,
London NW2 7JD, U.K.
Safety Precautions
Be sure to read the following safety precautions before
using this calculator. Keep this manual handy for later reference.
Caution
This symbol is used to indicate information that can
result in personal injury or material damage if ignored.
Batteries
• After removing the batteries from the calculator, put
them in a safe place where there is no danger of
them getting into the hands of small children and
accidently swallowed.
• Keep batteries out of the reach of small children. If
accidently swallowed, consult with a physician immediately.
• Never charge batteries, try to take batteries apart, or
allow batteries to become shorted. Never expose batteries to direct heat or dispose of them by incineration.
• Misuse of batteries can cause them to leak acid that
can cause damage to nearby items and creates the
possibility of fire and personal injury.
• Always make sure that a battery’s positive k and
negative l sides are facing correctly when you
load it into the calculator.
• Remove the batteries if you do not plan to use the
calculator for a long time.
• Use only the type of batteries specified for this calculator in this manual.
Disposing of the Calculator
• Never dispose of the calculator by burning it. Doing
so can cause certain components to suddenly burst,
creating the danger of fire and personal injury.
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• The displays and illustrations (such as key markings)
shown in this User’s Guide are for illustrative purposes only, and may differ somewhat from the actual items they represent.
• The contents of this manual are subject to change
without notice.
• In no event shall CASIO Computer Co., Ltd. be liable to anyone for special, collateral, incidental, or
consequential damages in connection with or arising out of the purchase or use of these materials.
Moreover, CASIO Computer Co., Ltd. shall not be
liable for any claim of any kind whatsoever against
the use of these materials by any other party.
Handling Precautions
• Be sure to press the
•
•
•
•
key before using the calculator for the first time.
Even if the calculator is operating normally, replace
the battery at least once every three years.
Dead battery can leak, causing damage to and malfunction of the calculator. Never leave the dead battery in the
calculator.
The battery that comes with this unit discharges
slightly during shipment and storage. Because of
this, it may require replacement sooner than the normal expected battery life.
Low battery power can cause memory contents to
become corrupted or lost completely. Always keep
written records of all important data.
Avoid use and storage in areas subjected to temperature extremes.
Very low temperatures can cause slow display response,
total failure of the display, and shortening of battery life.
Also avoid leaving the calculator in direct sunlight, near
a window, near a heater or anywhere else it might become exposed to very high temperatures. Heat can
cause discoloration or deformation of the calculator’s
case, and damage to internal circuitry.
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• Avoid use and storage in areas subjected to large
•
•
•
•
•
amounts of humidity and dust.
Take care never to leave the calculator where it might
be splashed by water or exposed to large amounts of
humidity or dust. Such elements can damage internal
circuitry.
Never drop the calculator or otherwise subject it to
strong impact.
Never twist or bend the calculator.
Avoid carrying the calculator in the pocket of your trousers or other tight-fitting clothing where it might be subjected to twisting or bending.
Never try to take the calculator apart.
Never press the keys of the calculator with a ball-point
pen or other pointed object.
Use a soft, dry cloth to clean the exterior of the unit.
If the calculator becomes very dirty, wipe it off with a
cloth moistened in a weak solution of water and a mild
neutral household detergent. Wring out all excess moisture before wiping the calculator. Never use thinner, benzine or other volatile agents to clean the calculator. Doing so can remove printed markings and damage the
case.
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Contents
Safety Precautions ........................................... 1
Handling Precautions ...................................... 2
Two-line Display ............................................... 5
Key Layout ........................................................ 6
Before Starting Calculations... ...................... 7
kModes ....................................................................
kInput Capacity ........................................................
kMaking Corrections During Input ...........................
kReplay Function .....................................................
kError Locator ..........................................................
kExponential Display Formats .................................
kAnswer Memory .....................................................
7
8
8
8
9
9
9
Basic Calculations ......................................... 10
Memory Calculations ..................................... 10
kIndependent Memory ........................................... 10
kVariables .............................................................. 10
Fraction Calculations .................................... 11
kFraction Calculations ............................................ 11
kDecimal-to-Fraction Conversion ........................... 11
kFraction-to-Decimal Conversion ........................... 11
Percentage Calculations ............................... 12
Scientific Function Calculations .................. 13
kTrigonometric/Inverse Trigonometric Functions ... 13
kHyperbolic/Inverse Hyperbolic Functions ............ 13
kAngle Unit Conversion ......................................... 14
kCommon and Natural Logarithms/
Antilogarithms ...................................................... 14
kSquare Roots, Cube Roots, Roots, Squares,
Cubes, Reciprocals, Factorials,
Random Numbers and π .......................................... 14
kFIX, SCI, RND ..................................................... 15
kENG Calculations ................................................ 16
kInputting ENG Calculation Symbols ..................... 16
kCoordinate Conversion (Pol(x, y), Rec (r, θ )) ............ 17
kPermutation ......................................................... 18
kCombination ......................................................... 18
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Statistical Calculations .................................. 18
kStandard Deviation (SD Mode) ............................ 18
kProbability Distribution Calculations ................... 19
kRegression Calculations (REG Mode) ................. 20
Complex Number Calculations
(CMPLX Mode) ................................................ 22
kAbsolute Value/Argument Calculation ................. 23
Metric Conversions ( fx-991WA ) ................... 23
Scientific Constants ( fx-991WA ) .................. 25
Base-n Calculations ....................................... 26
Degrees, Minutes, Seconds Calculations .... 28
Technical Information .................................... 28
kWhen you have a problem...... .............................
kError Messages ...................................................
kOrder of Operations .............................................
kStacks ..................................................................
kPower Supply ......................................................
kInput Ranges .......................................................
28
29
30
31
31
33
Specifications ................................................. 35
Two-line Display
You can simultaneously check the calculation
formula and its answer.
The first line displays the calculation formula.
The second line displays the answer.
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Key Layout
Layout
Key
< fx-991WA >
Page
Page
Page
Page
17
Rec(
25
11
17
14
28
15
14 27
DEC
HEX
10 BIN
15
10
16
10
11
28 10
14
10
C
B
10
19
28
23
DISTR
13
20 23
Re<->lm
10
20 16
M
20 16
arg
e
OCT
14
13 10
14
13 10
cos-1 E
tan-1 F
13
23 10
13
19 10
10 10
Abs
X
M-
Y
19
M
DT CL
8
10
10 18
T
INS
McI ScI
20 16
20 16
8
18
18
m
k
nPr
nCr
18 16
18 16
20
20
14
12
B
G
µ
18 16
r
14
14 27
sin-1 D
10
10
10
20 16 20 16
f
Page
15
24
CONV
y
Page
ON/CLEAR
x! LOGIC
A
Page
Page
MODE
15 27
A
Page
Page
2
REPLAY
ALPHA
Page
15
Page 17 23
Page
Page
8
11
SHIFT
C
p
15
15
Rnd
Ran#
Page
CONV
n
15
DRG
10
18
9
nPr
nPr
18
nCr
fx-115WA:
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y
19
Before Starting Calculations...
k Modes
Application
Mode
Name
Mode
Indicator
COMP
–
CMPLX
CMPLX
SD
SD
Calculation Modes
Normal calculations
Complex number
calculations
Standard deviation
calculations
Regression calculations
Base-n calculations
REG
REG
BASE-N b (binary)
o (octal)
d (decimal)
H (hexadecimal)
Angle Unit Modes
Degrees
Radians
GRA
R
T
B
NORM1
NORM2
–
–
FIX
Fix
SCI
Sci
ENG
ENG
DEG
RAD
Grads
Display Modes
Exponential notation
(Canceling FIX and SCI
specification)
Number of decimal
place specification
Number of significant
digit specification
Exponential display range
specifications
Note!
• Mode indicators appear in the lower part of the display,
except for the Base- n indicators which appear in the exponent part of the display.
• The ENG mode cannot be selected while the calculator
is in the CMPLX or BASE-N mode.
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• You cannot set the angle unit or the display mode while
the calculator is in the BASE-N mode.
• The COMP, CMPLX, SD, and REG modes can be used
in combination with the angle unit modes.
• Be sure to check the current calculation mode (SD, REG,
COMP, CMPLX) and angle unit mode (DEG, RAD, GRA)
before beginning a calculation.
k Input Capacity
• The memory area used for calculation input can hold 79
“steps.” Whenever you input the 73rd step of any calculation, the cursor changes from “_” to “k” to let you know
memory is running low. If you still need to input more,
you should divide your calculation into two or more parts.
k Making Corrections During Input
• Use e and r to move the cursor to the location you
want.
• Press [ to delete the number or function at the current
cursor position.
• Press A K to change to an insert cursor t . Inputting
something while the insert cursor is on the display inserts the input at the insert cursor position.
• Press e, r, A K, or = returns to the normal cursor from the insert cursor.
k Replay Function
• Pressing r or e recalls the last calculation you performed. You can then make any changes you want in
the calculation and re-execute it.
• Pressing t does not clear Replay memory, so you can
recall the last calculation even after you press t.
• Replay memory is cleared whenever you start a new
calculation, change to another mode, or turn off power.
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k Error Locator
• Pressing r or e after an error occurs displays the
calculation with the cursor positioned at the location
where the error occurred.
k Exponential Display Formats
This calculator can display up to 10 digits. Larger values
are automatically displayed using exponential notation. In
the case of decimal values, you can select between two
formats that determine at what point exponential notation
is used. Press F F F F 3 1 (or 2) to select
NORM 1 or NORM 2.
• NORM 1
With NORM 1, exponential notation is automatically used
for integer values with more than 10 digits and decimal
values with more than two decimal places.
• NORM 2
With NORM 2, exponential notation is automatically used
for integer values with more than 10 digits and decimal
values with more than nine decimal places.
• All of the examples in this manual show calculation results using the NORM 1 format.
k Answer Memory
• Whenever you press = after inputting values or an expression, the calculated result is automatically stored in
Answer Memory. You can recall Answer Memory contents by pressing g.
• Answer Memory can store up to 12 digits for the mantissa
and two digits for the exponent.
• Answer Memory contents are not changed if the operation performed by any of the above key operations results in an error.
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Basic Calculations
• Use the COMP mode for basic calculations.
• Example 1 : 3(510–9)
3-R 5eD 9T=
1.5-08
• Example 2 : 5(97)
5-R 9+7 T=
80.00
• You can skip all T operations before =.
Memory Calculations
k Independent Memory
• Values can be input directly into memory, added to
memor y, or subtracted from memory. Independent
memory is convenient for calculating cumulative totals.
• Independent memory uses the same memory area as
variable M.
• To clear independent memory (M), input 0 j 3.
• Example:
23 9 32
53 6 47
) 45 2 90
(Total)
–11
23 + 9 j 3
32.00
53 , 6 |
47.00
45 - 2 A {
90.00
03
–11.00
k Variables
• There are nine variables (A through F, M, X and Y), which
can be used to store data, constants, results, and other
values.
• Use the following operation to delete data assigned to all
nine variables: A C = .
• Use the following operation to delete data assigned to a
particular variable: 0 j 1 . This operation deletes the
data assigned to variable A.
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• Example: 193.2 23 8.4
193.2 28 6.9
193.2 j 1 \ 23 =
8.400
p 1 \ 28 =
6.900
Fraction Calculations
k Fraction Calculations
• Use the COMP mode for fraction calculations.
• Values are automatically displayed in decimal format
whenever the total number of digits of a fractional value
(integer numerator denominator separator marks)
exceeds 10.
• Example 1 :
2
4
1
3
5
2C3 +1C 4C 5=
2 7 15.00
1
1.6
2
1 C 2 + 1.6 =
2.100
• Example 2 :
• Fraction/decimal calculation results are always decimal.
k Decimal-to-Fraction Conversion
• Example: 2.75 → 2
3
4
2.75 =
2.75
C
2 3 4.00
AB
11 4.00
k Fraction-to-Decimal Conversion
• Example:
1
↔ 0.5 (Fraction ↔Decimal)
2
1C 2=
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1 2. 00
C
0.500
C
1 2. 00
Percentage Calculations
• Use the COMP mode for percentage calculations.
• Example 1 : To calculate 12% of 1500
1500 - 12 A v
180.00
• Example 2 : To calculate what percentage of 880 is 660
660 \ 880 A v
75.00
• Example 3 : To add 15% onto 2500
2500 - 15 A v +
2875.00
• Example 4 : To discount 3500 by 25%
3500 - 25 A v ,
2625.00
• Example 5: If 300 grams are added to a test sample
originally weighing 500 grams, what is the percentage
increase in weight?
300 500
100 160 (%)
500
300 + 500 A v
160.00
• Example 6: If temperature changes from 40°C to 46°C,
what percentage did it rise?
46 40
100 15 (%)
40
46 , 40 A v
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15.00
Scientific Function Calculations
• Use the COMP mode for scientific function calculations.
• = 3.14159265359
k Trigonometric/Inverse Trigonometric
Functions
• Example 1 : sin63°5241
q q q 1 →“ R ”
00
S 63 I 52 I 41 I = 0.897859012
R
π
rad
3
q q q 2 →“ T ”
• Example 2 : cos
(
)
0.500
WRAx\3T=
T
2
π
rad
2
4
q q q 2 →“ T ”
• Example 3 : cos1
WA V RL2\2T=
0.78539816300
g\Ax=
0.2500
T
• Example 4 : tan1 0.741
q q q 1 →“ R ”
A g 0.741 =
36.5384457700
R
k Hyperbolic/Inverse Hyperbolic
Functions
• Example 1 : sinh 3.6
M S 3.6 =
18.2854553600
• Example 2 : sinh1 30
M A j 30 =
앫13앫
4.09462222400
k Angle Unit Conversion
• Press A v to display the following menu.
R
G
1 2
D
3
• Pressing 1 , 2, or 3 converts the displayed value to
the corresponding angle unit.
• Example : To convert 4.25 radians to degrees
FFF1 →“ R ”
4 . 25 r
4.25 A v 2 (R) = 243.5070629
k Common and Natural Logarithms/
Antilogarithms
• Example 1 : log 1.23
R 1.23 =
0.08990511100
• Example 2 : In 90 (loge 90)
T 90 =
4.4998096700
• Example 3 : e10
A U 10 =
22026.4657900
• Example 4 : 101.5
A Q 1.5 =
31.622776600
2w 4=
16.00
• Example 5 : 24
k Square Roots, Cube Roots, Roots,
Squares, Cubes, Reciprocals,
Factorials, Random Numbers and π
• Example 1:
2 3 5
L2+L3-L5=
• Example 2:
3
5
3
5.28719690900
27
D 5 + D D 27 = –1.29002405300
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1
• Example 3: 7 123 ( = 123 7 )
7 A H 123 =
1.98864779500
• Example 4: 12330 2
123 + 30 K =
1023.00
12 N =
1728.00
R 3a, 4aT a=
12.00
8Af=
40320.00
• Example 5: 12 3
• Example 6:
1
1 1
3
4
• Example 7: 8!
• Example 8: To generate a random number between
0.000 and 0.999
AM=
0.66400
Example (results differ each time)
3Ax=
• Example 9: 3π
9.42477796100
k FIX, SCI, RND
• Example 1: 200714400
(Specifies three
decimal places.)
200 \ 7 - 14 =
400.00
FFFF13
400.00000
(Calculation continues using 10
display digits)
Fix
200 \ 7 =
28.57100
- 14 =
400.00000
Performing the same calculation using the specified
number of decimal places
(Internal rounding)
200 \ 7 =
28.57100
AQ
28.57100
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- 14 =
399.99400
• Press F F F F 3 1 to clear FIX specification.
• Example 2: 1 3, displaying result with two significant
digits (SCI 2)
FFFF2 21 \3 =
3.3–01
Sci
• Press F F F F 3 1 to clear SCI specification.
k ENG Calculations
• Example 1: To convert 56,088 meters to kilometers
56088 = J
56.088003
• Example 2: To convert 0.08125 grams to milligrams
0.08125 = J
81.25–03
k Inputting ENG Calculation Symbols
• F F F F F 1 enters the ENG mode in which
ENG symbols can be used in calculations.
• To exit the ENG mode, press F F F F F 2.
• The following are the nine ENG symbols that can be
used in ENG mode calculations.
Key Operation
Ak
AM
Ag
At
Am
AN
An
Ap
Af
Unit
103
106
109
1012
10–3
10–6
10–9
10–12
10–15
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Symbol
k (kilo)
M (Mega)
G (Giga)
T (Tera)
m (milli)
µ (micro)
n (nano)
p (pico)
f (femto)
* For displayed values, the calculator selects the ENG symbol that makes the numeric part of the value fall within
the range of 1 to 1000.
* ENG symbols cannot be used when inputting fractions.
* The ENG mode cannot be used in combination with the
CMPLX, or BASE-N modes.
• Performing any of the key operations in the above table
while you are not in the ENG mode inputs the exponential value in the “Unit” column (without inputting the ENG
symbol).
• Example: 910 = 0.9 m (milli)
0.
FFFFF1
9 \ 10 =
ENG
9 1
m
900.
In the ENG mode, even standard (non-ENG)
calculation results are displayed using ENG symbols.
AP
J
0.9
9 1
m
900.
k Coordinate Conversion (Pol(x, y), Rec (r, θ))
• Calculation results are automatically assigned to variables E and F.
• Example 1: To convert polar coordinates (r2, 60°)
to rectangular coordinates (x, y) (DEG mode)
x
A F 2 P 60 T =
y
0o
1.00
R
1.73205080800
• 0 n, 0 o swaps displayed value with value in
memory.
• Example 2: To convert rectangular coordinates (1, 3)
to polar coordinates (r, ) (RAD mode)
r
f1P L 3T=
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2.00
T
0 o 1.04719755100
θ
• 0 n, 0 o swaps displayed value with value in
memory.
k Permutation
• Example: To determine how many different 4-digit values can be produced using the numbers 1 through 7
• Numbers cannot be duplicated within the same 4-digit
value (1234 is allowed, but 1123 is not).
7Am4=
840.
k Combination
• Example: To determine how many different 4-member
groups can be organized in a group of 10 individuals
fx-115WA ................ 10 n 4 =
210.
fx-991WA .......... 10 A n 4 =
Statistical Calculations
k Standard Deviation (SD Mode)
• Press F F 1 to enter the SD Mode for statistical
calculations using standard deviation.
• Data input always starts with A m = to clear statistical memory.
• Input data is used to calculate values for 0 1 Σx2
n, Σx, Σx2, o, σn and σn-1 which you can 0 2 Σx
recall using the key operations noted 0 k n
nearby.
AM o
A A σn
A N σn-1
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• Example: To calculate σn1, σn, o, n, Σx, and Σx 2 for the
following data : 55, 54, 51, 55, 53, 53, 54, 52
Enter SD Mode F F 1
A m = (Memory Clear)
55 S 54 S 51 S 55 S
53 S S 54 S 52 S
SD
52.00
(Sample Standard Deviation σ n1 )
A N = 1.40788595300
(Population Standard Deviation σn)
A A = 1.31695671900
(Arithmetic Mean o)
AM =
53.37500
(Number of Data n)
0k
8.00
Σx)
0H
427.00
0G
22805.00
(Sum of Values
(Sum of Squares of Values
Σx 2)
Data Input Precautions
• S S inputs the same data twice.
• You can also input multiple entries of the same data using A G. To input the data 110 ten times, for example,
press 110 A G 10 S .
• The above results can be obtained in any order, and not
necessarily that shown above.
• To delete data you have just input, press A U.
k Probability Distribution Calculations
• Press A D to produce the screen shown below.
P ( Q ( R ( →t
1 2
3
4
• Input a value from 1 to 4 to select the probability
distribution calculation you want to perform.
P(t)
Q(t)
앫19앫
R(t)
• Example : Using the x-data values input in the example
on page 20, determine the normalized variate (→ t) for
x = 53 and normal probability distribution P(t).
53 A D 4 (→t ) = -0.284747398
A D 1 ( P ( ) -0.28 F =
0.38974
k Regression Calculations (REG Mode)
• Press F F 2 to enter the REG mode and then select one of the following regression types.
1 : Linear regression
2 : Logarithmic regression
3 : Exponential regression
r 1 : Power regression
r 2 : Inverse regression
r 3 : Quadratic regression
• Data input always starts with A m = to clear statistical memory.
• The values produced by a regression calculation depend
on the values input, and results can be recalled using
the key operations shown in the table below.
0 G Σx 2 A N
0 H Σx A l
0k
n Ad
0 h Σy 2 A c
0 n Σy A q
0 o Σxy A w
0 M Σx 3 A e
0 x Σx2y A J
0 y Σx 4 A O
AM
o Ab
A A xσn
xσn-1
p
yσn
yσn-1
Regression coefficient A
Regression coefficient B
Regression coefficient C
Correlation coefficient r
m
n
• Linear Regression
The regression formula for linear regression is: y A Bx.
앫20앫
• Example: Atmospheric Pressure vs. Temperature
Temperature
Atmospheric
Pressure
10°C
15°C
20°C
25°C
30°C
1003 hPa
1005 hPa
1010 hPa
1011 hPa
1014 hPa
Perform linear regression to determine the regression formula
terms and correlation coefficient
for the data nearby. Next, use the
regression formula to estimate atmospheric pressure at 18°C and
temperature at 1000 hPa.
Enter REG Mode (Linear Regression)
qq21
A m = (Memory Clear)
10 P 1003 S 15 P 1005 S
20 P 1010 S 25 P 1011 S
30 P 1014 S
30.00
REG
(Regression Coefficient A)
A q=
997.400
(Regression Coefficient B)
A w=
0.5600
(Correlation Coefficient r )
A J=
0.98260736800
(Atmospheric Pressure at 18°C)
18 A b
1007.4800
1000 A O
4.64285714300
(Temperature at 1000 hPa)
• Quadratic Regression
• The regression formula for quadratic regression is:
y = A + Bx +Cx2.
• Input data using the following key sequence.
< x-data> P <y-data> S
• Example:
xi
yi
29
50
74
103
118
1.6
23.5
38.0
46.4
48.0
Perform quadratic regression to determine the regression formula terms
and correlation coefficient for the data
nearby. Next, use the regression formula to estimate the values for ˆy (estimated value of y) for xi = 16 and ˆx
(estimated value of x) for yi = 20.
앫21앫
Enter REG mode (Quadratic regression)
FF2r3
A m=
29 P 1.6 S 50 P 23.5 S
74 P 38.0 S103 P 46.4 S
118 P 48.0 S
118.
REG
(Regression Coefficient A)
A q = -35.59856934
(Regression Coefficient B)
Aw=
(Regression Coefficient C)
A e = -6.71629667-03
1.495939413
(ˆy when x i = 16)
16 A b -13.38291067
(ˆx 1 when yi = 20)
20 A O
47.14556728
(ˆx 2 when yi = 20)
AO
175.5872105
Data Input Precautions
• S S inputs the same data twice.
• You can also input multiple entries of the same data using A G. To input the data “20 and 30” five times, for
example, press 20 P 30 A G 5 S.
• The above results can be obtained in any order, and not
necessarily that shown above.
• To delete data you have just input, press A U.
Complex Number Calculations
(CMPLX Mode)
• Press F 2 to enter the CMPLX Mode for calculations
that include complex numbers.
• You can use variables A, B, C and M only. Variables D,
E, F, X, and Y are used for storage of the imaginary parts
of values and so cannot be used by you.
앫22앫
• Example: (2 + 3i) + (4 + 5i )
Enter CMPLX Mode F 2
R2+3iT+
R 4+5iT=
6.
Real number part
Ar
8. i
Imaginary number part
k Absolute Value/Argument Calculation
• The procedure described below can be used to determine the absolute value (Abs) and argument (arg) for a
complex number of the format Z = a + bi , which is presumed to exist as coordinates on a Gaussian plane.
• Example: To obtain the absolute value (r) and argument ( θ ) for the complex number 3 + 4i , when DEG is
set for the angle unit mode
Imaginary number axis
Real number axis
Determine the absolute value.
AAR3+4i T=
5.
CMPLX
Determine the argument.
A a R 3 + 4 i T = 53.13010235
Metric Conversions (fx-991WA)
• A total of 20 different conversion pairs are built-in to provide quick and easy conversion to and from metric units.
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• See the Conversion Pair Table shown below for a complete list of available conversion pairs.
• Example: To convert 31 inches to centimeters
31 A c
01
CONV
CONV 1
01 is the inches-to-centimeters conversion pair number.
31 i n
cm
0.
=
31 i n
cm
78.74
• Conversion Pair Table
Based on ISO Standard (1992) data and CODATA Bulletin
63 (1986) data.
Number
01
02
03
04
05
06
07
08
09
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
Conversion Pair
Number
Conversion Pair
in → cm
cm → in
ft → m
m → ft
yd → m
m → yd
mile → km
km → mile
n mile → m
m → n mile
acre → m2
m2 → acre
r
gal (US) →r
r → gal (US)
r
gal (UK) →r
r → gal (UK)
pc → km
km → pc
km/h → m/s
m/s → km/h
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
oz → g
g → oz
lb → kg
kg → lb
atm → Pa
Pa → atm
mmHg → Pa
Pa → mmHg
hp → kW
kW → hp
kgf/cm2 → Pa
Pa → kgf/cm2
kgf•m → J
J → kgf•m
lbf/in2 → kPa
kPa → lbf/in2
°F → °C
°C → °F
J → cal
cal → J
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Scientific Constants (fx-991WA)
• A total of 40 commonly-used scientific constants, such
as the speed of light in a vacuum and Planck's constant
are built-in for quick and easy lookup whenever you need
them.
• Simply input the number that corresponds to the scientific constant you want to look up and it appears instantly
on the display.
• See the Scientific Constant Table shown below for a complete list of available constants.
• Example: To determine how much total energy a person weighing 65kg has (E = mc 2)
65 L
28
CONST
CONST28
28 is the “speed of light in vacuum” constant number.
65 Co
0.
K
65 Co
2
0.
65 Co 2
= 5.841908662 18
• Scientific Constant Table
Based on ISO Standard (1992) data and CODATA Bulletin
63 (1986) data.
Number
01
02
03
04
05
06
07
08
09
Constant Name
proton mass
neutron mass
electron mass
muon mass
Bohr radius
Planck's constant
nuclear magneton
Bohr magneton
Planck's constant, rationalized (h-bar)
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Symbol
mp
mn
me
mµ
a0
h
µN
µB
Number
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
Constant Name
fine-structure constant
classical electron radius
electron Compton wavelength
proton gyromagnetic ratio
proton Compton wavelength
neutron Compton wavelength
Rydberg constant
atomic mass unit
proton magnetic moment
electron magnetic moment
neutron magnetic moment
muon magnetic moment
Faraday constant
elementary charge
Avogadro constant
Boltzmann constant
molar volume of ideal gas
molar gas constant
speed of light in vacuum
first radiation constant
second radiation constant
Stefan-Boltzmann constant
permittivity of vacuum
permeability of vacuum
magnetic flux quantum
standard acceleration of gravity
astronomical unit
parsec
Celsius temperature
Newtonian constant of gravitation
standard atmosphere
Symbol
α
re
λc
γp
λ cp
λ cn
R∞
u
µp
µe
µn
µµ
F
e
NA
k
Vm
R
C0
C1
C2
σ
ε0
µ0
φ0
g
AU
pc
t
G
atm
Base-n Calculations
• In addition to decimal values, calculations can be performed using binary, octal and hexadecimal values.
• You can specify the default number system to be applied to all input and displayed values, and the number
system for individual values you input.
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• You cannot use scientific functions in binary, octal, decimal, and hexadecimal calculations. You cannot input values that include decimal part and an exponent.
• If you input a value that includes a decimal part, the unit
automatically cuts off the decimal part.
• Negative binary, octal, and hexadecimal values are produced by taking the two's complement.
• You can use the following logical operators between
values in Base-n calculations: and (logical product), or
(logical sum), xor (exclusive logical sum), xnor (exclusive logical sum negation), Not (negation), and Neg (minus).
• The following are the allowable ranges for each of the
available number systems.
1000000000 0
Octal
4000000000 0
Decimal
–2147483648 Hexadecimal
80000000 0
Binary
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
1111111111
0111111111
7777777777
3777777777
2147483647
FFFFFFFF
7FFFFFFF
• Example 1: To perform the following calculation and
produce a binary result:
101112 + 11010 2
Binary mode
FF3b
0.
b
101112 + 110102
0.
b
=
110001.
b
• Example 2: To perform the following calculation and
produce an octal result:
7654 8 ÷ 12 10
Octal mode
FF3o
0.
o
l l l 4 (o) 76548 \
l l l 1 (d)1210
0.
o
=
516.
o
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• Example 3: To perform the following calculation and
produce a hexadecimal result:
120 16 or 11012
Hexadecimal mode F F 3 h
0.
12016 l 2 (or)
l l l 3 (b)11012
0.
H
12d.
H
=
H
Degrees, Minutes, Seconds
Calculations
• You can perform sexagesimal calculations using degrees
(hours), minutes, and seconds, and convert between
sexagesimal and decimal values.
• Example 1: To convert the decimal value 2.258 to a
sexagesimal value
2.258 =
2.258
AO
2°15°28.8
• Example 2: To perform the following calculation:
12°34’56” 3.45
12 I 34 I 56 I - 3.45
0.
=
43°24°31.2
Technical Information
k When you have a problem......
If calculation results are not what you expect or if an error
occurs, perform the following steps.
1. F 1 (COMP mode)
2. F F F 1 (DEG mode)
3. F F F F 3 1 (NORM 1 mode)
4. Check the formula you are working with to confirm it is
correct.
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5. Enter the correct modes to perform the calculation and
try again.
If the above steps do not correct the problem, press the
key. The calculator performs a self-check operation
and deletes all data stored in memory if any abnormality
is detected. Make sure you always keep written copies of
all important data.
k Error Messages
The calculator is locked up while an error message is on
the display. Press t to clear the error, or press e or r
to display the calculation and correct the problem. See
“Error Locator” on page 9 for details.
Ma ERROR
• Cause
• Calculation result is outside the allowable calculation
range.
• Attempt to perform a function calculation using a value
that exceeds the allowable input range.
• Attempt to perform an illogical operation (division by
zero, etc.).
• Action
• Check your input values and make sure they are all
within the allowable ranges. Pay special attention to
values in any memory areas you are using.
Stk ERROR
• Cause
• Capacity of the numeric stack or operator stack is exceeded.
• Action
• Simplify the calculation. The numeric stack has 10
levels and the operator stack has 24 levels.
• Divide your calculation into two or more separate parts.
Syn ERROR
• Cause
• Attempt to perform an illegal mathematical operation.
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• Action
• Press e or r to display the calculation with the
cursor located at the location of the error. Make necessary corrections.
Arg ERROR
• Cause
• Improper use of argument
• Action
• Press e or r to display the location of the cause of
the error and make required corrections.
k Order of Operations
Calculations are performed in the following order of precedence.
1 Coordinate transformation: Pol (x, y), Rec (r , θ)
2 Type A functions:
With these functions, the value is entered and then the
function key is pressed.
x2, x1, x!, ° ’ ”
3 Powers and roots: x y, x
4 a b/c
5 Abbreviated multiplication format in front of π, memory
name, or variable name: 2π, 5A, πA etc.
6 Type B functions:
With these functions, the function key is pressed and
then the value is entered.
3
,
, log, In, ex, 10x, sin, cos, tan, sin 1 , cos1,
tan1, sinh, cosh, tanh, sinh 1, cosh1, tanh1, ()
7 Abbreviated multiplication format in front of Type B
functions: 2 3, Alog2 etc.
8 Permutation and combination: nPr, nCr
9 , 0 , * Operations of the same precedence are performed from
right to left. exIn
120 → ex{In(
120)}
Other operations are performed from left to right.
* Operations enclosed in parentheses are performed first.
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k Stacks
This calculator uses memory areas, called “stacks,” to temporarily store values (numeric stack) and commands (command stack) according to their precedence during calculations. The numeric stack has 10 levels and the command
stack has 24 levels. A stack error (Stk ERROR) occurs
whenever you try to perform a calculation that is so complex that the capacity of a stack is exceeded.
k Power Supply
The TWO WAY POWER system actually has two power
supplies: a solar cell and a G13 Type (LR44) button battery. Normally, calculators equipped with a solar cell alone
can operate only when relatively bright light is present.
The TWO WAY POWER system, however, lets you continue to use the calculator as long as there is enough light
to read the display.
• Replacing the Battery
Either of the following symptoms indicates battery power
is low, and that the battery should be replaced.
• Display figures are dim and difficult to read in areas
where there is little light available.
• Nothing appears on the display when you press the
key.
• To replace the battery
1 Remove the six screws that Screw
hold the back cover in place
and then remove the back
cover.
2 Remove the old battery.
3 Wipe off the sides of new battery with a dry, soft cloth. Load
it into the unit with the positive k side facing up (so you
can see it).
4 Replace the back cover and
secure it in place with the six
screws.
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Screw
5 Press
step.
to turn power on. Be sure not to skip this
• Auto Power Off
Calculator power automatically turns off if you do not perform any operation for about six minutes. When this hapto turn power back on.
pens, press
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k Input Ranges
Internal digits: 12
Accuracy: As a rule, accuracy is ±1 at the 10th digit.
Functions
sinx
Input Range
DEG 0 x 4.4999999991010
RAD 0 x 785398163.3
GRA 0 x 4.4999999991010
cosx
DEG 0 x 4.5000000081010
RAD 0 x 785398164.9
GRA 0 x 5.0000000091010
tan x
DEG Same as sinx, except when x= (2n-1)90.
RAD Same as sinx, except when x= (2n-1)π/2.
GRA Same as sinx, except when x= (2n-1)100.
sin–1x
cos–1x
0 x 1
tan–1x
0 x 9.9999999991099
sinhx
coshx
0 x 230.2585092
sinh x
0 x 4.9999999991099
–1
cosh–1x
tanhx
tanh–1x
0 x 9.99999999910-1
log x/ln x 0 x
10 x
–9.9999999991099 x 99.99999999
ex
x
x2
1/x
3
x
x!
–9.9999999991099 x 230.2585092
0 x 1 10100
x 1 1050
x 1 10100 ; x G 0
x 1 10100
0 x 69 (x is an integer)
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Functions
Input Range
nP r 0 n 99, r n (n, r is an integer)99
1 {n!/( n–r)!} 9.99999999910
nCr 0 n 99, r n (n, r is an integer)
49
Pol(x, y) x, y 9.99999999910
(x2 +y2 ) 9.99999999910 99
99
Rec(r, ) 0 r 9.99999999910
θ: Same as sinx, cosx
°’ ”
xy
x
y
a b/c
SD
(REG)
a, b, c 110100
0 b, c
x110100
Decimal ↔ Sexagesimal Conversions
00 0000 x 9999990 590
x0: –110100ylogx100
x0: y0 1
x0: yn, 2n+1 ( n is an integer)
However: –110 100 ylogx100
y0: x G 0
–1101001/x logy100
y0: x0
1
y0: x2n1, n (n G 0; n is an integer)
However: –110 100 1/x logy100
Total of integer, numerator, and denominator
must be 10 digits or less (including division
marks).
x 11050
y 11050
n 110100
xn, yn, o, p
A, B, r : n G 0
xn–1, yn–1 : n G 0, 1
* Erros are cumulative with such internal continuous calx
3
culations as x y, x , x!, and x , so accuracy may be
adversely affected.
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Specifications
Power Supply: Solar cell and a single G13 Type button
battery (LR44)
Battery Life: Approximately 3 years (1 hour use per day).
Dimensions: 10(H)76(W)150(D) mm
3 /8⬙(H)3⬙(W)57/8 ⬙(D)
Weight: 85 g (3 oz) including battery
Power Consumption: 0.0001W
Operating Temperature: 0°C ~ 40°C (32°F ~ 104°F)
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CASIO COMPUTER CO., LTD.
6-2, Hon-machi 1-chome
Shibuya-ku, Tokyo 151-8543, Japan
U.S. Pat. 4,410,956
SA9911-A Printed in China
HA310537-1