QSC RAVE 80 User manual

RAVE
“S” series Digital Audio Router
USER MANUAL
▼
RAVE 80s
(8 AES3 outputs)
▼
RAVE 81s
(8 AES3 inputs)
▼
RAVE 88s
(4 AES3 inputs + 4 AES3 outputs)
▼
RAVE 160s-24
(16 analog audio outputs)
▼
RAVE 161s-24
(16 analog audio inputs)
▼
RAVE 188s-24
(8 analog audio ins + 8 analog audio outs)
TD-000070-00
Rev. C
*TD-000070-00*
1
Attention!
•Maximum operating ambient temperature is 65° C.
CAUTION
•Never restrict the airflow throught the devices’ fans
RISK OF ELECTRIC SHOCK
DO NOT OPEN
or vents.
•When installing equipment into a rack, distribute
the units evenly. Otherwise, hazardous conditions
may be created by an uneven weight distribution.
•Connect the unit only to a properly rated supply
circuit.
•Reliable Earthing (Grounding) of Rack-Mounted
Equipment should be maintained.
EXPLANATION OF GRAPHICAL
SYMBOLS
The lightning flash with arrowhead symbol,
within an equilateral triangle, is intended to
alert the user to the presence of uninsulated
“dangerous voltage” within the product’s enclosure that may be of sufficient magnitude to
constitute a risk of electric shock to humans.
The exclamation point within an equilateral
triangle is intended to alert the users to the
presence of important operating and maintenance (servicing) instructions in the literature accompanying the product.
EXPLICATION DES
SYMBOLES GRAPHIQUES
Le symbole éclair avec point de flèche à
l’intrérieur d’un triangle équilatéral est utilisé
pour alerter l’utilisateur de la presence à
l’intérieur du coffret de “voltage dangereux”
non isolé d’ampleur suffisante pour constituer
un risque d’elétrocution.
Le point d’exclamation à l’intérieur d’un triangle équilatéral est employé pour alerter les
utilisateurs de la présence d’instructions
importantes pour le fonctionnement et
l’entretien (service) dans le livret d’instruction
accompagnant l’appareil.
ERKLÄRUNG DER GRAPHISCHEN
SYMBOLE
Der Blitz nach unten zeigendem Pfeil in einem
gleichseitigen Dreieck weist den Benutzer auf
das Vorhandensein einer unisolierten,
gefährlichen Spannung“ im Gehäuse hin, die
”
stark sein kann, einer Person einen elektrischen
Schlag zu versetzen.
Das Ausrufzeichen in einem gleichseitigen
Dreieck weist den Benutzer auf wichtige
Betriebs- und Wartungs- vorschriften in den
beiliegenden Unterlagen des Gerätes hin.
FEDERAL
COMMUNICATIONS
COMMISSION
(FCC)
INFORMATION
CAUTION: To reduce the risk of electric shock, do not remove the
cover. No user-serviceable parts inside. Refer servicing to qualiNOTE: This equipment has
fied service personnel.
been tested and found to com-
WARNING: To prevent fire or electric shock, do not expose this ply with the limits for a Class
equipment to rain or moisture.
A digital device, pursuant to
Part 15 of the FCC Rules.
These limits are designed to
provide reasonable protection
against harmful interference
AVIS
in a commercial installation.
RISQUE DE CHOC ÉLECTRIQUE
This equipment generates,
NE PAS OUVRIR
uses, and can radiate radio
frequency energy and, if not
ATTENTION: Pour eviter les risques de choc électrique, ne pas
installed and used in accorenlever le courvercle. Aucun entretien de pièces intérieures par
dance with the instructions,
l’usager. Confier l’entretien au personnel qualifié.
may cause harmful interferAVIS: Pour eviter les risques d’incendie ou d’électrocution, ence to radio communican’exposez pas cet article à la pluie ou a l’humidité.
tions. Operation of this equipment in a residential area is
likely to cause harmful interference, in which case the
user will be required to corVORSICHT
rect the interference at his or
GEFAHR EINES ELEKTRISCHEN
her own expense.
SCHLAGES. NICHT ÖFFNEN!
VORSICHT: Um das Risiko eines elektrischen Schlages zu
vermindern, Abdeckung nicht entfernen! Keine Benutzer
Wartungsteile im Innern. Wartung nur durch qualifiertes
Wartungspersonal.
WARNUNG: Zur vermeidung von Feuer oder elektrischen
Schlägen, das Gerät nicht mit Regen oder Feuchtigkeit in
Berührung bringen!
SAFEGUARDS
Electrical energy can perform many useful functions. This
unit has been engineered and manufactured to assure your
personal safety. Improper use can result in potential electrical shock or fire hazards. In order not to defeat the
safeguards, observe the following instructions for its installation, use and servicing.
PRECAUTIONS
L’énergie électrique peut remplir de nombreuses fonctions
utiles. Cet appariel a été conçu et réalisé pour assurer une
sécurité personnelle entiére. Une utilisation impropre peut
entraîner des risques d’électrocution ou d’incendie. Dans le
but de ne pas rendre inutiles les mesures de sécurité, bien
observer les instructions suivantes pour l’installation,
l’utilisation et l’entretien de l’appareil.
© Copyright 2002 QSC Audio Products, Inc. All rights reserved.
“QSC” and the QSC logo are registered with the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office.
RAVE™ is a trademark of QSC Audio Products, Inc. CobraNet™ is a trademark of Peak Audio, Inc.
2
Table of Contents
RAVE “S” Series Digital Audio Router User Manual
Warning Notices ................................................................................................................................................. 2
Introduction ......................................................................................................................................................... 4
Illustration of RAVE unit ................................................................................................................................. 5
Glossary .......................................................................................................................................................... 6
How it works .................................................................................................................................................. 8
Channel routing ............................................................................................................................................ 10
Installation ......................................................................................................................................................... 11
Pre-Installation preparation: analog signal levels (RAVE 160/161/188s only) ........................................... 11
Rack mounting .............................................................................................................................................. 13
Connections ....................................................................................................................................................... 13
Ethernet connection ..................................................................................................................................... 13
Analog audio connections (RAVE 160/161/188 only) .................................................................................. 14
Digital audio connections (RAVE 80/81/88 only) ......................................................................................... 15
AC power ...................................................................................................................................................... 16
Master/Sync output ..................................................................................................................................... 16
Slave/Sync input ......................................................................................................................................... 16
RS-232 port .................................................................................................................................................. 17
Synchronizing to an AES3 (AES/EBU) stream................................................................................................18
Operation ............................................................................................................................................................ 20
Network activity/status indicators .............................................................................................................. 20
Channel audio signal indicators ................................................................................................................... 22
Program and software “kill” mode .............................................................................................................. 24
Routing ......................................................................................................................................................... 24
Network Design Considerations ................................................................................................................... 26
Specifications ................................................................................................................................................... 29
Appendix ............................................................................................................................................................ 32
Ethernet Cabling ........................................................................................................................................... 32
RS-232 Port Information ............................................................................................................................... 32
Resources ..................................................................................................................................................... 33
How to contact QSC Audio Products and Warranty Information ............................................................ 34
Note: Page numbering starts with cover as page 1. This is done to keep electronically-distributed document
page numbering synchronized with the printed document.
3
INTRODUCTION: Overview
RAVE™ Digital Audio Router products provide a means of
and 188s-24 can both receive and transmit data over the net-
transporting CobraNet™ audio signals over a Fast Ethernet
work and can support higher capacity configurations when
network. Using standard network hardware and physical me-
setup through the Management Interface using SNMP.
dia, a RAVE system has a maximum capacity of 64 audio chan-
Each RAVE unit has a female RJ-45 Ethernet connector on its
nels on a 100BASE-TX repeater segment and the ability to
rear panel for connecting to a standard Category 5 Unshielded
support hundreds of audio channels on a switched Ethernet
Twisted Pair (UTP) cable. For economy and flexibility, RAVE
LAN. RAVE transports the audio signals over the network in a
utilizes standard off-the-shelf Fast Ethernet devices such as
standard uncompressed 48 kHz digital format in resolutions
repeaters, switches and fiber optic media converters. You need
of 16, 20 or 24-bit. Additionally, RAVE products support op-
at least two RAVE devices—one to send and one to receive,
eration in stand-alone mode, requiring minimal front-panel
or two that operate bi-directionally—to route audio over an
setup, or in software mode, utilizing off-the-shelf applications
Ethernet network. There are currently six RAVE models, with
implementing the Simple Network Management Protocol, or
three basic send/receive configurations (16 channels send,
SNMP.
16 channels receive, or 8 channels send/8 channels receive).
A RAVE system handles routing in bundles of up to 8 indi-
Each of these configurations is available with either analog
vidual audio channels. Each RAVE supports up to two bundles
or digital AES3 (often called AES/EBU) audio inputs and out-
of audio. The availability of audio through network transmis-
puts. The six models are listed in the table below:
sion or reception is dependent on the RAVE model. The 88s
NOTE! Many instances of RAVE model numbers, as presented in this manual,
have had the suffix (“s” or “s-24” ) removed for clarity and ease of reading.
4
INTRODUCTION: Illustration of RAVE units
Front view of a RAVE 161s-24; other models are similar
Power LED
Bundle assignment
selector switches
(behind cover)
Network status LEDs
Audio signal level LEDs
Rear view, from top:
RAVE 160s-24, RAVE 188s-24, RAVE 161s-24, RAVE 80s, RAVE 88s and RAVE 81s
Sync connections
RS-232 port
Audio I/O section
Ethernet connection
IEC connector (AC power)
and fuse holder
5
INTRODUCTION: Glossary
AES3—
A digital audio format specification approved by
Latency—The time interval from when an event occurs and
the Audio Engineering Society and European Broad-
when it is perceived. In digital audio routing, this is
cast Union for inter-device conveyance of a dual-
typically the time required to convert an analog in-
channel (stereo) digital audio signal. Also called
put to a digital signal, transmit that signal over the
AES/EBU. This specification is periodically revised
network, receive it and convert it back to analog for
and amendments are published by the AES.
the end listening device. Latency is dependant upon
every device in the signal chain that adds any time
Bundle—The basic network transmission unit under Cobra-
delay to the delivery of the audio.
Net. Up to 8 audio channels may be carried in a
bundle. Each bundle is assigned a unique number
Management Interface—The management interface (MI) can
and its value denotes the distribution type, either
be thought of as the software and front panel con-
multicast or unicast, between RAVE devices. A
trols that determine how the RAVE will operate. The
bundle can be thought of as a virtual cable between
MI is the means for control and monitoring of
two or more RAVE devices, which transports mul-
CobraNet parameters within the RAVE unit. Two
tiple audio channels. Bundle numbers can be as-
main management methods are supported by
signed to the RAVE via its front-panel interface or
CobraNet; the host management interface (HMI)
through an SNMP supporting browser or related ap-
and SNMP. RAVE supports SNMP and its front panel
plication.
switches for control. A RAVE unit can use its frontpanel thumbwheel switches to access most con-
Channel—A single digital audio signal. Audio channels on
figuration parameters for stand-alone mode. The
CobraNet have a 48 kHz sampling rate and may
front-panel interface will satisfy most configuration
be of 16, 20 or 24-bit resolution. Up to 8 audio
requirements. All of RAVE’s configuration param-
channels may be carried in a bundle.
eters are accessible using SNMP.
Conductor—The CobraNet device on the network which supplies the master clock and permissions list. A con-
MI Variable Set— The MI variable set is the group of parameters that can be controlled by the MI.
ductor arbitration procedure insures that there is
one and only one conductor per network at any time.
Multicast Bundle—A multicast bundle supports a one-tomany routing of audio on the network. Ethernet
Crossover cable—An Ethernet patch cable with the transmit
multicast addressing is used to deliver a multicast
and receive wire pairs swapped at one end. Cross-
bundle. Because a multicast bundle consumes band-
over cables permit a direct connection of two nodes
width network-wide (within the same broadcast do-
without a repeater or switch in between. A cross-
main), use of this delivery service must be rationed
over cable can also be used for cascading repeat-
on a switched network. By design, all bundles on a
ers or switches that don’t have an available uplink
repeater network are of the multicast type.
port.
6
Introduction: Glossary (continued)
Repeater—Network repeaters are commonly referred to as
Switch—A network switch examines incoming data and sends
Ethernet multi-port hubs. A data signal arriving in
it to the port or ports to which the data is addressed.
any port is reproduced out all other ports on the
Networks that use switches realize higher overall
hub. A repeater hub does not buffer or interpret the
bandwidth capacity because data may be received
data passing through it. An Ethernet network is
through multiple ports simultaneously without con-
typically wired in a star configuration and the
flict. Switches are full-duplex devices. A network
repeater hub is at the center. Repeaters are half-
that uses switches to connect network segments is
duplex by design and all RAVEs attached to a
called a switched network. Because each switch
repeater share the same broadcast domain. 64
port has its own collision management and full use
audio channels is the maximum capacity on a LAN
of bandwidth, audio capacity may realistically reach
configured with network repeaters. Repeater
several hundred channels depending on the network
networks with RAVE require the use of Class II
architecture. Additionally, switched networks may
devices that are 100 Mbps only.
support non-CobraNet packet types, allowing control and monitoring of the system devices
Note: CobraNet networks must consist of only network re-
(QSControl, SNMP). Network switches range from
peaters or only network switches. A mix of these de-
basic stand-alone models to more complex man-
vices is not supported on the same LAN. This does
agement and routing devices.
not apply to non-CobraNet™ traffic.
Note: CobraNet networks must consist of only network
Simple Network Management Protocol—SNMP is the network
repeaters or only network switches. A mix of these
industry’s standard for control and monitoring of net-
devices is not supported on the same LAN. This does
work devices. SNMP is a cross-platform, cross-net-
not apply to non-CobraNet traffic.
work protocol and may be used as the interface for
managed network switches and multi-protocol rout-
Unicast Bundle— Unicast bundles provide a single point-to-
ers. CobraNet supports SNMP as one method for ac-
point connection between two devices. Unicast
cessing its Management Interface.
transmission is the preferred choice when operating on network switches. Data which is unicast is
Stand Alone Mode— Stand alone mode is operating a RAVE
addressed to a specific RAVE or other CobraNet
using the RAVE’s front and rear panel controls. All
device. A network switch may examine the unicast
available management interface variables are ac-
address field of the data and determine on which
cessed using the front panel hexadecimal switches
port the addressed RAVE resides and direct the data
when operating in stand alone mode. Also called hard-
out only that port. Unicast bundles conserve band-
ware mode. Redundancy and external Synch can be
width network wide and reduce congestion at the
setup via SNMP independent of the front panel switch
node.
positions.
Uplink port—A special port on a network repeater or switch
Software Mode— Software mode is operating a RAVE using
the SNMP software only. All available management
used for cascading or linking to another repeater or
switch.
interface variables are accessed through the network
connection using a PC and the proper software.
7
Introduction: How It Works
Ethernet networks are used most often for data communica-
nection and/or an abundance of bandwidth dedicated to a
tions, such as with file or print sharing on an office LAN (Lo-
single device on each switch port. On network switches, RAVE
cal Area Network). A typical application might include a num-
establishes a half-duplex link to a dedicated port. The 100
ber of PCs or workstations, servers and shared printers all
Mbps of bandwidth available at a switched port is more than
connected to common Ethernet hardware. Messages (Ether-
enough to support all of the typical communications require-
net frames) are communicated between devices on the LAN
ments of RAVE while providing for an ample amount of con-
in a random and non-deterministic manor. Network response
trol and monitoring through the MI via SNMP messages.
to print messages or file access is usually noncritical so long
as the intended outcome occurs in a reasonable amount of
A network of CobraNet devices can be thought of as a syn-
time. For example, when multiple users are attempting to
chronized orchestra. The unit acting in the “conductor” role
share a common printer at the same time, some users will
provides the system clock and grants network permissions to
likely experience delays in output. Collisions or failed attempts
the “performer” units. Each RAVE has a local internal clock so
to access the network may also be acceptable so long as the
that any RAVE may arbitrate for the role of network “conduc-
intended messages are retransmitted. Most often, a limited
tor”. RAVE devices may also be synchronized to an external
amount of collisions are expected and are usually transpar-
clock source, which is attached to a rear-panel BNC connec-
ent to the user.
tor. External synchronization requires configuration setup
through the front-panel interface or via SNMP. The permis-
Audio networks are different because late arrival or failed
sions list is a message sent with the system clock that allow
attempts to transmit audio messages are immediately per-
individual units access to the network and reserve bundle as-
ceived by the listener. Therefore, audio network transmission
signments.
must be error free with low latency and delivery must be precisely defined. To do this, RAVE incorporates the CobraNet
RAVE routes audio in bundles that are populated with a de-
protocol. CobraNet is the industry’s most reliable audio deliv-
fault value of 8 channels per bundle. The actual number of
ery mechanism. CobraNet provides low latency, determinis-
channels per bundle may be altered, from 0 to 8, from the
tic delivery of audio over Ethernet on either network repeat-
management interface using SNMP. Reducing channel count
ers or switches. Collisions are prevented on shared media
reduces system bandwidth requirements. On the models sup-
links, such as repeater hubs, by CobraNet’s proprietary “order
porting CobraNet transmission (81/88/161/188) audio is
persistent” media access scheme. On dedicated media links,
brought into the RAVE using the rear panel connectors.
such as with network switches, collisions are prevented due
to separate transmit and receive paths in a full-duplex con-
8
Introduction: How It Works (continued)
In default mode, the signals from the first 8 audio channel in-
The received bundle is then separated into individual audio chan-
puts will be grouped together in a bundle whose “network iden-
nels and forwarded to the first 8 audio outputs at the rear-panel
tifier” number is specified from the front-panel hexadecimal
in either analog or digital format, depending upon which model
switches or through the management interface. The bundle will
Rave is used.
then be sent over the network to the destination devices that
are configured, or set to receive the bundle. RAVE models sup-
Signal flow for the six RAVE models are depicted below. The
porting CobraNet reception (80/88/160/188) can then receive
wide black arrows indicate the bundle direction to or from the
the bundle by setting their respective front-panel hexadecimal
network interface, while the thin arrows indicate individual audio
switches (or MI variables) to the appropriate bundle number.
channels to or from RAVE’s rear-panel connectors.
RAVE 80s: 8 AES Outs
RAVE 160s-24: 16 analog
outs
RAVE 81s: 8 AES ins
RAVE 161s-24: 16 analog
ins
RAVE 88s: 4 AES ins + 4 AES
outs
RAVE 188s-24: 8 analog ins
+ 8 analog outs
9
Introduction: Channel Routing
Channel Routing
A RAVE network handles routing in bundles of up to eight audio
signments may be the same. Whether the bundle assignments
channels. Each bundle of audio transmitted on the network oc-
on a receiver (or multiple receivers) can be duplicated is depen-
cupies a unique identifier, or number. In stand-alone mode, each
dent on whether the particular transmitters are setup for unicast
RAVE device handles two bundles—two sent, two received, or
or multicast transmission. On network repeaters, all bundles
one of each. For example, a RAVE 161, with 16 analog audio
are multicast. On network switches, the value of the bundle
inputs, supports two bundles for transmission over the network.
assignment determines the addressing of the transmission.
Therefore, the 161 requires two separate bundle number assignments to enable both groups of audio to be sent onto the
A RAVE device that both sends and receives, such as the RAVE
network. In default mode, one bundle comprises audio chan-
188 (eight analog inputs and 8 analog outputs) or RAVE 88 (4
nels 1 through 8—the second bundle, channels 9 through 16.
AES3 inputs and 4 AES3 outputs), transmits one bundle and
You can always alter the number and order of audio channels
can receive another. Note: in software mode, the RAVE 88 and
within each bundle via SNMP.
188 can support two bundles in each direction.
Similarly, a RAVE 80, with eight AES3 digital outputs, supports
Behind a removable cover on the front panel of each RAVE unit
network reception of two bundles (each AES3 output carries
are four hexadecimal rotary switches. In stand-alone (hardware)
two audio channels). With receivers, each bundle number need
mode, these switches are used for selecting the assignments
not be unique. A receiver may “tune-in” to two specific bundles
for each of RAVE’s two bundles. In software mode, these
from two separate transmitters or both receiving bundle as-
switches are used to provide a network name for the RAVE.
Removable Cover- RAVE 160s-24 shown
Rotary Switches
Bundle Setup:
The two left-most switches set the assignment of the RAVE’s first bundle. The default mapping for the first bundle is:
RAVE 81/ 88/161 and 188- bundle 1 transmitted onto network from audio inputs 1 through 8
RAVE 80 and 160- bundle 1 received from network routes to audio outputs 1 through 8
The two right-most switches set the assignment of the device’s second bundle. The default mapping for the second bundle is:
RAVE 81 and 161- bundle 2 transmitted onto network from audio inputs 9 through 16
RAVE 88 and 188- bundle 2 received from network routes to audio outputs 1 through 8
RAVE 80 and 160- bundle 2 received from network routes to audio outputs 9 through 16
NOTE! Detailed instructions on setting network bundle assignments follow later in the Operation chapter.
10
Installation: Pre-Installation Level Setting (RAVE 160/161/188 only)
PRE-INSTALLATION PREPARATION: ANALOG AUDIO SIGNAL LEVELS (RAVE 160/161/188 ONLY)
The RAVE models supporting analog audio inputs and/or outputs may require signal level setup to
achieve optimum performance. Level setup must be configured before rack-mounting the units. The
digital AES3 (digital audio) models do not require any adjustment. Level adjustments are made by
configuring internal jumpers on the main circuit board. For access to these jumpers, you must first
remove the top cover of the RAVE unit as follows.
NOTE: If synchronizing to an AES3 (AES/EBU) source, see page 18 for AES3 jumper settings.
CAUTION: Detach the power cord
before removing the top cover.
Dangerous voltages within the
enclosure may be of sufficient
magnitude to constitute a risk of
electric shock to humans.
To remove cover, first detach the AC power cord,
then remove screws from top, bottom, and sides.
The arrows in this picture point to the 17 screw
locations.
Required tools: #2 Phillips screwdriver.
Then lift the rear edge of the top cover about ¼ inch, or 6
mm, and slide the cover forward about 2 inches, or 5 cm. Lift
the cover straight up to remove it from the chassis.
Reverse this procedure to reinstall the cover.
Be sure to take proper protective
measures, such as working on an
antistatic surface and wearing a grounding
wrist strap, before touching any circuitry
inside.
11
Installation: Pre-Installation Level Setting (RAVE 160/161/188 only)
Input Level Sensitivity (RAVE 161s-24 and 188s-24 only)
Input level sensitivity is the RMS analog signal level at which a sinusoidal waveform will produce a digital full
scale signal in the device. The available settings are +24dBu, +18dBu, and +12 dBu (reference: 0 dBu = 0.775
volt), which are 12.3, 6.1, and 3.1 volts rms, respectively. These correspond to 17.4, 8.7, and 4.4 volts peak. Check
the specifications of the audio equipment driving the inputs to determine the correct setting. Each channel’s
sensitivity is independent of the others and must be set individually.
•
First, locate the input sensitivity-selection jumper headers, which are in a row
of small groups of pins (6 in each group) on the topside of the circuit board,
somewhat midway between the front edge of the board and the rear edge.
You’ll see a row of 16 headers on a RAVE 161, or eight on a RAVE 188–one for
each input channel.
•
Determine what the correct setting should be for each channel, and set the
jumpers as shown in the illustration. There is also a legend printed on the
circuit board showing the jumper setting options. Save any unused jumpers for
future use.
Output Levels (RAVE 160s-24 and 188s-24 only)
The output level setting determines the absolute RMS level of an analog signal produced by a digital full scale
signal representing a sinusoidal waveform. The four selections available are +24dBu, +18dBu, +12dBu, and
+6dBu (reference: 0 dBu = 0.775 volt)—12.3 volts, 6.1 volts, 3.1 volts, and 1.5 volts rms, respectively. These
voltages respectively correspond to 17.4, 8.7, 4.4, and 2.2 volts peak.
•
As with setting the input level, the output level for each channel is
set by arranging jumpers on the pins of a header. These headers
are located near the rear edge of the circuit board, and there is one
header for each analog output: eight in the RAVE 188, and 16 in the
RAVE 160.
•
Place jumpers as required for the desired output level as shown in
this illustration. A legend printed on the circuit board also shows
the jumper settings. Save any unused jumpers for future use.
12
Installation: Rack Mounting
RACK MOUNTING (ALL MODELS)
A RAVE unit is 1 RU (1 rack space) high and mounts in any standard 19-inch wide equipment rack. The top
cover of the chassis must be in place and properly secured with screws before you can mount the RAVE unit.
•
Rack mounting is optional.
•
Use four mounting screws to fasten the front ears of the RAVE unit to the mounting rails of the rack.
•
The chassis of a RAVE unit also has mounting ears on its rear corners. If used for mobile, portable,
touring or other high vibration application, support each RAVE at the rear ears as well. If you have
several units stacked in the rack, support the bottom one at the rear corners.
•
Dress and support any cables that are to attach to the RAVE unit so that their weight doesn’t put an
undue strain on their connectors. Do not pinch or otherwise crush CAT-5 Ethernet cable.
Be careful when installing the unit in an equipment rack; its cooling vents must not be obstructed.
Connections: 100BASE-TX Ethernet
ETHERNET CONNECTION (ALL MODELS)
A female modular RJ-45 jack on the rear panel is for connecting the RAVE unit to a 100BASE-TX Ethernet device.
•
To connect the network cable to the RAVE unit, insert the RJ-45 male
connector—with its locking tab facing down (the only way the connector will fit into the jack)—until the tab clicks into place, just like
connecting a modular telephone cable to a telephone.
•
To disconnect the network cable from the RAVE unit, grasp the connector and squeeze up on the locking tab, then pull it out of the RJ-45
jack.
A 100BASE-TX network connection requires CAT-5 UTP (unshielded twisted pair) grade cable. Suitable Ethernet
cable is readily available at most computer suppliers. To make your own, see the Appendix for connector pinouts
and for cable manufacturers.
13
Connections: Analog Audio Inputs/Outputs (RAVE 160/161/188)
ANALOG AUDIO CONNECTIONS
The analog RAVE models (RAVE 160 /161 and 188) use normal analog balanced audio inputs and
outputs, with three terminals per channel: Hi (+), Lo (-) and Shield..
Analog audio inputs and outputs connect using detachable terminal strip headers on the rear
panel of the RAVE unit. These detachable headers allow for pre-wiring of racks and quick connecting and disconnecting for installation, removal, reconfiguration, or replacement. The detachable
headers connect to and disconnect from the pins simply by pushing on and pulling off. The illustration at right shows how the detachable headers work.
To connect a wire to a terminal:
•
•
•
•
Strip back the insulation on the wire about ¼ inch (approximately 6.3 mm).
Loosen the screw above the header terminal, then insert the wire fully.
Tighten the screw until the wire is firmly anchored. Do not overtighten.
Use a wire tie to secure the cable to the grip of the header block.
To connect balanced inputs: insert the +, -, and shield into the header as shown at the right.
To connect unbalanced inputs: insert the signal conductor into the + terminal and the shield to
the - terminal, with a jumper to the ground/shield terminal, as shown at the lower right.
Analog audio connections- RAVE 161s-24 shown
Channel numbers and connector pinouts are labeled on the rear of the unit, as shown in the illustration above.
The actual channel assignment depends on the model.
RAVE 188 : 16 analog channels; 8 inputs, labeled 1 through 8 and 8 outputs, labeled 1 through 8
RAVE 161 : 16 analog audio input channels labeled 1 through 16
RAVE 160 : 16 analog audio output channels labeled 1 through 16 on the rear of the unit.
14
Connections: Digital Audio Inputs/Outputs (RAVE 80/81/88)
DIGITAL AUDIO CONNECTIONS
The digital RAVE models (RAVE 80/81/88) use the AES3 (also known as AES/EBU) digital audio
standard. Each AES3 XLR jack carries 2 channels of digital audio, each carrying between 16- and 24
bits per sample.
All digital audio I/O on a RAVE unit are terminated in accordance with the AES3 specification.
AES3-1992 warns against the use of more than 1 receiver across the cable. If you need to supply
the same AES3 signal to more than one receiving device, you will need a suitable digital distribution amplifier. AES3 inputs automatically and independently perform digital sample rate conversion. This allows any source device to run asynchronously to the network and to other sourcing
devices.
Each AES3 input or output carries a pair of digital audio channels through a balanced 3-pin XLR
connector. Like analog equipment, outputs use connectors with male pins and inputs use connectors
with female pins. Unlike analog equipment, AES3 cables must use 110 ohm digital audio cable. The
connector’s Pin 1 is used for the cable shield and the signal ground. Pins 2 and 3 are for the digital
audio signals.
To construct an AES3 digital audio cable: use 110 ohm digital audio
cable; terminate using XLR connectors per the pinout provided to the right.
Use 110 ohm AES/EBU digital audio
cables for digital audio connections
Digital audio connections- RAVE 88s shown
Channel numbers and connector pinouts are labeled on the rear of the unit, as shown in the illustration above.
The actual channel assignment depends on the model.
RAVE 88 : 8 digital AES3 channels (16 audio channels): 4 inputs and 4 outputs labeled 1-2, 3-4, 5-6 and 7-8
RAVE 81 : 8 digital AES3 input channels (16 audio channels) labeled 1-2 through 15-16 on the rear of the unit.
RAVE 80 : 8 digital AES3 output channels (16 audio channels) labeled 1-2 through 15-16 on the rear of the unit.
15
Connections: AC Power and Fuses, Master/Sync Output and Slave/Sync Input
AC POWER:
•
•
•
The detachable AC power cord connects to the RAVE at the rear-panel IEC connector.
There is no power switch; the AC disconnect device is the detachable power cord.
A RAVE operates on line voltages from 100 to 240 VAC, 50 to 60 Hz. No user setting is required.
FUSES:
•
•
•
The fuse holder is an integral part of the IEC connector and contains two fuses.
To replace a fuse, first detach the AC power cord from the RAVE unit.
Then use a flat-blade screwdriver to pry the fuse holder out, as shown below, left.
Replace only with the same type fuse.
Use only a power source with a protective earth
ground.
The fuses are held in the round openings in the end of the
fuse holder as shown at right. Replace one or both fuses
with the same type: 20 × 5 mm, 2 amp, 250V.
MASTER/SYNC OUTPUT
A 5 Vp-p sample rate clock is output this 50 ohm BNC female jack whenever the unit is
connected to the network and is operating properly. This clock output can be used to
synchronize external digital audio or video equipment, and is synchronous with the
clock signal broadcast over the network. No clock signal is produced if the unit loses
power, its Ethernet connection, or if a severe fault occurs with the unit. In the event of
severe fault within the RAVE unit, the front panel Fault LED will illuminate.
2A 250V
20 x 5 mm FUSE
(2 required)
Sync connections on the rear panel of a RAVE unit
How to use for Redundant Operation: Connect the SYNC OUTPUT to the slave
unit’s SLAVE INPUT. The loss of this signal to the slave initiates a fail-over event and
the slaved unit becomes active. Redundant operation provides a second RAVE for audio backup in mission-critical applications.
SLAVE/SYNC INPUT
This 50 ohm BNC female jack can be used to synchronize the network to an external clock source. The unit must be acting as the system
“conductor” and the external clock must be a valid increment of the isochronous cycle clock. This cycle is currently fixed at 750 Hz. The
valid external clock range is from 15 kHz to 49.5 kHz. To implement external synchronization, the first group of front panel hexadecimal
switches must be set between “80” and “FE”. This provides well over 100 bundle assignments possible for use with the external synchronization feature. As with all managed features, external synchronization can be configured through the management interface using a
software application implementing SNMP.
How to use for Redundant Operation: SLAVE INPUT is connected to master (main) unit’s SYNC OUTPUT. During redundant operation,
the slave input provides the backup unit with a sample clock from the primary or master RAVE. As long as this signal is present, the slave
unit will exist on the network in standby mode. In standby, all network audio communication is suspended and output relays are forced
open. If the master clock is lost, the slave senses the missing clock on its slave input and commences network audio communication. The
slave unit becomes enabled when the sample clock is missing from its SLAVE INPUT.
16
Connections: Sync Connection for Redundant Operation, RS-232 Port
Rear panel coax cable and Ethernet connections
REDUNDANT CONFIGURATION
(hardware setup)
To slave one RAVE unit to another, connect a male-to-male
BNC jumper cable from the sync output of the master unit to
the slave input of the redundant unit. Select the same bundle
assignment(s) on the slave unit as are selected on the master unit.
Bundle assignments and additional parameters available for
redundant operation may be configured through MI variables
Configuration example for redundant audio transmission
Note that audio connections must be present at both devices. This may be accomplished through
the use of “Y” connections or by channel duplication from a console or other source device.
via SNMP. Redundancy for network links, hardware and
routing is also possible. Refer to the Peak Audio and QSC
Audio websites regarding additional methods for redundant
and fail-safe operation on switched Ethernet LANs.
RS-232 PORT
The RS-232 port is an auxiliary interface which serves two
primary functions. It provides a serial method for upgrading
the CobraNet program code and it provides a means to bridge
serial data onto Ethernet. The serial bridge allows the user
to transmit serial data over the network, from one RAVE unit
to another. This is a handy feature for remotely controlling
and/or programming accessories and processors that require
an RS-232 serial interface. The serial data format is optimized for RAVE at 19,200 baud, 9 bits (or 8 bits w/ parity), 1
Configuration example for redundant audio reception
Note that destination devices will need to be connected to audio sources from both RAVEs.
Although RAVE provides a means to do this directly, a splitter box, duplicate console inputs or
redundant amplifiers may also be used.
stop bit. Note that no parity or data validity detection is done
within RAVE. The unit simply bridges the serial data onto
the network.
Incoming serial data is buffered and broadcast over the network. All attached stations receive these broadcasts and
transmit the data simultaneously out their respective serial
ports. When the RS-232 electrical connection is in use, the
serial port operates in a half duplex mode. Port parameters
(including unicast transmission) may be configured via the
management interface, using SNMP.
For the DB-9 pinout information, see the Appendix.
17
Connections: Synchronizing the CobraNet Network to an AES/EBU Stream
SYNCHRONIZING TO AES/EBU
The RAVE “s” series AES/EBU input models provide some additional means for synchronizing the CobraNet
network and deriving on-board clocks. In addition to the on-board PLL and external synch inputs available on all
models, the AES/EBU input models allow the user to synchronize the network to a 48 kHz AES/EBU input
stream. The 48 kHz stream can be used in a similar manner to the external synchronization feature where a
clock is applied to the rear panel “synch input” BNC connector. However, instead of applying an external clock to
the rear panel, the RAVE recovers the clock from the AES input stream off the first XLR connector. The 48 kHz
recovered clock can then be multiplied to acquire the 12.288 MHz master clock, which is needed for all local
audio clocks.
Two methods of synchronization from an AES input stream are supported via jumper selections at J37 and J39.
The 3-pin headers for jumpers J37 and J39 are available on the RAVE 81s and 88s models only, as the AES
receiver at channel input number 1 is required.
Method 1: Synchronize to the AES input “master clock”. When the jumper on header J39 is set to “AES clock”,
the CobraNet interface will disable the RAVE’s on-board PLL and instead use the 12.288 MHz clock recovered
from the AES receiver at input number 1. Note that AES receivers are only available on the RAVE 81s and 88s
products. Header J39 is located near the front of the RAVE PCB about midway between the status and metering
LEDs. The jumper position for implementing synchronization to the AES “master clock” is shown below.
As with all synchronization methods implemented via hardware configuration, the AES/EBU RAVE must be
acting as the network conductor. To guarantee that the RAVE configured for synchronization to the AES “master
clock” is always the conductor, it is recommended that the unit’s conductor priority level be elevated via
software with the “condPriority” variable (refer to the CobraNet datasheet variable descriptions). Additionally,
the AES input stream at channel 1 must be configured for a 48 kHz sample rate.
The advantage to using the AES “master clock” synch method is that all local audio clocks are derived directly
from the AES master clock stream. As with all system synch methods, all performers slave to the network
conductor. Additionally, since the network clock is distributed throughout the system, all AES receivers and
transmitters will be synchronous to the AES master clock sourced by the AES receiver at input 1 of the conductor unit.
The disadvantage to using the AES “master clock” synch method is that the on-board PLL is permanently
disabled when the jumper at header J39 is in the “AES clock” position. If the RAVE device loses the conductor
role it will no longer have clock pullability and will likely lose synch to the network.
18
Connections: Synchronizing the CobraNet Network to an AES/EBU Stream
SYNCHRONIZING TO AES/EBU
Method 2: Use the recovered AES 48 kHz clock as an “external clock” source. When the jumper at header J37
is set to “AES”, the CobraNet interface uses the recovered 48 kHz clock at the first XLR connector (inputs 1 and
2) as the external synchronization clock. This method is similar to the “external synch” or “buddy link” mode of
clock distribution in which an external clock is applied to the “synch input” BNC connectors on the rear panel of
the RAVE. This method requires that the RAVE device be acting as the network conductor and be configured for
external synchronization mode. External synchronization mode can be invoked by setting the left pair of
hexadecimal switches on the RAVE’s front panel to “80” or above. External synchronization can also be
configured through software via SNMP.
Header J37 is located toward the far left side of the RAVE PCB just above the power supply capacitors and to
the left of U137. The jumper configuration for implementing the “external clock” mode of AES synchronization is
shown below.
The advantage to implementing the “external clock” method of AES synchronization is that the on-board PLL is
still available should the RAVE lose the conductor role. This allows the RAVE device to function properly in the
performer role. When acting as the conductor, local audio clocks are derived from the master clock sourced by
the on-board PLL. The PLL is synchronized to an external clock, which happens to be the recovered 48 kHz clock
from the AES receiver at the channel 1 input.
The disadvantage to using the “external clock” method is that the unit must be configured for external synchronization mode. Audio clocks are derived indirectly from the recovered 48 kHz AES stream.
It should be noted that external synchronization of the CobraNet network requires the on-board PLL. A RAVE
AES/EBU device acting as the system conductor, which is synchronizing to an external clock applied to the rear
panel “synch input”, must not have its jumper at header J39 configured for “AES clock”. This is a synchronization violation since the device cannot track the external clock source.
19
Operation: Network Activity (Status) Indicators
STATUS INDICATORS
Network activity LEDs
The eight status indicator LEDs display the operating condition
of the RAVE unit and its connection to the Ethernet network.
They are color coded such that green LEDs, when illuminated,
signify a good or normal condition, while red LEDs signify a
problem. The “Conductor” LED is yellow and simply indicates
whether the unit is providing system synchronization and accessibility functions.
Link
This LED illuminates green when the unit has established a link to an operating Ethernet network. In normal operation,
this LED remains constantly lit, as long as the circuitry detects the network carrier. If this LED is not illuminated, there is
a fault, possibly at the network device or in the cable connection. Note that this indicator does not confirm that the link
is 100 Mbps or that the network device is supported by RAVE.
100 Mbps
This LED illuminates green when the unit establishes a link to a 100BASE-TX Ethernet device. If this indicator does not
illuminate, the RAVE has not established link with a supported Ethernet device. Check the network device hardware and or
configuration. Note that network routers, 10 Mbps and 1000 Mbps links are not supported for directly interfacing to RAVE.
Rx
This green LED lights for 50 milliseconds or longer whenever the unit receives Ethernet data, whether it is addressed to the
unit or not. This indicator will blink when receive activity is present. The activity of this indicator is dependent on the RAVE
model and bundle type. This is a physical layer indicator and does not guarantee that data is being received properly at the
CobraNet core.
Rx Error
This red LED illuminates for at least 1 second if the unit has trouble receiving CobraNet related data. If illuminated, the
failure may be due to problems with Ethernet reception, overcommitted transmission, excessive network delay or an
internal fault. This indicator will also illuminate with the TxError LED if the device cannot synchronize to the network clock.
20
Operation: Network Activity (Status) Indicators
Tx
This LED illuminates green for at least 50 milliseconds while the unit is transmitting Ethernet data. This indicator will blink
when transmit activity is present. The activity of this indicator is dependent on the RAVE model and bundle type. This is a
physical layer indicator and does not guarantee that data is being transmitted properly from the CobraNet core.
Tx Error
This LED illuminates red for at least 1 second if a unit is having trouble transmitting CobraNet related data. Failure here
may be due to network inaccessibility, duplicate transmit bundle assignments, improper network configuration or an internal fault. This indicator will also illuminate with the RxError LED if the device cannot synchronize to the network clock.
Conductor
This yellow LED will illuminate whenever the unit is acting as the system “conductor”. In this mode, the unit provides the
system synchronization and accessibility resources. Arbitration for the conductor role is initiated during system initialization or when a unit with a higher priority than the current conductor is added to the network. Conductor priority is based on
the transmission capabilities of the device. The device with the least amount of transmission requirements is the best
candidate for the conductor role. Currently, the hierarchy is as follows:
1.
RAVE 160s-24 and 80s
highest
2.
RAVE 188s-24 and 88s
mid position
3.
RAVE 161s-24 and 81s
lowest
In the event there are two or more units with the highest priority arbitrating for the conductor role, the MAC address will
be used as the deciding factor.
Note that there should be one, and only one, conductor per LAN or VLAN. Multiple conductor
indicators may point to an unintentional partition in the network architecture because of multicast
filtering.
Fault
This red LED illuminates whenever the unit detects an unexpected internal fault. If the RAVE unit cannot pass its selfinduced self-test (POST), the fault indicator will usually repeat a sequence of flashes, which indicates where the POST
failure occurred. If the RAVE does pass the self-test but cannot perform or continue its operation, a blink code consisting of
three flash patterns may be repeated on the fault indicator. Additionally, the RAVEs audio metering LEDs may display a
binary fault code. Fault codes are provided by Peak Audio for each major release of CobraNet code. When communicated
by the user, these front panel fault code displays may help QSC’s Technical Services department in providing a quick
remedy for a faulty RAVE unit.
21
Operation: Audio Signal Level Indicators
AUDIO SIGNAL LEVEL INDICATORS
The tricolor metering LEDs provide visibility to various configuration and metering information. Their primary purpose is to
detect the presence of audio signal. However, the metering LEDs also perform device monitoring functions such as indicating the CobraNet firmware revision installed in the RAVE, error reporting, indicating “write” mode for MI use, indicating
“software kill”, bundle assignments and providing “bundle activity” status. For all of these device monitoring functions, the
16 metering LEDs are split into two 8-channel groups. The current signal LED indicating functions for the RAVE products
are described below.
AUDIO METERING
Each audio channel on RAVE has its own metering LED. The audio channel signal LEDs’ primary function is to provide audio
metering for each of the 16 audio channel inputs, outputs or a combination of 8 inputs and 8 outputs. In the metering mode,
the tricolor LEDs (green, yellow and red) provide an indication of the amount of signal present as well as the amount of
headroom available. The signal level at which the LED’s three colors are tripped is dependent upon the input sensitivity
selected for each channel (analog models) or the AES signal’s relation to DFS (digital full scale). Refer to the section on
sensitivity selection (p.16) for details on input levels. In relation to digital full scale, the indicators react as follows:
•
Bright green—when the channel’s peak level is above -40dBFS (40dB below digital full scale).
•
Yellow—when the signal peaks exceed -12dBFS
•
Red—when the signal peaks reach -2dBFS and above.
During normal operation, the channel signal indicators should be flashing bright green or yellow, and perhaps once in a
while, a quick flash of red. If an LED stays dim green, the signal level is too low and you’re not taking full advantage of the
digital headroom. If an LED glows red often and for long durations, the signal level is probably too high and you’ll experience digital “clipping,” which tends to be very harsh. As with any audio device, you should consider the dynamic nature of
the program material in judging the correct level indications.
CobraNet VERSION
When powering up a RAVE with CobraNet version 2, the major and minor release of the firmware is displayed on the two
8-channel groups in binary format. The left group displays the major release and the right group displays the minor release.
For example, if the CobraNet version in the RAVE is 2.8.5, the left group would display a binary 8 and the right group would
display a binary 5. If a “1” indicates illumination and a “0” indicates that the LED is off, 8.5 would be displayed as “00001000
00000101” on the front-panel of the RAVE. The CobraNet version is displayed in red when the box is in hardware mode. In
this default mode, bundle assignments and configuration setup is through the front panel hexadecimal switches. The
CobraNet version is illuminated in yellow when the RAVE is in “write” mode and all configuration setup is accomplished
through the Management Interface via SNMP. In “write” mode, the “flashPersistEnable” MI variable is set and the front
panel switches are used for unit I.D.
22
Operation: Audio Signal Level Indicators
ERROR REPORTING
Each release of the CobraNet firmware has an associated list of error codes, which identifies a specific cause in the event
that a unit is failing a self-test or is experiencing operational problems. The RAVE devices may display this error code on
the right 8-channel group of the metering LEDs. This code will be displayed in binary format with red LEDs. In the event that
a unit should fail, this code can assist a Technical Services representative to troubleshoot the cause.
BUNDLE ASSIGNMENT
When implementing stand-alone control of the bundle assignments on RAVE products, the binary value of the address is
temporarily displayed on the metering LEDs in red. This can be seen by scrolling through the front panel hexadecimal
switches and viewing the metering display. Each time a switch is adjusted, the new value of the bundle assignment is
quickly displayed. The value of the left-most pair of hex switches is displayed on the left 8-channel group of metering LEDs
and the value of the right pair of hex switches is displayed on the right group of metering LEDs. Note that changing the
bundle assignment of CobraNet bundles via SNMP has no effect on the metering LEDs.
BUNDLE ACTIVITY
One of the most useful features of the metering LEDs on RAVE products is that they indicate CobraNet connectivity information by providing “bundle activity” status. An active or valid bundle assignment is indicated by illuminating the associated 8-channel group of metering LEDs in dim green. Once viewed, the brightness difference between actual signal presence and bundle activity is very clear. When in multicast mode, the 8-channel transmit group will be illuminated in dim
green so long as only one transmitter occupies any bundle assignment. Remember that multiple transmitters on the same
bundle assignment creates an invalid condition. This condition applies to both multicast and unicast traffic types. See the
Peak Audio website for the exception to this rule with “private” bundles. Note that multicast transmit bundles will be
indicated by the dim green display whether or not there are active receivers tuned-in to the same bundle. Multicast
receivers will also be indicated by the dim green display so long as there is an active transmitter occupying the same
bundle assignment. Multiple receivers will be indicated in multicast mode only.
In unicast mode, an active transmitter will be displayed in dim green only if there is an active receiver on the same bundle
assignment. Conversely, an active unicast receiver will only be displayed when a valid transmitter is active on the same
bundle assignment.
In short, an active transmitter in multicast mode requires that only one transmitter be active on any bundle assignment. A
valid multicast transmitter does not require a receiver to be “listening”. In unicast mode, an active transmitter does require
that a receiver be listening. To help clarify, consider the following; multicast traffic is analogous to a radio station such that
the station is broadcasting program material whether or not there are listeners tuned-in. Unicast traffic is analogous to a
telephone call such that a valid connection requires that one initiate the call and that a receiver accept the call.
23
Operation: Program/Software Kill, Routing
PROGRAM AND “SOFTWARE KILL”
When all front panel hexadecimal switches are set to “FFFF”, the RAVE unit enters a utility mode. This mode can be useful
when reprogramming a RAVE or in disabling the software mode of operation.
Reprogramming through the RS-232 connection has given way to the network method, which uses TFTP (trivial file transfer
protocol) over the Ethernet connection. The TFTP method creates the least amount of network disruption and provides the
simplest implementation.
Since a RAVE may be configured via SNMP and retain its parameter settings, it is possible that a unit may arrive at an
installation site where no method of interacting with the device through the software interface is possible. If a unit arrives
in this “write” mode, the front panel hexadecimal switches will only affect the device I.D. No bundle or configuration setup
is possible through the switch interface in this mode. Setting all front panel hexadecimal switches to “FFFF” and resetting
(power cycling) the unit will provide a type of “software kill”. The front panel switches can then be set to the desired
bundle assignments and a second device reset will again implement hardware control.
ROUTING
A RAVE network routes audio signals in bundles of up to 8 channels. Behind the removable cover on the front panel are two
pair of hexadecimal switches for assigning bundles to the 8-channel audio groups. Note that the following discussion only
applies to front panel configuration of RAVE devices (stand-alone or “hardware” mode).
The left pair of hexadecimal switches assign the bundle for audio channels 1 through 8 on all RAVEs.
-For RAVE 80 and 160: These are outputs, or the channels “received” off of the network
-For RAVE 81, 88, 161 and 188, these are input, or the channels “transmitting” onto the network
The right pair of switches assign the bundle for the remaining channels of the RAVE.
-For the RAVE 80/81/160/161, the right pair of switches apply routing to channels 9 through 16.
-For the RAVE 80/160, these are audio outputs.
- For the RAVE 81/161, these are audio inputs to be transmitted on the network.
- For the RAVE 88/188, the right pair of switches apply routing to channels 1-8.
To make a RAVE unit receive a bundle of CobraNet audio channels from a transmitting unit, set the receive unit’s bundle
switches to the same hex value as the transmitter.
24
Operation: Routing (continued)
Switches set to “10” through “FE” hex assign unicast bundles.
Switches set to “01” through “0F” hex assign multicast bundles.
Switch settings “00” and “FF” hex are reserved for special functions.
“FF” hex puts the unit into utility mode for programming and also forces software kill.
“00” hex disables a transmitter, thus preventing network bandwidth consumption when no audio
transmission is required.
“00” hex disables a receiver from listening to any bundles.
Multicast addressing
(distributed to all devices)
Unicast addressing
(point-to-point
Unicast with
external synchronization
Special purpose
settings
NOTE! Bundle assignments should be limited to 4 multicast bundles per LAN on network switches.
All bundles are multicast on network repeaters.
25
Network Design Considerations: General Info and Switched Networks
There are a number of ways to design a CobraNet LAN. Sev-
SWITCHED NETWORKS
eral resources such as device specifications, Architect &
•
RAVE supports operation on 10/100 Mbps network
Engineer’s specifications, topology references, lists of ap-
switches. Switch ports must auto-negotiate their link with
proved network hardware and design guidelines are avail-
RAVE. The CobraNet portion of the LAN must consist only
able on the Peak Audio website (www.peakaudio.com). Additionally, QSC Audio Products’ website (www.qscaudio.com)
posts up-to-date information on applications specific to RAVE
of switches such that all RAVEs are connected directly to
an independent port on the switch. Non-CobraNet network
devices, such as network Management consoles, may connect to a switched LAN by way of a network repeater.
and provides links to related resources. It is recommended
that these resources be referred to before designing a Cobra-
Switches may be static “simple” switches or managed
Net LAN. We offer the following general guidelines:
switches. Simple switches are much like traditional port
bridges in that each port is its own 10/100 Mbps collision
domain but the entire switch consists of a single broadcast domain. With these types of switches, multiple LANs
or Virtual LANs (VLANs) are not supported and any broadcast frames or packets are available at all ports. In contrast, managed switches may allow configuration of VLANs,
partitioning, packet filtering, and may support a number of
features with the use of industry standard protocols. The
actual feature support available depends on the switch
model.
Sample switched network showing a managed CobraNet LAN
26
Network Design Considerations: Switched Networks (continued)
When a switch is shared with non-CobraNet data, it
bundles and possibly service SNMP messages. The de-
should be configured so that CobraNet audio is isolated
vice defaults should handle these conditions appropri-
from conventional data communications. Partitioning is
ately. However, some configurations may require alter-
usually accomplished by enabling multiple VLANs. Co-
ing the “conductor” priority of some devices through the
braNet data should be given the highest network prior-
Management Interface.
ity in order to prevent the loss of audio. LAN, node, port
and data or packet type prioritization can be defined
through switch management software, industry protocols - such as Request For Comments (RFCs) supporting
Quality of Service (QoS) - and through network design.
Information on VLANs, QoS and network protocol sup-
•
RAVE supports both stand-alone and software configuration. The default mode for RAVE is hardware control.
In this mode, the bundle assignments are set through
the front panel hexadecimal switches. These switches
provide a subset of the available CobraNet bundle assignments. These switches also provide access to some
port is available on the Peak Audio website and from a
configuration settings such as “external synchronization”,
host of switch manufacturers.
“software kill”, “serial programming” and selection between “unicast” and “multicast” addressing. You can
•
Try to assign unicast bundles between RAVE devices
quickly design a RAVE network right out of the box by
when operating on network switches. This provides
simple configuration via the front panel switches.
point-to-point communications, which conserves bandwidth and prevents port flooding. As a rule of thumb,
CobraNet supports up to four multicast bundles per
broadcast domain or LAN. Audio delivery may be unreliable beyond this limit. If the benefit of switches is needed
and the requirement exists for multiple receivers for a
In software mode, a RAVE is configured through the
management interface using SNMP. With the MI, you
can have access to additional bundle routing, complex
internal audio mapping, audio channel duplication, “con-
given bundle, it may be necessary to partition the net-
ductor” prioritization and more. Generally, a device is
work into smaller LANs. This results in multiple inde-
configured via SNMP application software and then the
pendent CobraNet networks on the same switch hard-
RAVE is placed into “write” mode so that all settings are
ware, each LAN with its own “conductor”. Each LAN can
written into permanent memory. The RAVE can then be
then support up to four multicast bundles.
moved or power-cycled without the loss of its configuration.
Conductor priority may also be a concern on network
switches when implementing multicast traffic. The RAVE
160s-24 and 80s are currently assigned the highest “conductor” priority. Since these units have the least amount
of transmission requirement, they are the best candidates
for handling the “conductor” role. A transmitter with two
outgoing bundles, such as the RAVE 161s-24, may be
overly burdened if it is required to act as “conductor”,
transmit both its bundles, receive unintended multicast
Also in software mode, the front panel switches are used
to provide a unique network name for each RAVE. This
name can be seen in the “sysName” variable within
SNMP. Setting the front panel switches to “FFFF”, and
power-cycling the unit, brings the RAVE out of software
control. This “software kill” feature provides a means to
return a RAVE to stand-alone control in the event a management console or application software is unavailable.
27
Network Design Considerations: Repeater Networks
REPEATER NETWORKS
•
RAVE supports operation on network repeaters. These
All bundle distribution is multicast on network repeat-
repeaters should be 100 Mbps class II devices.
ers. Additionally, since repeaters provide a half-duplex
Collisions are prevented through CobraNet’s propri-
connection to a shared media network, there is a limit of
etary “order persistent” media access scheme. RAVE
invokes this access scheme by auto-sensing its link
partner (network hardware). In order to reliably
connect to a network repeater, the class II device
8 bundles per LAN. This translates to a maximum of 64
audio channels per 100 Mbps LAN. A repeater network
must also be dedicated to CobraNet communications
should not support auto-negotiation or 10 Mbps
only. Non-CobraNet data should not be directly connected
operation.
to the same network repeater. However, RAVE does provide a means to bridge serial data onto Ethernet via its
RS-232 interface. As with CobraNet audio on repeater
ports, serial data transmissions are available at all RS232 ports.
Sample repeater network using Ethernet hubs with media conversion
28
Specifications
GENERAL
AC Line Voltage:
100V to 240V, auto-configuring
AC Line frequency:
50 Hz to 60 Hz, auto-configuring
Maximum AC Line Current Draw:
600 mA @ 100V
Thermal Operating Range:
0° C to 65° C
ANALOG INPUTS
Connector Type:
3-pin Phoenix (euro-style), detachable terminal block
Audio Resolution (Tx):
16, 20, 24-bit (software configurable)
Input Sensitivity:
+12 dBu, +18 dBu, +24 dBu, ±0.5 dB (via internal jumper selection)
Input Impedance:
>8k ohms (balanced) @ +12 dBu input sensitivity
>16k ohms (balanced) @ +18 dBu input sensitivity
>33k ohms (balanced) @ +24 dBu input sensitivity
Frequency Response:
20 Hz to 20 kHz, ±0.5 dB
Dynamic Range, typical:
108 dB FS @ 997 Hz
Dynamic Range, worst-case:
>106 dB FS @ 997 Hz
Signal-to-Noise (A-weighted):
110 dB FS (20 Hz to 20 kHz), typical
THD+N @ 997 Hz:
.001 %, typical
THD+N (20 Hz to 20 kHz):
<.006 %, worst-case
Inter-channel Isolation:
>85 dB separation
Common Mode Rejection:
>50 dB (20 Hz to 20 kHz)
AES3 INPUTS
Connector Type:
XLR, female
Audio Resolution:
20-bit with sample-rate-conversion
Sample Rate Support:
32 kHz, 44.1 kHz, 48 kHz
Input Impedance:
110 ohms (balanced), transformer coupled
Dynamic Range:
>120 dB FS(component datasheet spec.)
THD+N (20 Hz to 20 kHz):
>96 dB FS(component datasheet spec.)
ANALOG OUTPUTS
Connector Type:
3-pin Phoenix (euro-style), detachable terminal block
Audio Resolution (Rx):
16-, 20-, or 24-bit (auto-configuring)
Output Level:
+6 dBu, +12 dBu, +18 dBu, +24 dBu (via internal jumper selection)
Output Level Pad:
+1 dB @ 100k ohm load, typical <-.5 dB @ 600 ohm load
Maximum Load:
600 ohms minimum
Specifications Subject To Change Without Notice
29
Specifications
ANALOG OUTPUTS (continued)
Output Impedance:
<200 ohms (electronically balanced)
Frequency Response:
20 Hz to 20 kHz, ±0.5 dB
Dynamic Range, typical:
102 dB FS @ 997 Hz
Dynamic Range, worst-case:
>100 dB FS @ 997 Hz
Idle Channel Noise (A-weighted):
104 dB FS (20 Hz to 20 kHz), typical
THD+N @ 997 Hz:
.001 %, typical
THD+N (20 Hz to 20 kHz):
<.006 %, worst-case
Inter-channel Isolation:
>85 dB separation
AES3 OUTPUTS
Connector Type:
XLR, male
Audio Resolution (Rx):
16, 20, 24-bit (auto-configuring)
Output Impedance:
110 ohms (balanced), transformer coupled
REAR PANEL CONNECTIONS
Female RJ-45
100BASE-TX Ethernet receptacle for CAT-5 UTP cable.
Female DB-9
Provides serial bridge, RS-232 to Ethernet (requires host PC and straight-through cable)
Female BNC (x2):
“Sync Output” provides word clock output and keep-alive signal for redundant operation.
“Slave Input” provides external word clock input and receives keep-alive signal for redundant
operation.
IEC male power receptacle:
For AC lines power connection
DELAY SPECIFICATIONS
Component
Sample Delay
Timing Delay
A/D converter (AK5392)
38
792 microseconds
D/A converter (CS4390)
25
521 microseconds
AES transmitter (CS8401)
2
42 microseconds
AES receiver (CS8411)
2
42 microseconds
Sample rate converter (AD1890)
37
770 microseconds
Audio buffering (CobraNet core)
256
5.333 milliseconds
Network device delay
Device
Forwarding Delay
Class II repeater (network hub)
<460 nanoseconds
Category 5 UTP cable
approximately 11 nanoseconds per linear meter (round trip)
Multimode fiber optic cable
approximately 10 nanoseconds per linear meter (round trip)
Network switch: refer to CobraNet store and forward delay specification
Specifications Subject To Change Without Notice
30
Specifications
AUDIO BUFFERING
256 samples (5.333 microseconds)
NETWORK
Protocol:
100 Mbps FAST Ethernet (FE)
Configuration:
Network repeaters OR switches
Audio Channel Capability:
64 channels maximum PER repeater LAN, scalable for network switches
Management Protocol:
SNMP (Simple Network Management Protocol)
Auxiliary Feature Support:
Serial data support of RS-232 bridged onto Ethernet
Device upgrade via TFTP
Device configuration via hardware interface OR software interface
Cable Type:
CAT-5 UTP (unshielded twisted pair)
Network Device Delay:
Class II repeater (network hub) <460 nanoseconds
CAT-5 UTP cable ~ 11 nanoseconds per linear meter (round trip)
Multimode fiber optic cable ~ 10 nanoseconds per linear meter (round trip)
Network switch : refer to CobraNet “store & forward” delay specification
Peak Audio and QSC provide support for audio networks built with repeaters, switches and media converters only.
(QSC support is only available if the network uses QSC CobraNet products such as RAVE.)
Network products distributing CobraNet audio must meet specific timing requirements. Audio distribution via
routers, gateways, protocol bridges, ATM, wireless transceivers, telecom or other WAN products is sometimes
possible, but may prove unreliable and may require custom (contracted) support and some trial and error
experimentation. Further information is available on the Peak Audio website: http://www.peakaudio.com
SYNCHRONIZATION
Master/Sync Output:
5 volts peak-to peak from 50 ohm BNC connector
Slave/Sync Input:
Use to synchronize network to an external clock source or Slave input for redundant operation
50 ohm BNC connecter
15 kHz. to 49.5 kHz. valid range of input frequency
To enable Sync: front panel hexadecimal switches must be set between 80 and FE hex or
configure via SNMP.
To use as Slave: connect to Master via coax cable Sync, then duplicate hexadecimal switch
settings (see pages 16 and 17).
MISC.
Chassis Power Connector Type:
IEC, fully filtered for RFI and EMI
Fuse:
2 ampere, 250 VAC, 20mm long X 5mm diameter, 2 required
Specifications Subject To Change Without Notice
31
Appendix
ETHERNET CABLING
This diagram shows the pinout for standard unshielded twisted-pair (UTP) network cable. Both ends of the cable
are wired identically.
1 Tx +
2 Tx –
3 Rx +
4 not used
5 not used
6 Rx –
7 not used
8 not used
White/orange
Orange
White/green
Blue
White/blue
Green
White/brown
Brown
RJ-45 pinout for a standard
Ethernet patch cable (both
ends identical)
A crossover cable has the RX and TX wire pairs switched around at one end. There are only two likely situations
that would require a crossover cable: to connect two RAVE devices directly, without a repeater or other device
in between; and to cascade repeaters or switches that don’t have uplink ports.
RJ-45 pinout for an Ethernet
crossover cable
The wire in UTP cabling is twisted together in pairs. Rather than randomly choosing a wiring scheme for the
networking cable, it is important to have the RX wires in one pair and the TX wires in another pair, especially in
longer cable runs.
RS-232 PORT INFORMATION
Pin assignments of 9-pin female D connector:
Pin 2: TX out
Pin 3: RX in
Pin 5: Ground
Pins 1 (DCD), 4 (DSR), and 6 (DTR) are tied together. Pins 7 (RTS) and 8 (CTS) are also tied together. DCE (receives on TD) operation; parity
bit not checked.
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Appendix: Resources
QSC RAVE resources: http://www.qscaudio.com
- Visit our website regularly for up-to-date RAVE information such as:
Technology papers
Configuration procedures
Management aids
Internet links to other networked audio information sources
Client list (venues utilizing RAVE)
Articles and reviews
pdf versions of product documentation
CobraNet resources: http://www.peakaudio.com
- Peak Audio provides the official reference information for CobraNet. One of their currently available software tools
available for free download is the CobraNet Discovery utility. This application enables users to assign IP addresses to
their RAVE products as required by most management tasks. The utility provides many more useful features. CobraCAD is
available for free as well. CobraCAD gives the user a design-rules -checker for designs as well as some network routing
utilities.
- Visit their website for this and other network audio information, such as:
CobraNet tutorials
CobraNet specifications
CobraNet network theory and design
Network device requirements/specifications
Download available CobraNet tools
Information on the latest CobraNet release
List of qualified network hardware
Network Hardware Manufacturers
3-Com
Allied Telesyn
Bay Networks
Canary Communications
Cisco
D-Link
Edimax
Efficient Networks
Extreme Networks
Fore Systems
Hewlett-Packard
Intel
Linksys
M. lan
Nortel
SMC Networks
Storageworks
Transistion Networks
CAT-5 UTP Manufacturers
Alpha
Belden Cable
Black Box
CableMax
Clark Wire & Cable
Coleman Cable
Consolidated Electronic Wore & Cable
Data Comm Warehouse
L-Com
Liberty Wire & Cable
Mogami Wire & Cable
Superior Essex
33
How to Contact QSC Audio Products
Product Warranty
QSC Audio Products, Inc. (“QSC”) guarantees its products to be free from defective material and / or workmanship for a period of three
(3) years from date of sale, and will replace defective parts and repair malfunctioning products under this warranty when the defect
occurs under normal installation and use - provided the unit is returned to our factory or one of our authorized service stations via prepaid transportation with a copy of proof of purchase (i.e., sales receipt). This warranty provides that the examination of the return
product must indicate, in our judgment, a manufacturing defect. This warranty does not extend to any product which has been
subjected to misuse, neglect, accident, improper installation, or where the date code has been removed or defaced. QSC shall not be
liable for incidental and/or consequential damages. This warranty gives you specific legal rights, and you may also have other rights
which vary from state to state. This limited warranty is freely transferable during the term of the warranty period.
Disclaimer
QSC Audio Products, Inc. is not liable for any damage to speakers, amplifiers, or any other equipment that is caused by negligence or
improper installation and/or use of any RAVE product. Due to the inherent complexity of network communications between RAVE units,
QSC Audio Products, Inc. is not responsible for any direct or indirect damage caused by network communications failure. Some features
of RAVE products are dependant upon Peak Audio’s CobraNet firmware release version. QSC Audio Products, Inc. is not responsible for
feature-set changes caused by changes in firmware versions set forth by Peak Audio.
Peak Audio and QSC provide support for audio networks built with repeaters, switches and media converters only.
(QSC support is only available if the network uses QSC CobraNet products such as RAVE.)
Network products distributing CobraNet audio must meet specific timing requirements. Audio distribution via
routers, gateways, protocol bridges, ATM, wireless transceivers, telecom or other WAN products is sometimes
possible, but may prove unreliable and may require custom (contracted) support and some trial and error
experimentation. Further information is available on the Peak Audio website: http://www.peakaudio.com
Address:
Facsimile Numbers:
QSC Audio Products, Inc.
Sales & Marketing FAX
(714) 754-6174
1675 MacArthur Boulevard
Technical Services FAX
(714) 754-6163
Costa Mesa, CA 92626-1468 USA
Telephone Numbers:
Main Number
(714) 754-6175
World Wide Web:
http://www.qscaudio.com
Sales Direct Line
(714) 957-7100
Sales & Marketing (800) 854-4079
(toll-free in USA only)
Technical Services (714) 957-7150
(800) 772-2834
(toll-free in USA only)
34
35
QSC Audio Products, Inc.,
1675 MacArthur Boulevard
Costa Mesa, California 92626 USA
PH: (714) 754-6175 FAX: (714) 754-6174
RAVE is a trademark of QSC Audio Products, Inc. “QSC” and the QSC logo are registered with the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office
36