Elenco Electronics M-1007K Instruction manual

DIGITAL MULTIMETER KIT
MODEL M-1007K
Assembly and Instruction Manual
Elenco Electronics, Inc.
®
Copyright © 2008 by Elenco® Electronics, Inc. All rights reserved.
No part of this book shall be reproduced by any means; electronic, photocopying, or otherwise without written permission from the publisher.
753096
PARTS LIST
If you are a student, and any parts are missing or damaged, please see instructor or bookstore. If you purchased
this meter kit from a distributor, catalog, etc., please contact Elenco® Electronics (address/phone/e-mail is at the
back of this manual) for additional assistance, if needed.
Qty.
r1
r1
r1
r1
r1
r1
r1
r1
r1
r2
r3
r1
r6
r2
r1
r1
Symbol
R10
R8
R20
R21
R5
R6
R22
R7
R23
R4, R30
R24, R25, R35
R1
R12-15, R18, R19
R26, R27
R2
R3
RESISTORS (Parts mounted on card.)
Value
Color Code
.99Ω .5% 1/4W
black-white-white-silver-green
9Ω .25% 1/4W
white-black-black-silver-blue
100Ω .25% 1/4W
brown-black-black-black-blue
900Ω .25% 1/4W
white-black-black-black-blue
1kΩ 5% 1/4W
brown-black-red-gold
3kΩ 1% 1/4W
orange-black-black-brown-brown
9kΩ .25% 1/4W
white-black-black-brown-blue
30kΩ 1% 1/4W
orange-black-black-red-brown
90kΩ .25% 1/4W
white-black-black-red-blue
100kΩ 5% 1/4W
brown-black-yellow-gold
117kΩ .5% 1/4W
brown-brown-violet-orange-green
150kΩ 5% 1/4W
brown-green-yellow-gold
220kΩ 5% 1/4W
red-red-yellow-gold
274kΩ .5% 1/4W
red-violet-yellow-orange-green
470kΩ 5% 1/4W
yellow-violet-yellow-gold
1MΩ 5% 1/4W
brown-black-green-gold
Resistors with 0.25% tolerance may be included instead of 0.5%.
These parts are not mounted on card:
r1
R9
0.01Ω
Shunt Wire
r1
VR1
220Ω (221)
Potentiometer
r1
R32
2kΩ
PTC Resistor
Part #
109950
119050
131060
139060
141000
143030
149060
153030
159060
161000
161160
161500
162200
162750
164700
171000
100165
191310
142069
CAPACITORS
Qty.
r1
r4
r1
Symbol
C1
C2, C3, C4, C5
C7
Value
Description
100pF (101)
Disc
.1μF (104)
Mylar (small)
.1μF (104 or 0.1) 5% 63VMylar (large)
Qty.
r1
r1
Symbol
D3
Q1
Value
1N4007
9013
Part #
221017
251017S
251017L
SEMICONDUCTORS
Description
Diode (mounted on resistor card)
Transistor
Part #
314007
329013
MISCELLANEOUS
Qty.
r1
r1
r1
r1
r1
r1
r1
r1
r1
r1
r3
r2
Description
LCD
Zebra 6.8 x 40mm
PC Board IC Installed
Fuse 0.5A, 250V
Battery 9V
Battery Snap
Selector Knob
Case Top (Black)
Case Bottom (Black)
Zebra Clip
Screw 2mm x 6mm
Screw 2mm x 10mm
Qty.
r2
r1
r3
r2
r6
r2
r1
r1
r1
r1
r1
r1
Part #
351117
500007
516105
533004
590009
590098
622107
623090
623095
629018
643439
643447
Description
Fuse Holder Clips
Transistor Socket
Input Socket
Ball Bearing
Slide Contact
Spring 1/4” (Selector Knob)
Spring 1/2”
Label Front
Label Shield
Grease
Lead-Free Solder
Test Lead Set
Part #
663100
664007
664105
666400
680013
680014
680015
724015
780010
790004
9LF99
TL1007
NOTE: The 7106 IC1 is already installed on the PC board. This type of installation is called C.O.B. (chip on board).
The following parts are not used / listed: R11, R16, R17, R28, R29, R31, R34, C6, D1, and D2.
-1-
PARTS IDENTIFICATION
Battery Snap
Resistors
PC Board with IC
Transistor
Socket
LCD Assembly
Zebra Clip/Zebra/LCD
Zebra
Clip
Shunt Wire
Selector Knob
Potentiometer
Fuse
Clip
Ball Bearing
Slide
Contact
Zebra
Fuse
LCD
Input Socket
Springs
Capacitors
Diode
C7
Mylar
Discap
IDENTIFYING RESISTOR VALUES
Use the following information as a guide in properly identifying the value of resistors.
4 Bands
1 2
Multiplier
Tolerance
5 Bands
1
2 3 Multiplier
Tolerance
IDENTIFYING CAPACITOR VALUES
Capacitors will be identified by their capacitance value in pF (picofarads), nF (nanofarads), or μF (microfarads). Most
capacitors will have their actual value printed on them. Some capacitors may have their value printed in the following
manner. The maximum operating voltage may also be printed on the capacitor.
Second Digit
Multiplier
First Digit
103K
100V
Multiplier
For the No.
0
1
2
3
Multiply By
1
10
100
1k
Tolerance*
Maximum Working Voltage
The value is 10 x 1,000 =
10,000pF or .01μF 100V
4
5
8
9
10k 100k .01
0.1
Electrolytic capacitors have a positive and a
negative electrode. The negative lead is
indicated on the packaging by a stripe with
minus signs and possibly arrowheads.
Warning:
10μF 16V
Note: The letter “R” may be used at times to
signify a decimal point; as in 3R3 = 3.3
* The letter M indicates a tolerance of +20%
The letter K indicates a tolerance of +10%
The letter J indicates a tolerance of +5%
-2-
If the capacitor is
connected with incorrect
polarity, it may heat up
and either leak, or cause
the capacitor to explode.
Polarity
Marking
CONSTRUCTION
Introduction
• Tips should be cleaned frequently to remove oxidation before it becomes
impossible to remove. Use Dry Tip Cleaner (Elenco® #SH-1025) or Tip
Cleaner (Elenco® #TTC1).
The most important factor in assembling your M-1007K Digital Multimeter Kit is
good soldering techniques. Using the proper soldering iron is of prime
importance. A small pencil type soldering iron of 25 - 40 watts is recommended.
The tip of the iron must be kept clean at all times and well tinned.
• DO NOT use a sponge, this worsens tip life because the temperature
shocks accelerate corroding of the tip. If you insist on using a sponge,
use distilled water (tap water has impurities that accelerate corroding).
Solder
Safety Procedures
For many years leaded solder was the most common type of solder used
by the electronics industry, but it is now being replaced by lead-free solder
for health reasons. This kit contains lead-free solder, which contains
99.3% tin, 0.7% copper, and has a rosin-flux core.
• Always wear safety glasses or safety goggles to protect
your eyes when working with tools or soldering iron,
and during all phases of testing.
Lead-free solder is different from lead solder: It has a higher melting point
(about 440OF, compared to about 360OF for lead solder), so you need
higher temperature for the solder to flow properly. Recommended tip
temperature is 700OF-800OF; higher temperatures improve solder flow but
accelerate tip decay. An increase in soldering time may be required to
achieve good results. Soldering iron tips wear out faster since lead-free
solders are more corrosive and the higher soldering temperatures
accelerate corrosion, so proper tip care is important. The solder joint finish
will look slightly duller with lead-free solders.
'
• Be sure there is adequate ventilation when soldering.
• Locate soldering iron in an area where you do not have to go around
it or reach over it. Keep it in a safe area away from the reach of
children.
• Do not hold solder in your mouth. Solder is a toxic substance. Wash
hands thoroughly after handling solder.
Assemble Components
Use these procedures to increase the life of your soldering iron tip when
using lead-free solder:
In all of the following assembly steps, the components must be installed
on the top side of the PC board unless otherwise indicated. The top legend
shows where each component goes. The leads pass through the
corresponding holes in the board and are soldered on the foil side.
Use only rosin core solder.
• Keep the iron tinned at all times.
• Use the largest tip possible for best heat transfer.
• Turn off iron when not in use or reduce temperature setting when
using a soldering station.
DO NOT USE ACID CORE SOLDER!
What Good Soldering Looks Like
Types of Poor Soldering Connections
A good solder connection should be bright, shiny, smooth, and uniformly
flowed over all surfaces.
Soldering Iron
1. Solder all components from the
copper foil side only. Push the
soldering iron tip against both the
lead and the circuit board foil.
Rosin
Component Lead
1. Insufficient heat - the solder will
not flow onto the lead as shown.
Foil
Soldering iron positioned
incorrectly.
Circuit Board
2. Apply a small amount of solder to
the iron tip. This allows the heat to
leave the iron and onto the foil.
Immediately apply solder to the
opposite side of the connection,
away from the iron. Allow the
heated component and the circuit
foil to melt the solder.
3. Allow the solder to flow around
the connection. Then, remove
the solder and the iron and let the
connection cool. The solder
should have flowed smoothly and
not lump around the wire lead.
Soldering Iron
2. Insufficient solder - let the
solder flow over the connection
until it is covered.
Use just enough solder to cover
the connection.
Solder
Foil
Solder
Gap
Component Lead
Solder
3. Excessive solder - could make
connections that you did not
intend to between adjacent foil
areas or terminals.
Soldering Iron
Solder
Foil
4. Solder bridges - occur when
solder runs between circuit paths
and creates a short circuit. This is
usually caused by using too much
solder.
To correct this, simply drag your
soldering iron across the solder
bridge as shown.
4. Here is what a good solder
connection looks like.
-3-
Soldering Iron
Foil
Drag
ASSEMBLY INSTRUCTIONS
Identify and install the following parts as shown. After soldering each part, mark a check þ in the box provided.
Be sure that solder has not bridged to an adjacent pad.
R15 - 220kΩ 5% 1/4W Resistor
(red-red-yellow-gold)
(see Figure A)
R5 - 1kΩ 5% 1/4W Resistor
(brown-black-red-gold)
(see Figure A)
C2 - .1μF (104) Mylar Cap.
(small yellow)
C7 - .1μF 63V Mylar Cap.
(104 or 0.1)
C1 - 100pF (101) Discap
R30 - 100kΩ 5% 1/4W Resistor
(brown-black-yellow-gold)
(see Figure A)
R1 - 150kΩ 5% 1/4W Resistor
(brown-green-yellow-gold)
(see Figure A)
VR1 - 220Ω (221) Potentiometer
(see Figure B)
C4 - .1μF (104) Mylar Capacitor
(small yellow)
R6 - 3kΩ 1% 1/4W Resistor
(orange-black-black-brown-brown)
(see Figure A)
R3 - 1MΩ 5% 1/4W Resistor
(brown-black-green-gold)
(see Figure A)
R7 - 30kΩ 1% 1/4W Resistor
(orange-black-black-red-brown)
(see Figure A)
C3 - .1μF (104) Mylar Capacitor
(small yellow)
C5 - .1μF (104) Mylar Capacitor
(small yellow)
R4 - 100kΩ 5% 1/4W Resistor
(brown-black-yellow-gold)
(see Figure A)
R14 - 220kΩ 5% 1/4W Resistor
(red-red-yellow-gold)
(see Figure A)
R2 - 470kΩ 5% 1/4W Resistor
(yellow-violet-yellow-gold)
(see Figure A)
R13 - 220kΩ 5% 1/4W Resistor
(red-red-yellow-gold)
(see Figure A)
R12 - 220kΩ 5% 1/4W Resistor
(red-red-yellow-gold)
(see Figure A)
Figure A
Figure B
Stand resistor on end as
shown. Solder and cut
off the excess leads.
Mount the potentiometer to the PC board as shown.
-4-
ASSEMBLY INSTRUCTIONS
Identify and install the following parts as shown. After soldering each part, mark a check þ in the box provided.
Be sure that solder has not bridged to an adjacent pad.
R32 - 2kΩ Thermistor PTC
R21 - 900Ω .25% 1/4W Resistor
(white-black-black-black-blue)
(see Figure A)
R20 - 100Ω .25% 1/4W Resistor
(brown-black-black-black-blue)
(see Figure A)
D3 - 1N4007 Diode (see Fig. D)
R22 - 9kΩ .25% 1/4W Resistor
(white-black-black-brown-blue)
(see Figure A)
R8 - 9Ω .25% 1/4W Resistor
(white-black-black-silver-blue)
(see Figure A)
R23 - 90kΩ .25% 1/4W Resistor
(white-black-black-red-blue)
(see Figure A)
R10 - 0.99Ω .5% 1/4W Resistor
(black-white-white-silver-green)
Q1 - 9013 Transistor
(see Figure C)
R24 - 117kΩ .5% 1/4W Resistor
(brown-brown-violet-orange-green)
(see Figure A)
R18 - 220kΩ 5% 1/4W Resistor
(red-red-yellow-gold)
(see Figure A)
R25 - 117kΩ .5% 1/4W Resistor
(brown-brown-violet-orange-green)
(see Figure A)
R19 - 220kΩ 5% 1/4W Resistor
(red-red-yellow-gold)
(see Figure A)
R35 - 117kΩ .5% 1/4W Resistor
(brown-brown-violet-orange-green)
(see Figure A)
Figure C
Flat
Mount the transistor
with the flat side in
the same direction
as the marking on
the PC board as
shown.
Figure D
Stand diode on end. Mount
with band as shown on the top
legend.
R26 - 274kΩ .5% 1/4W Resistor
(red-violet-yellow-orange-green)
(see Figure A)
R27 - 274kΩ .5% 1/4W Resistor
(red-violet-yellow-orange-green)
(see Figure A)
Band
Top legend marking on PC board
Top legend marking on
PC board
Install the following parts. Then, mark a check þ in the box provided.
r Insert the narrow end of the three input sockets
into the PC board from the top legend, as shown in
Figure E. Solder the sockets to the PC board on
the component side only. The solder should extend
completely around the socket (see Figure E).
r Insert the socket into the PC board holes from the
solder side as shown in Figure E. Be sure that the
tab lines up with the hole as shown in the figure.
Solder the socket to the PC board on the
component side of the PC board as shown in the
figure and cut off excess leads.
r Insert the shunt wire (R9) into the PC board holes
from the component side as shown in Figure E. Adjust
the wire so that it sticks out the other (solder) side of
the PC board 1/8”. Solder the wire to the PC board on
the component side only. Cut excess leads flush.
r Feed the battery snap wires up through the holes
in the PC board from the solder side as shown in
Figure E. Insert the red wire into the hole marked
(9V+) and black wire into hole marked (9V–) as
shown. Solder the wires to the PC board.
r Be sure that the 8-pin transistor socket will slide
easily through its hole in the top case from either
direction. If it does not, carefully slide it through
the hole several times in each direction to remove
any burrs. Do not push on the socket leads or they
may be damaged.
r Insert the two fuse clips into the PC board holes
on the component side as shown in Figure E. Be
sure that the tabs are on the outside as shown in
the figure. Solder the clips to the PC board.
-5-
r Remove the clear protective film from the
front of the LCD as shown in Figure F.
(Note: DO NOT remove the white backing
on the other side of the LCD).
r Insert the LCD into the case (the tab on
the LCD must be in the same direction
shown in Figure G). Be sure to insert the
LCD under the tab on the case as shown
and push the edge of the LCD against the
raised area on the case. Press into place.
Input Sockets
Fuse Clips
Tab
Shunt Wire
Solder
r Place the zebra onto the grooved surface
of the LCD as shown in Figure H. Carefully
place the zebra clip around the zebra and
the raised area on the case.
Red Wire
Transistor
Socket
Black Wire
r Solder the spring to the solder pad on the
the legend side of the PC board as shown
in Figure I.
r Cut open the plastic envelope containing
the grease and put a small amount of
grease in each spring hole of the selector
knob as shown in Figure J. Then, insert a
1/4” spring into each hole as shown in the
figure.
Battery Snap
Solder Side
Figure E
Close-up view of the
transistor socket and
PC board.
Spring
Solder pad
on PC board
Clear
Protective Film
Zebra Clip
Figure F
Zebra
Tab
Figure I
LCD
1/4” Springs
Raised Area
on Case
Spring Holes
Tab
Raised Area
on Case
Top Case
Figure G
Figure H
-6-
Figure J
r Put the bearings into two opposite indents in the case top as shown in Figure K.
r Place the six slide contactors on the selector knobs as shown in Figure K.
r Place the selector knob into the case top so that the springs fit over the ball bearings as shown in Figure K.
r Place the PC board over the selector knob. Be sure that the 8-pin socket slides into its hole. Then fasten the
PC•board with three 6mm screws as shown in Figure K.
r Insert the 0.5A, 250V fuse into the fuse clips. Your fuse may be unmarked.
r Peel the backing off of the front label and place it on the case top.
r Connect a 9V battery to the battery snap.
6mm Screws
PC•Board
Selector Knob
Rib
Slide Contactor
Close-up View
Case Top
Bearings
Battery Compartment
Figure K
-7-
TESTING, CALIBRATION, AND TROUBLESHOOTING
TESTING OF LCD
With no test leads connected to the meter, move the selector switch around the dial. You should obtain the following
readings. A (–) sign may also be present or blinking.
1) ACV Range:
750
200
2) DCA,10A Ranges:
200μ
2m
20m
200m
10A
HV 0 0 0
0 0.0
3) Ohms, Diode and hFE Ranges: B indicates blank.
hFE
000
Diode (
)
1BBB
200
1 B B.B
0 0.0
.0 0 0
0.0 0
0 0.0
0.0 0
2k
20k
200k
2M
4) DCV Range:
1.B B B
1 B.B B
1 B B.B
1.B B B
200m
2
20
200
1000
0 0.0
.0 0 0
0.0 0
0 0.0
HV 0 0 0
If any of these tests fail:
a) Check that the battery is good.
b) Check the values of resistors R1 - R7, R30, VR1.
c) Check the values of capacitors C1 - C5, C7.
d) Check the PC board for solder bridges and bad solder connections.
e) Check that the slide contactors are seated correctly.
f ) Check that the LCD and zebras are seated correctly.
CALIBRATION
Refer to the METER OPERATION section for test lead connections and measurement procedure.
A/D CONVERTER CALIBRATION
Turn the range selector switch to the 20V position and connect the test leads to the VΩmA and COM sockets. Using another
meter of known accuracy, measure a DC voltage of less than 20 volts (such as a 9V battery). Calibrate the kit meter by
measuring the same voltage and adjusting VR1 until the kit meter reads the same as the accurate meter (do not use the
kit meter to measure its own battery). When the two meters agree, the kit meter is calibrated. Turn the knob to the OFF
position and remove the voltage source.
SHUNT WIRE CALIBRATION
To calibrate the shunt wire, you will need a 1A current source such as a 5V
power supply and a 5Ω, 5W resistor. If no supply is available, it is not
important to do this test. Set the range switch to the 10A position and connect
the test leads as shown in Figure L. If the meter reads higher than 1A,
resolder the shunt wire so that there is less wire between the 10A DC and
COM sockets.
If the meter reads low, resolder the shunt wire so that there is more wire
between the sockets.
123
Power Supply
5VDC –
+
5Ω
5 Watts
10A DC
VΩmA
COM
If the calibration fails:
a) Check the PC board for solder bridges and bad solder connections.
b) Check the value of resistors R3, R8 - R10, and capacitor C4.
-8-
Figure L
DC VOLTS TEST
1) If you have a variable power supply, set the supply to about the midpoint of each of the DCV ranges and compare the
kit meter reading to a meter known accuracy.
2) If you do not have a variable power supply, make the following two tests:
a) Set the range switch to 2V and measure the voltage across the 100Ω resistor of Figure M. You should get about
820mV. Compare the reading to a meter of known accuracy.
b) Set the range switch to 200mV and measure the voltage across the 100Ω resistor of Figure N. You should get
about 90mV. Compare the reading to a meter of known accuracy.
If any of these tests fail:
123
123
10A DC
10A DC
a) Recheck the meter
calibration.
b) Check the value and the
soldering of resistors R2,
R20 - R27, R35, and
capacitor C3.
VΩmA
VΩmA
1kΩ
9V
COM
10kΩ
COM
9V
100Ω
100Ω
Figure M
Figure N
AC VOLTS TEST
To test the ACV ranges, we will need a source of AC voltage. The AC power line is the most convenient.
CAUTION: Be very careful when working with 120VAC. Be sure that the range switch is in the 200 or 750VAC
position before connecting the test leads to 120VAC.
1) Set the range to 200VAC and measure the AC power line. The voltage should be about 120VAC. Compare
the reading to a meter of known accuracy.
2) Set the range to 750VAC and measure the AC power line. The voltage should be about 120VAC. Compare
the reading to a meter of known accuracy.
If either if the above tests fail:
a) Check the values and the soldering of resistors D3, R21 - R25, R34, R35.
b) Check that diode D3 is mounted as shown in the assembly instructions.
DC AMPS TEST
1) Set the range switch to 200μA and connect the meter as in Figure O. With RA equal to 100kΩ the current
should be about 90μA. Compare the reading to a known accurate meter.
2) Set the range switch and RA as in the following table. Read the currents shown and compare to a known
accurate meter.
Range Switch
2mA
20mA
200mA
RA
10kΩ
1kΩ
470Ω
Current (approx.)
900μA
9mA
19mA
123
9V
RA
10A DC
VΩmA
COM
If any of the above tests fail:
a) Check the fuse.
Figure O
b) Check the value and soldering of resistors R8, R20, and R21.
-9-
Accurate
Meter
RESISTANCE/DIODE TEST
1) Measure a resistor of about half of the full scale value of each resistance range. Compare the kit meter
readings to those from a meter of known accuracy.
2) Measure the voltage drop of a good silicon diode. You should read about 700mV. Power diodes and the base
to emitter junction of power transistors may read less.
If any of these tests fail:
a) Check the values and the soldering of resistors PTC - R2, R20 - R27, and R35.
hFE
1) Set the range switch to hFE and insert a small transistor into the appropriate NPN or PNP holes in the
transistor socket.
2) Read the hFE of the transistor. The hFE of transistors varies over a wide range, but you will probably get a
reading between 100 and 300.
If this check fails:
a) Check that the transistor socket is aligned according to Figure E.
b) Check the value and soldering of resistors R18 and R19.
FINAL ASSEMBLY
r Peel the backing off of the shield label and stick it onto the case bottom in the location shown in Figure Pa.
r Snap the case bottom onto the case top and fasten with the two 10mm screws as shown in Figure P.
Screws
Case Bottom
Shield Label
Figure Pa
Case
Bottom
Battery
Case Top
Figure P
-10-
THEORY OF OPERATION
A block diagram of the M-1007K is shown in Figure 1. Operation centers around a custom LSI chip. This chip
contains a dual slope A/D (analog to digital) converter, display latches, seven segment decoder and display
drivers. A block diagram of the IC functions is shown in Figure 1. The input voltage or current signals are
conditioned by the selector switches to produce an output DC voltage with a magnitude between 0 and 199mV.
If the input signal is 100VDC, it is reduced to 100mVDC by selecting a 1000:1 divider. Should the input be
100VAC, it is first rectified and then divided down to 100mVDC. If current is to be read, it is converted to a DC
voltage by internal shunt resistors.
DC
Analog
Data
V
Input
Selector
Switches
AC
Converter
V
Ohms
Converter
Ω
Voltage
Divider
V
A/D
Converter
& Display
Driver
Selector
Switches
Decimal
Figure 1
Current
Shunt
I
Point
For resistance measurements, an internal voltage
source drives the test resistor in series with a known
resistor. The ratio of the test resistor voltage to the
known resistor voltage is used to determine the value
of the test resistor.
Display
Any given measurement cycle performed by the A/D
converter can be divided into three consecutive time
periods, autozero (AZ), integrate (INTEG) and read.
A counter determines the length of the time periods.
The integrate period is fixed at 1,000 clock pulses.
The read period is a variable time that is proportional
to the unknown input voltage. It can vary from zero
counts for zero input voltage to 2,000 counts for a full
scale input voltage. The autozero period varies from
1,000 to 3,000 counts. For an input voltage less than
full scale autozero gets the unused portion of the
read period. The value of the voltage is determined
by counting the number of clock pulses that occur
during the read period.
The input of the 7106 IC is fed to an A/D converter.
Here the DC voltage is changed to a digital format.
The resulting signals are processed in the decoders
to light the appropriate LCD segments.
Timing for the overall operation of the A/D converter
is derived from an external oscillator whose
frequency is selected to be 25kHz. In the IC, this
frequency is divided by four before it clocks the
decade counters. It is then further divided to form the
three convert-cycles phases. The final readout is
clocked at about two readings per second.
During autozero a ground reference is applied as an
input to the A/D converter. Under ideal conditions,
the output of the comparator would also go to zero.
However, input-offset-voltage errors accumulate in
the amplifier loop and appear at the comparator
output as an error voltage. This error is impressed
across the AZ capacitor where it is stored for the
remainder of the measurement cycle. The stored
level is used to provide offset voltage correction
during the integrate and read periods.
The digitized measurements are presented to the
display as four decoded digits (seven segments) plus
polarity. The decimal point position on the display is
determined by the selector switch setting.
A/D CONVERTER
A simplified circuit diagram of the analog portion of
the A/D converter is shown in Figure 3. Each of the
switches shown represent analog gates which are
operated by the digital section of the A/D converter.
The basic timing for switch operation is keyed by the
external oscillator. The conversion process is
continuously repeated. A complete cycle is shown in
Figure 3.
-11-
The integrate period begins at the end of the
autozero period. As the period begins, the AZ switch
opens and the INTEG switch closes. This applies the
unknown input voltage to the input of the A/D
converter. The voltage is buffered and passed on to
the integrator to determine the charge rate (slope) on
the INTEG capacitor. At the end of the fixed integrate
period, the capacitor is charged to a level
proportional to the unknown input voltage. During
the read period, this voltage is translated to a digital
indication by discharging the capacitor at a fixed rate
and counting the number of clock pulses that occur
before it returns to the original autozero level.
to be opposite that of the unknown input voltage,
thus causing the INTEG capacitor to discharge at a
fixed rate (slope). This rate is determined by the
known reference voltage. When the charge is equal
to the initial starting point (autozero level), the read
period is ended. Since the discharge slope is fixed
during the read period, the time required for
discharge is proportional to the unknown input
voltage. Specifically, the digital reading displayed is
1000 (VIN / VREF).
The autozero period and thus a new measurement
cycle begins at the end of the read period. At the
same time the counter is released for operation by
transferring its contents (the previous measurement
value) to a series of latches. This stored data is then
decoded and buffered before being used to drive the
LCD display.
As the read period begins, the INTEG switch opens
and the read switch closes. This applies a known
reference voltage to the input to the A/D converter.
The polarity of this voltage is automatically selected
-12-
a
f
a
b
g
b
e
c
d
BACKPLANE
28
LCD PHASE DRIVER
7 Segment
Decode
7 Segment
Decode
TYPICAL SEGMENT OUTPUT
V+
7 Segment
Decode
200
0.5mA
LATCH
Segment
Output
2mA
Thousand
Tens
Hundreds
Units
Internal Digital Ground
To Switch Drivers
From Comparator Output
V+
CLOCK
6.2V
LOGIC CONTROL
-4
*
3
TEST
Internal Digital Ground
1V
500Ω
* Three inverters.
One inverter shown for clarity.
8
7
6
OSC 3
OSC 2
OSC 1
CREF
CREF+
42
V+
44
43
A-Z &
Z1
41
A-Z &
Z1
1
+
2.8V
CINT
37
INT
INTEGRATOR
6.2V
35
+
+
A-Z
COMPARATOR
Z1
DE (-)
+
DE (+)
ANALOG SECTION of 7106
DE (-)
40
38
A-Z & DE(+)
& Z1
INT
34
V
Read
To
Digital
Control
Logic
AZ
+ REF
(Flying
Capacitor)
Integ.
Integ.
Unknown
Input
Voltage +
AZ
AZ
Integ.
AZ
Read
+.20
.15
.10
.05
0
Counter Output
Figure 3
TO
DIGITAL
SECTION
DE (+)
A-Z
IN LO
ZERO
CROSSING
DETECTOR
POLARITY
FLIP/FLOP
39
IN HI
Figure 2
7106 IC Functions
CAZ
AUTO
ZERO
V+
36
10μA
INT
COMMON
DIGITAL SECTION
RINT
REF LO CREF BUFFER
REF HI
V
4
0
1000
160ms
0
500
1000
1500
DUAL SLOPE A/D CONVERTER
-13-
2000
DC VOLTAGE MEASUREMENT
200mV
Figure 4 shows a simplified diagram of the DC voltage
measurement function. The input voltage divider resistors
add up to 1 megaohm. Each step down divides the voltage
by a factor of ten. The divider output must be within the
range –0.199 to +0.199 volts or the overload indicator will
function. The overload indication consists of a 1 in the most
significant digit and blanks in the remaining digits.
Volts
900kΩ
2V
Low Pass
Filter
90kΩ
20V
9kΩ
7106
100mV
REF
200V
900Ω
1000V
100Ω
Common
Figure 4
Simplified DC Voltage Measurement Diagram
AC VOLTAGE MEASUREMENT
Figure 5 shows a simplified diagram of the AC voltage
measurement function. The AC voltage is first rectified and
passed through a low pass filter to smooth out the
waveform. A scaler reduces the voltage to the DC value
required to give the correct RMS reading.
Rectifier
Volts
Low Pass
Filter
Low Pass
Filter - Scaler
7106
200V
100mV
REF
900Ω
750V
100Ω
Common
Figure 5
Simplified AC Voltage Measurement Diagram
CURRENT MEASUREMENT
Figure 6 shows a simplified diagram of the current
measurement function. Internal shunt resistors convert the
current to between –0.199 to +0.199 volts which is then
processed in the 7106 IC to light the appropriate LCD
segments. When current in the range of 10A is to be read,
it is fed to the 10A input and does not pass through the
selector switch.
200μA
900Ω
2mA
100Ω
2mA
A
Low Pass
Filter
200μA
20mA
200mA
10A
10A
9Ω
20mA
200mA
10A
100mV
REF
7106
.99Ω
.01Ω
Common
Figure 6
-14-
Simplified DC Amps Measurement Diagram
RESISTANCE MEASUREMENT
Figure 7 shows a simplified diagram of the resistance measurement
function. A simple series circuit is formed by the voltage source, a
reference resistor from the voltage divider (selected by the selector
switches), and the test (unknown) resistor. The ratio of the two resistors
is equal to the ratio of their respective voltage drops. Therefore, since
the value of one resistor is known, the value of the second can be
determined by using the voltage drop across the known resistor as a
reference. This determination is made directly by the A/D converter.
Low Pass
Filter
Ω
100Ω
Test
Resistor
Reference
Voltage
900Ω
2000Ω/Dio
9kΩ
20kΩ
7106
200Ω
90kΩ 200kΩ
2000kΩ
Common
900kΩ
Voltage
Source
Figure 7
Overall operation of the A/D converter during a resistance
measurement is basically as described earlier with one exception. The
reference voltage present during a voltage measurement is replaced by
the voltage drop across the reference resistor. This allows the voltage
across the unknown resistor to be read during the read period.
Simplified Resistance Measurement Diagram
V+
PNP
NPN
E
C
B
B
C
E
R2
hFE MEASUREMENT
Figure 8 shows a simplified diagram of the hFE measurement function.
Internal circuits in the 7106 IC maintain the COMMON line at 2.8 volts
below V+. When a PNP transistor is plugged into the transistor socket,
base to emitter current flows through resistor R1. The voltage drop in
resistor R1 due to the collector current is fed to the 7106 and indicates
the hFE of the transistor. For an NPN transistor, the emitter current
through R2 indicates the hFE of the transistor.
Low Pass
Filter
100mV
Ref.
R1
7106
R3
Common
Figure 8
SPECIFICATIONS
GENERAL
DC CURRENT
DISPLAY
OVERRANGE INDICATION
MAXIMUM COMMON MODE
VOLTAGE
STORAGE ENVIRONMENT
TEMPERATURE COEFFICIENT
POWER
DIMENSIONS
3 1/2 digit LCD, with polarity
3 least significant digits blanked.
RANGE
200μA
2mA
20mA
200mA
10A
500V peak.
–15OC to 50OC.
(0OC to 18OC and 28OC to 50OC)
less than 0.1 x applicable accuracy
specification per OC.
9V alkaline or carbon zinc battery.
128 x 75 x 24mm.
OVERLOAD PROTECTION
RESOLUTION
0.1mV
1mV
10mV
100mV
1V
MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE INPUT
INPUT IMPEDANCE
ACCURACY
+1.8% rdg + 2d
+1.8% rdg + 2d
+1.8% rdg + 2d
+2% rdg + 2d
+2% rdg + 3d
.2A/250V fuse (mA input only).
AC VOLTAGE
RANGE
200V
750V
DC VOLTAGE
RANGE
200mV
2V
20V
200V
1000V
RESOLUTION
0.1μA
1μA
10μA
100μA
10mA
ACCURACY
+0.5% rdg + 2d
+0.5% rdg + 2d
+0.5% rdg + 2d
+0.5% rdg + 2d
+0.5% rdg + 2d
RESOLUTION
100mV
1V
ACCURACY
+2% rdg + 10d
+2% rdg + 10d
MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE INPUT
FREQUENCY
750Vrms.
50 - 500Hz.
RESISTANCE
RANGE
200Ω
2kΩ
20kΩ
200kΩ
2000kΩ
1000VDC or peak AC.
1MΩ.
RESOLUTION
0.1Ω
1Ω
10Ω
100Ω
1kΩ
ACCURACY
+1% rdg + 10d
+1% rdg + 10d
+1% rdg + 10d
+1% rdg + 10d
+1% rdg + 4d
MAXIMUM OPEN CIRCUIT VOLTAGE
2.8V.
DIODE CHECK
RANGE
DIODE
RESOLUTION
1mV
MAX TEST CURRENT
1.4mA
MAX OPEN CIRCUIT VOLTAGE
2.8V
TEST RANGE
0 - 1000
TEST CURRENT
Ib = 10μA
TEST VOLTAGE
Vce 3V
TRANSISTOR hFE TEST
RANGE
NPN/PNP
-15-
METER OPERATION
PRECAUTIONS AND PREPARATIONS FOR MEASUREMENT
1) Be sure the battery is connected to the battery snap and correctly placed in the battery compartment.
2) Before connecting the test leads to the circuit, be sure the range switch is set to the correct position.
3) Be sure that the test leads are connected to the correct meter terminals before connecting them to the
circuit.
4) Before changing the range switch, remove one of the test leads from the circuit.
5) Operate the instrument only in temperatures between 0 and 50OC and in less than 80% RH.
6) Pay careful attention to the maximum rated voltage of each range and terminal.
7) When finished making measurements, set the switch to OFF. Remove the battery when the instrument will
not be used for a long period of time.
8) Do not use or store the instrument in direct sunlight or at high temperature or humidity.
VOLTAGE MEASUREMENTS
1) Connect the black test lead to the “COM” terminal.
2) Connect the red test lead to the “VΩmA” terminal.
3) Set the range switch to the desired “DCV” or “ACV” position. If the magnitude of the voltage is not known,
set the switch to the highest range.
4) Connect the leads across the points to be measured and read the display. If the range switch is too high,
reduce it until a satisfactory reading is obtained.
DCA MEASUREMENTS
HIGH CURRENTS (200mA to 10A)
1) Connect the black test lead to the “COM” terminal.
2) Connect the red test lead to the 10ADC terminal.
3) Set the range switch to the 10A position.
4) Open the circuit to be measured and connect the leads in series with the load to be measured.
5) Read the display. If the display read less than 200mA, follow the low current procedure below.
6) Turn off all of the power to the circuit being tested and discharge all of the capacitors before disconnecting
the test leads.
LOW CURRENTS (less than 200mA)
7) Connect the black test lead to the “COM” terminal.
8) Connect the red test lead to the VΩmA terminal.
9) Set the range switch to the desired A position. If the magnitude of the current is not known, set the switch
to the highest position.
10) Open the circuit to be measured and connect the leads in series with the load to be measured.
11) Read the display. If the range switch is too high, reduce it until a satisfactory reading is obtained.
12) Turn off all power to the circuit being tested and discharge all capacitors before disconnecting the test leads.
-16-
RESISTANCE MEASUREMENTS
1)
2)
3)
4)
Connect the black test lead to the “COM” terminal.
Connect the red test lead to the “VΩmA” terminal.
Set the range switch to the desired “Ω” position.
If the resistance being measured is connected to a circuit, turn off the power to the circuit being tested and
discharge all of the capacitors.
5) Connect the leads across the resistor to be measured and read the display. When measuring high
resistance, be sure not to contact adjacent points even if insulated. Some insulators have relatively low
resistance and will cause the measured resistance to be lower than the actual resistance.
DIODE CHECK
1) Connect the black test lead to the “COM” terminal.
2) Connect the red test lead to the “VΩmA” terminal.
3) If the diode being measured is connected to a circuit, turn off all power to the circuit and discharge all
capacitors.
4) Set the range switch to “
”.
Forward Voltage Check
5) Connect the red lead to the anode and the black lead to the cathode of the diode. Normally the forward
voltage drop of a good silicon diode reads between 450 and 900mV.
Reverse Voltage Check
6) Reverse the leads to the diode. If the diode is good, an overrange indication is given (a 1 in the most
significant digit and blanks in the remaining digits). If the diode is bad, “000” or some other value is
displayed.
hFE MEASUREMENTS
1) Set the range switch to hFE and insert the test transistor into the appropriate NPN or PNP
holes in the transistor socket.
2) Read the hFE of the transistor.
BATTERY & FUSE REPLACEMENT
If “ + ” appears on the display, it indicates that the battery should be replaced.
To replace battery and fuse (0.5A/250V), remove the 2 screws in the bottom of the case.
Simply remove the old fuse/battery and replace with a new fuse/battery. Fuse # 533004.
QUIZ
1. The function of the A/D converter is to . . .
A) convert digital to analog.
B) divide the analog signal by 2.
C) convert analog to digital.
D) convert AC to DC.
2. The divider used for DC voltage measurements is a . . .
A) divide by 20.
B) capacitance divider.
C) divide by 5.
D) resistor divider.
3. When the AC voltage is measured, it is first . . .
A) divided by 2.
B) rectified.
C) divided by 100.
D) sent to a high pass filter.
4. When measuring current, the shunt resistors convert the
current to . . .
A) –0.199 to +0.199 volts.
B) –1.199 to +1.199 volts.
C) –0.099 to +0.099 volts.
D) –199 to +199 volts.
5. The DC voltage divider resistors add up to . . .
A) 100Ω.
B) 1000Ω.
C) 100kΩ.
D) 1MΩ.
6. Resistance measurements are made by . . .
A) comparing voltage drops in the unknown resistor and a
reference resistor.
B) measuring the current in the unknown resistor.
C) measuring the current in the reference resistor.
D) equalizing the voltage drops in the unknown and the
reference resistors.
7. The measurement cycle performed by the A/D converter can be
divided into time periods known as . . .
A) long and short.
B) autozero, integrate and read.
C) zero, read and interphase.
D) convert, integrate and display.
8. A resistor with the band colors green-black-green-brown-green is . . .
A) 50.5kΩ +5%.
B) 5.15kΩ +10%.
C) 5.05kΩ +.5%.
D) 5.05kΩ +1%.
9. The M-1007K has . . .
A) A 3 digit display.
B) A 3 1/2 digit display.
C) A 4 1/2 digit display.
D) None of the above.
10.When measuring 450mA, the meter leads should be connected to . . .
A) COM•and VΩmA.
B) COM and 10A.
C) 10A and VΩmA.
D) COM and Building GND.
-17-
Answers: 1. C, 2. D, 3. B, 4. A,
5. D, 6. A, 7. B, 8. C, 9. B, 10. B
SCHEMATIC DIAGRAM
-18-
Elenco® Electronics, Inc.
150 Carpenter Avenue
Wheeling, IL 60090
(847) 541-3800
Website: www.elenco.com
e-mail: elenco@elenco.com
081212