Motorola MOTOTRBO SYSTEM PLANNER Specifications

Professional Digital Two-Way Radio System
System Planner
m
MOTOTRBO™
System Planner
Issue 1.0
November 18, 2008
Manual Revisions
Changes which occur after this manual is printed are described in PMRs (Publication Manual
Revisions). These PMRs provide complete replacement pages for all added, changed, and
deleted items, including pertinent parts list data, schematics, and component layout diagrams.
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operation of law in the sale of a product.
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Disclaimer
The information in this document is carefully examined, and is believed to be entirely reliable.
However no responsibility is assumed for inaccuracies. Furthermore, Motorola reserves the right
to make changes to any products herein to improve readability, function, or design. Motorola does
not assume any liability arising out of the applications or use of any product or circuit described
herein; nor does it cover any license under its patent rights nor the rights of others.
Trademarks
MOTOROLA, Stylized M logo, and MOTOTRBO are registered in the US Patent & Trademark
Office. All other products or service names are property of their respective owners.
©2008 by Motorola, Inc.
The AMBE+2TM voice coding Technology embodied in this product is protected by intellectual
property rights including patent rights, copyrights and trade secrets of Digital Voice Systems, Inc.
This voice coding Technology is licensed solely for use within this Communications Equipment.
The user of this Technology is explicitly prohibited from attempting to decompile, reverse
engineer, or disassemble the Object Code, or in any other way convert the Object Code into a
human-readable form.
U.S. Pat. Nos. #5,870,405, #5,826,222, #5,754,974, #5,701,390, #5,715,365, #5,649,050,
#5,630,011, #5,581,656, #5,517,511, #5,491,772, #5,247,579, #5,226,084 and #5,195,166.
Section 1 Introduction
1.1 Welcome to MOTOTRBOTM! ............................................................................... 1
1.2 Software Version .................................................................................................. 2
Section 2 System Feature Overview
2.1 MOTOTRBO Digital Radio Technology................................................................ 3
2.1.1 Digital Radio Technology Overview ............................................................ 3
2.1.1.1 Part One: The Analog to Digital Conversion...................................... 3
2.1.1.2 Part Two: The Vocoder and Forward Error Correction (FEC) ........... 3
2.1.1.3 Part Three: Framing........................................................................... 4
2.1.1.4 Part Four: TDMA Transmission ......................................................... 4
2.1.1.5 Standards Compliance ...................................................................... 4
2.1.2 Spectrum Efficiency via Two-Slot TDMA .................................................... 5
2.1.2.1 Frequencies, Channels, and Requirements for Spectrum Efficiency 5
2.1.2.2 Delivering Increased Capacity in Existing 12.5kHz Channels ........... 5
2.1.2.3 Two-Slot TDMA Reduces Infrastructure Equipment.......................... 6
2.1.2.4 Two-Slot TDMA Enables System Flexibility....................................... 8
2.1.2.5 Two-Slot TDMA System Planning Considerations ............................ 9
2.1.3 Digital Audio Quality and Coverage Performance....................................... 9
2.1.3.1 Digital Audio Coverage .................................................................... 10
2.1.3.2 Predicting Digital Audio Coverage ................................................... 11
2.1.3.3 User Expectations for Digital Audio Performance............................ 12
2.1.3.4 Audio Balancing............................................................................... 13
2.2 Basic System Topologies for Digital and Analog Operations ............................. 14
2.2.1 Repeater and Direct Mode Configurations................................................ 14
2.2.2 MOTOTRBO Supports Analog and Digital Operation ............................... 16
2.2.3 MOTOTRBO Channel Access .................................................................. 16
2.2.3.1 Impolite Operation (Admit Criteria of “Always”) ............................... 17
2.2.3.2 Polite to All Operation (Admit Criteria of “Channel Free”)................ 18
2.2.3.3 Polite to Own Digital System Operation
(Admit Criteria of “Color Code Free”) ................................................... 18
2.2.3.4 Polite to Own Analog System Operation
(Admit Criteria of “Correct PL”) ............................................................ 18
2.2.3.5 Polite or Impolite While Participating in a Call (In Call Criteria) ....... 18
2.2.3.6 Repeater Wake-up Provisioning ...................................................... 19
2.3 MOTOTRBO Digital Features ............................................................................ 20
2.3.1 Digital Voice Features ............................................................................... 20
2.3.1.1 Group Calls...................................................................................... 20
2.3.1.2 Private Calls..................................................................................... 20
2.3.1.3 All Call.............................................................................................. 21
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2.3.2 Digital Signaling Features .........................................................................
2.3.2.1 PTT ID and Aliasing.........................................................................
2.3.2.2 Radio Disable (Selective Radio Inhibit) ...........................................
2.3.2.3 Remote Monitor ...............................................................................
2.3.2.4 Radio Check ....................................................................................
2.3.2.5 Call Alert ..........................................................................................
2.3.3 Digital Emergency .....................................................................................
2.3.3.1 Emergency Alarm Only....................................................................
2.3.3.2 Emergency Alarm and Call ..............................................................
2.3.3.3 Emergency Alarm with Voice to Follow ...........................................
2.4 MOTOTRBO Integrated Data.............................................................................
2.4.1 Overview ...................................................................................................
2.4.2 Text Messaging Services ..........................................................................
2.4.2.1 Built-In Text Messaging Service ......................................................
2.4.2.2 Services Provided to a Third Party Text Message Application ........
2.4.3 Location Services .....................................................................................
2.4.3.1 Performance Specifications .............................................................
2.4.3.2 Services Provided to a Radio User..................................................
2.4.3.3 Services Provided to a Location Application....................................
2.4.3.4 GPS Revert Channel .......................................................................
2.4.4 Telemetry Services ...................................................................................
2.4.4.1 Physical Connection Information .....................................................
2.4.4.2 Telemetry Examples ........................................................................
2.5 Scan ...................................................................................................................
2.5.1 Priority Sampling .......................................................................................
2.5.2 Channel Marking .......................................................................................
2.5.3 Scan Considerations .................................................................................
2.5.3.1 Scanning and Preamble ..................................................................
2.5.3.2 Channel Scan and Last Landed Channel ........................................
2.5.3.3 Scan Members with Similar Receive Parameters............................
2.6 Site Roaming......................................................................................................
2.6.1 Passive Site Searching .............................................................................
2.6.2 Active Site Searching ................................................................................
2.6.3 Roaming Considerations...........................................................................
2.6.3.1 Configuring a Roam List ..................................................................
2.6.3.2 Scan or Roam..................................................................................
2.6.3.3 Configuring the Roaming RSSI Threshold.......................................
2.6.3.4 Setting Beacon Duration and Beacon Interval.................................
2.6.3.5 Emergency Revert, GPS Revert, and Roaming Interactions ...........
2.6.3.6 Performance while Roaming............................................................
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2.7 Voice and Data Privacy ...................................................................................... 62
2.7.1 Types of Privacy........................................................................................ 62
2.7.2 Strength of the Protection Mechanism ...................................................... 63
2.7.3 Scope of Protection................................................................................... 63
2.7.4 Effects on Performance............................................................................. 65
2.7.5 User Control Over Privacy ........................................................................ 65
2.7.6 Privacy Indications to User........................................................................ 66
2.7.7 Key Mismatch............................................................................................ 67
2.7.8 Keys and Key Management ...................................................................... 67
2.7.9 Multiple Keys in a Basic Privacy System .................................................. 68
2.7.10 Data Gateway Privacy Settings............................................................... 69
2.7.11 Protecting One Group’s Message from Another ..................................... 69
2.7.12 Updating from Basic Privacy to Enhanced Privacy ................................. 70
2.8 Repeater Diagnostics and Control (RDAC)........................................................ 71
2.8.1 Connecting Remotely via the Network ...................................................... 72
2.8.2 Connecting Locally via the USB................................................................ 73
2.8.3 Connecting Locally via GPIO Lines........................................................... 73
2.8.3.1 RDAC Local Settings Rear Accessory Port CPS
Programmable Pins.............................................................................. 74
2.8.4 Redundant Repeater Setup ...................................................................... 75
2.8.5 Dual Control Considerations ..................................................................... 76
2.9 Voice Operated Transmission (VOX) ................................................................. 77
2.9.1 Operational Description............................................................................. 77
2.9.2 Usage Consideration................................................................................. 77
2.9.2.1 Suspending VOX ............................................................................. 77
2.9.2.2 Talk Permit Tone ............................................................................. 77
2.9.2.3 Emergency Calls.............................................................................. 77
2.10 Analog Features ............................................................................................... 78
2.10.1 Analog Voice Features............................................................................ 78
2.10.2 MDC Analog Signaling Features............................................................. 79
2.10.3 Analog Scan Features ............................................................................ 79
2.10.4 Analog Repeater Interface ...................................................................... 80
2.10.4.1 Analog Repeater Interface Settings............................................... 80
2.10.4.2 Configuration Summary Table ....................................................... 83
2.10.4.3 Configuration Considerations ........................................................ 83
2.10.5 Comparison Chart ................................................................................... 86
2.11 Third Party Application Partner Program.......................................................... 88
2.11.1 MOTOTRBO, the Dealer, and the Accredited Third-Party Developer..... 88
2.11.2 MOTOTRBO Applications Interfaces ...................................................... 88
2.11.3 MOTOTRBO Documents Available via the Third Party Application Partner
Program ............................................................................................................. 89
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2.11.4 Available Levels of Partnership............................................................... 90
Section 3 System Components and Topologies
3.1 System Components .......................................................................................... 93
3.1.1 Fixed End Components............................................................................. 93
3.1.1.1 Repeater .......................................................................................... 93
3.1.1.2 Radio Control Station....................................................................... 95
3.1.1.3 MC1000, MC2000, MC2500 Console.............................................. 95
3.1.2 Mobile Components .................................................................................. 96
3.1.2.1 MOTOTRBO Portable...................................................................... 96
3.1.2.2 MOTOTRBO Mobile ...................................................................... 101
3.1.3 Data Applications .................................................................................... 106
3.2 System Topologies........................................................................................... 106
3.2.1 Direct Mode............................................................................................. 106
3.2.1.1 Digital MOTOTRBO Radios in Direct Mode................................... 107
3.2.1.2 Interoperability between Analog MOTOTRBO Radios and Analog
Radios in Direct Mode........................................................................ 116
3.2.1.3 Interoperability between Digital MOTOTRBO Radios, Mixed Mode
MOTOTRBO Radios, and Analog Radios in Direct Mode.................. 117
3.2.2 Repeater Mode ....................................................................................... 118
3.2.2.1 Digital MOTOTRBO Radios in Repeater Mode ............................. 119
3.2.2.2 Analog MOTOTRBO Radios in Repeater Mode ............................ 130
3.2.3 IP Site Connect Mode ............................................................................. 131
3.2.3.1 Topologies of IP Site Connect System .......................................... 132
Section 4 System Design Considerations
4.1 Purpose ...........................................................................................................
4.2 Migration Plans.................................................................................................
4.2.1 Pre-Deployment System Integration .......................................................
4.2.2 Analog to Digital Preparation and Migration............................................
4.2.3 New/Full System Replacement ...............................................................
4.3 Frequency Licensing ........................................................................................
4.3.1 Acquiring New Frequencies (Region Specific)........................................
4.3.2 Converting Existing 12.5/25kHz Licenses...............................................
4.3.3 Repeater Continuous Wave Identification (CWID)..................................
4.4 Digital Repeater Loading..................................................................................
4.4.1 Assumptions and Precautions.................................................................
4.4.2 Voice and Data Traffic Profile .................................................................
4.4.3 Estimating Loading..................................................................................
4.4.4 Loading Optimization and Configuration Considerations ........................
4.4.4.1 Distribution of High Usage Users...................................................
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4.4.4.2 Minimize Location Periodic Update Rate....................................... 150
4.4.4.3 Data Application Retry Attempts and Intervals .............................. 151
4.4.4.4 Optimize Data Application Outbound Message Rate .................... 152
4.4.4.5 GPS Revert and Loading............................................................... 152
4.5 Multiple Digital Repeaters in Standalone Mode ............................................... 155
4.5.1 Overlapping Coverage Area.................................................................... 155
4.5.2 Color Codes in a Digital System ............................................................. 156
4.5.3 Additional Considerations for Color Codes ............................................. 157
4.6 Multiple Digital Repeaters in IP Site Connect Mode......................................... 158
4.6.1 System Capacity ..................................................................................... 158
4.6.2 Frequencies and Color Code Considerations ......................................... 158
4.6.3 Considerations for the Back-End Network .............................................. 159
4.6.3.1 Automatic Reconfiguration............................................................. 160
4.6.3.2 Characteristics of Back-End Network ............................................ 161
4.6.4 Flow of Voice/Data/Control Messages .................................................... 168
4.6.5 Security Considerations .......................................................................... 169
4.6.6 General Considerations When Setting Up the Network Connection for an IP
Site Connect System ....................................................................................... 169
4.6.7 Considerations for Shared Use of a Channel.......................................... 171
4.6.8 Migration from Single Site Systems ........................................................ 172
4.7 Data Sub-System Design Considerations ........................................................ 172
4.7.1 Computer and IP Network Configurations............................................... 172
4.7.1.1 Radio to Mobile Client Network Connectivity................................. 172
4.7.1.2 Radio to Air Interface Network Connectivity .................................. 174
4.7.1.3 Application Server Control Station Network Connectivity .............. 176
4.7.1.4 Control Station Considerations ...................................................... 178
4.7.1.5 Multi-Channel Device Driver (MCDD) and Required Static Routes 179
4.7.1.6 Application Server and Dispatcher Network Connectivity.............. 179
4.7.1.7 MOTOTRBO Subject Line Usage.................................................. 180
4.7.1.8 MOTOTRBO Example System IP Plan ......................................... 180
4.7.1.9 Application Server Network Connection Considerations ............... 182
4.7.2 Mobile Terminal and Application Server
Power Management Considerations................................................................ 182
4.8 Customer Fleetmap Development.................................................................... 182
4.8.1 Identifying a Functional Fleetmap Design Team..................................... 183
4.8.2 Identifying Radio Users ........................................................................... 183
4.8.3 Organizing Radio Users into Groups ...................................................... 184
4.8.3.1 Configuration of Groups................................................................. 185
4.8.4 Assigning IDs and Aliases....................................................................... 186
4.8.4.1 Identifying Radio IDs...................................................................... 186
4.8.4.2 Assigning Radio Aliases ................................................................ 187
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4.8.4.3 Identifying Group IDs .....................................................................
4.8.4.4 Assigning Group Aliases................................................................
4.8.5 Determining Which Channel Operates in Repeater Mode or
Direct Mode .....................................................................................................
4.8.6 Determining Feature Assignments..........................................................
4.8.6.1 Determining Supervisor Radios .....................................................
4.8.6.2 Private Calls...................................................................................
4.8.6.3 All Call............................................................................................
4.8.6.4 Radio Disable ................................................................................
4.8.6.5 Remote Monitor .............................................................................
4.8.6.6 Radio Check ..................................................................................
4.8.6.7 Call Alert ........................................................................................
4.8.7 Emergency Handling Configuration ........................................................
4.8.7.1 Emergency Handling User Roles...................................................
4.8.7.2 Emergency Handling Strategies ....................................................
4.8.7.3 Acknowledging Supervisors in Emergency....................................
4.8.7.4 Extended Emergency Call Hang time............................................
4.8.7.5 Emergency Revert and GPS Revert Considerations.....................
4.8.8 Channel Access Configuration................................................................
4.8.9 Zones and Channel Knob Programming.................................................
4.9 Base Station Identifications (BSI) Setting Considerations................................
4.10 GPS Revert Considerations ...........................................................................
4.11 Failure Preparedness .....................................................................................
4.11.1 Direct Mode Fallback (Talkaround) .......................................................
4.11.2 Uninterrupted Power Supplies (Battery Backup)...................................
4.12 Configurable Timers .......................................................................................
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Section 5 Sales and Service Support Tools
5.1 Purpose ............................................................................................................
5.2 Applications Overview ......................................................................................
5.3 Service Equipment ...........................................................................................
5.3.1 Recommended Test Equipment..............................................................
5.4 Documentation and Trainings ..........................................................................
5.4.1 MOTOTRBO Documentation ..................................................................
5.4.2 MOTOTRBO Trainings............................................................................
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Introduction
1
SECTION 1
1.1
INTRODUCTION
Welcome to MOTOTRBOTM!
Improving workforce productivity and operational effectiveness requires superior communications
quality, reliability, and functionality. MOTOTRBO is the first digital two-way radio system from
Motorola specifically designed to meet the requirements of professional organizations that need a
customizable, business critical, private communication solution using licensed spectrum.
MOTOTRBO combines the best in two-way radio functionality with digital technology to deliver
increased capacity and spectral efficiency, integrated data applications and enhanced voice
communications.
MOTOTRBO is an integrated voice and data system solution comprising of mobile and portable
radios, audio and energy accessories, repeaters, and a third party application partner program.
Figure 1.1 MOTOTRBO System
This system planner will enable the reader to understand the features and capabilities of the
MOTOTRBO system, and will provide guidance on how to deploy and configure the system and its
components to take advantage of its advanced capabilities.
This system planner is divided into 5 sections, with the first being this introduction. Section 2
provides an overview of system level features. Section 3 describes the system components in
more detail. Section 4 provides guidance on system design considerations including configuration
of components. Section 5 provides product sales and support information.
This system planner is complementary to additional training and documentation including:
•
Radio Customer Programming Software (CPS) and related training
•
System workshop/system service training
•
Product specification sheets
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1.2
Introduction
Software Version
All the features described in the System Planner are supported by the radio’s software version
R04.00.00 or later.
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System Feature Overview
3
SECTION 2 SYSTEM FEATURE OVERVIEW
2.1
MOTOTRBO Digital Radio Technology
This section provides a brief overview of MOTOTRBO digital radio technology. It addresses two of
the primary benefits delivered by this technology: spectral efficiency and improved audio
performance.
2.1.1
Digital Radio Technology Overview
The digital radio technologies employed by MOTOTRBO can be summarized as follows:
or
1
2
3
4
Figure 2-1 MOTOTRBO Digital Radio Technology
Figure 2-1 “MOTOTRBO Digital Radio Technology” is broken down into four parts which are
described in the following subsections.
2.1.1.1
Part One: The Analog to Digital Conversion
When a radio user presses the Push-To-Talk (PTT) button and begins speaking, his voice is
received by the radio microphone and converted from an acoustic waveform to an analog
electrical waveform. This voice waveform is then sampled by an analog to digital converter. In
typical radio applications, a 16-bit sample is taken every 8kHz, this produces a 128,000bps (bits
per second) digital bitstream, which contains far too much information to send over a 12.5kHz or
25kHz radio channel. Therefore some form of compression is required.
2.1.1.2
Part Two: The Vocoder and Forward Error Correction (FEC)
Vocoding (Voice encoding) compresses speech by breaking it into its most important parts and
encoding them with a small number of bits, while greatly reducing background noise. Vocoding
compresses the voice bitstream to fit the narrow (for MOTOTRBO) 6.25kHz equivalent radio
channel. The MOTOTRBO vocoder is AMBE+2TM which was developed by Digital Voice System,
Inc. (DVSI), a leader in the vocoding industry. This particular vocoder works by dividing speech
into short segments, typically 20 to 30 milliseconds in length. Each segment of speech is analyzed,
and the important parameters such as pitch, level, and frequency response are extracted. These
parameters are then encoded using a small number of digital bits. The AMBE+2TM vocoder is the
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4
System Feature Overview
first to demonstrate very low bit rates while producing toll-quality speech such as traditionally
associated with wireline telephone systems.
Together with the vocoding process, Forward Error Correction (FEC) is also applied. FEC is a
mathematical checksum technique that enables the receiver to both validate the integrity of a
received message and determine which, if any, bits have been corrupted. FEC enables the
receiver to correct bit errors that may have occurred due to radio frequency (RF) channel
impairment. This effectively rejects noise that can distort an analog signal and by comparison
enables more consistent audio performance throughout the coverage area. At this stage, the
vocoder has already compressed the 128,000bps input signal to 3,600bps.
2.1.1.3
Part Three: Framing
In framing, the vocoded speech is formatted for transmission. This includes organizing the voice
and any embedded signaling information (such as color code, group ID, PTT ID, call type, etc.) into
packets. These packets form a header and payload type of structure – the header contains the call
control and ID information, and the payload contains the vocoded speech. This same structure can
also relay Internet Protocol (IP) data packets – the IP packets are simply an alternative form of
payload to the MOTOTRBO radio. The header information is repeated periodically throughout the
transmission, thereby improving the reliability of the signaling information as well as enabling a
receiving radio to join a call that may already be in progress – we refer to this condition as “late
entry”.
2.1.1.4
Part Four: TDMA Transmission
Finally, the signal is encoded for a Frequency Modulation (FM) transmission. The bits contained in
the digital packets are encoded as symbols representing the amplitude and phase of the
modulated carrier frequency, amplified, and then transmitted.
TDMA (Time Division Multiple Access) organizes a channel into 2 time slots: a given radio’s
transmitter is active only for short bursts, which provides longer battery life. By transmitting only on
their alternating time slots, two calls can share the same channel at the same time without
interfering with one another, thereby doubling spectrum efficiency. Using TDMA, a radio transmits
only during its time slot (i.e. it transmits a burst of information, then waits, then transmits the next
burst of information).
2.1.1.5
Standards Compliance
The digital protocols employed in MOTOTRBO (from vocoding and forward error correction to
framing, transmission encoding, and transmission via two-slot TDMA) are fully specified by the
ETSI1 DMR2 Tier 23 Standard, which is an internationally recognized standard with agreements
among its supporting members. Although formal interoperability testing and verification processes
for this standard have yet to fully mature, Motorola anticipates that MOTOTRBO radio systems will
be interoperable with other solutions that comply to the ETSI DMR Tier 2 standard.
1.
2.
3.
European Telecommunications Standards Institute
Digital Mobile Radio
Tier 2 indicates full power conventional operation in licensed channels for professional and commercial
users.
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System Feature Overview
5
2.1.2
Spectrum Efficiency via Two-Slot TDMA
2.1.2.1
Frequencies, Channels, and Requirements for Spectrum Efficiency
A radio communications channel is defined by its carrier frequency, and its bandwidth. The
spectrum of available carrier frequencies is divided into major bands (such as VHF and UHF), and
the majority of licensed channels in use today have widths of either 25kHz or 12.5kHz. As the
airwaves have become increasingly crowded, new standards and technologies that allow more
radio users to share the available spectrum in any given area are needed. The demand for greater
spectral efficiency is being driven, in part, by regulatory agencies. In the U.S., for example, the
Federal Communications Commission (FCC) requires manufacturers to offer only devices that
operate within 12.5kHz VHF and UHF channels by 2011. By the year 2013, all VHF and UHF
users are required to operate in 12.5kHz channels.
The next logical step is to further improve the effective capacity of 12.5kHz channels. While there
is no current mandate requiring a move to 6.25kHz, such discussions are on-going at the FCC and
other agencies. It’s only a matter of time before the ability to carry two voice paths in a single
12.5kHz channel, also known as 6.25kHz equivalent efficiency, becomes a requirement in VHF
and UHF bands. Presently, FCC rules are in place to mandate manufacturers to build radios
capable of the 6.25kHz efficiency for VHF and UHF bands, but the enforcement of these rules are
put on hold. In the meantime, MOTOTRBO offers a way to divide a 12.5kHz channel into two
independent time slots, thus achieving 6.25kHz-equivalent efficiency today.
2.1.2.2
Delivering Increased Capacity in Existing 12.5kHz Channels
MOTOTRBO uses a two-slot TDMA architecture. This architecture divides the channel into two
alternating time slots, thereby creating two logical channels on one physical 12.5kHz channel.
Each voice call utilizes only one of these logical channels, and each user accesses a time slot as if
it is an independent channel. A transmitting radio transmits information only during its selected
slot, and will be idle during the alternate slot. The receiving radio observes the transmissions in
either time slot, and relies on the signaling information included in each time slot to determine
which call it was meant to receive.
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System Feature Overview
By comparison, analog radios operate on the concept of Frequency Division Multiple Access
(FDMA). In FDMA, each transmitting radio transmits continuously on a designated channel, and
the receiving radio receives the relevant transmission by tuning to the desired carrier frequency.
Today’s Analog
MOTOTRBO
Slot 2
Slot 1
Slot 2
Slot 1
Tim
e
Regulatory
emissions
mask
Slot 2
Slot 1
Frequency
Frequency
12.5KHz chan
nel
12.5KHz chan
nel
12.5kHz Analog
12.5kHz TDMA
- 1 voice for each 12.5kHz channel
- A single repeater for each channel
- Divides existing channel into two timeslots
- Delivers twice the capacity through repeater
- Performance is same or better than 12.5kHz FDMA
- Single repeater does work of two repeaters
- Reduces need for combining equipment
- Enables 40% increase in radio battery life
Figure 2-2 Comparison between Today’s Analog and MOTOTRBO
TDMA thereby offers a straightforward method for achieving 6.25kHz equivalency in 12.5kHz
repeater channels – a major benefit for users of increasingly crowded licensed bands. Instead of
dividing channels into smaller slices of decreased bandwidth – which is what would be required to
increase spectrum efficiency with FDMA methods, TDMA uses the full 12.5kHz channel
bandwidth, but increases efficiency by dividing it into two alternating time slots. Additionally, this
method preserves the well-known radio frequency (RF) performance characteristics of the
12.5kHz signal. From the perspective of RF physics – that is, actual transmitted power and
radiated emissions – the 12.5kHz signal of two-slot TDMA occupies the channel, propagates, and
performs essentially in the same way as today’s 12.5kHz analog signals. With the added
advantages of digital technology, TDMA-based radios can work within a single repeater channel to
provide roughly twice the traffic capacity, while offering RF coverage performance equivalent to, or
better than, today’s analog radio.
2.1.2.3
Two-Slot TDMA Reduces Infrastructure Equipment
As we have seen, two-slot TDMA essentially doubles repeater capacity. This means that one
MOTOTRBO repeater does the work of two analog repeaters (a MOTOTRBO repeater supports
two calls simultaneously). This saves costs of repeater hardware and maintenance, and also
saves on the cost and complexity of RF combining equipment necessary in multi-channel
configurations. Just as importantly, the two-slot TDMA signal fits cleanly into a customer’s existing,
licensed channels; there is no need to obtain new licenses for the increase in repeater capacity,
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System Feature Overview
7
and compared to alternative technologies that may operate on different bandwidths, there is no
comparative increase in the risk of interference with or from adjacent channels.
Analog 2-Channel System
12.5kHz Analog
Frequency Pair 1
Repeater 1
Tx1
Rx1
Tx2
Combining
Equipment
Frequency Pair 2
Rx2
Groups
Repeater 2
MOTOTRBO 2-Channel System
12.5kHz TDMA
Tx
Frequency Pair
Duplexer
Rx
Repeater
Groups
Figure 2-3 MOTOTRBO Requires Less Combining Equipment
November, 2008
8
System Feature Overview
2.1.2.4
Two-Slot TDMA Enables System Flexibility
The two time slots or logical channels enabled by two-slot TDMA can potentially be used for a
variety of purposes. Many organizations deploying MOTOTRBO systems can use these slots in
the following manner:
•
Use both the slots as voice channels. This doubles the voice capacity per licensed repeater
channel, thereby
•
increasing the number of users the system can accommodate, and
•
increasing the amount of air time the users can consume.
•
Use both slots as data channels. This allows the organizations to fully deploy data
transactions
•
Use one slot as a voice channel, and the other as a data channel. This is a flexible solution,
that allows customers to equip their voice users with mobile data, messaging, or location
tracking capabilities.
In any of these scenarios, additional benefits are realized within the existing licensed repeater
channel(s).
Voice Call 1 (or Data)
Timeslot 1
Timeslot 2
Timeslot 1
Timeslot 2
Voice Call 2 (or Data)
Figure 2-4 Example of Two-Slot TDMA
November, 2008
Timeslot 1
Timeslot 2
System Feature Overview
9
NOTE: When used in direct mode without a repeater, two-slot TDMA systems on a 12.5kHz
channel do not deliver 6.25kHz equivalent efficiency. This is because the repeater is
necessary to synchronize the time slots to enable independent parties to share them.
Thus, on a direct or talkaround channel, when one radio begins transmitting, the whole
12.5kHz channel is effectively busy, even though the transmitting radio is using only one
time slot. The alternate time slot is unavailable for another, independent voice call.
However, the alternate time slot can potentially be utilized as a signaling path. The ETSI
DMR Tier 2 standard refers to this capability as Reverse Channel signaling, and it is
envisioned to be used to deliver important future benefits to professional users, such as
priority call control, remote-control of the transmitting radio, and emergency call preemption. This future capacity for reverse channel signaling is a unique capability of TDMA
technology and, if supported by your system, may be deployed in both repeater and direct/
talkaround configurations. At this time, the MOTOTRBO system does NOT support
Reverse Channel signaling.
2.1.2.5
Two-Slot TDMA System Planning Considerations
System Planning considerations associated with the increased capacity and the flexibility of the
MOTOTRBO two-slot TDMA architecture include:
•
Capacity planning:
•
How many voice and data users do you have?
•
What usage profiles are anticipated?
•
How many channels and repeaters are needed?
These questions are addressed in more detail in “System Design Considerations” on
page 143.
•
Fleetmapping:
•
How to map users, voice services and data services such as messaging or location
tracking to channels.
Voice and data service capabilities are described in more detail in this module and in “System
Components and Topologies” on page 93. Fleetmapping considerations are addressed in
more detail in “System Design Considerations” on page 143, in the MOTOTRBO Systems
Training, and within the MOTOTRBO radio CPS.
•
Migration Planning:
•
How to migrate existing channels to digital channels?
•
What updates to licensing requirements may be needed?
These questions are addressed in mode detail in Section 4 “System Design Considerations”
on page 143.
2.1.3
Digital Audio Quality and Coverage Performance
This section describes how digital audio drives coverage performance. It also sets expectations for
how digital audio behaves and sounds from the end-user’s perspective.
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System Feature Overview
2.1.3.1
Digital Audio Coverage
The main difference between analog and digital coverage is how the audio quality degrades
throughout the coverage region. Analog audio degrades linearly throughout the region of
coverage, while digital audio quality performs more consistently in the same region of coverage. A
primary reason for the different degradation characteristics is the use of forward error correction
coding used in digital transmissions, which can accurately deliver both audio and data content with
virtually no loss over a far greater area.
It is this error protection that allows a MOTOTRBO system to provide consistent audio quality
throughout its coverage area. A comparable analog system can never offer such consistency. In
the MOTOTRBO system, the audio quality remains at a high level, because the error protection
minimizes the noise effect.
The figure below graphically illustrates the relationship of delivered system audio quality, while
comparing good to poor audio quality with strong to weak signal strength. Do note that
•
In very strong signal areas the analog signal, because there is no processing, may sound
slightly better than the digital audio signal.
•
Digital signals increase the effective coverage area above the minimally acceptable audio
quality level.
•
Digital signals improve the quality and consistency of the audio throughout the effective
coverage area.
•
Digital signals do not necessarily increase the total distance that an RF signal propagates.
Figure 2-5 Comparison of Audio Quality versus Signal Strength for Analog and Digital
November, 2008
System Feature Overview
2.1.3.2
11
Predicting Digital Audio Coverage
Predicting coverage for a radio site can be complicated. There are many factors that affect RF
performance prediction, and generally, the more factors that can be considered, the more accurate
the prediction of coverage. Perhaps the most influential factor is the selection of the RF
propagation model and/or RF prediction software tools.
Coverage prediction techniques for analog and digital systems generally follow the same basic
procedures, and require similar sets of input factors. Therefore, if the site’s analog coverage
footprint is already known, it is easier to plan the site’s digital coverage footprint. This approach
allows the system designer to use their existing analog site coverage prediction techniques,
whether simple or complex, and then translate the results of the analog coverage prediction to
predict digital coverage.
Delivered Audio Quality (DAQ) is a method to quantify audio quality. It is a measure of the
intelligibility and quality of voice transported through a communications system, as defined in TIA
TSB-88. DAQ reports audio quality on a 5 point scale, with a DAQ rating of 3 considered as the
minimal acceptable level of audio quality for public safety applications. The definition of DAQ 3 is
“Speech understandable with slight effort and occasional repetition required due to Noise/
Distortion.”.
When comparing an analog site and a MOTOTRBO site, the relative regions of coverage offering
comparable audio quality are illustrated in the figure below.
Analog
Digital
Improving Audio Quality
Figure 2-6 Differences in Analog Coverage
For a DAQ 3 audio quality, MOTOTRBO provides a greater usable range than analog, when all
other factors are considered equal (e.g. transmit power level, antenna height, receiver noise
figures, IF filter bandwidths, no audio processing – such as Hear Clear – on the analog radios,
terrain, antenna combining equipment, etc.).
November, 2008
12
System Feature Overview
For an advanced, more comprehensive understanding of RF coverage prediction for the
MOTOTRBO site, the reader is encouraged to obtain the TIA Telecommunications Service Bulletin
TSB-88 – “Wireless Communications Systems-Performance in Noise and Interference-Limited
Situations, Recommended Methods for Technology-Independent Modeling, Simulation, and
Verification.”
A copy of TSB-88 can be obtained from http://www.tiaonline.org
2.1.3.3
User Expectations for Digital Audio Performance
There are a number of differences between how digital audio behaves compared to analog audio
from the end user (listener’s) perspective. Motorola has found that setting proper end user
expectations in this regard is an important aspect of system planning.
What End-Users will Experience with Digital Audio
•
Consistent performance throughout coverage area with no gradual fade at the
fringes: While analog signals slowly degrade as the receiver moves away from the
transmitter, digital signals perform more consistently throughout the coverage area.
However, digital signals, more abruptly, shift from “good” to “no signal”, when crossing the
fringe of the coverage area. This means, users cannot rely on degrading audio quality to
warn them that they are approaching the fringe of coverage. On the other hand, just prior to
the fringe of the coverage area, digital audio is still crisp and clean, whereas analog audio
has excessive noise and static.
•
Digital Sounds Different: The vocoding process is designed to deliver optimum audio
quality with a very small number of bits. Some listeners find the resulting tonal qualities of
digital speech somewhat different from what they have experienced with analog speech.
Because the vocoding process is highly specialized for reproducing human speech, other
sounds like music and tones are not reproduced accurately. Additionally, digital audio can
introduce end-to-end audio delays. When overwhelming errors or dropouts are
encountered, digital radios can generate some unique-sounding audio “artifacts”.
•
Background Noise Reduction: The advanced vocoding capabilities in MOTOTRBO also
include background noise reduction. Regardless of what is happening in the environment of
the transmitting radio, only voice is reconstructed at the receiving radio – background noise,
like machine noise, wind noise, and traffic noise, is not reconstructed, and thus, not heard.
This is a key advantage of the MOTOTRBO digital voice solution over typical analog
solutions, because noisy environments like factories, stores, work sites, and windy locations
do NOT significantly degrade communication intelligibility.
What End-Users will NOT Experience with Digital Audio:
•
Digital radio is not “CD Quality.” MOTOTRBO is the first radio in the industry to use the
AMBE+2TM low bit rate vocoder to deliver communications grade voice quality. End users
should not be misled into thinking that “communications grade” digital audio quality in radio
systems is analogous to the high fidelity audio quality of CD’s and DVD’s.
•
Digital cannot solve historic problems. System issues with coverage and interference are
not necessarily eliminated by switching to digital. Adjacent or co-channel interference may
sound different to a digital user, but digital technology does not solve interference issues.
For example, analog interference will not be heard as voice to a digital radio and vice versa,
but disruption of system performance can still occur.
November, 2008
System Feature Overview
2.1.3.4
13
Audio Balancing
Transmitting voice over a digital air interface requires a voice coder, or vocoder for short. The
vocoder used by MOTOTRBO is the Digital Voice Systems Inc. (DVSI) AMBE+2TM. This vocoder
delivers excellent voice quality with robustness to both background noise and RF channel bit
errors in a 6.25 kHz equivalent channel bandwidth. In order to produce optimal voice quality, the
input level into the vocoder must fall within a specific amplitude range.
The diverse nature of users with respect to mouth-to-microphone distance as well as voice level
and directivity can make this a bit problematic. In an effort to produce optimal voice quality over
these diverse input conditions, MOTOTRBO digital always employs Automatic Gain Control (AGC)
in the audio transmit path. The primary function of the transmit AGC is to produce the best voice
quality possible under real life conditions. Since voice is still the main application of a two-way
radio, this is a primary goal.
A secondary result of the AGC is to produce flat received speech loudness level over a range of
input levels at the microphone. The usage of IMPRES Accessories extends this input range so
optimal voice quality occurs over an even greater input range. Figure 2-7 “Transmit Audio
Sensitivity” illustrates this extended range flat response in the curve titled MOTOTRBO with
IMPRES RSM (Digital). This same response curve can also be produced in analog mode by using
a IMPRES Accessory and enabling Analog Mic AGC in the CPS General Settings. Figure 2-7
illustrates this type of response in the curve titled MOTOTRBO with IMPRES RSM (AGC on,
Analog). An advantage of this type of response is that soft talkers and users that turn away from
the microphone while speaking will still come through loud and clear.
Receiver Output Speech Loudness
100
95
90
Professional Series
85
MOTOTRBO with IMPRES RSM (AGC off, Analog)
MOTOTRBO with IMPRES RSM (AGC on, Analog)
80
MOTOTRBO with IMPRES RSM (Digital)
75
80
85
90
95
100
105
110
Transmitter Input [dB SPL]
Figure 2-7 Transmit Audio Sensitivity
November, 2008
14
System Feature Overview
The flat audio response of digital is different from the traditional analog audio response. The
traditional response is a linear response and the louder one speaks, then the louder the received
volume. Figure 2-7 illustrates a traditional analog response in the curves titled Professional Series
and MOTOTRBO with IMPRES RSM (AGC off, Analog). When Analog Mic AGC is disabled, then
the Analog Mic Gain (dB) is adjustable in the CPS General Settings. Therefore, MOTOTRBO in
analog mode is able to deliver the traditional analog response and is adjustable to fit into existing
systems.
Examination of Figure 2-7 indicates that digital and traditional analog responses are similar at an
input Sound Pressure Level (SPL) of 98 dB. Below this level, analog is quieter than digital. This is
important to note as a system requiring MOTOTRBO to function as a digital radio and also as an
analog radio during migration, may experience received audio level differences that are mode
dependant. This could occur when scanning both digital and analog channels and the analog
talker is located in a quiet environment such as an office. In quiet environments many users tend
to speak softly and therefore the input will fall below the equivalent response level of 98 dB SPL.
Therefore, during the migration period, the analog response may be quieter than the digital
response.
2.2
Basic System Topologies for Digital and Analog
Operations
MOTOTRBO is a conventional radio system. In its most basic form, a MOTOTRBO system is
comprised of radios that communicate to each other directly in direct mode, through a repeater in
repeater mode, or through a set of repeaters in IP Site Connect Mode. The MOTOTRBO system
can be configured to operate in analog mode, digital mode, or in both modes.
2.2.1
Repeater and Direct Mode Configurations
In repeater-based radio communications systems, a voice path requires a pair of channels: one for
transmission, the other for reception.
•
When operating in analog repeater mode, MOTOTRBO operates similar to existing analog
repeaters by supporting one voice path (transmit and receive) on one pair of physical
channels, and can be configured to operate in 25kHz channel bandwidth systems and/or
12.5kHz channel bandwidth systems.
•
When operating in digital repeater mode, MOTOTRBO uses a pair of physical channels
configured for 12.5kHz channel bandwidth. Through the use of Time Division Multiple
Access (TDMA) technology and the synchronization provided by the repeater, MOTOTRBO
splits each 12.5kHz channel (one transmit and one receive) into two independent time slots
or logical channels within the 12.5kHz physical channel bandwidth. This allows the user to
assign voice or data traffic to either of the time slots independently. To the end user, this
means they now have two voice or data channels that can be managed independently,
instead of one. These two logical channels (two time slots) can transmit and receive
independently of each other.
•
When operating in IP Site Connect mode, MOTOTRBO combines the logical channels of
multiple MOTOTRBO systems operating in digital repeater mode. In this mode, repeaters
across dispersed locations exchange voice and data packets over an IPv4-based back-end
network. There are three main functions of this mode.
1. To increase the RF coverage area of a MOTOTRBO system.
November, 2008
System Feature Overview
15
2. To provide voice and data communication between two or more MOTOTRBO single site
systems located at geographically separate locations.
3.
To provide voice and data communication between two or more MOTOTRBO single site
systems operating in different frequency bands (e.g. UHF and VHF).
The back-end network of an IP Site Connect system is designed to work seamlessly with internet
connectivity provided by an Internet Service Provider (ISP). The system only requires that one of
the repeaters have a static IPv4 address, while the others may be dynamic. Also, the system
avoids the need for reconfiguration of a customer’s network such as reprogramming of firewalls.
When a new call starts at one of the logical channel of a repeater, the repeater sends the call to all
the repeaters and all these repeaters repeat the call on their corresponding logical channel. This
allows a radio in the coverage area of any repeater to participate in the call. Thus, the coverage
area of an IP Site Connect system is the sum of the coverage areas of all the repeaters. However,
note that an IP Site Connect configuration does not increase the capacity (i.e. number of calls per
hour) of the system. The capacity of one Wide Area Channel of an IP Site Connect system is
approximately the same as that of a single repeater working in digital repeater mode.
In an IP Site Connect configuration, MOTOTRBO radios support all the features that they already
support in digital repeater mode. Additionally, the radios are capable of automatically roaming from
one site to another.
The IP Site Connect configuration of MOTOTRBO does not require any new hardware besides
back-end network devices such as routers. If a customer has multiple MOTOTRBO systems
working in digital repeater mode at dispersed sites and wants to convert them into an IP Site
Connect system then the repeaters and the radios should be updated with new software and the
repeaters need to be connected to an IPv4 based back-end network. It is possible to configure a
repeater such that
•
both logical channels work in IP Site Connect mode (i.e. over wide area).
•
both logical channels work in digital repeater mode (i.e. single site over local area).
•
one of its logical channels works in IP Site Connect mode (i.e. over wide area) and the other
logical channel works in digital repeater mode (i.e. single site over local area).
MOTOTRBO has three security features in the IP Site Connect configuration.
•
Provides the confidentiality of voice and data payloads by extending the privacy feature,
whether Basic or Enhanced, to cover the communication over the back-end network.
•
Ensures that all the messages between repeaters are authentic.
•
Supports Secure VPN (Virtual Private Network) based communication between the
repeaters for customers needing higher level of security (protection against replay attack).
The IP Site Connect configuration of MOTOTRBO provides a mechanism and a tool to remotely
manage repeaters. The tool (called RDAC) receives alarms from all the repeaters, helps in
diagnosis of repeaters, and provides some controls over the repeaters
In direct mode, receive and transmit functions are both carried out on the same physical channel
(i.e. transmit and receive frequencies are the same).
•
When operating in analog direct mode, MOTOTRBO supports one voice path (transmit
and receive) on one physical channel, and can be configured to operate in 25kHz channel
bandwidth systems and/or 12.5kHz channel bandwidth systems.
November, 2008
16
System Feature Overview
•
When operating in digital direct mode, MOTOTRBO uses one physical channel configured
for 12.5kHz channel bandwidth. On one direct 12.5kHz physical channel bandwidth, a
MOTOTRBO digital system can support only one voice (or data) path at a time. Without a
repeater in place to coordinate the time slot sequence among radios, only one radio can
transmit at a time in order to guarantee transmissions do not overlap.
Greater detail on system services available in direct-mode and repeater-based system topologies
is described in “System Components and Topologies” on page 93.
2.2.2
MOTOTRBO Supports Analog and Digital Operation
The MOTOTRBO system can be configured to operate in analog mode, digital mode, or in both
modes. Though a system can consist of multiple repeaters, a single MOTOTRBO repeater can
only operate as either analog or digital. MOTOTRBO repeaters cannot dynamically switch
between analog and digital modes.
MOTOTRBO portable and mobile radios can communicate in analog and digital. The mobile or
portable radio user selects the mode of operation (analog or digital), and physical and logical
channel using his channel selector knob (each channel selection position is configured for a
particular call type on either a digital channel that specifies both frequency and time slot, or an
analog channel that specifies both frequency and 25kHz or 12.5kHz bandwidth). Radio channels
are either analog or digital. This is configured by the CPS. The radio can scan between analog and
digital channels.
Greater detail on channel planning and configuration is provided in “System Design
Considerations” on page 143.
2.2.3
MOTOTRBO Channel Access
Channel access dictates what conditions a radio is allowed to initiate a transmission on a channel.
The channel access rules of MOTOTRBO are governed by the mobile and portable radios. It is the
radio’s responsibility to assess the state of the system, and utilize its channel access rules to
decide whether to grant the call to the user.
In repeater systems, it is the repeater’s responsibility to:
•
Identify if a channel is busy, or
•
Identify if a channel is idle, or
•
Inform for which radio the channel is reserved.
The repeater does not block or deny any channel access from radios on its system, but will not
repeat transmissions from another system.
There are two main types of channel access in a MOTOTRBO system: Polite and Impolite access.
In the configuration software, channel access is referred to as the Admit Criteria. MOTOTRBO
supports the following Admit Criteria:
•
Always: This criteria is often referred to as "Impolite” channel access, and can be applied to
analog and digital channels.
•
Channel Free: This criteria is often referred to as “Polite to All”, and can be applied to
analog and digital channels
November, 2008
System Feature Overview
17
•
Color Code Free: This criteria is sometimes referred to as “Polite to Own Color Code” or
“Polite to Own System”, and is applied only to digital channels.
•
Correct PL: This criteria is sometimes referred to as “Polite to Own System”, and is applied
only to analog channels.
Channel access methods must be specified for each channel in the radio CPS. The TX (Transmit)
parameters for each defined channel contains an “Admit Criteria” selection that must be set to one
of the values described above.
All these channel access options govern how standard group voice calls and private calls access
the system. Not all transmission types utilize these settings. For example, emergency voice calls
always operate impolitely. This gives emergency voice calls a slightly higher priority over existing
traffic on the channel. Data calls are always polite. Since a data call can be queued and retried, its
priority is considered lower than voice.
Note that a “polite” radio user attempting a voice call will be polite to data, but an impolite user may
not. Control messages (used for signaling features) are also always polite. The exception is the
emergency alarm. Emergency alarms are sent with a mix of impolite and polite channel access, in
order to optimize the likelihood of successful transmission.
When operating in IP Site Connect mode, the repeaters also check the channel for interference
before transmitting. This is required since even though the source radio checks the channel at one
site, it does not mean there is no interference at another site. Therefore, a repeater will check for
over the air interference before waking up and transmitting. The repeater always acts with an
Admit Criteria of Channel Free and has a configurable signal strength threshold. Note that
although one site may be busy, the other non-busy sites will continue with the call.
2.2.3.1
Impolite Operation (Admit Criteria of “Always”)
When configured for impolite operation, a radio does not check for an idle channel prior to allowing
a transmission. From the user’s perspective, the radio simply transmits when the PTT is pressed.
However, on a digital repeater channel, the radio checks if the repeater is hibernating.
Transmission will not proceed, if the repeater is hibernating and the radio is unable to wake it.
NOTE: It is very important to note that when a radio is utilizing impolite operation, it is possible that
it is transmitting on top of another user’s transmission. This causes RF contention at the
target. When RF contention occurs between digital transmissions, it is impossible to
predict which signal is usable. If one transmission is much stronger than the other, it is
received instead of the weaker signal. But in most cases, the two transmissions on the
same frequency and time slot results in both transmissions being unusable. Thus, it is
recommended that only disciplined users are granted the right to use impolite operation.
Further, those impolite users are encouraged to utilize the busy channel LED on their radio
to determine, if the channel is idle prior to transmitting.
When operating in IP Site Connect mode, it is important to understand that impolite channel
access only occurs at the local site. If a call is taking place on the IP Site Connect system, and the
original source of that call is at the same site as the interrupting “impolite” radio, RF contention will
occur and it is unclear which source will be successful. If the original source of the call is at a
different site from the interrupting radio, the original call continues at all other sites except where
the interrupting radio is located.
November, 2008
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System Feature Overview
2.2.3.2
Polite to All Operation (Admit Criteria of “Channel Free”)
When configured for Polite to All operation, the radio checks if channels are idle or busy, prior to
allowing a transmission. The radio is polite to all analog or digital transmissions, another system’s
transmission, or other traffic on your system. This option is often used, when there are neighboring
communications systems, to prevent radio users from disrupting each other’s transmissions.
However, when this option is used, any strong signal on the channel blocks other users from
transmitting.
2.2.3.3
Polite to Own Digital System Operation (Admit Criteria of “Color
Code Free”)
This criteria applies only to digital channels. When configured for Polite to Own Digital System
operation, the radio checks for an idle or busy channel, prior to allowing a transmission. This
operation is similar to the Polite to All operation with exception that the radio is not polite to analog
systems or other system’s transmissions. It is only polite to other traffic in its own system. This
option is often used when there are no neighboring communications systems, or when there is no
concern about interfering with radios in neighboring communication systems.
2.2.3.4
Polite to Own Analog System Operation (Admit Criteria of “Correct
PL”)
This criteria applies only to analog channels. When configured for Polite to Own Analog System
operation, the radio checks for an idle or busy channel, prior to allowing a transmission. This
operation is similar to the Polite to All operation with exception that the radio is not polite to digital
systems or other system’s transmissions.
2.2.3.5
Polite or Impolite While Participating in a Call (In Call Criteria)
The In Call Criteria applies only when the radio is participating in an active call. The radio can
optionally allow others that are part of the call to transmit impolitely (Always) or to follow the
previously configured channel access (Follow Admit Criteria). If configured for an In Call Criteria of
Always, the user will receive a Talk Permit Tone when they press the PTT while receiving a
transmission for them. In otherwords, a radio has the ability to transmit over another user while
listening to their transmission. However, when this happens, the other party does not stop
transmitting and therefore RF contention can occur which may corrupt both transmissions. If
configured for Follow Admit Criteria and the previously configured channel access (Admit Criteria)
is set to either Channel Free or Color Code Free, the user will receive a Transmit Denial Tone
when they press the PTT while receiving a transmission for them. Users must wait until the user
stops transmitting and call hangtime starts before they are granted a transmission. Utilizing the
Channel Free Tone helps train users from transmitting too early. Although a setting of Always may
be useful for speeding up conversations for well disciplined users, it may cause undisciplined
users to “step over” other users. Therefore, it is recommended that most users are provisioned
with an In Call Criteria of Follow Admit Criteria.
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System Feature Overview
2.2.3.6
19
Repeater Wake-up Provisioning
When there is no inbound traffic for a specified duration (Subscriber Inactivity Timer), the repeater
stops transmitting and enters an inactive state. In this inactive state, the repeater is not
transmitting, but instead it is listening for transmissions. When the user or radio needs to transmit
through the repeater, the radio sends a wake-up message to the repeater.
Upon receiving the wake-up message, the repeater activates and begins transmitting idle
messages. The radio then synchronizes with the repeater before it begins its transmission.
The repeater wake-up sequence is configurable within the radio. The number of wake-up attempts
(“TX Wakeup Message Limit“) and the time between the attempts (“TX Sync Wakeup Time Out
Timer”) may be altered if required to operate with other vendor’s systems. It is recommended that
these values remain at default while operating on MOTOTRBO systems.
November, 2008
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System Feature Overview
2.3
MOTOTRBO Digital Features
2.3.1
Digital Voice Features
2.3.1.1
Group Calls
The digital group is a way of enabling groups to share a channel without distracting and disrupting
one another. Because two-way radios are well suited for “one-to-many” types of calls, the Group
Call is the most common call in a MOTOTRBO system. Hence, the majority of conversations takes
place within a group.
Individual radios that need to communicate with one another are grouped together, and configured
to be members of a group. A transmitting radio can be heard by all the radios within the same
group, and on the same logical channel (frequency and time slot.) Two radios cannot hear each
other, if they are on the same logical channel (frequency and time slot) but on different groups.
Two radios on different logical channels cannot hear each other, even if they are placed in the
same group.
In MOTOTRBO systems, capabilities for Group Calls are configured with the portable and mobile
radio CPS. The repeater does not require any specific configuration for groups. Radios can be
configured to enable the user to select among multiple groups using the radio channel selector
knob or buttons, or using the radio menu contacts list. Which group a radio user hears on a given
channel depends on a configurable parameter called the RX Group List. A call preceding tone can
be provisioned to alert the target user of the incoming Group Call. This can be enabled or disabled
per Group. An introduction to configuring Group Calls and RX Group Lists is provided in “System
Design Considerations” on page 143 of this document.
Groups are defined according to the organizational structure of the end user. When planning for
groups, customers should think about:
•
which members of the functional workgroups in their organization that need to talk with one
another,
•
how those workgroups interact with members of other workgroups, and
•
how users will collectively share the channel resources.
Greater detail on the fleetmapping process is provided in “System Design Considerations” on
page 143 of this document.
2.3.1.2
Private Calls
MOTOTRBO provides the capability for a user to place a Private Call (also known as an “Individual
Call”) directly to another radio, even if they are not in the same group. However, for this action to
take place both radios need to be on the same channel and time slot. This feature allows a radio
user to carry a one-to-one conversation that is only heard by the two parties involved. For
example, an employee may use a Private Call to privately alert a specific manager about a
security incident, rather than placing a Group Call that would be heard by the whole group. Though
Private Calls utilize the signaling capabilities in MOTOTRBO systems to govern which radios are
allowed to participate, the use of a Private Call does not necessarily imply the use of encryption or
scrambling.
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System Feature Overview
21
Private Calls can be configured as confirmed or unconfirmed on a per channel basis. For
confirmed private calls, the calling radio transmits a short control signal message to the target
radio. This signaling verifies the presence of the target radio before being allowed to start the call.
The receiving user does not need to manually “answer” this signal, but rather the receiving radio
automatically responds to the setup request. Once the receiving radio replies to the setup request,
the initiating radio sounds a Talk Permit tone and starts the call. The receiving radio sounds a
Private Call indication to the user, prior to relaying the received voice. Once a Private Call is set
up, subsequent transmissions do not require the call setup messaging. For unconfirmed private
calls, the calling radio does not transmit any control signaling before being allowed to start the call.
Although there is no confirmation the radio is present on the system, an audible indication from the
target user may act as confirmation. For example, “Joe are you there?”, “Yes, go ahead.”.
It is important to understand the advantages and disadvantages of confirmed and unconfirmed
operation as it relates to performance. In general, confirming radio presence increases the setup
time (voice access time) of a private call since the user must wait for the control signaling to go
through the radio network before acquiring a talk permit tone. Although this may take more time, it
does guarantee that the target radio is present prior to providing the talk permit tone. When
operating on an IP Site Connect system that is connected through the public internet, this time
may be longer than when operating on a single site since the control messaging may be traversing
through the internet. If the target radio is scanning or roaming, the setup time of a confirmed
Private Call may increase due to the fact that the first control message may not successfully reach
the scanning or roaming radio. The second attempt, which contains a preamble, has a higher
likelihood of reaching the scanning or roaming radio.
Since unconfirmed Private Calls do not transmit any control signaling, the additional setup time is
not required and therefore the voice access time is shorter. Because setup messaging is not used
prior to starting the call, it is possible that scanning or roaming radios may arrive late to a call. This
could cause the user to miss the first few words of the transmission (no more than what is lost
while scanning for a Group Call). In addition, the user must utilize an audible acknowledgement to
validate presence when configured with unconfirmed Private Calls since no control messaging is
used to confirm radio presence.
In MOTOTRBO systems, capabilities for Private Calls are configured with the portable and mobile
radio CPS. The repeater does not require any specific configurations for Private Calls. Radios can
be configured to allow the user to select the recipient of a Private Call using the radio menu
contacts list. Private calls can also be mapped to a channel selection or a programmable button.
Users can also manually dial the destination radio ID with the radio keypad. This means a radio
can make a Private Call to any other radio that is on the channel, regardless of whether the radio
has created a CPS Private Call entry for the target radio. A call receive tone, or call preceding
tone, can be configured to alert the target user of the incoming Private Call. This can be enabled or
disabled per individual radio. Greater detail on the fleetmapping process that governs who is
allowed to make Private Calls and to whom, as well as an introduction to the CPS configuration
section for Private Calls, is provided in “System Design Considerations” on page 143 of this
document.
2.3.1.3
All Call
All Call is a one way voice call between a privileged operator and all users on a logical channel.
The transmitting radio utilizes a special All Call group that every radio on the same system and
logical channel (regardless of group) will receive. Because this is considered a one-way
transmission, users cannot talk back to an All Call. If the user transmits after receiving an All Call,
he transmits using his currently selected group. An All Call follows the Admit Criteria of the
November, 2008
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System Feature Overview
selected channel. More information on the Admit Criteria is provided in “Channel Access
Configuration” on page 199.
All Calls do not communicate across different time slots or channels within the system. The ability
to initiate an All Call is only programmed into radios that are used in supervisory roles. All other
radios monitor All Call transmissions by default. This feature is very useful when a supervisor
needs to communicate with all the users on a logical channel, rather than just a particular group or
individual.
In MOTOTRBO systems, capabilities for All Calls are configured with the portable and mobile
CPS. The repeater does not require any specific configurations for All Calls. Radios can be
configured to enable the user to select an All Call via the radio menu contacts list. All Calls can
also be mapped to a channel selection or a programmable button. A call receive tone, or call
preceding tone, can be configured to alert the target user of the incoming All Call. Greater detail on
the fleetmapping process governs who is allowed to make All Calls, as well as an introduction to
CPS configuration section for All Calls, is provided in “System Design Considerations” on
page 143 of this document.
2.3.2
Digital Signaling Features
We have already described how digital calls utilize digital vocoding and error correction coding
processes, and that a given digital call occupies a single logical channel (frequency and TDMA
time slot). Within a given time slot, the digital call is organized into voice information and signaling
information. Included in the signaling information is an identifier used to describe the type of call
that is transmitted within the time slot (e.g. group call, all call, or private call). Signaling information
also includes identification information and/or control information, which is used to notify listeners
on a voice call of system events and status (e.g. the ID of the transmitting radio and the group ID).
Because this information is repeated periodically during the course of the call, this embedded
signaling allows users to join a voice transmission that is already in progress and still participate in
the call. This is referred to as Late Entry, and is an advantage over analog signaling schemes.
2.3.2.1
PTT ID and Aliasing
This feature allows the target radio to identify the originator of a call. If programmed with the radio
CPS (Customer Programming Software), a user friendly alphanumeric name or “alias” can also be
displayed. These user friendly aliases are also used when initiating voice calls and digital signaling
features. The alias information in the transmitting radio should correspond with the alias
information in the receiving radio. The transmitting radio ID is sent over the air and, if there is an
alias for that ID in the receiving radio, the receiving radio displays the alias. If no alias is configured
at the receiving radio for that ID, then only the transmitting radio's ID is shown.
2.3.2.2
Radio Disable (Selective Radio Inhibit)
This feature allows for a radio, typically in a supervisory role, to disable another radio via over the
air signaling. The disabled radio's display blanks and the radio is no longer able to make or receive
calls. The radio can still be turned on and off; this indicates that the radio has not failed, but is
disabled. Once disabled, a radio can only be enabled via the CPS, or by a Radio Enable
(Uninhibit) command from another supervisor radio. All radios are configured to accept inhibit
commands by default, but this can be disabled via the CPS. The target radio must be turned on
and be within coverage of the site it was disabled at for this action to be completed successfully.
This is important when disabling radios that roam or scan since the radio locks onto the site or
November, 2008
System Feature Overview
23
channel on which it was disabled, even after a power cycle. It may be required to return the radio
to the site in which it was disabled before it can receive an enable command over the air. This may
also be accomplished by communicating with the radio on the talkaround frequency of the site in
which it was disabled. The Radio Disable feature can be used to stop any inappropriate use of a
radio, or to prevent a stolen radio from functioning.
In MOTOTRBO systems, Radio Disable is configured in the portable and mobile radios with the
CPS. To allow a radio to use this function, it must be enabled in the CPS “Menu” settings. To
permit (or prevent) a radio from receiving and responding to this command, go to the “Signaling
Systems” settings in the CPS.
2.3.2.3
Remote Monitor
The Remote Monitor feature allows a remote user to activate a target radio’s microphone and
transmitter for a period of time. A call is silently set up on the target radio, and its PTT is controlled
remotely without any indications given to the end user. The duration that the target radio transmits
after receiving a Remote Monitor command is set in the target radio through the CPS. When
receiving the Remote Monitor command, the target radio initiates a Private Call back to the
originator of the Remote Monitor command.
This feature is used to ascertain the situation of a target radio which is powered-on, but is
unresponsive. This is beneficial in a number of situations including:
•
theft,
•
incapacity of the radio user, or
•
allowing the initiator of an emergency call to communicate hands-free in an emergency
situation.
In MOTOTRBO systems, Remote Monitor is configured in portable and mobile radio CPS. To allow
a radio to use this function, it must be enabled in the CPS “Menu” settings. To permit (or prevent) a
radio from receiving and responding to this command, go to the “Signaling Systems” settings in the
CPS. When a radio is configured to decode the remote monitor command, the duration that the
target radio transmits after receiving a Remote Monitor command is also set in the CPS “Signaling
Systems” settings of the target radio.
The Remote Monitor feature may be activated on a disabled radio. Remote Monitor could also be
programmed to be activated on radios that are in emergency mode only.
2.3.2.4
Radio Check
The Radio Check feature checks if a radio is active in a system without notifying the user of the
target radio. Besides the Busy LED, there is no other audible or visual indication on the checked
radio. The receiving radio automatically and silently responds with an acknowledgement to the
initiating radio.
This feature is used to discreetly determine if a target radio is available. For example, if a radio
user is non-responsive, Radio Check could be used to determine if the target radio is switched on
and monitoring the channel. If the target radio responds with an acknowledgement, the initiator
could then take additional action such as using the Remote Monitor command to activate the
target radio’s PTT.
November, 2008
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System Feature Overview
In MOTOTRBO systems, Radio Check is configured in portable and mobile radio CPS. To allow a
radio to use this function, it must be enabled in the CPS “Menu” settings. All MOTOTRBO radios
will receive and respond to a Radio Check, i.e. this feature cannot be turned off in the CPS.
2.3.2.5
Call Alert
The Call Alert feature allows a radio user to essentially page another user. When a radio receives
a Call Alert, a persistent audible and visual alert is presented to the user. The initiator of the Call
Alert is also displayed. If a user is away from his radio at the time of the reception, the alert
remains until the user clears the Call Alert screen. If the user presses the PTT while the Call Alert
screen is active, he starts an Individual Call to the originator of the Call Alert. For in-vehicle
applications, this is often used in conjunction with the Horn and Lights option. When a user is away
from his vehicle, a Call Alert can initiate the vehicle’s horn and lights to sound and flash, which
notifies the user to return to the vehicle and call the originator.
In MOTOTRBO systems, Call Alert is configured in portable and mobile radio CPS. To allow a
radio to use this function, it must be enabled in the CPS “Menu” settings. All MOTOTRBO radios
will receive and respond to a Call Alert (i.e. you cannot disable this feature by using the CPS).
2.3.3
Digital Emergency
MOTOTRBO offers a variety of emergency handling strategies that will fit the customer’s
organizational needs. In its basic form, MOTOTRBO provides the ability for a radio user in distress
to send a confirmed emergency alarm message, and emergency voice to a user on a supervisory
radio. The emergency alarm message contains the individual radio ID of the initiator. Upon
reception of an emergency alarm, the supervisor receives audible and visual indications of the
emergency and the initiating radio ID is displayed. Depending on configuration, emergency voice
may follow between the initiator and the supervisor. Once the supervisor handles the emergency
situation (i.e. solves the problem), he clears the emergency on the supervisor radio. Once the
initiator clears his emergency on the initiator radio, the emergency is considered over.
NOTE: A radio will not roam while reverted to a channel due to an emergency or when Active Site
Search is disabled. Reference the site roaming section for details on the interactions
between emergency and roaming.
Each mobile radio can program the Emergency Alarm to any of the programmable buttons,
whereas for the portable radio the Emergency Alarm can only be programmed to the orange
button. The Emergency Alarm can also be triggered externally through a footswitch for a mobile
application or any other applicable accessory. Pressing the emergency button causes the radio to
enter emergency mode, and begin its emergency process.
When a user presses the Emergency button, the radio gives audible and visual indications to show
that it has entered emergency mode. There is a CPS configurable option available, referred to as
Silent Emergency, which suppresses all indications of the emergency status on the user’s radio.
This feature is valuable in situations where an indication of an emergency state is not desirable.
Once the user breaks radio silence by pressing the PTT and speaking, the Silent Emergency
ends, and audible and visual indications return.
When the user’s radio is in the emergency mode, various other features are blocked that may
distract him from his communication with the supervisor. For example, the user will not be able to
initiate other features such as scan, private call, or other command and control functions.
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System Feature Overview
25
Once the emergency is complete (e.g. turn off and turn on the radio, or long press of emergency
button), these abilities will return.
The emergency sequence is generally made up of two major parts:
•
the signaling and
•
the following voice call.
The emergency alarm is sent first, and depending on configuration is commonly followed up by an
emergency call.
An emergency alarm is not a data service, but rather a confirmed command and control signaling
that is sent to a group. More than one radio can be configured on the system to monitor that group,
and be designated to acknowledge emergency alarms for that group. These radios are considered
acknowledging supervisors. There is no user level acknowledgement. The supervisor radio
automatically acknowledges the emergency, and provides an alert to the supervisor radio user.
There are other radios that are designated to only monitor emergency alarms, but are not
permitted to acknowledge them; these users are commonly referred to as non-acknowledging
supervisors. Thus, sending the emergency alarm to a group allows for multiple supervisors to
receive the emergency alarm indication. It is important that only one acknowledging supervisor
should be configured per group and slot; otherwise there may be contention between the
acknowledgements.
The supervisors retain a list of received emergency alarms so that they can keep track of multiple
emergencies. Once cleared, the emergency alarm is removed from the list, and the next one is
displayed. These emergencies are displayed in a last-in-first-out sequence. The supervisor has
the ability to hide the emergency alarm list, so he can contact service personnel to attend to the
received emergency situation. The channel where the emergency alarm was received is displayed
to aid the supervisor when changing channels.
If the user follows up the Emergency Alarm with a voice call while in the emergency mode, his
transmission contains an embedded emergency indication. Any radio user can be configured to
display this embedded emergency indication. Emergency calls are always processed with an
admit criteria of Always. This allows the emergency call to transmit regardless of the current
channel activity. If there is another radio currently transmitting, contention may occur.
The initiating radio supports a feature that is tied to silent emergency and the emergency call. The
“Unmute Option” prevents the radio from receiving voice traffic after initiation of a Silent
Emergency. In situations where an indication of an emergency state is not desirable, it is important
to be able to mute incoming voice, that may give away the initiators emergency state. Once the
user breaks radio silence by pressing the PTT and speaking, the radio returns to its normal
unmute rules.
Silent emergency and the unmute options have no effect on data. It is the responsibility of the end
user to make sure data is not sent to a terminal that would divulge any emergency state.
Transmission of data does not clear Silent Emergency.
The channel and group on which a user transmits his emergency is crucial to properly contacting a
supervisor. MOTOTRBO offers the ability for a user to transmit the emergency on a selected
channel or to automatically change to a predetermined channel to transmit his emergency.
November, 2008
26
System Feature Overview
Transmitting an emergency on a selected channel (referred to as a “tactical” emergency) is often
useful on small systems where there are only a few groups of users. Each group has its own
specified user that handles emergencies.
Automatically changing to a predetermined channel, referred to as “reverting”, is often useful in
systems that have a dispatch style emergency strategy. Users in various groups and channels are
configured to revert to a specific channel and group to process an emergency. This allows one
user to monitor an “Emergency” group, and all other users revert to him in case of an emergency.
This minimizes the possibility of supervisors missing emergencies on one channel, while
monitoring another channels. After the emergency is cleared, all users revert back to the selected
channel they were on before the emergency. In MOTOTRBO systems, the Emergency Revert
Channel is configured in portable and mobile radio CPS at the Digital Emergency Systems
settings.
There are three major methods to process the emergency alarm and the emergency call; all are
configurable through the CPS. They are Emergency Alarm Only, Emergency Alarm and Call, and
Emergency Alarm with Voice to Follow.
2.3.3.1
Emergency Alarm Only
When configured for Emergency Alarm Only, the emergency process only consists of the
emergency alarm part. The number of emergency alarm attempts and their admit criteria are
configurable, and can even be set to retry indefinitely. The number of alarm attempts are controlled
by CPS parameters in the Digital Emergency System settings; these parameters include the
number of polite and impolite retries. The alarm is initially sent regardless of channel activity, and
once the configured impolite attempts are exhausted, the polite retries are executed when the
channel is idle. Emergency ends when:
•
an acknowledgement is received,
•
all retries are exhausted,
•
the user manually clears the emergency, or
•
the user pushes the PTT.
No voice call is associated with the emergency when operating as Emergency Alarm Only.
Pressing the PTT clears the emergency, and a standard voice call is processed.
2.3.3.2
Emergency Alarm and Call
When configured for Emergency Alarm and Call, the emergency consists of the emergency alarm
process followed by the ability to perform an Emergency Call. The number of emergency alarm
attempts and their admit criteria are configurable, and can even be set to retry indefinitely. The
alarm is initially sent regardless of channel activity, and once the configured impolite retries are
exhausted, the polite retries are executed when the channel is idle.
Emergency alarm stops when:
•
an acknowledgement is received, or
•
all retries are exhausted.
The radio still remains in an emergency state. Any follow up PTT initiates an emergency call, and
the call includes an embedded emergency indication. If the user presses the PTT before the radio
November, 2008
System Feature Overview
27
sends an emergency alarm, the radio stops sending the alarm, and starts the emergency call.
While in the emergency mode, all subsequent voice transmissions are emergency calls. The user
remains in emergency mode until he manually clears emergency. The only way to reinitiate the
emergency alarm process is to reinitiate the emergency.
2.3.3.3
Emergency Alarm with Voice to Follow
When configured for Emergency Alarm and with Voice to Follow, the emergency consists of
sending a single emergency alarm, and followed by an automatic transmission of an Emergency
Call. This is referred to as hot microphone. The radio only sends one emergency alarm regardless
if there is channel activity, and then without waiting for an acknowledgement the radio immediately
activates the microphone and initiates an emergency call without the need of the user pressing the
PTT. The duration of the hot microphone state is configurable through the CPS in the Digital
Emergency Systems settings. This transmission is considered an emergency call, and therefore
includes the embedded emergency indication. Once this hot microphone duration expires, the
radio stops transmitting, but remains in the emergency mode. Any follow up PTT initiates an
emergency call, and includes the embedded emergency indication. The user remains in the
emergency mode until he manually clears his emergency. The only way to reinitiate the
emergency alarm and the hot microphone is to re-initiate the emergency.
It is important to note that when configured for Emergency Alarm with Voice to Follow, the radio will
continue to transmit voice for the duration of the provisioned hot microphone timer. Since voice
has priority over data, any data is queued while voice is transmitting, including the GPS update
that was triggered by the emergency. The GPS data cannot be delivered until after the radio stops
transmitting voice, and after the repeater hangtime has expired. The GPS data has no additional
priority over other data queued in the radios, or over any traffic on the channel. Therefore, its
delivery may be delayed if the radio in emergency has pending data queued or if the channel is
busy processing other traffic.
It is recommended when utilizing Emergency Alarm with Voice to Follow and GPS, that the hot
microphone timer be at maximum 30 seconds. There are a few reasons for this. First of all, data
messages will not stay in the queue for ever, 30 seconds is short enough so to give the GPS data
a chance to be transmitted without timing out. Second, if the hot microphone timer is longer than
30 seconds, and the GPS update rate is around the same value, then other GPS messages may
start to fill up in the queue while the voice transmission is processing. This not only occurs with the
radio in emergency, but with all other radios since the channel is busy. Therefore when the voice
call ends, all radios will be attempting to access the channel with their GPS data which increases
the likelihood of collisions and lost messages. Finally, it is important to understand that while the
user is transmitting due to its hot microphone timer, there is no way to communicate back to him.
Most users can explain their situation in less than 30 seconds and require some feedback from the
emergency dispatcher much sooner. That is why it is recommended to keep this value low and if
additional monitoring is required, the remote monitor feature can be utilized. Only use a long hot
microphone timer in specialized applications.
Also, since the emergency alarm itself is not acknowledged nor retried, its reliability is less than
that of the standard Emergency Alarm and Emergency Alarm Only and Call. These considerations
should be taken into account when choosing to operate with Emergency Alarm with Voice to
Follow.
November, 2008
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System Feature Overview
2.4
MOTOTRBO Integrated Data
2.4.1
Overview
When performing in digital mode, any MOTOTRBO radio can be used as an integrated voice and
data radio, where the radio can send voice as well as data messages on a given logical channel.
This does not refer to data services like enabling users to surf the web, send video images, or
synchronize their office desktops. This is not the right technology for such bandwidth-hungry
applications. However, it is a great technology for productivity-enhancing applications like
messaging, location based services, simple database queries, bar code reading, and fill-in-theform type of applications. Additionally, it is built into the MOTOTRBO system, so there are no
monthly fees or dependencies on public carrier services, and customers control what applications
their users can access.
The MOTOTRBO system provides reliable data communications throughout the same areas
where the system provides readily usable voice communications. However, there is a trade-off
between the desired RF coverage area for data and the data throughput of the system. Extending
the range of a system's operation requires more data message retries to successfully complete
confirmed transactions, thus lowering throughput.
Integrating voice and data on the same channel brings several benefits. These include:
•
Use of one RF channel for both voice and data.
•
Use of one system infrastructure for both voice and data.
•
Use of one subscriber to send and retrieve both voice and data messages over the air.
Integrating voice and data on the same channel also brings several considerations. These include
the following:
•
Traffic loading
•
Customer application requirements
•
Contention of voice and data.
“System Design Considerations” on page 143 of this document provides practical guidance on the
above considerations.
MOTOTRBO supports data services in a number of ways.
•
MOTOTRBO contains a built-in text messaging service that allows radios to send “unit-tounit” and “unit-to-group” messages directly from the user interface of the radio.
•
November, 2008
MOTOTRBO also enables infrastructure and/or PC based applications by supporting
Internet Protocol (IP) addressing and IP packet data services. Rather than relying
upon external modems, MOTOTRBO radios can connect directly to computer
equipment with standard USB interfaces. This simplifies and lowers the cost of
integrating with applications, and at the same time expands the universe of potential
applications that organizations can deploy. Depending upon availability in your region,
Motorola offers two PC based MOTOTRBO applications.
System Feature Overview
•
29
MOTOTRBO supports a Third Party Application Partner Program. This program includes a
complete application developer’s kit that fully describes interfaces for IP data services,
command and control of the radio, and for option boards that can be installed in the radio.
For some infrastructure based data applications, the radio must first complete a registration
process before data messages can be exchanged between the radio and the infrastructure based
application. Registration has no impact on voice operation, aside from utilizing the same channel.
Polite voice calls will have to wait until an in-progress registration completes before it can use the
channel, while impolite voice calls can transmit on top of a registration transmission. A radio does
not have to register for voice services. A radio registers when the radio powers up in a data
capable mode, or changes into a data capable mode. A radio registers with a Presence Notifier,
which is incorporated within the third party applications. The Presence Notifier informs the data
application servers that the registered radio is “on the system” and available for services.
In MOTOTRBO systems, the codeplug configuration determines whether or not a radio attempts to
register on the selected channel. This is defined via the ARS parameter which is enabled or
disabled through the settings within each channel. It must be set to enabled for those channels
that are utilized for data communications with infrastructure based applications.
November, 2008
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System Feature Overview
2.4.2
Text Messaging Services
Multiple MOTOTRBO system components interact together to deliver text messaging services.
These include the built-in text messaging capabilities of MOTOTRBO subscriber radios and the
third party text messaging applications. The services provided by each of these components are
described in the following subsections.
Internet
Mobile Radios
Tx
USB
Rx
Cell phone or e-mail
addressable device
USB
Application Server
•Presence Notifier
•Text Messaging Server
•Text Messaging Dispatch
•MCDD
USB
Portable Radios
Tx
Rx
Control Stations
USB
USB
LAN
USB
MOTOTRBO Text Messaging
Mobile Client
Fixed Clients (Dispatcher)
MOTOTRBO Text Messaging Client
Figure 2-8 Text Messaging Services
Figure 2-8 shows a sample MOTOTRBO Text Messaging system configuration. See “System
Components and Topologies” on page 93 for more details on setting up your MOTOTRBO system.
2.4.2.1
Built-In Text Messaging Service
The built-in text messaging feature allows MOTOTRBO portable and mobile radio users to send
and receive information in a text format. This feature provides a useful alternative to voice on the
MOTOTRBO system. The built-in text message service is fully accessed from the menu system on
MOTOTRBO radio models with keypads and displays. Some aspects of this service are also
available to non-display models.
2.4.2.1.1 Services Provided to a Radio User
Using the built-in text messaging services, a radio user can create, send, receive, store and
display a text message. The following capabilities are included:
November, 2008
System Feature Overview
2.4.2.2
31
•
A radio user can create a text message in one of two ways: Quick text or limited free-form
text messages. Quick text messages are pre-defined using CPS. This allows a user to
choose from commonly sent messages without having to retype the content. Once selected,
the user is allowed to edit any part of the Quick text message prior to sending. The CPS
allows you to define 10 Quick Text messages.
•
A radio user can select to send a text message to other radios. Messages can be sent to an
individual or to a group. When a message is sent to an individual, the sender receives an
acknowledgement once the recipient receives the message. If all delivery retry attempts
were exhausted, a failure indication will be generated. With messages addressed to a
group, the sender only receives confirmation that the message was transmitted and does
not receive confirmation from any of the intended recipients.
•
When receiving a text message, the user is notified of a new message by an icon, display
string, and an audible tone if enabled in the codeplug via the CPS.
•
Messages are received only if the radio is currently in digital mode of operation. A radio user
should enter scan mode to receive messages if multiple channels are being utilized. System
planning considerations associated with data and scan are discussed in “System Design
Considerations” on page 143 of this document.
•
A user can store up to 30 received or sent text messages at a time. The user is notified once
the Inbox and sent folder storage becomes full. Once full, subsequent new messages
automatically cause the oldest messages to be deleted. Messages are not deleted when the
radio is turned off.
•
The user can scroll through messages and select any message to read, reply to, forward,
save or delete.
Services Provided to a Third Party Text Message Application
Motorola provides an Application Development Kit (ADK) which documents how a text message
application interfaces with the text message protocol used for MOTOTRBO. A list of available
ADKs is available on page 89 of this manual.
November, 2008
32
2.4.3
System Feature Overview
Location Services
Tx
Rx
GPS Radios
Application Server
•Presence Notifier
•Location Server
•Location Dispatch
Tx
Rx
Control Stations
GPS Radios
LAN
Fixed Clients (Dispatcher)
MOTOTRBO Location Client
Figure 2-9 Location Services
The MOTOTRBO location feature allows a dispatcher to determine the current location of a radio
on a display map. The dispatcher can obtain the radio’s location alone (latitude/longitude) or the
location combined with other information about the environment (horizontal speed, direction, etc.)
that allows value-added services, such as tracking of resources.
MOTOTRBO systems enable location services via two complementary functions. First, the
MOTOTRBO mobile and portable radio portfolio includes models that are equipped with a built-in
GPS receiver. The acquisition of location data is done by a GPS receiver inside the radio and is
dependent on the GPS receiver receiving accurate signals from the earth-orbiting Global
Positioning System (GPS) satellites. However, the GPS receiver may not work well indoors or in
environments where the sky is largely obscured. Using the integrated data services capability of
the MOTOTRBO system, GPS equipped mobiles and portables are able to transmit their location
coordinates, over the radio system, to a receiving application that displays the radios’ geographic
locations on a high resolution map. This third party receiving application is the second part of the
system.
MOTOTRBO provides a location interface to third party location services applications For more
information regarding third party applications, please see “Third Party Application Partner
Program” on page 88.
November, 2008
System Feature Overview
2.4.3.1
33
Performance Specifications
GPS Transmitter
Portable
TTFF (Time to First Fix) Cold Start
< 2 minutes
TTFF (Time to First Fix) Hot Start
< 10 seconds
Horizontal Accuracy
< 10 meters
Mobile
< 1 minute
Note: Accuracy specifications are for long-term tracking (95th percentile values > 5 satellites visible at
a nominal -130 dBm signal strength).
The definitions for some of the terms stated in the table above are as below:
•
Cold start – A cold start scenario occurs when the radio is first powered up, and the GPS
receiver is attempting to acquire its first position lock. In this scenario, the GPS receiver only
has a valid almanac stored; it does not have any valid satellite ephemeris data nor valid realtime clock synchronization. Almanac data is stored in a non-volatile (persistent) memory,
and is valid for approximately one year. The GPS receiver regularly updates the almanac
data; therefore it will always be valid unless the radio is powered off for more than one year.
The almanac data provides a mapping of the GPS satellites’ position in the sky in relation to
a real-time clock.
•
Hot start – A hot start scenario occurs when the GPS receiver attempts to acquire a new
location fix after a previous fix had occurred recently. In this scenario, the GPS receiver has
valid satellite ephemeris data, a valid almanac, and valid real-time clock synchronization.
•
TTFF – Time to First Fix indicates the time the GPS receiver takes to determine its first or
subsequent position lock. This is determined largely by the time taken to download a full
satellite ephemeris or satellite orientation packet with a data rate of 50 bits per second (bps),
as well as, how long it takes for the GPS receiver to reach the relevant satellite in its scan
list. In a cold start, the scan list includes all of the 24 orbiting satellites. The GPS receiver
samples each satellite for a certain amount of time to determine if it is visible or not before
moving to the next satellite. The receiver continues to do this until it detects a certain
number of visible satellites and can determine an approximate location, thus helping the
receiver to truncate the scan list. In a hot start, the receiver already has most, if not all, the
data needed to calculate its position. Therefore, no scanning is needed and minimal
downloading is necessary to calculate position, resulting in a lower time to acquire a
positional fix.
•
Horizontal Accuracy – Horizontal Accuracy indicates a radius length from the reported
point location. The latitude and longitude reported is equivalent to a point in the center of a
circle, with the horizontal accuracy value as the radius of the circle. The true position should
be within this location range.
November, 2008
34
System Feature Overview
2.4.3.2
Services Provided to a Radio User
When the location service is disabled, the radio does not provide any location updates to a
location application server. An icon is displayed on the radio if the location service is enabled. The
absence of this icon indicates that the location service is disabled. The icon shows a full satellite
dish when good GPS signals are detected and an empty satellite dish when the radio is receiving
poor GPS signals.
Good Signal
Poor Signal
Disabled
no icon
The radio does not display its current location on its screen. With the exception of pressing the
Emergency button, a radio user cannot trigger a location update to a location application server. In
general, the radio user does not have to take any action in this process; the radio transmits the
location coordinates automatically over the system.
2.4.3.3
Services Provided to a Location Application
For all the services, a third party location application server is required to send an explicit request
to the radio. A radio does not provide unsolicited location update to a location application server.
When the radio turns on and/or selects a properly configured channel (i.e. the previously
mentioned “ARS Parameter”), the radio registers with the presence service. The location
application thus learns that this radio is on the air, and will make an explicit request for location
updates if it is configured to track the location of the radio.
The GPS equipped radios transmit an update of their location coordinates over the radio system in
response to 3 service methods.
•
Single Location Update – The location application server wants to know the current location
of a radio user. In this case, the application sends a request for a single location update.
•
Periodic Location Updates – Single location update is used to track the location of a radio
user by a location application server, but is an inefficient use of air interface. Location
tracking allows a location application server to periodically get the location of a radio user by
sending a single location request that contains the time interval between updates. The radio
continues to update its location periodically at the specified time interval until the request is
cancelled by the location application server. The location tracking application can configure
the radio to provide updates as frequently as once every 10 seconds. The default value is
once every 10 minutes. The rate of update is configurable in increments of 1 second and
must be matched with the resource capabilities of the radio system and the needs of the
end-user. This is discussed further in “System Design Considerations” on page 143.
November, 2008
System Feature Overview
•
35
On Emergency – A radio will send its location after the user triggers an emergency alarm or
an emergency alarm and call request. The location update is sent only to the location
application server which had previously sent an active location request for location updates
from that radio upon an emergency event. This location update is sent by the radio only after
the processing of emergency is completed. For example, for Emergency Alarm with Call, the
location data is only sent after the emergency alarm is acknowledged and the initial
emergency call is completed. This happens because the location data is sent as a data burst
which has lower priority than the voice call.
November, 2008
36
System Feature Overview
2.4.3.4
GPS Revert Channel
The GPS Revert Channel feature allows system operators a configurable option to off load radio
transmitted location updates onto a pre-programmed digital channel that differs from the digital
Selected Channel. This feature effectively removes Location Update traffic from the Selected
Channel in order to free up that channel to accommodate increased voice loads and/or to enhance
the user experience by reducing the number of channel busies during voice call requests. This
feature also allows a large group to communicate on a single voice channel while sending location
updates on multiple GPS Revert Channels to accommodate larger Location Update loads. This
increases the Location Update throughput associated with radios belonging to a single group.
Each channel programmed into the radio has a configurable CPS option to designate the GPS
transmission channel on which it transmits Location Update messages. The CPS options for the
GPS transmission channel are Selected, All, and None. Choosing Selected means that the GPS
updates are transmitted on the current channel. In the case of All, a single channel must be
chosen from the list of all channels. This chosen channel is known as the GPS Revert Channel
and this is where GPS updates are transmitted on. It is understood that there may be instances
when the radio is known to be out of range of any control station accepting location updates. In
order to extend battery life, minimize time away from the Selected Channel, and/or to efficiently
use frequency resources in these situations, the radio can also be configured to disable the
transmission of Location Update messages on a per channel basis by using the selection None. It
should be noted that a radio will be shown as present to the dispatcher when a radio is switched
from a GPS enabled channel to a GPS disabled channel until the presence indication duration is
exceeded.
To configure the radio to support location updates, there are a few parameters that must be
managed correctly. How these parameters interact to dictate the radio’s performance is shown in
the table that follows. These parameters are the radio wide GPS setting that resides in the General
Settings CPS folder, and the ARS and GPS Revert settings that are present for each channel
defined in CPS. In this case the channel being defined is titled “Channel1”. Also, in the case where
a GPS Revert Channel (GPS1) is selected, this requires that GPS1 has already been defined as a
channel in CPS.
General
Settings: GPS
Channels:
Zone1
Channel1
ARS
Channels:
Zone1
Channel1
GPS Revert
Result
Not Enabled
Not Enabled
Not Selectable
GPS Chip: Disabled
Presence: Disabled
Location: Disabled
Not Enabled
Enabled
Not Selectable
GPS Chip: Disabled
Presence: Enabled
Location: Disabled
Enabled
Not Enabled
Not Selectable
GPS Chip: Enabled
Presence: Disabled
Location: Disabled
November, 2008
System Feature Overview
General
Settings: GPS
Enabled
Enabled
37
Channels:
Zone1
Channel1
ARS
Enabled
Channels:
Zone1
Channel1
GPS Revert
Result
None
GPS Chip: Enabled
Presence: Enabled
Location: Disabled
Selected (Channel1)
GPS Chip: Enabled
Presence: Enabled
Location: TX on Channel1
GPS1
GPS Chip: Enabled
Presence: Enabled
Location: TX on GPS1
Enabled
Note: Not Selectable means the setting cannot be configured as the option is grayed out.
2.4.4
Telemetry Services
The MOTOTRBO radios incorporate telemetry functionality that is only supported in the digital
mode of operation. Both the MOTOTRBO portable and mobile radio support General Purpose
Input/Output (GPIO) lines on the radio accessory connector.
With this telemetry functionality, the originating radio can send a telemetry command to another
radio at the press of a programmable button. Telemetry commands instruct GPIO pins on the
target radio to be set, clear, toggle or pulse. The telemetry commands can also be used to query
the status of GPIO pins at the target radio.
At the receiving end, the basic built-in telemetry functionality allows the target radio to translate the
received telemetry command and to trigger GPIO action. It also enables the target radio to display
a pre-programmed Text Status Message or act on a telemetry command received from the
originating radio responding to an event at the originating radio's GPIO pins. The Telemetry Text
Status Message is provisioned in the source telemetry radio and is displayed as a popup alert at a
target radio via the telemetry application. Since the Telemetry Text Status Message is not sent as a
standard text message, it is not saved in the Inbox or indexed. Furthermore, its target can only be
another radio since it must be received and processed by the telemetry application within the
radio.
It is possible for the message to be forwarded to an external computer connected to the radio, or
the option board, where a customer supplied application could monitor and take an action.
MOTOTRBO provides a telemetry interface for third party telemetry applications. Further
information is available in the Telemetry Services ADK listed under “MOTOTRBO Documents
Available via the Third Party Application Partner Program” on page 89.
Telemetry over-the-air signaling utilizes the data service similar to the way that text messaging
works. It can co-exist with voice and text messaging. If telemetry messages are expected to occur
often, for example 30 radios sending telemetry once every 5 minutes, this may affect performance
of other services on the channel. This should be taken into consideration when determining the
data load versus quality of service of a channel.
November, 2008
38
System Feature Overview
2.4.4.1
Physical Connection Information
The MOTOTRBO portable offers three GPIO pins, and the MOTOTRBO mobile offers five GPIO
pins for telemetry. These GPIO pins can be set to high or low, toggled, or pulsed for a configured
duration. A pin can be configured to be active high or active low. It is recommended to use an ACpowered MOTOTRBO mobile for most extended telemetry applications. Motorola does not
currently offer external hardware for telemetry configuration.
The GPIO lines have a 4.7k ohm pull-up resistor tied to a regulated 5 VDC supply within the mobile
radio. The regulated supply remains on as long as power is supplied to the mobile, even if the
mobile is turned off so the pull-ups are active even when the radio is off.
When configured as input, the voltages of the GPIO lines should be within the range of 0 VDC to
5.5 VDC.
•
0 VDC to 0.8 VDC are interpreted as low level
•
2.2 VDC to 5.5 VDC are interpreted as high level
When configured as output, the GPIO will be able to source a current of 1mA maximum at the
following levels:
•
4.7 VDC to 5.5 VDC for a high level
•
0 VDC to 0.8 VDC for a low level
2.4.4.2
Telemetry Examples
See section 3.2.1.1.2 and section 3.2.2.1.2 for diagrams and descriptions of the following simple
telemetry examples in both direct and repeater mode.
•
Send Telemetry Command from Radio to Another Radio to Toggle an Output Pin
•
Send Telemetry Message from Radio to Another Radio when Input Pin State Changes
•
Send Telemetry Command to Toggle an Output Pin from Radio to Another Radio when Input
Pin State Changes
November, 2008
System Feature Overview
2.5
39
Scan
MOTOTRBO supports scanning of analog voice, digital voice, data, and digital signaling through a
repeater or directly from another radio. When scanning, the radio continuously searches a list of
channels for activity of interest. When activity of interest is found, the radio stops and switches to
that channel. When finished, the radio continues scanning the channels in the list.
The set of channels to be scanned (or scan members) are determined by a configured Scan List. A
radio can have multiple Scan Lists, and each channel in a radio can be associated with a different
Scan List. Scan Lists can contain only analog channels, only digital channels, or a mixture of both
analog and digital channels. Once scan is started, the radio scans through each scan member of
the associated Scan List for the selected channel.
The CPS allows a user to create, edit, or delete scan members in a Scan List, as well as associate
a Scan List to a channel. The user can start or stop scan, and also add or remove scan members
of a Scan List using the radio’s interface. Changes to the Scan List made by the radio are
persistent until the radio is turned off. Note that Scan and Roam are mutually exclusive on a
channel within CPS.
When the radio is scanning, and it detects a digital scan member in its Scan List, it looks for
transmissions targeted towards the group(s) associated with that channel. The radio also looks for
transmissions targeted towards itself (e.g. private calls or signaling commands). The radio can be
configured such that replies that occur within a specified duration is transmitted to the same group
and channel (this reply is called talkback). If the reply occurs outside of this duration, it is
considered a new transmission.
There are also options for where new voice transmissions (outside of the previously mentioned
duration) are transmitted while scanning. Voice can be configured to transmit on the selected
channel (the channel from which scan was started), another predetermined channel, or on the last
landed channel for voice (the last channel that scan “locked-on-to”). Data and digital signaling are
always transmitted on the selected channel. The last landed channel is not updated for data and
digital signaling.
Priority levels can also be configured for members of a Scan List. There are three levels of priority
within a scan list – Priority-1, Priority-2, and Non-Priority. The Priority-1 and Priority-2 channels are
scanned more often than the Non-Priority scan members. Priority scan is available with any mix of
analog, digital, talkaround or repeater channels.
The Scan List can be configured to have one Priority-1 member and one Priority-2 member; the
remaining are considered Non-Priority. When scanning, these priorities affect the order of
scanning. The following represents the scan order of Scan List: Priority-1, Priority-2, Non-Priority1, Priority-1, Priority-2, Non-Priority-2, Priority-1, Priority-2, Non-Priority-3, etc. However, the radio
may reorder Non-Priority scan members in order to optimize the efficiency of the scan.
In the CPS, there are two parameters associated with scan lists - Set/Clear Priority-1 and Set/
Clear Priority-2. These are used to mark a scan list member as Priority 1 and Priority 2; unmarked
list members are “non priority”.
While scanning, the radio can accept data (e.g., text message, location, telemetry, or terminal (PC)
data). However this is only applicable if the data is received on its selected (home) channel.
November, 2008
40
System Feature Overview
NOTE: In MOTOTRBO radio’s with software versions R04.00.00 or later, various enhancements
were made to the scan engine to improve scanning performance. This has caused some
features, such as scanning for Group Text Messaging and Emergency Alarms, to no longer
be backward compatible with older software versions. All equipment must be upgraded for
these features to perform correctly.
2.5.1
Priority Sampling
When scanning, if some activity of interest is found, the radio stops and switches to that channel. If
the activity of interest is incoming data addressed to the scanning radio, an individual voice call, or
it is on a Priority-1 scan member, scanning completely stops for the duration of the call. But if the
activity is a voice group call on a Priority-2 or a Non-Priority scan member, the radio continues to
periodically scan higher priority scan members.
For example, if the radio is receiving voice on a Non-Priority scan member, then the Priority-1 and
Priority-2 scan members are scanned periodically. In this case, the order of scan will be: Priority-1,
Priority-2, Priority-1, Priority-2, etc. If the radio is receiving voice on a Priority-2 scan member, then
only the Priority-1 scan member is scanned periodically. If a transmission of interest is found on
the higher priority member, the radio switches to that member to monitor the transmission. If it is
not of interest, it returns to the previously monitored member. Priority Sampling does not occur
when transmitting.
Because the radio is currently receiving voice, leaving the current scan member to scan a higher
priority member will cause the radio to temporarily leave the current transmission. This causes an
audio hole in received audio that is being played through the radio’s speaker. Thus, the intervals
during which the radio samples the higher priority members, essentially, becomes the audio holes
that are introduced into the currently monitored voice. If there are two priority channels configured,
this time is how often a sample is taken of either one. Therefore, one particular channel is sampled
at a rate of double the priority sampling duration. A balance between how often an audio hole is
introduced and how often a channel is sampled needs to be achieved to ensure that transmissions
are not missed and to prevent introducing too many audio holes. This interval is CPS configurable
via the “Priority Sample Time” interval parameter. Since the radio only samples at the rate of the
Priority Sample Time, it is important to understand that if sampling for data, the Scan Preamble
must be set to double the Priority Sample Time.
The user experiences few to no audio holes if he is currently unmuted to a lower priority voice
while the priority member is in the other timeslot of the same repeater. In this situation, the radio
uses the embedded signaling in the repeater to monitor activity in the other timeslot. This should
be taken into consideration when deciding which identifiers are assigned to which channels and
slots.
Not all identifiers are uniquely identified in the embedded signaling because they are compressed
into smaller identifiers. If the system contains two or more identifiers that share the same
compressed identifier, the radio incurs additional audio holes to validate the actual uncompressed
identifier matches.
Duplicate compressed identifiers can be avoided if kept within a 256 ID range where the first ID of
the range is an integer multiple of 256. For example if group and individual identifiers are kept
between 0 and 255, or 256 and 511, or 512 and 767, etc., they will have unique compressed
identifiers and no audio hole will be experienced while priority sampling the other timeslot.
November, 2008
System Feature Overview
41
Setting a busy channel as a priority channel can cause excessive audio holes in non-priority audio
as the radio checks each new transmission on the priority channel to determine if it is call of
interest. If the priority channel has many short transmissions that are not of interest, the radio will
be forced to incur at least one audio hole for each. Therefore, it is recommended, that if possible,
high priority transmissions should be isolated on channels that are not overly utilized by other
traffic.
2.5.2
Channel Marking
In addition to configuring the sampling interval for Priority Sampling, MOTOTRBO offers a way to
mitigate the duration of the audio hole itself with a feature called Channel Marking. Although
relatively short, it does take time to determine if a transmission is of interest on a particular scan
member. During this time, there is an audio hole in the scanned audio.
The Channel Marking feature introduces logic that assumes that if a transmission was recently
identified as not of interest, there is no need to fully review it at every scan interval. Additionally, if
the type of transmission is of the same type as the transmission identified as not of interest before,
there is a high likelihood it is the same transmission. Therefore, the radio only needs to identify the
type of transmission taking place, which is beneficial as identifying a transmission type takes much
less time than fully identifying if a transmission is not of interest. This assumption is made for a
pre-determined number of times, after which, the scan member is fully reviewed again. This
method changes the experienced audio holes from long audio holes every priority scan interval to
one long audio hole followed by numerous short audio holes, and then another long audio hole,
and so on.
This feature can greatly increase audio quality while a radio is in priority sampling mode. The
drawback to channel marking is the assumption that the target of a transmission has not changed.
The scanning radio will not know if the target has changed until the next full inspection. The
system should be configured in such a way using CPS parameters to achieve a balance which
delivers improved audio quality without sacrificing too much flexibility to consistently locate new
transmissions which otherwise would be of interest. It is recommended that Channel Marking is
set as Enabled in most scenarios.
However, if there is an analog signal on a digital priority channel, the radio will incur a medium size
audio hole on every sample even if channel marking is enabled. The radio spends this time
searching for synchronization that is not present. It is recommended that the priority traffic be
placed on a channel that has limited analog interference (i.e. shared use).
2.5.3
Scan Considerations
The ability to scan multiple channels is an advantage when a user must be aware of activity on
numerous channels. MOTOTRBO offers the ability to scan a list of analog and digital channels
(frequency and slot) within the same scan list (often referred to as a Channel Scan List). This
feature is incredibly useful when planning to migrate from analog to digital, or when a user must
monitor multiple repeater frequencies and slots at the same time. When operating in digital,
MOTOTRBO also provides the ability to scan multiple groups on a channel (slot). This is often
referred to as a Group Scan.
A Group Scan is an optimized way to scan for multiple groups on the same channel (slot). The
radio monitors the channel from either the repeater or directly from another radio to determine
which group is currently transmitting. If the group transmitting is one specified in the Group Scan
List, the radio will stop and listen. The radio is allowed to talkback to the group for the duration of
November, 2008
42
System Feature Overview
the call hang time. This call hang time overrides the TX Contact Name setting of the channel.
Because only one call takes place on a channel (slot) at any given time, the scanning radio will not
miss a transmission of interest, regardless of the length of the group list. A Group Scan is
configured by creating a group list and adding groups already in the Contacts folder. This group list
can then be selected as the RX Group List of a particular Channel. The Group Scan does not have
the advanced features and configuration options of a channel scan. For example, once configured
via CPS, the Group Scan cannot be turned on or off and members cannot be added or removed.
Furthermore, the configurable scan options (Scan Hang time Timer, Talkback, etc.) do not control
the Group Scan. The Group Scan should be used in simple systems where no advanced scan
options are required. If advanced scan options and features are required, a Channel Scan should
be configured instead.
A Channel Scan will scan a list of different channels within a system – analog or digital. A Channel
Scan is different from a Group Scan since the radio must change frequencies and sometimes even
modulations (analog to digital) in order to scan for activity. Unlike a Group Scan where only one
call occurs at any given time, when scanning different channels (analog or multiple digital slots),
there can be calls taking place on any or all of the channels. Because the radio cannot be
everywhere at once, there is a possibility that the radio will miss a transmission of interest.
Because of this, it is recommended that the number of channels in a Channel Scan list is kept to a
minimum. The larger the scan list, the more likely a user will miss, or join late, a transmission of
interest during busy times.
2.5.3.1
Scanning and Preamble
Since data and digital signaling messages are typically shorter in duration than voice
transmissions, it can be difficult for a scanning radio to detect such messages. This is especially
true as the number of scan list members increases because the amount of time between a
scanning radio’s repeated visits to a particular scan list member increases, making it less likely to
be on the channel at the exact moment that the data or digital signaling message begins. Another
factor is the amount of activity on each scan list member; basically, the more active each scan list
member is, the more likely that the radio is suspending its scan operations to receive on each of
those scan list members, further increasing the likelihood that the radio will not receive the data or
digital signaling on another scan list member. To improve the likelihood of receiving data and
digital signaling messages, the duration of these message types can be extended by preceding
the message with special preamble signaling. The amount of preamble signaling to use can be
configured into the initiating radio and the amount of preamble to use is dependent upon the
number of scan list members in the target radios’ scan list and whether priority scan is being used.
Since this added signaling increases the amount of airtime used for data and digital signaling
messages, there is a trade-off between increased channel loading and increased likelihood of
receiving data and digital signaling messages while scanning.
November, 2008
System Feature Overview
43
Suggested guidelines for the amount of preamble duration to use with scan lists not using priority
is provided in the following table.
Number of Analog Scan List Members
Number of Digital Scan List Members
0
0
-
1
-
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
480
480
480
720
720
720
960
960
960
960
1200
1200
1200
1440
1440
1
-
-
720
720
720
960
960
960
960
1200
1200
1200
1440
1440
1440
1440
2
480
720
720
960
960
960
960
1200
1200
1200
1440
1440
1440
1680
3
720
960
960
960
1200
1200
1200
1200
1440
1440
1440
1680
1680
4
960
960
1200
1200
1200
1200
1440
1440
1440
1680
1680
1680
5
960
1200
1200
1200
1440
1440
1440
1680
1680
1680
1680
6
1200
1200
1440
1440
1440
1680
1680
1680
1680
1920
7
1200
1440
1440
1680
1680
1680
1680
1920
1920
8
1440
1680
1680
1680
1920
1920
1920
1920
9
1680
1680
1920
1920
1920
1920
2160
10
1680
1920
1920
1920
2160
2160
11
1920
1920
2160
2160
2160
2160
-
12
1920
2160
2160
2400
13
2160
2400
2400
14
2400
2400
15
2400
-
-
16
2640
2640
-
2640
-
2400
-
2400
-
2400
-
2160
-
2160
-
1920
-
1920
-
1920
-
1680
-
1680
-
1680
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
The preamble duration should be increased when scan list members tend to carry lots of traffic or
long transmissions. If no radios in the system will use the scan feature, then the amount of
preamble may be set to zero.
The preamble duration also should be increased when priority scan is being used. Since the
preamble signaling is used in conjunction with data and digital signaling messages, and directmode, and since digital-only scan lists support both priority scan and data and digital signaling
messages, the following table suggests guidelines for the amount of preamble duration to use with
direct-mode, digital-only scan lists using priority.
November, 2008
44
System Feature Overview
Number of Digital Scan List Members
Number of Priority Members
0
1
2
0
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
2
480
960
1200
3
720
1440
1920
4
960
1920
2640
5
960
1920
2640
6
1200
2400
3360
7
1200
2400
3360
8
1440
2880
4080
9
1680
3360
4800
10
1680
3360
4800
11
1920
3840
5520
12
1920
3840
5520
13
2160
4320
6240
14
2400
4800
6960
15
2400
4800
6960
16
2640
5280
7680
If data and digital signaling is not carried on any of the non-priority channels and is only carried on
one of the priority channels (which must be the selected channel for data messages), then the
amount of scan preamble to use can be as specified in the first row of the Priority Scan table,
above, regardless of the number of non-priority scan list members.
2.5.3.2
Channel Scan and Last Landed Channel
A Channel Scan can be configured by selecting a group of already configured channels within a
radio using the CPS, and adding them to a Scan List. Each channel is then configured to use this
Scan List of channels. When scan is activated on a channel that contains a Channel Scan List, the
MOTOTRBO radio checks for activity on each of the channels on the list.
While scanning a digital channel for activity, all Groups specified in the channel’s RX Group List
will be monitored.However if the radio is configured with a Channel Scan that contains channels
that are configured with a RX Group List (a Group Scan), then only the Last Landed Channel is
remembered by the radio, not the Last Landed Channel and Group. This means that voice
transmissions are transmitted on the TX Call Member configured for the channel that was the Last
Landed Channel, not the Group in the Receive Group List of channel that was the Last Landed
November, 2008
System Feature Overview
45
Channel. Note that if a transmission is made within the call hang time of the scanned transmission,
it will be targeted towards the landed channel and group. If it occurs after the call hang time has
expired, it will be targeted towards the TX Call Member.
When using the Last Landed Channel option, it is recommended for each group to have its own
configured channel. This way there is only one group associated with a channel, essentially
making the Last Landed Channel and the Last Landed Group the same.
2.5.3.3
Scan Members with Similar Receive Parameters
When adding members to a scan list, it is important to be conscious of the differences and
similarities between their receive parameters. A scan list that contains scan members with the
same receive parameters but different transmit parameters may result in misdirected reply
transmissions. This is best explained by first describing the simplest example of such a scenario.
F2
F2
F1
F1
Radio 1
Channel 1
Scanning
Radio
F1
F1
F3
F3
Radio 2
Channel 2
Figure 2-10 Misdirected Response while Scanning
In this example, a scan list contains two scan members, Channel 1 and Channel 2. Channel 1 is
an analog channel configured for carrier squelch with a receive frequency of F1 and a transmit
frequency of F2. Channel 2 is an analog channel configured for carrier squelch with a receive
frequency of F1, but with a transmit frequency of F3. A scan list such as this implies that there is a
repeater that is transmitting on F1 and receiving on F2, and another that is transmitting on F1 and
receiving on F3 (See Figure 2-10 “Misdirected Response while Scanning” ). Since the radio only
listens and qualifies using the receive parameters while scanning, the scanning radio could
monitor a transmission from either repeater on either scan member. It does not know if it has
actually landed on the correct channel or not. It only knows that the receive parameters have been
qualified for the current channel being scanned. In other words, it does not know if the transmit
parameters of the channel it has landed on matches the receive parameters of the radio that is has
monitored. If the radio has landed on the wrong channel, when the radio user replies, the radio will
transmit on the wrong frequency. The result will be a misdirected reply about half the time. This
scenario can be avoided by making at least one of the receive parameters unique. In an analog
November, 2008
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System Feature Overview
system, this could be done with the use of PL or DPL. In a digital system, this can be done by
using a unique color code or unique group per channel. This will allow the scanning radio to only
“land” on the channel where all receive parameters match and therefore properly direct the user’s
reply.
F2
F2
F1
F1
Radio 1
Channel 1
Scanning
Radio
F1
Radio 2
Figure 2-11 Misdirected Response while Scanning
Similar problems can occur if one scan member has fewer qualifiers than the others. Taking the
example in Figure 2-10 “Misdirected Response while Scanning” again, Channel 1 is still an analog
channel configured for carrier squelch with a receive frequency of F1 and a transmit frequency of
F2. However, Channel 2 is now a digital channel configured for Color Code 1 and Group 10 with a
receive frequency of F1 and a transmit frequency of F3. The receive parameters in this example
are different, but Channel 1 has few qualifiers. Channel 1 is configured to land on any transmission
that breaks squelch. This means that any transmission that occurs on Channel 2 will be heard on
Channel 1 as an analog signal. This scan list will not only result in misdirected replies, but it also
results in a digital transmission being played out the speaker as analog. The net result is
undesirable sounds presented through the user’s speaker. This type of configuration should be
avoided at all times. This could be avoided by utilizing a PL or DPL on the analog channel instead
of only carrier squelch.
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47
Another similar problem occurs when the unique receive parameters between scan members are
missing or cannot be determined. One scenario where this occurs is while scanning two slots of a
repeater and a transmission is received directly from a subscriber on the same frequency. A radio
in repeater mode can receive a transmission directly from a radio. However, in direct mode, slot
numbering is not utilized. Therefore, if a radio is scanning two scan members with the same
qualifiers with the exception of the unique slot number, when it receives a transmission without a
slot number, either scan member will monitor it and “land”. When the user replies, the transmission
will be returned through the repeater on whichever slot assigned to the scan member it was
monitored on. Depending on the configuration of the direct mode radio and its proximity to the
repeater, the transmission may or may not be monitored. This can be managed by having different
groups configured for each slot. This ensures that each slot has unique identifiers besides just the
slot number. However, this does not help if the subscriber in direct mode is out of range of the
repeater. This is why it is not good practice to transmit in direct mode in the RF range of the
repeater.
Generally, these scenarios can be avoided if scan lists are created with scan members that have
unique receive parameters.
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2.6
System Feature Overview
Site Roaming
MOTOTRBO supports the ability to automatically roam between sites of an IP Site Connect
system.
The portable and mobile can be configured with a roam list that contains a list of channels, each of
which is one site (one repeater) of an IP Site Connect system (wide area system). The radio
searches through the list of sites and selects the one with the strongest signal, and identifies this
site as its current home site. The radio remains on this home site until the signal strength has
dropped below a programmable threshold or when it has lost communications with the home site,
at which time it attempts to find a better home site. If a better home site is not found, it remains on
the previous home site and continues searching. Note that roaming occurs while the user is not in
a call. Roaming is not supported while the user is in a call.
Although site roaming functions automatically, the radio user can be provided the ability to control
when and where the radio roams. The radio user can lock on to a particular site, or remain
unlocked and allow the radio to choose the appropriate site. To manually change sites, the user
can either change their radio dial position to the desired channel or site, or they can initiate the
Manual Site Roam feature and have the radio find the next available site. When the user changes
radio dial positions, the radio always begins on the selected channel. The Site Lock On/Off and
Manual Site Roam controls can be configured to be accessible through a button or the menu.
The radio user is provided indications via the LED on when the radio is roaming. They are also
provided an indication on which site the radio is currently on when the user enables Site Lock via
button press.
The radio has two methods in which it accomplishes the act of roaming; a passive method and an
active method.
2.6.1
Passive Site Searching
The Passive Site Search method has the radio searching through a list of sites and selecting the
one with the strongest signal. This method is utilized whenever the site is unlocked. It relies on
repeater transmissions in order for the subscriber to determine which site has the strongest signal
strength. Since it is expected that the radio will encounter other activity while performing the
Passive Site Search, it qualifies the signal using the sites’ programmed color code prior to
selecting it as the new home. In addition, it sorts the sites in the roam list according to their signal
strength in order to optimize follow up roams. Sites that have been detected in previous roam
attempts and are assumed to be near by are searched before those that have not been detected
before. Also, while roaming, the radio inspects the current home site in between other sites in
order to minimize the time away. This strategy provides priority to the last home site and minimizes
missing any transmissions while performing the roam attempt.
While passively roaming, the radio temporarily leaves the current home channel and inspects
other sites to decide if a better site is available. It is important to note that since the radio is
temporarily away from the home channel, it is possible to miss the beginning of a transmission
(late entry). Because of this, it is not advisable or required to perform passive roaming all the time.
Therefore, the radio should only passively search for a better site when the current home site is no
longer desirable. If the radio is within good coverage of a site, there is no need to search for a
better site. In other words, the radio should only passively roam when the radio has moved far
enough away from the site that its signal strength has degraded below an acceptable value or
when its signal is no longer present. The signal strength threshold to initiate the Passive Site
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System Feature Overview
49
Search (Roaming RSSI Threshold) is configurable via the CPS. See “Configuring the Roaming
RSSI Threshold” on page 53 for suggestions on setting the Roaming RSSI Threshold for various
site configurations and scenarios.
Initiating Passive Site Search and selecting sites based on signal strength works well when the
repeater is transmitting, but the MOTOTRBO repeater does perform in a shared-use environment
and is required to de-key when not in use. If there is no activity on a system, the Passive Site
Search cannot detect any repeaters and therefore is unable to determine at which site the radio
should be on. Therefore, the repeater can be configured to transmit a beacon, which is a periodic
short transmission when there is no interference, when not transmitting. Both the beacon duration
and interval are programmable.
During times of no activity, the radio utilizes the signal strength of the beacon to determine when it
should roam and which site it should roam to. If the radio does not receive a beacon in the
expected duration, it assumes it is out of range of the repeater or that the repeater has failed and
roams to another site. The duration of the beacon is a function of the number of sites in the IP Site
Connect system and therefore in the roam list. The interval of the beacon is a function of the
shared use rules of the channel and how quickly a radio is required to roam when there is no
activity. See “Setting Beacon Duration and Beacon Interval” on page 58 for suggestions on setting
the beacon duration and interval for various site configurations and scenarios.
The radio does not perform Passive Site Search while:
2.6.2
•
transmitting,
•
receiving a call of interest,
•
in emergency,
•
in good RF coverage,
•
in talkaround (direct) mode,
•
radio disabled,
•
received call alert,
•
monitor mode,
•
microphone is off hook,
•
while in active menu, or
•
while on a channel that has a scan list
Active Site Searching
The Active Site Search method consists of the radio sending a repeater wake-up message to each
repeater in its sorted roam list until it finds an active site. This method is utilized when the user or
radio initiates a transmission and the home site repeater cannot be awoken, or when the user
initiates a Manual Site Roam.
In most cases, the Passive Site Search determines and selects the correct site if the radio is in the
unlocked state. If the repeater’s beacon interval is set too long then it may be possible that the
radio has roamed into a new site and has yet to receive a beacon. Note that the beacon interval is
usually in the range of minutes and it typically takes more than a minute for a radio user to move
out of range of one site and into the range of another. Until a new site is found, the radio considers
the previous site as the home site.
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System Feature Overview
If the user presses the PTT or a data transmission is requested at this time, the radio will first
attempt to wake-up the home repeater. If the repeater does not wake up, the radio repeats this
process for each roam list member. If the repeater does wake up, the radio synchronizes itself with
the repeater, completes the transmission and make the new site the home site. If the end of the
roam list is reached and a site is not found, the user receives a failure indication.
This entire process of discovering and synchronizing with an active repeater increases the voice
access time of the transmission (time from PTT to Talk Permit Tone). However, this increase only
occurs for one transmission since the next transmission proceeds regularly on the new site.
NOTE: Wake-up messages are always sent politely. This means that if the radio detects an
interferring signal, the radio does not transmit a wakeup message on that roam list
member. Instead, it continues performing an Active Site Search on the next roam list
member.
If the user requests a Manual Site Roam, be it through a button press or menu item, the radio
actively searches for the next available site using the process described above. The Manual Site
Roam does not necessarily find the best site, but rather allows the user to move to the next site
that is in range and transmitting. If no site is found, a negative indication is provided to the user. If
in direct mode, a successful site search changes the new channel found to repeater mode. An
unsuccessful site search remains in direct mode.
NOTE: Generally, the radio does not perform any Passive Site Search during an emergency. No
automatic roaming is performed when the radio is reverted during an emergency.
However, when configured to a non-revert emergency channel and with Active Site Search
enabled, the radio will perform Active Site Search automatically whenever the RSSI of the
repeater drops below the programmed threshold or if it no longer detects repeater
beacons. Note that Manual Site Roam is supported while in an emergency. See
“Emergency Revert, GPS Revert, and Roaming Interactions” on page 60 for more details.
It is important to note that Active Site Search causes wake-up messages to be transmitted on each
roam list member’s frequencies until a site is found. This may not be agreeable in some areas
where frequency overlap and sharing is common. In order to minimize the number of unwanted
transmissions, the radio shall only transmit one polite wake-up message. If sending frequent GPS
location updates while out of range, the radio shall limit the Active Site Search to only occur once
every 30 seconds.
If this is still not acceptable in the area of operation, the radios should have automatic Active Site
Search disabled, the Manual Site Roam button removed, and the beacon interval should be
configured as short as possible. This ensures that the Passive Site Search finds new sites quickly
and the user has no method to initiate an Active Site Search. Note that if Active Site Search is
disabled, there will be no roaming while in an emergency.
2.6.3
Roaming Considerations
2.6.3.1
Configuring a Roam List
When configuring a Roam List it is important to keep in mind that a system can contain more than
one IP Site Connect system, or also known here as a wide area system. A wide area system is
made up of one or two wide area channels. Each wide area channel is an individual voice path, in
other words, the users on the same wide area channel monitors each other on any site.
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51
Figure 2-12 shows a system with 2 sites, 2 wide area systems, each with 2 wide area channels.
Wide Area System 1, Channel 1 (WAS1 CH1) represents a wide area channel in wide area system
1.
Site 1
Site 2
WAS2 CH1
WAS2 CH1
Network
WAS2 CH2
WAS2 CH2
WAS1 CH1
WAS1 CH1
WAS1 CH2
WAS1 CH2
Figure 2-12 Two Wide-Area Systems, Each with Two Wide-Area Channels
Each wide area channel should have its own roam list. The roam list should contain one logical
channel from each site that corresponds to the wide area channel. A logical channel is defined as
the frequency pair, color code, timeslot combination. If there are multiple personalities (CPS
Channels) that reference the same logical channel, only one should be added to the wide area
channel roam list. Only wide area channels should be added to the roam list.
The table below shows an example of the two site configuration in CPS. The colors match those of
Figure 2-12 to help clarify.
Zone/
Folder
(Alias)
Zone 1
(Site 1)
Zone 2
(Site 2)
Personality
(CPS Channel)
# - Alias
Logical Channel
Group
Roam List
# - Alias
1
TGA
1 – WAS1 CH1
1
2
TGB
2 – WAS1 CH2
2
1
1
TGC
3 – WAS2 CH1
4 – SITE 1 TGD
2
1
2
TGD
4 – WAS2 CH2
5 – SITE 2 TGA
3
2
1
TGA
1 – WAS1 CH1
6 – SITE 2 TGB
3
2
2
TGB
2 – WAS1 CH2
7 – SITE 2 TGC
4
2
1
TGC
3 – WAS2 CH1
8 – SITE 2 TGD
4
2
2
TGD
4 – WAS2 CH2
Freq Pair
Color
Code
Time Slot
1 – SITE 1 TGA
1
1
2 – SITE 1 TGB
1
3 – SITE 1 TGC
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System Feature Overview
The roam lists are configured as shown below:
Roam List
# - Alias
1 – WAS1 CH1
2 – WAS1 CH2
3 – WAS2 CH1
4 – WAS2 CH2
Personality (CPS Channel)
# - Alias
1 – SITE 1 TGA
5 – SITE 2 TGA
2 – SITE 1 TGB
6 – SITE 2 TGB
3 – SITE 1 TGC
7 – SITE 2 TGC
4 – SITE 1 TGD
8 – SITE 2 TGD
As can be seen there are 4 roam lists required for the 4 wide area channels. Each roam list
contains only one personality that references the desired logical channel at each site. Although not
necessary, personalities that correspond to a site can be placed together in their own zone (or
folder). This will help further remove the concept of site from the radio user and allow the site
roaming feature to choose the appropriate site. If they must manually choose a site, they can
change zones. Using the actual name of the site as the zone alias will help clarify this to the end
user, but it is not required. Since the same group is mapped to the same dial position in each zone,
the user will have the same group selected as they change through the sites (zones). In this
example the personalities are aliased with the group names, but other aliases that define Site,
Channel, or Group name can be used. If there are more than one group per wide area channel, a
roam list can be created for each group to utilize.
It is important to understand that when the radio determines a new home site to be one of the roam
list members, it will only utilize the logical channel attributes of the roam list member. The
remaining attributes will be used from the selected personality.
The following logical channel attributes of the home site are utilized:
•
Transmit Frequency and Transmit Reference Frequency,
•
Receive Frequency and Receive Reference Frequency,
•
Color Code,
•
Time Slot,
•
Talkaround Setting,
•
GPS Revert Channel
•
Emergency System (Including Emergency Revert Channel)
Take specific note of the GPS Revert and Emergency Revert channels. Because physical
channels will be different per site, the revert channels must change when the radio roams to
another site. It is recommended that emergency settings (other than revert channel) should be the
same for all personalities within a roam list. Otherwise the radio may perform an emergency
differently as it moves from one site to another.
The remaining personality attributes (Transmit and Receive Group List, Channel Access, etc.) will
be used from the currently selected channel regardless of which site the radio is currently roamed
to. It is good practice to make these parameters identical for personalities within a roam list so that
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System Feature Overview
53
the radio acts the same regardless if it roams to the personality or if the user selects the
personality.
2.6.3.2
Scan or Roam
When selecting a roam list for a personality to utilize, one will notice that a personality cannot
contain a roam list and a scan list. MOTOTRBO does not currently support the ability to roam
between sites and then scan channels at a particular site. Therefore while on a particular
personality, a user has the ability to roam or scan, not both.
2.6.3.3
Configuring the Roaming RSSI Threshold
The Roaming RSSI Threshold is a CPS configurable parameter that controls the signal strength a
subscriber needs to reach before searching for another site. If the RSSI measurement of the
currently determined home site is above the specified Roaming RSSI Threshold, then the radio will
remain on that site and not roam. Once the RSSI measurement drops below the threshold it will
begin a Passive Site Search process to find a site with higher signal strength. This parameter
essentially controls the distance away from a site a subscriber will begin looking for another site. In
real life environments RF coverage is seldom a perfect circle, but to simplify this explanation,
coverage will be abstracted as a circle.
It is important to note that while passively roaming the radio temporarily leaves the current home
site to determine if a stronger site is available. Since the radio is temporarily away from the home
channel, it is possible to miss the beginning of a transmission (i.e. enter the call late). Because of
this, it is not advisable to perform passive roaming all the time.
The setting of the Roaming RSSI Threshold is a balance between when a radio will leave one site
and look for the next versus how often the radio will perform roam and therefore increase the
chances of late entry to voice calls. If the Roaming RSSI Threshold is to low, the radio will remain
on a low signal strength home site even though there might be a stronger site available. If the
Roaming RSSI Threshold is too high, the radio will be roaming in full coverage of a repeater and
causing late entry when not required. Figure 2-13 shows the impact of the Roaming RSSI
Threshold value in relationship to the good coverage line (dotted) which most system coverage is
November, 2008
54
System Feature Overview
designed to meet. Note that the Roaming RSSI Threshold is a negative number therefore a high
value is -80dBm and a low value is -120dBm. The colored area is where the radio would roam.
Good Coverage
Low Roaming RSSI Threshold
High Roaming RSSI Threshold
Not Roaming
Roaming
Figure 2-13 Roaming Triggered by Roaming RSSI Threshold Value
The default value of the Roaming RSSI Threshold is -108dBm. It can be programmed for anything
between -80dBm and -120 dBm. A value of -108dBm is approximately 80% of the good coverage.
Therefore roaming will occur in the outer 20% of coverage. The default value is acceptable for
most configurations but may not be optimal in a some particular configurations. Before setting the
Roaming RSSI Threshold, one must consider the customer’s site configuration.
Consider the following four basic site configurations:
1. Dense Overlapping Coverage (Urban) – This type of coverage consists of dense sites
with generous overlap. This coverage type is often found in large cities or highly populated
areas. Overlapping sites utilize different frequencies. Non-overlapping sites may share
frequencies, but those that do share frequencies need to have different color codes if they
need to be distinguished while roaming. This type of coverage is highly likely to
encountered shared use on one or all of its sites. A radio user may be within coverage of
three to four sites at a time. The time it takes a radio user to move from the coverage of
one site to another is in the range of 10 minutes.
2. Isolated No Overlapping Coverage (Rural) – This type of coverage consists of isolated
sites with little to no overlap. This coverage type is often used for isolated sites in rural
areas, although could be used to cover a single part of a small city. Non-overlapping sites
may share frequencies, but those that do share frequencies need to have different color
codes if they need to be distinguished while roaming. This type of coverage is less likely to
encountered shared use although possible. A radio user will only be within coverage of
one site at any time. The time it takes a radio user to move from the coverage of one site
to another is in the range of multiple hours.
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55
3. Corridor Coverage – This type of coverage consists of in-series slightly overlapping sites.
This coverage type is often used for covering highways, train tracks, shore lines, or rivers.
Frequency re-use is common in this configuration since one site only overlaps with its two
adjacent sites. Non-overlapping sites may share frequencies, but those that do share
frequencies need to have different color codes if they need to be distinguished while
roaming. A radio will only be within coverage of one to two sites at a time. The time it takes
a radio user to move from the coverage of one site to another is in the range of an hour.
4. Multi-Floor Coverage – This type of coverage consists of dense extremely close sites
with short range coverage and generous overlap. This coverage type is often used for
covering tall buildings, or deep tunnels. Frequency re-use is not common due to the small
coverage footprint usually implemented with in-building radiax antenna systems. This
coverage type also often encounters quick signal strength drop offs due to the nature of in
building coverage. Non-overlapping sites may share frequencies, but those that do share
frequencies need to have different color codes if they need to be distinguished while
roaming. A radio will only be within coverage of one to two sites at a time. The time it takes
a radio user to move from the coverage of one site to another is in the range of one
minute.
Reference the following diagrams.
TX = F3
RX = F4
CC = 2
TX = F1
RX = F2
CC = 1
TX = F5
RX = F6
CC = 4
TX = F1
RX = F2
CC = 3
Figure 2-14 Dense Overlapping Coverage (Urban)
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System Feature Overview
TX = F1
RX = F2
CC = 1
TX = F3
RX = F4
CC = 2
TX = F5
RX = F6
CC = 4
TX = F1
RX = F2
CC = 3
Figure 2-15 Isolated No Overlapping Coverage (Rural)
TX = F1
RX = F2
CC = 1
TX = F3
RX = F4
CC = 2
TX = F1
RX = F2
CC = 3
TX = F5
RX = F6
CC = 4
Figure 2-16 Corridor Coverage
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System Feature Overview
57
TX = F1
RX = F2
CC = 1
TX = F3
RX = F4
CC = 1
TX = F5
RX = F6
CC = 1
TX = F7
RX = F8
CC = 1
Figure 2-17 Multi-Floor Coverage
The site configuration should be taken under consideration when the Roaming RSSI Threshold is
set. For example if the customer has a “Isolated No Overlapping Coverage” the threshold can be
set to its lowest value of -120dBm. Because there is no overlap, there is no reason for the radio to
start roaming until well outside of the coverage range of the repeater. For extremely close sites
with large overlaps and quick signal drop off like the “Multi-Floor Coverage”, it might be better to
set to it to a higher value so that the radios search for stronger sites closer to the repeater. The
following table is the suggested setting for each basic site configuration. Many radio systems will
have a combination of site configurations so the system designer will need to take all
configurations into consideration and choose an appropriate value.
Site Configuration
Recommended
Roaming RSSI Threshold
% of Outer Range
Radio Will Roam
Isolated No Overlapping Coverage (Rural)
–120 dBm
Out of Range
Corridor Coverage
–110 dBm
10%
Dense Overlapping Coverage (Urban)
–108 dBm
20%
Multi-Floor Coverage
–102 dBm
50%
It is important to note that the preceding Roaming RSSI Thresholds assume the outbound and
inbound RF coverage of the system is balanced. In other words, when a radio is within good
outbound coverage of the repeater the radio’s inbound transmission can reach the repeater. Since
the roaming algorithm uses the outbound transmission to determine when to roam, having an
unbalanced system can cause radios not to roam even though they can no longer reach the
repeater. This can lead to radio transmissions that do not reach the repeater and are therefore not
repeated.
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System Feature Overview
One method to rectify this problem is to lower the output power of the repeater. This decreases
the outbound coverage area, but ensures that if a subscriber can hear the repeater well, it can
respond successfully. If lowering the output power is not desirable, the Roaming RSSI Threshold
needs to be raised higher (less negative) than the recommended values. This forces the radios to
roam to another site within very good RF coverage of another. This value may be different for
portables and mobiles since they have different output power and therefore different inbound
coverage. Portables may need a higher (less negative) Roaming RSSI Threshold than mobiles.
Also note that there is one Roaming RSSI Threshold per roam list. This means that if one site has
an inbound outbound imbalance and another does not, it may be difficult to find the correct
Roaming RSSI Threshold to exactly accommodate both sites. In other words if you set the
threshold to roam correctly on the imbalanced site, it may end up roaming too early on a balanced
site.
2.6.3.4
Setting Beacon Duration and Beacon Interval
If there is no activity on a system, the repeaters will hibernate and the radio’s Passive Site Search
are not able to determine the signal strength, and therefore, which site is best since repeaters are
not transmitting. Because of this, the repeater can be configured to transmit a beacon when not
active and there is no other interfering signal. During times of no activity, the subscriber utilizes the
signal strength of the beacon to determine when it should roam and which site it should roam to. If
the subscriber does not receive a beacon in the expected duration, it assumes it is out of range of
the repeater (or the repeater has failed) and attempts to roam to another site.
Both the beacon duration and the interval are programmable via CPS. The beacon duration is only
configured in the repeater, but the beacon interval is programmed in both the repeater and the
radio.
The duration and interval of the beacon is a function of the over-the-air shared use rules in the
customer’s region. The beacon duration is dependant on the number of sites in the IP Site
Connect system and therefore in the roam list. The beacon interval is dependant on how quickly
the radio is expected to roam to and from a site when there is no activity. The minimal duration and
interval need to be met while keeping within the shared use guidelines of the region.
The ratio of the beacon duration and beacon interval equate to how often the repeaters transmit
while there is no inbound radio activity, i.e. the beacon transmit ratio. This ratio is not directly
programmed into the system, but is rather a guideline for setting the Beacon Duration and Interval.
If on a shared use frequency the beacon transmit ratio should be kept low. The target ratio is
between 5% and 10%. In other words, if there is a need to increase the beacon duration, the
beacon interval must also increase in order to keep the correct ratio.
If the beacon duration is configured too short it can be difficult for a roaming radio to detect it. This
is especially true as the number of sites increases. As the amount of time between a roaming
radio’s repeated roam attempts to a particular site increases, it is less likely to be inspecting the
site at the exact moment that the beacon is transmitted. Recall that the home site is sampled inbetween other sites, which increases the overall cycle time. A user is typically within the coverage
of no more than 4 sites at any given time, therefore even with a large roam list, most of the sites
have no activity and can be inspected very quickly. If numerous sites have shared-use frequencies
(i.e. interference) the radio takes longer to get through its roam list and this increases the time
between inspections of one particular site. Note that because the roam list is sorted by signal
strength, the nearer sites are inspected first. Alternatively, if a user is transitioning to a site that
they have not visited lately, the first roam may take slightly longer, but once it is has been detected
this site moves to the front of the roam list. To improve the likelihood of receiving the beacon, the
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59
beacon duration should be increased. It is safer to have a beacon duration longer than shorter, but
keep in mind that if the duration is increased, the beacon interval must be increased to meet the
beacon transmit ratio.
The beacon interval controls how quickly a radio can roam to a site and how quickly it roams away
from a site when there is no activity. When roaming with no system activity, a radio needs to see a
beacon in order to roam to a new site. If the repeater beacon is sent out every one minute, the
radio may be one minute deep into the site before it sees the site and roams to it. Similarly, when
roaming with no system activity, a radio may be one minute outside of the site before it attempts to
roam. The impact of this value often changes based on how quickly the users are traveling. For
example a car driving 60 m.p.h. can cover a mile a minute and therefore will be one mile into or out
of a site before roaming. This could be acceptable for site configurations such as the “Isolated No
Overlapping Coverage” or the “Corridor Coverage”, but the “Dense Overlapping Coverage”
coverage type may require a quicker beacon since it will both trigger the leaving and entering of
sites. Note again that if the user initiates a transmission before the passive roam finds the beacon,
the radio will attempt to wake-up the site repeater.
A one minute beacon interval may not be an issue for users on foot unless the sites are very close
like in the “Multi-Floor Coverage” example. In this case a user in an elevator can move between
sites at a very high rate. A one minute interval may cover the entire duration of an elevator ride
from the first floor to the top. Here, it is recommended to keep the beacon interval in the range of
20 seconds. Note that a beacon transmit ratio of a 5% may not be achievable for systems with a
high number of repeaters. In this case the designer may either decide to abandon the target
beacon transmit ratio since in-building coverage usually does not propagate very far or have
neighbors to interfere with, or lower the beacon duration to only cover the max number of
overlapping sites a radio may ever see.
The table below is the recommended beacon duration and beacon interval (8% beacon transmit
ratio) for a varying number of sites. The default value is a 4.32 second Beacon Duration with a 60
second Beacon Interval.
Number of Sites in
Wide Area System
Beacon Duration
(sec.)
Beacon Interval
(sec.)
2
0.72
10
3
1.92
30
4
3.12
40
5
4.32*
60*
6
5.52
70
7
6.72
90
8
7.92
100
9
9.12
120
10
10.32
130
11
11.52
150
12
12.72
160
13
13.92
180
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System Feature Overview
Number of Sites in
Wide Area System
Beacon Duration
(sec.)
Beacon Interval
(sec.)
14
15.12
190
15
16.32
210
* Default Values
If shared use is not a problem in the customer’s region, the beacon transmit ratio become less
important and it may be desirable to increase the beacon duration and decrease the beacon
interval past what is identified here. If the automatic Active Site Search feature is going to be
disabled, it is advisable to lower the beacon interval as much as possible since radios will rely only
on it to find the appropriate site.
2.6.3.5
Emergency Revert, GPS Revert, and Roaming Interactions
Emergency Revert and GPS Revert are specific to the current home site. This is important since
the revert channel of one site will most likely not be the revert channel of another site. Although it
is possible to revert while roaming, roaming while reverted is limited.
While in emergency and configured as non-revert the radio will not perform Passive Site Search. If
Active Site Search is enabled, the radio performs an automatic Active Site Search when the RSSI
of the repeater drops below the programmed threshold or if it no longer monitors the repeater
beacons (normal triggers for passive roam). This is considered as a more aggressive method to
site search as compared to passively searching. The radio also supports the ability to trigger an
automatic Active Site Search on transmit request by the user or automatically by the radio (GPS).
Standard Manual Site Roam is also supported. Active Site Search can be enabled or disabled via
the CPS.
While reverted due to emergency, no automatic roaming occurs. This is primarily due to the fact
that the emergency revert channels may not be on the same logical channel, and the emergency
handlers may not be the same. It is not desireable for a user to automatically leave one emergency
handler and switch to another without notification.
A radio will perform an Active Site Search (using the selected personality’s roam list) when the
emergency is first initiated if the revert channel is not available. Once on the revert channel, only
Manual Site Roam is available. In other words, if a user enters emergency, and then roams out of
range of the revert channel, the radio does not automatically roam even if the user presses the
PTT. When a Manual Site Roam is initiated while reverted, the radio performs an Active Site
Search using the selected personality’s roam list.
When a new site is found due to a roam while in emergency, the emergency process restarts on
the new site (similar to manually changing the dial position) if the new home is provisioned for
revert. If the new home is not provisioned as revert, the emergency process does not restart since
the radio never left the wide area channel. It is assumed that the original target of the emergency is
still monitoring since the source never left the wide area channel. The radio also assumes that
emergency handling configuration (outside of revert) is the same across the wide area channel.
The radio reverts if the new home site is provisioned as such. If a new site is not found, the radio
returns and remains on the original site or the site revert channel, if provisioned. Per normal revert
rules, upon clearing the emergency the radio would return to the home site. If the radio roams to a
site that has Emergency Disabled (or no Emergency System) then radio remains in emergency but
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does not process the emergency sequence. The user can then attempt another Manual Site Roam
to find a site that does have emergency.
Note that in most cases, the passive search while not in emergency should get the radio on the
correct site and therefore when it emergency reverts, it should still be at the same site. If in Silent
Emergency mode, no ergonomics associated with Manual Site Roam are displayed.
While GPS reverted, no automatic roaming is supported. If the GPS revert channel is out of range,
the data message is dropped. On return to the home channel after a failed GPS revert, the radio
will initiate an Active Site Search using the selected personality’s roam list. This will make sure that
an available site is found prior to the next GPS revert attempt.
While in emergency (initiator, not receiver) and GPS revert occurs, no automatic roaming is
supported while reverted. If GPS revert channel is out of range, the data message will be dropped.
On return to an emergency revert channel, after a failed GPS revert, the radio will NOT initiate an
Active Site Search since this is not supported while in emergency.
See “Emergency Revert and GPS Revert Considerations” on page 194 for further details on how
Emergency Revert and GPS Revert operate together.
In summary:
Feature
Passive Site
Search
Automatic Active Site
Search on TX Request
Automatic Active Site
Search on Loss of Site
Manual
Site Roam
Tactical Emergency
(Non-Revert)
Not Available
Available
Available
Available
Emergency Revert
Not Available
Only Available on
Emergency Initiation
Not Available
Available
GPS Revert
Not Available
while Reverted
Performed After Dropping
the Data Message
Not Available
Available
2.6.3.6
Performance while Roaming
It is important to note that roaming (not just enabled, but in the act of searching) may cause some
minor degradations in performance. Therefore, it is important that the Roaming RSSI Threshold
and the radio’s Site Lock be set appropriately when not mobile. These degradations are similar to
what a scanning radio would experience. Degradation may be experienced in the following areas:
•
Late Entry to Voice Transmissions (Voice Truncation)
•
Longer Preambles required for Control Messages and Data
•
Increased setup time for Confirmed Private Calls
•
Group Call Time to Talk Permit may increase if Site Search Required
While roaming the radio temporarily leaves the current home channel and inspects other sites to
decide if a better site is available (similar to scan). This means that radio may not be present on
the home site when a call starts. The home site is inspected between every other site to minimize
the time away. This is similar to the scan ordering of a priority scan member.
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One issue that arises from this situation is that if a group call or unconfirmed individual call starts
while the target is inspecting another site, the may be a short delay before joining the call. This will
equate to voice truncation for the target radio.
Another issue faced will be the need for longer preambles in order for command and control
messages, and data to be received by a radio that is currently roaming. Without an extended
preamble, roaming radios will miss the message.
The need for preambles also affects the setup time for confirmed private calls. Confirmed private
calls utilize command and control messaging to setup the call. In addition, the first setup attempt
does not utilize any preambles. This increases the setup time between radios that are not roaming.
This means that the first setup attempt of a private call is not successful if the target radio is
roaming. The radio then attempts a second time with a preamble. This second attempt will more
likely be successful and the private call will continue.
If the current home site cannot be awoken, the radio attempts to locate another site using an
automatic Active Site Search. As the radio attempts to wake-up other sites, the user must wait.
This increase in time will be recognized as an increase in the time from PTT to receiving the Talk
Permit Tone. This is not expected to occur often if the beacon interval is set appropriately.
It is expected that the value that the roaming feature adds is worth these performance
degradations. The Beacon Interval and the Roaming RSSI Threshold should be set appropriately
to minimize the amount of time a radio is searching for a site.
2.7
Voice and Data Privacy
Over a digital channel, MOTOTRBO supports a way to keep communication (both voice and data)
private. Privacy protects the information, where “protection” means that the MOTOTRBO resists
reading of data payload or listening of voice by anybody other than the intended receivers.
MOTOTRBO does not provide any mechanism to authenticate the radios or radio users and it
does not protect the integrity of the messages.
2.7.1
Types of Privacy
MOTOTRBO offers two type of privacy mechanisms - Basic and Enhanced. Both of them utilize
Motorola proprietary mechanisms/algorithms and therefore are not interoperable with other
vendor’s privacy offerings.
The main differences between Basic and Enhanced Privacy are that the Enhanced Privacy
provides higher level of protection and it supports multiple keys in a radio compared to one key in
the case of Basic Privacy.
The two privacy mechanisms are not interoperable. Both mechanisms cannot operate in a radio at
the same time. This implies that either all the digital private channels support Basic Privacy or all
the digital private channels support Enhanced Privacy. Also all the radios on a repeater must use
the same privacy mode even if they are in different groups. In direct mode, all the radios that
communicate with each other must use the same privacy mode.
The software for both co-exists in a radio and repeater. While configuring a radio or repeater using
CPS, the CPS user selects the radio-wide privacy type to be either Basic or Enhanced.
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2.7.2
63
Strength of the Protection Mechanism
Both Basic and Enhanced Privacy do not provide resistance against “replay attack” (i.e. an
adversary intercepts the data and retransmits it) or “traffic analysis” (i.e. disclosure of information
that can be inferred from observing the traffic patterns).
Their protection mechanism requires a key that is shared only among the intended parties. They
do not use any hardware-based cryptographic engine or a hardware-protected memory for storage
of keys.
The resistance provided by the Basic Privacy is minimal due to the following reasons:
•
The Basic Privacy uses a non-cryptographic algorithm to transform plain voice/data into
protected voice/data. It is possible for an adversary to obtain the key by storing a few overthe-air voice or data packets and performing few simple mathematical operations.
•
The Basic Privacy uses 16 bit keys. A user selects a key from 255 predefined keys stored in
the CPS. The limited number of possible keys makes it easy for an adversary to guess the
key in-use.
The intended use of the Basic Privacy is to stop casual eavesdropping only.
The resistance provided by the Enhanced Privacy is significantly better than the resistance
provided by the Basic Privacy due to the following reasons:
2.7.3
•
The Enhanced Privacy uses a cryptographic algorithm to transform plain voice/data into
protected voice/data. The algorithm is the well-known ARC4. (Alleged RC4) and is same as
RC41. A cryptographic algorithm makes it very difficult for an adversary to obtain the key
from over-the-air protected messages.
•
The Enhanced Privacy uses 40 bit long keys. A radio can store up to 16 keys and the
Enhanced Privacy allows using different keys for different channels. The large number of
possible keys (approximately 1 trillion) makes it difficult for an adversary to guess the value
of a key. Note that a 40 bit long key may not provide the protection needed to transmit
valuable data such as credit card numbers.
•
Using the same key, the Enhanced Privacy protects each superframe of voice or each data
packet in a different and unrelated way. This increases the resistance further.
Scope of Protection
Both Basic and Enhanced Privacy protect only the voice and data messages (including IP/UDP
headers). The layer 2 voice and data headers, data response packets, and link control data are not
protected. This means that the source and target individual ID and Group IDs are not protected.
Control messages such as Radio Disable, Remote Monitor, Radio Check, Call Alert and the
embedded and standalone digital signaling are also not protected.
The protection is provided in all the operational modes (direct mode, repeater mode, and IP Site
Connect) and through all the communication paths between the sending radio and the destination
radio. This implies that the voice and data messages remain protected in the following situations:
1.
The name "RC4" is trademarked by RSA Security. Although "unofficial" implementations are legal, but
the RC4 name cannot be used.
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System Feature Overview
•
Over-the-air, in direct mode;
•
Over-the-air and inside a repeater, in repeater mode; and
•
Over-the-air, inside repeaters, and over the back-end network, in IP Site Connect.
Note that the Basic and Enhanced Privacy does not protect the voice and data messages between
a radio and its option board or between a radio and its accessory (including a MDT). Any data that
extends past the radio network is not protected. For example, text messages from field units to text
message dispatchers or e-mail addresses on a network are not protected once they leave the
destination radio (i.e. a Control Station).
Both Basic and Enhanced Privacy protect Individual voice call, Group voice call, All system call,
Emergency call, and all Packet data calls (i.e. Individual, Group, unconfirmed, and confirmed).
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2.7.4
65
Effects on Performance
Basic Privacy uses only one key, which is known to both the sender and the receiver. This
eliminates the need to transport crypto parameters (e.g. Key Identifier) with the voice or data
payload. A voice message, in case of Basic Privacy, neither requires any modification in the
payload nor any additional headers. Therefore, the System Access Time and the audio quality of a
Basic privacy protected voice is same as that of an unprotected voice.
Enhanced Privacy uses multiple keys and a random number to ensure that the encryption data is
different for each data message and each superframe of a voice message. This requires
transporting crypto parameters (e.g. key Identifier, Initialization Vector) with the voice or data
payload. A voice message, in the case of Enhanced Privacy, requires an additional header and
replaces some of the least important bits of the voice payload with the Initialization Vector. The
additional header increases the System Access Time except when Talk Permit Tone is enabled (in
repeater mode) where the additional header replaces one of the normal voice headers. The
replacement of payload bits reduces the voice quality. Note that the reduction in voice quality is
barely noticeable.
In case of both Basic and Enhanced Privacy, a data message requires an additional header to
distinguish between an unprotected data message and a protected data message. In case of
Enhanced Privacy, the additional header is also used to transport crypto parameter. This reduces
the data throughput. For example, a typical protected confirmed location response takes 600
milliseconds compared to 540 milliseconds for an unprotected one (approximately 10% loss in
throughput).
2.7.5
User Control Over Privacy
The Customer Programming Software (CPS) allows a System Installer to select the type of privacy
(i.e. Basic and Enhanced Privacy). CPS also allows the enabling or disabling of the privacy service
of a channel. The option to toggle the privacy capability per channel can additionally be given to
the radio user by providing a menu entry or programmable button. Without the menu entry or
programmable button, the radio user is essentially “locked” to the channel’s privacy setting. It is
important to note that a user can set or reset privacy for a channel, and not for the radio. If the user
is provided with the menu entry or programmable button, and he toggles the privacy setting, only
the selected channel’s privacy setting is toggled and remains toggled even after the user changes
channels or zones. Toggling the privacy setting on a channel will not affect the privacy setting on
other channels.
The privacy setting of a channel controls the transmit privacy setting, not the receive privacy
setting. A radio on a privacy-enabled channel always transmits protected, while a radio on a
privacy-disabled channel always transmits unprotected. However, the radio receives both
unprotected and protected regardless of the channel’s privacy setting. Any time the radio receives
a protected message, regardless of the channel’s privacy setting, the radio always tries to
unscramble or decrypt the message. If a radio is never required to receive protected messages
then it should be provisioned with a key that is different than the key(s) used by the rest of the
system. Simply setting a channel to be privacy-disabled does not stop the radio from receiving
protected messages. A radio receives a protected message correctly as long as it has the right
key.
Therefore, when one radio user on a privacy-enabled channel transmits, every radio, regardless of
its channel’s privacy-enabled or privacy-disabled status, will hear the transmission clearly if their
provisioned Privacy Key is identical to that of the transmitting radio. A radio user receiving a
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System Feature Overview
protected transmission sees the green LED blinking rapidly. The receiving radio user should
consider changing the privacy setting to match that of the call initiator when replying.
In case of Basic Privacy, a system utilizes only one key and if all radios are privacy capable, it is
recommended that all radios are set to privacy enabled and equipped without the option to toggle
the privacy settings by a radio user. Since Basic Privacy does not cause any degradation in audio
quality, or decrease in performance, there is no reason for the normal user to switch between nonprivacy and privacy. Removing the option to toggle the setting from the radio user will safeguard
against any complicated privacy mismatch scenarios.
2.7.6
Privacy Indications to User
It is important for a radio user to know the privacy status (i.e. enabled or disabled) of the current
channel, and also to know if the received voice transmission is unprotected or a protected voice
transmission. There is no privacy indication for incoming protected data transmissions.
Prior to transmitting, a radio user should check the privacy setting of the current channel. On
privacy-enabled channels, an icon is shown on the front panel display of the radio when the radio
is idle.
Table 7.1 Privacy-Enabled Channel Icon
Privacy Enabled
Privacy Disabled
no icon
Upon receiving a voice transmission, the radio user can know the privacy status of the voice
transmission by observing the blinking rate of the receive LED. When receiving a protected voice
transmission, the LED blinks green but at a quicker rate than when receiving an unprotected voice
transmission.
If radio users in a call have mismatching privacy settings, but the same key, they are able to
communicate, but the transmissions are protected in only one direction. In other words, only the
transmissions from radios with privacy enabled are protected.
The radio does not automatically negotiate privacy settings, or block transmissions that are not
protected. Therefore, it is up to the radio users to monitor the privacy indications to determine if all
the users in the call have a matched privacy setting. The radio will display the privacy setting of the
received transmission, but will blink if it does not match the transmit mode of the receiving radio.
When a privacy setting mismatch occurs, they should request the other members of the call to
switch their privacy settings to match. The radio allows users to enable or disable privacy on the
channel while on a call.
Radio users with non-display or numeric display radio models are not able to view the icon that is
shown on a privacy-enabled channel. Therefore, it is recommended that such users should not
have the option to toggle the privacy setting.
If non-display or numeric display radio users must be able to toggle between protected and
unprotected, it is recommended that this be done by programming duplicate channels, one with
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67
privacy enabled and one without, and the user should use the dial position to toggle between
protected channels and unprotected channels. For example, dial position one may be set to
communicate with a Group in unprotected mode, and dial position two may be set to communicate
with the same group but in protected mode.
2.7.7
Key Mismatch
In case of Basic Privacy, a receiving radio assumes that the received protected transmission is
protected using the same Key that it has, because the key identifier is not sent with the message.
If the receiving radio does not have the same key as the transmitting radio, the receiving radio
cannot unprotect the transmission correctly. For voice transmissions, this results in unintelligible
audio (sometimes referred to as digital warbles) being played through the target’s speaker. For
data transmissions, this results in an unsuccessful data message transmission. This is because
the IP/UDP headers of a data message when unprotected using a wrong key fail to CRC check.
On failure of the checksum, the data message is not delivered to the application.
In case of Enhanced Privacy, the key identifier is sent with the message and if the receiving radio
does not have the key then it either remains muted (in case of voice message) or discards the data
message. If the key value associated with the key identifier is different in the sender and receiver,
due to a miss-configuration, then the voice transmissions will result in unintelligible audio and the
data transmissions will be unsuccessful.
2.7.8
Keys and Key Management
In case of Basic Privacy, a radio is capable of holding only one Privacy Key. The same key is used
to protect and unprotect voice and data transmissions over all the channels and for all call types:
Group Call, Private Call, All Call, or Emergency Call.
In case of Enhanced Privacy, a radio is capable of holding up to sixteen Privacy Keys, where keys
are associated with channels. The relationship between keys and channels is 1:0...n. (in other
words 1 to 0 or 1 to many) “0” means that keys may be provisioned into the radio but are not
associated with any channel. In this case, the keys are used to unprotect a received message but
are not used by the radio to protect a transmission.
A Privacy Key is provisioned in a radio using a CPS. The keys are not readable, editable, or
erasable by the radio user. Once a key has been chosen and programmed into a radio, the key
cannot be extracted and viewed by CPS. It can only be retained or overwritten.
In case of Basic Privacy, a CPS user can select one of the 255 prescribed keys. These keys are
referenced by a key index from 1 to 255. Each key index references a particular 16-bit key that is
used for protecting over the air. There is no option for a “blank”, “null”, or “zero” key. In case of
Enhanced Privacy, the valid range for the value of a Key is 1 to 1,099,511,627,774 (i.e.
FFFFFFFFFE in hex). The Key values 0 and 1,099,511,627,775 (i.e. FFFFFFFFFF in hex) are
reserved and should not be used.
MOTOTRBO does not support remote or over-the-air programming of keys into a radio. Keys can
be programmed in a radio using only CPS. CPS supports loading of the value and identifier of a
Key into a radio either manually or from a protected archive file (in case of Enhanced Privacy
only). In case of getting the keys from a protected archive file, the CPS User selects the protected
file and provides the password. The file is unreadable without a password. The CPS is capable of
copying key(s) from one radio's archive into another radio's archive without the user needing to
retype the key for each radio.
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System Feature Overview
A customer may need to change one or more keys (in the case of Enhanced Privacy) with a set of
new keys into a set of radios. Some of the reasons for changing keys are:
•
Compromise of keys
•
Security policy of the customer requires periodic update of keys
•
Loss of a radio resulting in a concern that this may lead to compromise of keys or
eavesdropping.
The easiest way to implement a key switchover is to gather all radios and re-program them at one
go. But it may not always be possible to gather all the radios without seriously affecting day-to-day
operations.
An alternate method is to create two zones where one zone is set to unprotected while the other is
set to “protected”. The key can be changed on the protected zone and the users shall use the
unprotected zone until all radios have been updated. Once all radios have been updated, the
dispatcher informs the fielded radios to switch zones. This allows users to communicate in clear
until the all radios are provisioned, and then all the users switch keys at the same time.
A similar zone strategy can be used to perform periodic key set changeovers. For example, when
one zone has January’s keys and another duplicate zone has February’s keys. On the first of
February, the users switch to the February zone. Throughout February, the January zone is
updated with March’s keys and renamed to “March Keys”. On the first of March, the users switch,
and so cycle starts again. This makes sure that only two months of keys are compromised if a
radio is stolen or lost.
2.7.9
Multiple Keys in a Basic Privacy System
Although a radio can only use one key in a Basic privacy system at a time, a Basic privacy system
may utilize multiple keys to sub-divide a group into a set of groups. Note that this is not a
recommended configuration, and some considerations need to taken into account, if the decision
is made to utilize multiple keys in a system.
It is not recommended that Groups be sub-divided into smaller groups with the use of keys. This
results in one sub-group of users hearing unintelligible audio (or digital warbles) when the other
sub-group communicates. It is recommended that the users should be divided into Groups, and
provisioned so that a user can not transmit nor receive on the other’s Group. If users with different
keys are allowed to communicate with Basic privacy enabled, for example via a protected private
call, a key mismatch will occur and unintelligible audio will be heard. Although these users with
different keys will never be able to communicate privately, they will be able to communicate when
privacy is disabled.
For example, two different Groups are isolated by provisioning different privacy keys. When a user
in each Group needs to communicate to each other via a private call, they must do it with privacy
disabled. If a radio user needs to communicate with both Groups via an All Call, the radio user
must transmit in clear mode so that both Groups can monitor. If users respond with privacyenabled, the user who initiated the All Call only monitors the responses protected with a matching
key.
If the system is utilizing data applications and must communicate through a control station to the
application server, all radios on a slot must have the same key or they will not all be able to
properly communicate with the control station. For similar reasons, it is not recommended to have
radios without privacy capability, i.e. older software versions, in the same Group as radios with
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69
privacy capability. Since older radios are not provisioned with a Privacy Key, the audio will be
muted. If radios with privacy capability need to communicate to radios without privacy capability,
they will need to disable privacy before transmitting.
As a general rule, it is always recommended that groups with different privacy capabilities and
settings be placed in different Groups and on different slots.
2.7.10
Data Gateway Privacy Settings
The privacy setting of a control station acting as the data gateway to the application server is very
important for consistent data communications. This may even drive the privacy configuration of the
rest of the system.
If a system contains some privacy-capable radios and some privacy-incapable (i.e. older software
versions) radios then the control station must be privacy capable, but configured to transmit
unprotected. This way, outbound messages can be received and processed by the older radios
(not privacy capable). Note that the privacy capable radios send their data protected and the
control station will be able to decode these messages, as long as it has the proper key.
In case of Basic Privacy, there can only be one key per channel (or slot). Since the control station
can only contain one key, it cannot communicate privately to two different Groups utilizing different
keys. If a Basic Privacy system utilizes multiple keys, those users must be divided onto two
separate channels (or slots), each with their own control station utilizing the proper key. Setting the
control station to privacy disabled will not solve this problem since incoming messages such as
GPS or text messages may be protected using different keys and only one key can be used at the
control station to unprotect. Therefore, although outbound messages would be functional, inbound
messages would not be.
If users have the ability to toggle their privacy settings, it is acceptable to have the control station
set to either privacy enabled or privacy disabled, but only if their provisioned keys match. If the
control station is set to privacy enabled, and the radio is set to privacy disabled, one direction of
the data communication will be protected and the other will be unprotected. Since radios set to
privacy disabled will receive protected, and radios set to privacy enabled will receive unprotected,
the communication path will work. If important data is being transferred to and from the fixed
infrastructure, it is recommended that the control station should be set to “protected”. This will
guarantee that at least half of the data transmission will be private. Also, the system will be tolerant
if fielded radios are set to privacy disabled.
It is recommended that all radios including control station should have same privacy settings. If the
privacy setting is enhanced privacy then the control station should have the transmit keys of all the
radios and all the radios should have the transmit key of the control station.
2.7.11
Protecting One Group’s Message from Another
There may be a need for one Group’s voice and data to be protected against another over the
same channel (same frequency and same slot). There may be some radio users who are
members of one or more of the groups. In this case, if a group not only wants to protect their
communication from intruders but also from other groups then each group should use separate
keys for protection.
The System Installer should make each group that need to be protected as “TX Group” for a
personality. The relationship between a personality and a group is 1:1. The System Installer should
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System Feature Overview
associate a key to a personality. The relationship between a key and a personality is 1:1. And
therefore the relationship between a key and a group becomes 1:1. If a radio ‘X’ wants to make a
protected private call to a radio ‘Y’ and if both the radios are member of a group ‘T’ then the radio
‘X’ goes to a personality whose “TX Group” is ‘T’. If there is no group where both the radios are
member then it is not possible to send a protected message.
For a protected “All Call”, the transmitting radio should go to a specific personality and the key
associated with that personality is present in all the radios. For a protected private call, the
transmitting radio should go to a specific personality and the key associated with that personality is
present in the receiving radio.
2.7.12
Updating from Basic Privacy to Enhanced Privacy
It may not be possible for a System Installer to update all the radios from Basic Privacy to
Enhanced Privacy in one session. In such cases, the System Installer instructs all the radio users
to disable the Privacy feature and operate in clear mode. When instructed, the radio users disable
the Privacy feature using the radio front panel. All the messages are transmitted in clear.
The System Installer updates the software of radios and configures the radios for Enhanced
Privacy. Once all the radios are upgraded, the System Installer updates the software of repeaters
and configures them for Enhanced Privacy. The control stations acting as the data gateway should
also be upgraded.
The System Installer instructs all the radio users to enable the Privacy feature. The radio users
enable the Privacy feature using the radio front panel. The control stations also enable privacy. All
the messages are transmitted using Enhanced Privacy.
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2.8
71
Repeater Diagnostics and Control (RDAC)
Repeater Diagnostics and Control (RDAC) allows a system administrator the ability to monitor and
control repeaters within the system. The following services are provided:
1. Repeater Diagnostics
•
Read Enabled/Disabled Status
•
Read Analog/Digital Status
•
Read Wide or Local Area Status
•
Read Transmit Power (High or Low) Status
•
Read Available Channels (including Currently Selected)
•
Read Inbound RSSI
•
Read IPv4 Address and UDP Port (required for connectivity)
2. Repeater Alarm Reporting
•
Detect and Report Receiver Lock Detect Failure
•
Detect and Report Transmitter Lock Detect Failure
•
Detect and Report Overheating
•
Detect and Report AC Power Supply Failure
•
Detect and Report Main Fan Failure
3. Repeater Control
•
Change Enabled or Disabled Status
•
Change Channels
•
Change Transmit Power Level (High or Low)
•
Reset Repeater
•
Knockdown Repeater
The RDAC application can be configured to work over the network via IP or locally via USB.
When working over the IP network, the application communicates with all repeaters within an IP
Site Connect system using the same link establishment process that the repeaters utilize.
Therefore, it benefits from the existing link establishment and authentication utilized between
repeaters. Note that the RDAC application can only communicate with one IP Site Connect system
at a time. All services in the list above are available through the RDAC application.
When working locally, the RDAC application connects to a single repeater via USB. All services in
the list above are available through the RDAC application.
The user also has access to the repeaters external GPIO pins. External equipment (or existing
remote adapters and desksets) can be configured to set or read the GPIO pins to allow access to
the repeater control services as well as access to indications that a minor or major alarm has
occurred. The access to these GPIO pins further allows the radio installer to utilize the alarm pin
and enable/disable pin to create a redundant switch over configuration. Alarm Reporting and
Control is available using the GPIO pins.
Note that any combination of RDAC connected over the Network, RDAC connected via USB, or
connections via GPIO are supported.
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System Feature Overview
The ability to change the repeater channel can be utilized to toggle channel parameters between
predetermined settings. For example, if the repeater contains one channel that is in analog mode
and another channel that is in digital mode, changing the channel between these channels
essentially changes the mode from analog to digital. The same strategy can be used to toggle the
wide area and local setting of a timeslot. One personality could be provisioned for two wide area
channels, while the next has one wide and one local channel. Other channel parameters can be
changed using the same strategy.
It is important to note that many control operations require the repeater to perform a reset before
processing the control operation. During the reset the repeater will not be able to service inbound
transmissions from fielded radios. Also note that the repeater takes no consideration to the
ongoing traffic when instructed to perform a control operation. In other words if a call is in progress
(group call, individual call, all call, emergency call, data call, etc.) the repeaters perform the control
operation and drop the call in progress. In addition, the IP connection between the repeater and
the RDAC will be temporarily severed while the repeater is rebooting. The connection must be reestablished before additional operations can be performed. This should be taken into
consideration before performing any control functions on an active repeater.
In addition to the repeater reporting alarms to RDAC application and setting the GPIO alarm pins
accordingly, it is important to note that it also takes action when major alarms are received. The
repeater will perform a reset after a major alarm is reported as an attempt to clear the alarm. If the
alarm is not clear after reset it will reset again. This will continue until the alarm is cleared or the
repeater is locked (3 major alarms). Once 3 major alarms have been reported, the repeater will
enter the Locked state and set the Major Alarm Pin. At this time all the LEDs on the Repeater front
panel will be solid. While in the locked state, the repeater will not service any calls over the air. The
RDAC application will display the locked state and have the ability to retrieve logs.
In order to exit the locked state, the repeater must be read and written to with the CPS to reset the
major alarm counter. This is automatically done when CPS writes a codeplug to the repeater. Note
that 3 major alarms almost certainly means that there is a hardware problem that should be
addressed prior to clearing the locked state.
Alarms are categorized as shown below:
2.8.1
•
Major Alarms - Receiver and Transmit Lock Detect Failure
•
Minor Alarms - •Overheating, AC Power Supply Failure, Main Fan Failure
Connecting Remotely via the Network
Connecting RDAC via the network allows access to all repeaters in an IP Site Connect system. If a
system has more than one wide area system (i.e. more than one Master Repeater) then more than
one RDAC application is required to monitor all repeaters at the same time. The RDAC application
is only required to know the static IP address and UDP port of the Master repeater. It will learn the
addresses of the other repeaters through the Master. Similar to repeater communication, the
RDAC application should not require any specific firewall configuration. It will require the
appropriate authentication be entered that is being utilized by the repeaters in the IP Site Connect
system.
Although the network connection is designed for “connecting remotely”, a local network connection
in close proximity to the repeater is supported.
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73
The RDAC-IP application can communicate with enabled and disabled repeaters, knockdowned
repeaters, digital and analog repeaters, and wide and local area repeaters. As long as they are on
the network and communicating with the same Master repeater that the RDAC application is
communicating with, they will be controllable via the application.
It is important to note that over-use (or misuse) of RDAC diagnostics could cause strain to the
network link and therefore, cause voice degradation. For example, numerous requests for status
or error logs could cause excess traffic on a network link which could delay voice through the
network. Please review the network bandwidth considerations in later chapters.
2.8.2
Connecting Locally via the USB
Connecting RDAC locally via the USB provides the user with all the services of RDAC but only
allows access to the local repeater. This connection is very useful if the repeater is in close
proximity to the dispatch center or while performing service or trouble shooting locally.
2.8.3
Connecting Locally via GPIO Lines
Connecting locally via GPIO lines only allows access to the local repeater. The user has access to
the repeater control services as well as access to indications that a minor or major alarm has
occurred from the GPIO lines. The GPIO lines can be configured in various ways and can be
integrated to communicate with a variety of external equipment.
A custom cable is needed to connect the repeater accessory port to the outside control device.
Below is an example of one configuration. Note that the pin out of the cable is dependent on how
the GPIO lines are provisioned via CPS.
Desk Set
Repeater
Remote Adapter
GPIO Connections
GPIO Pins
Custom Cable
Standard Cable
Figure 2-18
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System Feature Overview
2.8.3.1
RDAC Local Settings Rear Accessory Port CPS Programmable
Pins
The CPS offers a few repeater-wide settings as well as the ability to program the input and output
pins on the rear accessory connector to meet the needs of the external equipment. Note that the
repeater now supports up to 16 channels. This has made the signal mode setting in the previous
releases obsolete.
The rear accessory also has some pins that can be programmed to specific input/output functions.
These pins can be programmed to either active high or low. See the table below for descriptions of
these functions available for each GPIO pin.
CPS Programmable Pins
Description
Major Alarm (Locked State)
This output pin is used to report a major alarm has happened 3 times, been
reset three times, and the repeater is in now locked state.
Minor Alarm
This output pin is used to report minor alarm(s) is happening on the
repeater.
Repeater Disable
Asserting this input pin triggers the repeater to enter disabled state. In this
state, the repeater can not execute repeat functions.
Releasing this input pin will revert the repeater back to enabled state where
the repeaters can start repeating calls.
Tx Power Level High
Asserting this input pin triggers the repeater to change the TX power level
to be high.
Releasing this input pin will revert the repeater back to TX low level low.
Repeater Knockdown
Asserting this input pin triggers the repeater to temporarily enter Repeat
Path Disable Mode. In this mode, the repeater’s transmitter will only be
enabled by the external PTT and the audio source will be the Tx Audio
Input pin.
Releasing this input pin will revert the repeater back to Normal Mode where
the repeaters transmitter can be activated by a qualified RF signal on the
receive frequency.
*Note that repeater knockdown is not supported in digital mode.
Channel Change
There are up to 4 pins that can be configured and used for channel change.
The repeater can support up to 16 channels.
Asserting this input pin represents 1.
Releasing this input pin represents 0.
0000 represents first channel, 1111 represent the last channel.
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System Feature Overview
2.8.4
75
Redundant Repeater Setup
By using the alarm feature and control feature together, it is possible to setup redundant repeaters.
So that when one repeater fails, the standby repeater can take over the repeat function.
Before installation, both repeaters are programmed with the same channel information. The
installer configures one repeater as primary repeater and the other one as standby repeater. For
the primary repeater, the installer configures one GPIO pin for major alarm reporting and
configures the pin’s polarity. For the standby repeater, the installer configures one of its GPIO pins
as repeater disabled control input pin and its polarity opposite of the primary repeater’s alarm pin
polarity. When the primary repeater’s alarm pin becomes active it deactivates the disabled pin and
the standby repeater becomes enabled. The antenna system is connected to the primary repeater
and also connected to an antenna switch. The antenna switch is external to the repeater
hardware. The installer connects the primary repeater’s alarm pin (output pin) and standby
repeater’s repeater disable pin (input pin) and the antenna switch all together. The installer powers
on the primary repeater first and verifies it is working with no major alarm reported. Then the
installer powers on the standby repeater.
Antenna Switch
Repeater TX /RX
Repeater TX /RX
GPIO Pins
GPIO Pins
Major Alarm Pin
Repeater Disabled
Primary Repeater
Standby Repeater
Figure 2-19
When a major alarm happens three times in the primary repeater and the repeater enters the
locked state, the primary repeater will set the major alarm GPIO pin to active level. The standby
repeater detects the disable pin is changed to inactive level and it becomes enabled. The antenna
switch is also triggered which changes the antenna to the now active repeater.
Once the fault in the primary repeater is addressed, the repeater is removed from the locked state
and reset, the primary repeater will enabled and again become the primary repeater. The standby
repeater will become disabled.
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If repeaters are operating in IP site Connect mode, they must both have existing IP network
connections and be communicating with the Master. Since they are both on the network, they
must have different IP Addresses. Although the system will not send voice to a disabled repeater,
it will require link management. Make sure to take this into consideration when planning for
network bandwidth, See “Required Bandwidth Calculations” on page 163 for details on calculating
the bandwidth. Note that a redundant repeater connected to the IP Site Connect system counts in
the total number of supported peers.
It is also important to note that when setting up the Master repeater of an IP Site Connect system
into a redundant configuration, the network link must also be switched with external hardware
similar to that of an RF Antenna. In this case, the IP Address of both the Primary and the Standby
repeaters must be the same since all the Peers communicate with it using this IP address. As they
have the same IP Address, they cannot be connected to the network at the same time. This also
means that the standby repeater can be contacted via a network RDAC application while not in the
primary repeater role since it is not connected to the network. Because the two devices have the
same IP address but different MAC addresses, Peers may not be able to contact the Master
repeater until the router and repeater ARP tables are updated. Depending on router configuration
this could take up to 15 to 20 minutes. It is recommended to consult the Network Administrator for
details on setting the ARP interval within the customer’s network.
2.8.5
Dual Control Considerations
It is possible to have RDAC connected locally, over the network, and connected via GPIO lines
simultaneously to a single repeater. In this case, the repeater can be controlled through GPIO as
well as through the network. The user should be aware that it is not recommend using both
methods to control the repeater at the same time. Note that after a control command has being
executed from RDAC application, the control console connected via GPIO may no longer indicate
the state of the repeater correctly since it will be reading the state of the hardware pin rather than
the internal repeater state. In other words if the external application has pulled a pin low or high,
the repeater cannot change the level of that pin after RDAC has made a change.
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2.9
77
Voice Operated Transmission (VOX)
MOTOTRBO provides the ability for hands-free radio transmissions with select radio accessories.
2.9.1
Operational Description
Voice Operated Transmission (VOX) monitors the accessory microphone for voice activity. When
voice is detected, the radio is keyed-up and the voice is transmitted. When voice is no longer
detected at the accessory microphone, the radio is de-keyed.
2.9.2
Usage Consideration
There are several considerations that should be made when VOX is used. First, VOX is designed
to key-up and transmit whenever voice is detected. This means that every time the operator
speaks the radio will transmit. If the radio operator is in close proximity to another person, the radio
may detect the other person’s voice and begin transmitting. The successful use of VOX requires
the radio operator to be aware of any possible audio sources that may inadvertently cause the
radio to transmit at an undesirable time.
Second, the use position of the VOX accessory is an important factor in using VOX successfully.
The radio operator should position the accessory so that it can pickup the operators voice with a
minimal amount of ambient noise.
Additional consideration is needed as outlined in the following sections.
2.9.2.1
Suspending VOX
In those situations when VOX may not be desired, the radio operator can temporarily suspend
VOX by pressing PTT. The radio will immediately suspend VOX and key-up the transmitter.
Traditional (i.e. non-VOX) radio behavior will be used for any following transmissions. VOX
operation will be resumed if the channel is changed (and changed back), the radio is power
cycled, or the user re-enables VOX using the menu or a designated programmable button.
To disable VOX on a channel so that VOX behavior does not resume after a power-cycle or
channel change, the menu or the designated programmable button must be used.
2.9.2.2
Talk Permit Tone
When VOX is used in conjunction with the Talk-Permit-Tone (TPT), the expected behavior of the
radio should be understood. When TPT’s are disabled the radio operator may begin speaking and
the radio will immediately key-up and transmit the entire phrase uttered by the radio operator.
However, when TPT’s are enabled the radio operator must use a trigger word to key-up the radio.
The trigger word will not, in most cases, be transmitted. After uttering the trigger word, the radio
operator should wait until after the TPT is heard to begin speaking.
2.9.2.3
Emergency Calls
When a radio operator presses the Emergency Alarm button on a VOX-enabled channel, VOX is
temporarily suspended so that the radio operator can handle the emergency situation. VOX
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System Feature Overview
operation will automatically resume once the emergency has been cleared. If at any time during
the emergency the radio operator presses PTT, VOX operation will not automatically resume after
the emergency is cleared. See “Suspending VOX” on page 77 for instructions on how to resume
VOX.
2.10
Analog Features
For customers that are migrating from Analog systems to Digital systems, MOTOTRBO supports
both analog and digital modes of operation. MOTOTRBO mobile and portable radios support both
analog and digital modes (the user can select which mode to use, and change modes
dynamically), while MOTOTRBO repeaters are configured to operate in digital mode or in analog
mode. When in Analog mode, MOTOTRBO utilizes traditional FM technology, supports both 12.5
and 25kHz channel spacings, and can operate in repeater and direct modes.
2.10.1
Analog Voice Features
The following traditional Analog features are supported by the MOTOTRBO system:
Feature Name
Description
Time-Out Timer
Sets the amount of time that the radio can continuously transmit before the
transmission is automatically terminated.
Squelch
Special electronic circuitry added to the receiver of a radio which reduces or
squelches, unwanted signals before they are heard through the speaker.
Monitor/Permanent
Monitor
The user can check channel activity by pressing the Monitor button. If the
channel is clear, the user hears static. If the channel is in use, the user
hears the conversation. It also serves as a way to check the volume level of
the radio, as while pressing the monitor button, the user can adjust the
volume according to the volume of the static/conversation heard.
Talkaround
This feature allows a user to talk directly to another unit for easy local unitto-unit communications and bypass the repeater.
12.5/25kHz
Configurable Bandwidth
Channels on the radio can be programmed through the CPS to operate at
either 12.5kHz or 25kHz.
PL/DPL
Transmitted when the receiving radio is to only receive calls from radios with
specific PL/DPL codes, this creates communications groups while operating
in Conventional Dispatch mode. PL/DPL allows for more privacy on a
frequency. PL/DPL is transmitted as a sub-audible frequency or a digital
code.
Channel Access Control
This feature dictates what conditions a radio is allowed to initiate a
transmission on a channel. There are three possible values which are
Always, Channel Free, and Correct PL. Refer to “MOTOTRBO Channel
Access” on page 16 for more details.
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System Feature Overview
2.10.2
79
MDC Analog Signaling Features
MOTOTRBO contains a limited set of built-in MDC signaling features. These include:
Feature Name
Description
Emergency Signaling
Sends a help signal to a pre-defined person or group of people. The
emergency feature also allows a user to sound an alarm or alert the
dispatcher in an emergency situation. The user is also able to
acknowledge an emergency.
PTT-ID
PTT-ID identifies the user’s outgoing calls on other users’ radios.
Call Alert
Call Alert notifies the radio user of incoming calls if they are a short
distance away from their radio. Call Alert also informs unavailable users
that someone is trying to reach them.
2.10.3
Analog Scan Features
Feature Name
Description
Nuisance Channel
Delete
A channel with unwanted activity is called a Nuisance Channel. The user
can remove a Nuisance Channel from the Scan List temporarily by using
the Nuisance Channel Delete feature.
Priority/Dual Priority
Scan
Priority Scan allows a user to program the radio to scan more frequently
transmissions on the most important channel, and ensure they do not
miss critical calls. Dual Priority Scan allows a user to program a radio to
frequently scan transmissions on the two most important channels, and
ensure they do not miss critical calls.
Tone Private Line
Lockout
During scan, if activity is detected on a channel, but does not match the
un-muting condition, lockout occurs. Once lockout occurs, the radio
ignores activity on that channel for the next nine scan cycles. However, if
scan finds that activity has ceased on that channel, the counter is reset
and is no longer ignored.
Talkback Scan with
Home Channel Revert
Talkback scan allows activity on different communications channels to be
monitored and answered. Home channel revert allows a user to
automatically access a preferred channel.
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2.10.4
Analog Repeater Interface
To facilitate the migration from analog to digital, the MOTOTRBO repeater offers an analog
repeater interface that allows the repeater to operate with legacy analog accessories.
The interface is configurable via the CPS and can support the following applications:
1. Tone panels
2. Phone Patches
3. Console Desksets connected via a local interface
4. Console Dispatcher in base station configuration
5. Trunking controllers such as LTR and PassPort
2.10.4.1 Analog Repeater Interface Settings
The analog repeater interface is configurable via the CPS. The CPS offers repeater-wide settings
as well as programmable input and output pins on the rear accessory connector.
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2.10.4.1.1CPS Repeater Wide Settings
CPS Repeater
Control Name
Description
Audio Type
“Filtered Squelch” configures the repeater so that only the audible frequency
spectrum (300 Hz – 3 kHz) is sent to the rear receive audio pin/speakers as
well as transmitted over the air. The user in deskset controller applications is
interested in this audible frequency spectrum.
“Flat Unsquelch” should be used in applications such as trunking controllers or
community repeaters where there is sub-audible signaling that needs to be
passed. In this configuration, the repeater will pass the audio unfiltered over
the air as well as to the rear receive audio pin and speakers. The filtering is
performed in the external device, not in the repeater.
Analog Accessory
Emphasis
Pre-emphasis is configurable on transmitting subscribers. In order to match the
emphasis settings on the wireline, de-emphasis on the receive path and preemphasis on the transmit path of the analog repeater interface can be enabled
or disabled.
This setting is in addition to the repeater’s Emphasis setting. Furthermore,
when Audio Type is set to “Flat Unsquelch”, there is no emphasis in the audio.
Audio Priority
This setting determines if “External PTT” or “Repeat Path” has priority over the
transmitter when Disable Repeat Path is disabled. A priority of None implies
the transmitter will be granted on a first come first served basis.
Disable Repeat Path
Some applications do not want the repeater to perform in-cabinet repeat; they
warrant that the external PTT be the only input that can trigger the repeater to
transmit. This setting configures the repeater to only transmit when the PTT is
asserted.
2.10.4.1.2Rear Accessory Port CPS Programmable Pins
The rear accessory also has some pins that can be programmed to specific input/output functions.
These pins can be programmed to either active high or low.
CPS Programmable
Pins
Description
PTT
PTT can be programmed to any programmable pin on the rear accessory
connector.
CSQ Detect
Squelch detect will toggle this output pin on. Loss of squelch will toggle
this output pin off.
PL Detect
A signal meeting the PL rules programmed in the channel toggles this
output pin to its active state. Loss of the PL signal toggles the output pin
to its inactive state.
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System Feature Overview
CPS Programmable
Pins
Description
Monitor
Asserting this input pin reverts the receiver to carrier squelch operation.
Upon detection of RF signal, the repeater enables the Rx Audio lines and
unmutes the speaker.
Repeater Knockdown
Asserting this input pin triggers the repeater to temporarily enter Repeat
Path Disable Mode. In this mode, the repeater’s transmitter will only be
enabled by the external PTT and the audio source will be the Tx Audio
Input pin.
Releasing this input pin will revert the repeater back to Normal Mode
where the repeaters transmitter can be activated by a qualified RF signal
on the receive frequency.
Antenna Relay
This output pin is used to drive an antenna relay switch for applications
where the repeater acts as a dispatch station that will only receive or
transmit at a time. This allows the use of a single antenna without the
need of expensive combining equipment. The pin toggles active when the
repeater enters a transmit state, and reverts to inactive when the repeater
drops back to idle/receive.
2.10.4.1.3Rear Accessory Port Fixed Audio Pins
One must keep in mind the following regarding the fixed audio pins on the rear accessory
connector.
Fixed Pins
Description
Spkr+/Spkr-
Act as a differential pair and should be connected at opposite ends of an
audio speaker or equivalent load. Under rated conditions, the output
voltage will be 7.75V RMS and the radio supports impedances down to 4
ohms with distortion typically less than 3%. The internal speaker is
connected in parallel with the external output and is 20 ohms. This must
be kept in calculations of load impedance and can only be removed by
physically disconnecting the speaker inside the control head. Under no
conditions should either of these two outputs be connected to ground.
Rx Aud
Provides a line level audio output at 330mV RMS under rated conditions.
The frequency response of this output has been extended below 300Hz
to support data transfer for specific applications (Flat Unsquelch).
Tx Aud
Accepts transmit audio at 80mV RMS through a 560 ohm load. Care must
be taken when choosing an audio source as the output impedance of the
source can affect the audio level which may need to be adjusted
accordingly.
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2.10.4.2 Configuration Summary Table
The following table gives a high level view of which features of the analog repeater interface are
needed to support specific types of accessories. This table is meant to act only as a guideline.
Trunking
Phone
Patch
Tone
Panel
Local
Deskset
Console
Base
Station
RX Audio
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
TX Audio
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Ext PTT
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Disable Repeat Path
Y
N
Y
N
Y
Repeater Knockdown
NA
Y
NA
Y
NA
Monitor
N
Y
N
Y
Y
PL Detect
N
O
O
O
O
CSQ Detect
O
O
O
O
O
Audio Type
FLAT
FILTERED
FLAT
FILTERED
FILTERED
Analog Accessory
Emphasis
NA
O
NA
O
O
Antenna Relay
NA
NA
NA
O
O
Acc Type
Y = This feature is necessary for the application
N = This feature is not necessary for the application
O = This is an optional parameter for the application
NA = Not Applicable
2.10.4.3 Configuration Considerations
2.10.4.3.1Trunking Controllers & Community Repeaters
Most analog trunking controllers and community repeaters will have two outputs that are to be
modulated by the repeater: voice audio, signaling data. The MOTOTRBO repeater only accepts
one audio input. Thus the two outputs must first be mixed into a single input and dropped down to
the audio level the MOTOTRBO repeater expects on the microphone port.
The microphone port is designed to transmit audio at 80mV RMS (220 mV P-P) through a 560
ohm load. Care must be taken when choosing an audio source as the output impedance of the
source can affect the audio level which may need to be adjusted accordingly.
When mixing the audio and signaling, care must also be taken to determine the expected deviation
of the signaling. For example, in LTR controllers, the expected deviation of the LTR data is
~800Hz. Please refer to your controller’s user manual which gives guidance on how to tune the
data signal output to achieve adequate data deviation.
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System Feature Overview
Similar to existing cables, resistors can be placed on the cable to drop the level coming out from
the controller (on the order of 1-2 V P-P) to the level expected by the transmit audio pin. Once the
resistor value is determined, the audio and signaling signals can be mixed into a single wire that
can be crimped onto the MOTOTRBO accessory connector (Motorola Part Number PMLN5072_).
2.10.4.3.2Zetron Controllers
The following are the Zetron configurations needed that will enable Zetron controllers to interface
with the MOTOTRBO repeater.
Zetron
MOTOTRBO
Pin 1
12VDC
Pin 7
Pin 3
GND
Pin 8
Pin 7
*PTT (N.O. Relay)
Pin 17
Pin 10
Squelch
Pin 22
Pin 11
TX Audio
Pin 11
3.3k
Pin 12
TX Audio GND
Pin 13
LTR TX Data
Pin 14
DISC. GND
Pin 18
Pin 15
DISC Audio
Pin 14
Pin 12
3.3k
Figure 2-20 Cable Schematic for Zetron Controllers
Schematic Notes:
•
On the Zetron connector, pin 6 is PTT Common, this must be jumpered to one of the
grounds. This is the common pin of the PTT relay. Without this, the unit will not key-up.
•
Use a shielded cable for Discriminator Audio.
•
The two 3.3k ohm resistors need to be mounted at the MOTOTRBO end of the cable.
•
Large arrows indicate signal/function flow.
•
Please note that Pin 17 (PTT) and Pin 22 (Squelch/CSQ Detect) need to be provisioned in
the CPS.
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85
The following table lists the jumper/switch settings for trunking/tone panel controllers.
Zetron Model 42 Trunking Controller Jumper Settings
JP1 set to ‘B’ (Flat)
JP2 set to ‘A’ (Tone Flat)
JP3 set to ‘A’ (Sub Out High)
JP4 set to ‘A’ (+20dB Receive Audio Gain)
JP6 set to ‘A’ (TX Audio Level High)
JP7 set to ‘Ext Sq +’ (pins 5-7 and 6-8 jumpered)
NOTE: If you have an older Zetron controller that will be used in a 12.5kHz system for the
first time, make sure it has first been modified for 12.5kHz operation. See Zetron’s
supplemental publication: 011-0509 for instructions on making this modification.
Zetron Model 49 Trunking Controller Jumper Settings
JP1 set to ‘A’ (Flat Audio)
JP2 set to ‘A’ (Tone Flat)
JP7 set to ‘A’ (COR as input)
JP9 set to ‘A’ (+20dB Receive Audio Gain)
JP10 set to ‘A’ (TX Audio Level High)
JP12 set to ‘Ext Sq +’ (pins 5-7 and 6-8 jumpered)
JP13 set to ‘B’ (HP Filter IN)
JP23 set to ‘A’ (Sub In from Disc.: pins 1-2 and 3-4 jumpered (grounds pin 4 on rear connector))
JP24 set to ‘A’ (Sub Out DC coupling)
JP25 set to ‘A’ (Sub Out High)
JP26 set to ‘A’ (Sub Out analog)
WARNING: Pin 4 of the rear connector is listed as a ground. But it will not be grounded
unless JP23 is set for it. This pin also acts as an input for the receive LTR data
path. See jumper table below.
NOTE: The jumpers do not follow standard positioning. Some may be vertical, some may
have position ‘A’ on the left, some may have position ‘B’ on the left. Take extra care
when making these settings.
NOTE: If you have an older Zetron controller that will be used in a 12.5kHz system for the
first time, make sure it has first been modified for 12.5kHz operation. See Zetron’s
supplemental publication: 011-0509 for instructions on making this modification.
NOTE: For transmit audio alignment, the Zetron Model 49 manual calls for setting the Tone
Generator at TP4 for 1.4Vp-p/495mv RMS, then adjusting the TX audio for 2kHz
deviation (40% of full system deviation). This is for a 25kHz BW system. For 12.5kHz
BW, this adjustment is 1kHz deviation.
Zetron Model 38 Tone Panel Switch Settings
SW2 set to off (up) Audio Output Gain (high)
SW3 set to off (up) PL/DPL output Gain (high)
SW4 set to off (up) Flat/De-emphasis (Flat)
SW6 set to off (up) Internal/External Squelch (External)
SW7 set to on (Down) COR Positive/Negative (Negative)
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Tone Panel Programming Note:
It may be necessary to set the generated DPL (DCS) signal to “Invert” from the tone panel to be
recognized by the user radios. These DTMF commands are 3750 for normal and 3751 for inverted
signal generation.
Once the above cable and jumper/switch settings have been achieved, you should now be able to
refer to the specific controller product manual to complete installation.
2.10.4.3.3 Trident Controllers
Trident MicroSystems manufactures a cable that interfaces Trident Controllers with MOTOTRBO
repeaters and provides jumper settings for Trident Controllers.
2.10.5
Comparison Chart
Below is the table that summarizes the features supported by the MOTOTRBO Display Portable
with GPS (DM 3601).
Feature Name
DM 3601
Talkaround/Repeater Mode Operation
X
12.5/25kHz Configurable Bandwidth
X
PL/DPL Codes
X
Squelch
X
Monitor
X
Time-Out Timer
X
Channel Access Control
X
Option Board Expandability
X
Analog Signaling Features
Quik-Call II
DTMF Encode/Decode
MDC-1200 Call Alert
MDC-1200 Selective Call
–
Encode
Encode/Decode
–
MDC-1200 PTT ID
Encode/Decode
MDC-1200 Emergency
Encode/Decode
MDC-1200 Selective Radio Inhibit
–
MDC-1200 Radio Check
–
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Feature Name
DM 3601
MDC-1200 Remote Monitor
–
Digital Signaling Features
Call Alert
Encode/Decode
Private Call
Encode/Decode
Emergency
Encode/Decode
Selective Radio Inhibit
Encode/Decode
Radio Check
Encode/Decode
Remote Monitor
Encode/Decode
Analog Scan Features
Scan
X
Nuisance Channel Delete
X
Priority Scan
X
Dual Priority Scan
X
Digital Scan Features
Scan
X
Nuisance Channel Delete
X
Priority Scan (Talkaround)
X
Priority Scan (Repeater Mode)
Future
Dual Priority Scan (Talkaround)
X
Dual Priority Scan (Repeater Mode)
Future
Mixed Mode Scan Features
Scan
X
Nuisance Channel Delete
X
Priority Scan
–
Dual Priority Scan
–
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2.11
Third Party Application Partner Program
The MOTOTRBO system is complete and robust enough to fulfill the diverse needs faced by a
variety of customers. However, realizing the important role third party developers play in
supporting market growth by creating customized applications that add value to customers in
different vertical applications, Motorola provides a powerful suite of capabilities to enable third
party applications to developers who are members of the Third Party Application Partner Program.
2.11.1
MOTOTRBO, the Dealer, and the Accredited Third-Party
Developer
A third-party developer that joins the Third Party Application Partner Program is accredited and
offered technical support from Motorola in the form of getting access to protocol, Application
Programming Interface (API) documentation, online support, as well as to Motorola channel
partners and customers. With this in mind, the dealer can sell MOTOTRBO as it is to customers or
the system can be modified by a third party developer (Third Party Application Partner Program
member) to satisfy a broader range of customer needs and applications.
2.11.2
MOTOTRBO Applications Interfaces
The following applications interfaces are available to PC-based and non-PC based peripherals.
•
Text Messaging
•
Telemetry
•
IP Data Services
•
Location Services
•
Radio Command and Control (XCMP/XNL)
•
Automatic Registration Service
These interfaces utilize the USB interface on the side accessory connector of the MOTOTRBO
portable radio, and on the front and rear accessory connectors of the MOTOTRBO mobile radio.
The following capabilities are available to "core" or traditional peripherals.
•
receive audio
•
transmit audio
•
basic control lines (e.g. PTT, Receive unsquelch, etc.)
These interfaces utilize the audio and control lines on the side accessory connector of the
MOTOTRBO portable radio, and on the front and rear accessory connectors of the MOTOTRBO
mobile radio. Detailed specifications are available in the respective product service manuals.
NOTE: Option boards enable a third party to embed an application into the MOTOTRBO mobile
and/or portable radios, and utilize third party provided hardware and software. Option
boards can control the radio through the internal option board interface, as well as interact
with external (e.g. PC-based) applications.
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2.11.3
89
MOTOTRBO Documents Available via the Third Party
Application Partner Program
Each of the interfaces mention in “MOTOTRBO Applications Interfaces” on page 88 is described in
detail in the supporting Application Developers Kit (ADK) documentation listed below. These ADKs
are available from the MOTODEV website and on EMEA Motorola Online.
MOTOTRBO Interface
Application Development Kit
General
MOTOTRBO ADK Overview
MOTOTRBO Option Board ADK Guide
MOTOTRBO Option Board
MOTOTRBO Option Board PROIS CrossReference
Motorola Standard 10S10628A
Motorola Standard 10S11004A
MOTOTRBO XCMP/XNL Development Guide
MOTOTRBO XCMP/XNL
MOTOTRBO Telemetry
MOTOTRBO XCMP/XNL Development
Specification
MOTOTRBO Telemetry ADK Guide
MOTOTRBO Telemetry Protocol Specification
MOTOTRBO Location Data ADK Guide
MOTOTRBO Location Data
MOTOTRBO Location Request and Response
Protocol Specification
Motorola Binary XML Encoding Specification
MOTOTRBO Text Messaging
MOTOTRBO Text Messaging ADK Guide
MOTOTRBO Text Messaging Protocol Specification
MOTOTRBO XCMP-Based IP Capable Peripheral
ADK Guide
MOTOTRBO Peripheral
MOTOTRBO Non-IP Capable Peripheral ADK
Guide
MOTOTRBO Third Party Peripheral Cable ADK
Guide
MOTOTRBO Data Services Overview
Other
MOTOTRBO ARS Protocol Specification
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2.11.4
Available Levels of Partnership
The below list briefly details the different levels of partnership available to third-party developers
who wish to join the Third Party Application Partner Program.
Level of Partnership
Description
Provided access to non-proprietary documents.
Registered User
For developers looking for general information with
no specific application planned.
Provided access to non-proprietary documents and
additional access to Application Development Kits
(ADKs).
Licensed Developer
Requires License Agreement.
Level 1 Vendor capability assessment.
For new developers of developers with one-time
applications planned.
Application Partner
Provided access to non-proprietary documents,
Application Development Kits (ADKs) and
additional access to Motorola’s Marketing Support
and User Forums, access to use the Motorola logo,
and listed as a Motorola partner on the MOTODEV
website.
Requires License Agreement and accreditation by
regional ADP manager.
Level 2 Vendor capability assessment.
For developers with proven applications.
Level of Partnership
Description
Provided access to non-proprietary documents.
Registered User
For developers looking for general information
about the partner program, available applications
and solutions and the process on “How to become
a Partner.”.
Provided access to non-proprietary documents and
additional access to Application Development Kits
(ADKs), technical support, user forums, and use of
the Motorola “Licensed Developer” logo.
Licensed Developer
Requires License Agreement and accreditation by
regional Third Party Application Partner Program
manager.
Level 1 Vendor capability assessment.
For new developers or developers with one-time
applications planned.
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Level of Partnership
Description
Application Partner
Provided access to non-proprietary documents,
Application Development Kits (ADKs) and
additional access to Motorola’s Marketing Support
and User Forums, access to use the Motorola
“Application Partner” logo, and listed as a Motorola
Application Partner on the EMEA Motorola Online
and the MOTODEV website.
Requires License Agreement and accreditation by
regional Third Party Application Partner Program
manager.
Level 2 Vendor capability assessment.
For developers with proven applications.
For further information, to access the ADKs, or to sign up for the Third Party Application Partner
Program, please visit the MOTODEV Application Developers website at:
http://developer.motorola.com
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Notes
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93
SECTION 3 SYSTEM COMPONENTS AND
TOPOLOGIES
3.1
System Components
MOTOTRBO consists of numerous components and applications that function together in a
system. The first step in designing a system that satisfies the customer’s needs is identifying the
devices and applications within the system, and then choosing a basic system configuration of
how these components will be interconnected. This section defines the different components and
applications available, their offered services, and their roles in the system. We will then describe
some of the standard system topologies that MOTOTRBO supports.
Please note that all data application modules contained in this system planner are depictions of
typical third party data application modules and have been included simply to illustrate certain
MOTOTRBO application enabling features.
3.1.1
Fixed End Components
The system contains devices with fixed locations and other devices that are mobile. This subsection covers the devices with fixed locations.
3.1.1.1
Repeater
The MOTOTRBO repeater provides an RF interface to the field subscribers. The repeater is AC
powered and designed to be discreetly mounted on a standard 19” rack found in most
communication tower locations. It offers front panel indicators of its current status including real
time transmit and receive indicators for each time slot. Once configured through the Customer
Programming Software (CPS), the repeater is designed to operate behind the scenes and without
the need for further user interaction.
The repeater can either be configured as a standalone repeater or as a repeater connected to a
back-end network, as in the case of IP Site Connect mode. As a repeater, it listens on one uplink
frequency, and then re-transmits on a downlink frequency. Therefore a pair of RF frequencies is
required for each repeater in the system.
A major advantage of using a repeater in the system is that it allows a greater communication
range than would be possible talking from subscriber to subscriber. Multiple repeaters can be
installed in strategic locations for the users’ coverage to be consistent throughout their required
range of operation. However, only in IP Site Connect mode, do the radios seamlessly roam
between repeaters. In digital repeater mode, the users must know the coverage range provided by
each repeater, and manually switch channels when necessary.
The repeater is capable of operating in either digital mode or analog mode. This is determined at
the initial configuration, and is not updated dynamically. Therefore at any given time, it either
operates as a digital repeater or as an analog repeater.
When configured for analog operation, the repeater is designed to operate with existing analog
systems, therefore making migration to a MOTOTRBO system smoother.
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When configured for digital operation, the repeater offers additional services. The digital repeater
operates in TDMA mode, which essentially divides one channel into two virtual channels using
time slots; therefore the user capacity is doubled. The repeater utilizes embedded signaling to
inform the field radios of the busy/idle status of each channel (time slot), the type of traffic, and
even the source and destination information.
Another advantage during digital operation is error detection and correction. The further a
transmission travels, the more predominant the interference becomes, and inevitably more errors
are introduced. The receiving MOTOTRBO radio, operating in digital mode, utilizes built-in error
detection and correction algorithms, native to the protocol, to correct these problems. The
MOTOTRBO repeater uses the same algorithms to correct the errors prior to retransmission, thus
repairing any errors that occur on the uplink; it then transmits the repaired signal on the downlink.
This greatly increases the reliability and audio quality in the system, which increases the
customer’s coverage area.
In digital mode, the repeater only retransmits digital signals from radios configured with the same
system identifier. This aids in preventing co-system interference. The repeater does not block
transmissions of radios within its own system.
As previously described, the repeater utilizes embedded signaling to announce the current status
of each channel. It is up to the radios in the field to interpret these signals, and grant or deny their
user’s request for transmission. Therefore, when a user or a group of users utilizes a channel (time
slot), the repeater announces that the channel is being used and who is using it. Only radios that
are part of that group are allowed to transmit. The repeater additionally allows a short duration of
reserved time after a transmission. This allows other users in the group to respond to the
originator. This reserved hang time greatly improves the continuity of calls, because new calls
cannot start until the previous call ends. Without this feature, users may experience delays in
responses (that is, between transmissions of calls), due to other calls taking over the channel inbetween their transmissions.
After this reserved hang time, the repeater continues to monitor for a short period. If no user
transmits on the channel for a duration of time, the repeater stops transmitting. When the next
radio transmission occurs, the repeater begins repeating again.
In IP Site Connect mode, the repeaters perform the following additional duties:
•
Each repeater ensures that their communication links with other repeaters are open all the
time.
•
They inform their operating status (including IPv4/UDP address) to each other.
•
They ensure that in cases of multiple calls starting within a short period, only one call
prevails at all the sites and all of them (except those that detect interference) repeat the
selected call.
•
They inform their alarm conditions and provide diagnostic information to the RDAC-IP tool.
The RDAC-IP tool allows its user to remotely change the mode of a repeater.
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95
3.1.1.1.1 Repeater Specifications
The MOTOTRBO repeater is currently available in 12.5kHz or 25kHz operation in analog, or
12.5kHz in digital. The table below shows the available repeater bands and associated power
levels that are currently supported.
Power Requirements
Dimensions
(h x l x w)
5.25"x11.75"x19"
3.1.1.2
Weight
14 KG.
Voltage and
Current
100-240 Volts AC, 1A
while on standby, 4A
while transmitting
Power
UHF 1
1 – 25 Watts
25 – 40 Watts
UHF 2
1 – 40 Watts
(up to
512 MHz)
1 – 25 Watts
(above
512 MHz)
VHF
1 – 25 Watts
25 – 45 Watts
Radio Control Station
The MOTOTRBO Control Station is based on the MOTOTRBO Mobile, except that it is configured
to be the RF link from the data application server to the repeater and other radios. It is integrated
with an AC power supply and appropriate housing to be placed on a desk. Since it is the radio
gateway to the server, it is configured to transmit and receive on a single channel. It is
programmed with a known radio ID, so that field radios know how to contact the server. In a
MOTOTRBO system, there can be up to four control stations connected via four USB ports; each
control station communicates through a separate logical channel.
In most cases, the Control Station is externally controlled by the PC. It requires no user interaction
once programmed. However, if a situation requires the use of a control station to transmit voice, it
is capable of transmitting voice as well.
3.1.1.3
MC1000, MC2000, MC2500 Console
The MOTOTRBO mobile in analog mode supports the MC Deskset Series of consoles. The MC
Deskset Series provides a complete portfolio of products for a small control room. Each unit
provides control of the radio(s) via a compact desk unit offering a choice of control methods: Local
and Remote. The portfolio ranges from a simple talk and listen unit to a miniature multi-channel
console.
The MC1000 can control a single control station, and provides a selection of up to four
frequencies. This unit requires no software for programming.
The MC2000 can also control a single control station, but provides a selection of up to 16
frequencies. Programming this unit is through configuration software installed on a PC.
The MC2500 controls up to 4 control stations, with the ability to patch and multi-select channels.
All channels are capable of 16 frequency controls. This unit is programmed through configuration
software installed on a PC.
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Each unit ships with a power supply and manual. The MC1000 ships with a 110V, 60Hz unit, while
the MC2000/MC2500 ship with an 110/220V, 50/60Hz unit.
The MOTOTRBO mobile can be interfaced with the MC1000, MC2000 and MC2500 Desktop
Consoles. These consoles allow for remote and local access to the MOTOTRBO Control Station.
The interface to the console uses a 26-pin MAP connector. The console interface to the control
station consists of TX_Audio, RX_Audio, PTT, Monitor and Channel Activity. Additionally, channel
steering is provided by the mobile radio through the GPIO pins, which are configurable using the
CPS. Advanced MDC commands are only supported in analog mode and a not in digital mode.
Please refer to the analog console installation manual for more details on analog console
configurations.
3.1.2
Mobile Components
Most users of the MOTOTRBO system will be utilizing mobile devices (non-fixed) to access the
system. Below are the devices currently available in the following frequency ranges and power
levels.
The MOTOTRBO portable is currently available in the following frequency ranges and power
levels:
Freq. Band
Frequency Range
Power Level
UHF 1
403 – 470 MHz
1 – 4 Watts
UHF 2
450 – 512 MHz
1 – 4 Watts
VHF
136 – 174 MHz
1 – 5 Watts
The MOTOTRBO mobile is currently available in the following frequency ranges and power levels:
Freq. Band
Power Level
403 – 470 MHz
1 – 25 Watts
25 – 40 Watts
UHF 2
450 – 527 MHz
1 – 40 Watts
(for 450 – 512 MHz)
1 – 25 Watts
(for 512 – 527 MHz)
VHF
136 – 174 MHz
1 – 25 Watts
25 – 45 Watts
UHF 1
3.1.2.1
Frequency Range
MOTOTRBO Portable
The MOTOTRBO portable is a durable, but lightweight radio that offers many ways to access the
system’s features. It is designed to allow users to take it with them anywhere, and yet remain
connected to the system.
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97
The following table lists the average battery life at 5/5/90 duty cycle with battery saver enabled,
performing with carrier squelch, and transmitting at high power:
Battery Type
Battery Life
NiMH Battery
Analog : 8 Hours
Digital : 11.2 Hours
IMPRES Li-ion Slim Battery
(Standard)
Analog : 9.3 Hours
Digital : 13 Hours
IMPRES FM Li-ion Battery
Analog : 8.7 Hours
Digital : 12.1 Hours
The portable is available in two tiers:
•
A keypad radio with display, and
•
A non-keypad radio with no display.
The portable is fully configurable via the Windows-based CPS. It can be programmed to allow
access to all MOTOTRBO features and all channels within the system or can be simplified to only
allow limited access. The MOTOTRBO portable can truly be configured to cater to your customer’s
needs.
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3.1.2.1.1 User Interface
Channel Selector Knob
Antenna
On/Off/Volume Control Knob
LED Indicator
Emergency Button
Universal Connector for Accessories
Side Button 1
Push-to-Talk (PTT) Button
Side Button 2
Side Button 3
Display
Menu Navigation Keys
Keypad
Front Button P1
Microphone
Front Button P2
Speaker
Figure 3-1 MOTOTRBO Portable (Display Model)
Channel Selector Knob
On/Off/Volume Control Knob
LED Indicator
Side Button 1
Push-to-Talk (PTT) Button
Antenna
Emergency Button
Universal Connector for Accessories
Speaker
Microphone
Side Button 2
Side Button 3
Figure 3-2 MOTOTRBO Portable (Non-Display Model)
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99
The primary buttons of the MOTOTRBO portable offer the user the ability to initiate most system
features. These buttons and switches should be very familiar to radio users.
Push-to-Talk Button
The large round Push-To-Talk button, or PTT button, is the primary button used to initiate voice
transmissions. Its location is on the left side of the portable, but is still easy to reach for both righthanded or left-handed users. The button is raised from the side and has a raised pattern, so that it
is easily found even under low light conditions. Pressing the PTT button starts a voice
transmission on the selected channel. This enables the user to simply push and talk.
Channel Selector Knob
The MOTOTRBO portable user chooses his communication environment by twisting the 16
position channel knob on the top of the portable radio. This Channel Selector Knob is the main
way a user uses to access the system. It also has a raised pattern, so it too is easy to find under
low light conditions. Although easy to find, it is designed to require some force to turn it, so as not
to be accidentally rotated through normal user activities. Each knob position can be programmed
to access a different channel within the radio’s programming. This allows the user to quickly switch
between analog and digital channels and even different groups.
But the user is not limited to 16 channels. He can place up to 16 channels into a zone, and then
switch between multiple zones. This greatly increases the number of available channels to the
user.
Programmable Buttons
There are programmable buttons on the MOTOTRBO portable. The display portable has 6
programmable buttons, while the non-display portable only has 4 programmable buttons. Each
button can be programmed to perform a particular function. The short press and long press can be
programmed to act differently. The orange button located on the top of the radio is commonly used
to initiate emergency alarms, although it can be configured to function differently.
Status Indicators
There are a few different ways to provide feedback to the user. Depending on its color and state, a
large tri-colored LED on the top of the radio indicates whether the radio is transmitting or receiving,
and whether the selected channel is busy or idle. The LED busy indication represents the
presence of RF activity on the selected channel and is not specific to the digital slot currently being
monitored. The MOTOTRBO keypad portable with display also has a two-line LCD that displays a
wide variety of information including received signal strength, battery power, emergency status,
received text message indicator, monitor on/off, and GPS status. This display also allows each
channel name to be displayed, so that the user knows the name of the selected channel. The
source ID and target group alias are also displayed. User names are kept in an address book. This
allows the user to assign user-friendly names as aliases to a radio ID. Various alert tones, talk
permit tones and keypad tones are also available to give additional audio feedback to the user.
Menu System
In addition to accessing system features via buttons, the MOTOTRBO keypad portable with
display offers a menu shown on its two line LCD display. With use of a menu button, left and right
arrow buttons, a back/home button, and an OK button for selection, users can easily navigate
through the following additional features.
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•
Contacts
•
Scan
•
Messages
•
Call Logs
•
Utilities
For further details on these menus, please see the MOTOTRBO portable user manual.
Full Keypad
The MOTOTRBO keypad portable with display offers a full numeric keypad for users to manually
enter target addresses for system features. This keypad is also used as an alphanumeric
keyboard for text messaging. The non-display portable does not come with a keypad.
3.1.2.1.2 Voice Feature Support
With use of the MOTOTRBO portable interface, the user has access to all the voice features the
MOTOTRBO system as to offer. These features include Group Calls, Individual Calls, All Calls,
and Emergency Calls.
3.1.2.1.3 Command and Control Feature Support
Command and control system features like Radio Check, Call Alert, Remote Monitor, Radio
Enable/Disable are all accessible from the MOTOTRBO portable’s user interface.
3.1.2.1.4 Analog Compatibility
The radios can be programmed to support many current analog system features. Supported
analog features include:
•
Analog communications on a 12.5/25kHz channel (as standard),
•
Private-Line (PL) and Digital Private-Line (DPL) coded squelch control (as standard),
•
MDC signaling.
3.1.2.1.5 Integrated GPS Antenna and Receiver
The MOTOTRBO portable can contain an internal GPS receiver that works with the Location
Services / Tracking Data Application. The location application and radio can be configured so that
the radio transmits its location to a centralized application. The GPS antenna is integrated into the
portable’s main antenna. In the LCD display on the radio, an icon indicates if the radio is in range
of the GPS satellites.
3.1.2.1.6 Text Messaging Compatibility
The MOTOTRBO portable can receive and transmit text messages. These can be Quick Text
(pre-defined) messages already stored on the portable. In the case of keypad radio with display,
freeform messages also can be created using the keypad. Through the menu, the user can access
the Inbox that contains all the messages he has received. The radio allows a user to send a text
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101
message to an individual, a dispatcher or a group of radios. He can also reply to and forward text
messages to other radios.
Do note that all the features mentioned apply to the radio’s built-in text messaging as well as to
“mobile on a PC” text messaging.
3.1.2.1.7 Accessory and Peripherals Interface
The MOTOTRBO portable radio supports an improved accessory and peripherals interface. This
new interface is Motorola’s platform for future accessory development, and is not compatible with
older accessories. It supports the following capabilities:
•
Enhanced Audio Functionality – This unique technology enables communication between
the radio and Motorola’s enhanced accessories to optimize audio performance. It enables
more consistent audio levels between accessory types. So headsets, remote speaker mics,
or the radio’s built-in mic and speaker sound more consistent and interoperate more
effectively. It also optimizes audio quality performance for a given accessory type, by
employing digital signal processing (DSP) technology to best match the radio’s audio
signals to the capabilities of the accessory.
•
USB Capability – The MOTOTRBO accessory and peripherals interface incorporates the
standard Universal Serial Bus (USB) capability, thus enabling IP connectivity via standard
USB ports with personal computers and other peripherals via a Motorola-supplied cable.
This interface supports radio programming capabilities with no Radio-Interface-Box (RIB)
required. It also supports third party applications by enabling interfaces for IP data service,
telemetry services, text messaging and location tracking. Refer to “Third Party Application
Partner Program” on page 88 for more details on the Third Party Application Partner
Program .
•
Core peripheral – The MOTOTRBO accessory and peripherals interface also includes core
functionality for audio input and output, PTT, monitor, receive unsquelch, channel steering,
and other general purpose input-output (GPIO) functions. This enables interface with
dispatch and telemetry applications and other traditional radio system applications.
•
RF input/output – The MOTOTRBO accessory and peripherals interface also includes
antenna signal (RF input/out) for use with future accessories such as public safety style
microphones and vehicular adaptors.
•
Rugged and Submersible – The MOTOTRBO accessory and peripherals interface meets
IP57 requirements (submersible to 1 meter for 30 minutes), thus enabling development of
rugged and submersible accessories.
3.1.2.2
MOTOTRBO Mobile
The MOTOTRBO Mobile is designed to be located in a vehicle and powered by the vehicle’s
battery or by AC power. Its durable construction makes it safe to use in most in-vehicle
environments. It also can be used on desktops that are not truly mobile. Similar to the portable, the
mobile offers numerous ways to access the system’s features.
The mobile is available in two tiers:
•
A radio with full display, and
•
A radio with numeric display.
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The mobile is fully configurable via the Windows-based configuration software (CPS). It can be
programmed to allow access to all MOTOTRBO features and all channels within the system, or
can be simplified to only allow limited access. The MOTOTRBO Mobile can truly be configured to
cater to your customer’s needs.
3.1.2.2.1 User Interface
Power Button
LED Indicators
LCD Screen
Channel Rocker
Volume Knob
CH+
CH P1
P3
OK
MENU
P2
BACK
P4
Menu Buttons
Mic Connector
Speaker
Programmable Buttons
Figure 3-3 MOTOTRBO Mobile Control Head (Full Display Model)
Power Button
LED Indicators
Numeric Display
Volume Knob
Channel Rocker
Indicator Icons
CH+
CH -
P1
Mic Connector
P2
Programmable Buttons
Speaker
Figure 3-4 MOTOTRBO Mobile Control Head (Numeric Display Model)
The primary buttons of the MOTOTRBO Mobile offer the user the ability to initiate most system
features. These buttons and switches are the corner stone of the radio and should be very familiar
to radio users.
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Push-to-Talk Button
The Push-To-Talk (PTT) button on the microphone is the primary button used to initiate voice
transmissions. The cable connecting the microphone to the mobile is long enough to be
comfortably used by either a right handed or left handed user. The button is raised from the side
and has a raised pattern so that it is easily found in the low light conditions. Pressing the PTT
starts a voice transmission on the selected channel. This enables the user to simply Push and
Talk. The MOTOTRBO mobile can also interface to other accessories such as a Visor
Microphone, a Foot Switch and an enhanced full keypad microphone. Motorola Original™
accessories provide an easy way to turn the MOTOTRBO mobile radio into a custom
communication solution to fit your business requirements.
Channel Rocker
The MOTOTRBO Mobile user chooses his communication environment by selecting a channel
using the Channel Rocker on the control head. The Channel Rocker has a raised pattern that is
backlit so it is easy to find in low light conditions. Although easy to find, it requires some force to
push it so as not to change channels through accidentally pressing. Each press can be
programmed to access a different channel within the radio’s programming. This allows the user to
quickly switch between analog and digital channels and even different groups. The user can
quickly switch to different channels by pushing the up or down sections of the rocker. This greatly
increases the number of available channels to the user.
Programmable Buttons
There are programmable buttons on the MOTOTRBO mobile. The full display mobile has four
programmable buttons while the numeric display mobile has two programmable buttons. Each
button can be programmed to perform a particular function. The short press and long press can be
programmed to act differently. The buttons can be programmed to give quick and easy access to
the MOTOTRBO system features, triggering emergency alarms and operating horns or lights.
Status Indicators
The MOTOTRBO mobile provides a multi-colored LED on the front of the radio that informs the
user of the busy or idle status of the selected channel. The LED busy indication represents the
presence of RF activity on the selected channel and is not specific to the digital slot currently being
monitored. The MOTOTRBO Mobile also provides a two line LCD display that shows a wide
variety of information, including received signal strength, battery power, emergency status,
monitor on/off, and GPS status. This display allows each channel name to be displayed so that the
user knows the name of the selected channel. The source ID and target group alias are also
displayed for ease of use. User names are kept in an address book. This allows the user to use
familiar names as aliases a radio ID. Various audio alert tones, talk permit tones and keypad tones
are available to help the user navigate.
Menu System
In addition to the accessing system features via buttons, the MOTOTRBO Mobile offers a menu
shown on its two line LCD display. With use of a menu button, left and right arrow buttons, a back/
home button, and an OK button for selection, users can easily navigate through the following
additional features. The Menu includes:
•
Contacts
•
Scan
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•
Messages
•
Call Logs
•
Utilities
For further details on these menus, please see the MOTOTRBO mobile user manual.
Full Keypad
As an option, the MOTOTRBO Mobile offers an Enhanced Keypad Microphone so that users can
manually enter target addresses for system features. Text messaging from the mobile will be
available to the end user if the MOTOTRBO mobile is configured with an Enhanced Keypad
Microphone. The Enhanced Keypad Microphone has a keypad that also doubles as a keyboard for
text messaging.
3.1.2.2.2 Voice Feature Support
With use of the MOTOTRBO Mobile interface, the user has access to all the voice features the
MOTOTRBO system as to offer. These features include: Group Calls, Private Calls, All Calls, and
Emergency Calls.
3.1.2.2.3 Command and Control Feature Support
Command and control system features like Radio Check, Call Alert, Remote Monitor, and Radio
Enable/Disable are all accessible from the MOTOTRBO Mobile’s user interface.
3.1.2.2.4 Analog Compatibility
The radios can be programmed to be backwards compatible and can support many current analog
system features. These analog channels can be accessed through the Channel Rocker.
Supported analog features include:
•
Analog communications on a 12.5/25kHz channel
•
Private-Line (PL) and Digital Private-Line (DPL) coded squelch control
•
MDC signaling (Emergency, PTT ID and Call Alert)
3.1.2.2.5 Integrated GPS Antenna and Receiver
The MOTOTRBO Mobile can also be purchased to contain an internal GPS receiver that works
with the Location services / tracking data application. The location application and radio can be
configured so that the radio will transmit its location to a centralized application. The GPS antenna
is an external antenna that will have to be mounted on the vehicle. In the LCD display on the radio,
an icon will display whether or not the radio is in range of satellites.
3.1.2.2.6 Text Messaging
The MOTOTRBO Mobile can receive and transmit text messages. Through the menu, the user
can access an inbox that contains all the messages he has received. When composing a
message, the user can generate a free form text message or choose from a list of Quick Text (predefined) messages. The MOTOTRBO radio allows a user to send a text message to an individual,
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a dispatcher or a group of radios. He can even reply to and forward text messages to other radios.
If the MOTOTRBO mobile is not configured with the Enhanced Keypad Microphone, then text
messaging can be accomplished through a mobile computer, running the text messaging client
connected to the mobile. Using CPS, the radio can be configured to support text messaging
internally or forward data to a mobile computer connected to the radio.
Do note that all the features mentioned apply to the radio’s built-in text messaging as well as to
“mobile on a PC” text messaging.
3.1.2.2.7 Front Panel Accessory Interface
The MOTOTRBO mobile radio supports an improved front panel accessory interface. This new
interface is Motorola’s platform for future accessory development and is not backwards compatible
with older accessories. This interface supports the following capabilities:
•
Enhanced Audio Functionality – This unique technology enables communication between
the radio and Motorola enhanced accessories to optimize audio performance. It enables
more consistent audio levels between accessory types, so that users of different
microphones will sound more consistent and interoperate more effectively. It also optimizes
audio quality performance for a given accessory type, employing DSP (digital signal
processing) technology to best match the radio’s audio signals to the capabilities of the
accessory.
•
USB Capability – The MOTOTRBO accessory and peripherals interface incorporates
standard Universal Serial Bus (USB) capability, enabling IP connectivity via standard USB
ports with Personal Computers and other peripherals via a Motorola-supplied cable. This
interface supports radio programming capabilities with no RIB box required, from the front
(microphone port) connection. It also supports third party applications by enabling interfaces
for IP data service, telemetry services, and text messaging and location tracking; refer to
“Third Party Application Partner Program” on page 88 of this document for more details on
the Third Party Application Partner Program.
•
Improved Connection – The MOTOTRBO microphone connection employs a rugged “twist
and lock” mechanism for greater durability and connection strength.
3.1.2.2.8 Rear Accessory and Peripherals Interface
The MOTOTRBO mobile radio also supports an improved rear panel accessory and peripherals
interface. It supports the following capabilities:
•
USB Capability – The MOTOTRBO accessory and peripherals interface incorporates
standard Universal Serial Bus (USB) capability, enabling IP connectivity via standard USB
ports with Personal Computers and other peripherals via a Motorola-supplied cable. This
interface supports radio programming capabilities with no RIB box required. This interface
also supports third party applications by enabling interfaces for IP data service, telemetry
services, and text messaging and location tracking; refer to “Third Party Application Partner
Program” on page 88 of this document for more details on the Third Party Application
Partner Program.
•
Core peripherals – The MOTOTRBO accessory and peripherals interface also includes core
functionality for audio input and output, PTT, monitor, receive unsquelch, channel steering,
and other general purpose input-output (GPIO) functions. This enables interface with
dispatch and telemetry applications and other traditional radio system applications.
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3.1.3
Data Applications
For further details on third party applications, refer to “Third Party Application Partner Program” on
page 88.
3.2
System Topologies
The primary element in the design of any private two-way radio communications system is the
networking of a fleet of field radios (portable and mobile radios). To set up such a system, the
following questions should be asked :
•
How many system users require a field radio?
•
Which system users need to communicate with each other?
•
Where are system users transmitting and receiving from when communicating with other
system users?
This information becomes the basis in determining the extent of the required system coverage
area, and the creation of its topologies. This information and the desired feature set determines
decisions on the system’s topology.
3.2.1
Direct Mode
If, within the customer’s required coverage area, any system user can directly communicate with
all of the other system users with just the output power of the transmitter in their portable or mobile
radio, then a Direct Mode system can be used. Thus, a Direct Mode system is a system where no
infrastructure is required to successfully communicate with all of the system's field radios. All field
radios are within range of each other at all times. A single frequency is assigned to all field radios
to serve as a half-duplex channel.
The radios are not limited to one direct mode frequency. They can be programmed to have
different frequencies, which are selectable with the channel selector knob.
Direct mode does not need over-the-air hang time for voice calls (See “Repeater” on page 93.).
The radio has an internal call (“talk back”) timer. The channel access method used before the call
timer expires is impolite, since the radio is still a member of an active call. This is independent of
the Channel Access selection for call initiation (polite or impolite).
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3.2.1.1
107
Digital MOTOTRBO Radios in Direct Mode
f1
digital
f1
TX = f1
RX = f1
MOTOTRBO SU
(digital mode)
TX = f1
RX = f1
MOTOTRBO SU
(digital mode)
Figure 3-5 MOTOTRBO Radios (in digital mode) In Direct Mode
In direct mode configuration, a single frequency is assigned to all radios to communicate with each
other. Since there is no repeater designating a slotting structure, there is no time slot
synchronization. Therefore, only one voice conversation or data transaction can occur at a time on
that channel. In digital direct mode, the radios support all three methods of voice transmission:
group calls, private calls and all calls. They can also support all command and control messaging
like Call Alert, Radio Check, Radio Enable/Disable, Remote Monitor and Emergency.
3.2.1.1.1 Text Messaging in Direct Mode
f1
digital
f1
TX = f 1
RX = f1
TM
MOTOTRBO SU
(digital mode)
TX = f 1
RX = f1
TM
MOTOTRBO SU
(digital mode)
Figure 3-6 MOTOTRBO Radios (in digital mode) Text Messaging In Direct Mode
In direct mode, the MOTOTRBO radios are capable of sending text messages to other radios.
Radio to radio text messaging is accomplished by a text messaging application that is built into the
radio. From the front keypad, the radio user can select the target radio, and type a text message.
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In order for the text message to be sent successfully to the target radio, both radios need to be on
the same frequency. Similar to voice, if multiple direct mode frequencies are being used, the user
must choose the channel his target is on before sending his text message. The radios do not have
to be on the same group.
Text messaging and the previously discussed voice services operate on the same frequency.
Since data operates in a polite manner, the radio avoids transmitting text messages while any
voice service is active. If operating with only field radios, text messages are limited to radio to radio
communications.
Text messages can also be sent from radio to radio using a PC attached to the radio. A softwarebased text messaging client will be installed on the PC. These configurations are commonly used
in vehicles or on desktops that do not have LAN connections. Since they can run on AC power or
off the in-vehicle battery, mobile radios are usually used for these applications, though a portable
can also be used. Note that the radio can be configured to route incoming text messages to itself
or to the PC, but not both.
Text Message Client
(TMC)
f1
digital
f1
TX = f 1
RX = f1
TX = f 1
RX = f1
TM
TM
USB
Mobile PC
Terminal
Text Message Client
(TMC)
USB
MOTOTRBO SU
(digital mode)
MOTOTRBO SU
(digital mode)
Mobile PC
Terminal
Figure 3-7 MOTOTRBO Radios (in digital mode) Text Messaging In Multiple Direct Mode
3.2.1.1.2 Telemetry Commands in Direct Mode
Below are some basic telemetry configurations, each with a quick description.
TX = f1
RX = f1
f1
digital
f1
TX = f1
RX = f1
GPIO
(Output)
MOTOTRBO SU
(digital mode)
MOTOTRBO SU
(digital mode)
Telemetry Device
(Customer Provided)
Figure 3-8 Send Telemetry Command from MOTOTRBO Radio to Another MOTOTRBO Radio to Toggle
an Output Pin
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109
In the first basic configuration, a portable radio is programmed with a button that sends a preconfigured telemetry command over the air to toggle a mobile radio’s output GPIO pin. The GPIO
pin is connected to external hardware that detects this change at the GPIO pin, and turns on a
light. This configuration can be extended to other applications like remotely opening door locks,
turning on pumps, or switching on sprinklers. Another application might be to combine the voice
from the radio’s external audio lines, a relay closure, and a public announcement system to
remotely make announcements over the intercom from your portable radio.
f1
digital
f1
TX = f1
RX = f1
TX = f1
RX = f1
“Door Open”
GPIO
(Input)
MOTOTRBO SU
(digital mode)
Telemetry Device
(Customer Provided)
MOTOTRBO SU
(digital mode)
Figure 3-9 Send Telemetry Message from MOTOTRBO Radio to Another MOTOTRBO Radio when Input
Pin State Changes
This second basic configuration is a mobile that is connected to a customer supplied external
telemetry hardware, which sends an event to one of the mobile’s GPIO pins when it detects that a
particular door has been opened. Upon detecting the GPIO pin as active, it sends a pre-configured
Text Status Message to a particular portable radio. The portable radio displays “Door Opened” to
the user as a popup alert. This basic configuration can be used at remote locations to detect a
variety of sensors such as water levels, door and window intrusions, or even motion sensors.
Combining the first and second configuration, the user can create complex control systems that
initiates a large door to close, and then announces when the door physically closes.
TX = f1
RX = f1
GPIO
(Output)
Telemetry Device
(Customer Provided)
MOTOTRBO SU
(digital mode)
f1
digital
f1
TX = f1
RX = f1
GPIO
(Input)
MOTOTRBO SU
(digital mode)
Telemetry Device
(Customer Provided)
Figure 3-10 Send Telemetry Command to Toggle an Output Pin from MOTOTRBO Radio to Another
MOTOTRBO Radio when Input Pin State Changes
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The third basic configuration is a mobile that is connected to customer supplied external telemetry
hardware, which sends an event to one of the mobile’s GPIO pins when it detects that a particular
door has been opened. Upon detecting the GPIO pin as active, it sends a telemetry toggle
command to another mobile radio. This mobile radio is configured to toggle an output pin, which is
connected to telemetry hardware that sounds an alarm. Similar to the other configurations, this
method can be extended to a myriad of other solutions such as only opening doors when other
doors have been closed, or turning on water pumps when water levels reach a particular level.
This configuration can be used automate the environment of two remote locations. The
possibilities are only limited by the designer’s imagination.
3.2.1.1.3 Server-Based Data Applications in Direct Mode
MOTOTRBO also supports server based data applications in direct mode. This configuration
consists of a PC (referred to as the Application Server) running the server software connected to
the radio infrastructure via a mobile radio (or control station). The mobile radio is usually AC
powered. The mobile is configured as a control station, therefore it routes all data to the
Application Server. Since this mobile is the radio gateway to the server, it is configured to transmit
and receive on a single channel. The control station is programmed with a known radio ID, so the
field radios know how to contact the server. The server and the control station (connected via
USB) must be located in the center of the customer’s coverage area since all field radios are
expected to communicate with it. There can only be one Application Server per system.
One key service offered by the server based configuration is radio presence notification. The
Presence Notifier is required to reside on the Application Server. The purpose of the Presence
Notifier is to track whether field radios are currently present on the system. Upon power-up or
channel change, the MOTOTRBO radio transmits a registration message to the control station
connected to the Application Server, where the Presence Notifier resides. The Presence Notifier
then informs other data applications that the radio is available to receive and transmit data
messages.
Typically, location applications require a server-based configuration and the Presence Notifier to
operate. The Location Server application is installed on the Application Server machine with the
Presence Notifier. When a radio registers with the Presence Notifier, it informs the Location Server
that this radio is now on the system. The Location Server then sends out a service availability
message through the control station to the radio informing it how often to send in periodic updates,
and what to do if an emergency is initiated.
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111
Location Dispatch applications request a radio’s location information from the Location Server
application, and display the radio’s location on a map. A Location Dispatch application can reside
on the Application Server as well. The diagram below depicts this configuration.
Presence Notifier
f1
digital
f1
TX = f 1
RX = f1
TX = f 1
RX = f1
Location Server
GPS
USB
Location
Dispatch
MOTOTRBO
Control Station
(digital mode)
MOTOTRBO SU
(digital mode)
Application Server
Figure 3-11 MOTOTRBO Radios In Digital Direct Mode with Location Server and Local Location Client
Text Messaging also uses a server based configuration. Similar to the Location Server, the Text
Message Server application is installed on the Application Server machine with the Presence
Notifier. When a radio registers with the Presence Notifier, it informs the Text Message Server that
the radio is now on the system. The Text Message Server then sends out a service availability
message through the control station to the radio informing it how it can communicate with the Text
Message Server. Text Message Dispatch applications communicate with the Text Message
Server in order to send and receive messages to and from the radio network via the connected
control station. A Text Message Dispatch application can reside on the Application Server as well.
As previously described, radios can send text messages to each other without communicating
through the Text Message Server. But in order to send and receive text messages to Text
Message Dispatchers, the Text Message Server configuration is required. The diagram below
depicts this configuration. This configuration also works with external text message applications
connected to the field radios.
Presence Notifier
TX = f 1
RX = f1
Text Message
Server
Text Message
Dispatch
Location Server
Location
Dispatch
f1
digital
f1
TX = f 1
RX = f1
Text Message Client
(TMC)
TM
GPS
USB
MOTOTRBO
Control Station
(digital mode)
USB
MOTOTRBO SU
(digital mode)
Mobile PC
Terminal
Application Server
Figure 3-12 MOTOTRBO Radios In Digital Direct Mode with Text Message Server, Location Server and
Local Dispatchers
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This configuration can be expanded by locating up to four Text Message Dispatchers and four
Location Dispatchers throughout the customer’s Enterprise Network. Up to four installations of
each application can be located anywhere on the customer’s LAN, as long as they can
communicate with the Application Server. The Dispatcher installation on the Application Server
counts as one of the instances of the dispatch software. The diagram below shows two instances
of each application. One is on the Application Server and one remote. The applications can reside
on the same remote machine, if desired.
Internet
(E-mail)
NETWORK
Presence Notifier
Location
Dispatch
NETWORK
PC Terminal
Text Message
Dispatch
Customer
Enterprise
N etw ork
(C EN)
f1
TX = f1
RX = f 1
Text Message
Server
NETWORK
Text Message
Dispatch
TX = f1
RX = f1
digital
f1
TM
USB
GPS
Location Server
Location
Dispatch
MOTOTRBO
Control Station
(digital mode)
MOTOTRBO SU
(digital mode)
Application Server
NETWORK
PC Terminal
Figure 3-13 MOTOTRBO Radios In Digital Direct Mode Server Based Configuration with Remote
Dispatchers
Another Text Message service that is only available in a server based configuration is the ability to
receive and send text messages to external e-mail addresses. This allows PCs or pagers and cell
phones that are text message capable on the system to send e-mail messages. In order for the
Text Message Server to communicate with the outside world, the Application Server must have
access to the internet. When a radio sends a text message to a Text Message Dispatcher, and it is
identified as an external e-mail address in the Text Message Server, the Text Message Server will
forward the text message to the designated e-mail address.
The Text Message Server forwards incoming e-mails in a similar fashion.
3.2.1.1.4 Multi-Channel Server-Based Data Applications in Direct Mode
For larger systems that have multiple direct mode frequencies, the Application Server can be
connected to up to four control stations. Each control station is configured to communicate on the
specified channel and acts as the data gateway for that channel.
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113
Presence registration works in the same manner with this configuration as it does with the single
channel configuration. When a radio powers up or changes channels, it sends in a registration to
the Presence Notifier via the control station, which then informs the applications of the radio’s
presence. Each control station has the same radio ID, therefore the field radios transmit their
messages to this radio ID regardless of which channel they are on.
Because the field radios are located on different channels, a Multi-Channel Device Driver (MCDD)
is required to track the location of each radio, so outbound data from the Application Server can be
routed to the appropriate channel. The MCDD is a small piece of software installed on the
Application Server. Each control station is handled like a different network interface to the
Application Server. When the MCDD sees a registration, it updates the PC’s routing table so that
any data traffic for that radio is routed out the correct network interface, and therefore through the
correct control station and over the correct channel. This allows data applications to simply
transmit a data message to the radio, and the MCDD takes care of the routing to the correct
channel.
Any channel, that supports data and needs to communicate to the Application Server, needs a
dedicated control station.
Internet
(E-mail)
NETWORK
TX = f1
R X = f1
f1
digital
f1
TX = f1
RX = f1
GPS
Location
Dispatch
USB
Presence Notifier
Customer
Enterprise
N e tw o r k
(CEN)
PC Terminal
Text Message
Dispatch
NETWORK
Text Message
Server
NETWORK
Text Message
Dispatch
Location Server
Location
Dispatch
Multi-Channel Device Driver
(MCDD)
NETWORK
Application Server
PC Terminal
MOTOTRBO
MOTOTRBO SU
Control Station
(digital mode)
(digital mode)
f2
TX = f2
R X = f2
TX = f2
RX = f2
digital
f2
TM
USB
MOTOTRBO
Control Station
(digital mode)
GPS
MOTOTRBO SU
(digital mode)
Figure 3-14 MOTOTRBO Radios in Two Channel Digital Direct Mode Server-Based Configuration with
Remote Dispatchers
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System Components and Topologies
3.2.1.1.5 GPS Revert in Direct Mode
With the addition of the GPS Revert feature, it is now possible to transmit Location Update
messages on channels other than the Selected Channel (See “GPS Revert Channel” on page 36
for configuration information). The diagram in Figure 3-15 illustrates this concept in its simplest
form while operating in direct mode. In this example, Channel f1 is the Selected Channel and
Channel f2 is the GPS Revert Channel. Communications such as presence, location requests
(application server to SU), text and voice occur on the Selected Channel, while all location
responses (SU to application server) including location updates occur on the GPS Revert
Channel. Therefore, a minimum of 2 control stations are required to support GPS Revert.
f1
Presence
TX=f 1
RX=f 1
f1
Location Request
GPS
TM
es
po
ns
e
f1
GPS REVERT
TX=f 2
RX=f 2
f1
f1
f1
es
ce
n
tio
f1
ca
en
Lo
Location Server
Voice/Text
MOTOTRBO SU
(digital mode)
Pr
Presence Notifier
MOTOTRBO
Control Station
(digital mode)
Lo
MCDD
ca
tio
n
R
USB
SELETED
TX=f 1
RX=f1
R
eq
ue
f1
st
TX=f 2
RX=f 2
Location Response
GPS
USB
f2
Application Server
MOTOTRBO
Control Station
(digital mode)
TM
SELETED
TX=f 1
RX=f1
GPS REVERT
TX=f 2
RX=f 2
MOTOTRBO SU
(digital mode)
Figure 3-15 MOTOTRBO Radios in Two Channel Direct Mode GPS Revert Configuration
Under a typical scenario, the SU is powered on, and then registers on the Selected Channel with
the Presence Notifier and the Location Server. The SU receives a Periodic Location Request and
an Emergency Location Request from the Location Server on the Selected Channel. This Periodic
Location Request instructs the SU to send location updates at a specific rate, while the Emergency
Location Request instructs the SU to send a single Emergency Location Update when an
emergency is initiated.
The SU spends the most time on the Selected Channel. The SU only switches to the GPS Revert
Channel when a Location Update needs to be transmitted. Since voice transmissions have priority
over data transmissions, when the SU is involved in a call on the Selected Channel, the Location
Update is queued until after the call is completed. In order to minimize the amount of time spent
away from the Selected Channel while on the GPS Revert Channel, the SU will not attempt to
qualify traffic on the GPS Revert Channel. Therefore, all voice, data, and control messages
destined to a SU should never be transmitted on the GPS Revert Channel, as they will not reach
their destination.
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115
The example in Figure 3-15 illustrates only one GPS Revert Channel. However, depending on the
GPS data load, more than one GPS Revert Channel may be needed. For example, a single large
group that generates significant Location Update traffic must be sub-divided across several GPS
Revert Channels. Each GPS Revert Channel requires a control station, which must be connected
to the Application Server PC. The maximum number of control stations that can be connected to
the PC is four.
3.2.1.1.6 Summary of Features in Digital Direct Mode
The following features are supported in digital direct mode:
Digital MOTOTRBO Radios in Direct Mode
Voice
Features
Signaling
Features
Emergency Handling
Data Calls
Other
Features
Group Call
PTT ID and
Aliasing
Emergency Alarm
Text
Messaging
Scan
Private Call
Radio Inhibit
Emergency Alarm with
Call
Location
Tracking
Priority Scan
All Call
Remote Monitor
Emergency Alarm with
Voice to Follow
Telemetry
Time-out Timer
-
Radio Check
Emergency Revert
Third-Party
(ADP)
Applications
Polite to All
channel access
-
Call Alert
-
GPS Revert
Polite to Own
System
channel access
-
-
-
-
Impolite
channel access
*See “Scan Considerations” on page 41 for more information on the different scan modes
supported by different topologies.
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3.2.1.2
Interoperability between Analog MOTOTRBO Radios and Analog
Radios in Direct Mode
f1
analog
TX = f1
RX = f1
f1
Legacy
Analog SU
TX = f1
RX = f1
MOTOTRBO SU
(analog mode)
Figure 3-16 Legacy Analog Radios and MOTOTRBO Radios (in analog mode) in Direct Mode
November, 2008
System Components and Topologies
117
MOTOTRBO radios support analog mode as well. In order for the MOTOTRBO radio to
communicate with an analog radio, it must be programmed for analog mode, as well as
programmed with the same frequency and parameters (for example, PL and DPL) as the analog
radio. While in analog mode, the MOTOTRBO radio supports most standard analog features
including a subset of MDC signaling features. While in analog direct mode, the MOTOTRBO
radios does not support any of the digital features.
3.2.1.2.1 Summary of Features in Analog Direct Mode
All features listed in “Analog Features” on page 78 are supported in analog direct mode.
3.2.1.3
Interoperability between Digital MOTOTRBO Radios, Mixed Mode
MOTOTRBO Radios, and Analog Radios in Direct Mode
TX = f1
RX = f1
Legacy
Analog SU
f1
analog
f1
TX = f1
RX = f1
TX = f2
RX = f2
MOTOTRBO SU*
(analog mode & digital mode)
f2
digital
f2
TX = f2
RX = f2
MOTOTRBO SU
(digital mode)
* changed via mode choice
Figure 3-17 Legacy Analog and MOTOTRBO Analog and Digital Radios in Direct Mode
In this configuration, a MOTOTRBO subscriber is programmed to talk to an analog radio as well as
a MOTOTRBO radio that is programmed for digital only.
In order for the MOTOTRBO radio to communicate with the analog radio, it must be programmed
for analog mode, as well as programmed with the same frequency and parameters (for example
PL and DPL) as the analog radio.
When in the digital mode, the MOTOTRBO subscriber has all of the digital features that are
available in digital direct mode. However, the MOTOTRBO radio user has to manually switch from
digital mode to analog mode to communicate with the two groups.
Alternatively, the MOTOTRBO radio user can program the radio to scan between the analog and
digital channels to ensure a call is not missed. This can be done from the keypad of the radio or
through the CPS. Please see “Scan” on page 39 and “Scan Considerations” on page 41 to learn
more about scan.
November, 2008
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3.2.2
System Components and Topologies
Repeater Mode
There are a few reasons why a customer may require a repeater in their system. The first is, if the
required coverage area is large, they may require strategically located high power repeaters in
order to cover all of their operating space. Even if their required coverage area is small, due to
geographical limitations such as mountains, valleys or man made obstructions, they may still need
multiple high power repeaters to reach all the coverage areas. They also may need the extra
bandwidth a repeater offers. One channel may not be able to support a large number of users;
therefore additional channels may be required.
In many of these cases, the insertion of a MOTOTRBO repeater can alleviate the problems with
minimum additional cost. Such a repeater is transparent to field radio communications. They just
select the required channel using their channel selector, and continue their normal
communications. However, as in most conventional systems, if the repeater coverage does not
overlap, the user needs to know his location, and switch to the other channel when required.
Even just having one MOTOTRBO repeater provides increased user capacity. The digital repeater
operates in TDMA which essentially divides one channel into two virtual channels in digital mode;
therefore the user capacity doubles. Without the repeater, this TDMA synchronization is not
possible. The repeater utilizes embedded signaling to inform the field radios of the status of each
channel (time slot). It informs the field radios of each channel’s busy/idle status, the type of traffic,
and even the source and destination information.
Another advantage during digital operation is error detection and correction. The further a
transmission travels, the more interference it encounters, and inevitably more errors are
introduced. The receiving MOTOTRBO radio, operating in digital mode, utilizes built-in error
detection and correction algorithms, native to the protocol, to correct these problems. The
MOTOTRBO repeater uses the same algorithms to correct the errors prior to retransmission, thus
repairing any errors that occur on the uplink; it then transmits the repaired signal on the downlink.
This greatly increases the reliability and audio quality in the system, which increases the
customer’s coverage area.
In digital mode, the repeater only retransmits digital signals from radios configured with the same
system identifier. This aids in preventing co-system interference. The repeater does not block
transmissions of radios within its own system.
As previously described, the repeater utilizes embedded signaling to announce the current status
of each channel. It is up to the radios in the field to interpret these signals, and grant or deny their
user’s request for transmission. Therefore, when a user or a group of users utilizes a channel (time
slot), the repeater announces that the channel is being used and who is using it. Only radios that
are part of that group are allowed to transmit. The repeater additionally allows a short duration of
reserved time after a transmission. This allows other users in the group to respond to the
originator. This reserved hang time greatly increases the continuity of calls, because new calls
cannot start until the previous call ends. Without this feature, users may experience delays in
responses (that is, between transmissions of calls), due to other calls taking over the channel inbetween their transmissions.
After this reserved hang time, the repeater stays active for a short period of time, and offers an
opportunity for any user on the system to transmit or start a new call. If no user transmits for a
duration of time, the repeater stops transmitting. When the next radio transmission occurs, the
repeater starts repeating again.
November, 2008
System Components and Topologies
119
Most of the basic MOTOTRBO voice and data services work the same in repeater mode as they
do in direct mode. The customer will only notice the increased performance and coverage.
3.2.2.1
Digital MOTOTRBO Radios in Repeater Mode
TX = f 1
RX = f 2
Slot = 1
f1s
dig 1
ita
l
f2s
1
2
f1s l
ita
g
di
2
f2s
MOTOTRBO SU
(digital mode)
1
TX = f2 RX = f1
MOTOTRBO SU
(digital mode)
TX = f 1
RX = f 2
Slot = 2
f1s l
ita
dig 1
f2s
Slot 1
Slot 2
MOTOTRBO
Digital Repeater*
TX = f 1
RX = f 2
Slot = 1
MOTOTRBO SU
(digital mode)
f1s
dig 2
ita
f2s l
2
TX = f 1
RX = f 2
Slot = 2
MOTOTRBO SU
(digital mode)
Figure 3-18 MOTOTRBO Digital Radios on MOTOTRBO Two-Slot Digital Repeater
In digital mode, a repeater uses one frequency pair (1-transmit, 1-receive) to support the two
logical channels. As mentioned before, this is done by using TDMA technology to divide the
physical channel into two time slots. In order to access the repeater, the radio user selects the
physical and logical channel using the channel selector. Hence, when operating in repeater mode,
the field radios cannot dynamically choose a time slot. Each of the channel selector positions is
programmed for a particular digital frequency and time slot. The end user sees, in effect, each time
slot as a different conventional channel. Radio groups can be further segmented within the time
slot by assigning different group IDs to each group. Groups on different time slots cannot
communicate with each other.
Synchronization is the key to a MOTOTRBO repeater system. It is the role of the repeater to keep
this synchronization. When accessed, the repeater begins transmitting idle messages as well as
identifying the time slot structure. The radios synchronize to the transmissions from the repeater.
When a radio transmits on its time slot, the radio pulses its transmissions in 30ms increments. This
allows for simultaneous conversation to occur on the other time slot. While the first radio is pulsed
on, the other radio is pulsed off. The repeater receives these two pulsed transmissions, combines
them and transmits them in the correct order in one continuous transmission.
November, 2008
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System Components and Topologies
Repeater operation supports all three methods of voice transmission: group calls, private calls and
all calls. They can also fully support all command and control messaging like Call Alert, Radio
Check, Radio Enable/Disable, Remote Monitor and Emergency.
3.2.2.1.1 Text Messaging in Repeater Mode
TX = f1
RX = f 2
Slot = 1
TM
f1s
dig 1
ita
l
f2s
1
f1s l
ita
dig 1
f2s
1
TX = f2 RX = f1
MOTOTRBO SU
(digital mode)
2
f1s l
ita
dig 2
f2s
TX = f1
RX = f 2
Slot = 2
Slot 1
Slot 2
TX = f 1
RX = f 2
Slot = 1
TM
MOTOTRBO SU
(digital mode)
f1s
dig 2
ita
f2s l
2
TX = f 1
RX = f 2
Slot = 2
MOTOTRBO
Digital Repeater
TM
MOTOTRBO SU
(digital mode)
TM
MOTOTRBO SU
(digital mode)
Figure 3-19 MOTOTRBO Radios in Digital Two-Slot Digital Repeater Mode with Built-In Text Messaging
In repeater mode, the MOTOTRBO radios are capable of sending text messages to other radios.
Radio to radio text messaging is accomplished by a text messaging application that is built into the
radio. From the front keypad, the radio user can select the target radio, and type a text message.
In order for the text message to be sent successfully to the target radio, both radios need to be on
the same channel and time slot. Similar to voice, if multiple direct mode frequencies are being
used, the user must choose the channel his target is on before sending his text message. The
radios do not have to be on the same group.
Text messaging and the previously discussed voice services operate on the same channel and
time slot. Since data operates in a polite manner, the radio avoids transmitting text messages
while any voice service is active. If operating with only field radios, text messages are limited to
radio to radio communications.
November, 2008
System Components and Topologies
121
Text messages can also be sent from radio to radio using a PC attached to the radio. A softwarebased text messaging client will be installed on the PC. These configurations are commonly used
in vehicles or on desktops that do not have LAN connections. Since they can run on AC power or
off the in-vehicle battery, mobile radios are usually used for these applications, though a portable
can also be used. Note that the radio can be configured to route incoming text messages to itself
or to the PC, but not both.
Text Message Client
(TMC)
TX = f 1
RX = f 2
Slot = 1
f1
dig s1
ita
l
f2s
1
TM
TX = f 1
RX = f 2
Slot = 1
1
f1s
l
ita
dig 1
s
2
f
TM
USB
Mobile PC
Terminal
USB
TX = f2 RX = f1
MOTOTRBO SU
(digital mode)
f1s l
ita
dig 2
f2s
2
Text Message Client
(TMC)
TX = f 1
RX = f 2
Slot = 2
TM
USB
Mobile PC
Terminal
Text Message Client
(TMC)
MOTOTRBO SU
(digital mode)
Slot 1
Slot 2
MOTOTRBO SU
(digital mode)
Mobile PC
Terminal
f1s
dig 2
ita
f2s l
2
TX = f 1
RX = f 2
Slot = 2
MOTOTRBO
Digital Repeater
Text Message Client
(TMC)
TM
USB
MOTOTRBO SU
(digital mode)
Mobile PC
Terminal
Figure 3-20 MOTOTRBO Radios in Digital Two-Slot Digital Repeater Mode with Text Messaging
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122
System Components and Topologies
3.2.2.1.2 Telemetry Commands in Repeater Mode
Below are some basic telemetry configurations using both time slots of a repeater. A description of
each follows.
TX = f 1
RX = f2
Slot = 1
GPIO
(Output)
f1s
dig 1
ita
l
f2s
1
Telemetry Device
(Customer Provided)
TX = f2 RX = f1
MOTOTRBO SU
(digital mode)
2
f1s l
ita
g
i
d
2
f2s
TX = f 1
RX = f2
Slot = 2
1
f1s l
ita
g
i
d
1
f2s
Slot 1
Slot 2
MOTOTRBO
Digital Repeater
TX = f 1
RX = f2
Slot = 1
GPIO
(Input)
MOTOTRBO SU
(digital mode)
Telemetry Device
(Customer Provided)
f1s
dig 2
ita
f2s l
2
TX = f 1
RX = f2
Slot = 2
(Input)
Telemetry Device
(Customer Provided)
“Door Open”
GPIO
MOTOTRBO SU
(digital mode)
MOTOTRBO SU
(digital mode)
(Output)
Telemetry Device
(Customer Provided)
Figure 3-21 MOTOTRBO Radios in Digital Two-Slot Digital Repeater Mode with Telemetry Functions
In the first basic configuration a portable radio is programmed with a button (shown by the pointing
finger above) that sends a preconfigured telemetry command over the air on the second time slot
to toggle a mobile radio’s output GPIO pin. The GPIO pin is connected to external hardware that
detects the closure and turns on a light (shown by a light bulb above). This configuration can be
extended to such things as remotely opening door locks, turning on pumps, or switching on
sprinklers. Another application might be to combine the voice from the radio’s external audio lines,
a relay closure, and a public announcement system to remotely make announcements over the
intercom from your portable radio.
This second basic configuration is a mobile configured on the second time slot, connected to
customer supplied external telemetry hardware (shown by the door icon in lower right corner),
detects a closure that signifies a door has been opened. Upon detecting the GPIO pin as active, it
sends a pre-configured Text Status Message to a particular portable radio. The portable radio
displays “Door Opened” to the user as a popup alert. This basic configuration can be used at
remote locations to detect a variety of sensors such as water levels, door and window intrusions,
or even motion sensors. Combining the first and second configuration, the user can create
complex control systems that initiates a large door to close, and then announces when the door
physically closes.
November, 2008
System Components and Topologies
123
The third basic configuration is a mobile configured on the first time slot, connected to customer
supplied external telemetry hardware, detecting a closure that signifies a door has been opened
(shown by door in upper right corner). Upon detecting the GPIO pin as active, it sends a telemetry
toggle command to another mobile radio on the first time slot. This mobile radio is configured to
toggle an output pin which is connected to telemetry hardware that sounds an alarm (shown by
alarm on upper left corner). Similar to the other configurations, this method can be extended to a
myriad of other solutions such as only opening doors when other doors have been closed or
turning on water pumps when water levels reach a particular level. This configuration can be used
automate the environment of two remote locations together. The possibilities are only limited by
the designer’s imagination.
3.2.2.1.3 Server Based Data Applications in Repeater Mode
MOTOTRBO also supports server based data applications in repeater mode. This configuration
consists of a PC (referred to as the Application Server) running the server software connected to
the radio infrastructure via a mobile radio. The mobile radio is usually AC powered. The mobile is
configured as a control station, therefore it routes all data to the Application Server. Since this
mobile is the radio gateway to the server, it should be configured to transmit and receive on a
single channel (frequency and time slot). The control station is programmed with a known radio ID
so the field radios know how to contact the server. The server and the control station (connected
via USB) must be located in an area that is in good coverage of the repeater it is communicating
with. If there are multiple repeaters covering a large geographical area, the Application Server’s
control stations must be located in good coverage of each repeater. This is important since it is
common for the overlap between repeaters to be small and often only in low signal strength areas.
There can only be one Application Server per system.
One key service offered by the server based configuration is radio presence notification. The
Presence Notifier is required to reside on the Application Server. The purpose of the Presence
Notifier is to track whether field radios are currently present on the system. Upon power-up or
channel change, the MOTOTRBO radio transmits a registration message to the control station
connected to the Application Server, where the Presence Notifier resides. The Presence Notifier
then informs other data applications that the radio is available to receive and transmit data
messages.
Each frequency and time slot that needs to communicate with the Application Server needs to
have its own control stations. The Application Server can be connected to up to 4 control stations.
Each control station is configured to communicate on the specified frequency and time slot and
acts as the data gateway for that channel. Therefore a MOTOTRBO system can support server
based data on up to two repeaters, each with two time slots.
When a radio powers up or changes channels it sends in a registration to the Presence Notifier via
the control station on its frequency and time slot, which in turn informs the applications of the
radio’s presence. Each control station has the same radio ID, therefore the field radios transmit
their messages to the same radio ID regardless of which frequency and time slot they are on.
Because the field radios are located on different time slots, there needs to be a method to track the
location of each radio so that outbound data from the Application Server can be routed to the
appropriate time slot. This is the purpose of the Multi-Channel Device Driver (or MCDD). The
MCDD is a small piece of software installed on the Application Server. Its purpose is to keep track
of which interface each radio is currently located on. Each control station is handled like a different
network interface to the Application Server. When the MCDD sees a registration from a radio, it
updates the PC’s routing table so that any data traffic targeted towards that radio will be routed out
the correct network interface, therefore out the correct control station and over the air frequency
November, 2008
124
System Components and Topologies
and time slot. This allows data applications to simply transmit a data message to the radio and the
MCDD takes care of the routing to the correct frequency and time slot.
Any channel that supports data and needs to communicate to the Application Server needs a
dedicated control station. Below is a diagram of this configuration.
TX = f1
RX = f2
Slot = 1
f1s
dig
ita
l
f2s
1
f1s l
ita
g
i
d
1
f2s
1
1
USB
Text Message
Dispatch
Location Server
Location
Dispatch
Application Server
Multi-Channel Device Driver
(MCDD)
Text Message
Server
TM
GP S
TX = f2 RX = f1
MOTOTRBO
Control Station
(digital mode)
Presence Notifier
TX = f1
RX = f2
Slot = 1
MOTOTRBO SU
(digital mode)
2
f1s l
ita
dig 2
f2s
TX = f1
R X = f2
Slot = 2
Slot 1
Slot 2
f1s
dig 2
ita
f2s l
2
TX = f1
R X = f2
Slot = 2
MOTOTRBO
Digital Repeater
TM
GP S
USB
MOTOTRBO
Control Station
(digital mode)
MOTOTRBO SU
(digital mode)
Figure 3-22 MOTOTRBO Radios in Digital Two-Slot Digital Repeater Mode with a Server-Based
Configuration
Typically, location applications require a server-based configuration and the Presence Notifier to
operate. The Location Server application can be installed on the Application Server machine with
the Presence Notifier. When a radio registers with the Presence Notifier, it informs the Location
Server that this radio is now on the system. The Location Server then sends out a service
availability message through the control station to the radio informing it how often to send in its
periodic updates and what to do if an emergency is initiated.
Location Dispatch applications request a radio’s location information from the Location Server
application, and display the radio’s location on a map. A Location Dispatch application can reside
on the Application Server as well.
Text messaging also uses a server based configuration. Similar to the Location Server, the Text
Message Server application can be installed on the Application Server machine with the Presence
Notifier. When a radio registers with the Presence Notifier, it informs the Text Message Server that
the radio is now on the system. The Text Message Server then sends out a service availability
message through the control station to the radio informing it how it can communicate with the Text
Message Server. Text Message Dispatch applications communicate with the Text Message
Server in order to send and receive messages to and from the radio network via the connected
November, 2008
System Components and Topologies
125
control station. Like the Location Dispatch, the Text Message Dispatch application can reside on
the Application Server too.
As previously described, radios can send text messages to each other without communicating
through the Text Message Server. But in order to send and receive text messages to Text
Message Dispatchers, the Text Message Server configuration is required. This configuration also
works with external text message applications connected to the field radios.
This configuration can be expanded by locating up to four Text Message Dispatchers and four
Location Dispatchers throughout the customer’s Enterprise Network. Up to four installations of
each application can be located anywhere on the customer’s LAN, as long as they can
communicate with the Application Server. The Dispatcher installations on the Application Server
counts as one of the instances of the dispatch software. The diagram below shows 2 instances of
each application. One is on the Application Server and one remote. The applications can reside on
the same remote machine, if desired.
TX = f1
R X = f2
Slot = 1
Internet
(E-mail)
TX = f1
R X = f2
Slot = 1
f1
dig s1
ita
l
f2s
NETWORK
1
f1s l
ita
dig 1
f2s
1
USB
TM
GPS
Presence Notifier
Location
Dispatch
NETWORK
PC Terminal
Customer
Enterprise
Network
( CE N )
Text Message
Server
NETWORK
Text Message
Dispatch
Location Server
Location
Dispatch
Multi-Channel Device Driver
(MCDD)
TX = f2 RX = f1
Application Server
Text Message
Dispatch
MOTOTRBO
Control Station
(digital mode)
MOTOTRBO SU
(d igital mode)
Slot 1
Slot 2
TX = f1
R X = f2
Slot = 2
USB
MOTOTRBO
Digital Repeater
2
f1s l
ita
g
i
d
2
f2s
f1s
dig 2
ita
f2s l
2
TX = f1
RX = f2
Slot = 2
TM
GPS
NETWORK
MOTOTRBO
Control Station
(digital mode)
MOTOTRBO SU
(digital mode)
PC Terminal
Figure 3-23 MOTOTRBO Radios in Digital Two-Slot Digital Repeater Mode with a Server-Based
Configuration and Remote Dispatchers
Another Text Message service that is only available in a server based configuration is the ability to
receive and send text messages to external e-mail addresses. This allows PCs or pagers and cell
phones that are text message capable on the system to send e-mail messages. In order for the
Text Message Server to communicate with the outside world, the Application Server must have
access to the internet. When a radio sends a text message to a Text Message Dispatcher, and it is
identified as an external e-mail address in the Text Message Server, the Text Message Server will
forward the text message to the designated e-mail address. It requires access to the internet in
order to send the message.
The Text Message Server also forwards incoming e-mails in a similar fashion.
November, 2008
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System Components and Topologies
On the following page is an example of a server based configuration that supports four data
capable time slots with local and remote dispatchers. Note that any mix of external and internal
radio Text Message Clients are supported on each channel.
November, 2008
NETWORK
NETWORK
NETWORK
NETWORK
Customer
Enterprise
Network
(CEN)
NETWORK
Application Server
Location
Dispatch
Location Server
Text Message
Dispatch
Text Message
S e r ver
Presence Notifier
MOTOTRBO
Control Station
(digital mode)
MOTOTRBO
Control Station
(digital mode)
MOTOTRBO
Control Station
(digital mode)
USB
MOTOTRBO
Control Station
(digital mode)
TX = f3
RX = f4
Sl o t = 2
USB
TX = f3
RX = f4
Slot = 1
USB
TX = f1
RX = f2
S lot = 2
USB
f3s l
ita
dig 2
f4s
2
1
f3s
ita
l
1
f4s
dig
f1s l
ita
dig 2
f2s
2
f1s
1
ita
l
1
f2s
dig
MOTOTRBO
Digital Repeater
Slot 2
S l ot 1
TX = f4 RX = f3
MOTOTRBO
Digital Repeater
Sl ot 2
Slot 1
TX = f2 RX = f1
2
f3s
dig 2
ita
f4s l
1
f 3s l
ita
dig 1
f4s
2
f1s
dig 2
ita
f2s l
1
f 1s l
ita
dig 1
f2s
USB
TM
TM
USB
MOTOTRBO SU
(digital mode)
GPS
TX = f3
RX = f4
Slot = 2
MOTOTRBO SU
(digital mode)
GPS
TX = f3
RX = f4
Slot = 1
MOTOTRBO SU
(digital mode)
GPS
TX = f1
RX = f2
S l ot = 2
MOTOTRBO SU
(digital mode)
GPS
TX = f1
RX = f2
Slot = 1
Mobile PC
Terminal
Text Message Client
(TMC)
Mobile PC
Terminal
Text Message Client
(TMC)
Figure 3-24 MOTOTRBO Radios in Digital Two-Slot , Digital Repeater Mode with Text Message Server, Location Server with Local
and Remote Dispatchers
PC Terminal
Location
Dispatch
PC Terminal
Te x t M e s s ag e
Dispatch
PC Terminal
T e x t Me s s a g e
Dispatch
Location
Dispatch
PC Terminal
T e x t Me s s a g e
Dispatch
Location
Dispatch
Int ern et
(E-mail)
NETWORK
Multi-Channel Device Driver
(MCDD)
TX = f1
RX = f2
Slot = 1
System Components and Topologies
127
November, 2008
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System Components and Topologies
3.2.2.1.4 GPS Revert in Repeater Mode
With the addition of the GPS Revert feature, it is now possible to transmit Location Update
messages on channels other than the Selected Channel (See “GPS Revert Channel” on page 36
for configuration information). The diagram in Figure 3-25 illustrates this concept in its simplest
form while operating in repeater mode. In this example, channels f1s1 and f2s1 compose the
Selected Channel frequency pair and channels f1s2 and f2s2 compose the GPS Revert Channel
frequency pair. Communications such a presence, location requests (application server to SU),
text and voice occur on the Selected Channel, while all location responses (SU to application
server) including location updates occur on the GPS Revert Channel. Therefore, a minimum of 2
control stations are required to support GPS Revert.
t
ex
/T
S1
f2
ice
Vo
e/
S1
e
f1
nc
se
es
Pr
e
Pr
u
S1
f 2 Req
n
tio
ca
Lo
TX=f 1
RX=f 2
Slot 1
c
en
n
Re
io
at
es
S1
f1
S2
f 1 st
e
qu
Re
c
Lo
t
USB
MCDD
TX=f 2
RX=f 1
at
GPS REVERT
TX=f 1
RX=f 2
Slot 2
S1
f 2 MOTOTRBO SU
tio
n
qu
es
Slot 1
Re
t
S2
f2
ca
SELETED
TX=f 1
RX=f2
Slot 1
n
se
on
Pr
GPS
S1
f2
TM
GPS REVERT
TX=f 1
RX=f 2
Slot 2
t
ex
/T
ce
S1
f1
oi
/V
ce
en
es
MOTOTRBO
Digital Repeater
S2
f1
Slot 2
sp
Re
L
R
Lo
n
tio
a
oc
S 1 tio
f2
Location Server
USB
TM
ca
se
on
Application Server
n
GPS
(digital mode)
p
es
TX=f 1
RX=f 2
Slot 2
io
SELETED
TX=f 1
RX=f2
Slot 1
Lo
Presence Notifier
MOTOTRBO
Control Station
(digital mode)
c
Lo
S1
f1
se
on
sp
MOTOTRBO
Control Station
(digital mode)
MOTOTRBO SU
(digital mode)
Figure 3-25 MOTOTRBO Radios in Two-Slot Digital Repeater Mode with GPS Revert Configuration
Under a typical scenario, the SU is powered on, and then registers on the Selected Channel with
the Presence Notifier and the Location Server. The SU receives a Periodic Location Request and
an Emergency Location Request from the Location Server on the Selected Channel. This Periodic
Location Request instructs the SU to send location updates at a specific rate, while the Emergency
Location Request instructs the SU to send a single Emergency Location Update when an
emergency is initiated.
The SU spends the most time on the Selected Channel. The SU only switches to the GPS Revert
Channel when a Location Update needs to be transmitted. Since voice transmissions have priority
over data transmissions, when the SU is involved in a call on the Selected Channel, the Location
Update is queued until after the call is completed. In order to minimize the amount of time spent
away from the Selected Channel while on the GPS Revert Channel, the SU will not attempt to
qualify traffic on the GPS Revert Channel. Therefore, all voice, data, and control messages
destined to a SU should never be transmitted on the GPS Revert Channel, as they will not reach
their destination.
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129
The example in Figure 3-25 illustrates only one GPS Revert Channel. However, depending on the
GPS data load, more than one GPS Revert Channel may be needed. For example, a single large
group that generates significant Location Update traffic must be sub-divided across several GPS
Revert Channels. Each GPS Revert Channel requires a control station, which must be connected
to the Application Server PC. The maximum number of control stations that can be connected to
the PC is four.
3.2.2.1.5 Summary of Features in Digital Repeater Mode
The following features are supported in digital repeater mode:
Digital MOTOTRBO Radios in Repeater Mode
Voice
Features
Signaling
Features
Emergency
Handling
Data Calls
Other
Features
Group Call
PTT ID and
Aliasing
Emergency Alarm
Text
Messaging
Two channels
(slot 1 and slot 2)
per repeater
frequency pair
Private Call
Radio Inhibit
Emergency Alarm
with Call
Location
Tracking
Scan*
All Call
Remote Monitor
Emergency Alarm
with Voice to
Follow
Telemetry
Time-out Timer
-
Radio Check
Emergency Revert
Third-Party
(ADP)
Applications
Polite to All
system access
-
Call Alert
-
GPS Revert
Polite to Own
System channel
access
-
-
-
-
Impolite channel
access
*See “Scan Considerations” on page 41 for more information on the different scan modes
supported by different topologies.
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3.2.2.2
Analog MOTOTRBO Radios in Repeater Mode
TX = f2 RX = f1
f1
analog
f2
TX = f1
RX = f2
Legacy
Analog SU
f1
analog
f2
Legacy
Analog Repeater
TX = f1
RX = f2
MOTOTRBO SU
(analog mode)
Figure 3-26 MOTOTRBO Analog and Legacy Analog Radios on Legacy Analog Repeater
MOTOTRBO radios supports analog repeater mode as well. In order for the MOTOTRBO radio to
communicate with the existing analog repeater, it must be programmed for analog mode as well as
programmed with the same frequency and other options (PL, DPL, etc.) as the existing analog
repeater. While in analog mode, the MOTOTRBO radio supports most standard analog features
including a subset of MDC signaling features. While in analog repeater mode, the MOTOTRBO
radios will not support any of the digital features.
TX = f2 RX = f1
TX = f1
RX = f2
Legacy
Analog SU
f1
f1
analog
f2
analog
f2
MOTOTRBO
Analog Repeater
TX = f1
RX = f2
MOTOTRBO SU
(analog mode)
Figure 3-27 MOTOTRBO Analog and Legacy Analog Radios on MOTOTRBO Analog Repeater
If required, the MOTOTRBO repeater can be programmed to operate in analog repeater mode.
When operating in this mode, it interoperates with the existing analog radios as well as the
MOTOTRBO radios operating in analog mode. It is important to note that the MOTOTRBO
repeater can only be configured to operate in analog mode or digital mode. It does not do both at
the same time.
The MOTOTRBO radio can be configured with both analog and digital repeater channels. The
user can select between the analog and digital repeaters via the Channel Selector Knob.
November, 2008
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131
Alternatively, the MOTOTRBO radio user can program his radio to scan between the analog and
digital channels to ensure that they do not miss a call. The programming can be done from the
keypad of the radio or through CPS. Details of scan will be discussed in the following sections.
Below is an example configuration of a mixed repeater mode system.
TX = f4 RX = f3
f3
TX = f3
RX = f4
f3
analog
analog
f4
f4
TX = f3
RX = f4
TX = f 1
RX = f2
Slot = 1
f1
dig s1
ita
l
f2s
1
Legacy
Analog SU
Legacy
Analog Repeater
TX = f2 RX = f1
MOTOTRBO SU
(analog mode & digital mode)*
f1s l
ita
dig 2
f2s
2
TX = f6 RX = f5
TX = f5
RX = f6
Legacy
Analog SU
f5
analog
f5
analog
f6
f6
MOTOTRBO
Analog Repeater
TX = f5
RX = f6
TX = f 1
RX = f2
Slot = 2
MOTOTRBO SU
(analog mode & digital mode)*
TX = f 1
RX = f2
Slot = 1
1
f1s l
ita
dig 1
f2s
Slot 1
Slot 2
MOTOTRBO SU
(digital mode)
f1s
dig 2
ita
f2s l
2
TX = f 1
RX = f2
Slot = 2
MOTOTRBO
Digital Repeater*
MOTOTRBO SU
(digital mode)
* changed via mode choice
Figure 3-28 MOTOTRBO Digital Radios on a Two-Slot MOTOTRBO Digital Repeater with Analog Legacy
Repeater Support
3.2.2.2.1 Summary of Features in Repeater Mode
All features listed in “Analog Features” on page 78 are supported in analog repeater mode.
3.2.3
IP Site Connect Mode
In IP Site Connect mode, repeaters across dispersed locations exchange voice, data, and control
packets over an IPv4-based back-end network. The potential applications of this mode include:
•
Connecting two or more dispersed locations for day-to-day communications.
For example, a customer’s manufacturing facility and a distribution facility across towns can
be connected using MOTOTRBO repeaters in IP Site Connect mode.
•
Building a larger or more effective RF coverage area.
For example, multiple repeaters installed in an amusement park or a high-rise building can
be connected to provide a contiguous area of RF coverage. The need for multiple repeaters
may stem from any combination of geography (distance or topographical interference
problems) and in-building or cross-building RF penetration issues.
November, 2008
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System Components and Topologies
•
Broadcasting announcements to all sites.
This is useful in case of emergency or special events.
•
Connecting repeaters operating in different RF bands.
For example, repeaters operating in UHF (UHF-1 and UHF-2) or VHF frequencies can be
combined so that voice or data from one system flows into another.
•
Connecting to IP-based applications.
IP Site Connect mode allows the customers to connect to third-party IP-based dispatch
consoles, or call logging and recording applications, or routing calls to/from IP-based
phones.
3.2.3.1
Topologies of IP Site Connect System
3.2.3.1.1 Wide Area System with Centralized Data Application Server
This basic topology (as shown in Figure 3-29) is a single wide area system that consists of multiple
single repeater systems operating in digital mode and zero or more application servers connected
over a back-end network that supports IPv4, where:
•
A repeater system consists of a fixed digital repeater, digital radios (with or without an
accessory or a data terminal), and two conventional physical channels. Only one of the
repeaters, which is called the Master, has an additional role in the IP Site Connect mode.
This additional role involves brokering of UDP/IP address and states of repeaters.
•
A radio uses one slot of a pair of frequencies (i.e. inbound and outbound) to communicate
with its repeater. The pair of frequencies and/or the color code used by repeaters are not
necessarily the same. Their frequencies may be in different frequency bands.The
geographically adjacent repeaters have different frequencies. Two repeaters with the same
frequency must be separated by a suitable distance to minimize interference and must use
unique color codes.
•
An Application Server is a PC-like equipment where one or more application runs. An
application can be a data application such as a Location Server, Text Message Server or a
voice application such as a Console. An Application Server is connected to one or two
Control Stations, and these Control Stations are connected over-the-air to a repeater. If the
configuration has more than one Control Station, then the Application Server should have
the MCDD software installed. A third party application can reside on an Application Server
and since the Application Server is connected to Control Stations (one per logical channel),
the application is not required to implement any third party API that partially emulates the
behavior of a MOTOTRBO repeater and radio.
•
The back-end network can be a dedicated network or most probably an internet provided by
an Internet Service Provider (ISP). ISPs provide a range of technologies such as dial-up,
DSL (typically, ADSL), cable modem, broadband wireless access, ISDN, Frame Relay,
Satellite Internet access, etc. The back-end network cannot be based on a dial-up
connection (due to small bandwidth) or Satellite Internet access (due to large delay). The IP
Site Connect configuration does not require an ISP to provide a non-varying (static) IPv4
address except for the Master repeater. A repeater can be behind a firewall and/or a router
and/or a NAT. A repeater has USB and Ethernet network interfaces. The USB is used for
November, 2008
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133
connecting a local PC and Ethernet is used for connecting to the back-end network of an IP
Site Connect system.
Site 2
TX = f3
RX = f4
Slot = 1
TM
GPS
TX = f 4 RX = f 3
s1
f4
ital
di g 1
f3 s
MOTOTRBO SU
(digital mode )
WAC1
WAC2
Network
Site 1
TX = f1
RX = f 2
Slot = 1
Text Message
Server
Text Message
Dispatch
Location Server
Location
Dispatch
Application Server
USB
Multi-Channel Device Driver
(MCDD)
Presence Notifier
MOTOTRBO
Control Station
(digital mode )
MOTOTRBO
Digital Repeater
TX = f3
RX = f 4
Slot = 2
f4
dig s 2
i ta
l
f3s 2
MOTOTRBO SU
(digital mode )
TX = f2 RX = f1
f1s
dig 1
i ta
f2s l
1
WAC1
Site 3
TX = f 1
RX = f2
Slot = 2
TX = f5
RX = f 6
Slot = 1
WAC2
f1s l
i ta
dig 2
f2s
2
MOTOTRBO
Digital Repeater
( MASTER )
TM
TX = f 6 RX = f 5
GPS
s1
f6
ital
di g 1
f5 s
MOTOTRBO
Control Station
(digital mode )
MOTOTRBO SU
(digital mode )
WAC1
* WAC = Wide Area Channel
*TM = Text Messaging
TM
GPS
WAC2
MOTOTRBO
Digital Repeater
f6
dig s 2
i ta
l
f5s
2
TX = f5
RX = f6
Slot = 2
TM
GPS
MOTOTRBO SU
(digital mode )
Figure 3-29 Wide Area System with Centralized Data Application Server
There may be an application known as RDAC-IP running on a host PC connected to the back-end
network of an IP Site Connect system. The application displays the status of repeaters and allows
its user to control some of the parameters of a repeater. The host PC maintains its link with the
Master and other repeaters using the same protocols as other repeaters in an IP Site Connect
system. Note that there may be a local RDAC application running on a host PC connected to a
repeater through RNDIS-USB interface. Also, analog, and local area only repeaters can be
connected to wide area system so that they may be managed by the RDAC application.
In digital mode, MOTOTRBO offers two logical channels. The configuration above shows both the
channels acting as wide area channels. This means that when a call starts at one of the logical
channels of a repeater, that repeater sends the call to all the other repeaters and they repeat the
call on their corresponding logical channel. Since calls are not repeated on both logical channels,
a radio on a logical channel cannot participate in a voice call on the other logical channel or logical
channels of other IP Site Connect systems unless scan is utilized. Note that scanning cannot be
enabled while roaming. Radio to radio data messages are not repeated on both slots either,
although it is possible to support one Application Server to serve multiple wide area channels. The
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System Components and Topologies
Application Server interfaces with the wide area channels in the same way as it interfaces with the
local area channels. This is described in section 3.2.2.1.3 “Server Based Data Applications in
Repeater Mode”.
3.2.3.1.2 Wide and Local Area Systems with Distributed Data Application
Servers
It is possible that one of the logical wide area channels of the repeaters is configured for local
communication only. In this case, each site has its own logical channel for local communication.
This is useful in case a customer need a significant load of local communication. This configuration
offloads the local communication from the wide area channel.
The following figure shows an example of such configuration in which one of the logical channels
(say, slot 2) is used in IP Site Connect mode (wide area) and the other (slot 1) is used in digital
repeater mode (local area). The calls originating on slot 1 are not sent to other repeaters. A
customer should use slot 1 for local groups (i.e. groups whose members are expected to be
present in the coverage area of the repeater); and slot 2 for groups whose members are
distributed over the coverage area of multiple repeaters.
Site 1
Site 3
Presence Notifier
Text Message
Server
Text Message
Dispatch
Location Server
Location
Dispatch
Multi-Channel Device Driver
(MCDD)
TX = f2 RX = f1
TX = f1
RX = f2
Slot = 1
USB
f1 s a l
it
di g
1
f2 s
TX = f6
RX = f 5
TX = f5
RX = f6
Slot = 2
1
MOTOTRBO
Control Station
(digital mode )
WAC1
WAC1
LC1
LC3
f5 s ta l
i
di g
f6 s2
USB
2
MOTOTRBO
Digital Repeater
MOTOTRBO
Control Station
(digital mode )
MOTOTRBO
Digital Repeater
( MASTER )
Presence Notifier
Network
TX = f 7
RX = f8
Slot = 1
TX = f8 RX = f7
f7 s ta l
i
di g
1
f8 s
1
Site 2
Presence Notifier
Text Message
Server
Text Message
Dispatch
Location Server
Location
Dispatch
Multi-Channel Device Driver
(MCDD)
TX = f4 RX = f3
LC4
TX = f3
RX = f4
Slot = 2
USB
MOTOTRBO
Control Station
(digital mode )
f3
di g s 2
i ta
f4s l
2
WAC1
LC5
LC2
MOTOTRBO
Digital Repeater
MOTOTRBO
Digital Repeater
f8
dig s2
ita
f7 s l
2
MOTOTRBO
Control Station
(digital mode )
TX = f 7
RX = f8
Slot = 2
Multi-Channel Device Driver
(MCDD)
Application Server
Text Message
Server
Text Message
Dispatch
Location Server
Location
Dispatch
Application Server
MOTOTRBO
Control Station
(digital mode )
Application Server
* WAC = Wide Area Channel
*LC = Local Channel
*TM = Text Messaging
Figure 3-30 Wide and Local Area System with Distributed Data Application Servers
The data messages sent over local channel 1 are not delivered to the Application Server 1 and
therefore, if required, each geographical location should have their own Application Server with
their own Presence Notifier. When a radio manually roams (i.e. changes dial positions) between a
local area channel and a wide area channel, the radio registers with its respective Presence
Notifier. To facilitate this, the radio ID of the control stations should be configured to be the same.
If a customer requires more local capacity at a location then it is possible to add more repeaters
working in Single-Site configuration and all the local slots of all the repeaters can share the same
Application Server. In that case, the radios on the local channel will not be able to communicate
with the wide area channels’ Application Server.
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System Components and Topologies
135
3.2.3.1.3 Multiple Wide Area Systems with Centralized Data Application
Server
If a customer requires more wide area capacity, then it is possible to add another set of repeaters
working in IP Site Connect mode. It is possible for the repeaters to share the same Application
Server. This is shown in the figure below. In this case, the repeaters at a location may share the
same link to the back-end network. The bandwidth required for communication through the backend network should take this into consideration. See “Characteristics of Back-End Network” on
page 161. for further details.
Site 2
Site 1
TX = f6 RX = f5
TX = f1
RX = f 2
Slot = 1
USB
MOTOTRBO
Control Station
(digital mode )
Presence Notifier
Text Message
Server
Text Message
Dispatch
Location Server
Location
Dispatch
Multi-Channel Device Driver
(MCDD)
TX = f 1
RX = f2
Slot = 2
USB
TX = f2 RX = f1
WAC1
f1s
dig 1
i ta
f2s l
1
TX = f8 RX = f7
WAC1
WAC2
f1s l
ta
igi
f2s 2
WAC2
Network
MOTOTRBO
Digital Repeater
WAC3
2
MOTOTRBO
Digital Repeater
( MASTER )
WAC4
MOTOTRBO
Digital Repeater
MOTOTRBO
Control Station
(digital mode )
USB
TX = f3
RX = f 4
Slot = 1
MOTOTRBO
Control Station
(digital mode )
Application Server
Site 3
TX = f10 RX = f 9
TX = f4 RX = f3
f3
dig s 1
i ta
f4s l
WAC1
1
TX = f12 RX = f 11
WAC3
WAC2
TX = f 3
RX = f4
Slot = 2
USB
WAC4
f3s l
i ta
dig 2
f4s
2
MOTOTRBO
Digital Repeater
( MASTER )
MOTOTRBO
Digital Repeater
WAC3
WAC4
* WAC = Wide Area Channel
MOTOTRBO
Control Station
(digital mode )
MOTOTRBO
Digital Repeater
Figure 3-31 Multiple Wide Area Systems with Centralized Data Application Server
If a customer requires more wide area capacity for location data, then it is possible to use one or
more wide area channels as GPS revert channels. The GPS revert channel behavior of radios in
IP Site Connect mode is the same as the radios behavior in digital repeater mode with the
exception that the GPS is sent unconfirmed on a wide area channel. See “GPS Revert in Repeater
Mode” on page 128.
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System Components and Topologies
3.2.3.1.4 Network Topologies for IP Site Connect
The IP Site Connect topologies described in the previous sections can reside on a range of backend network configurations and technologies. Logical connections between the wide area
channels can all reside on the same physical network. The actual network topology chosen will
most likely be driven by the repeater’s physical location and the network connectivity available at
that location. The Network Topologies can be broken up into two basic configurations:
•
Local Area Network Configuration
•
Wide Area Network Configuration
But note that most network topologies will be a combination of both Local and Wide Area network
configurations. Each individual configuration will be described and discussed.
Note that the same network configurations can be used for Digital or Analog Repeaters, Enabled
or Disabled Repeaters, Wide Area or Local Area Repeaters, RDAC-IP, or any other third party
device that utilizes the IP Site Connect link establishment protocol.
3.2.3.1.4.1Local Area Network (LAN) Configuration
Customers that have high capacity network connectivity throughout their organization will most
likely have a desire to utilize their existing network for wide area connectivity. IP Site Connect
supports the following technologies:
•
Private LANs
•
Corporate LANs
•
Private Wireless Systems (e.g. Motorola’s Canopy1or Point-to-Point (PTP) systems2
Exact configurations of Local Area Networks can vary greatly. As long as the devices are on the
same network, or have access to other networks through an internal router or NAT configurations,
the IP Site Connect system will operate correctly. It is also assumed that in these local
configurations that bandwidth is not an issue. Nevertheless, it is important for the system installer
to understand the bandwidth that each IP Site Connect devices require in order to operate
optimally. See “Network Bandwidth Considerations” on page 162.
The diagram below shows a simple diagram of IP Site Connect devices located at different sites
connected through a local area network. Note that in this drawing the IP Site Connect devices
could be in one or more Wide Area Systems (i.e. more than one Master), could contain local area
channels or even be an analog repeater, a disabled repeater, or RDAC IP application.
1.
2.
For more information about Canopy, see http://www.motorola.com/Business/US-EN/
Business+Product+and+Services/Wireless+Broadband+Networks/Point-to-Multipoint+Networks
For more information about PTP, see http://www.motorola.com/Business/US-EN/
Business+Product+and+Services/Wireless+Broadband+Networks/Point-to-Point
November, 2008
System Components and Topologies
137
Only the repeaters acting as Masters will require a local static IPv4 address. The other IP Site
Connect devices will utilize this local static IPv4 address to establish their link with the wide area
system.
IP Site
Connect
Device
Network
IP Site
Connect
Device
IP Site
Connect
Device
Local Area
Network
IP Site
Connect
Device
IP Site
Connect
Device
IP Site
Connect
Device
Figure 3-32 IP Site Connect devices connected through Local Area Network
3.2.3.1.4.2Wide Area Network Configuration
The largest benefit of IP Site Connect is the ability to connect sites over public Internet Service
Provider (ISP) links as well as private high speed connections. ISPs provide a range of
technologies with varying bandwidth. IP Site Connect supports the following technologies (as long
as the requirements listed in the back-end Network Considerations section are met):
•
Private T1
•
DSL (typically ADSL)
•
Cable Modem
•
Broadband Wireless Access (e.g. Public Canopy provided by WISPs [Wireless Internet
Service Providers])
•
ISDN
•
Frame Relay
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System Components and Topologies
IP Site Connect does not support dial-up connections (due to small bandwidth) or Satellite Internet
access (due to large delay). When utilizing public internet connections, it is important that the
system installer understand the bandwidth and delay that each IP Site Connect device requires in
order to operate optimally. They must also understand the details (bandwidth and delay) of the
network link at each site and between sites. For example, if connecting sites have long distances
between them, the delay of the entire link needs to be considered. Spanning continents connected
via Satellite may introduce unacceptable delay. But, if the continents are connected via fiber optic
there may not be any issues.
Also keep in mind that because traffic from one repeater is sent to every repeater, the required
bandwidth of the ISP link at one site is a function of the amount of other repeaters in the system.
Adding a repeater will increase the required bandwidth at all sites. See “Network Bandwidth
Considerations” on page 162.
A repeater can be (and is suggested to be)
Although not required, it is highly suggested in
common over the public internet. Although IP
devices, the following two router/NAT/firewalls
for use.
•
D-Link - EBR-2310
•
CISCO - PIX 501
behind a router and/or a NAT and/or a firewall.
order to protect against the undesired solicitations
Site Connect will work through most off-the-shelf
have been validated and are therefore suggested
As previously described, peer-to-peer communications over the network can be optionally
authenticated and are also encrypted end-to-end if enabled in the radios. If this is not considered
sufficient for a particular customer, IP Site Connect supports the ability to work through a Secure
VPN (Virtual Private Network). Secure VPN is not a function of the IP Site Connect device but
rather of the router. It is important to note that VPN does add the need for additional bandwidth and
may introduce additional delay. This should be taken into consideration in bandwidth planning. The
following Secure VPN router has been validated and is therefore suggested for use. See “Network
Bandwidth Considerations” on page 162.
•
Linksys 4 Port Gigabit Security Router with VPN: Model RVS4000.
Only the repeaters acting as Masters require a publicly accessible static IPv4 address from the
Internet Service Provider. The other IP Site Connect devices utilize this publicly accessible static
IPv4 address to establish their link with the wide area system. In addition, the router/NAT/firewall
connected to the Master require some configuration (open port) so that unsolicited messages from
other repeaters can reach the Master repeater.
The diagram below shows a simple diagram of IP Site Connect devices located at different sites
connected through a wide area network.
November, 2008
System Components and Topologies
139
Note that in this drawing the IP Site Connect devices could be in one or more Wide Area Systems
(i.e. more than one Master), could contain local area channels or even be an analog repeater, a
disabled repeater, or RDAC IP application.
IP Site
Connect
Device
Network
IP Site
Connect
Device
Router
Router
IP Site
Connect
Device
Router
IP Site
Connect
Device
Wide Area
Network
IP Site
Connect
Device
Router
IP Site
Connect
Device
Figure 3-33 IP Site Connect Devices connected through Wide Area Network
3.2.3.1.5 Wide and Local Area Network Configuration
Most network topologies are a combination of both Local and Wide Area network configurations.
For example, there may be a need to link two or more sites with existing local networks together
over a public ISP, or maybe link one or more remote mountain RF site into a corporate network.
When doing this, there are a few extra precautions to consider that are not covered in the previous
sections.
The number of IP Site Connect devices connected together behind a single wide area connection
(i.e. behind one router) can have a large effect on the required bandwidth of the wide area link.
The bandwidth requirements of a wide area link are the summation of the bandwidth requirements
of all IP devices behind the router. In other words, if there are three IP Site Connect devices
utilizing a single ISP link, it must have enough bandwidth to support all three. Recall that the traffic
from one repeater is sent to every repeater; therefore the required bandwidth of the ISP link at one
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System Components and Topologies
site is a function of the amount of other sites in the system. Adding a repeater at one site increases
the required bandwidth at all sites.
Similar to the Wide Area Network configurations, the repeaters acting as the Master will require a
publicly accessible static IPv4 address from the Internet Service Provider. The other IP Site
Connect devices utilize this publicly accessible static IPv4 address to establish their link with the
wide area system, not a local IPv4 address. This is true even for the IP Site Connect devices that
are located on the same Local Area Network as the Master.
Again, similar to the Wide Area Network configurations, the router/NAT/firewall connected to the
Master require some configuration (open port) so that unsolicited messages from other repeaters
can reach the Master repeater.
To support the ability for the IP Site Connect devices to communicate to other devices on its LAN
using the WAN IPv4 address, the routers on those WANs must support a feature referred to as
“hair-pinning”. Hair-pinning is returning a message in the direction it came from as a way for it to
reach its final destination. This is per the router standard RFC 4787.
The diagram below shows a simple diagram of IP Site Connect devices located at different sites
connected through a mix of local and wide area networks. Note that in this drawing the IP Site
Connect devices could be in one or more Wide Area Systems (i.e. more than one Master), could
contain local area channels or even be an analog repeater, a disabled repeater, or RDAC IP
application.
IP Site
Connect
Device
The number of IP Site Connect Devices located
behind a single router will have an effect on the
required bandwidth of the WAN connection.
Router
Network
IP Site
Connect
Device
IP Site
Connect
Device
Local Area
Network
Router
Wide Area
Network
IP Site
Connect
Device
Router
Local Area
Network
IP Site
Connect
Device
Router
“Router” = Firewall, NAT, or Router
IP Site
Connect
Device
Figure 3-34 IP Site Connect Devices connected through Local Area and Wide Area Network
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The following chapter discusses some of the considerations to take while designing a
MOTOTRBO system. It focuses more on how the user uses the system, and the configuration
needed to support it. Although a basic system topology may already have been chosen, the next
chapter helps dig deeper into how the end user utilizes the system, and therefore gives additional
ideas on how it should be configured.
3.2.3.1.6 Summary of Features in IP Site Connect Mode
The following features are supported in IP Site Connect mode:
Digital MOTOTRBO Radios in IP Site Connect Mode
Voice
Features
Signaling
Features
Emergency
Handling
Data Calls
Other Features
Group Call
PTT ID and
Aliasing
Emergency
Alarm
Text
Messaging
Two Wide Area
Channels (slot
1 and slot 2)
Remote
Diagnosis and
Control
Private
Call
Radio Inhibit
Emergency
Alarm and Call
Location
Tracking
Mix of Wide
Area and Local
Area Channels
Roaming
All Call
Remote
Monitor
Emergency
Alarm with Voice
to Follow
Telemetry
Scan*
Wide Area
Coverage
-
Radio Check
Emergency
Revert Per Site
Third-Party
(ADP)
Applications
Polite to All
System
Access
Time-out Timer
-
Call Alert
-
GPS Revert
Per Site
Polite to Own
System
Channel
Access
Enhanced
Privacy
-
-
-
-
Impolite
Channel
Access
-
*See “Scan Considerations” on page 41 for more information on the different scan
modes supported by different topologies.
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Notes
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143
SECTION 4 SYSTEM DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS
4.1
Purpose
This section describes various system configurations readers need to know before deciding how to
best support the needs and usage of their customers. It explains the usage supported on a single
repeater system, as a guideline for design. It then identifies the customer needs that need to be
considered when optimizing system performance. It continues to cover various other
considerations that may need to be addressed during the design phase.
Please note that all data application modules contained in this system planner are depictions of
typical third party data application modules and have been included simply to illustrate certain
MOTOTRBO application enabling features.
4.2
Migration Plans
System Migration is the process of moving from one operating platform to another. The following
sections elaborate system migration from an analog two-way radio platform to a digital two- way
radio platform.
4.2.1
Pre-Deployment System Integration
Where applicable, the dealer should perform system assembly, configuration, adjustment, and
brief testing of the MOTOTRBO system. Each component contains documentation necessary for
system installation and optimization. The benefits of staging a system in a controlled environment
include:
4.2.2
•
Equipment accountability in preparation for system assembly
•
System assembly and programming in a controlled test environment
•
Documentation of programming information
•
Fabrication of cables and connectors
•
Test of complete functionality and initial level-setting for system optimization
Analog to Digital Preparation and Migration
This section details migration strategies which involve gradually replacing existing analog radios
with MOTOTRBO radios.
To migrate a system with a single repeater channel, radio users are encouraged to use
MOTOTRBO radios in digital direct mode. This will give them an opportunity to familiarize
themselves with the MOTOTRBO digital feature set, while communicating with legacy analog
radios through the legacy analog repeater. If the analog system does not use any PL/DPL
encoding, then analog radios will hear noise caused by digital radio transmissions communicating
in direct mode.
Over time, as the number of MOTOTRBO radios increases, a cut-over day is pre-determined. On
that day, the legacy analog repeater will be replaced by a MOTOTRBO digital repeater. Radio
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System Design Considerations
users communicate with each other in talkaround while the new repeater is being installed. Once
the MOTOTRBO repeater is operational, MOTOTRBO radio users switch to digital repeater mode,
while legacy analog radio users communicate in talkaround.
To migrate a system with two repeater channels, MOTOTRBO radios are programmed with both
the current analog channels as well as future digital channels. A recommended approach is to
place all the analog channels in one ‘zone’, and all digital channels in another ‘zone’. Analog and
digital channels are programmed into the MOTOTRBO radios to allow users to communicate on
both repeaters. Scan lists are configured to allow users to monitor both analog and digital voice
transmissions.
Both the existing analog repeater and the MOTOTRBO repeater (in digital mode) should be set-up
to operate side-by-side. This configuration requires two frequency pairs: one pair for the analog
repeater and one pair for the MOTOTRBO repeater. Users gradually migrate over to the
MOTOTRBO repeater (i.e. legacy analog radios are swapped for MOTOTRBO radios). Once
every analog radio has been swapped with a MOTOTRBO radio, the legacy analog repeater can
be replaced with another MOTOTRBO digital repeater. The system will now be fully digital with two
digital repeater channels.
4.2.3
New/Full System Replacement
The new/full system replacement strategy involves replacing all existing equipment with
MOTOTRBO equipment. Typically, a new/full system replacement involves minimal downtime as
the analog repeater is replaced immediately with the MOTOTRBO digital repeater. Radio users
carry their existing radios as well as MOTOTRBO radios on cut-over day. Initially, users will
continue to access the radio system in the same manner as before. Once the analog repeater is
removed from the system, the radio users switch to digital direct mode communication using
MOTOTRBO radios. After the MOTOTRBO repeater is installed and becomes operational, radio
users switch their MOTOTRBO radios to digital repeater mode.
The new/full system replacement relies on the MOTOTRBO equipment being properly
programmed and tested before being deployed.
4.3
Frequency Licensing
4.3.1
Acquiring New Frequencies (Region Specific)
The licensing process varies from region to region. Generally, before the license process begins,
detailed information about the proposed radio system must be provided to the frequency
coordinator, such as:
•
Frequency/ Frequency Band – Frequency band or specific frequency it will operate on.
•
Subscriber Radio Count – The number of radios that will operate on the system.
•
Output Power/ERP – The output power of the system amplifier, as well as the effective
radiated power (ERP), which is the system's power at the antenna.
•
Emission Designators – Includes several pieces of vital information, such as modulation,
signal, type of information and size of the channel. This determines the channel width your
system will occupy. For MOTOTRBO systems, the Emissions Designators are
•
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System Design Considerations
•
145
Voice and Data: 7K60FXE
The first four values are defined as the ‘Necessary Bandwidth’. This can be derived from the
99% Energy Rule as defined in Title 47CFR2.989. The next two values are the ‘Modulation
Type’ and the ‘Signal Type’. The final value is the ‘Type of Information’ being sent. More
information can be found with the region’s frequency coordinating committee.
•
International Coordination – For stations near another country’s border, refer to a
frequency coordinating committee for licensing frequencies adjacent to that country.
•
Antenna Information – You must also provide the following information about your
antenna:
•
Structure. The most common codes are:
• B - Building with side mounted antenna
• BANT - Building with antenna on top
• MAST - Self-supported structure
• PIPE - Pipe antenna
• POLE - Any type of pole antenna
• TOWER - Free standing guyed structure used for communications purposes
• Height
4.3.2
•
Antenna Height – Antenna height from ground to tip, in meters.
•
Support Structure Height – If antenna is mounted on top of a building, it is the
distance from ground to the top of the building. Check with the building management
company for this information.
•
Coordinates – Latitude and longitude should be listed in degrees, minutes and
seconds.
•
Site Elevation – The antenna site ground elevation above sea level. This information
should always be in meters.
Converting Existing 12.5/25kHz Licenses
The process for converting 25kHz to 12.5kHz varies between regions. It is recommended to
contact the local frequency coordinator’s office to inquire how to re-file existing frequency
allocations. There are also consultants that specialize in frequency coordination and can advise on
the filing process. In the US, the following are general guidelines for frequency licenses:
•
For existing 12.5kHz license(s), the user needs to file an update to the emission designators
indicating 7K60FXE (for voice) and 7K60FXD (for data) for all applicable frequencies.
•
If the user has existing 25kHz licenses(s), they need to file an update to the emission
designators to include 7K60FXE (for voice) and 7K60FXD (for data) for all applicable
frequencies. Typically, the user will then be allowed to transmit a 12.5kHz signal bandwidth
at the same center frequency as the original 25kHz license. Please note that it is not a
straightforward process to convert an existing 25kHz license into a pair of 12.5kHz
channels. Users are generally NOT allowed to split their 25kHz channel into two 12.5kHz
sub-channels that would operate off center from the original license and adjacent to one
another.
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4.3.3
Repeater Continuous Wave Identification (CWID)
The repeater can be configured to transmit the CWID if required by the region. The CWID is also
known as the Base Station ID. The CWID is an analog transmission of the station in Morse code
that takes place every 15 minutes. This identification, as well as the transmit interval, can be
configured in the repeater using the CPS.
4.4
Digital Repeater Loading
The designer is able to choose the number of channels required to support his customer’s
expected traffic after understanding how much traffic a single slot (channel) can support. The
amount of traffic on a channel is dependent on numerous variables, which are difficult to estimate
exactly at design time. Since MOTOTRBO comprises of Voice traffic, Text Messaging traffic,
Location Tracking traffic, Registration and Signaling traffic, previous voice traffic only methods to
gauge repeater capacity may not be sufficient. Because this traffic is mostly initiated by the end
user, it is difficult to predict how often it occurs. Standard usage profiles of existing customers have
been created for voice and data services. These profiles act as a baseline for estimating how
much traffic a user creates on a system. If the standard profiles do not match your customer’s
expected usage, further estimations based on the trend lines need to be considered. After the
system is used, and real life usage is identified, further adjustments may be required.
4.4.1
Assumptions and Precautions
Channel loading analysis involves several assumptions:
•
Generalized high-level view of data and voice services interaction represents true
interaction.
•
An estimated amount of blocking, interference, reliability, and call denials varies with the
traffic profile and could change some of the results used.
•
An estimated number of radios using the location tracking feature (100%) and the rate of
those messages for the high-end traffic profile (once every minute for every mobile) is used.
Given these assumptions, the chart presented can be used to provide customers with a general
rule of thumb for levels of user experience expected based on the number of users. In addition, for
this analysis, the term “number of users” is used to indicate the number of active/participating
users generating traffic, and does not include the number of users who monitor the activity of other
radios on the channel.
4.4.2
Voice and Data Traffic Profile
The following table summarizes the standard traffic profiles for voice and data. The three traffic
types considered are voice calls (group calls and private calls), data transmitted for location
tracking and text messaging. For each traffic type, two levels are set. One, is for the case of a
typical low usage or light traffic user, and the other is for a typical high usage or heavy traffic user.
The voice and text messaging profiles are derived using assumed typical behaviors.
These profiles act as a baseline for estimating how much traffic a user creates on a system. If
these standard profiles do not match your customer’s expected usage, further estimations based
on the trend lines need to be considered. Further, this is the profile of how all users on a channel
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147
will act together. It is understandable that not all users will use this profile all the time. These
profiles should be used with Figure 4-1 “Number of Users per Slot versus User Experience” to
estimate the number of users per channel that yield an acceptable user experience.
Profile
Name
High Voice
Low Voice
Traffic Type
Call Description
Group Voice Call
10 second call, 2
transmissions per call
Individual Voice
Call
20 second call, 4
transmissions per call
Group Voice Call
10 second call, 2
transmissions per call
Individual Voice
Call
20 second call, 4
transmissions per call
Traffic Per User Per Hour
90%
3.0 Calls per User per Hour
10%
90%
1.0 Calls per User per Hour
10%
High GPS
Location Updates
.660 seconds per
transmission
60 GPS Transmissions per User per Hour
i.e. 1 Minute Update Period (Cadence)
Low GPS
Location Updates
.660 seconds per
transmission
6 GPS Transmissions per User per Hour
i.e. 10 Minute Update Period (Cadence)
High Text
Messaging
Text Messaging
100 characters per
message
2.5 Text Messages per User per Hour
Low Text
Messaging
Text Messaging
100 characters per
message
0.5 Text Messages per User per Hour
4.4.3
Estimating Loading
The following chart indicates the user experience level (the impact on the network) that the
number of active users, using combinations of the defined profiles of “Voice and Data Traffic
Profile” above, will experience.
Each line in the chart has a combination of Voice, GPS, and Text Message at different usage
levels. For example, the blue line identified as “Low Usage (Voice, GPS, Text)” represents a
channel where each user transmits 1 group call an hour, 2.5 text messages an hour, and has a
GPS Update Period (Cadence) of 10 minutes. If the defined profiles do not exactly match the
estimated usage, the reader will need to extrapolate between two trend lines.
There are two levels shown in the graph to describe user experience – good to fair. The good level
means that the system is supporting this level well and if the customer is operating in this level the
majority of the time, then the system is adequately provisioned. This means that the fair level may
be reached for short periods of time as long as the system returns to supporting a lower level of
traffic for the majority of the time.
It is advised to avoid operating in the fair level when possible. If the customer experiences issues
with reliability and/or call denial, this could indicate that the system is operating in the fair level for
longer periods of time. If this occurs, the customer may require additional repeaters to support
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System Design Considerations
their traffic load. A system that operates in the fair level for the majority of the time results in longer
wait times and having a significant number of unsuccessful attempts to acquire the channel on the
user’s first attempt. These conditions would result in an unsatisfactory level of performance for the
end users, even though the system itself is capable of operating in this region.
High Usage (Voice, GPS, Text)
Fair
High Voice, High GPS, Low Text
User Experience
Low Voice, High GPS, Low Text
High Voice, Low GPS, Low Text
High Voice Only
Low Usage (Voice, GPS, Text)
Low Voice Only
Good 0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
# of Users per Slot
Figure 4-1 Number of Users per Slot versus User Experience
There are trends indicated in the chart that are worth noting. One is the impact in going from a low
voice usage traffic environment to a high voice usage traffic environment. The chart shows that a
customer using the system for voice services only should be capable of supporting approximately
45 users on the channel if the user traffic falls into the low voice usage traffic profile (one call per
user per hour). However, if the customer intends to support a higher level of voice traffic, a single
channel should be capable of supporting between 15 and 20 users and still remain in the good
user experience level. It will always be difficult to accurately predict a customer’s usage as being
either high or low. It is expected that most customers will operate somewhere in between these
two profiles. The designer must use knowledge of the customer’s organization and their expected
usage to predict where on this chart they will operate. Note that the voice-only lines are a good
frame of reference for existing customer with analog voice systems. These trend lines represent
those of a voice-only analog system and a voice-only digital system. Understanding what user
experience level a customer is currently operating at can help with predicting the new user
experience, when adding data services.
Two other trends from the chart are also worth pointing out. The first is that the level of adding data
(low traffic for location tracking and text messaging) does not cause a huge impact to the number
of users supported. For example the lines for high voice usage traffic (one with voice only and the
other with the addition of low location tracking and text messaging) both show that supporting 1520 active users on one channel will keep the system from approaching the stressed level.
Similarly, both curves for the low voice traffic show that 30-35 users could be supported well on a
single channel.
Another important note is that these trend lines are associated with a single slot of a MOTOTRBO
repeater. Since MOTOTRBO is a two-slot TDMA system, a customer that is upgrading from a
traditional FDMA one channel conventional system will have the ability to split users into two slots.
For example, if a high usage voice only customer is currently supporting 30-40 users on a single
channel, they are most likely operating in a “fair” or “stressed” environment, and will likely need to
expand their system. If they switch to a MOTOTRBO system, they can divide their users into the
two available channels. This means a single channel now has only 15-20 users, which would bring
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149
the customer back to a good user experience level. Subsequently, adding on low usage data
services on both channels will cause minimal impact to performance.
4.4.4
Loading Optimization and Configuration Considerations
There are further considerations to take when configuring your MOTOTRBO system to ease the
traffic load on a channel. These considerations should always be taken into account, especially if
the designer is forced to operate outside of the “good” user experience range, although operating
in such a manner is not recommended.
4.4.4.1
Distribution of High Usage Users
It is good design practice to identify and distribute high usage users and groups between slots of a
single repeater, or even other repeaters. This keeps the number of users that follow a high usage
traffic profile to a minimum per channel. Groups are generally assigned to operate on a particular
slot of a repeater. Through discussions with the customer, the designer should identify high usage
groups and distribute them over different slots.
Groups and users that are on different slots cannot communicate with each other. They need to
manually change their selector knobs to communicate with the users and other groups on the
other slot. In most cases, this is not a problem since organizations can usually be broken into at
least two groups of users. But in the case where a customer only has one group of users who all
need voice communication between each other at all times, then evenly distributing the voice and
data load between two channels becomes more complicated.
If there is only one group in a system, its users can all be programmed to operate on a particular
slot. Their group calls, private calls, text messages, location updates will all be transmitted on the
programmed slot. This is an acceptable configuration, although it leaves the other slot completely
unused. If the number of users and their usage grows, the slot may be unable to support their
traffic. For example, if a customer has 50 users with voice and GPS usage all on one time slot,
their user experience may be poor due to the traffic loading. It is highly recommended that the
users in this case be broken into two unique groups of 25, and distributed between the slots.
In the event, that all users could be broken into two unique groups, but are required to maintain
voice communication with each other, the solution is to split the same group across the two slots,
and enable scan. One half of the group should be assigned to slot 1, and the other half assigned to
the same group, but on slot 2. They should use the same group number. This can be done by
having two channels with the same frequencies but different slots, and with the same group as the
TX Call Member. All radios should include both (and only) these two channels in their selected
scan list. Scan hang time duration should be set to the group call hang time duration in the
repeater, which defaults to two seconds. Talkback scan should always be enabled so that users
can talkback during the scan hang time. When assigning all users to the same group, the use of
scan primarily serves to aggregate the multiple channels into a single logical channel for voice.
Location data will be transmitted out the selected channel when no voice is taking place. Therefore
location data will be evenly distributed across two slots. Note that when a voice call occurs, all
radios will scan and land on a particular slot. The other slot will be empty at this time since all
radios will be monitoring the voice call.
The drawback of this operation, and why it is not generally recommended, is that this configuration
essentially cuts the voice capacity of a repeater in half since only one voice call can take place at
any given time, although this does allow for data transmission to occur at the same time on the
different slots of a repeater. Furthermore, if two radios transmit at the same time on different slots,
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System Design Considerations
some of the radios will scan to one slot, and some will scan to the other slot. It is not possible to
predict the distribution since all radios are scanning. Also note, that while scanning, the probability
of missing a voice header and entering a call “late entry” increases, therefore missed audio may
occur. Because of these drawbacks, it is highly recommended to break users into at least two
unique groups and distribute them across slots, and only use this scanning strategy if completely
necessary.
4.4.4.2
Minimize Location Periodic Update Rate
The high usage location profile defined assumes that every user on the channel has location
capability and uses a 1 minute refresh rate. In actual fact, if every user actually has a 1 minute
refresh rate, this increases the traffic loading tremendously. It is recommended that users be
configured to use a 10 minute update, and to only increase individual radios to a 1 minute update
rate during emergencies or special situations. Although each customer scenario may be different,
knowing a user’s location every 10 minutes is usually considered sufficient. If a user reports an
emergency, his location update rate can be increased by the location dispatcher for a short period
of time. The minimum interval between updates (High Cadence setting) can be set as low as 10
seconds, but with the concerns mentioned above kept in mind.
In order to help visualize the impact of setting the Location Update Period between 1 minute and
10 minutes, the following graph was created using the data presented in Figure 4-1 “Number of
Users per Slot versus User Experience”. The following assumes a specific desired user
experience (approximately mid-way between good and fair). The graph was plotted using the
intersection of the Low GPS (10 minute Cadence) and High GPS (1 minute Cadence) lines for
High Voice and Low Voice with the desired user experience design goal.
The chart provides a method to easily set the Location Update Period for a particular number of
users on a channel, while keeping their voice usage in mind. The intersection between the number
of users and the Location Update Period should always be above the line for the applicable voice
usage. For example, if a channel has 10 users, and the users have been determined to be high
voice users (3 calls per user per hour), then it is recommended that the Location Update Period be
set to 3.5 minutes or higher (longer). Because it is very difficult to determine the true voice usage
profile, the administrator/dealer needs to make a judgment call on whether the usage leans
towards the High Voice Usage trend or the Low Voice Usage trend.
Although the impact is not substantial, it should be noted that utilizing a high cadence location
update rate lowers the overall battery life of the radio since it will be transmitting often.
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151
10
9
GOOD
REGION
Location Update Period (Min)
8
7
6
5
4
3
High Voice Usage ( 3 calls per user per hour)
2
Low Voice Usage ( 1 call per user per hour)
1
BAD
REGION
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
# of Users per Slot
35
40
45
*on average, 1 in 5 transmissions
will be busied
Figure 4-2 Number of Users versus Location Update Period
The value chosen for the location periodic update rate directly affects scan performance. Most
users realize that a radio pauses scanning when transmitting voice, and then resumes scanning
once the voice transmission is over. The more voice a user transmits, the less the radio is
scanning, which means, its probability of missing traffic increases. This is also true when
transmitting data. The more a radio transmits data, the less it is scanning, and therefore the higher
the probability of missing traffic. Additionally, if the channel used to transmit the data is busy, it will
take longer to deliver the message; therefore the radio's scanning will be further interrupted. This
means that the higher the location periodic update rate is for a radio, its scan performance will
degrade. This should be kept in mind when using scan with a high cadence location period update.
It is recommended that radios be configured to use a 10 minute update, and that scanning radios
should NEVER use a value lower than 2 minutes.
4.4.4.3
Data Application Retry Attempts and Intervals
The interval a data application will retry to send a message and the number of retries it will send if
the target does not respond is configurable in the external data applications like Location and Text
Messaging. The following table shows the default values provided:
External Data
Application
Number of
Retries
Interval Time Period between
Retries
Text Messaging
2
70 seconds
Location Application
3
30 seconds
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System Design Considerations
It is recommended to not change the default values. If this value is lowered too low, messages
may become unreliable when a user is on the system, but will free up some bandwidth if the user
is not available. Increasing too high until it is past the default will increase the load on a channel
although it may increase the probability of delivering a message.
4.4.4.4
Optimize Data Application Outbound Message Rate
Text Message and Location applications both have the ability to set the outbound message rate.
The outbound message rate is defined as the interval in-between subsequent messages sent by
the applications to its connected control stations. It is important to note that the application server
is connected to up to four channels, and is not aware of which channel is used to route a message.
It is the function of the MCDD to track users, and send messages out the appropriate channel.
Therefore, it is reasonable that the outbound message rate setting be increased to a greater value
than the default, if there is more than one channel on a system. The default value for the text
message server is 14 messages per minute distributed uniformly. The default value for the
Location Server is 20 messages per minute, distributed uniformly.
For example, if a system only has one data capable channel, and therefore only one control
station, the default value of the Outbound Message Rate paces the messages appropriately to not
overload the control station or add excessive load to the channel. If there are more than one
channel (2 to 4 channels), and the users are distributed fairly evenly over these channels, the
Outbound Message Rate could be increased, since only a portion of the messages will be going to
any single channel. It is difficult to predict which channel users will be registered on, and even
harder to predict how many messages will be sent to a particular user on a particular channel.
It is recommended that the outbound pacing rates remain as default, though special
considerations for GPS Revert are discussed in “GPS Revert and Loading” on page 152. If they
are increased, and the target radios are not evenly distributed over multiple channels, one channel
may experience excess loading. The MOTOTRBO radio can buffer only up to 10 messages. If
there is RF congestion on the system, the radio may encounter a situation where its message
transmit buffer becomes full. This is due to the radio queuing up messages, because it cannot find
an available slot to transmit data. The radio will not be able to process new messages from the
application, once its buffer becomes full.
4.4.4.5
GPS Revert and Loading
The GPS Revert feature supports the transmission of voice, control and non-location update data
transmissions on the Selected Channel, while off loading Location updates onto one or more GPS
Revert Channels. A primary goal of the feature is to support location updates without degrading
features on the Selected Channel. The ultimate performance of the system will depend upon at
least two loading factors (1 and 2), while a third loading factor (3) needs to be considered if most
radios are powered on in a relatively short period of time. These factors are listed below.
1. The average number of transmissions on the Selected Channel (Voice, Text Messaging,
etc.).
2. The average number of transmissions on a GPS Revert Channel.
3. The peak number of transmissions on the Selected Channel to account for registration
and periodic re-registration messaging.
The chart in Figure 4-3 “Channel Loading with GPS Revert Channels” illustrates the Good to Fair
user experience area, similar to that in Figure 4-1 “Number of Users per Slot versus User
Experience”, for voice traffic loading on the selected channel and GPS traffic loading on one or
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153
more GPS Revert Channels. Note that this only accounts for loading the first and second factors
and assumes registration messaging is evenly spread throughout the day.
Selected Channel and GPS Revert Channel Loading with High GPS
User Experience
High Voice
1 GPS Revert Channel
Low Voice
3 GPS Revert Channels
Example
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
# of Users per Slot
Figure 4-3 Channel Loading with GPS Revert Channels
It can be seen in Figure 4-3 “Channel Loading with GPS Revert Channels” that the High Voice
Selected Channel User Experience and the single GPS Revert Channel User Experience are fairly
similar in terms of user experience versus number of users on a slot. In this example, for the
desired User Experience (identified on the above chart as the red horizontal example line), the
Selected Channel supports about 16 radios at a high voice profile and the single GPS Revert
Channel supports about 18 radios at a high GPS profile. For the high voice profile, which is defined
in “Voice and Data Traffic Profile” on page 146, 16 users would equate to a little less than 2
transmissions per minute. For a high GPS profile, which is also defined in “Voice and Data Traffic
Profile” on page 146, 18 users would equate to 18 transmissions per minute.
It can also be seen in Figure 4-3 “Channel Loading with GPS Revert Channels” that the Low Voice
Selected Channel User Experience and the three GPS Revert Channel User Experience are fairly
similar in terms of user experience versus number of users on a slot. In this example, for the
desired User Experience, the Selected Channel supports about 51 radios at a low voice profile and
the three GPS Revert Channels support about 57 radios at a high GPS profile. For the low voice
profile, which is defined in “Voice and Data Traffic Profile” on page 146, 51 users would equate to
a little less than 2 transmissions per minute. For a high GPS profile, which is also defined in “Voice
and Data Traffic Profile” on page 146, 57 users would equate to 57 transmissions per minute,
distributed over three channels.
In the previous examples, it can be seen that the voice rate and the GPS rate cannot always be
considered as independent when designing a system. Though three GPS Revert Channels are
able to support 57 high GPS profile users, the Selected Channel is unable to support 57 high voice
profile users. Therefore, when designing a system, both the Selected Channel loading and the
GPS Revert Channel(s) loading must be thoroughly considered.
The table below provides guidance for determining the maximum number of SUs supported on
various numbers of GPS Revert Channels with one minute and two minutes update rates. It is
important to note than maximum loading will essentially keep a repeater keyed up at all times.
Update rates of less than one minute are not recommended in order minimize the impact on the
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System Design Considerations
Selected Channel features (voice, control and/or data). Care must also be taken to analyze if the
Selected Channel can accommodate the anticipated voice traffic for a large number of
subscribers.
1 GPS Revert
Channel
2 GPS Revert
Channels
3 GPS Revert
Channels
SUs supported at
1 minute update rate
20
40
60
SUs supported at
2 minute update rate
40
80
120
Though GPS Revert Channels can significantly increase the number of SUs providing location
updates, it is important to remember that when powered up, an SU needs to register with both
Presence and Location Applications before it can send location updates. If a large number of SUs
happen to be powered up in a relatively short period of time, the Selected Channel may become
overwhelmed with registration traffic and the system’s voice handling capacity will be impacted.
Therefore, if this situation must occur, the following should be kept in mind.
•
Keep voice traffic on the Selected Channel to a minimum. This causes the registration
messages to be queued in the radio and the control station.
•
As a rule of thumb, expect about three successful registrations per minute. Therefore, a fleet
of 60 radios could require 20 minutes to successfully register. In order to minimize
registration traffic, the radios can be gradually powered on at a rate of three per minute
during the estimated time frame.
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4.5
155
Multiple Digital Repeaters in Standalone Mode
Multiple repeaters may be required to provide sufficient RF coverage. Large geographical regions
and areas with large natural boundaries (i.e. mountains) are two examples. Also, regions with a
large number of subscribers may need additional repeaters to relieve RF congestion.
The digital mode of operation of the MOTOTRBO repeater provides new capabilities to resolve
common problems associated with deploying multiple repeaters in a system. The techniques
described in the sections below can also be used to resolve problems associated with interfering
RF signals from adjacent radio systems.
4.5.1
Overlapping Coverage Area
As with analog radio systems, when digital radio systems are separated by frequency or distance
there are no negative interactions between the systems which need to be addressed. Figure 4-4
“Multiple Repeaters” shows two systems which operate on a common set of frequencies but are
physically separated so that there are no interactions between the systems.
F2 down
F1 up
F1 up
F2 down
Site 2
Site 1
Figure 4-4 Multiple Repeaters
Similarly, Figure 4-5 “Multiple Repeaters with Overlap” shows two systems which overlap in space
but operate on a difference set of frequencies so that there are no negative interactions.
F1 up
F2 down
F3 up
F4 down
Site 1
Site 2
Figure 4-5 Multiple Repeaters with Overlap
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System Design Considerations
Issues arise, however, when repeaters operate on common frequencies and have overlapping
regions. Figure 4-6 “Multiple Repeaters with Overlap and Common Frequencies” shows that when
a radio transmits in a region of overlap, repeaters from both systems retransmit the received
signal. Analog radio systems often use PL/DPL to resolve these types of problems. With the
MOTOTRBO repeaters operating in digital mode, this issue can be resolved by assigning a unique
color code to each repeater and programming the associated radios, using CPS, with the
matching color code.
F2 down
F2 down
Site 1
F1 up
Site 2
Figure 4-6 Multiple Repeaters with Overlap and Common Frequencies
4.5.2
Color Codes in a Digital System
Color codes (or “CC” in the images) are defined by the Digital Mobile Radio (DMR) standard and
can be used to separate two or more MOTOTRBO digital radio systems which operate on
common frequencies. Figure 4-7 “Multiple Digital Repeaters with Unique Color Codes” shows two
MOTOTRBO radio systems which operate on common frequencies but have uniquely defined
color codes.
CC = 5
F2 down
Site 1
CC = 10
F1 up
(CC=5)
Site 2
CC = 5
Site 1
CC = 10
F1 up
(CC=10)
F2 down
Site 2
Figure 4-7 Multiple Digital Repeaters with Unique Color Codes
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157
Color codes are assigned as channel attributes on the radios, allowing a single radio to
communicate with multiple sites each having a uniquely defined color code.
4.5.3
Additional Considerations for Color Codes
The total number of available color codes per frequency is 16. From a radio user’s perspective the
color code is similar in nature to a Group ID. However, it should not be used for this purpose. Just
as Groups are intended to separate users into groups, the color code is intended to uniquely
identify systems or channels which operate on common frequencies.
Multiple repeaters operating on common frequencies with large areas of overlap, as shown in
Figure 4-8 “Color Code with Site Congestion”, could be configured with unique color codes. This
would allow both repeaters to operate with some degree of independence. However, the radio
users should expect to see an increase in “Channel Busy” indications since transmissions from
both repeaters will be detected by users of both systems. In other words, the RF congestion for
this region would be the sum of transmissions from both repeaters. It should be noted that under
all circumstances the users with the correct corresponding color codes receive only the
transmission intended for them.
When two sites with the same frequency but different color codes overlap, it is important to set the
subscriber’s Admit Criteria appropriately. It is recommended that the subscribers are provisioned
with Admit Criteria set to Channel Free to ensure subscriber’s from a Site is polite when another
on the overlapping Site is transmitting, and also polite to any other analog transmission on the
frequency. If configured to Color Code Free, the subscribers are only polite to their own color
code, and will wake up their repeater even if the other repeater is currently transmitting. When
there is a large overlap between adjacent sites, this usually causes major interference and results
in both repeater signals being unusable in the overlapping areas. When configured to Always, the
subscribers are never polite, even to their own color code. Again, this results in both repeaters
being awake and transmitting at the same time which causes interference in areas of overlap.
If this configuration is necessary, it is recommended to minimize the areas of overlap as much as
possible and to use an Admit Criteria of Color Code Free. Remember that these two repeaters will
be sharing bandwidth and should be loaded appropriately.
CC = 5
CC = 10
X (Channel Busy)
Site 1
F1 up
F1 up
(CC=5)
(CC=10)
F2 down
Site 2
Figure 4-8 Color Code with Site Congestion
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System Design Considerations
4.6
Multiple Digital Repeaters in IP Site Connect Mode
The main problem with the standalone configuration of multiple digital repeaters is that a radio at a
site can participate only in the calls that originate at that site. The IP Site Connect configuration
removes this restriction and allows a radio to participate in a call originating at any site. In IP Site
Connect configuration, repeaters communicate among themselves using a back-end wire line
network. A call originating at a repeater is transmitted by all the repeaters in the IP Site Connect
system. Since all repeaters participate in a call, it is necessary that all the repeaters have the same
call related parameters (e.g. Call Hang Times, System Inactivity Time, Time Out Time).
4.6.1
System Capacity
In IP Site Connect configuration, MOTOTRBO supports a maximum of 15 IP Site Connect
devices, where IP Site Connect devices include a maximum of five host PCs of RDAC-IP
applications, disabled repeaters, enabled repeaters in analog mode, and enabled repeaters in
digital mode (both slots in wide area mode, one slot in wide area mode and one in local mode, and
both slots in local mode).
A channel in IP Site Connect configuration supports the same number of radios supported by a
single site configuration. Note that an IP Site Connect configuration increases the coverage area
and not the call capacity of a single site configuration.
4.6.2
Frequencies and Color Code Considerations
The figure below shows an example of two IP Site Connect systems with overlapping coverage
areas. The frequencies and color code of repeaters should follow the following rules:
•
The geographically adjacent repeaters of an IP Site Connect system should use different
frequencies. Their color code can be either same or different.
•
If the frequencies of the geographically adjacent repeaters of two IP Site Connect systems
are the same, then their color codes should be different. It is not advisable to keep the same
frequencies because in areas of overlap, there will be destructive interference. Note that an
IP Site Connect configuration does not support simulcast.
•
A system may be sharing the channels with other systems over multiple sites. It is possible
that two systems (named here as Sys1 and Sys2) may be using the same (frequencies,
color code) pair at two different sites (say, Site1 and Site2). During automatic site search
(Passive Site Search), a Sys1’s radio at Site2 will find Sys2’s repeater and will stay on that
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159
channel. This is not a desirable situation. A way to avoid this situation is to ensure that all
the (frequencies, color code) pairs of all the overlapping systems are unique.
F1 up
F2 down
F1 up
IP Site Connect
System 2
F3 up
CC = 5
Site 1
F2 down
F1 up
F4 down
F7 up
CC = 4
Site 2
F8 down
F2 down
F3 up
CC = 5
F4 down
Site 3
Figure 4-9 Example of Two IP Site Connect Systems with Overlapping Coverage Areas
4.6.3
Considerations for the Back-End Network
The back-end network can be a dedicated network or an internet provided by an Internet Service
Provider (ISP). ISPs provide a range of technologies such as dial-up, DSL (typically ADSL), Cable
modem, Broadband wireless access, Canopy, ISDN, Frame Relay, Satellite Internet access, etc.
In some cases dedicated links or networks can be effectively used or deployed, removing the
monthly fees associated with public networks. The back-end network cannot be based on dial-up
connection (due to small bandwidth) or Satellite Internet access (due to large delay).
A repeater has three network interfaces: Ethernet, USB, and Over-The-Air. A repeater uses its
Ethernet port to communicate among them using IPv4/UDP. Since UDP does not support
confirmation, an IP Site Connect system provides its own acknowledgement and retries
mechanism for critical activities. Note that the Ethernet port is not a default IP gateway of a
repeater, i.e. an IP datagram arrived from USB or Over-The-Air is not automatically routed to the
Ethernet port.
It is not necessary to get a static IPv4 addresses for IP Site Connect devices (except for the
Master). The IPv4 address of an IP Site Connect device can be dynamic. In this case, the IPv4
address is allocated by a DHCP server. The dynamic nature of the IPv4 address implies that the
address may change every time it powers-on or even periodically (every few hours) while the IP
Site Connect device is on. The dynamic address of a repeater is selected by selecting the DHCP
option in the repeater CPS. It is recommended that the lease time of the IPv4 address from the
DHCP should be kept as long as possible. Note that a change in the IPv4 address of an IP Site
Connect device causes short disruption of service for the device. For static IPv4 address, the
DHCP option should not be selected and the CPS user should provide the static IPv4 address,
and the gateway’s IPv4 address and netmask.
An IP Site Connect configuration uses a procedure called “Link Management” to keep an IP Site
Connect device aware of the presence, the current IPv4 addresses, and UDP ports of other IP Site
Connect devices. The Link Management requires only one of the repeaters (called an Master) to
act as a broker of IPv4/UDP addresses. The Master gets a static IPv4 address from its ISP and the
Master’s IPv4/UDP address is configured into all the IP Site Connect devices.
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The Master’s IPv4/UDP address refers to its address as seen from the back-end network. Note
that a firewall/NAT may translate the address in customer network into another address in the
back-end network.
An IP Site Connect device registers its IPv4/UDP address during power-on and upon a change in
its IPv4/UDP address with the Master. The Master notifies to all the IP Site Connect devices
whenever the IPv4 address of an IP Site Connect device changes. An IP Site Connect device
maintains a table of the latest IPv4 addresses of other IP Site Connect devices and it uses the
table to send an IPv4/UDP message to another IP Site Connect device.
The IP Site Connect devices may be behind firewalls. For successful communication between two
IP Site Connect devices (say R1 and R2), the firewall of R1 must be open for messages from R2
and vice versa. Since the IPv4/UDP address of an IP Site Connect device is dynamic, it is not
possible to manually configure the firewalls. The Link Management procedure overcomes this
problem by periodically, for example, setting the Keep FW Open Time to every 6 seconds, sending
a dummy message from R1 to R2 and vice versa. On a receipt of an outbound message (say, from
R1 to R2), the R1’s firewall keeps itself open for a short duration of approximately 20 seconds for
an inbound message from R2. An IP Site Connect device (say, R1) sends the dummy message to
another IP Site Connect device (say, R2) only if R1 has not sent any message to R2 in last Keep
FW Open Time. The value of Keep FW Open Time is customer-programmable and should be kept
less than the duration for which the firewall remains open for inbound messages. Exchange of
dummy messages between two IP Site Connect devices also acts as a “Keep Alive” messages.
They are required, even if there is no firewall or the firewall is configured to keep itself open for any
message destined to the IP Site Connect device.
4.6.3.1
Automatic Reconfiguration
An IP Site Connect system automatically discovers the presence of a new IP Site Connect device.
The new IP Site Connect device is configured with the IPv4/UDP address of the Master. On
power-on, the new IP Site Connect device informs its IPv4/UDP address to the Master and the
Master informs all the other IP Site Connect devices about the presence of a new IP Site Connect
device. This allows adding an IP Site Connect device to a live IP Site Connect system. This
simplifies the installation/addition of an IP Site Connect device as there is no need to take the
system down and configure other IP Site Connect devices with the IPv4/UDP address of the new
IP Site Connect device.
The periodic link management messages between an IP Site Connect device and the Master also
act as “keep alive” messages. In absence of messages from an IP Site Connect device for one
minute, the Master concludes that either the IP Site Connect device has failed or the network inbetween and the Master informs all the other IP Site Connect devices about the absence of the IP
Site Connect device. An IP Site Connect device also maintains periodic link management
messages with every other IP Site Connect device. In absence of messages from another IP Site
Connect device for one minute, the IP Site Connect device concludes that either the other IP Site
Connect device has failed or the failure is within the network in between. Thus, the link
management messages allow an IP Site Connect system to reconfigure itself on failure of one or
more IP Site Connect devices and the system continues to provide services with the available IP
Site Connect devices. In case of network failure, it is possible that an IP Site Connect system
becomes multiple IP Site Connect systems, where each system has a subset of original set of IP
Site Connect devices. All the new systems continue to provide the services that are possible with
their subset of IP Site Connect devices. Note that there will be only one system that has the
Master. When the back-end network recovers, the multiple systems automatically become one
system. When an IP Site Connect system has only one repeater, then both the slots of the
repeater repeat only locally (i.e. over-the-air) as per the MOTOTRBO Single Site specifications.
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161
A repeater operates in multiple modes such as disabled, locked, knocked down, enabled and
analog, enabled and digital with voice/data or control services, and single or multiple site operation
for each slot. The repeater informs the Master whenever its mode of operation changes and the
Master informs to all the other IP Site Connect devices. This allows the IP Site Connect system to
adapt its operation when the mode changes. Note that only an enabled and digital repeaters (with
a channel enabled for multiple site operation) participate in voice/data/control communication
across multiple sites.
A disadvantage of link Management is that the Master becomes a single point of failure. But the
consequence of failure of the Master is limited. The IP Site Connect system continues to function
except that it is not possible to add an IP Site Connect device into the system. If an IP Site
Connect device powers on, while the Master is in failed state, then it will not be able to join the IP
Site Connect system. On failure of the Master, it is possible to switch a redundant IP Site Connect
device to act as an Master. The static IPv4 address and the UDP port number of the redundant IP
Site Connect device should be same as that of the failed Master; otherwise all the IP Site Connect
devices will require to be reconfigured with the IPv4 address and the UDP port number of the new
Master.
4.6.3.2
Characteristics of Back-End Network
To create a proper back-end network design, it is important to know its characteristics. This
section explains four issues dealt within the back-end network.
4.6.3.2.1 Delay/Latency
Back-end network delay or latency is characterized as the amount of time it takes for voice to
leave the source repeater and reach the destination repeater. Three types of delay are inherent in
the back-end networks:
•
propagation delay
•
serialization delay
•
handling delay
Propagation delay is caused by the distance a signal must travel via light in fiber or as electrical
impulses in copper-based networks. A fiber network stretching halfway around the world (13, 000
miles) induces a one-way delay of about 70 milliseconds.
Serialization delay is the amount of time it takes the source repeater to actually place a packet
byte by byte onto the back-end network interface. Generally, the effect of serialization delay on
total delay is relatively minimal but since IP Site Connect system sends a voice packet one-by-one
to all the repeaters, the serialization delay for the last destination repeater is (# of repeaters - 1)
times the serialization delay for the first destination repeater.
Handling delay defines many different types of delay caused by the devices (e.g. secure routers)
that forward the packet through the back-end network. A significant component of the handling
delay is the queuing delay, which occurs when more packets are sent out to a network device than
the device can handle at a given interval.
The CPS allows setting the Total Delay (i.e. sum of propagation delay, serialization delay, and
handling delay) to be High (90 ms) or Normal (60 ms) in both the repeaters and the radios. Note
that radios also support higher value (500 ms) of total delay, which should not be used in case of
IP Site Connect system. The default is Normal. This is used to derive values for other parameters
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System Design Considerations
such as Arbitration Interval and Call Hang Times in repeaters and Ack Wait times in radios. For
proper functioning of an IP Site Connect system, all the repeaters and radios should have the
same delay setting.
It is recommended that propagation and handling delays between repeaters should be measured
(e.g. by “pinging”) between all pairs of repeaters.
The total delay is equal to the maximum of the measured values + (# of repeaters - 1) * (1/2 +
1000/BW in Kbps) ms, where the BW is the available bandwidth of the back-end network.
If the total delay is less than 60 ms then the setting should be Normal. If the total delay is more
than 60 ms but less than 90 ms then the setting should be High. The IP Site Connect system will
not work satisfactorily, with occasional failure of arbitration, hang time and data link layer
acknowledgements, for a back-end network having total delay of more than 90ms. The
disadvantage of the setting at 90ms is that there is an increase to audio throughput delay.
4.6.3.2.2 Jitter
Jitter is the variation of packet inter-arrival time. The source repeater is expected to transmit voice
packets at a regular interval (i.e. every 60 ms for one channel). These voice packets can be
delayed throughout the back-end network and may not arrive at that same regular interval at the
destination repeater. The difference between when the packet is expected and when it is actually
received is called Jitter. To overcome the effect of jitter, the IP Site Connect system employ a Jitter
Buffer of fixed 60 milliseconds. If a packet does not arrive at a destination repeater within the 60
ms after the expected time then the repeater assumes the packet is lost, replays a special erasure
packet, and discards the late arriving packet. Because a packet loss affects only 60 ms of speech,
the average listener does not notice the difference in voice quality. Thus, a jitter of more than 60
ms degrades the audio quality.
4.6.3.2.3 Packet Loss
Packet loss in IP-based networks is both common and expected. To transport voice bursts in
timely manner, IP Site Connect system cannot use reliable transport mechanisms (i.e. confirmed
packets) and therefore while designing and selecting the back-end network it is necessary to keep
packet loss to a minimum. The IP Site Connect system responds to periodic packet loss by
replaying either a special packet (in the case of voice) or the last received packet (in the case of
data). In the case of voice, the ongoing call ends if six consecutive packets do not arrive within 60
ms of their expected arrival time. In the case of data, the repeater waits for the expected number of
packets (as per the data header) before ending the call.
4.6.3.2.4 Network Bandwidth Considerations
Bandwidth is the amount of data transferred to and from a network device, often referred to as the
bit rate. Bandwidth is measured in bits per second or kilo-bits per second (kbps). When designing
an IP Site Connect system, it is important to understand the needs of each IP Site Connect device
so that the appropriately rated network connection for each site can be chosen.
If a customer has high speed network connections between sites, these calculations may not be
as important, but if they are working on lower speed public Internet Service Providers (ISPs) it is
good practice to understand these values and plan accordingly. If the minimum amount of
bandwidth is not available, the end user may experience audio holes or even dropped calls. Radio
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163
to Radio Data messaging or RDAC commands may not be successful on the first attempt, or may
be dropped all together. In general, the quality of service may suffer if substantial bandwidth is not
available.
Note that for most Internet Service Providers, the uplink bandwidth is the limiting factor. The
downlink bandwidth is usually multiple factors above the uplink bandwidth. Therefore, if the uplink
requirements are met, the downlink requirements are almost always acceptable. Some ISPs may
state they provide a particular bandwidth, but it is important to verify the promised bandwidth is
available once the system is installed and throughout operation. A sudden decrease in available
bandwidth may cause the previously described symptoms.
It is also important to note that if the wide area network connection is utilized by other services (file
transfer, multimedia, web browsing, etc.), then the IP Site Connect devices may not have the
appropriate bandwidth when required and quality of service may suffer. It is suggested to remove
or limit these types of activities. In addition, overusage of the RDAC application itself may cause
increased strain on the network during times of high voice activity. It is recommended that RDAC
commands be kept to a minimum unless appropriate bandwidth has been allocated.
4.6.3.2.4.1Required Bandwidth Calculations
The amount of bandwidth an IP Site Connect device requires is dependent on a of variety factors.
The most important factor to understand is that the bandwidth required for one particular device is
dependent on how many other devices or peers it has in the IP Site Connect system. Equally
important is the type of devices. Recall that an IP Site Connect system can contain repeaters that
have two channels operating in wide area, one channel operating in wide area, or no channels
operating in wide area, such as local channels only. Channels, or slots, operating in local area
mode do not send their voice traffic over the network. Recall that one repeater within the IP Site
Connect system acts as the Master. This repeater requires some additional bandwidth. The IP Site
Connect system may also contain analog repeaters, disabled repeaters, and RDAC applications.
These devices do not send voice over the network, but they do require the bandwidth to support
the standard link management and control signaling.
For a quick reference, the graphs below show the required bandwidth for two simple IP Site
Connect system configurations. The first shows the required bandwidth for various size systems
where every repeater in the system utilizes both channels, or slots, as wide area. The second
shows the required bandwidth for various size systems where every repeater in the system utilizes
one channel, or slot, as wide area, and the other channel, or slot, as local area. In each system,
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System Design Considerations
one RDAC is present, repeater authentication is enabled, and Secure VPN is not being utilized in
the routers.
Bandwidth required vs Number of Repeaters
( 2 Wide Area Channels, with RDAC )
Bandwidth required vs Number of Repeaters
( 1 Wide Area Channel, with RDAC )
600
Master
500
Uplink / Downlink Bandwith ( Kbps )
Uplink / Downlink Bandwith ( Kbps )
600
Non-Master
400
300
200
100
0
Master
500
Non-Master
400
300
200
100
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
2
4
Number of Repeaters
6
8
10
12
14
Number of Repeaters
Figure 4-10 Required Bandwidth for Two Simple IP Site Connect System Configurations
Note that although the two examples above may represent typical IP Site Connect configurations,
and may provide a quick snapshot of the bandwidth requirements for a particular size system,
more complicated configurations will require additional calculations.
The following equation should be used to calculate the bandwidth for each IP Site Connect device
in the IP Site Connect system, and then added together at sites where multiple devices reside
behind one wide area connection.
BWVC = 15 kbps = Bandwidth required to support Wide Area Voice or Data (1 slot)
BWLM = 6 kbps = Bandwidth required to support Link Management
BWIR = 3 kbps = Bandwidth required to support Master Messaging
BWRD = 55 kbps = Bandwidth required to support RDAC commands
Number of Wide Area Channel Peers* for Slot 1
x
BWVC
kbps =
kbps
Number of Wide Area Channel Peers* for Slot 2
x
BWVC
kbps =
kbps
Total Number of IP Site Connect Peers*
x
BWLM
kbps =
kbps
If Master, Total Number of IP Site Connect Peers*
x
BWIR
kbps =
kbps
RDAC Traffic
BWRD
kbps
+
Required Uplink/Downlink Bandwidth
kbps
* Peer does not include self.
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165
To help demonstrate the use of the above equation on a more complicated IP Site Connect
system, take the following example system shown in the diagram below. This system has six total
IP Site Connect devices at three sites; five repeaters and one RDAC. Three of the repeaters have
both channels configured as wide area, one has a wide area channel and a local channel, and the
last repeater has two local channels. The routers are not utilizing Secure VPN.
Repeater 2
WAC 1
WAC 2
160 kbps
Router
160 kbps
160 kbps
Repeater 3
Master
Repeater 1
175 kbps
Network
WAC 1
WAC 1
WAC 2
WAC 2
260 kbps
245 kbps
Local Area
Network
Router
Wide Area
Network
Local Area
Network
Router
Repeater 4
Computer
LC 1
RDAC
LC 2
85 kbps
85 kbps
130 kbps
Router
130 kbps
Router = Firewall, NAT, or Router
WAC = Wide Area Channel
LC = Local Channel
RDAC = Remote, Diagnostics , and Control.
WAC 1
LC 3
Repeater 5
Figure 4-11 Example System for Calculating Bandwidth Requirements without Secure VPN
Let us start with Repeater 1. Repeater 1 is an Master and has two wide area channels. The first
wide area channel has three peers and the second wide area channel has two peers. Note that
since Repeater 4 and Repeater 5 have local area channels, these are not considered wide area
channel peers. It is also important to remember that a peer does not include the device currently
being calculated.
Each calculation provides enough bandwidth to support an RDAC command during times of high
activity. This assumes that only one RDAC command occurs at a time and is not utilized often. If it
is expected that multiple RDAC applications will be performing commands on repeaters often and
simultaneously, one might wish to increase the bandwidth to support these types of activities.
The detailed bandwidth calculation for Repeater 1 is as follows:
Number of Wide Area Channel Peers* for Slot 1
3
x
15
kbps =
45
kbps
Number of Wide Area Channel Peers* for Slot 2
2
x
15
kbps =
30
kbps
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System Design Considerations
Total Number of IP Site Connect Peers*
5
x
6
kbps =
30
kbps
If Master, Total Number of IP Site Connect Peers*
5
x
3
kbps =
15
kbps
55
kbps
–
–
175
kbps
RDAC Traffic
+
Required Uplink/Downlink Bandwidth
* Peer does not include self.
RDAC
Repeater 5
Repeater 4
Repeater 3
Repeater 2
Repeater 1
Using the same method for all IP Site Connect devices in the example system yields the following:
Number of Wide Area Channel Peers* for Slot 1
3
3
3
0
3
0
Number of Wide Area Channel Peers* for Slot 2
2
2
2
0
0
0
Total Number of IP Site Connect Peers*
5
5
5
5
5
5
If Master, Total Number of IP Site Connect Peers*
5
0
0
0
0
0
175
160
160
85
130
85
Required Uplink/Downlink Bandwidth (kbps)
* Peer does not include self.
IP Site Connect devices behind a single router need to be added together to acquire the wide area
network bandwidth requirements. See the final bandwidth requirements in the figure above.
Note that an analog repeater or disabled repeater connected to the IP Site Connect system would
require the same amount of traffic as a local only repeater (Repeater 4). But keep in mind that if
the disabled repeater will eventually be enabled without disabling a different repeater, the
bandwidth of the enabled repeater should be accounted for in the bandwidth plan.
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4.6.3.2.4.2Required Bandwidth Calculations While Utilizing a Secure Virtual
Private Network
As was discussed in previous chapters, peer-to-peer communications over the network are
optionally authenticated and are also encrypted end-to-end if enabled in the radios. See “Voice
and Data Privacy” on page 62. If this is not considered sufficient for a particular customer, IP Site
Connect supports the ability to work through a Secure Virtual Private Network (VPN). Secure VPN
is not a function of the IP Site Connect device but rather of the router. It is important to note that
Secure VPN does add the need for additional bandwidth and may introduce additional delay.
For a quick reference, the graphs below show the required bandwidth for the two previously
discussed simple IP Site Connect system configurations, but in this case utilizing routers with
Secure VPN enabled and repeater Authentication Disabled. When utilizing Secure VPN routers,
repeater authentication is not necessary since the Secure VPN utilizes its own authentication. As
can be seen, the bandwidth requirements per device increase substantially. This should be taken
into account when planning for bandwidth.
Bandwidth Required vs Number of Repeaters
( 1 Wide Area Channel, with RDAC, Secure VPN )
Bandwidth Required vs Number of Repeaters
( 2 Wide Area Channels, with RDAC, Secure VPN )
800
800
Master
Master
700
Non-Master
Uplink / Downlink Bandwith ( Kbps )
Uplink / Downlink Bandwith ( Kbps )
700
600
500
400
300
200
Non-Master
600
500
400
300
200
100
100
0
0
2
4
6
8
10
Number of Repeaters
12
14
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
Number of Repeaters
The following parameters should be used in the previous equation to calculate the bandwidth
requirements of each device in the system when secure VPN in the routers is enabled and
repeater authentication is disabled.
BWVC = 23 kbps = Bandwidth required to support Wide Area Voice or Data with Secure VPN
BWLM = 5 kbps = Bandwidth required to support Link Management without authentication
BWIR = 4 kbps = Bandwidth required to support Master Messaging
BWRD = 64 kbps = Bandwidth required to support RDAC commands
NOTE: The preceding data was compiled using the Linksys EtherFast Cable/DSL VPN Router
with four-port switch. Model: BEFVP41. Other routers using different algorithms may yield
different results.
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4.6.4
System Design Considerations
Flow of Voice/Data/Control Messages
The flow of voice/data/control messages from a radio to its repeater for an IP Site Connect
configuration is the same as that of single-site configuration of MOTOTRBO system. The major
changes in the flow of messages (between single site operations and multiple site operations) are
in the processing of a message in the repeaters and the additional delays introduced due to
reasons such as serialization, propagation, arbitration, and the nonalignment of slots between
repeaters. This section describes the changes.
On receipt of a start up of a voice/data/control call from a radio over a slot, a repeater sends it over
the back-end network to all the repeaters that are enabled, operating in digital mode, and the
corresponding slot is configured for multiple site operation. This implies that at any time at most
two calls are active in an IP Site Connect system if both slots are configured for multiple site
operation.
In an IP Site Connect configuration, calls can start concurrently at more than one repeater and due
to different messaging delay between repeaters, it is possible that different repeaters select
different calls for repeating over the air. To overcome this problem, on receipt of a start up of a
voice/data/control call either over the air (from a radio) or over the back-end network (from other
repeaters), a repeater starts an arbitration window for a duration of twice the Inter-Repeater
Messaging Delay. At the end of the arbitration window, the repeater selects one of the calls
received during this window using a procedure that ensures that all the repeaters select the same
call. After selection, a repeater starts repeating the bursts of the selected call. A disadvantage of
the arbitration procedure is that it increases the System Access Time.
The voice/data/control messages are sent burst by burst between repeaters. Like a single-site
system, a repeater does no data link layer processing (e.g. acknowledgement, decryption). If
required, the voice and data messages are encrypted / decrypted by the source and destination
radios. A repeater sends the voice or data packet to other repeaters as it receives over the air.
Also in case of data message, the destination radio sends the Ack/Nack and if required the
Selective ARQ takes place between the source and destination radios and not between a radio
and its repeater.
A call is a session of one or more transmissions from participating radios. To ensure continuity
between transmissions, the single site configuration of MOTOTRBO has Hang Time, during which
the channel is reserved for participant(s) of the ongoing call. The IP Site Connect configuration
extends the concept of session to include Remote Monitor call, Individual and group data call, and
CSBK Call (e.g. Call Alert, Radio Check, Inhibit/Uninhibit). The Hang Time ensures that a call
continues with minimum interruptions.
The flow of data messages from a radio to an application (e.g. Location or Text Messages) in an IP
Site Connect system is similar to a single-site configuration of MOTOTRBO. A data packet flows
burst-by-burst to a Control Station connected to the Application Server. The Control Station
assembles the bursts into a PDU. If the PDU is confirmed then the Control Station handles the
data link layer acknowledgement. If the PDU is encrypted then the Control Station decrypts the
PDU. The Control Station strips the data link layer headers and forwards the resulting datagram to
the Application Server.
All the data applications of the single site configuration of MOTOTRBO are compatible with IP Site
Connect configuration. An IP Site Connect configuration supports the revert channels, where a
revert channel can be a channel of another IP Site Connect system. The GPS data on a GPS
revert channel are sent unconfirmed in IP Site Connect mode. This increases the throughput of the
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GPS data as the data link layer acknowledgement over the back-end network is slower due to
delays associated with the back-end network.
4.6.5
Security Considerations
The single site configuration of MOTOTRBO offers two types of privacy mechanisms over the air Basic Privacy and Enhanced Privacy. See “Voice and Data Privacy” on page 62. The IP Site
Connect configuration not only supports both the mechanisms, but also extends them over the
back-end network. A repeater does not decrypt the encrypted packets. It simply passes the
packets as received over the air to other repeaters. Since the two mechanisms are not compatible,
all the radios and repeaters of an IP Site Connect system should support the same privacy
mechanism. This should be ensured during configuration. Note that the privacy mechanisms
protects only the voice or data payloads. They do not protect the voice or data headers, or control
messages (i.e. CSBK) or system messages (between repeaters).
An IP Site Connect system optionally offers authentication of all the packets sent between IP Site
Connect devices. Each packet has a 10 bytes long cryptographic signature. The signature is
created using Keyed-Hash Message Authentication Code (HMAC), which is a National Institute of
Standards and Technology (NIST) standard. The hashing is done using SHA-1 algorithm. The
HMAC uses a 20 bytes long symmetric keys and generates a 20 bytes long signature. To reduce
the bandwidth requirement over the back-end network, the 20 bytes long signature is truncated to
10 bytes before attaching to the packet. Packet authentication prevents an attacker from using an
impersonator as an IP Site Connect device in order to get access to the IP Site Connect system.
This feature, if selected by a customer, requires the customer to manually configure the same key
to all the IP Site Connect devices. Note that the IP Site Connect system does not support rekeying
remotely.
The above authentication mechanism does not provide protection against the replay attacks. For a
more secure authentication, an IP Site Connect configuration should use Secure VPN routers to
connect with the back-end network. Secure VPN routers can optionally provide confidentiality of all
the messages including system messages (between IP Site Connect devices), control messages
(i.e. CSBK), and voice or data headers. A disadvantage of using Secure VPN Routers is that the
IP Site Connect requires more inbound and outbound bandwidth from the ISP. The use of Secure
VPN routers make the authentication mechanism of IP Site Connect redundant and it is
recommended that it should be disabled. This saves some bandwidth over the back-end network.
4.6.6
General Considerations When Setting Up the Network
Connection for an IP Site Connect System
Network setup and configuration varies significantly depending on the complexity of the equipment
and IP network the system resides on. It is always wise to communicate with the Network
Administrator during installation and during the design phase as they are likely be the individuals
configuring the network equipment and own a great deal of knowledge in this area. Below is a
short list of items to keep in mind when setting up or when troubleshooting the networks of IP Site
Connect systems.
•
When assigning Static IP addresses within a Network, it must not conflict with another static
IP address. As with any IP conflict, this can cause a disruption to the IP Site Connect traffic.
Also, ensure that the static IP address does not fall into the DHCP assignable range. This
can cause an IP conflict if the address is dynamically assigned to another device on the
network.
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System Design Considerations
•
If other network devices are present on the same IP network as the IP Site Connect devices,
it is good practice to setup Quality of Service (QoS) rules in the Internet Router. This
ensures that the IP Site Connect packets have priority over other traffic on the system. Not
doing this could cause audio performance degradation or lost transmissions when other
devices on the system are excessively utilizing the network. There are various methods
routers use to provide QoS. It is commonly performed by configuring a range of UDP ports
or IP Addresses a specific amount of upstream and downstream bandwidth. The default
UDP port for IP Site Connect is 50000. For details on calculating the required bandwidth,
see section “Required Bandwidth Calculations” on page 163.
•
Verify that the customer network equipment is not blocking the IP Addresses or UDP Ports
(default 50000) utilized by the IP Site Connect system. This is commonly done by a firewall
or other security device. Consult the customer’s Network Administrator or Internet Service
Provider.
•
Inquire with the Internet Service Provider if there are any caps on bandwidth usage per
month. Some ISPs do not allow the customer to exceed a particular upload or download
limit per month. Since IP Site Connect systems stream voice over the internet, it may be
possible to surpass this limit on extremely high usage systems. As a reference point, a five
site system under nominal load could use around 20GB per month, where as a 15 site
system under nominal load could use around 65GB per month. For most ISPs, this will not
be an issue.
•
When configuring routers with VPN links, it is wise to increase the IPSec Key Life Time
(KLT) Timers to around 13 to 24 hours. It is recommended to set Phase 1 KLT to 24 hours,
and Phase 2 KLT to 13 hours. Some low-end routers cause a disruption to ongoing voice
and data when renegotiating keys after the Key Life Time Timer expires. This is especially
noticeable when multiple VPNs are configured with identical Key Life Time Timers since the
router will need to re-calculate numerous keys at the same time. It is best practice to offset
each VPN’s Key Life Time Timers by 10 minutes.
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4.6.7
171
Considerations for Shared Use of a Channel
To take care of shared use of a physical channel, a repeater (e.g. green repeater) of an IP Site
Connect system always monitor its Rx frequency and does not transmit if the Received Signal
Strength Indicator (RSSI) from radio(s) of some other radio system is greater than a configurable
threshold. This ensures that an IP Site Connect system will not use a channel if another repeater,
in vicinity, is currently using the channel. The RSSI threshold is CPS programmable in the range of
–40 dB to –130 dB. The threshold should be chosen wisely otherwise interference from
background noise may inhibit a repeater from transmitting. The RDAC application can be used to
measure the inbound RSSI of an interfering signal if required.
The figure below shows the transmission of red radio interfering with the green repeater.
F1
Interfering
Signal
F1
F1
F2
Figure 4-12 An Example of Interference at Receive Frequency
The above monitoring scheme of Rx frequency is not sufficient in the following conditions:
•
In VHF range, in some countries (including USA), the transmit frequency is not tightly bound
to a receive frequency
•
There is no radio in the other radio system that is currently using the system.
•
The other radio system is being used by a console.
•
The radio that is using the other radio system is too far from the IP Site Connect system.
To take care of above conditions, it is recommended that a repeater of an IP Site Connect system
should use an external RF receiver. The external RF receiver is tuned to the transmit frequency of
the repeater and activates a GPIO compatible output when it receives RF signal. The output of the
receiver is connected to the “Transmit Inhibit” (an input GPIO line) of the repeater. The repeater
does not wake up if its “Transmit Inhibit” line is active. An attenuator can be inserted between the
antenna and the receiver, if it is required to change the threshold of the received signal. The net
effect of this configuration is that the repeater does not wake up if there is another repeater
transmitting at its Tx frequency. The repeater CPS allows its user to associate an input line of the
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System Design Considerations
GPIO lines with “Transmit Inhibit”. This arrangement is also applicable to single-site repeaters.
The figure below shows the transmission of red repeater interfering with the green repeater.
Interfering
Signal
F1
F2
F2
Figure 4-13 An Example of Interference at Transmit Frequency
4.6.8
Migration from Single Site Systems
The hardware of radios (both portables and mobiles) and repeaters of MOTOTRBO’s single site
system are fully compatible with the IP Site Connect configuration. To migrate to IP Site Connect
system the customer is required to update the software of repeaters and reconfigure them. Some
of the features of the single site radios may work in the IP Site Connect system but it is highly
recommended that the software of the radios should also be updated. Data applications of single
site configuration are fully compatible with the IP Site Connect configuration.
4.7
Data Sub-System Design Considerations
4.7.1
Computer and IP Network Configurations
The data applications in a MOTOTRBO system utilize IP/UDP communications, therefore it is
necessary to design the IP configuration of the data capable devices. Although complex, it is
important to understand how data traffic is routed from one radio to another in a MOTOTRBO
system. This section details the different connects, and where they are used within a MOTOTRBO
system.
4.7.1.1
Radio to Mobile Client Network Connectivity
As described in earlier chapters, the MOTOTRBO radio connects to a computer via USB. Once
connected, the PC detects the connection, loads a driver, and establishes a new network
interface. This network interface looks similar to a LAN or WLAN network interface to the PC. The
radio acts like a DHCP server providing the PC with an IP, and setting its own IP as the default
gateway.
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The Radio IP address used for this connection is programmed into the MOTOTRBO radio in the
network settings of the CPS. The Accessory IP value is not editable in the CPS. It will be updated
based on the Radio IP. The first 3 octets are the same as the radio IP, the last octet will be the
Radio IP value + 1 (for example, if the Radio IP is 192.168.10.1, the Accessory IP will be
automatically updated to 192.168.10.2).
•
Accessory IP – provided via DHCP to the Network Interface on the PC
•
Radio IP
– used by the Radio to communicate with the PC
– provided to the PC as the default gateway
These IP addresses are only used for communication between the MOTOTRBO radio and the
connected PC. It is recommended that the default values (Radio IP : 192.168.10.1, Accessory IP :
192.168.10.2) be used in all mobile client configurations. In other configurations where multiple
MOTOTRBO radios are connected to one PC, these values need to be different to prevent IP
conflicts.
If the default IP address programmed in the radio, or the one provided to the PC conflicts with
other network interfaces on the PC, then the Radio IP should be changed using the CPS. The
radio also allows for the default UDP ports for the ARS, Text Message and Telemetry applications
to be changed if there exists conflict within the PC. These UDP ports will need to be updated in the
application configuration as well. Again, it is recommended that the default values be used
whenever possible.
For best results, it is recommended that mobile clients do not have additional network interfaces.
Additional static routes may need to be manually entered in the mobile client PC if multiple
interfaces are present. It is also recommended that any applications that attempt to broadcast
network traffic be disabled in the PC. Unnecessary traffic sent to the MOTOTRBO radio may
cause undesired congestion over the air.
The simple diagram below displays the IP connectivity between the Mobile Client and the
MOTOTRBO radio. Note that because these IP addresses are private and only used between the
radio and the Mobile Client, it is recommended that they be duplicated on all Radio/Mobile Client
configurations in the system.
Mobile Client on a PC
MOTOTRBO Radio
192.168 .10.1
Radio IP = 192 .168.10.1
Accessory IP = 192 .168.10.2
Radio IP Netmask = 255.255 .255.0
USB
192.168 .10.2
Default Gateway = 192 .168. 10.1
Figure 4-14 Connectivity between the Mobile Client and the MOTOTRBO Radio
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System Design Considerations
4.7.1.2
Radio to Air Interface Network Connectivity
The MOTOTRBO radio must have an IP address to communicate with the MOTOTRBO network
and other radios. The radio and the system uses the Individual Radio ID and CAI Network Address
to construct its Radio Network IP to ensure uniqueness. The Individual Radio ID is found in the
General Settings section of the radio CPS, and the CAI Network Address is found in the Network
Settings section.
A Radio ID in MOTOTRBO is a 24 bit number that can range from 1 to 16776415, and is written in
decimal format in the CPS.
16776415 is represented by a hexadecimal 24 bit number as FFFCDF. When broken into three 8
bits sections, this becomes FF, FC, and DF. This in decimal is 255, 252, and 223. Therefore, a
radio that is configured with an Individual ID of 16776415 and a CAI Network address of 12 (the
default), will have a Radio Network IP address of 12.255.252.223. Below are a few more examples
(all assuming the default CAI Network address of 12):
Unit ID = 00012045
Convert to Hexadecimal = 002F0D
Separate into 8 bit sections = 00, 2F, 0D
Each 8 bit section represents 1 octet of the IP address
Convert each section into decimal = 00, 47, 13
Assemble IP address from conversion above = 12.A.B.C where
A = The first 8 bit section in decimal format. In this example, A = 0
B = The second 8 bit section in decimal format. In this example B = 47
C = The third 8 bit section in decimal format. In this example C = 13
The IP address for Unit ID 12045 is: 12.0.47.13
Unit ID = 00000100
Convert to Hexadecimal = 000064
Separate into 8 bit sections = 00, 00, 64
Each 8 bit section represents 1 octet of the IP address
Convert each section into decimal = 00, 00, 100
Assemble IP address from conversion above = 12.A.B.C where
A = The first 8 bit section in decimal format. In this example, A = 0
B = The second 8 bit section in decimal format. In this example B = 0
C = The third 8 bit section in decimal format. In this example C = 100
The IP address for Unit ID 100 is: 12.0.0.100
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175
Unit ID = 05000032
Convert to Hexadecimal = 4C4B60
Separate into 8 bit sections = 4C, 4B, 60
Each 8 bit section represents 1 octet of the IP address
Convert each section into decimal = 76, 75, 96
Assemble IP address from conversion above = 12.A.B.C where
A = The first 8 bit section in decimal format. In this example, A = 76
B = The second 8 bit section in decimal format. In this example B = 75
C = The third 8 bit section in decimal format. In this example C = 96
The IP address for Unit ID 05000032 is: 12.76.75.96
The MOTOTRBO data applications, both in the radio and externally on the PC, perform this
conversion to an IP address when sending and transmitting. Understanding this conversion is
important, because it is possible to send traffic directly to the IP address of the radio, though in
most cases this happens transparently to the user. For example, if a user creates a text message,
and selects a user from the address book with an Individual Radio ID of 12045 (which can be
aliased), the text message is sent over the air to radio 12045, and is addressed to IP Address
12.0.47.13. When radio 12045 receives the over-the-air data message, it opens the data message
and looks at the target IP address. Because the target IP address matches its own IP, the
message is sent to the internal radio application. The target application is dependent on the UDP
message and the destination address used at the source.
If the target of a data message is an external PC connected to the MOTOTRBO radio, the sending
device will use an IP address with the CAI Network address plus 1. For example, if a MOTOTRBO
radio receives a data message for its Radio ID (12045), and the data message inside is targeted
towards the address 13.0.47.13, it will forward that message to the connected PC.
For ease of use, the MOTOTRBO radio has the option to be configured with a “Forward to PC”
option, which is available in the Network settings of the radio CPS. With this option enabled, all
messages targeted to both the 12.x.x.x and 13.x.x.x addresses are routed to the PC. It is
recommended that this option be chosen whenever a MOTOTRBO radio is connected to the
Application Server. The “Forward to PC” option also applies to a MOTOTRBO radio (portable or
mobile) installed in a mobile environment, i.e. a vehicle, or in a fixed location (a mobile in a tray
located on someone’s desk). If a radio is not connected to an external PC, the “Forward to PC”
option should be disabled.
It is recommended that the default value of the CAI Network address is used. If this value is
changed, all MOTOTRBO radios in the system must be updated with the same CAI Network
address. Also available for configuration is the Group CAI Network address. This is used for
broadcast data messages. Again, it is recommended that this value remain at its default value.
Figure 4-15 “Air Interface Network Connectivity” displays the IP connectivity with the radio
network. Also included is a simplified Network Address Table (NAT) that shows how the Over-theAir traffic is routed to either the Radio or the Mobile Client. The NAT is a translation table within the
MOTOTRBO radio that allows packets to be routed from the PC through the radio and over the air
to the destination address. As previously mentioned, when the “Forward to PC” option is selected,
traffic for both the 12.x.x.x and 13.x.x.x addresses is forwarded to the PC. If disabled, that NAT
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System Design Considerations
table would show the 12.0.47.13 traffic being routed to Radio IP of 192.168.10.1. This is the
common configuration for MOTOTRBO radios that are not connected to an external Mobile Client.
Mobile Client on a PC
MOTOTRBO Radio
12. 0.47.13
192 .168.10.1
USB
13. 0.47.13
12.0.47.13
192 .168.10.1
13.0.47.13
192 .168.10.2
192 .168.10.2
Network Address Translation
Radio ID = 12045
Radio IP = 192.168 .10.1
Accessory IP = 192.168 .10.2
Radio IP Netmask = 255 .255.255 .0
ARS IP = 11.250. 250.250
TMS IP = 11.250 .250.250
Forward to PC Enabled
Default Gateway = 192.168 .10.1
Figure 4-15 Air Interface Network Connectivity
4.7.1.3
Application Server Control Station Network Connectivity
In some system topologies described in previous sections, the Application Server is required to
service up to four different channels. This requires the Application Server to have a network
connection of up to four control stations at the same time. Similar to the Mobile Client
configuration, when each control station is connected to the Application Server via USB, a network
interface is created for each. Each interface is provided the IP address configured as the
Accessory IP in each control station. It is important that the Radio IP and the Accessory IP of the
four control stations be different from each other to prevent IP conflict and therefore routing
problems in the Application Server. The following IP configuration is recommended:
Radio IP
Accessory IP/PC Network
Interface IP
Control Station 1
192.168.11.1
192.168.11.2
Control Station 2
192.168.12.1
192.168.12.2
Control Station 3
192.168.13.1
192.168.13.2
Control Station 4
192.168.14.1
192.168.14.2
The Individual Radio ID, and therefore the Radio Network IP Address, is very important when
configuring the Application Server control stations. Unlike the Radio IP and Accessory IP, the
control station’s Radio Network IP should be identical. Each control station should be programmed
with the same Radio ID, to enable field radios to communicate with the Application Server
regardless of what channel they are on. Although it was mentioned that MOTOTRBO radios
should not have duplicate Radio IDs, the control stations are the exception. Because control
stations are intended to remain on a single channel, they will always be monitoring the same
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177
channel. Although this Radio ID of the control stations can be any valid Individual ID, they must be
unique, and not duplicate any non-Control Station radio ID. The suggested Radio ID for the
Control Stations is 16448250 which converts to an easy to remember IP address of
12.250.250.250 and 13.250.250.250. Since this Radio ID is so large, it is unlikely to be duplicated
on other radios.
It is important to note that every MOTOTRBO radio in the system that is intended to communicate
with the Application Server must be programmed with the Application Server control station IP.
This value must be entered for both the Automatic Registration Service (ARS) IP and the Text
Message Server IP, which can be found in the Network settings of the MOTOTRBO radio CPS.
Because the Application Server is the target for these messages, the 13.250.250.250 IP address
should be programmed into every field radio. For radios that will use the Mobile Text Messaging
Client application installed on a PC connected to the radio, the 13.250.250.250 IP address should
also be programmed into the application.
Application Server
Control Station
192 .168.11 .2
USB
12.250.250 .250
192 .168.11.1
13.250.250 .250
192.168 .11.1
12.250.250 .250
192.168 .11.2
13.250.250 .250
CH1
Network Address Translation
Radio ID = 16448250
Radio IP = 192 .168.11.1
Accessory IP = 192 .168.11.2
Radio IP Netmask = 255.255 .255.0
Forward to PC Enabled
Control Station
192 .168.12 . 2
USB
12.250.250 .250
192 .168.12.1
13.250.250 .250
192.168 .12.1
12.250.250 .250
192.168 .12.2
13.250.250 .250
CH2
Network Address Translation
Radio ID = 16448250
Radio IP = 192 .168.12.1
Accessory IP = 192 .168.12.2
Radio IP Netmask = 255.255 .255.0
Forward to PC Enabled
* 16448250
= FAFAFA 16 = 250.250 .250
10
Figure 4-16 Application Server Control Station Network Connectivity
As previously discussed, the control stations should be configured with the option to “Forward to
PC” so that all data traffic the control station receives is forwarded to the Application Server.
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4.7.1.4
Control Station Considerations
Because the control stations connected to the Application Server act as the data gateway for the
system, the control stations themselves do not require an Automatic Registration Service (ARS) IP
and the Text Message Server IP to be specified in their CPS Network settings. These fields should
be left blank. In addition, the control stations should also have the ARS and GPS options disabled.
These settings are not required for these control stations since they will be not be transmitting their
own GPS or ARS anywhere. There is no need for these control stations to be ordered with GPS
capability.
Although it is possible to use the control stations connected to the Application Server for voice, it is
highly recommended that they only act as data gateways. Since they must remain on a single
channel in order to receive the inbound data, it is recommended that they only contain one
channel in their channel list and do not have scan enabled. This will guarantee that the Application
Server is always monitoring the correct channel. Since the control stations will only be used for
data, there is no need to program any receive or transmit Groups on the channel. In other words,
the Contact Name and the Group List can both be set to a value of None. Similarly, it is not
necessary to provision any emergency settings either.
It is important to set the TX Preamble duration of the control station to be the same as the other
radios in the system. Since most data will be targeted towards these control stations, the proper
preamble must be utilized. Use the same guidelines for setting this duration in the control stations
as was used in the fielded radios.
The admit criteria of the control station should match the settings which the other radios on the
channel are provisioned for. The suggested setting is Color Code Free unless there are analog
signals on the channel that the data needs to avoid. If there are analog signals on the channel that
the data needs to avoid, then choose Channel Free instead.
When considering other CPS options of the control station, it is a good rule of thumb to minimize
the feature options available. This will guarantee that a user cannot accidentally place the control
station in a state where it is not monitoring inbound data traffic.
In almost all scenarios, it is highly recommended that a mobile radio with an AC power adapter be
utilized as the data gateway. Although a portable radio can temporarily be used for this purpose, it
is not recommended for long term installations. The primary reason why a mobile is recommended
for this purpose is its ability to remotely locate the RF antenna. This is important since computers
and their components are sometimes sensitive to RF power. Mobile antennas should be located
away from the server itself and isolated from each other. For example, if a server has four control
stations connected to it, it is recommended that the antennas be installed on the roof of the
building and separated enough from each other so that they do not interfere. This is also important
since in-building coverage is sometimes difficult to achieve. All inbound data messages will pass
through these control stations so it is important that they are within good RF coverage of the
repeater. Additionally, a control station is left powered on all the time. A portable continuously
powered on in a charger is more likely to encounter power related failures.
If a control station does power off or power cycles, host-specific routes will be removed from the
Application Server's routing tables. In these situations, the Application Server to SU data
increases the system load as it has to be transmitted by all connected control stations. The actual
load increase is based on the amount of Application Server to SU data. This load increase
gradually dissipates as the radios re-register with the Presence Notifier and the host-specific
routes are added back into the routing table. However, it is recommended to connect control
November, 2008
System Design Considerations
179
stations to an Uninterrupted Power Supply (UPS) and are never powered off and on while radios
are registered with the Presence Notifier.
During the registration process with the Presence Notifier, the SU is instructed to refresh its
registration at a specific time interval. The default time interval is 4 hours, though this is a
configurable parameter in the Presence Notifier. If the time interval is decreased, more registration
messages are sent to keep the presence availability information fresh but the system load is
increased. If this time interval is increased, the system load is decreased but the presence
availability information may become stale.
Once a radio is registered with the Presence Notifier, the MCDD adds a route to a routing table, so
data messages from the Application Server to the SU are transmitted on the correct channel.
However, if for some reason the host-specific route does not exist, then the Global Route is used
and the data message will be transmitted from all control stations connected to the Application
Server. This scenario increases system loading during situations where there is Application Server
to SU data. An example of this would be network (Text Message Server) sourced text messages
targeted towards subscribers in the field.
4.7.1.5
Multi-Channel Device Driver (MCDD) and Required Static Routes
As described above, the Application Server can have up to four different network interfaces that
access the radio network. In order for data messages targeted towards Radio Network IP
addresses, such as 12.0.0.1 and 12.0.47.13, to transmit out through a network interface with IP
addresses 192.168.11.2 or 192.168.12.2, the MCDD is required to add routes for each radio that
registers with the Presence Notifier. For example, when radio 12045 transmits a registration
message to its programmed ARS IP address (e.g. 12.0.47.13) on one of the channels monitored
by a control station, the control station forwards that address to the Application Server through its
network interface (e.g. 192.168.11.2). The MCDD then automatically adds a route for that radio IP
(12.0.47.13 and 13.0.47.13) to the 192.168.11.2 network interface. Once that is done, if a
message from the Application Server needs to reach 12.0.47.13 or 13.0.47.13, the message is
routed to the 192.168.11.2 network interface, and therefore out the correct control station and
correct channel that has registered radio 12045. This is how data messages are sent out on the
correct channel for a radio.
Additional steps are required to route multicast traffic. Multicast traffic is traffic destined for radio
groups. The routing table in the PC must be modified to allow for multicast traffic. Please see the
MCDD install manual for details.
4.7.1.6
Application Server and Dispatcher Network Connectivity
As described in previous chapters, the Application Server can also be configured with a LAN
connection to the Customer Enterprise Network (CEN). A few restrictions apply to the network
configuration between the Application Server and the Dispatch clients. In most customer cases,
the LAN interface on the Application Server is connected to their pre-existing network. The only
requirement is that the assigned IP of the LAN network interface must not conflict with those
assigned to the Network Interfaces of the Control Stations. Additionally, the Application
Dispatchers (such as Location Dispatch or Text Message Dispatch) must be connected through
the customer CEN to the Application Server. In order for the Text Message Server to forward email text messages, the Application Server must be connected to the Internet. If the network is
configured to operate with a firewall, the programmed ports for the applications should be opened
and allowed. Details of this configuration can be found in the Text Message and Location
application install guides.
November, 2008
180
System Design Considerations
4.7.1.7
MOTOTRBO Subject Line Usage
A MOTOTRBO Text Message is comprised of three parts: A subject line, subject line delimiter and
body. The subject line delimiter is a carriage return (Unicode code point U+000D) and line feed
(Unicode code point U+000A) character pair (CRLF). Therefore, anything up to the first CRLF
within the Message is interpreted as the subject line and anything after the first CRLF is
interpreted as the body. The subject line is left blank if there are no characters before the first
CRLF, or if no CRLF pairs are contained in the Message.
When e-mail text messages are received by the Application Server the e-mail subject line and
body are converted into the MOTOTRBO Text Message subject line and body respectively.
The maximum length of a MOTOTRBO Text Message is technically 140 characters according to
the protocol. However, applications that support the use of Subject Lines may reduce the number
of the effective payload. The Customer Programming Software (CPS) and the applications in the
radios that create text messages will limit the effective payload to 138 characters. External
applications that run on Personal Computers (PC) may further reduce the effective payload to
provide indications that messages have been truncated (for example replacing the last character
with a horizontal ellipse character '…'). E-mails that are longer than 138 characters will be
truncated to fit. For example, if an e-mail is received with a 200 character subject line and a 300
character body only the first 137 characters of the subject line plus a horizontal ellipse '…' at the
end is converted into the MOTOTRBO Text Message and the rest of the e-mail will be discarded.
In another example, if an e-mail is received with a 100 character subject line and a 300 character
body, then the 100 characters of the subject line and the first 37 characters of the body with an
ellipse added at the end will be converted into the MOTOTRBO Text Message format.
Radios replying to messages preserve the original message's subject line. In this manner, external
services and solutions that use e-mail for communication can use the content of the subject line to
correlate between e-mails that are sent and e-mails that are received. For example, an automated
service could send out an e-mail with a unique ID string in the subject line. If a radio replies to the
message, it preserves the subject line with the unique ID string and the automated system can use
the address and subject line of the message to know that a specific unit had replied to a specific
message.
The number of characters allowed in a reply by a radio are equal to 138 characters minus the
number of characters in the subject line. For example, if an e-mail is sent with a 30 character
subject line and a 100 character body, the entire message will be received by the radio. When the
radio replies to the message the subject line is automatically preserved leaving 108 characters for
the radio to reply with.
MOTOTRBO Text Messages that originate from the front panel of radios or the Text Messaging
Client via the Application Server and destined for e-mails addresses will contain blank subject
lines. Radios do not have the capability to create or modify a subject line from the front panel. The
CPS does not have the capability to create a subject line.
4.7.1.8
MOTOTRBO Example System IP Plan
The following diagram is a summary of the information contained in the previous sections. It
should be used as a guideline for configuring a MOTOTRBO System.
November, 2008
192.168.0.4
Application
Dispatcher 2
192.168.0.3
Application
Dispatcher 1
Internet
(E-mail)
192.168.0.250
192.168.0.200
Switch/Hub
*CEN Configuration shown is
only an example
Customer Enterprise
Network
(CEN)
192.168.0.1
DHCP Server
32.1.1.0
Router
12.250.250.250
13.250.250.250
192.168.11.2
12.250.250.250
13.250.250.250
12.250.250.250
13.250.250.250
13.250.250.250
192.168.13.2
13.250.250.250
192.168.14.2
Radio ID = 16448250
Radio IP = 192.168.14.1
Accessory IP = 192.168.14.2
Radio IP Netmask = 255.255.255.0
Forward to PC Enabled
Network Address Translation
12.250.250.250
13.250.250.250
12.250.250.250
192.168.14.1
192.168.14 .1
Control Station
Radio ID = 16448250
Radio IP = 192.168.13.1
Accessory IP = 192.168.13.2
Radio IP Netmask = 255.255.255.0
Forward to PC Enabled
Network Address Translation
12.250.250.250
13.250.250.250
12.250.250.250
192.168.13.1
192.168.13. 1
Control Station
Radio ID = 16448250
Radio IP = 192.168.12.1
Accessory IP = 192.168.12.2
Radio IP Netmask = 255.255.255.0
Forward to PC Enabled
Network Address Translation
192.168.12.2
192.168.12.1
192.168. 12 .1
Control Station
Radio ID = 16448250
Radio IP = 192.168.11.1
Accessory IP = 192.168.11.2
Radio IP Netmask = 255.255.255.0
Forward to PC Enabled
Network Address Translation
12.250.250.250
13.250.250.250
192.168.11.1
192.168.11 .1
Control Station
CH4
CH3
CH2
CH1
*1644825010 =FAFAFA16=250.250.250
USB
USB
USB
USB
*RAN Configuration shown is
only an example
Base Repeater
Radio Access Network
(RAN)
Base Repeater
Figure 4-17 Example MOTOTRBO System IP Plan
192.168.14 . 2
192.168.13 . 2
192.168.0.2
192.168. 12 . 2
192.168.11 . 2
Application Server
192.168.10.2
192.168.10.1
192.168.10.1
Radio ID = 100
Radio IP = 192.168.10.1
Accessory IP = 192.168.10.2
Radio IP Netmask = 255.255.255.0
ARS IP = 13.250.250.250
TMS IP = 13.250.250.250
Forward to PC Disabled
Network Address Translation
12.0.0.100
12.0.0.100
MOTOTRBO Radio
Radio ID = 12045
Radio IP = 192.168.10.1
Accessory IP = 192.168.10.2
Radio IP Netmask = 255.255.255.0
ARS IP = 13.250.250.250
TMS IP = 13.250.250.250
Forward to PC Enabled
Network Address Translation
192.168.10.1
13.0.47.13
192.168.10.1
12.0.47.13
13.0.47.13
12.0.47.13
MOTOTRBO Radio
USB
Default Gateway = 192.168.10.1
192.168.10.2
Mobile Client on a PC
System Design Considerations
181
November, 2008
182
System Design Considerations
4.7.1.9
Application Server Network Connection Considerations
Besides being connected to the radio network via the control station(s), the Application Server
may also be connected to another network such as the Internet. When operating under these
conditions, it is important to consider the following:
•
Disable all protocol support except for TCP/IP.
•
Ensure networking application messages are routed to the Ethernet connector or the
wireless network interface and not to the network connection to the control station(s).
Sometimes, the Application Server is connected to the radio network via the control station(s).
When operating under these conditions, it is important to remember that all network traffic
generated by the Application Server will be routed to the control station(s). In order to optimize the
radio network, these messages should be kept to a minimum. The following items should minimize
the amount of network traffic being routed to the control station(s).
4.7.2
•
Disable all protocol support except for TCP/IP.
•
Turn off the PC wireless network interface.
•
Do not launch any networking application (i.e. internet browser, e-mail, etc.).
•
Disable all automatic updates for network applications that are running in the background,
such as virus updates, IM updates, Windows updates, etc.
Mobile Terminal and Application Server
Power Management Considerations
There are some considerations that have to be taken with regards to the Power Management
settings on a PC being used for either a Mobile Terminal or Application Server.
It is recommended that the power management settings of the Application Server and Mobile
Client be disabled. Specifically the System Standby and System Hibernation settings should be
set to Never.
It is crucial that the Application Server and Mobile Terminal always be active so that they can
transmit and receive data messages. If the Application Server or Mobile Client is allowed to enter
System Standby or System Hibernation, it will not respond to received data messages. The
radio(s) connected to the Application Server or Mobile Client will then queue the data until
messages fail to be delivered. It will be the responsibility of the sending device to retry the failed
message. A user will need to “awaken” the Application Server or Mobile Client before it will accept
messages again.
4.8
Customer Fleetmap Development
In a MOTOTRBO system, the system administrator can maximize the system's communication
effectiveness by translating their organization's operation requirements into a list of supported
features. The result of identifying and formalizing this information is often referred to as
fleetmapping.
Fleetmapping can be thought of as:
November, 2008
System Design Considerations
183
•
Assigning groups to the radios issued to personnel.
•
Assigning groups to the dispatcher control positions.
•
Assigning groups to channels and slots.
•
Defining the feature subsets available to the personnel using the radios and dispatcher
control positions.
A fleetmap determines how the radio communications for each user group of an organization is
controlled. Through controlling communications between different user groups and between
individuals within a group, the organization can manage the radio communications system
resources efficiently. Fleetmapping also provides a structured approach to the management of a
large number of radio users, and provides the opportunity to plan in advance for expansion or
changes within an organization.
Some of the factors that should be considered when creating or planning changes to the fleetmap
are:
•
Identifying a functional fleetmap design team
•
Identifying radio users
•
Organizing radio users into groups
•
Assigning IDs and aliases
•
Determining feature assignments:
•
Private Calls
•
All Call
•
PTT ID and Aliasing
•
Radio Disable
•
Remote Monitor
•
Radio Check
•
Call Alert
•
Emergency Configurations
•
Determining channel access requirements
•
Determining subscriber programming requirements
•
Determining data application access and requirements
4.8.1
Identifying a Functional Fleetmap Design Team
To develop a fleetmap, a design team of key representatives from the customer’s system
managers, technicians, and operators needs to be formed to create effective communications
plans for radio users and system operators.
4.8.2
Identifying Radio Users
The system administrator needs to do the following to establish a fleetmap.
•
Determine the customer’s organizational structure from a radio user’s perspective
•
Consider the needs of portable and mobile radio users
November, 2008
184
System Design Considerations
•
List all of the potential radio users in a single column on a spreadsheet
•
Define the functional groups that use the system
•
Group together radio users who need to communicate with each other on a regular basis
Typically, each functional group of radios will have different communication requirements.
Therefore, each functional group will have their own codeplug for their radios that differs from
other functional groups.
Codeplug
construction.ctb
security.ctb
administrative.ctb
transport.ctb
4.8.3
Functional
Group
User
Name
Alias
User
ID
Construction
John
John
1873
Construction,
Transport
Security
Construction
Bob
Bob
1835
Construction,
Transport
Security
Construction
Rick
Rick
542
Construction,
Transport
Security
Security
Al
Al
98
Security,
Administrative
-
Security
Joe
Joe
4762
Security,
Administrative
-
Administrative
Frank
Frank
6654
Administrative,
Security
-
Administrative
Mike
Mike
19172
Administrative,
Security
-
Administrative
Steve
Steve
78378
Administrative,
Security
-
Transport
Lenny
Lenny
23
Transport,
Construction
Security
Transport
Carl
Carl
2
Transport,
Construction
Security
Talks with
Listens
only to
Organizing Radio Users into Groups
Once you have identified all of the individual users, associate them with groups. The
communication requirements for one group may differ with the requirements of another group.
Certain groups may need to communicate with multiple groups, in addition to their primary group.
Therefore, you will need to identify the individual radios and the corresponding groups that they
need to communicate with. Also note that the group organization may be different from the
organization’s formal reporting structure.
You will also need to determine the traffic patterns of the individual users and functional groups, so
that channel, slot and group assignments can be associated with each user. “Digital Repeater
Loading” on page 146 should provide information to help decide the distribution of groups, logical
channel assignments (slots) and physical channel assignments.
November, 2008
System Design Considerations
185
When organizing your MOTOTRBO system, remember that individual users, radios, and groups
all have different requirements. Subsequently, they also have different parameters associated with
them. Organize the radios, groups and slot assignments in a spreadsheet. An example is shown
below.
Functional group and talkgroup mapping
TG ID: 997 TG ID: 368
ch 1 - slot 1 ch 2 - slot 1 ch 2 - slot 1 ch 2 - slot 1 ch 1 - slot 1
File codeplug as Functional group User name
Construction
construction.ctb
John
Alias
John
ch 2 - slot 1
1873
Construction,
Transport
Security
Security
x
x
Construction
Bob
Bob
1835
Construction
Rick
Rick
542
Construction,
Transport
Security
98
Security,
Administrative
-
x
x
x
4762
Security,
Administrative
-
x
x
x
Al
Al
ch 1 - slot 1 ch 2 - slot 1
Talks with functional
Listens only to
User ID
groups
functional groups
Construction,
Transport
Security
Cement mixers
Transport
TG ID: 99
Delivery trucks
Administrative
Admin
Security
TG ID: 8766 TG ID: 123
Front desk
TG ID: 46
Carpenters
TG ID: 54
Metal shop
Cement factory
TG ID: 62
Patrol
Construction
x
x
x
x
x
x
security.ctb
Security
administrative.ctb
Joe
Joe
Administrative
Frank
Frank
6654
Administrative,
Security
-
x
x
Administrative
Mike
Mike
19172
Administrative,
Security
-
x
x
78378
Administrative,
Security
-
x
x
23
Transport,
Construction
Security
2
Transport,
Construction
Security
Administrative
Transport
Steve
Kenny
Steve
Kenny
x
x
x
x
x
transport.ctb
Transport
4.8.3.1
Carl
Carl
x
Configuration of Groups
In MOTOTRBO systems, capabilities for Group Calls are configured via the subscriber (portable
and mobile) CPS. The repeater does not require any specific configuration with respect to groups.
There are three interrelated steps in configuring your radios to participate in group calls; it is
configured through the “Contacts”, “RX Group Lists” and “Channels” menu folders in CPS. While
the MOTOTRBO CPS enables great flexibility in configuring your system for Group calling, one
basic procedure is as follows:
1. In the “Contacts” folder, go to the “Digital” folder, and add a call of type “Group Call.” The
CPS will provide a default name and ID; you will need to assign a unique ID between 1
and 16776415, and should also rename the group call to an intuitive alphanumeric name
representative of the user workgroup that will ultimately be using this group, e.g. “Maintenance.” All calls created in the “Contacts” folder appear in the “Contacts” menu of the subscriber by name, and the Group name also appears on the radio display when a group call
is received. In step 3 below, you will assign this group call, again by name, to the Transmit
(TX) “Contact Name” attribute of a channel.
November, 2008
186
System Design Considerations
2. In the “RX Group Lists” folder, add a new group list, and then add the Group Call you just
created to be a member of the list. The group list controls which groups a radio will hear
when tuned to a selected channel. For example, if members of the Maintenance group
should also be able to listen to other groups on the channel, those other groups would be
added to the RX Group List; if members of the Maintenance group should only hear traffic
related to their own group, then only the Maintenance group would be added to the group
list. The group list should again be renamed to something intuitive; in step 3 below you will
assign this group list, by name, to the RX Group List attribute of a channel.
3. In the channels menu, each “zone” can contain up to 16 channels that can be mapped to
the 16-position top selector knob of the portable radio or the relative channel number
selections on a mobile. Radio users that require more than 16 channels must organize
them into multiple folders in CPS, so that they can be accessed as “zones” in the radio
menu. Zones, if used, can and should also be given names. In an appropriate folder,
create a new digital channel. To fully define the channel, you must assign the appropriate
receive and transmit frequencies, and also select the TDMA slot number. Then, add the
group list you defined in step 2 above to the RX Group List attribute, followed by adding
the digital group call to the TX Contact Name attribute. You will also need to define the TX
Admit Criteria. Rename the channel to something intuitive, and assign it to a knob
position; the channel name will be displayed on the radio whenever it is selected via the
top knob on a portable or the up/down channel selection buttons on a mobile.
If configured as described above, radio users are able to place a group call simply by selecting the
defined channel and pressing PTT. Groups can also be selected from the Contacts menu on
display radios, as enabled by step one of the above. It is also possible to assign a group call to a
radio programmable button (called a “one touch call” in CPS) so that users can place a group call
at the touch of a button.
4.8.4
Assigning IDs and Aliases
Each radio, group, and control station in the system must have a unique ID number and alias.
There should be no duplicate IDs on the system.
4.8.4.1
Identifying Radio IDs
Radio IDs for a MOTOTRBO system range between 1 and 16776415. There are two approaches
to identifying radio IDs:
Option A:
As a general practice, create contiguous ID ranges, but allow room for future expansion. As an
example, a department has a current requirement for 1200 IDs. However, the department may
need up to 2000 IDs in 12 months. Assigning the IDs during planning saves future re-programming
of radios and subscriber records.
November, 2008
System Design Considerations
187
Option B:
The radio ID can be created so that each ID will provide certain information about the radio. Each
digit in the Radio ID can represent a certain code or radio type. For example:
16776415
Range 0-9999.Sequence Number
Range 0-6. 0 - Reserved
1- MOTOTRBO Portable
2 - MOTOTRBO Mobile
3 - Analog Portable
4 - Analog Mobile
5 - Reserved
Other options are to use a digit to identify the user’s home group or other identifier. Radio IDs are
not centrally maintained or managed in a MOTOTRBO system. It is up to the system administrator
to document the radio ID designation. Note that these IDs must match those entered in other
radios and data applications in order for the system to operate correctly.
4.8.4.2
Assigning Radio Aliases
You can assign an alias to each radio user. Although anything can be used as an alias, the user’s
last name is often used. Radios that are assigned to vehicles are often aliased with the vehicle
number such as “Cab 35” or “Fire Truck 3.” If radios are used by multiple users through different
shifts, the job description is often used such as “West Side Guard” or “Cleaning Crew 2.” Since
unique names are required, no two radio users should have the same alias. Aliases should be
consistent in all radio programming (CPS), and the data applications. Databases are not shared
between the various applications. There is no centralized database in MOTOTRBO. Since aliasing
is done independently on each device, if the alias and ID do not match in each device in the
system, customers may become confused.
November, 2008
188
System Design Considerations
An example of a spreadsheet showing a possible radio ID and alias database is shown below:
Functional
Group
User
Name
Alias
Unit ID
Talks with
Listens
only to
Construction
John
John
1873
Construction, Transport
Security
Construction
Bob
Bob
1835
Construction, Transport
Security
Construction
Rick
Rick
542
Construction, Transport
Security
Security
Al
Al
98
Security, Administrative
-
Security
Joe
Joe
4762
Security, Administrative
-
Administrative
Frank
Frank
6654
Administrative, Security
-
Administrative
Mike
Mike
19172
Administrative, Security
-
Administrative
Steve
Steve
78378
Administrative, Security
-
Transport
Lenny
Lenny
23
Transport, Construction
Security
Transport
Carl
Carl
2
Transport, Construction
Security
4.8.4.3
Identifying Group IDs
Group IDs for a MOTOTRBO system range between 1 and 16776415. The same approach that is
used to identify radio IDs can be used for Group IDs. Group IDs are not centrally maintained or
managed in a MOTOTRBO system. It is up to the system administrator to document the Group
designation. Note that these IDs must match those entered in other radios and data applications in
order for the system to operate correctly.
4.8.4.4
Assigning Group Aliases
The groups should also be consistent throughout the system. Display radios and data applications
identify groups by alias. Groups should be named with an alias the customer will easily
understand. Highly abstract names often cause confusion. When assigning aliases, you will need
to consider character and subscriber limitations. Some radio models may allow more or fewer
characters than the data applications. Since aliasing is done independently in each device, if the
alias and ID do not match in each device in the system, customers may become confused. An
example is shown below:
Functional group and talkgroup mapping
November, 2008
ch 2 - slot 1
TG ID: 997 TG ID: 368
Cement
mixers
Front
desk
ch 1 - slot 1 ch 2 - slot 1 ch 2 - slot 1 ch 2 - slot 1 ch 1 - slot 1
TG ID: 99
Transport
Delivery
trucks
Administrative
TG ID: 8766 TG ID: 123
Patrol
TG ID: 46
Carpenters
TG ID: 54
Metal
shop
Cement
factory
TG ID: 62
Security
Admin
Construction
ch 1 - slot 1 ch 2 - slot 1
System Design Considerations
4.8.5
189
Determining Which Channel Operates in
Repeater Mode or Direct Mode
Repeater Mode enables unit-to-unit communications using the repeater. Direct Mode enables unitto-unit communications without using the repeater. Each channel on the radio is programmed to
be either a Direct Mode channel or a Repeater Mode channel via the CPS.
Channels defined as Repeater channels in the CPS can be toggled to operate in Talkaround mode
via user selection from the menu or a programmable button. When this happens, the transmit
frequency is set equal to the receive frequency, and this channel effectively performs like a Direct
Mode channel.
4.8.6
Determining Feature Assignments
4.8.6.1
Determining Supervisor Radios
Supervisor radios are not defined in the CPS by any specific “Supervisor” option.Instead they are
subscribers that have supervisory options enabled. Supervisor radios are responsible for
acknowledging emergency calls and alarms, and also perform administrative duties such as
remote monitor and selective radio inhibit. Some features should only be allowed to users that can
use them responsibly.
4.8.6.2
Private Calls
In MOTOTRBO systems, capabilities for Private Calls are configured via the subscriber (portable
and mobile) CPS. The repeater does not require any specific configuration with respect to Private
calls. While the MOTOTRBO CPS enables great flexibility in configuring your system for Private
calling, one basic procedure is as follows:
1. Every MOTOTRBO radio in a system should be assigned a unique radio ID in the CPS.
This parameter is programmed in the Radio ID field under the General Settings menu.
2. In the “Contacts” folder, go to the “Digital” folder, and add a call of type “Private Call.” The
CPS will provide a default name and ID; assign the actual radio ID of the radio that is to be
privately called to this field, and rename the call to an intuitive alphanumeric name (representative of the radio that to be addressed). Note that all calls created in the “Contacts”
folder appear in the “Contacts” menu of the subscriber by name, and this name also
appears on the radio display when a private call is received.
If configured as above, radio users are able to make Private Calls by selecting the private call, by
name, from the radio’s Contacts menu. In addition, similar to assigning a group call to a channel as
described above, it is also possible to assign a private call to the TX Contact Name attribute of a
channel, so that users can place private calls by making the appropriate channel selection via the
top knob on a portable or up/down channel select buttons on a mobile. It is also possible to assign
a private call to a radio programmable button (called a “one touch call” in CPS) so that users can
place a private call at the touch of a button. These latter 2 methods are the only methods for nondisplay radios to place private calls.
Please note that a radio can, in practice, receive a private call from any other radio that is available
on the channel, regardless of whether the receiving radio has created a CPS private call entry for
that radio. The receiving radio will in this case display the radio ID of the calling radio, rather than
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System Design Considerations
an alphanumeric alias. Similarly, a radio can place a private call to any other radio by utilizing the
“manual dialing” option in the radio’s menu, however in this case the user must know the Radio ID
of the called party.
4.8.6.3
All Call
In MOTOTRBO systems, capabilities for All Calls are configured via the subscriber (portable and
mobile) CPS. The repeater does not require any specific configuration with respect to All Calls.
While the MOTOTRBO CPS enables great flexibility in configuring a system for All Calls, one basic
procedure is as follows:
1. In the “Contacts” folder, go to the “Digital” folder, and add a call of type “All Call.” The CPS
will provide a default name; rename the call to an intuitive alphanumeric name representative of the All Call. All calls created in the “Contacts” folder appear in the “Contacts” menu
of the subscriber by name.
If configured as above, a user would initiate an All Call by selecting the call, by name, from the
radio’s Contacts menu. Additionally, similar to assigning a group call to a channel as described
above, it is also possible to assign an All Call to the TX Contact Name attribute of a channel, so
that users can place All Calls by making the appropriate channel selection via the top knob on a
portable or up/down channel select buttons on a mobile. It is also possible to assign an All Call to
a radio programmable button (called a “one touch call” in CPS), so that users can place an All Call
at the touch of a button. These latter 2 methods are the only methods for non-display radios to
place All Calls.
Since All Calls are monitored by everyone on a slot, it is suggested that only supervisors be
granted the ability to transmit All Calls.
4.8.6.4
Radio Disable
In MOTOTRBO systems, Radio Disable is configured in the portable and mobile radio CPS. To
allow a radio the ability to initiate this function, this option must be enabled in the CPS “Menu”
settings. To permit (or prevent) a given radio from decoding and responding to this command, this
option must be configured in the CPS “signaling systems” settings.
Since the ability to disable a user could be misused, it is suggested that only supervisors be
granted the ability to initiate a Radio Disable.
4.8.6.5
Remote Monitor
In MOTOTRBO systems, Remote Monitor is configured in the portable and mobile radio CPS. To
allow a radio the ability to initiate this function, this option must be enabled in the CPS “Menu”
settings. To permit (or prevent) a given radio from decoding and responding to this command, this
option must be configured in the CPS “signaling systems” settings. If a radio is configured to
decode the remote monitor command, the duration that the target radio will transmit after receiving
a Remote Monitor command can be set in the CPS “signaling systems” settings of the target radio.
Since the ability to remotely monitor a user could be misused, it is suggested that only supervisors
be granted the ability to initiate a Remote Monitor.
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System Design Considerations
4.8.6.6
191
Radio Check
In MOTOTRBO systems, Radio Check is configured in the portable and mobile radio CPS. To
allow a radio the ability to initiate this function, this option must be enabled in the CPS “Menu”
settings. All MOTOTRBO radios decode and respond to a Radio Check.
4.8.6.7
Call Alert
In MOTOTRBO systems, Call Alert is configured in the portable and mobile radio CPS. To allow a
radio the ability to initiate this function, this option must be enabled in the CPS “Menu” settings. All
MOTOTRBO radios decode and respond to a Call Alert.
4.8.7
Emergency Handling Configuration
Configuring a communication system (like MOTOTRBO) to handle emergency situations requires
some up front design. In emergency situations, it is ideal that when a user initiates an emergency,
he is immediately routed to someone who can handle his emergency situation. The previous
sections have addressed some basic feature descriptions of how emergency can operate. This
section will outline in detail how to program the numerous devices in the system in order to meet
the needs of a customer’s emergency needs and also provide some guidance on choosing the
available options. It is recommended to review the Emergency Handling feature explanation in the
earlier chapters.
It is important when creating an emergency handling plan to understand the customer’s existing
emergency procedures. An interview with a representative in charge of emergency operations is
usually required to fully understand the process. This information will act as a base for selecting a
configuration.
4.8.7.1
Emergency Handling User Roles
The first step is identifying users that will participate in the emergency handling plan. There are
three major roles to identify: Emergency Initiator, Monitoring Supervisor, and Acknowledging
Supervisor.
An Emergency Initiator is a user that does not necessarily have any responsibility for handling
emergencies, but is expected, at some point to have an emergency that needs handling. This
user’s radio is configured with either an emergency button or an external switch to initiate an
emergency. The radio needs to be programmed on how to contact a Supervisor based on the
selected configuration. Alternatively, this radio can be programmed to give a non-persistent
indication (display and/or audio) that the current call is an Emergency Call. This indicates to the
user that he should avoid interfering with the call taking place. The majority of users in a system
will be considered Emergency Initiators.
A Monitoring Supervisor is a user that needs to know when an emergency occurs, but is not the
individual identified to handle and acknowledge emergencies. This user’s radio will provide an
indication that an Emergency Alarm has been received and provide an indication that an
Emergency Call is taking place. This user does not transmit an acknowledgement to the
Emergency Alarm. The Emergency Alarm will be persistent on the Monitoring Supervisor’s radio
until manually cleared. Duplicate attempts of the same Emergency Alarm will not restart the
Emergency indication. There can be multiple Monitoring Supervisors per group. A Monitoring
Supervisor may also be an Emergency Initiator.
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System Design Considerations
An Acknowledging Supervisor is the user specifically identified to respond to received emergency
situations. This user’s radio provides an indication that an Emergency Alarm has been received,
and provides an indication that an Emergency Call is taking place. In addition to the indications,
this user’s radio is responsible for transmitting an acknowledgement to the Emergency Initiator.
Until the Emergency Initiator receives the acknowledgement, his radio will continue to transmit its
emergency alarm messages, until his user takes action to stop or the radio exhausts the number
of programmed retries. It is important to note that the Acknowledging Supervisor’s radio (not the
user) sends the acknowledgement, when it receives the Emergency Alarm. Reception of an
emergency alarm acknowledgement only guarantees that the radio received the message, not the
user. Because it is the responsibility of the Acknowledging Supervisor to stop the Emergency
Initiator’s retries, duplicate attempts of the same Emergency Alarm will restart the emergency
indication if cleared. It is highly recommended that there only be one Acknowledging Supervisor
per group and slot. If there is more than one, acknowledgement messages may interfere with each
other when transmitting, and cause a delay in acknowledging the Emergency Initiator. An
Acknowledging Supervisor may also be an Emergency Initiator.
These MOTOTRBO radios are configured to operate in each role by setting a few options using
the CPS, as described in the following table. Note that these options are configurable per channel,
and therefore per Group, Frequency and Slot. This means that a user can play a different role
depending on the channel he has selected. He may be an Acknowledging Supervisor for one
Group, but only an Emergency Initiator on another. Note that the selected Digital System
references a group of parameters used, when a user initiates an emergency. A radio programmed
with a Digital Emergency System of None will not be able to initiate an emergency on that channel.
The parameters contained within the digital system will be discussed in detail later.
CPS Option per Channel
Emergency
Handling Role
Digital
Emergency
System
Emergency
Alarm
Indication
Emergency
Alarm Ack
Emergency
Call
Indication
Emergency Initiator
Selected
Disabled
Disabled
Optionally
Enabled
Monitoring Supervisor
Selected Or
None
Enabled
Disabled
Enabled
Acknowledging
Supervisor
Selected Or
None
Enabled
Enabled
Enabled
By identifying the roles in the customer’s organization, it should start to become clear how they
handle emergencies at a high level. If there are numerous supervisors, it is important to note which
groups these supervisors monitor, as there may be more than one supervisor that monitors
multiple or all the groups. This will be the key to deciding on an emergency handling strategy.
4.8.7.2
Emergency Handling Strategies
There are two major strategies to handle emergency situations: Tactical or Centralized.
A Tactical emergency handling strategy is when the Emergency Initiators transmit their emergency
alarm and call on the channel, group and slot they are currently selected on. This assumes that
there is an Acknowledging Supervisor that is monitoring that same channel, group or slot. This
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193
means that each group is required to have a designated supervisor whose responsibility is to
handle emergency situations. Because emergency alarms do not traverse slots or channels, there
would need to be one (and only one) supervisor designated for each group on every channel and
slot. Multiple Monitoring Supervisors could be configured to monitor for emergency alarms without
sending acknowledgements to stop the Emergency Initiator’s retries. It is also very important to
note that because users are generally mobile it is possible that the Acknowledging Supervisor
becomes unavailable, busy, changes channels, or roams out of range of the system. If this
happens, Emergency Initiators may go unacknowledged.
In a system with a small number of users and groups, a Tactical strategy is often the easiest
method to implement. When the number of users, groups, and channels grow, the required
number of Acknowledging Supervisor also grows. It will quickly become difficult to guarantee the
multiple assigned Acknowledging Supervisors are actively monitoring their assigned groups. It is
also often not cost effective to have numerous designated Acknowledging Supervisors handling
emergency situations.
In order to operate Tactically, the Emergency Initiator needs to be on a channel that is configured
with a Digital Emergency System, and has its Emergency Revert Channel set to “Selected” in the
CPS. Since this is set on a per channel basis, a radio could be configured to operate differently
based on the selected channel.
A Centralized emergency strategy is when the Emergency Initiators transmit their emergency
alarm and call on a dedicated channel, group or slot. This strategy is often referred to as a “revert”
strategy. This strategy assumes that there is one dedicated Acknowledging Supervisor whose job
is to handle the emergencies of all users in the system, and that the Emergency Initiators
automatically change or “revert” to the channel the Acknowledging Supervisor is operating on to
process their emergency. Because this Acknowledging Supervisor’s role is only to monitor for
emergencies, it becomes easier to manage his availability. Further steps can be taken to
guarantee the availability of the Acknowledging Supervisor. It is a good idea to locate the
Acknowledging Supervisor’s radio in a good RF coverage area of the system, so not to go out of
range. Having a designated RF channel and slot that is specifically used for managing
emergencies, lowers the possibility of encountering a busy system when there is heavy
emergency traffic.
In larger systems the Acknowledging Supervisor’s role in a centralized configuration is often
referred to a Dispatcher. It is not expected that this Acknowledging Supervisor will leave his
location and actually resolve the emergency himself. His role is to contact and dispatch other
resources to handle the emergency that was reported. The Acknowledging Supervisor is able to
switch channels to dispatch assistance to the Emergency Initiator, and then switch back to the
emergency channel.
In some cases multiple Centralized configurations may be required. This is often needed when the
number of users becomes too much for one Acknowledging Supervisor to handle, or if the
customer’s organization is broken into multiple organizations that have their own Acknowledging
Supervisor. This may also be required if a system contains multiple repeaters with nonoverlapping RF coverage. While operating on one site, a radio may not be in range of another site,
therefore if he were to revert to the other site to process an emergency, he may not be in the
coverage range of the repeater to complete the transmission. In this scenario, it is recommended
that an Acknowledging Supervisor be designated for each RF coverage range. This would require
a radio be configured to revert to channels within RF coverage of the selected channel.
In order to revert to a Centralized channel, the Emergency Initiator needs to select the channel
that is configured with a Digital Emergency System, and has its Emergency Revert Channel set to
the designated Emergency Channel in the CPS. Since this is configured on a per channel basis, a
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System Design Considerations
radio could be configured to operate differently based on the selected channel. There are four
Digital Emergency Systems available. This means that one radio can be configured to revert to
four different channels, depending on the configuration of the Digital Emergency System that is
assigned to the selected channel.
It is not recommended that a Centralized emergency strategy be implemented using Emergency
Initiators operating Tactically and one Acknowledging Supervisor scanning multiple channels.
When multiple emergencies occur simultaneously it is more effective for the Emergency Initiators
to come to the Acknowledging Supervisor rather the Acknowledging Supervisor searching for the
Emergency Initiators.
4.8.7.3
Acknowledging Supervisors in Emergency
The emergency strategy of the Acknowledging Supervisor himself should be considered. Since
this user is the one identified to handle emergencies, who should he attempt to contact if he has
an emergency. In a tactical environment, the user may only need to change or possible “revert” to
another channel to contact another Acknowledging Supervisor. In a centralized configuration with
multiple dispatchers, one Acknowledging Supervisor dispatcher could be configured to revert to
the other Acknowledging Supervisor dispatcher. If there is no other individual to contact, the
Acknowledging Supervisor may simply wish to operate tactically, and transmit his emergency on
the selected channel so that the Monitoring Supervisors can be contacted.
4.8.7.4
Extended Emergency Call Hang time
As previously described, the MOTOTRBO repeater reserves the channel for a short duration after
a voice transmission. By default the call hang time associated with an emergency is slightly larger
than those for group calls and private calls. The repeater can be configured to extend the call hang
time for Emergency Calls even longer to provide an additional opportunity for the Emergency
Initiator or Emergency Acknowledger to communicate without competing with other users.
4.8.7.5
Emergency Revert and GPS Revert Considerations
During registration with the Location Server the SU receives a periodic location update request
and an emergency location update request. When the SU enters the emergency state it will
attempt to transmit the emergency location update response on a specific channel. The
transmission channel of this message is defined by the radio’s Emergency Mode (Emergency
Alarm, Emergency Alarm with Call or Emergency Alarm with Voice to Follow) and its GPS
Transmission Channel (Selected or Revert). Understanding which channel is used for the
Emergency Location Update is important, as a control station is required on that channel to enable
the reception of the message by the application server. For more information on emergency
handling, see See “Emergency Handling Strategies” on page 192.
The following sections define how Emergency Revert and GPS Revert interact when the
Emergency Revert Channel contains a GPS Revert Channel and the SU received a Emergency
Location Update Request on the Selected Channel. These are sample scenarios intended to aid in
understanding the interactions. The following sections use a direct mode configuration to simplify
the diagrams, though they can also be applied to repeater mode. The SU initiating the emergency
has been configured with the following channels; GROUP1, LOCATION 1, EMERGENCY and
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System Design Considerations
195
LOCATION2. The TX/RX frequency, the GPS Transmission Channel and the Emergency Revert
Channel for each of the four configured channels are listed in the table below.
GROUP 1
LOCATION 1
EMERGENCY
LOCATION 2
Transmit/Receive
Frequencies
F1
F2
F3
F4
GPS Transmission
Channel
LOCATION 1
None
LOCATION 2
None
Emergency Revert
Channel
EMERGENCY
None
None
None
4.8.7.5.1 Emergency Alarm
f1
TX=f 1
RX=f 1
Presence
f1
Location Request
USB
GPS
e
f1
MOTOTRBO SU
(digital mode)
2
f3
Emg. Alarm
f2
f3
TX=f 2
RX=f 2
Lo
ca
tio
n
R
es
po
ns
MOTOTRBO
Control Station
(digital mode)
1
USB
MOTOTRBO
Control Station
(digital mode)
MOTOTRBO SU
(digital mode)
MCDD
Presence Notifier
Location Server
Application Server
Figure 4-18 Emergency Alarm and GPS Revert Interaction Diagram
Figure 4-18 “Emergency Alarm and GPS Revert Interaction Diagram” illustrates the channels used
when an emergency is initiated and the SU is configured for Emergency Alarm Only with an
Emergency Revert Channel and the Emergency Revert Channel is configured with a GPS Revert
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System Design Considerations
Channel. (Note: The channels are defined in the table in the previous section). The following
describes the sequence of events.
1. The SU switches from the Selected Channel, f1, to the Emergency Revert Channel, f3.
From here the SU transmits the Emergency Alarm and waits for the acknowledgement.
While waiting for the acknowledgement, the Emergency Location Update is held in queue.
2. Once the acknowledgement is received the SU switches back to the selected channel, f1,
and transmits the Emergency Location Update.
Therefore, in this scenario the GPS Revert Channel associated with the Emergency Revert
Channel has no impact on the channel used to transmit the Emergency Location Update.
4.8.7.5.2 Emergency Alarm and Call
TX=f 1
RX=f 1
f1
f3
Presence
Presence (Emg.)
f1
TX=f 3
RX=f 3
f3
Location Request
USB
3
GPS
Location Request (Emg.)
f1
USB
f3
Lo
MOTOTRBO
Control Station
(digital mode)
tio
nR
1
MOTOTRBO SU
(digital mode)
MOTOTRBO
Control Station
(digital mode)
es
po
f4
ns
e(
Em
g.)
f3
f3
USB
ca
Emg. Alarm/Voice
f2
Lo
TX=f 2
RX=f 2
ca
tio
n
R
es
po
ns
e
MOTOTRBO
Control Station
(digital mode)
MOTOTRBO SU
(digital mode)
TX=f 4
RX=f 4
2
4
USB
MOTOTRBO
Control Station
(digital mode)
MCDD
Presence Notifier
Location Server
Application Server
Figure 4-19 Emergency Alarm and Call and GPS Interaction Diagram
Figure 4-19 “Emergency Alarm and Call and GPS Interaction Diagram” illustrates the channels
used when an emergency is initiated and the SU is configured for Emergency Alarm and Call with
an Emergency Revert Channel and the Emergency Revert Channel is configured with a GPS
Revert Channel. (Note: The channels are defined in the table in the previous section) The
following describes the sequence of events.
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System Design Considerations
197
1. The SU switches from the Selected Channel, f1, to the Emergency Revert Channel, f3.
From here the SU transmits the Emergency Alarm and waits for the acknowledgement.
While waiting for the acknowledgement, the Emergency Location Update is held in queue.
2. Once the acknowledgement is received, the SU switches to the Emergency Revert’s GPS
Revert Channel, f4, and then transmits the Emergency Location Update.
3. After this transmission, the SU switches to the Emergency Revert Channel, f3, and while
not being involved in voice calls, it registers. (Note: This requires the Emergency Revert
Channel to be ARS enabled.)
4. After registration, periodic location updates are sent on the Emergency Revert’s GPS
Revert Channel, f4, until the emergency is cleared.
This configuration in Figure 4-19 “Emergency Alarm and Call and GPS Interaction Diagram” is
useful when a system needs to simultaneously support multiple emergency calls from multiple
groups on a single Emergency Revert Channel. The placement of emergency calls on the
Emergency Revert Channel and the location updates on a different channel significantly increases
both emergency voice throughput and Location Update throughput while in the emergency state. It
should be noted that changing the Emergency’s GPS Transmission Channel to either the Selected
Channel, f1, or the Emergency Revert Channel, f3, removes one control station from the system.
The actual configuration selected depends on actual customer requirements.
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System Design Considerations
4.8.7.5.3 Emergency Alarm with Voice to Follow
f1
f3
Presence
Presence (Emg.)
f1
GPS
Location Request (Emg.)
f1
MOTOTRBO
Control Station
(digital mode)
f2
f3
1
MOTOTRBO SU
(digital mode)
Emg. Alarm/Voice
e
ns
R
n
tio
ca
USB
ca
tio
nR
es
es
po
MOTOTRBO SU
(digital mode)
Lo
TX=f 2
RX=f 2
USB
f3
Lo
MOTOTRBO
Control Station
(digital mode)
TX=f 3
RX=f 3
f3
Location Request
USB
4
f4
MOTOTRBO
Control Station
(digital mode)
po
ns
e(
Em
g.)
f3
TX=f 1
RX=f 1
TX=f 4
RX=f 4
3
2
5
USB
MOTOTRBO
Control Station
(digital mode)
MCDD
Presence Notifier
Location Server
Application Server
Figure 4-20 Emergency Alarm with Voice to Follow and GPS Revert Interaction Diagram
Figure 4-20 “Emergency Alarm with Voice to Follow and GPS Revert Interaction Diagram”
illustrates the channels used when an emergency is initiated and the SU is configured for
Emergency Alarm with Voice to Follow with an Emergency Revert Channel and the Emergency
Revert Channel is configured with a GPS Revert Channel. (Note: The channels are defined in the
table in the previous section) The following describes the sequence of events.
1. The SU switches from the Selected Channel, f1, to the Emergency Revert Channel, f3,
and then transmits one Emergency Alarm.
2. The SU stays on the Emergency Revert Channel, f3, and initiates an emergency voice
call. During the emergency voice call the Emergency Location Update is held in queue.
3. Once the emergency voice call ends, the SU switches to the Emergency Revert’s GPS
Revert Channel, f4, and transmits the Emergency Location Update.
4. After this transmission, the SU switches to the Emergency Revert Channel, f3, and while
not being involved in voice calls, it registers. (Note: This requires the Emergency Revert
Channel to be ARS enabled.)
5. After registration, periodic location updates are sent on the Emergency Revert’s GPS
Revert Channel, f4, until the emergency is cleared.
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199
This configuration in Figure 4-20 “Emergency Alarm with Voice to Follow and GPS Revert
Interaction Diagram” is useful when a system needs to simultaneously support multiple emergency
calls from multiple groups on a single Emergency Revert Channel. The placement of emergency
calls on the Emergency Revert Channel and the location updates on a different channel
significantly increases both emergency voice throughput and Location Update throughput while in
the emergency state. It should be noted that changing the Emergency’s GPS Transmission
Channel to either the Selected Channel, f1, or the Emergency Revert Channel, f3, removes one
control station from the system. The actual configuration selected depends on actual customer
requirements.
4.8.8
Channel Access Configuration
Channel access methods must be specified in the radio’s codeplug for each channel via the CPS,
that is the TX (Transmit) parameters for each defined channel contains an Admit Criteria option
that must be set to one of the 3 possible values described below.
•
Always,
•
Channel Free, or
•
Color Code Free.
An Admit Criteria of Always is sometimes referred to as "impolite channel access". An Admit
Criteria of Channel Free is referred to as “polite to all”. Finally, an Admit Criteria of Color Code
Free is referred to as “Polite to own color code”. In polite mode, the radio will not transmit on a
channel if there is any activity detected on that channel. In impolite mode, the radio will transmit on
a channel regardless of any activity on that channel. When operating in impolite mode a radio user
will cause RF contention if there is another call on the same slot currently in progress. See
“MOTOTRBO Channel Access” on page 16.
Radio users provisioned for polite operation need only press their PTT to determine if they can
transmit or not. A Talk Permit Tone or Talk Denial Tone indicates if they have been granted or
denied access. Impolite users are allowed to transmit regardless if the channel is busy or idle,
although they would still need to wake the repeater.
It is important to note that the LED busy indication on the radios represents the presence of RF
activity on the selected channel and is not specific to the digital slot currently being monitored.
Therefore, if the LED indicates no RF activity on the channel, the radio user can be sure their slot
is idle. However, if the LED indicates the presence of RF activity on the channel, the radio user will
not know if their slot is actually idle or busy. If the radio users transmit when the LED indicates a
busy channel, there is a chance their transmission will collide with another transmission. Care
should be taken since RF collisions in digital mode most likely results in both transmissions not
reaching their intended target. Therefore, it is highly recommend that only well trained and
disciplined radio users are configured to have impolite channel access.
4.8.9
Zones and Channel Knob Programming
The MOTOTRBO radio is capable of being programmed with up to 160 channels. Each radio has
a 16 position selector knob/switch, in which various channels and call types can be programmed.
In order to maximize the programming capability of the radio, the concept of “zones” is introduced.
Zones can be created on the radio through the channels menu of the CPS. A “zone” can contain
up to 16 channels that are mapped to the 16-position top selector knob of the portable radio or the
channel number selector on a mobile. Radio users that require more than 16 channels must
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System Design Considerations
organize them into multiple zones in the CPS, so that they can be accessed as “zones” in the radio
menu. From the radio menu, the user can navigate to the “zones” icon, select it, and switch to a
different zone. When in the different zone, the 16 position selector knob/switch is now
programmed with that zone’s channels and call types. It is recommended that the Zone should be
given aliases that can be understood by the end user.
4.9
Base Station Identifications (BSI) Setting
Considerations
Base Station Identification (BSI), sometimes referred to as CWID, is used to identify the licensee
operating a repeater or base station. Some form of station identification is usually necessary to
comply with the requirements of the local radio regulatory authority.
BSI is available on the MOTOTRBO repeater when configured for analog or digital mode. In both
modes, BSI is generated using a sinusoidal tone modulated on an analog FM carrier. The station
transmits the configured Morse code alphanumeric sequence when one of two configured BSI
timers has expired. The Exclusive BSI Timer is named TX Interval in CPS and the Mixed with
Audio Timer is named Mix Mode Timer in CPS. The goal of these two timers is to minimize the
impact to the ongoing traffic while still being compliant with regulatory authorities.
TX Interval is used to configure an “Exclusive BSI” which is sent the next time the repeater dekeys. The Mix Mode Timer is used to configure a “Mixed with Audio“ which is mixed with the
analog audio on the channel. Mixed with Audio BSI is only utilized when configured for analog
operation. Mixing BSI with digital audio is not supported in MOTOTRBO.
When the Exclusive BSI Timer expires, the repeater transmits BSI the next time the repeater dekeys. This allows the BSI to be transmitted without disrupting on going voice, which is ideal.
Furthermore, if the Exclusive BSI Timer expires while the repeater is not active (no subscriber
activity) the repeater does not wake up and send BSI. Instead, it waits until the next transmission
occurs and then transmits BSI upon de-key. BSI is only required during times of activity. Note that
Exclusive BSI is interruptible in analog mode if the repeater receives a radio transmission. If
interrupted, the BSI is attempted again at the next de-key. Also, whenever the repeater is forced to
de-key due to a Time Out Timer expiring, it takes the opportunity to transmit an Exclusive BSI.
When the “Mixed with Audio” BSI Timer expires, the repeater performs the BSI mixed with the on
going audio on the channel. It is very important to note that there is a two minute hold-off timer
when the repeater first keys up. The purpose of this additional hold-off timer is to make sure that
the BSI is not mixed with audio immediately after being de-keyed for a long duration. This delay
gives the repeater a chance to transmit the exclusive BSI before interrupting the audio.
Both the Exclusive BSI Timer and the Mixed with Audio Timer are reset after completion of a BSI
transmission.
It is recommended that the Exclusive BSI Timer (TX Interval) is set at 75% of the regulatory
authority’s required BSI period and the Mixed with Audio BSI (Mix Mode Timer) is set at 95% of the
regulatory authority’s required BSI period. This way, the repeater begins attempting to send the
BSI exclusively well before the required time. This interrupts the voice with mixed BSI as it gets
closer to the required period if it has not found an opportunity to perform BSI exclusively.
BSI can be completely disabled by setting both the Exclusive BSI Timer and the Mixed with Audio
BSI Timer to 255 in the CPS. It is not a valid configuration to disable the Exclusive BSI and only
November, 2008
System Design Considerations
201
have the Mixed with Audio BSI enabled. This results in only Mixed with Audio BSI being sent in
scenarios where the repeater is keyed for two minutes.
If the Exclusive BSI Timer is enabled, and the Mixed with Audio BSI is disabled, it is possible that
during periods of heavy use, the BSI will not be generated within the configured time period. For
analog, it is recommended that the Mixed with Audio BSI is enabled at all times.
Since Mixed with Audio does not operate in digital mode, it is possible that during extended
periods of high activity the repeater never has a chance to de-key, and would therefore never have
a chance to send BSI. This is more likely on a highly loaded GPS only repeater. This should be
combated by lowering the traffic on the channel or by lowering the subscriber inactivity timer (SIT)
in the repeater. This de-keys the repeater quicker between transmissions and provide a higher
chance of de-key and therefore a higher chance of sending Exclusive BSI in the desired time
frame.
Since Exclusive BSI is interruptible in analog mode, a situation may arise where extended periods
of high activity may cause the repeater to continually de-key, attempt BSI and then be interrupted
by another inbound transmission. The de-keying and re-keying of the repeater causes the hold off
timer to be reset and the Mixed with Audio BSI is never triggered unless a particular transmission
lasts over two minutes. In this case, it is recommended that the hangtime be increased so that the
repeater does not de-key between every transmission. If this period of high activity occurs longer
than two minutes, the Mixed with Audio occurs, otherwise the Exclusive BSI occurs during a period
of decreased traffic load.
It may not be desirable to enable Mixed with Audio BSI with the use of analog data (i.e. MDC or
VRM data). The mixing of the BSI with the analog signalling will most likely cause the signalling to
become corrupted.
4.10
GPS Revert Considerations
GPS revert, when used correctly, can significantly improve the integrated voice and location data
performance of a system. In order to maximize location throughput while minimizing missed data
(text, telemetry, etc.) and voice transmissions, there are a number of factors that must be
considered.
•
Non-location update traffic should not be transmitted on the GPS Revert Channel when
attempting to maximize the Location load on the GPS Revert Channel.
•
Avoid adding the GPS Revert Channel into the scan list if the location load is high, as
scanning radios will often land on this channel and qualify traffic that is not for them. This
can slow down scanning.
•
While in repeater mode, avoid placing the alternate slot associated with GPS Revert
Channel into the scan list if the location load is high. Scanning radios will often land on this
channel to qualify traffic that is not for them. This can slow down scanning.
•
It is not recommended to use a portable as a control station, but if a portable is used as a
control station then battery saver mode should be disabled since the Location Update
messages will not be preceded with preambles.
•
Voice, data or control messages that are sent to an SU on the GPS Revert Channel will not
be received. The radio is only on the GPS Revert Channel to transmit location updates and
it DOES NOT qualify activity on this channel.
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System Design Considerations
•
If group data is to be supported on a system, the inclusion of preambles should be added to
minimize the occurrence of the group data message being missed while an SU is on the
GPS Revert Channel.
•
Avoid situations where a large number of subscribers are powered on in a relatively short
period of time as this causes a flood of registration messages that impacts the voice quality
of service on the Selected Channel during the registration process. See “GPS Revert and
Loading” on page 152. for recommendations on minimizing impact when using Motorola
applications.
•
In order to minimize users from inadvertently changing a radio to the GPS Revert Channel, it
is recommended that the GPS Revert Channel(s) is placed in a different zone than the
primary voice and data channel(s).
4.11
Failure Preparedness
4.11.1
Direct Mode Fallback (Talkaround)
A repeater channel is defined by having different receive and transmit frequencies, and any
channel that is programmed with the CPS to have different receive and transmit frequencies will
be considered to be a repeater channel and the MOTOTRBO radio will expect a repeater
operating on that channel. The radio user will get an access-denied tone if there is no repeater
available or if the radio is out of range of the repeater. Channels defined as repeater channels in
CPS can be modified to operate in Talkaround mode via user selection from the menu or a
programmable button. When a repeater channel is thus modified to operate in talkaround mode,
the transmit frequency is set equal to the receive frequency, and it effectively becomes a direct
mode channel. The system now performs similarly to the direct mode topologies we've previously
described.
4.11.2
Uninterrupted Power Supplies (Battery Backup)
To determine the UPS capacity you will need, follow these simple steps:
1. List all equipment to be protected by the UPS on a worksheet.
2. Read the nameplate data on each of the devices listed. Write down the voltage and
amperage for each device.
3. Multiply the voltage by the amperage of each device to calculate the Volt/Amps (VA).
Some equipment, such as PC power supplies, may be marked with a power consumption
measured in Watts. To convert Watts to VA, simply divide Watts by 0.65 (for a power factor of 0.65), or multiply by 1.54. The power factor refers to the relationship between the
apparent power (volt-amps) required by the device and the actual power (watts) produced
by the device.
4. Total the VA for all devices you want to protect with the UPS and enter it in the "Subtotal"
field.
5. Multiply the subtotal found in Step 4 by 0.25 and enter it as the "Growth Factor". This number takes into account room for future growth. This growth factor allows for a 5% rate of
growth for each year over a five-year period.
6. Add the "Growth Factor" to the Subtotal" to get the "Required VA". Now you can select the
appropriate UPS model by choosing a model that has a VA rating at least as large as the
"Required VA" that you calculated.
November, 2008
System Design Considerations
4.12
203
Configurable Timers
The following is a list of timers that are used to synchronize communication in the radio system.
The values of these timers can be configured through the CPS.
Timer
Name
Description
Notes
Preamble is a string of bits added in front of a data
message or control message (Text Messaging, Location
Messaging, Registration, Radio Check, Private Call, etc.)
before transmission. This preamble prolongs the message
in order to reduce the chances of the message being
missed by the receiving radio. The Transmit (TX) Preamble
Duration sets the duration of the preamble. This duration
needs to be increased as the number of scan members
increases on the target radio (refer to the MOTOTRBO
system planner for guidance on how to set the duration).
This value can be increased in all the transmitting radios if
scanning radios are often missing data messages.
However, a larger preamble occupies the channel longer.
Therefore, increasing the Transmit Preamble duration will
increase the success rate of data received while other
radios are scanning, but will decrease the amount of data
that can be transmitted on the channel. This is a radio-wide
feature.
The TX Preamble
feature is disabled if
the duration is set to 0.
Talkaround
Group Call
Hang Time
Sets the duration during which a radio talks back to a
received call or continues a transmitted call using the
previously received or previously transmitted digital Group
ID. This hang time is used during a Group Call in
Talkaround mode to produce smoother conversation.
During this time, other radios can still transmit since the
channel is essentially idle. After the hang timer expires, the
radio transmits using the Contact Name specified for this
channel.
This feature is
supported in Digital
mode only.
Talkaround
Private Call
Hang Time
Sets the duration the radio keeps the call setup after the
user releases the Push-to-Talk (PTT) button. This is to
avoid setting up the call again each time the user presses
the PTT to transmit. This hang time is used during a Private
Call in Talkaround mode to produce smoother
conversation. During this time, other radios can still
transmit since the channel is essentially idle.
–
TX Preamble
Duration
This feature is
supported in Digital
mode only.
November, 2008
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System Design Considerations
Timer
Name
Subscriber
Inactivity
Timer
Group Call
Hang Time
Private Call
Hang Time
Emergency
Call Hang
Time
November, 2008
Description
Notes
The Subscriber Inactivity Timer (SIT) controls how long the
repeater will continue transmitting with absence of
subscriber activity on the uplink. If the repeater is operating
on shared-use frequencies, it cannot remain keyed
indefinitely for the benefit of broadcasting synchronization
signals to subscriber units. The repeater will likely be dekeyed most of the time; thereby requiring subscriber units
to first activate the repeater (via the uplink frequency) and
acquire synchronization (via the downlink frequency) before
completing the call setup request and subsequent first
transmission. The net result of these extra procedures is
increased access time; therefore, it is desirable to avoid
these steps, whenever possible. There is a trade-off to
minimizing access time by keeping the repeater keyed for
as long as practically possible, while complying with the
regulations regarding shared-use channels, which
essentially require the repeater to de-key when the channel
is not in use. This can be balanced with the use of the
Subscriber Inactivity Timer. If shared use is not a concern,
the SIT can be set to the maximum value. If shared use is a
concern, the SIT should be set equal to or slightly longer
than the configured call hang timers.
The value of this
feature must be equal
to or greater than the
Hang Time (Group,
Private or Emergency
– whichever is the
longest).
Sets the duration the repeater reserves the channel after
the end of a group call transmission. During this time, only
members of the Group that the channel is reserved for can
transmit. This produces smoother conversation.
This feature is disabled
if Repeater Mode is set
to Analog.
Sets the duration the repeater reserves the channel after
the end of a private call transmission. During this time, only
the individuals involved in the call that the channel is
reserved for can transmit. This produces smoother
conversation. The user may want to set a longer hang time
than the Group Call Hang Time as an individual tends to
take a longer time to reply (talkback) in a Private Call.
This feature is disabled
if Repeater Mode is set
to Analog.
Sets the duration the repeater reserves the channel after
the end of an emergency call transmission. During this
time, only members of the Group that the channel is
reserved for can transmit. This produces smoother
conversation. The user may want to set the longest hang
time as compared to the Private and Group Call Hang Time
to reserve the channel long enough to receive an
emergency response.
This feature is disabled
if Repeater Mode is set
to Analog.
This feature is disabled
if Repeater Mode is set
to Analog.
The value of this
feature must be equal
to or less than the
Subscriber Inactivity
Timer value.
The value of this
feature must be equal
to or less than the
Subscriber Inactivity
Timer value.
The value of this
feature must be equal
to or less than the
Subscriber Inactivity
Timer value.
System Design Considerations
Timer
Name
205
Description
Notes
Call Hang
Time
Sets the duration the repeater will reserve the channel for
after the end of an analog call transmission. During this
time, only members of the call that the channel is reserved
for can transmit. This produces smoother conversation. As
this hang timer is shared among all types of analog calls
(Group, Private, Emergency etc.), the duration should be
set following the call type that needs the longest hang time.
This feature is enabled
only if Repeater Mode
is set to Analog.
TX Interval
The station will generate a Continuous Wave Identification
(CWID) when the repeater has no other repeat audio
requests (either analog or digital), analog or all digital hang
time has finished and the programmed transmission
interval timer period has expired. This feature should be set
to a period shorter than the Mix Mode Timer to allow the
station the opportunity to send a CWID at the end of a set of
user radio exchanges prior to having to send the ID mixed
with analog repeat audio.
–
Mix Mode
Timer
The station will generate a Continuous Wave Identification
(CWID) mixed with analog audio when the repeater is
repeating analog signals or is in analog hang time and the
programmed mix mode timer has expired. This feature
should be set to a period longer than the TX Interval to
allow the station the opportunity to send a CWID by itself at
the end of a set of user radio exchanges rather than having
to send the ID mixed with analog repeat audio.
This feature is disabled
by the repeater if the
value is set to 255.
Pretime
Sets the duration that the radio waits, after a Push-to-Talk
(PTT) button press, before it starts transmitting the
Motorola Data Communication (MDC) signaling system
data packet (e.g. preamble bit sync) and data. When
communicating via a repeater system or console, this
feature allows the repeater to stabilize before the radio
starts transmitting the data. Additionally, this timer gives
scanning radios time to land on the channel prior to the
reception of MDC data.
This feature is
supported in Analog
mode only.
Coast
Duration
If the carrier signal is lost after Motorola Data
Communication (MDC) signaling data is detected, the radio
stays muted for the duration of this timer or until the carrier
signal is redetected. Once the carrier signal is redetected,
this timer is stopped, and the Data Operated Squelch
(DOS) Auto Mute Duration timer begins again. This feature
helps to prevent temporary loss of DOS in areas of poor
signal strength or signal distortions.
–
This feature is not
applicable to digital
repeater operation as
CWID will not be
generated while digital
repeat is in progress.
November, 2008
206
System Design Considerations
Timer
Name
Description
Notes
Auto Mute
Duration
Sets the duration that the radio remains muted when the
radio is receiving Motorola Data Communication (MDC)
signaling data to reduce noise from the data reception. The
user has to know the size of the data to select a suitable
duration. If the duration is too short then some unwanted
noise will still be heard, and if the duration is too long, it
might clip some voice audio. This is normally used on
radios that support both voice and data on the same
channel.
This feature is
supported in Analog
mode only.
Fixed Retry
Wait Time
Sets the duration that the radio waits before attempting
another polite or impolite transmission to transmit signaling
data. Configuring the radios with different wait durations
increases the probability of accessing the system and
reduces the chances of data lost due to collisions.
This feature is
supported in Analog
mode only.
Time-Out
Timer (TOT)
The Time-Out Timer (TOT) is the amount of time that the
radio can continuously transmit before transmission is
automatically terminated. This feature is used to ensure the
channel is not monopolized by any one radio. The user may
set smaller time-outs for busier channels. This is a channelwide feature.
–
Time-Out
Timer Rekey
Delay
Sets the amount of time that the radio waits on a channel
after the Time-Out Timer expires (which stops the radio
transmission) before allowing the user to transmit again.
This is a channel-wide feature.
–
Scan Hang
Time
Sets the duration the radio will remain on a landed channel
after the end of a transmission during a scan operation. The
hang time prevents the radio from resuming scanning until
the conclusion of the response to the initial call. The timer
starts after the end of a transmission and resets whenever
a valid activity is detected on the channel during the hang
time.
It is recommended to
increase the hang time
value if the call hang
timer in the subscriber
unit or repeater
increases.
Signaling Hold
Time
Sets the amount of time that the radio waits on an analog
scan list channel when a carrier signal of sufficient
amplitude is detected on the channel. This pause allows the
radio time to decode the analog system signaling data. If
the decoded information is incorrect, the radio reverts to
scan.
This feature must be
equal to or greater
than the amount of
time it takes the radio
to transmit the
signaling data packet
plus the channel's
Signaling Systems
Pretime.
This feature is
supported in Analog
mode only.
November, 2008
System Design Considerations
Timer
Name
Priority
Sample Time
207
Description
Notes
Sets the duration that the radio waits, when in a call, before
scanning the priority channels. If the call is taking place on
a Priority 1 Channel, no scanning will take place. When
scanning priority channels, the radio briefly mutes the
current transmission. Increasing this interval improves the
audio quality of the current transmission as fewer checks
are done, but this also increases the chance of the radio
missing out priority channel activity.
A priority member must
be present in the scan
list.
November, 2008
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System Design Considerations
Notes
November, 2008
Sales and Service Support Tools
209
SECTION 5 SALES AND SERVICE SUPPORT TOOLS
5.1
Purpose
This module introduces the standard system layout, identifying each component’s role in servicing
the system features listed in Module 2. This module is to help the reader understand what devices
are needed to support a particular system feature. It will also display the building blocks of the
system from a subscriber only system to a mixed mode multi-repeater, data capable system.
5.2
Applications Overview
The three software applications listed below, and their associated drivers are available on the CD
kit (GMVN5141).
Name
Application Overview
Customer Programming CPS enables a dealer to program the device’s features according to the
Software (CPS)
customer requirements. Navigating around the CPS is now easy and
convenient with the addition of a help pane that displays topic-sensitive help
instantly without the need to access the online help file.
AirTracer
AirTracer has the ability to capture over-the-air digital radio traffic and save
the captured data into a file. AirTracer can also retrieve and save internal error
logs from MOTOTRBO radios. The saved files can be analyzed by trained
Motorola personnel to suggest improvements in system configurations or to
help isolate problems.
Tuner
Tuner is an application to tune and test subscriber and repeater products.
Navigating the around the Tuner is now easy and convenient with the addition
of a help pane that displays topic-sensitive help instantly without the need to
access the online help file.
5.3
Service Equipment
5.3.1
Recommended Test Equipment
The list of equipment contained in the table below includes most of the standard test equipment
required for servicing Motorola portable radios, as well as several unique items designed
specifically for servicing this family of radios. The Characteristics column is included so that
equivalent equipment can be substituted; however, when no information is provided in this column,
the specific Motorola model listed is either a unique item or no substitution is recommended.
November, 2008
210
Description
Sales and Service Support Tools
Characteristics
Service Monitor Can be used as a
substitute for items
marked with an
asterisk (*)
Example
Application
Aeroflex 2975
(www.aeroflex.com), Motorola
R2670, or equivalent
Frequency/deviation meter
and signal generator for
wide-range
troubleshooting and
alignment
Digital RMS
Multimeter*
100 µV to 300 V
5 Hz to 1 MHz
10 Meg Ohm
Impedance
Fluke 179 or equivalent
(www.fluke.com)
AC/DC voltage and current
measurements. Audio
voltage measurements
RF Signal
Generator *
100 MHz to 1 GHz
-130 dBm to +10 dBm
FM Modulation 0kHz
to 10kHz
Audio Frequency 100
Hz to 10kHz
Agilent N5181A
(www.agilent.com),
Ramsey RSG1000B
(www.ramseyelectronics.com),
or equivalent
Receiver measurements
Oscilloscope *
2 Channel
50 MHz Bandwidth
5 mV/div to 20 V/div
Leader LS8050
(www.leaderusa.com),
Tektronix TDS1001b
(www.tektronix.com), or
equivalent
Waveform measurements
Power Meter
and Sensor *
5% Accuracy
100 MHz to 500 MHz
50 Watts
Bird 43 Thruline Watt Meter
(www.bird-electronic.com) or
equivalent
Transmitter power output
measurements
RF Millivolt
Meter
100 mV to 3 V RF
10kHz to 1 GHz
Boonton 92EA
(www.boonton.com) or
equivalent
RF level measurements
Power Supply
0 V to 32 V
0 A to 20 A
B&K Precision 1790
(www.bkprecision.com) or
equivalent
Voltage supply
November, 2008
Sales and Service Support Tools
211
5.4
Documentation and Trainings
5.4.1
MOTOTRBO Documentation
The following items listed are documentation provided by Motorola to support the entire range of
products available in the MOTOTRBO system.
Motorola Part No.
Name
GMLN4575D
MOTOTRBO Publications CD
6866574D01
DP 340x Quick Reference Guide (Multilingual)
6866574D05
DP 340x User Guide
6866574D02
DP 360x Quick Reference Guide (Multilingual).
6866574D06
DP 360x User Guide
6866574D04
DP 3000 Series Accessory List Leaflet
6866574D35
DP 3000 Series Detailed Service Manual
6866574D29
DP 3000 Series Basic Service Manual
6866575D33
DM 3000 Series Basic Service Manual
6866575D40
DM 3000 Series Detailed Service Manual
6866575D01
DM 340x Quick Reference Guide (Multilingual)
6866575D05
DM 340x User Guide
6866575D02
DM 360x Quick Reference Guide (Multilingual)
6866575D06
DM 360x User Guide
6866575D04
DM 3000 Series Accessory List Leaflet
6866575D26
DM 3000 Series Installation Manual
6866576D03
DR 3000 Basic Service Manual
6866576D16
DR 3000 Detailed Service Manual
6866576D02
DR 3000 Installation Guide
November, 2008
212
5.4.2
Sales and Service Support Tools
MOTOTRBO Trainings
Motorola offers both Sales and Systems (technical) training courses on the MOTOTRBO system.
November, 2008