Blonder tongue Broadband Technical information

BLONDER TONGUE LABORATORIES, INC.
$8.95 U.S.A.
Broadband Reference Guide
One Jake Brown Road, Old Bridge, NJ 08857
(732) 679-4000 • Fax (732) 679-4353
www.blondertongue.com
Rev 8.0
BROADBAND
REFERENCE GUIDE
www.blondertongue.com
Thank you for requesting our Broadband Reference Guide. We
hope you find this latest update helpful as we strive to provide
technical information for the broadband industry in a convenient
pocket size book.
Remember to look for previous versions of the reference guide on
the Blonder Tongue website. We welcome any suggestion for further
improvement, simply e-mail: feedback@blondertongue.com.
Bob Pallé
President
One Jake Brown Road, Old Bridge, NJ 08857
732-679-4000 • Fax: 732-679-4353
www.blondertongue.com
©2008 Blonder Tongue Laboratories, Inc. All rights reserved. Specifications are subject
to change without notice. Trademarks are the property of their respective owner.
Table Of Contents
Company Profile........................................................... 1
Headend Products........................................................ 2
Headend Product Overview - Comparison Tables.................. 3
Switch Settings - AP/AD-1.................................................... 4
AQD - ATSC/QAM Demodulator........................................... 6
AQD Quick Set-Up Instruction Guide.................................. 18
AQM - Agile QAM Modulator ............................................ 19
AQT - ATSC to QAM Transcoder......................................... 26
AQT Quick Set-Up Instruction Guide.................................. 36
DAP - Digital to Analog Processor....................................... 37
DAP Quick Set-Up Instruction Guide................................... 49
QT - Modular QPSK/QAM Transcoder................................. 50
QPSK/QAM Transcoders...................................................... 53
Broadband Amplifier Specifications Chart........................... 58
Directional Couplers Insertion Loss..................................... 59
MegaPort Components ...................................................... 60
Addressable Products................................................. 68
Jamming Capability............................................................. 69
VMI System Design............................................................. 70
TVCB Systems Design......................................................... 72
TVCB Installation................................................................ 75
TVCB-PC (Parental Controlled) System Design................... 77
ii
Table Of Contents (cont.)
TVCB-PC Installation........................................................... 78
SMI System Design............................................................. 81
SMI Installation................................................................... 86
AMT System Design............................................................ 90
AMT Installation.................................................................. 93
Basic Cable Theory Useful Technical Data.................. 95
Power Conversions.............................................................. 96
Standard Resistor Color Codes and Values.......................... 98
System Calculations.......................................................... 100
20 Log Function Derate Chart ..........................................113
10 Log Function Derate Chart...........................................114
Combining Two X-MOD or
CTB Performance Ratings (20 Log)....................................115
Combining Two CNR or
SSO Performance Ratings (10 Log)....................................115
Beat Packet Quantity.........................................................116
Fiber Optics...............................................................118
Frequency Charts..................................................... 125
CATV Channels, North America........................................ 126
CATV QAM Channel Center Frequency
54 MHz to 860 MHz......................................................... 130
Off Air Channels, North America
(CCIR Standard M; NTSC)................................................ 132
PAL B Channels................................................................. 133
iii
Table Of Contents (cont.)
PAL G Channels................................................................ 135
PAL D Channels................................................................. 137
PAL K Channels................................................................. 139
PAL I Channels...................................................................141
FM Broadcast Channel Frequencies (MHz)....................... 145
International Channel Standards....................................... 146
CCIR Television Transmission Characteristics..................... 148
Cable TV Channel Format................................................. 149
US Frequency Spectrum................................................... 150
FCC Aeronautical Band Frequencies .................................151
North American Satellite C & Ku-Band............................. 152
Programming Services...................................................... 153
Conversion Factors................................................... 155
Ohm’s Law & Joule’s Law................................................. 155
Table of Conversions......................................................... 156
Return Loss, Reflection Coefficient,
and Voltage Standing Wave Ratio (VSWR)........................ 158
Return Loss Ratio (RLR)..................................................... 159
Conversion Factors............................................................ 160
Temperature Conversion Nomograph............................... 164
Wire Gauge Data (AWG)................................................... 165
Current Ratings for Electronic Cables................................ 166
Cable Substitution Chart (Per NEC*)................................. 167
iv
Table Of Contents (cont.)
Common CATV Symbols........................................... 168
Digital "L-Band" Distribution Symbols............................... 170
Passive & Coaxial Cable Characteristics................... 172
Cable and Equalizer Formulas........................................... 172
Cable Loss Conversion Chart............................................. 174
Cable Loss and Temperature............................................. 175
Typical Cable Attenuation Chart ...................................... 176
Miscellaneous Data & Constants.............................. 177
75 Ohm Attenuator Table & Equations............................. 177
Ghosts............................................................................... 179
Echo Rating Graph............................................................ 180
Signal to Interference Limits Non-Coherent Carriers......... 181
Error Corrections Chart..................................................... 182
Heterodyne Modulator - Analog....................................... 183
Heterodyne Processor - Analog......................................... 184
Broadband RF Network Powering..................................... 185
FCC Rules.................................................................. 187
Cumulative Leakage Index................................................ 187
Maximum Leakage Levels................................................. 189
Highlights of FCC Rules & Regulations Part 76................. 192
Broadband Communication Design &
Performance Standards..................................................... 202
v
Table Of Contents (cont.)
Wavelength & Antennas.......................................... 204
Dipole Antenna Equations................................................. 205
Multiplexers...................................................................... 206
Antenna General Information............................................ 207
Antenna Stacking.............................................................. 208
Antenna Spacing............................................................... 209
Antenna Spacing Chart..................................................... 210
Antenna Phasing................................................................211
Pre-Amp Noise Figure vs. Carrier To Noise....................... 212
System Planning........................................................213
Headend HVAC Considerations......................................... 213
Digital Signal Analysis...............................................215
Station List............................................................... 224
Acronyms.................................................................. 274
How to Reach Blonder Tongue................................. 277
vi
Company Profile
Have you looked at us lately?
Founded in 1950, Blonder Tongue Laboratories, Inc. has been an
innovative designer and manufacturer of products for the cable
television industry. Initially, the focus was to develop technology for
niche cable television applications, and this focus gave the Company
a dominant position in the private cable market. The Company has
evolved from a manufacturer of electronic equipment for the private
cable market to a principal provider of integrated network solutions
and technical services to broadband service providers in several
related markets. The Company designs, manufactures, and supplies a
comprehensive line of equipment to deliver video (Analog, Standard
Digital, and High Definition Digital), high speed data and voice
services over existing integrated coaxial and fiber optic broadband
networks and maintains ongoing research and development efforts
to enable the delivery of such services over packet based, Internet
Protocol networks of the future.
The Company serves both the franchised and private cable markets
and is a provider of integrated network solutions to all of the related
video markets, including the multi-dwelling unit "MDU" market, the
lodging/hospitality market and the institutional market consisting of
hospitals, prisons and schools.
Our philosophy is to offer the highest quality in both product and
services. The Blonder Tongue Technical Solutions Group, supported
by our Engineers and Product Managers, can handle your most
challenging questions and provide expert product information, site
surveys, installation, on-site system engineering, turn-key system
construction, system design or complete test and measurement of
any installed system.
From our MASTERBUILT pre-built headends, to the latest in Digital and
High Definition technology – we have the products, and your solution!
For more information about Blonder Tongue, visit our website at:
www.blondertongue.com
1
Headend Products
A specification summary is provided in this section to aid in
installing and setting up common headend equipment. For more
detailed information, please see Blonder Tongue’s full line catalog,
website or the instruction manual(s) provided with the individual
headend equipment. Blonder Tongue provides a full line of headend
equipment such as:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
8VSB/QAM Demodulators
Digital to Analog Processors
QPSK/QAM Transcoders
Integrated Receiver/ Descramblers
Commercial Satellite Receivers
Commercial Digital Satellite Receivers
Agile Audio/Video Modulators
Channelized Audio/Video Modulators
Channelized Agile Audio/Video Modulators
Modular Headend Systems
Agile Heterodyne Processors
Agile Audio/Video Demodulators
Stereo Encoders
Combiners
8VSB Heterodyne Processors
QAM Modulators
Channel Elimination Filters
Headend Racks & Housings
Low Cost Headend Products
Complete Headend Fabrication Services
2
Headend Product Overview - Comparison Tables
Modulators
Analog
Maximum
Frequency Broadband
MHz
Noise
Type
AM-60-860
AM-45-550
AM-60-550
AM-60-806
FAxM-860
AMCM-860
AMM-806
MICM-45C/S
CAMS-60
MAVM-40
MAVM-60
BAVM-860SAW
860
550
550
806
860
860
806
860
860
860
860
860
76
76
76
76
70
78
75
95
110
95
110
90
Digital
AQM
DQX
860
860
75
75
IF Loops
Agile
Single
Agile
Single
Agile
Single
Agile
Single
Agile
No
Agile
No
Agile
No
Channelized
No
Channelized Agile Single
Channelized Agile Single
Channelized Agile Single
Channelized
No
Agile
Agile
No
No
Output
Level
+60 dBmV
+45 dBmV
+60 dBmV
+60 dBmV
+50 dBmV
+45 dBmV
+45 dBmV
+45 dBmV
+60 dBmV
+40 dBmV
+60 dBmV
+55 dBmV
+40 dBmV
+40 dBmV
Processors
Maximum
Frequency
MHz
Broadband
IF Analog Input Output
Noise
Type
Loops
AP-60-550B 806
550
76
Agile
Single
AP-60-750B 806
750
76
Agile
Single
AP-40-550B 806
550
76
Agile
Single
AP-40-750B 806
750
76
Agile
Single
Digital
DHDP
DAP
AQT
Input
806
860
860
Output
806 (8VSB) 860 (Analog)
860 (QAM)
76
77
75
Agile
Agile
Agile
No +45 dBmV
Single +60 dBmV
No +40 dBmV
Demodulators
AD-1 Analog
AQD Digital
Maximum
Frequency
IF MHz
Type
Loops
806
Agile
No
860
Agile
No
3
Output
Level
+60 dBmV
+60 dBmV
+40 dBmV
+40 dBmV
Output
Level
A/V
A/V
Switch Settings - AP/AD-1
Blonder Tongue has improved the simplicity of the channel tuning
switch settings for the following products:
Stock No.
59802
59817
5932
Model
Stock No.
Model
AP-40-550B
AP-60-550B
AD-1B
59803
59818
AP-40-750B
AP-60-750B
2 banks of switches are presented. Switch 1 has 4 positions and
Switch 2 has 8 positions. Position 1, 2 & 3 of Switch 1 are used
to set the unit operating mode and position 4 turns the FCC
Offsets ON or OFF.
SWITCH 1
1 2 3 4
Switch 2 is used to set the unit
output channel number.
STD
Channel setting is accomplished by setting
the switch to the desired output channel.
HRC
Switch 2 is divided into 2 sections,
the Tens section and the Ones section.
IRC
Broadcast
Sub Band
(optional)
In each section, there are 4 switches labeled
8,4,2,1. This corresponds to the switch value.
To set the switch, a user invokes the
corresponding value of the switch.
The values are then added and equated into a
channel number by the unit microprocessor.
A simple chart, shown on the next page, gives the
corresponding switch position for numbers 1 to 12.
The user then sets the Tens section and the Ones
section together to reflect the desired channel.
Example: F
or CH 116, you set 11 Tens and 6 ones for 116.
For single digit channels, the Tens switch is set
to zero.
4
Switch Settings
Below are examples of the switch settings.
SWITCH 2
Ones
Tens
0=
8 4 2 1
8 4 2 1
=3
3=
=4
=5
4=
5=
=6
=7
6=
7
8
9
10
11
=0
=1
=2
1=
2=
=
=
=
=
=
=8
=9
12 =
SWITCH 2
8 4 2 1 8 4 2 1
Tens
Ones
#00-12
#0-9
Examples:
= CH 2
= CH 58
= CH 87
= CH 116
For previous AP/AD-1 model switch settings, see the Reference Card with the
unit or please visit our website: www.blondertongue.com/switchsettings
5
AQD - ATSC/QAM Demodulator
The Blonder Tongue ATSC/QAM Demodulator is a modular unit
that allows the reception and demodulation from a modulated
8VSB or QAM signal input to a baseband NTSC video & audio
output. The unit is designed to lock to an off-air 8VSB or QAM
annex B digital signal and provide a NTSC video and audio output
to permit the easy interface with any equipment which accepts
baseband video & audio inputs such as TV displays or existing
Blonder Tongue analog modulators.
Features
• 8VSB, QAM 64 & QAM 256 (Annex B) Modulated RF Input Transport
Streams Supported
• Modular & Compact Units Permit High Density — 8 Modules in 3
Rack Height
• Easy Set-up & Configuration via Front Panel LCD Controls
• Remote Computer Control Capability via Internet or RS-232 Interface
• Demodulates any of the 18 ATSC Video Formats
• Left & Right Stereo Audio Output
• NTSC Video Output
6
7
Unit Status Indicator - P
rovides feedback to user based on the following LED conditions:
Solid Green ON - Indicates valid lock to the RF input signal
Flashing Green LED - Indicates Not Locked or Scanning in process
Backlit LCD - 1
6 character, 2 line Liquid Crystal Display screen used to interact with user
to display unit information
Push Button Navigation Controls - B
uttons used to navigate between menus and
operate the units
9-Pin RS-232 Connector - Used for Future AQD Module upgrade only
1.
2.
3.
4.
Unit Front Panel
AQD - ATSC/QAM Demodulator
8
8.
5.
6.
7.
4.
1.
2.
3.
Power Cord Socket - The unit power cord plug socket
Fuse Holder - 4.0 Amp., 250V DC, Slo Blo fuse
Module Power/Data Cable Sockets - 2 cable sets with a 12-pin male connector used
to deliver power and data to each AQD unit
RS232 Serial Data Ports - Used to plug into and daisy chain AQD units for remote
monitoring and configuration
Power IN - 12-pin female connector used to plug-in the optional Standby Power unit
Video OUT - NTSC Composite Video output via F Connector
8VSB/QAM INPUT - RF Connector for feeding appropriate 8VSB off-air or QAM modulated
RF input signal
Left/Right Audio OUT - RCA Connectors for Left/Right Audio Output
Unit Rear Panel
AQD - ATSC/QAM Demodulator
AQD - ATSC/QAM Demodulator
Operating Interface Instructions
Boot-Up Display Sequence
When the unit is first plugged in for use, the PCM displays the appropriate module condition on the LCD readout as depicted below.
Boot-Up Display Sequence
1. E
ach control module has a unique module address that is set
at the factory which is displayed immediately following the
primary or secondary power source status. This address is used
for remote software capability only.
2. E
ach module status is identified and reported on the LCD. If a
module is identified it is listed as PRESENT or NOT PRESENT if
not connected or identified by the PCM.
3. U
pon completion of the boot-up sequence the AQD is ready
for use and will proceed to the loop display sequence.
9
AQD - ATSC/QAM Demodulator
Loop Display Sequence & Left/Right Sequence
After the unit has displayed the boot-up sequence it proceeds
to the loop sequence. In this mode the LCD displays the actual
module status as depicted by the right column in the diagram
below. This is referred to as the loop sequence because this
information is constantly displayed in a scrolling fashion on the
LCD readout. The loop sequence may be interrupted at any time
by pressing the any of the arrow keys. The diagram is divided into
8 rows to reflect the eight respective modules that can populate
the rack chassis. Information for Modules Not Present is not
displayed during the loop sequence.
AQD - Left/Right Sequence
he Left/Right Sequence will display two basic LCD screens for
T
each installed module. This information will be displayed when a
user depresses the t (L) or u (R) arrow navigation keys. The AQD
NOT PRESENT LCD messages will only be displayed when using
the t (L) or u (R) arrow keys. Then L/R Sequence allows the user
to scroll to a particular module to which specific setting adjustments
are desired in the Interactive p (UP) / q (DN) Menu.
10
AQD - ATSC/QAM Demodulator
Left/Right Sequence Details
•S
NR is displayed when an AQD module locks to an input
program channel and indicates the signal to noise ratio of
the input signal and is expressed in dB. The following are
the desired input SNR ranges for the appropriate signal
modulation type:
Excellent =
8VSB
>30 dB
64 QAM
>38 dB
Good =
25—30 dB
Marginal =
18—25 dB
Non-Functional = <18 dB
30—38 dB
256 QAM
>38 dB
35—38 dB
23—30 dB
30—35 dB
<23 dB
<30 dB
•N
O PROGRAM will be displayed if a valid lock is acquired
but no program signal is actually being detected
•N
O SIGNAL indicates that the input signal was not
detected (no RF input)
•P
LEASE SCAN indicates a scan was not performed or is
required again
• AUDIO ONLY indicates no video signal
• NO AUDIO indicates no audio signal present
• SCRAMBLED PRG indicates the signal has encryption
NOTE: The AQD Not Present message will be displayed when
the optional Remote Configuration Server (RCS) Module is
installed in a particular chassis slot.
11
AQD - ATSC/QAM Demodulator
Interactive & Up/Down Sequence
The interactive menu is easily accessible by depressing the p (UP)
or q (DN) arrow keys on the front of the control module. The
user may scroll through the menu screens depicted by continuing
to press the up and down navigation keys. The following diagram
depicts the available variables with the modify options listed below.
See the following page for specific variable function details.
AQD - LCD Interactive Variable Sequence
12
AQD - ATSC/QAM Demodulator
Programming a Variable
1. U
se the t (L) or u (R) arrow navigation keys to scroll to the
installed module you desire to adjust.
2. P
ress the ▲ (UP) or ▼ (DN) arrow navigation keys to scroll to
the desired interactive variable.
3. W
hen a user arrives at a screen whose variable needs
to be changed, the user should depress the ENTER
button until the blinking cursor is displayed.
4. A
fter the blinking cursor is displayed the user simply
presses the ▲ (UP) or ▼ (DN) arrow buttons to
increment or decrement to the appropriate desired value.
5. W
hen the user reaches the desired value the user should press
the ENTER button again to apply the change to the PCM
memory. The PCM then programs the corresponding module
to the new setting.
6. T
he LCD displays an affirmative response after information
is entered correctly for several of the variables.
The controller will display the “Entry Accepted” response as
demonstrated below.
Entry Accepted
13
AQD - ATSC/QAM Demodulator
Variable Details
DEMOD MODE: The AQD is capable of locking to a terrestrial (offair) 8VSB or CATV QAM Annex B modulated RF input signal. The
selection of the appropriate signal type must be made by the user
to ensure signals are properly identified during a scan. By setting the
Demod Mode the Channel Plan is automatically set to Broadcast for
8VSB signals and Standard CATV for QAM signals or 8VSB signals on
the CATV channel plan.
CHANNEL PLAN: The Channel Plan mode allows the user to the
select the appropriate frequency mode. This setting alerts the user to
the appropriate center frequency plan the AQD will use during the scan
process.
• The Broadcast option must be selected for off-air 8VSB reception, this
is automatically set if the Demod Mode is set to 8VSB. Reception is
limited to VHF & UHF center frequencies.
• The Standard CATV mode is capable of locking to QAM Annex B and
8VSB signals. This channel plan is automatically set when the QAM B
mode is selected in the Demod Mode command menu. Reception is
limited to CATV center frequencies.
o It is only required to choose the HRC or IRC option when these
frequency off-sets are used with the CATV plan.
➣ NOTE: See Appendix for additional details.
SCAN MENU: The scan menu command allows the AQD module to
auto search for available programming. It is required that each module
perform a scan in order to function properly. All modules will perform a
scan when the Scan All Modules command is selected.
• YES – The YES Command performs a scan on only the selected
active module
• ALL MODULES – The ALL MODULES Command performs a new
scan on all of the installed modules
• STATUS – The STATUS Command displays the channels found
during the scan process for the selected active module
• STOP SCAN – The STOP SCAN Command permits an operator
to stop an in-process scan. It is important to note that once a scan
starts the previously found channel data is immediately erased. If
the scan is stopped, only the completed scan channel data will be
available for selection
• EXIT – The EXIT Command exits the scan menu without making
any modifications
14
AQD - ATSC/QAM Demodulator
The unit will display the SCAN IN PROCESS message during the scan
process if interaction is attempted within the active scanning AQD module.
TUNE CHANNEL: The Tune Channel command allows a user to select
the desired program from the list of available channels from the unit
scan. To select a program scroll to the desired item in the channel list
and press the Enter key.
• Depress the p (UP) arrow navigation key to scroll through all the
available channels (major and minor sub-channel)
• Depressing the q (DN) arrow navigation key permits faster tuning by
'jumping' to each major channel available from the scan.
o Tuning to the desired minor sub-channel is then easy by pressing the
p (UP) arrow navigation key
The LCD will show the ENTRY ACCEPTED message and all TV’s will
briefly display a banner at the top of the screen. The banner contains the
major & minor sub-channel designation and the time (time displayed
comes from the broadcast stream).
AQD STATUS - The AQD Status command screen displays
valuable status information on the selected program channel.
Signal Status:
A. LOCK is indicated when a valid signal acquisition has been
achieved by the AQD module as well as the signal aspect ratio.
NOT LOCKED will be displayed if the module fails to acquire the
desired program signal Channel Frequency Data:
B. INPUT SIGNAL TYPE IS DISPLAYED – Such as UHF or 64 or
256 QAM
C. T
HE INPUT SIGNAL CH. IS DISPLAYED – for example, CH 44
D. THE CORRESPONDING FREQUENCY FOR THE INPUT CH.
– 653 MHz for CH 44 UHF
15
AQD - ATSC/QAM Demodulator
PICTURE SHAPE:
The AQD operator can adjust the picture shape to the desired
setting for converting 16:9 images to 4:3 images as required for
traditional television ratio viewing.
(The Smart Zoom 2 setting is recommended in most
applications)
• FULL displays the entire picture while stretching vertically to fit
the screen and may present with black bars at the sides
• LETTER BOX displays the entire picture image and
presents with black bars on top/bottom and left/right to fit
the screen
• ZOOM 1 has a vertical/horizontal cut with black bars
• ZOOM 2 has a vertical/horizontal cut without black bars
• SMART ZOOM 1 is a modified version of Zoom 1 to adjust to
differences in the picture shape data sent by a broadcaster
• SMART ZOOM 2 expands the image to fit the screen while
cropping some images on the left/right and presents without
black bars
➣ NOTE: S
ee Appendix B for additional details on picture shape
(Screen Aspect Ratio).
If the incoming signal is 4:3 Format, the unit will display a warning
message to alert the operator that no effect will be made by
changing the picture shape. The change will still be permitted, but
is not recommended.
16
AQD - ATSC/QAM Demodulator
OUTPUT VOLUME: The output volume can be adjusted within
a range of 0 to 100%.
AUDIO MODE: The audio mode command allows for the
selection of mono or stereo audio. ➣ N
OTE: It is extremely important to change the AUDIO MODE
to mono if using a non-stereo (mono) modulator in conjunction
with the AQD unit. This will present the full combined mono
audio output on both RCA connectors.
CC:EIA-608: This is the Closed Captioning command mode.
The closed captioning, also known as line 21 captions is per EIA608, the standard for Closed Captioning for NTSC Broadcasts
in the United States. An operator can globally enable or disable
closed captioning for each module eliminating the need to adjust
individual TV viewing locations.
AQD PWR RESET: The AQD Power Reset command allows an
operator to reset the power or "cold boot" an individual or all the
modules installed in a rack. To perform a reset for a single module
navigate to the AQD Power Reset command for that particular
module (the module number is displayed first on each LCD screen),
then press the Enter key, when the blinking cursor appears press
the up/down arrow keys to toggle to the YES entry, Press Enter to
select. A reset to all modules can be performed at any module reset
command screen.
17
AQD - ATSC/QAM Demodulator
AQD Quick Set-Up Instruction Guide
The Quick Set-Up instructions are provided as a checklist
of the minimum steps required to install and program the
ATSC/QAM Demodulator.
1. Verify RF input levels
a. Signal acquisition range is -20 to +20 dBmV — -10 to +10
dBmV is the desired optimum level
2. Verify all cable connections — (Refer to page 11 for detailed
instructions)
a. Check to make sure the power/data cables are connected to
the correct location on the PCM and the respective modules
to ensure proper communication
3. Program the appropriate DEMOD MODE for each module
— 8VSB or QAM (Refer to page 16 for detailed variable
instructions)
4. Program the appropriate CHANNEL PLAN for each module —
Broadcast, Standard CATV, HRC or IRC
5. Perform a SCAN on each or all modules — it is not recommended
to operate the unit when a scan is in process
a. A scan must also be performed each time the Demod Mode
is changed
6. Program the appropriate desired channel in the TUNE
CHANNEL menu sequence
a. NOTE: A
scan must be performed prior to selecting
a program channel
18
AQM - Agile QAM Modulator
The AQM is designed to accept a DVB ASI (Asynchronous Serial
Interface) digital transport stream and modulate it into a QAM
(Quadrature Amplitude Modulation) signal. The QAM modulator in
the AQM achieves state-of-the-art performance with capabilities to
improve bandwidth efficiency by supporting advanced QAM modes
like 256, 512 & 1024 QAM. Plus, the built in advanced bit stuffing
circuitry ensures that Null Packets are inserted into the ASI transport
stream if needed to ensure the correct baud rate is transmitted.
Excellent RF performance is vital to the health of every cable system.
Incorporating digital signals into that cable system increases the
complexity required to keep it operating smoothly. The AQM’s
integrated upconverter is designed to accomplish this very goal.
The BT Agile QAM Modulator incorporates a custom design
approach utilizing the latest generation technology available to
ensure extremely low phase noise and a highly stable output signal.
This eliminates the hassles and potential for problems caused
by module based interconnects, especially when using products
without integrated upconverters.
The AQM is easily accommodated in Blonder Tongue’s standard HE
Series of micro-modular rack chassis units (MIRC-12V) and the MIPS
power supply units. This allows existing modulators or demodulators
to coexist effortlessly.
Features
• A
QM Unit Integrates the QAM Modulator and a High Performance
Upconverter
• Compact Design allows 6 Modules in a 2 RU Rack Chassis
• DVB ASI Input, Complies with DVB ASI Standards
• Improve Bandwidth Efficiency with Support for All Advanced QAM
Modes including, 256, 512 & 1024 QAM
• Agile QAM Output 54—864 MHz, (NTSC Mode Channel 2—135
& 12.5 kHz Steps in MHz Frequency Mode)
• NTSC & PAL B/G Capable
• Self Test PRBS Mode Built In
• Optional IF Output Available via Special Order
• Optional LVDS Input Available via Special Order
19
AQM - Agile QAM Modulator
Unit Front Panel
1. LCD Display - 2 line Liquid
Crystal Display screen used
to interact with user to
display unit information.
Unit Rear Panel
1. Power - 3 pin female connector used to plug-in cable
for respective modulator to
deliver power.
2. ASI IN - BNC connector for
ASI (Asynchronous Serial
Interface) input.
2. P
ush Button Navigation
Controls - Buttons used to
navigate between menus
and enter unit information.
3. R
F OUT - 75 Ohm QAM RF
Output.
Boot-Up Display Sequence
When the unit is in Normal Mode and is first plugged in for use,
the AQM checks for the presence of input data. If data is not
detected, it displays the appropriate module condition on the LCD
readout as depicted below.
If unit is set to CW or Off Mode, the following will be displayed by
the LCD. Note: Factory default values depicted in Box
20
AQM - Agile QAM Modulator
Main Interactive Sequence
The main interactive sequence is where all the core module
programming is performed. This sequence is accessed anytime
a user depresses one of the t (L) or u (R) and ▲ (UP) ▼ (DN)
arrow navigation keys. The following diagram depicts the LCD
screens available in the main interactive sequence.
Note: Factory Reset Default values depicted in illustration.
21
AQM - Agile QAM Modulator
Programming a Variable
1. W
hen a user arrives at a screen whose variable needs to
be changed, the user depresses the ENTER button until the
blinking cursor is displayed.
2. A
fter the blinking cursor is displayed the user simply presses
the ▲ (UP) or ▼ (DN) arrow buttons to increment or
decrement to the appropriate desired value.
3. W
hen the user reaches the desired setting the ENTER button
is pressed again to save the change, then the corresponding
AQM module stores the new information.
Interactive Sequence Detail
QAM Mode
The AQM can be set to comply with the ITU-TJ-83 Annex A &
Annex B specifications.
ITU-A - is used for DVB operation
ITU-B - is used for DigiCiper II operation
Encoder
The Encoder selection is only used in ITU-A Mode. If set to ITU-B
Mode, then the Encoder shows NONE.
QAM
The QAM modulation type is user selectable. If the unit is set to
ITU-B Mode, then only QAM 64 or 256 are available.
Alpha
The Alpha setting is used to set the roll-off factor. Settings are
typical depending on the Operation Mode. The standard settings
are as follows:
ITU-A - 15%
ITU-B - 18%
22
AQM - Agile QAM Modulator
Interleaver
The Convolutional Interleaver is user selectable. Various choices
are available depending on the Operation Mode.The standard
settings are as follows:
ITU-A - I 12, J17
ITU-B - I 128, J1
Baud Rate
The Baud Rate needs to be programmed based on the Input Data
and QAM Mode used. The range is from 1 to 6.9 MBaud.
Input
The AQM Input Signal is fed to the module via the BNC connector
on the rear panel. ASI (Asynchronous Serial Interface) data is
typically used. The unit is also programmed with the ability to
generate a PRBS (Pseudo Random Binary Sequence) test signal.
The PRBS signal is a polynomial sequence that is determined by
the Input Selection choice. The following settings are available.
PRBS 25M
PRBS 23
PRBS 15M
PRBS 15
These selections are also valuable if an Input ASI signal is not
available. This can be helpful in balancing the Output Level of
several units without the need for an Input ASI signal.
23
AQM - Agile QAM Modulator
RF OUT
The unit presents a fully modulated QAM RF output. There are
two modes that determine the upconversion programming.
NTSC: The NTSC mode permits programming the RF output
using a standard NTSC channel number.
MHz: The MHz or Frequency Tuning mode permits
programming the RF output to the desired frequency.
Output
In the NTSC Mode it can be upconverted in 6 MHz increments
to any NTSC standard channel, 2-135 (center frequency). See
Appendix A for Frequency details.
In the MHz or Frequency Mode it can be upconverted to any desired
frequency in 12.5 kHz increments. Press the ▲ (UP) or ▼ (DN)
arrow buttons to increment or decrement to the appropriate desired
value for each digit, press and hold the button to quickly scroll.
QAM Out
The unit has three QAM modes.
NORMAL: The NORMAL QAM mode outputs a QAM modulated signal.
OFF: The OFF QAM mode outputs no signal from the module.
CW: The CW QAM mode outputs a CW signal that is very useful for
measuring the output level of the unit. (See the QAM Signal Level
Testing section for more detail).
Output Level
The AQM features electronic output level control.
•C
an be adjusted in any of the QAM modes listed above.
•D
isplayed and measured as an average value. (See the QAM
Signal Level Testing section for more detail).
•Q
AM CW output level is a true representation of a QAM signal level.
The output level range is +30 dBmV to +40 dBmV.
NOTE: F
or optimum noise performance, output level for each module
should be set nominally at +40 dBmV.
24
AQM - Agile QAM Modulator
Bit Rate
This is the actual input date rate that the QAM signal is locked to.
This is only displayed in the QAM Out Normal Mode.
Factory Reset
The unit has a “Factory Reset” capability built in that allows a user
to erase all the current programming information for the AQM
and restore it to it’s factory default setting.
To perform this function, press and hold the ENTER and ▼ (DN)
arrow navigation keys simultaneously until the LCD displays
“Factory Reset” and then release. This will cause the unit to
reset the programmed information to the factory default settings
shown in the Main Interactive Sequence illustration on page 10.
Factory Reset
CAUTION
This will reset all programming
information for the unit and
is only recommended when an
error condition is displayed by
the LCD that cannot be corrected
by a normal power cycle!
25
AQT - ATSC to QAM Transcoder
The Blonder Tongue ATSC to QAM Transcoder is a modular unit
that allows the reception of a modulated 8VSB or QAM signal
input and transcodes it to a QAM modulated output signal. The
unit is designed to tune to an off-air 8VSB or QAM digital signal
and convert it to a digital QAM signal to permit interface with
digital TV displays with QAM tuners.
Applications
Digital channel processing including:
• Changing the incoming QAM channel to a different RF QAM channel
• Complete regeneration of a QAM input for optimal MER performance
• Convert one off-air ATSC 8VSB signal to a QAM output
Features
• 8
VSB, 16VSB, Annex A QAM 16, 32, 64, 128 & 256 and Annex
B QAM 64 & 256 Modulated RF Input Transport Streams
Supported
• M
odular & Compact Units Permit High Density — 8 Modules in
3 Rack Height
• Easy Set-up & Configuration via Front Panel LCD Controls
• R
emote Computer Control Capability via Internet or RS-232
Interface
• Fully Agile QAM output frequency range of 54-864 MHz
• N
o multiplexing or changing of any MPEG table is performed
with this unit
• In normal mode Null Packet Processing is performed
• Pass thru mode disables any Null Packet Processing
26
27
3. Push Button Navigation Controls - B
uttons used to navigate between menus and
set variables
1. Unit Status Indicator - P
rovides feedback to user based on the following LED indications:
Solid Green LED - Indicates valid lock to the RF input signal and
valid lock to the RF output
Flashing Green LED - Indicates not locked status on either RF
input or RF output
2. Backlit LCD - 16 character, 2 line Liquid Crystal Display screen used to interact with user to
display unit information
Unit Front Panel
AQT - ATSC to QAM Transcoder
1. Power Cord Socket - The unit power cord plug socket
2. Fuse Holder - 4.0 Amp., 250V DC, Slo Blo fuse
3. Module Power/Data Cable Sockets - Sockets for power/data cable use, PCM unit is
equipped with two 50-pin female connectors and AQT module is equipped with a 12-pin
female connector. Use supplied power/data cables to connect the PCM unit to the appropriate
module, ensure proper wiring by module number slot
4. RS232 Serial Data Ports - Used to plug into and daisy chain AQT-PCM units for remote
monitoring and configuration
5. Standby Power In - 12-pin female connector used to plug-in the optional Standby Power unit
6. QAM RF Out - RF Connector with QAM modulated output signal
7. 8VSB/QAM Input - RF Connector for feeding appropriate 8VSB off-air or QAM modulated
RF input signal
Unit Rear Panel
AQT - ATSC to QAM Transcoder
28
AQT - ATSC to QAM Transcoder
Operating Interface Instructions
Boot-Up Display Sequence
When the unit is first plugged in for use, the PCM displays the appropriate module condition on the LCD readout as depicted below.
AQT - Boot-Up Display Sequence
1. E
ach control module has a unique module address that is set at
the factory which is displayed immediately following the primary
or secondary power source status. This address is used for remote
software capability only using AQT-RCS (Stock # 2736).
2. E
ach module status is identified and reported on the LCD. If a
module is identified it is listed as "PRESENT" or "NOT PRESENT"
if not connected or identified by the PCM.
3. T
he AQT "NOT PRESENT" message will be displayed when the
optional Remote Configuration Server (RCS) Module is installed
in a particular chassis slot.
4. U
pon completion of the boot-up sequence the AQT-PCM is
ready for use and will proceed to the loop display sequence.
5. D
O NOT push any switches on the control module during this
sequence, as it will NOT respond until it displays "AQT-PCM
IS READY".
29
AQT - ATSC to QAM Transcoder
Loop Display Sequence
After the unit has displayed the boot-up sequence it proceeds to the
loop sequence. In this mode the LCD displays the actual module
status as depicted by the diagram below. This information is referred
as the loop sequence because this information is constantly displayed
in a scrolling fashion on the LCD readout. The loop sequence may be
interrupted at any time by pressing any of the arrow keys. In the loop
sequence the back light LCD is off; however, after pressing any navigation button the backlight automatically turns on for ease of viewing.
During the loop sequence the LCD displays 3 valuable parameters for
each installed (present) AQT module. Modules "not present" will
not have information displayed during the loop sequence.
• Input: Displays the actual input signal to noise ratio (SNR) if locked
• Output: Displays the channel number the output is programmed
• Input Freq: Displays the center frequency of the input signal
programmed
AQT - LCD Loop Display Sequence
30
AQT - ATSC to QAM Transcoder
Left/Right Sequence Details
The Left/Right sequence is where the core variables of the AQT are
programmed. It is accessed when a user depresses the t (L) or
u (R) arrow navigation keys. There are 4 main adjustable variables
for each module.
AQT - LCD Left/Right Variable Sequence
31
AQT - ATSC to QAM Transcoder
• O
UTPUT CATV — permits the entry of the desired output
channel number to program the AQT module, tuning range is
NTSC CATV channel 2—135, (digital center frequency)
• INPUT FREQ — permits the entry of the desired input signal
center frequency to program the AQT module, tuning in frequency
range of 54—864 MHz, (digital center frequency)
• O
UTPUT LEVEL — permits the entry of the desired output signal
level in dBmV as an average power measured signal, range is +30
to +40 dBmV, optimum SNR performance is achieved by setting
the unit output @ +40 dBmV
• O
UT QAM MODE — permits the entry of the desired QAM
mode, the unit has six available QAM modes:
o N
ORMAL: The "NORMAL" QAM mode outputs a 6 MHz QAM
modulated signal and must be used with 8VSB input
o O
FF: The "OFF" QAM mode outputs no signal from the module
(When a module is placed in the QAM off mode, the status LED
indicator will blink)
o C
W: The "CW" (carrier wave) mode outputs a CW signal that
is very useful for measuring the output level of the unit, the
CW signal is a true representation of the QAM signal level
(When a module is placed in the QAM CW mode, the status
LED indicator will blink) (See the QAM Signal Level Testing
section for more detail)
o C
W ALL: Puts all modules installed in a rack chassis into CW
mode for ease of level adjustment
o N
ORMAL ALL: Returns all modules installed in a rack chassis
to normal mode required for normal operation
o P
ASS THRU: Disables null packet processing - This mode
must be used when the input to the AQT is QAM
32
AQT - ATSC to QAM Transcoder
Each of the modules are displayed in order by scrolling through
the sequence to find the desired variable on a respective installed
module. Modules not installed are listed by the "Module is Not
Present" message. The SNR value for each module is displayed
together for each of the installed eight modules at the end of the
sequence.
• SNR is displayed when an AQT module locks to an input program
channel and indicates the signal to noise ratio of the input signal
and is expressed in dB. The following are the desired input SNR
ranges for the appropriate signal modulation type:
Excellent =
8VSB
>30 dB
64 QAM
>38 dB
Good =
25—30 dB
Marginal =
18—25 dB
Non-Functional = <18 dB
30—38 dB
256 QAM
>38 dB
35—38 dB
23—30 dB
30—35 dB
<23 dB
<30 dB
Programming a Variable
1. U
se the t (L) or u (R) arrow navigation keys to scroll to the
installed module you desire to adjust.
2. P
ress the ▲ (UP) or ▼ (DN) arrow navigation keys to scroll to
the desired interactive variable.
3. W
hen a user arrives at a screen whose variable needs to be
changed, the user should depress and hold the ENTER button
until the blinking cursor is displayed.
4. A
fter the blinking cursor is displayed the user simply presses
the ▲ (UP) or ▼ (DN) arrow buttons to increment or
decrement to the appropriate desired value.
5. W
hen the user reaches the desired value the user should press
the ENTER button again to apply the change to the PCM
memory. The PCM then programs the corresponding module
to the new setting.
33
AQT - ATSC to QAM Transcoder
Interactive & Up/Down Sequence
The advanced interactive menu is easily accessible by depressing
the p (UP) or q (DN) arrow keys on the front of the control
module. Each of the adjustable settings are issued to the particular
module that is actively displayed. Some variables are global for
the unit and not module specific. The user may scroll through the
menu screens depicted by continuing to press the up and down
navigation keys. The following diagram depicts the available,
advanced variables with the modify options listed below.
AQT - LCD Interactive Variable Sequence
34
AQT - ATSC to QAM Transcoder
• INPUT BROWSE — when "activated" the input browse function
automatically scans the input signal for the 8VSB/QAM rates
as per the chart below. Then, if found, automatically sets the
input and output parameters. If no valid signal is found it will
default to the last locked state. Factory default is 8VSB.
• INPUT DEMOD — permits the selection of any of the listed
input demod modes, the unit is factory set for 8VSB signals
• INPUT RATE — permits the entry of the desired input baud
rate, this is automatically set to one of the factory values listed
above (input browse) if a standard 8VSB input signal is used
or the input browse function is activated
• O
UT QAM — permits the entry of the desired output QAM
mode, the unit has six available QAM modes
• A
LPHA — permits the entry of the appropriate alpha setting to
match the output QAM mode
• INTERLEAVER — permits the entry of the appropriate
interleaver setting to match the output QAM mode
• O
UT BD RATE — permits the entry of the desired output QAM
baud rate. The QAM output baud rate is automatically set to
the corresponding values for the respective input baud rate as
listed in the chart below.
INPUT RATE
OUTPUT RATE
VSB-8: 5.3811 Mbaud
VSB-16: 5.3811 Mbaud
QAM 64-B: 5.0569 Mbaud
QAM 256-B: 5.3605 Mbaud
QAM 16-A: 5.0000 Mbaud
QAM 32-A: 5.3333 Mbaud
QAM 64-A: 5.0000, 4.4444 or 3.3333 Mbaud
QAM 128-A: 5.0000 or 4.7619 Mbaud
QAM 256-A: 5.5895 Mbaud
QAM 64-B: 5.0569 Mbaud
QAM 256-B: 5.3605 Mbaud
QAM 64-B: 5.0569 Mbaud
QAM 256-B: 5.3605 Mbaud
QAM 16-A: 5.0000 Mbaud
QAM 32-A: 5.3333 Mbaud
QAM 64-A: 5.0000, 4.4444 or 3.3333 Mbaud
QAM 128-A: 5.0000 or 4.7619 Mbaud
QAM 256-A: 5.5895 Mbaud
* In prder for the input browse to work, Input/Output
parameters are paired and must match this chart.
35
AQT - ATSC to QAM Transcoder
AQT Quick Set-Up Instruction Guide
The Quick Set-Up instructions are provided as a checklist of the
minimum steps required to install and program the AQT.
1. Verify all cable connections
a. Check to make sure the power/data cables are connected to
the correct location on the PCM and the respective modules to
ensure proper communication
b. Check to make sure the correct RF cable is connected to the
Input and Output F connector
2. Verify RF input levels
a. Signal acquisition range is -20 to +20 dBmV — -10 to +10
dBmV is the desired optimum level
3. Program the desired Input Frequency for each appropriate
module — Tuning Range 54-864 MHz
4. Program the desired Output Channel for each appropriate
module — Tuning Range CATV 2-135
a. +40 dBmV is recommended for optimum level for SNR
performance
5. Verify the Module Lock state — Press the u (R) arrow key until
the SNR value is shown for the appropriate module
a. If not locked, activate the Input Browse mode for the module,
this will auto search & tune all pre-programmed modes
b. Verify input signal level, feed/cable
NOTE: R
epeat as appropriate for each module
36
DAP - Digital to Analog Processor
The Digital to Analog Processor (DAP) is a complete single channel
solution for delivering digital television programming over existing
analog networks. The DAP is housed in a one rack high unit and
features a backlit 2 x 16 character LCD screen and push button
navigation switches to allow interaction with the simple to follow
user menu functions for programming. Input and output tuning
is easily accomplished with either the front panel menu interface
or via the optional Remote Network Card; only one RNC per
headend is needed for complete configuration and control of all
DAPs that are daisy chained in the headend. The DAP supports
standard EIA CATV, IRC, HRC and Broadcast channel plans in the
54—864 frequency range. All channel frequency information,
with appropriate FCC offsets, is pre-programmed and tuned
electronically via microprocessor. The unit is also equipped with the
Emergency Alert System (EAS) feature which can also be used as
an alternate IF input.
Features
• Decodes HDTV or SDTV Digital Signals and Modulates to Analog
for Transmission to Traditional Televisions
• Accepts All ATSC Digital Input Standards, 8VSB, 64 QAM, 256
QAM
• Outputs All Broadcast and CATV Channel Assignments in the
54-864 MHz Range
• Remotely Configure All DAPs in a Headend with Optional Remote
Network Card in one DAP unit
• Perfect Digital Transition Solution to Offer Analog Versions from
Digital Sources
• +60 dBmV Output
• EAS IF Input
37
1. Unit Status Indicator - Provides feedback to user based on the following LED conditions:
Solid Green LED indicates valid lock to the RF input signal
Flashing Green LED indicates Not Locked or Scanning in process
2. 9-Pin RS-232 Connector - Used for future software upgrade of digital input section only
3. Stereo LED - Green stereo LED light
4. EAS/ALT Indicator - Red LED when EAS/ALT IF is active
5. Audio Over Modulation LED - Lights when peak deviation of aural carrier is over 25 kHz
6. Audio Modulation Level - Adjusts aural carrier modulation
7. Aural Carrier - Controls amplitude of aural RF carrier relative to visual RF carrier
8. Video Modulation Level - Adjust percentage of modulation
9. Video Over Modulation LED - Lights when modulation is above 87.5%
10. Ethernet Link, Receive and Transmit LED - LED indicator for optional ethernet
connectivity. The LED's will only light if RNC option is installed and in use, without RNC
installed all LED's will be off.
11. Backlit LCD - 16 character, 2 line Liquid Crystal Display screen used to interact with user to
display unit info
12. Push Button Navigation Controls - Buttons used to navigate between menus and
operate the unit
Unit Front Panel
DAP - Digital to Analog Processor
38
1. Power Cord Socket - The Unit Power Cord Plug Socket
2. Fuse Holder - 1.0 Amp., 250V DC, Slo Blo Fuse
3. Air Circulation Fan
4. Analog RF Out - NTSC Analog Output via "F" Connector
5. IF IN - "F" Connector IF Input
6. IF OUT - "F" Connector IF Output
7. EAS/ALT IF - "F" Connector for Emergency Alert System/ALT IF
8. EAS/ALT IF Terminal Strip - Terminal Connector for Auto/Manual EAS
9. Optional RS232 Computer Control - RJ-11 Connector, used to daisy chain DAP for
optional computer control. Requires Remote Network Card (not shown) to be installed in
one DAP unit per headend.
10. 8VSB/QAM INPUT - RF Connector for feeding appropriate 8VSB off-air or QAM modulated
RF input signal
Unit Rear Panel
DAP - Digital to Analog Processor
39
DAP - Digital to Analog Processor
Boot-Up Display Sequence
When the unit is first plugged in for use, the DAP displays the appropriate module condition on the LCD readout as depicted below.
Boot-Up Display Sequence
1. E
ach DAP unit has a unique digital address that is set at the
factory which is displayed immediately following the power
status initialization. This address is used for remote software
capability only.
2. U
pon completion of the boot-up sequence the DAP is ready for
use and will proceed to the loop display sequence.
CAUTION
DO NOT push any switches on
the control module during this
sequence as it will NOT respond
until it displays "DAP IS READY".
40
DAP - Digital to Analog Processor
Main LCD Lock Display
After the unit has displayed the boot-up sequence it will display the
main LCD lock display. In this mode the LCD displays the actual
status as depicted in the diagram below. The LCD lock display may
be interrupted at any time by pressing the any of the arrow keys.
DAP - Main LCD Display
Left/Right Sequence Details
The Left/Right Sequence will display four basic LCD screens. This
information will be displayed when a user depresses the t (L)
or u (R) arrow navigation keys.
IMPORTANT
CAUTION
No unit adjustments are permitted in the t (L) or u (R), all
modifications must be performed in the p (UP) / q (DN) sequence.
• SNR is displayed when the DAP locks to an input program
channel and indicates the signal to noise ratio of the input signal
and is expressed in dB. The following are the desired input SNR
ranges for the appropriate signal modulation type:
Excellent =
8VSB
>30 dB
64 QAM
>38 dB
Good =
25—30 dB
Marginal =
18—25 dB
Non-Functional = <18 dB
30—38 dB
256 QAM
>38 dB
35—38 dB
23—30 dB
30—35 dB
<23 dB
<30 dB
•N
O SIGNAL indicates that the input signal was not detected (no RF input)
• PLEASE SCAN indicates a scan was not performed or is required again
• AUDIO ONLY indicates no video signal
• NO AUDIO indicates no audio signal present
• SCRAMBLED PRG indicates the signal has encryption
• NO PROGRAM will be displayed if a valid lock is acquired but no
program signal is actually being detected
41
DAP - Digital to Analog Processor
The Unit LED has a backlit feature to illuminate the panel. It will
illuminate when any of interactive buttons are pressed. It will automatically turn off if no button interaction is made after 10 seconds.
DAP - Left/Right Display
Interactive & Up/Down Sequence
The interactive menu is easily accessible by depressing the p (UP)
or q (DN) arrow keys on the front of the DAP unit. The user may
scroll through the menu screens depicted by continuing to press the
up and down navigation keys. The following diagram depicts the
available variables with the options listed below. See the following
page for specific variable function details.
DAP - LCD Interactive Variable Sequence
42
DAP - Digital to Analog Processor
Programming a Variable
1. Press the ▲ (UP) or ▼ (DN) arrow navigation keys to scroll to
the desired interactive variable.
2. When a user arrives at a screen whose variable needs to be
changed, the user should depress the ENTER button until the
blinking cursor is displayed.
3. After the blinking cursor is displayed the user simply presses the
▲ (UP) or ▼ (DN) arrow buttons to increment or decrement to
the appropriate desired value.
4. When the user reaches the desired value the user should press
the ENTER button again to apply the change to the unit memory.
The control board then programs the unit to the new setting.
5. The LCD displays an affirmative response after information is
entered correctly for several of the variables. The controller will
display the Entry Accepted response as demonstrated below.
Entry Accepted
Variable Details
INPUT DEMOD MODE:
The DAP is capable of locking to a terrestrial (off-air) 8VSB or
CATV QAM Annex B modulated RF input signal. The selection
of the appropriate signal type must be made by the user to
ensure signals are properly identified during a scan. By setting
the Demod Mode the Channel Plan is automatically set to
Broadcast for 8VSB signals and Standard CATV for QAM
signals or 8VSB signals on the CATV channel plan.
43
DAP - Digital to Analog Processor
INPUT CH PLAN:
The Channel Plan mode allows the user to the select the appropriate frequency mode. This setting alerts the user to the appropriate
center frequency plan the DAP will use during the scan process.
• The Broadcast option must be selected for off-air 8VSB
reception, this is automatically set if the Demod Mode is set to
8VSB. Reception is limited to VHF & UHF center frequencies.
• The Standard CATV mode is capable of locking to QAM Annex
B and 8VSB signals. This channel plan is automatically set when
the QAM B mode is selected in the Demod Mode command
menu. Reception is limited to CATV center frequencies.
o It is only required to choose the HRC or IRC option when these
frequency off-sets are used with the CATV plan.
SCAN MENU:
The scan menu command allows the DAP unit to auto search for
available programming. It is required to perform a scan in order to
function properly.
• YES – The YES command performs a scan of the incoming
available signals by the DAP unit
• STATUS – The STATUS command displays the channels found
during the scan process
• STOP SCAN – The STOP SCAN command permits an operator to
stop an in-process scan. It is important to note that
once a scan starts the previously found channel
data is immediately erased. If the scan is stopped,
only the completed scan channel data will be
available for selection
• EXIT – The EXIT command exits the scan menu without making
any modifications
The unit will display the SCAN IN PROCESS message
during the scan process if interaction is attempted.
44
DAP - Digital to Analog Processor
TUNE CHANNEL:
The Tune Channel command allows a user to select the desired
program from the list of available channels from the unit scan. To
select a program scroll to the desired item in the channel list and
press the Enter key.
• Depress the p (UP) arrow key to scroll through all the available
channels (major and minor sub-channel)
• Depressing the q (DN) arrow key permits faster tuning by
'jumping' to each major channel available from the scan.
o Tuning to the desired minor sub-channel is then easy by
pressing the p (UP) arrow key
The LCD will show the ENTRY ACCEPTED message and all TV’s will
briefly display a banner at the top of the screen. The banner contains
the major & minor sub-channel designation and the time (time
displayed comes from the broadcast stream).
INPUT STATUS:
The Input Status command screen displays valuable status information on the selected program channel.
Signal Status:
A. INPUT LOCK is indicated when a valid signal acquisition has been
achieved by the DAP unit as well as the signal aspect ratio.
NOT LOCKED will be displayed if the module fails to acquire the desired
program signal.
B. INPUT SIGNAL TYPE IS DISPLAYED – such as UHF or 64/256 QAM
C. INPUT SIGNAL CHANNEL IS DISPLAYED – for example, CH 10
D. CORRESPONDING FREQUENCY FOR THE INPUT CHANNEL – 195
MHz for CH 10 CATV
45
DAP - Digital to Analog Processor
PICTURE SHAPE:
The DAP operator can adjust the picture shape to the desired setting
for converting 16:9 images to 4:3 images as required for traditional
television ratio viewing.
(The Center Cut setting is recommended in most applications)
• FULL displays the entire picture while stretching vertically to fit the
screen and may present with black bars at the sides
• LETTER BOX displays the entire picture image and presents with
black bars on top/bottom and left/right to fit the screen
• CENTER CUT expands the image to fit the screen while cropping
some images on the left/right and presents without black bars
• ZOOM 1 has a vertical/horizontal cut with black bars
• ZOOM 2 has a vertical/horizontal cut without black bars
• SMART ZOOM 1 is a modified version of Zoom 1 to adjust to
differences in the picture shape data sent by a broadcaster
If the incoming signal is 4:3 Format, the unit will display a warning
message to alert the operator that no effect will be made by changing
the picture shape.
OUTPUT AUDIO:
The output volume can be adjusted within a range of 0 to 100%.
AUDIO LANGUAGE:
The audio language command allows for the selection of an
available primary or secondary audio program.
• Primary only – Detects only a primary audio feed.
• Primary Plus Language – The unit will display the language
name of the primary language if transmitted by the programmer,
this information will not be displayed if the programmer has not
included it in the PSIP data.
• SAP Plus Language – The unit will display the language
name of the SAP language if transmitted by the programmer,
this information will not be displayed if the programmer has not
included it in the PSIP data.
46
DAP - Digital to Analog Processor
CC:EIA-608:
This is the Closed Captioning command mode. The Closed
Captioning, also known as line 21 captions per EIA-608 is the
standard for Closed Captioning for NTSC Broadcasts in the United
States. An operator can globally enable or disable Closed Captioning
for each module eliminating the need to adjust individual TV
viewing locations.
OUTPUT CHANNEL MODE:
The DAP output channel mode can be set to standard CATV,
HRC or IRC offsets as well as frequency tuning mode.
The frequency tuning mode allows a user to program a desired
output frequency in 12.5 kHz steps. The unit will automatically
round an improper entry to the nearest appropriate value. This
mode is generally not used in typically deployments and only
intended for special applications such as PAL usage.
OUTPUT LEVEL:
The RF OUTPUT level is user adjustable by pressing the p (UP)
or q (DN) arrow buttons. The output level is not changed until
the ENTER button is pressed. The level increments in 0.2 dB steps.
Pressing and holding the p (UP) or q (DN) buttons will allow
for faster scrolling. The display range is 48—62 dBmV. Output
level accuracy is typically +/- 1 dB of display, +/- 2 dB worst case.
Optimum SNR performance is achieved by setting the unit output
@ +60 dBmV.
ANALOG RF OUTPUT:
The ANALOG RF output is programmable by channel or frequency.
Entries are made by pressing the p (UP) or q (DN) arrow buttons
to reach the desired channel. The RF output is not changed until
the ENTER button is pressed. Pressing and holding the p (UP)
or q (DN) buttons will allow for faster scrolling. The ANALOG RF
output mode is displayed with the desired entry.
47
DAP - Digital to Analog Processor
Analog Output Adjustments (Front Panel)
VIDEO LEVEL:
With the intended signal source connected and a representative
video program present, turn the Video Level adjust control clockwise
until the Video Overmodulation light just flashes, then back off
slightly. Alternatively, while watching the picture on a good TV
monitor, adjust the control to the highest (clockwise) level that does
NOT cause the highlights (white portions of the picture) to become
“washed out”.
AUDIO LEVEL:
Turn the Audio Level adjust control clockwise until the Audio
Overmodulation light just flashes slightly on the loudest peaks of
the audio program material.
AURAL CARRIER:
To adjust the aural-to-visual carrier ratio, adjust the Aural Carrier
control to obtain the desired Aural Carrier level. Recommended
ratio is -15 dB.
EAS/ALT IF:
Automatic - Connect a jumper to the terminal strip auto position.
EAS will become active when a +38 dBmV EAS IF signal is
detected.
Manual - EAS is active with a ground connection on the manual
position of the terminal strip.
48
DAP - Digital to Analog Processor
DAP Quick Set-Up Instruction Guide
The Quick Set-up instructions are provided as a checklist of the
minimum steps required to install and program the Digital to Analog
Processor.
1. Verify RF input levels
a. Signal acquisition range is -20 to +20 dBmV — -10 to +10
dBmV is the desired optimum level
2. Program the appropriate DEMOD MODE for each module —
8VSB or QAM (Refer to page 13 for detailed variable instructions)
3. Program the appropriate CHANNEL PLAN for each module —
Broadcast, Standard CATV, HRC or IRC
4. Perform a SCAN — it is not recommended to operate the unit
when a scan is in process
a. A scan must also be performed each time the DEMOD MODE
is changed
5. Program the appropriate desired channel in the TUNE CHANNEL
menu sequence
a. NOTE: A scan must be performed prior to selecting a
program channel
6. Program the appropriate desired RF Output Channel
49
QT - Modular QPSK/QAM Transcoder
The QT Series is a Modular QPSK to QAM Transcoder supporting
up to eight QAM Transcoder Modules, interfaced with a Power &
Control Module housed in a specially designed 3RU chassis.
The unit transcodes any 24-36 MHz wide QPSK modulated
satellite signal to a 6 MHz wide QAM modulated IF signal and
translates it to any CATV RF channel assignment in the 54-864
MHz frequency band.
The QT Series features a back-lit LCD display with front panel
accessible push button controls providing access to all vital unit
information, facilitating easy set-up and troubleshooting.
Interfacing the QT with Blonder Tongue’s QCentral computer
software provides off-site, remote operation and control including
digital adjustment of the QAM RF output level.
50
51
3. Push Button Navigation Controls - Buttons used to navigate between menus and enter unit information.
2. Backlit LCD - 8
character, 2 line Liquid Crystal Display screen used to interact with user to display
unit information.
1. Unit Status Indicator - P
rovides feedback to user based on the following LED conditions:
a) Solid Green ON - Indicates valid QPSK and QAM lock
b) Flash ON/OFF - QAM signal is in OFF or CW mode
c) Flash 1x, 2x or 3x and Pause OFF - Indicates possible upconverter problem,
or possible problem with power cable
d) Flash 4x and Pause OFF - Indicates possible QAM modulator problem, check
input transponder frequency and data rate to correct (check to make sure in
“Auto Mode”)
Unit Front Panel
QT - Modular QPSK/QAM Transcoder
1. Power Cord Socket - The unit power cord plug socket.
2. Fuse Holder - 4.0 Amp., 250V DC, Slo Blo fuse.
3. Module Power/Data Cables - 2 cable sets with a 12-pin male connector used to deliver power and data to
each QTM OR QTM-HD.
4. RS232 Serial Data Ports - Used to plug into and daisy chain QT units for remote monitoring and
configuration.
5. Power IN - 12-pin female connector used to plug-in the optional Standby Power unit for redundant support.
6. QPSK L-Band Input - Independent 75 Ohm RF connector for feeding appropriate QPSK L-Band satellite
input signal.
7. QAM RF Output - Independent 75 Ohm QAM RF Output.
8. Power/Data - 12-pin female connector used to plug-in cable for respective module to deliver power and data.
Unit Rear Panel
QT - Modular QPSK/QAM Transcoder
52
QPSK/QAM Transcoders
Boot-Up Display Sequence
When the unit is first plugged in for use, the control module
interrogates the potential transcoder connections and displays
the appropriate module condition on the LCD readout as
depicted below.
Boot-Up Display Sequence
Upon completion of the boot-up sequence the transcoder is ready
for use and will proceed to the loop display sequence.
CAUTION
DO NOT push any switches on the
module during this sequence as it will
not respond until it displays or “QTM
IS READY”.
53
QPSK/QAM Transcoders
▼
Press the Left
or Right
interactive variables.
▼
Programming a Variable
arrow buttons to access the
1. W
hen a user arrives at a screen that a variable needs to be
changed, the user depresses and holds the ENTER button until
the blinking cursor is displayed (approximately one second).
2. A
fter the blinking cursor is displayed the user simply presses
the (UP) or (DN)▼ arrow buttons to increment or decrement
to the appropriate desired value.
▼
3. W
hen the user reaches the desired setting the ENTER button
is pressed again to save the change. The control module then
programs the corresponding transcoder module to the new
information.
4. T
he unit displays an affirmative response after
information is entered correctly. The controller
will display the “Entry Accepted” response as
demonstrated below.
5. E
ntries can be made to the controller for
all modules, even if not all modules are
installed. The controller will display module
“Not Present” response if the module is not
installed.
6. T
he controller also displays a response to inform the user
if an incorrect entry has been made, such as an entry out
of the programmed range. The controller does not accept
this information and forces the user to re-enter the correct
information.
Out of Range
54
QPSK/QAM Transcoders
QAM Modes
The transcoders have three QAM modes.
NORMAL: The normal QAM mode outputs a 6 MHz QAM
modulated signal.
OFF: T
he off QAM mode outputs no signal from the module.
(When a module is placed in the QAM OFF Mode, the
STATUS LED indicator will blink).
CW: T
he CW QAM mode outputs a carrier wave test signal that is
very useful for measuring the output level of the transcoder.
(See the QAM Signal Level Testing section for more detail).
(When a module is placed in the QAM CW Mode, the STATUS
LED indicator will blink).
Additional QT Series QAM Modes.
CW ALL: P
uts all QTM or QTM-HD installed in rack chassis into CW
mode for ease of level adjustment.
NORMAL ALL: P
uts all QTM or QTM-HD installed in rack chassis
into normal QAM mode.
Output Level
The transcoders features electronic output level control for
each of the single transcoder modules. The output level can be
adjusted in any of the QAM modes listed above. The output level
is displayed and measured as an average value. (See the QAM
Signal Level Testing section for more detail).
The output level range is +30 dBmY to +40 dBmV for the QT
Series. The output level will be the same for a QAM CW or EAS IF
Signal as a QAM normal signal.
Note: F
or optimum noise performance, the output level for each
module should be set nominally at the maximum output.
55
QPSK/QAM Transcoders
Factory Reset
The units have a “Factory Reset” capability built in that allows
a user to erase all the current programming information for the
PSCM/PCM and restore it to it’s factory default setting.
To perform this function, press and hold the (UP) and
(DN) ▼ arrow navigation keys simultaneously until the LCD
displays “Factory Reset” and then release. This will cause the
unit to reset the programmed information to the factory default
setting shown on the next page.
▼
Factory Reset
CAUTION
This will reset all programming
information for all modules!
56
QPSK/QAM Transcoders
The following are the default factory settings the unit will
reset to:
QT Series
# 1 OUT CH 101
# 1 INPUT 974 MHz
QAM: NORMAL
LEVEL: 40 dBmV
# 7 OUT CH 107
# 7 INPUT 974 MHz
QAM: NORMAL
LEVEL: 40 dBmV
# 2 OUT CH 102
# 2 INPUT 974 MHz
QAM: NORMAL
LEVEL: 40 dBmV
# 8 OUT CH 108
# 8 INPUT 974 MHz
QAM: NORMAL
LEVEL: 40 dBmV
# 3 OUT CH 103
# 3 INPUT 974 MHz
QAM: NORMAL
LEVEL: 40 dBmV
# 4 OUT CH 104
# 4 INPUT 974 MHz
QAM: NORMAL
LEVEL: 40 dBmV
MODE: AUTO
DECODER: DVB
IN RATE: 20.000 M
QAM: 128
ALPHA: 15%
INTERLV: I12, J17
BD RATE: 4.761M
POWER: PRIMARY
# 5 OUT CH 105
# 5 INPUT 974 MHz
QAM: NORMAL
LEVEL: 40 dBmV
# 6 OUT CH 106
# 6 INPUT 974 MHz
QAM: NORMAL
LEVEL: 40 dBmV
57
58
FREQ.
MODEL
RANGE
BIDA 550-30
47-550
BIDA 550-50
47-550
BIDA 750-30
47-750
BIDA SERIES
5-30
BIDA-55A-30
49-550
BIDA-55A-30P 49-550
BIDA-55A-43
49-550
BIDA-55A-43P 49-550
BIDA-55A-50
49-550
BIDA-75A-30
49-750
BIDA-75A-30P 49-750
BIDA-75A-43
49-750
BIDA-75A-43P 49-750
BIDA-86A-30
49-860
BIDA-86A-30P 49-860
BIDA-86A-43
49-860
BIDA-86A-43P 49-860
BIDA-100A-30 49-1000
BIDA SERIES
5-36
LPA-860-36G
53-860
LPA-860-36G
5-42
GAIN
33
50
31
24
32
32
43
43
50
32
32
43
43
32
32
44
43
32
20
36
18.5
*GAIN
*SLOPE NOISE OUTPUT
CH.
RANGE
RANGE FIGURE LEVEL LOADING
15
10
7
36/44
77
15
10
7
36/44
77
15
10
9
36/44
110
12
12
6
42
2
10
8
7.0
36/44
77
10
8
7.0
36/44
77
10
8
7.0
36/44
77
10
8
7.0
36/44
77
10
8
7.5
36/44
77
10
8
8.5
36/44
110
10
8
8.5
36/44
110
10
8
8.5
36/44
110
10
8
8.5
36/44
110
10
8
8.5
36/44
129
10
8
8.5
36/44
129
10
8
8.5
36/44
129
10
8
7.0
36/44
129
10
8
8.5
36/44
150
18
NA
6.0
42
3
7
36/46
79
FIXED - PLUG-INS
FIXED - PLUG-INS
6
40
4
* Specifications do not include optional plug-in attenuators and equalizers.
* CTB distortion measured at listed output level and channel loading.
STOCK #
5400-53
5400-55
5400-73
5400-##
5800-53
5800P53
5800-54
5800P54
5800-55
5800-73
5800P73
5800-74
5800P74
5800-83
5800P83
5800-84
5800P84
5800-13
5800-##
5818
CTB
-64
-64
-60
-60
-64
-71
-63
-68
-63
-60
-64
-56
-64
-54
-62
-56
-60
-59
-60
-80
-87
Broadband Amplifier Specifications Chart
Directional Couplers Insertion Loss
Indoor
Outdoor
TAP
VALUE NO. OF
THRU-LINE
STOCK # (dB) OUTPUTS
LOSS (dB)
SRT-1
@450 MHz @1000 MHz
4.0
1940-4
4
4.5
3.5
1940-6
6
4.0
1.6
1940-9
9
2.0
1.5
1940-12
12
2.0
1
0.7
1940-16
16
1.5
0.7
1940-20
20
1.5
0.6
1940-24
24
1.5
0.6
1940-27
27
1.5
0.6
1940-30
30
1.5
SRT-2A
@450 MHz @1000 MHz
Terminated
1942-4
4
1942-8
8
3.2
3.5
1942-11
11
2.5
3.0
1942-14
14
1.2
2.2
1942-17
17
1.0
1.8
2
1942-20
20
0.9
1.2
1942-23
23
0.9
1.2
1942-26
26
0.7
1.2
1942-29
29
0.7
1.2
1942-32
32
0.7
1.2
@450 MHz @1000 MHz
SRT-4A
Terminated
1944-8
8
1944-11
11
3.8
4.4
1944-14
14
2.3
2.5
1944-17
1.5
17
2.0
1944-20
1.2
20
1.4
4
1944-23
23
1.0
1.2
1944-26
26
0.9
1.0
1944-29
29
0.8
1.0
1944-32
32
0.8
1.0
1944-35
35
0.8
1.0
@450 MHz @1000 MHz
SRT-8A
Terminated
1948-11
11
1948-14
14
3.8
4.3
1948-17
17
2.1
2.3
1948-20
20
1.3
1.8
1948-23
23
0.8
1.2
8
1948-26
26
0.7
1.0
1948-29
29
0.6
0.8
1948-32
32
0.6
0.8
1948-35
35
0.6
0.8
THRU-LINE
TAP
LOSS (dB)
MODEL
VALUE
STOCK NO.
(dB) @450 MHz @1000 MHz
Terminated
4
8
4.8
4.1
11
3.7
2.2
14
2.4
1.7
DMT-1000-2
17
2.2
1.4
#3852
20
1.5
1.0
23
1.5
1.0
26
1.5
1.0
29
1.5
1.0
32
1.5
1.0
35
1.5
1.0
Terminated
8
11
4.9
4.0
14
3.7
2.2
17
2.2
1.6
DMT-1000-4
20
2.0
1.3
#3854
23
1.8
1.2
26
1.5
1.0
29
1.5
1.1
32
1.5
1.2
35
1.5
1.2
Terminated
11
14
4.9
4.2
17
3.5
2.4
20
2.6
1.7
DMT-1000-8
23
2.2
1.3
#3858
26
1.5
1.2
29
1.5
1.2
32
1.5
1.2
35
1.5
1.2
THRU-LINE
TAP
LOSS (dB)
MODEL
VALUE
STOCK NO.
(dB) @450 MHz @1000 MHz
TL-PI-1000
N/A
1.2
1.5
#3850
3.2
2.9
8
TLS-1000
2.2
1.2
12
#3851
2.2
1.2
16
TLS-1000-2
4.6
5.7
N/A
#3855
TLS-1000-3
7.0
9.0
N/A
#3856
TLS-1000-3U
5.0/8.5
6.0/9.2
N/A
#3857
(unbalanced)
Please refer to the Blonder Tongue catalog for more detailed specifications common to
indoor and outdoor passives.
59
MegaPort Components
MegaPort Gateway (MPG)
This is the interface between the trunk data network and the
coax. Each MPG supports up to 64 MPOs and is connected at
the coax's point of entry to the building, community, campus or
individual home.
RF Connector
LAN
WAN
Ethernet Port
Power
Cable
The connection to the LAN Port will be made directly with a cross
cable via MegaPort manager or http web interface.
The Port ID is: 172.16.70.1 C Class
MegaPort Intelligent Outlet (MPO)
Replacing ordinary TV outlets, the IO is connected to the coax
infrastructure providing TV and network connections(10BaseT &
USB). An MPO may be installed complementary to an existing
outlet for ease of installation.
60
MegaPort Methods of Installation
Case Study
The diagram below is an example of multiple users situated
between amplifiers.
A
A
B
A
B
F
B
20 Users
(A)
20 Users
(A)
30 Users
(B)
Band Stop Filter
Double Tap
(BSF)
Upstream and Downstream Signal Settings
Frequency Diversity
Frequency Diversity is when each MPG DS and US carrier are
set at a different frequency. This is typically used when multiple
MPG’s are on the same cable leg.
Frequency Re-Use
Frequency Re-Use is when each MPG DS and US carrier are set at
the same frequency. This can only occur when MPG’s are not on
the same cable leg.
61
MegaPort Software Utilities - ConfigIO
ConfigIO Utility Software
ConfigIO is an application designed to let the technician see the
link stat settings.
There is a protocol that needs to be installed in the connection
properties.
Ethernet - TMT Management Protocol Driver
USB - Ndisuio.inf protocol
In order to see data of the IO/MPO components, go to the
'Summary' tab. You can see the version of the IO hardware and
software, the IO MAC address (or- serial number), its ID and other
parameters as shown in the screenshot.
For more information please refer to the User’s Manual.
62
MegaPort Manager
MegaPort Manager Main Screen - with MPO’s installed.
Note: Visit the Blonder Tongue FTP Site for the latest software releases and updates at
ftp://ftp1.blondertongue.com
63
MegaPort Manager - RF Data
In order to adjust an RF parameter, open the “Configure MPG”
dialog box. You can do that by double-clicking the “MPG” node,
or by pressing Ctrl+B. Click the Downstream or Upstream tab.
MPG
Downsteam
Center Frequency
MPG
Downsteam
Modulation
MPO
Downsteam
Center Frequency
MPG
Transmission
Power
MPG
Downsteam
Bandwidth
MPG
Downsteam
Symbol Rate
Note: If DS parameter is being changed you have to change the same parameter
manually in every IO with the ConfigIO software.
64
MegaPort Manager
IO Upstream
Frequency
IO Upstream
Bandwidth
IO Upstream
Symbol Rate
MPG Receiving
Level
IO Upstream
Modulation
Note: If US parameter is being changed the change will take effect
for the IO automatically.
65
MegaPort Manager - Tips
By clicking on the column header of the detail pane, the user can
sort in ascending or descending order.
To add remove columns, you can either right-click the columns
header or click on the ‘View’ menu, and then choose ‘Customize
Current View…’.
To change column order, you can either use ‘drag and drop’ and
move the header left/right, or use the form opened by ‘Customize
Current View…’, mark the field you want to change, and press
‘Move Up’ or ‘Move Down’.
If the message box ‘Request Timed Out’
appears often, it could mean that the
SNMP Session parameters ‘Time Out’
or ‘No. of Retries’ are too low.
You can change this in the ‘Application Setting’ form, which can
be opened from the View-> Settings menu or using Ctrl + T.
F5 and the ‘Refresh’ toolbar button don’t refresh all data
presented in the main window. They refresh only data that are
likely to change, such as counters. To make a full refresh, you
must click on the ‘View’ menu, and choose ‘Refresh All’.
If some IOs or Users were deleted by someone else after you
connected to a specific MPG the application will not update these
changes even if a full refresh is done. You have to disconnect
from the MPG, and then reconnect to it, and then the new
configuration window will be updated.
66
MegaPort Manager - Troubleshooting
How to verify that the IO is working properly
Important: All these steps are related to a MPG that has other
MPO’s that are working properly
Connect the PC to the MPO and the ping the RF port of the MPG
@ 192.168.0.1. No response, go to #1.
1. E
nsure the MPO MAC is defined in the system using the
MegaPort Manager Software.
2. O
pen the ConfigIO and verify a green light in the link status.
If the light is red press the summary tab and observe if the IO
parameters are matching this MPG, If it matches, check for
DS RF problem.
3. C
heck the RF cable connection- check the cable is connected
properly.
4. P
ress the Monitor RF status tab and observe if the upstream
power is stable. If it is not stable check for US RF problem
5. O
n the PC, observe that the IO-NETWORK-DEVICE receives an
IP from the DHCP server. Open a DOS window type “ipconfig/
release” and then “ipconfig/renew”.
6. In the ConfigIO software, go to IO settings, click the “Automatic
US Power “(Uncheck the box √ ) Enter 10 at the “Static US
Power Value”, and click set.
7. C
lick the “Automatic US Power “ (Uncheck the box √ again )
and click set, observe if the upstream power is stable. If it is
not stable continue to number 8. Open a DOS window, type
“ipconfig/release” and then “ipconfig/renew”.
8. Connect this IO to another PC.
9. C
onnect this IO at another known good location that has been
tested with a PC.
67
Addressable Products
Addressable off-premise interdiction can be used in a total deployment where all homes are controlled by interdiction, or a limited
deployment where a subset of homes are controlled. The “interdiction” terminology comes from the fact that the interfering or
jamming signal is introduced into the premium channel at the
subscriber’s location, not at the headend as with conventional
scrambling systems.
There are four addressable product lines:
- VideoMask™ Interdiction (VMI)
- TV Channel Blocker (TVCB)
- TV Channel Blocker Parental Controlled (TVCB-PC)
-Subscriber Module Interdiction (SMI)
(Formerly known as Scientific Atlanta addressable interdiction system.)
- Addressable Multi-Port Tap Interdiction Unit (AMT)
For each product line, the following information is provided:
1.System Design
2.Installation
3.Troubleshooting
For additional information from previous Reference Guide versions, please visit our
website: www.blondertongue.com
68
69
120 MHz
(210-284 MHz)
(120-170 MHz)
108 MHz
5 channels
174 MHz
216 MHz
12 channels
(180-249 MHz)
(114-177 MHz)
300 MHz
(252-321 MHz)
Osc 3
(Chs 29-40)
12 channels
11 channels
Highband
Osc 8
(Chs 2-6)
300 MHz
(312-381 MHz)
12 channels
Osc 4
(Chs 39-50)
(288-366 MHz)
(372-453 MHz)
Osc 6
(Chs 61-74)
550 MHz
(496-596 MHz)
17 channels
9473-2
(Chs 70-86)
550 MHz
(516-597 MHz)
14 channels
Osc 7
(Chs 73-86)
600 MHz
600 MHz
600 MHz
(496-650 MHz)
27 channels
9468
(Chs 70-94, 100)
550 MHz
(458-548 MHz)
(444-453 MHz)
450 MHz
14 channels
Osc 5
(Chs 64 - 78)
15 channels
14 channels
450 MHz
Osc 5
(Chs 49-62)
(366-458 MHz)
Osc 4
(Chs 48 - 63)
16 channels
Osc 3
(Chs 35 - 47)
450 MHz
13 channels
300 MHz
Osc 2
(Chs 8-13, 23-28)
Midband
Osc 1
(Chs 99, 14 - 22, 7)
Lowband
216 MHz
13 channels
9 channels
174 MHz
Osc 2
(Chs 13, 23 - 34)
Osc 1
(Chs 14 - 22)
Highband
216 MHz
(321-513 MHz)
(54-85, 114-321 MHz)
174 MHz
30 channels
(350-512 MHz)
9472
(Chs 38-72)
(216-350 MHz)
(120-170 MHz)
27 channels
9465
(Chs 46-72)
9471
(Chs 2-40)
23 channels
40 channels
9463
(Chs 23-45)
9 channels
Highband
9461-2
(Chs 14-22)
Midband
Midband
120 MHz
Lowband
TVCB (54-85 MHz)
SMI
VMI
Lowband
650 MHz
650 MHz
650 MHz
Jamming Capability
Each Addressable Field Unit consists of various oscillator
configurations that are used to generate the jamming signals. Each
oscillator may be shared among multiple channels within a set band
of frequencies. The VMI, SMI and TVCB oscillator configurations are
shown below for example.
VMI System Design
VMI Directional Coupler (DC) Table
0, 4, 8, 11, 14, 17 dB
Insertion Loss 0 4 6 8 11 14 17
5 MHz:
NA 4.03.0 2.11.31.71.1 dB
54 MHz: NA 3.32.9 1.20.8.08.06 dB
550 MHz: NA 4.34.2 2.31.41.31.0 dB
750 MHz: NA 4.84.5 2.71.71.71.1 dB
860 MHz: NA 4.74.5 2.92.01.81.4 dB
VMI Equalizer (EQ) Table
VMI-CEQ8V 860 MHz Equalizers
EQ
Value
Tilt Comp @ 860 MHz
Loss @ 54 MHz
Loss @ 550 MHz
Loss @
Loss @
750 MHz 860 MHz
-4
-2.56
-1.12
-2.37
-3.19
-3.68
-3
-1.87
-0.97
-1.96
-2.50
-2.84
-2
-1.23
-0.65
-1.15
-1.54
-1.88
-1
-0.87
-0.03
-0.31
-0.67
-0.90
0
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
1
1.07
-1.52
-1.23
-0.60
-0.46
2
1.89
-2.23
-1.24
-0.16
-0.35
3
2.88
-3.05
-1.38
-0.10
-0.17
4
3.47
-3.81
-2.01
-0.79
-0.35
5
3.86
-4.35
-2.13
-0.94
-0.49
6
4.45
-4.85
-2.32
-0.80
-0.40
7
5.42
-5.67
-2.42
-0.62
-0.25
8
5.99
-6.37
-2.00
-0.79
-0.38
9
7.08
-7.21
-2.68
-0.68
-0.13
10
7.47
-7.89
-2.94
-0.90
-0.43
11
8.21
-8.55
-3.24
-0.96
-0.34
12
9.01
-9.25
-1.60
-0.51
-0.24
13
9.85
-10.27
-4.00
-1.32
-0.42
14
10.76
-10.89
-1.37
-0.36
-0.14
15
11.18
-11.30
-1.40
-0.36
-0.13
16
12.04
-12.29
-1.63
-0.55
-0.25
17
12.69
-12.87
-1.50
-0.48
-0.18
18
13.64
-13.84
-1.86
-0.56
-0.20
19
14.36
-14.52
-1.75
-0.50
-0.16
20
14.94
-15.15
-1.92
-0.58
-0.21
Note: For additional design information, see the 2000 CATV Reference Guide found
on our website: www.blondertongue.com
70
VMI System Design
VMI Power Consumption
Current Consumption (mA)
Volts (VAC)
1 Jammer
Module
w/2 Jammer
Modules
w/3 Jammer
Modules
45.00
325
410
515
50.00
330
375
465
55.00
310
355
420
60.00
295
360
390
65.00
240
315
385
70.00
230
300
360
75.00
220
285
340
80.00
205
265
325
85.00
195
255
310
90.00
190
245
295
VMI Installation
Power Supply Pinout
Pin#
7
Voltage 28 VDC
6
5
4
3
2
1
NOT
NOT 12 VDC GND 6.2 VDC GND 60 VAC
USED
USED
11.4
6.1
45
Minimum
26.0
Maximum
30.0
12.6
71
6.3
60
TVCB Systems Design
Insertion Loss Specifications for Equalizers (EQ)
EQ
Value
-4
-3
-2
-1
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
VMI-CEQ8V 860 MHz Equalizers
Tilt Comp Loss @ Loss @ Loss @ Loss @
@ 860 MHz 54 MHz 550 MHz 750 MHz 860 MHz
-2.56
-1.87
-1.23
-0.87
0.00
1.07
1.89
2.88
3.47
3.86
4.45
5.42
5.99
7.08
7.47
8.21
9.01
9.85
10.76
11.18
12.04
12.69
13.64
14.36
14.94
-1.12
-0.97
-0.65
-0.03
0.00
-1.52
-2.23
-3.05
-3.81
-4.35
-4.85
-5.67
-6.37
-7.21
-7.89
-8.55
-9.25
-10.27
-10.89
-11.30
-12.29
-12.87
-13.84
-14.52
-15.15
-2.37
-1.96
-1.15
-0.31
0.00
-1.23
-1.24
-1.38
-2.01
-2.13
-2.32
-2.42
-2.00
-2.68
-2.94
-3.24
-1.60
-4.00
-1.37
-1.40
-1.63
-1.50
-1.86
-1.75
-1.92
-3.19
-2.50
-1.54
-0.67
0.00
-0.60
-0.16
-0.10
-0.79
-0.94
-0.80
-0.62
-0.79
-0.68
-0.90
-0.96
-0.51
-1.32
-0.36
-0.36
-0.55
-0.48
-0.56
-0.50
-0.58
-3.68
-2.84
-1.88
-0.90
0.00
-0.46
-0.35
-0.17
-0.35
-0.49
-0.40
-0.25
-0.38
-0.13
-0.43
-0.34
-0.24
-0.42
-0.14
-0.13
-0.25
-0.18
-0.20
-0.16
-0.21
Note: F
or the EQ Loss table @ 750 MHz, please visit our website:
www.blondertongue.com
72
TVCB Systems Design
Power Consumption
The TVCB can be powered a number of ways:
1.House powered via 120VAC outlet:
Power consumption 11.8W @ 24VAC (550 mA)
2.Auxiliary or Line Powered:
Power consumption 8.0W @ 60VAC (200 mA)
8.8W @ 90VAC (150 mA)
Below are the power consumptions of the TVCB:
Volts
Curr.
Watts
24.00 580 mA 11.8
60.00 200 mA
8.0
90.00 150 mA
8.8
73
TVCB Systems Design
Power Selection
Power
Supply
Power
Select
RF Board
Equalizer
Forward
Attenuator
Return
Attenuator
RF In
RF Out
60/90
Aux Power
Jammer/Controller
Board
74
TVCB Installation
Power Selection
Feeder Power
P1
J 11
P1
J 12
P2
J 14
P1
J 13
3 2
House Power
P1
J 11
P1
J 12
P1
J 13
P2
J 14
2 1
P1
Auxillary Power
P2
P1
J 11
P1
J 12
P1
J 13
P2
J 14
3 2
Position A
60/90 VAC
Network Powering
Position B
26 VAC
House Powering
75
TVCB Installation
Tightening Sequence
1
3
4
2
Tightening:
Use a criss-cross pattern to tighten the housing bolts.
Tighten closure bolts between 5-7 ft. lbs.
TVCB Troubleshooting
Fault Action - Pulse Disconnect
Pulse Disconnect has the following codes to identify which fault
has occurred:
•
•
•
•
•
Tamper
Unit Time Out
Unit Address
Calibration
EEPROM
1 Flash of Disconnect
2 Flashes of Disconnect
3 Flashes of Disconnect
4 Flashes of Disconnect
5 Flashes of Disconnect
76
TVCB-PC (Parental Controlled)
System Design
TV Channel Blocker Parental Controlled (TVCB-PC) enables cable
television customers to block unwanted channels when they
presently lack the equipment necessary to prevent unwanted
channels from being viewed.
The TVCB-PC provides channel blocking (ch. 2-86) to all televisions
in the dwelling. The TVCB-PC is a stand alone unit that has push
button control inside, that allows you to change blocked channels
quickly and easily without cable company reprogramming.
8VWaZIK;ZZY
IK87"E8
G;
G;>C
G;DJI
G;l$7adX`^c\
G;l$7adX`^c\
IK&
IK)
IK(
IK
HA>J
IK'
IK87
EdlZgEVX`
Note: T he TVCB-PC Self Install/Consumer (#9111) is an end user ready unit
conditioned for home installaton and does not require measurment of
RF input levels or adjustments to EQ or AT's.
77
EdlZg
TVCB-PC Installation
1.Determine mounting location, install screws for wall mounting
bracket
2.Determine power source location and power supply option,
position P1 appropriately
3.Power the unit, from RF Input, Subscriber Port, or Auxiliary Port
(default from the factory)
4.Measure RF Input Levels at the tap port of the external
Directional Coupler (Channels 2 & 78)
Note: W
hen measuring input levels, check adjacent channels for response
flatness, use the highest value when selecting plug-in values
Minimum Input Requirements
• 9.0 dBmV @ 54 MHz (Ch. 2)
• 15.0 dBmV @ 550 MHz (Ch. 78) 5. If required for application,
select Attenuator (AT) & Equalizer (EQ) from chart
5. Items 6 - 9 are not required for the 9111
F
o
r
6. Plug-in appropriate EQ and Fwd AT
7. Verify AGC Voltage
3.1 VDC optimum; 3.0 – 3.2 VDC acceptable
F
o
r
8. Verify unit RF Output Levels
9
1
1
0
Subscriber Port Output
• 10.0 dBmV @ 54 MHz (Ch. 2)
• 16.0 dBmV @ 600 MHz (Ch. 78)
O
n
l
y
10. Select Parental Controlled Channels to be Blocked
(do not block more than 4 channels sequentially)
9. Adjust EQ and AT (if necessary)
11. Verify blocked and unblocked channels at output port
12. E
ducate the customer on how to change blocked
channels on the unit, leave customer pamphlet
78
9
1
1
0
O
n
l
y
TVCB-PC Installation
79
TVCB-PC Installation
Power Selection - 9110
The TVCB-PC can be powered from the RF Input, Subscriber
Port, or Auxiliary Port (default). The unit is configured for HOUSE
POWER from the factory.
Power Supply Voltages & Power Selection
Use Jumper located on the power supply board to select between
26 or 60/90 VAC input.
B
A
PS Jumper, From
Factory Set to B
A = 60/90 VAC
B = 26 VAC (House)
NOT
REQUIRED
FOR 9111
Power Supply Jumper Determines Voltage
Automatic Gain Control
Broadband AGC using carriers in 140 - 240 MHz range with
dynamic range of ±3 dB.
TVCB-PC Troubleshooting
In case of failure, the small round LED may flash 4 times.
Please refer to the Instruction Manual for further information
80
SMI System Design
750 MHz Directional Coupler (DC) Insertion Loss
DC Feeder (through) Insertion Loss
Tap Loss
Reverse Path
DC Value
Stock #
291659
291611
378224
378225
562958
562959
562960
562961
562962
562963
562964
562965
562966
562967
562968
562969
562970
562971
562972
562973
562974
562975
562976
562977
0.0
1.0
2.0
3.0
4.0
5.0
6.0
7.5
9.0
10.5
12.0
13.5
15.0
16.5
18.0
19.5
21.0
22.5
24.0
25.5
27.0
28.5
30.0
31.5
5 MHz
40 MHz
Forward Path
51 MHz 550 MHz 750 MHz
Terminating Terminating
Terminating Terminating
Terminating Terminating
Terminating Terminating
2.5
2.5
3.5
3.9
4.2
2.4
2.4
3.5
3.9
4.2
2.3
1.8
2.1
2.4
2.7
2.3
1.8
2.1
2.5
2.7
2.1
1.4
1.4
2.1
2.4
2.1
1.4
1.4
2.1
2.4
1.4
1.0
0.8
1.3
1.7
1.4
1.0
0.8
1.3
1.7
1.2
0.8
0.8
1.3
1.7
1.2
0.8
0.7
1.1
1.4
1.3
0.8
0.7
1.1
1.4
1.3
0.8
0.7
1.1
1.4
1.3
0.8
0.7
1.1
1.4
1.3
0.8
0.7
1.1
1.4
1.3
0.8
0.7
1.1
1.4
1.3
0.8
0.7
1.1
1.4
1.3
0.8
0.7
1.1
1.4
1.3
0.8
0.7
1.1
1.4
1.3
0.8
0.7
1.1
1.4
1.3
0.8
0.7
1.1
1.4
81
SMI System Design
(DC) Coupled Port Loss
DC Coupled Port Loss*
Tap LossReverse Path
DC Value
0.0
1.0
2.0
3.0
4.0
5.0
6.0
7.5
9.0
10.5
12.0
13.5
15.0
16.5
18.0
19.5
21.0
22.5
24.0
25.5
27.0
28.5
30.0
31.5
Stock #
5 MHz
291659
291611
378224
378225
562958
562959
562960
562961
562962
562963
562964
562965
562966
562967
562968
562969
562970
562971
562972
562973
562974
562975
562976
562977
0.3
0.8
1.8
2.8
8.2
8.8
6.7
7.7
9.5
0.4
12.0
13.5
15.0
16.4
17.8
19.6
20.9
22.3
23.9
25.5
26.8
28.3
29.8
30.9
Forward Path
40 MHz 51 MHz 550 MHz 750 MHz
0.8
1.3
2.3
3.3
6.1
7.0
7.5
8.4
10.5
11.3
12.8
14.3
15.7
17.1
18.4
20.2
21.4
22.9
24.5
26.1
27.4
28.8
30.3
31.3
0.7
1.7
2.7
3.7
5.4
6.3
7.0
8.0
10.2
11.1
12.7
14.2
15.6
17.0
18.4
20.2
21.4
22.9
24.5
26.2
27.4
29.0
30.5
31.6
0.7
1.7
2.7
3.7
5.2
6.4
7.4
8.3
9.3
10.0
11.1
12.3
13.3
14.8
15.1
16.4
17.1
18.3
19.5
21.5
22.1
22.8
23.4
23.7
* A
ll forward and reverse DC coupled port losses include the additional
loss of the duplex filter.
82
0.7
1.7
2.7
3.7
5.3
6.7
9.8
10.6
9.4
9.9
11.6
12.2
13.4
14.6
14.3
15.6
15.9
16.9
17.8
20.3
20.5
20.4
20.5
20.4
SMI System Design
750 MHz Equalizer Insertion Loss
EQ Value
-9.0
-7.5
-6.0
-4.5
-3.0
-1.5
0.0
1.5
3.0
4.5
6.0
7.5
9.0
10.5
12.0
13.5
15.0
16.5
18.0
19.5
Stock #
51 MHz
562996
562995
562994
562993
562992
562991
566057
562978
562979
562980
562981
562982
562983
562984
562985
562986
562987
562988
562989
562990
2.7
1.9
1.4
1.6
0.1
0.1
0.1
1.9
2.9
4.1
5.4
6.5
7.5
8.8
10.0
11.4
12.2
13.6
14.7
15.6
83
550 MHz 750 MHz
9.1
7.5
5.9
4.4
2.7
1.3
0.1
1.2
1.3
1.5
1.8
1.9
2.1
2.5
2.9
3.4
3.3
3.8
3.8
4.0
10.4
8.5
6.2
4.8
3.0
1.5
0.2
0.9
0.8
0.8
0.9
0.7
0.7
0.9
1.0
1.3
0.9
1.0
0.8
0.9
SMI System Design
4-Port Power Consumption *
Housing Only
w/2 Module
w/4 Modules
Volts Current Watts Current Watts Current Watts
35.00
40.00
45.00
50.00
55.00
60.00
65.00
70.00
75.00
80.00
85.00
90.00
0.09
0.08
0.08
0.07
0.07
0.07
0.06
0.06
0.06
0.07
0.07
0.07
2.35
2.45
2.56
2.64
2.73
2.88
3.04
3.04
3.04
3.15
3.25
3.36
0.26
0.23
0.20
0.19
0.18
0.17
0.16
0.15
0.15
0.14
0.14
0.13
7.74
7.85
7.95
7.99
8.02
8.04
8.06
8.25
8.44
8.52
8.61
8.69
0.50
0.43
0.37
0.33
0.30
0.28
0.26
0.24
0.23
0.22
0.21
0.21
*Measurements are adjusted to compensate for changes over temperature.
84
14.74
14.25
13.76
13.60
13.44
13.30
13.17
13.43
13.69
13.81
13.94
14.07
SMI System Design
8-Port Power Consumption *
Housing Only
w/2 Module
w/4 Modules
Volts Current Watts Current Watts Current Watts
35.00
40.00
45.00
50.00
55.00
60.00
65.00
70.00
75.00
80.00
85.00
90.00
Volts
35.00
40.00
45.00
50.00
55.00
60.00
65.00
70.00
75.00
80.00
85.00
90.00
0.18
0.17
0.15
0.14
0.13
0.13
0.13
0.13
0.13
0.13
0.13
0.13
5.25
5.20
5.15
5.27
5.40
5.48
5.57
5.85
6.13
6.44
6.76
7.08
0.36
0.32
0.28
0.26
0.25
0.23
0.22
0.22
0.21
0.21
0.21
0.20
10.33
10.36
10.40
10.50
10.61
10.71
10.82
11.08
11.34
11.66
11.98
12.31
0.57
0.50
0.43
0.50
0.36
0.34
0.32
0.30
0.29
0.28
0.26
0.25
16.74
16.24
15.75
18.80
15.65
15.77
15.90
16.03
16.17
16.31
16.45
16.59
w/6 Modules
w/8 Modules
Current Watts Current Watts
0.80
0.71
0.62
0.57
0.52
0.48
0.45
0.44
0.43
0.41
0.39
0.37
22.58
22.39
22.20
22.02
21.84
21.68
21.53
21.70
21.88
22.09
22.30
22.51
0.97
0.84
0.71
0.65
0.59
0.55
0.51
0.49
0.47
0.45
0.44
0.43
85
28.81
27.96
27.11
26.84
26.57
26.81
27.05
27.02
26.99
27.21
27.43
27.66
* Measurements are
adjusted to
compensate for
changes over
temperature.
SMI Installation
Torque Patterns
Start Here
1
4-PORT
3
2
4
Start Here
1
8-PORT
3
5
6
2
4
86
SMI Installation
Strand Mount (4-port) Configurations
ED
Signal
Direction
D
MEN
Forward
Signal
COM
RE
J2
Thru
J1
In
Pedestal Mount (4-port) Configurations
ED
D
MEN
OM
REC
J2
Thru
J1
In
Foward
Signal
Foward
Signal
87
SMI Installation
Balancing and Alignment
The SMI unit has a series of jumpers whose position is determined
by the RF and AC status of the unit. The selection of DC
determines the RF status: values 0, 1, 2, or 3 dB are terminating
and the remaining DCs (4-31.5 dB) are non-terminating DC's.
3
1
2
PS
4
Scenario 1 Scenario 2 Scenario 3 Scenario 4
DC Value
4-31.5 dB
4-31.5 dB
4-31.5 dB
0, 1, 2, 3 dB
AC Termination
No
Yes
Yes
Yes
RF Termination
No
No
Yes - Add 75 Yes - DC
Ohm Term Term
Input Seizure Block
J1 Only
J1 or J2
J1 Only
J1 Only
Jumper Configuration P1 - Leave
P1 - Leave P1 - Leave
P1 - Pull
P2 - Leave
P2 - Pull
P2 - Leave
P5 - Discard P5 - Discard P5 - Discard P5 -
88
P2 - Leave
Install
Term Board
SMI Installation
Passing Power to the Home
Some 750 MHz SMI units and subscriber modules are capable of
passing 37-90 VAC power to each subscriber port. This capability
provides power to a telephony or data network interface unit
(NIU)/customer interface unit (CIU).
• If a CIU is not in the home: Make sure during installation that
power is not present at the subscriber port. Use the proper 750
MHz housing/power supply/subscriber module combination so as
not to pass power.
• If a CIU is in the home: Power passes from the subscriber port to
the CIU, so install the optional power passing jumper P/N 568839
in the direction indicated on the subscriber module P/N 564265.
Passing Power to Unused Feeder Ports
If 750 MHz housing is equipped with a...
You can use...
non-power passing any subscriber module.
power supply
power passing
P/N 564265 (without optional power
power supply
passing jumper installed), or P/N 566024 (no power passing capability).
CAUTION
If no CIU is present at the subscriber drop, do not
install a power passing subscriber module in a
750 MHz housing equipped with a power passing
power supply or severe damage to the subscribers
TV or VCR may result.
SMI Troubleshooting
Diagnostics
The SMI unit has factory default parameters that immediately
activate all ports upon initial installation. There are no jamming
frequencies assigned at the factory. This allows the full spectrum of
channels to pass, “in the clear,” to the subscriber drop port once
you install a sub module.
• Tamper
1 Flash
• Refresh Timer 2 Flashes
• VCO Failure 4 Flashes
89
AMT System Design
LGTC Directional Couplers, Insertion Loss
Frequency LTC0 LTC4 LTC7 LTC10 LTC13 LTC16 LTC19 LTC22 LTC25
AVE
5 N/A
3.75
1.67
1.19 0.80
0.93
0.60
0.60
0.60
10 N/A
3.65
1.68
1.25 0.85
1.02
0.65
0.65
0.65
30 N/A
3.45
1.48
1.02 0.66
0.75
0.50
0.50
0.50
40 N/A
3.45
1.49
1.02 0.67
0.75
0.50
0.50
0.50
50 N/A
3.45
1.50
1.01 0.67
0.75
0.50
0.50
0.50
100 N/A
3.55
1.58
1.06 0.73
0.80
0.55
0.06
0.55
300 N/A
3.91
1.85
1.23 0.88
0.93
0.70
0.70
0.70
450 N/A
4.08
2.05
1.35 0.98
1.02
0.80
0.80
0.80
550 N/A
4.15
2.19
1.42 1.04
1.08
0.87
0.87
0.87
650 N/A
4.20
2.32
1.51 1.12
1.15
0.95
0.95
0.95
750 N/A
4.23
2.43
1.60 1.20
1.22
1.05
1.05
1.05
860 N/A
4.26
2.54
1.72 1.31
1.30
1.15
1.15
1.15
1000 N/A
4.30
2.68
1.90 1.45
1.40
1.30
1.30
1.30
MAX
5
10
30
40
50
100
300
450
550
650
750
860
1000
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
4.00
3.80
3.75
3.75
3.75
3.80
4.10
4.30
4.40
4.50
4.53
4.65
4.70
1.90
1.90
1.85
1.80
1.80
1.80
2.10
2.35
2.50
2.65
2.80
2.95
3.15
1.40
1.40
1.20
1.20
1.20
1.25
1.45
1.60
1.70
1.80
1.90
2.03
2.20
90
1.10
1.10
0.90
0.90
0.90
0.90
1.07
1.20
1.29
1.38
1.47
1.58
1.70
1.20
1.20
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.15
1.25
1.33
1.42
1.50
1.60
1.70
0.85
0.90
0.70
0.70
0.70
0.70
0.85
1.00
1.10
1.20
1.30
1.40
1.55
0.85
0.90
0.70
0.70
0.70
0.70
0.85
1.00
1.10
1.20
1.30
1.40
1.55
0.85
0.90
0.70
0.70
0.70
0.70
0.85
1.00
1.10
1.20
1.30
1.40
1.55
AMT System Design
LGT 8-Port Tap Losses
Frequency LTC0 LTC4 LTC7 LTC10 LTC13
AVE
17.4
22.8
5 10.1 13.2
19.9
17.4
22.8
10 10.1 13.2
19.9
17.3
22.7
30 10.0 13.2
19.7
17.3
22.7
40 10.0 13.2
19.7
10.0
13.2
17.3
22.7
50
19.7
17.3
22.8
100 10.0 13.3
19.8
17.6
23.2
300 10.5 13.6
20.1
17.8
23.3
450 10.8 14.0
20.2
17.9
23.4
550 11.1 14.3
20.3
18.3
23.7
650 11.3 14.7
20.5
18.9
24.1
750 11.6 15.1
20.9
19.5
24.5
860 11.9 15.5
21.2
20.5
25.0
1000 12.2 16.3
21.7
MAX
20.7
23.6
18.2
5 10.9 14.0
20.7
23.6
18.2
10 10.9 14.0
20.5
23.5
18.1
30 10.8 14.0
20.4
23.5
18.1
40 10.8 14.0
20.5
23.4
18.0
50 10.7 13.9
20.8
23.5
18.0
100 10.7 14.0
21.0
23.9
18.3
300 11.2 14.3
21.2
24.1
18.6
450 11.5 14.8
51.5
24.3
18.8
550 12.0 15.2
22.0
24.7
19.3
650 12.3 15.7
16.2
22.0
25.2
12.7
20.0
750
22.5
25.8
20.8
860 13.2 16.8
23.3
26.6
22.1
1000 13.8 17.9
91
LTC16 LTC19 LTC22 LTC25
26.2
26.2
26.0
26.0
26.0
26.1
26.3
26.5
26.5
26.8
27.2
27.6
28.1
29.4
29.4
29.3
29.2
29.2
29.3
29.5
29.5
29.5
29.7
30.1
30.5
31.0
32.5
32.5
32.4
32.3
32.3
32.4
32.5
32.4
32.3
32.5
33.1
33.8
34.6
35.5
35.4
35.3
35.2
35.2
35.3
35.4
35.6
35.5
35.8
36.5
37.4
38.3
27.0
27.0
26.8
26.8
26.7
26.8
27.0
27.3
27.4
27.8
28.3
28.9
29.7
30.2
30.2
30.1
30.0
29.9
30.0
30.2
30.3
30.4
30.7
31.2
31.8
32.6
33.3
33.3
33.2
33.1
33.0
33.1
33.2
33.2
33.2
33.5
34.2
35.1
36.2
36.3
36.2
36.1
35.9
35.9
36.0
36.1
36.4
36.4
36.8
37.6
38.7
39.9
AMT System Design
AMT Tap Losses
Frequency LTC0 LTC4 LTC7 LTC10 LTC13 LTC16 LTC19 LTC22 LTC25
AVE
24.0
5 11.3
14.4
21.1
27.4
30.6
33.7
36.7
18.6
23.6
10 10.9
14.0
20.7
27.0
30.2
33.3
36.2
18.2
23.9
30 11.2
14.4
20.9
27.2
30.5
33.6
36.5
18.5
24.2
40 11.5
14.7
21.2
27.5
30.7
33.8
36.7
18.8
24.4
50 11.7
14.9
21.4
27.7
30.9
34.0
36.9
19.0
24.9
100 12.1
15.4
21.9
28.2
31.4
34.5
37.4
19.4
25.6
300 12.9
16.0
22.5
28.7
31.9
34.9
37.8
20.0
25.4
450 12.9
16.1
22.3
28.6
31.6
34.5
37.7
19.9
25.0
550 12.7
15.9
21.9
28.1
31.1
33.9
37.1
19.5
25.3
650 12.9
16.3
22.1
28.4
31.3
34.1
37.4
19.9
25.2
750 12.7
16.2
22.0
28.3
31.2
34.2
37.6
20.0
25.3
860 12.7
16.3
22.0
28.4
31.3
34.6
38.2
20.3
26.1
1000 13.3
17.4
22.8
29.2
32.1
35.7
39.4
21.6
MAX
37.5
28.2
24.8
21.9
19.4
34.5
31.4
15.2
5 12.1
37.0
27.8
24.4
21.5
19.0
34.1
31.0
14.8
10 11.7
37.3
28.0
24.7
21.7
19.3
34.4
31.3
15.2
30 12.0
37.4
28.3
25.0
21.9
19.6
34.6
31.5
15.5
40 12.3
37.6
28.4
25.1
22.2
19.7
34.7
31.6
15.6
50 12.4
38.1
28.9
25.6
22.9
20.1
35.2
32.1
16.1
100 12.8
38.5
29.4
26.3
23.4
20.7
35.6
32.6
16.7
300 13.6
38.5
29.4
26.2
23.3
20.7
35.3
32.4
16.9
450 13.6
38.0
29.0
25.9
53.1
20.4
34.8
32.0
16.8
550 13.6
38.4
29.4
26.3
23.6
20.9
35.1
32.3
17.3
650 13.9
38.7
29.4
26.3
21.1
23.1
35.3
32.3
17.3
750 13.8
39.5
29.7
26.6
21.6
23.3
35.9
32.6
17.6
860 14.0
41.0
27.7
30.8
23.2
24.4
37.3
33.7
19.0
1000 14.9
92
RF OUT
RF IN
Aerial Port
93
Pedestal Port
Switch
Common Port
Coupler
Aerial Port
Common Port Out, Aerial
Pedestal Port
Switch
Coupler
Common Port In, Aerial
Common Port
RF IN
RF OUT
RF IN
RF OUT
RF IN
RF OUT
Aerial Port
Pedestal Port
Switch
Common Port
Coupler
Aerial Port
Common Port Out, Pedestal
Pedestal Port
Switch
Coupler
Common Port In, Pedestal
Common Port
AMT Installation
Mounting Configurations
AMT Installation
Mounting Configurations
Switch Blade
Connector
Terminal
Aerial
Configuration
Pedestal
Configuration
Center
Post
Pedestal
Post
94
Aerial
Post
Platform
PCB
Basic Cable Theory Useful Technical Data
The Decibel
The decibel (dB) provides a means of representing large power
ratios as manageable, small numbers, and allows the overall gains
and losses in a module or a network to be calculated by addition
and subtraction, rather than by multiplication and division.
The original unit is the Bel (named after Alexander Graham Bell).
The decibel is one-tenth of a Bel. The power ratio of two power
measurements is calculated as follows:
Ratio of power P1 to power P2, in dB:
The power ratio of two voltage measurements is calculated as follows:
Power ratio of voltage V1 to voltage V2, in dB:
Voltage Confusion
dBmV and dBµV expressions of power contain an upper case V.
This does not mean they are expressions of voltage. They are
expressions of power. When all the power scales (dBm, dBmV and
dBµV) are laid next to each other, it is easy to see that each track
on a dB for dB basis.
95
Power Conversions
dBmV
A power measurement of ‘x dBmV’ indicates that a particular
signal is x dB greater than (‘above’) 1 millivolt in 75 ohms. A
negative dBmV value indicates that the signal is x dB less than
(‘below’) 1 millivolt in 75 ohms.
To convert x millivolts to dBmV:
dBµV
Similarly, a measurement of ‘x dBµV’ indicates that the signal is x
dB above one microvolt in 75 ohms.
To convert x microvolts to dBµV:
To convert dBmV to dBµV, add 60 to the dBmV reading:
dBm
A measurement of ‘x dBm’ indicates that a particular signal is x dB
greater than (‘above’) 1 milliwatt. A negative dBm value indicates
that the signal is x dB less than (‘below’) 1 milliwatt.
To convert x milliwatts to dBm:
96
Power Conversion
A power level, in dBmV, can be converted directly to power in
dBm, if the impedance, Z. is known:
To convert x dBmV directly to dBm:
The inverse operation is also possible if impedance is known:
To convert dBm directly to dBmV:
Impedance Mismatch
It frequently happens that the input impedance of a measuring
device (spectrum analyzer; field strength meter, etc.) does not match
the impedance of the system under test. In such a case, a correction
must be made to the reading displayed on the instrument.
Where Zi is the impedance of the instrument, and Zs is the
impedance of the system under test.
97
Standard Resistor Color Codes and Values
FIRST
SECOND
BLACK =0
BROWN =1
RED =2
ORANGE =3
YELLOW =4
GREEN =5
BLUE =6
VIOLET =7
GRAY =8
WHITE =9
BLACK =0
BROWN =1
RED =2
ORANGE =3
YELLOW =4
GREEN =5
BLUE =6
VIOLET =7
GRAY =8
WHITE =9
MULTIPLICATION
SILVER
GOLD
BLACK
BROWN
RED
ORANGE
YELLOW
GREEN
BLUE
MULTIPLY BY 0.01
MULTIPLY BY 0.1
MULTIPLY BY 1
MULTIPLE BY 10
MULTIPLY BY 100
MULTIPLY BY 1000
MULTIPLY BY 10000
MULTIPLY BY 100000
MULTIPLY BY 1000000
TOLERANCE
GOLD
SILVER
NOBAND
Insulated
Resistor Body
= ± 5%
= ± 10%
= ± 20%
± 5% Standard Resistor Values (Ohm) Commonly available values. Values
from 10 Ohm to 22 Mega Ohm by powers of 10.
1.0*
1.1
1.2*
1.3
1.5*
1.6
1.8*
2.0*
2.2
2.4
2.7*
3.0
3.3*
3.6
3.9*
4.3
4.7*
5.1
98
5.6*
6.2
6.8*
7.5
8.2
9.1
Standard Resistor Color Codes and Values
±1% Standard Resistor Values (Ohm)
Values from 10 Ohm to 22 Mega Ohm by powers of 10.
10.0
10.2
10.5
10.7
11.0
11.3
11.5
11.8
12.1
12.4
12.7
13.0
13.3
13.7
14.0
14.3
14.7
15.0
15.4
15.8
16.2
16.5
16.9
17.4
17.8
18.2
18.7
19.1
19.6
20.0
20.5
21.0
21.5
22.1
22.6
23.2
23.7
24.3
24.9
25.5
26.1
26.7
27.4
28.0
28.7
29.4
30.1
30.9
31.6
32.4
33.2
34.0
34.8
35.7
36.5
37.4
38.3
39.2
40.2
41.2
99
42.2
43.2
44.2
45.3
46.4
47.5
48.7
49.9
51.1
52.3
53.6
54.9
56.2
57.6
59.0
60.4
61.9
63.4
64.9
66.5
68.1
69.8
71.5
73.2
75.0
76.8
78.7
80.6
82.5
84.5
86.6
88.7
90.9
93.1
95.3
97.6
System Calculations
Carrier/Cross Modulation (XM)
1. Cross Modulation for One Amplifier at Operating Level:
2. To Sum Identical Cross Modulation Ratios:
See charts & examples starting on pages 84.
3. To Sum Different Cross Modulation Ratios:
See examples starting on pages 84.
4. Cross Modulation vs Channel Loading:
XM = Cross Modulation Ratio, expressed
as a negative (-) number.
Rule: 1
dB change of the output of an amplifier
will change the cross modulation by 2 dB.
Rule: For every double the number of amplifiers
with identical cross modulation there
is a 6 dB degradation in the total
cross modulation.
FCC Requirement XM = 51 dB
100
N =Number of equal
contributors
NF = Noise Figure
-59.2 = Thermal Noise in
4 MHz Bandwidth
(dBmV)
System Calculations
Carrier/Composite Triple Beat (CTB)
1. Composite Triple Beat for One Amplifier at Operating Level:
2. To Sum Identical Composite Triple Beat Ratios:
See charts & examples starting on pages 84.
3. To Sum Different Composite Triple Beat Ratios:
See examples starting on pages 84.
4. Composite Triple Beat vs Channel Loading:
A 1 dB change of the output of an amplifier will change the CTB
ratio by 2 dB.
For every double the number of amplifiers with identical CTB,
there is a 6 dB degradation in the total CTB ratio.
FCC Requirement CTB:
Standard =51 dB
IRC = 47 dB
HRC = 47 dB
101
System Calculations
Carrier/Single Second Order Distortion (C/SSO)
1. S
ingle Second Order Beat for One Amplifier at Operating Level:
2. To Sum Identical SSO Ratios:
See charts & examples starting on pages 84.
3. To Sum Different SSO Ratios:
10
10
10
A 1 dB change of the output of an amplifier will change SSO
by 1 dB.
The 10 log assumptions shown here for second order are conservative. Some engineers use 13 log or 15 log assumptions.
FCC Requirement SSO = 51 dB
102
System Calculations
Carrier/Composite Second Order Distortion (C/CSO)
1. Composite Second Order for One Amplifier at Operating Level:
2. To Sum Identical CSO Ratios:
See charts & examples starting on pages 84.
3. To Sum Different CSO Ratios:
15
15
15
See examples starting on pages 84.
4. CSO vs Channel Loading:
A 1 dB change of the output of an amplifier will change CSO by
1 dB.
FCC Requirement CSO = 51 dB
103
System Calculations
Composite Intermodulation Noise (CIN)
It is assumed that CIN is dominated by 3rd order distortion (CIN3).
This is the case in systems with analog television channels to 550
MHz and digital video above 550 MHz.
1. C
omposite Intermodulation Noise for One Amplifier at Operating
Level.
2. To Sum Identical Composite Intermodulation Noise Ratios:
See charts & examples starting on pages 84.
3. To Sum Different Composite Intermodulation Noise Ratios:
See examples starting on pages 84.
4. To Sum Carrier/Noise and Composite Intermodulation Ratios:
Rule: C
IN behaves like CTB in a cascade of amplifiers, but it adds to the
C/N noise.
104
System Calculations
Carrier/Hum Modulation (C/H)
1. To Sum Identical Carrier/Hum Ratios:
See charts & examples starting on pages 84.
2. To Sum Different Carrier/Hum Ratios:
See examples starting on page 84.
Note: A
bove calculations assume connection of all power supplies to the
same powerline phase.
3. To Convert Percent Hum to C/H Ratio:
4. To Convert C/H Ratio to % Hum:
105
System Calculations
Carrier/Noise
1. The Carrier/Noise contribution of a single amplifier when the
Noise Figure (NF) is known:
2. To Sum Identical Carrier/Noise Ratios:
See charts & examples starting on pages 84.
3. To Sum Different Carrier/Noise Ratios:
10
10
10
See examples starting on pages 84.
4. Carrier/Noise Ratio vs Bandwidth:
Rule: For every 1 dB increase in input signal level, the C/N improves by 1 dB.
For every double the number of amplifiers with identical Carrier/Noise Ratios
there is a degradation of 3 dB in the total C/N.
N =Number of equal
FCC Requirement C/N = 43 dB
contributors
NF = Noise Figure
-59.2 =Thermal Noise
in 4 MHz
Bandwidth (dBmV)
106
System Calculations
TVRO Formulas
1. System Gain Over Temperature
Ag = Antenna Gain (dB)
AT = Antenna Temperature (˚K)
LNAT = Low Noise Amp Temperature (˚K)
2. Carrier to Noise Ratio*
3. C/N for other RxBw
4. Convert C/N to S/N*
5. Declination Angle (Polar Mount Antenna)
3964 = Radius of the Earth
22300 = Distance to Satellite Arc
L
= Site Latitude
* RxBw = 30 MHz
107
System Calculations
Aximuth and Elevation Angles
Antenna pointing angles can be calculated in degrees from true
north from the following equations:
Where ∆ is the absolute value of the difference between satellite
and TVRO site longitudes and Φ is the site latitude.
Noise Temperature & Noise Figure
Noise
Figure
(dB)
2.0
1.9
1.8
1.7
1.6
1.5
1.4
1.3
1.2
1.1
1.0
Noise
Noise
Temperature
Figure
(˚K)
(dB)
170
0.9
159
0.8
149
0.7
139
0.6
129
0.5
120
0.4
110
0.3
101
0.2
92
0.1
84
75
108
Noise
Temperature
(˚K)
67
59
51
43
35
28
21
14
7
00
System Calculations
Determining Acceptable Peak-to-Valley Deviation
To determine what degree of overall peak-to-valley deviation is
acceptable for the Nth amplifier in a cascade, use this formula.
Where x is equal to the acceptable P-V deviation and, N = number
of amplifiers in cascade.
For example, what is the maximum acceptable peak-tovalley deviation at the 32nd amplifier in a cascade?
Thus, 4.2 dB is the maximum acceptable peak-to-valley deviation
(highest peak to lowest valley in the broadband signal) at the
32nd amplifier.
109
System Calculations
Amplifier Cascade Factor
CASCADE (N)
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
C/N + SSO
CSO
CTB & XMOD
10*LOG(N) 15*LOG(N)
20*LOG(N)
0.00
0.00
0.00
3.01
4.52
6.02
4.77
7.16
9.54
6.02
9 03
12.04
6.99
10.48
13.98
7.78
11.67
15.56
8.45
12.68
16.90
9.03
13.55
18.06
9.54
14.31
19.08
10.00
15.00
20.00
10.41
15.62
20.83
10.79
16.19
21.58
11.14
16.71
22.28
11.46
17.19
22.92
11.76
17.64
23.52
12.04
18.06
24.08
12.30
18.46
24.61
12.55
18.83
25.11
12.79
19.18
25.58
13.01
19.52
26.02
13.22
19.83
26.44
13.42
20.14
26.85
13.62
20.43
27.23
13.80
20.70
27.60
13.98
20.97
27.96
110
System Calculations
Amplifier Cascade Factor - Example
The Amplifier Cascade Factor Chart (on previous page) is used
to predict performance considering the contribution of various
numbers of amplifiers. It assumes that all amplifiers are
operated at the same level (input level for noise, output level
for distortion). This is generally the case in a Unity Gain Based
System.
Example: What is the trunk CTB after 13 trunk amplifiers?
Given:1. S
ingle trunk amplifier CTB specification is 87 dB
@ 32 dBmV flat (from Manufacturers specs.)
2. T
runk output is 25 dBmV, channel 2 Trunk
output is 32 dBmV, channel 60 (7 dB linear tilt)
Step 1Re-rate performance of single amp
based on actual operating level.
Geometric tilt center = 28.5 dBmV
Add .5 dB correction factor =
29 dBmV average level
32 - 29 = 3 dB x 2 (for CTB) = 6 dB
87 dB + 6 dB = 93 dB CTB @
29 dBmV average level
Step 2Find cascade factor for CTB for 13
amps, on the chart = 22.28 dB
Step 3Subtract cascade factor from single amp operating
performance
93 dB - 22.28 = 70.72 dB
CTB = 70.72 dB after 13 amps
111
System Calculations
Note: S
umming different ratios requires a grasp of the antilog concept.
For brevity, the example shown is for CTB only, but the approach is
identical for all system distortion and noise calculations.
Determine End Of Line CTB Given The Following:
10 Trunk CTB = 65 dBc
1 Bridger CTB = 60 dBc
3 Line Extender CTB = 58 dBc
-65
-60
-58
Step 1. CTBs = 20 log (10 20 + 10 20 + 10 20 )
Step 2. CTBs = 20 log (10 -3.25 +10- 3.00 +10 - 2.90 )
CTBs 20 log (antilog -3.25 + antilog -3.00 + antilog -2.90)
Note: T o perform the operations in step 2, use the “inverse” log or “antilog”
function on most calculators. Antilog (Inverse Log) is used to re-express
the different exponent values to voltage so the amounts may be easily
summed. Don’t forget the minus sign.
-4
-3
-3
Step 3. CTBs = 20 log (5.62 x 10 + 1 x 10 + 1.26 x 10 )
-4
-4
-4
Step 4. CTBs = 20 log (5.62 x 10 + 10 x 10 + 12.6 x 10 )
-4
Step 5. CTBs = 20 log (28.12 x 10 )
CTB = 51 dBc
The 20 Log and 10 Log function derate charts & example on pages 86, 87
and 88 may also be used to sum different ratios if a scientific calculator is
not available.
112
20 Log Function Derate Chart
(use for CTB and XMOD)
diff
(dB) 0.00 0.10
0 6.02 5.97
1 5.53 5.49
2 5.08 5.03
3 4.65 4.61
4 4.25 4.21
5 3.88 3.84
6 3.53 3.50
7 3.21 3.18
8 2.91 2.88
9 2.64 2.61
10 2.39 2.36
11 2.16 2.13
12 1.95 1.93
13 1.75 1.74
14 1.58 1.56
15 1.42 1.41
16 1.28 1.26
17 1.15 1.14
18 1.03 1.02
19 0.92 0.91
20 0.83 0.82
21 0.74 0.73
22 0.66 0.66
23 0.59 0.59
24 0.53 0.53
25 0.48 0.47
26 0.42 0.42
27 0.38 0.38
28 0.34 0.34
29 0.30 0.30
30 0.27 0.27
31 0.24 0.24
32 0.22 0.21
33 0.19 0.19
34 0.17 0.17
35 0.15 0.15
36 0.14 0.14
37 0.12 0.12
38 0.11 0.11
39 0.10 0.10
40 0.09 0.09
SUBTRACTION VALUES
0.20 0.30 0.40 0.50 0.60
5.92 5.87 5.82 5.77 5.73
5.44 5.39 5.35 5.30 5.26
4.99 4.95 4.90 4.86 4.82
4.57 4.53 4.49 4.45 4.41
4.17 4.13 4.10 4.06 4.02
3.80 3.77 3.73 3.70 3.66
3.46 3.43 3.40 3.36 3.33
3.15 3.12 3.09 3.06 3.03
2.85 2.83 2.80 2.77 2.74
2.59 2.56 2.53 2.51 2.48
2.34 2.32 2.29 2.27 2.25
2.11 2.09 2.07 2.05 2.03
1.91 1.89 1.87 1.85 1.83
1.72 1.70 1.68 1.67 1.65
1.55 1.53 1.51 1.50 1.48
1.39 1.38 1.36 1.35 1.33
1.25 1.24 1.22 1.21 1.20
1.12 1.11 1.10 1.09 1.08
1.01 1.00 0.99 0.98 0.96
0.90 0.89 0.88 0.87 0.86
0.81 0.80 0.79 0.78 0.77
0.73 0.72 0.71 0.70 0.69
0.65 0.64 0.64 0.63 0.62
0.58 0.57 0.57 0.56 0.56
0.52 0.51 0.51 0.50 0.50
0.46 0.46 0.45 0.45 0.44
0.42 0.41 0.41 0.40 0.40
0.37 0.37 0.36 0.36 0.35
0.33 0.33 0.32 0.32 0.32
0.30 0.29 0.29 0.29 0.28
0.26 0.26 0.26 0.26 0.25
0.24 0.23 0.23 0.23 0.23
0.21 0.21 0.21 0.20 0.20
0.19 0.19 0.18 0.18 0.18
0.17 0.17 0.16 0.16 0.16
0.15 0.15 0.15 0.14 0.14
0.13 0.13 0.13 0.13 0.13
0.12 0.12 0.12 0.12 0.11
0.11 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.10
0.09 0.09 0.09 0.09 0.09
0.08 0.08 0.08 0.08 0.08
113
0.70
5.68
5.21
4.78
4.37
3.98
3.63
3.30
3.00
2.72
2.46
2.22
2.01
1.81
1.63
1.47
1.32
1.19
1.06
0.95
0.86
0.77
0.69
0.61
0.55
0.49
0.44
0.39
0.35
0.31
0.28
0.25
0.22
0.20
0.18
0.16
0.14
0.13
0.11
0.10
0.09
0.08
0.80
5.63
5.17
4.73
4.33
3.95
3.60
3.27
2.97
2.69
2.44
2.20
1.99
1.79
1.61
1.45
1.31
1.17
1.05
0.94
0.85
0.76
0.68
0.61
0.54
0.49
0.43
0.39
0.35
0.31
0.28
0.25
0.22
0.20
0.18
0.16
0.14
0.12
0.11
0.10
0.09
0.08
0.90
5.58
5.12
4.69
4.29
3.91
3.56
3.24
2.94
2.66
2.41
2.18
1.97
1.77
1.60
1.44
1.29
1.16
1.04
0.93
0.84
0.75
0.67
0.60
0.54
0.48
0.43
0.38
0.34
0.31
0.27
0.24
0.22
0.19
0.17
0.15
0.14
0.12
0.11
0.10
0.09
0.08
10 Log Function Derate Chart
(use for CNR and SSO)
diff
(dB) 0.00 0.10
0 3.01 2.96
1 2.54 2.50
2 2.12 2.09
3 1.76 1.73
4 1.46 1.43
5 1.19 1.17
6 0.97 0.95
7 0.79 0.77
8 0.64 0.63
9 0.51 0.50
10 0.41 0.40
SUBTRACTION VALUES
0.20 0.30 0.40 0.50 0.60 0.70 0.80 0.90
2.91 2.86 2.81 2.77 2.72 2.67 2.63 2.58
2.45 2.41 2.37 2.32 2.28 2.24 2.20 2.16
2.05 2.01 1.97 1.94 1.90 1.87 1.83 1.80
1.70 1.67 1.63 1.60 1.57 1.54 1.51 1.48
1.40 1.37 1.35 1.32 1.29 1.27 1.24 1.22
1.15 1.12 1.10 1.08 1.06 1.04 1.01 0.99
0.93 0.91 0.90 0.88 0.86 0.84 0.82 0.81
0.76 0.74 0.73 0.71 0.70 0.68 0.67 0.65
0.61 0.60 0.59 0.57 0.56 0.55 0.54 0.53
0.49 0.48 0.47 0.46 0.45 0.44 0.43 0.42
0.40 0.39 0.38 0.37 0.36 0.35 0.35 0.34
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
0.33
0.27
0.21
0.17
0.14
0.11
0.09
0.07
0.05
0.04
0.32
0.26
0.21
0.17
0.13
0.11
0.08
0.07
0.05
0.04
0.32
0.25
0.20
0.16
0.13
0.10
0.08
0.07
0.05
0.04
0.31
0.25
0.20
0.16
0.13
0.10
0.08
0.06
0.05
0.04
0.30
0.24
0.19
0.15
0.12
0.10
0.08
0.06
0.05
0.04
0.30
0.24
0.19
0.15
0.12
0.10
0.08
0.06
0.05
0.04
0.29
0.23
0.19
0.15
0.12
0.09
0.07
0.06
0.05
0.04
0.28
0.23
0.18
0.14
0.12
0.09
0.07
0.06
0.05
0.04
0.28
0.22
0.18
0.14
0.11
0.09
0.07
0.06
0.05
0.04
0.27
0.22
0.17
0.14
0.11
0.09
0.07
0.06
0.04
0.04
21
22
23
24
25
0.03
0.03
0.02
0.02
0.01
0.03
0.03
0.02
0.02
0.01
0.03
0.03
0.02
0.02
0.01
0.03
0.03
0.02
0.02
0.01
0.03
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.01
0.03
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.01
0.03
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.01
0.03
0.02
0.02
0.01
0.01
0.03
0.02
0.02
0.01
0.01
0.03
0.02
0.02
0.01
0.01
114
Combining Two X-MOD or CTB Performance
Ratings (20 Log)
10 Trunk CTB = 65 dBc
Using dB Subtraction Values
1 Bridger CTB = 60 dBc
Line Extender CTB = 58 dBc
The 20 log & 10 log derate
charts are used to sum different
ratios. The following example demonstrates how:
Step 1 Sum Trunk and Bridger CTB
1.1Find the dB difference between the
two ratios (65-60=5 dB)
1.2Look up the derate (dB Subtraction) for 5.0
dB difference in the chart (3.88 dB)
1.3Derate the poorer of the two CTB ratios
by this amount (60-3.9=56.1 dBc)
Step 2Sum the Sum of Trunk and Bridger from
Step 1 with the line extenders
2.1Find the dB difference between the
two ratios (58-56.12=1.88)
2.2Look up the derate (dB Subtraction)
for 1.88 dB difference in the chart
(5.12) (round 1.88 up to 1.9).
2.3Derate the poorer of the two CTB ratios
by this amount (56.12 - 5.12 = 51.0 dBc)
Combining Two CNR or SSO Performance Ratings
(10 Log)
Using dB Subtraction Values
10 Trunk CNR = 56.5 dB
1 Bridger CNR = 65 dB
Example: C
ombine trunk and bridger
CNR to find the resultant CNR
at the Bridger output (no line extenders).
dB difference = 65-56.5 = 8.5 dB
dB subtraction figure = 0.6 dB
Bridger output CNR = 56.5-0.6 = 55.9 dB
So then, the resultant CNR measure is about 55.9 dB.
115
Beat Packet Quantity
Frequency
330 MHz
40 Channels
CTB CSO
450 MHz
60 Channels
CTB CSO
55.25
225
2
615
61.25
240
2
640
67.25
251
2
661
77.25
36
25
56
83.25
36
24
56
121.25
368
2
868
127.25
384
2
894
133.25
398
2
918
139.25
409
2
939
145.25
420
2
960
151.25
429
2
979
157.25
438
2
998
163.25
445
2 1015
169.25
452
2 1032
175.25
458
2 1048
181.25
464
2 1064
187.25
469
3 1079
193.25
473
3 1093
199.25
476
3 1106
205.25
478
3
1118
211.25
479
3
1129
217.25
479
3
1139
223.25
478
3
1148
229.25
476
3
1156
235.25
473
3 1163
241.25
469
4 1169
247.25
464
4 1174
253.25
458
5 1178
259.25
451
5 1181
265.25
443
6 1183
271.25
435
6 1184
277.25
427
7 1184
283.25
419
7 1183
289.25
410
8 1181
295.25
400
8 1178
301.25
389
9 1174
307.25
377
9 1169
313.25
364
10 1163
319.25
349
10 1156
325.25
331
11
1148
331.25
1139
337.25
1129
343.25
1118
349.25 1106
355.25 1093
361.25 1079
367.25 1064
373.25 1048
379.25 1031
385.25 1013
391.25
995
397.25
977
403.25
959
409.25
940
415.25
920
2
2
2
45
44
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
4
4
5
5
6
6
7
7
8
8
9
9
10 10 11
11
12
12
13
13
14
14
15 15 16
16
17
17
18
18
550 MHz
77 Channels
CTB CSO
1104
1137
1167
73
73
1450
1485
1517
1547
1576
1604
1631
1657
1682
1707
1731
1755
1777
1799
1819
1839
1857
1875
1891
1907
1921
1935
1947
1959
1969
1979
1987
1995
2001
2007
2011
2015
2017
2019
2019
2019
2017
2015
2011
2007
2001
1995
1987
1979
1969
1959
1947
1935
1921
1907
Continued...
116
2
2
2
62
61
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
4
4
5
5
6
6
7
7
8
8
9
9
10
10
11
11
12
12
13
13
14
14
15
15
16
16
17
17
18
18
600 MHz
85 Channels
CTB CSO
1384
1421
1455
81
81
1774
1813
1849
1883
1916
1948
1979
2009
2038
2067
2095
2123
2149
2175
2199
2223
2245
2267
2287
2307
2325
2343
2359
2375
2389
2403
2415
2427
2437
2447
2455
2463
2469
2475
2479
2483
2485
2487
2487
2487
2485
2483
2479
2475
2469
2463
2455
2447
2437
2427
2
2
2
70
69
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
4
4
5
5
6
6
7
7
8
8
9
9
10
10
11
11
12
12
13
13
14
14
15
15
16
16
17
17
18
18
750 MHz
110 Channels
CTB CSO
2465
2515
2561
106
106
2993
3044
3093
3139
3185
3229
3273
3315
3357
3398
3439
3479
3518
3556
3593
3629
3664
3698
3731
3763
3794
3824
3853
3881
3908
3934
3959
3983
4006
4028
4049
4069
4088
4106
4123
4139
4154
4168
4181
4193
4204
4214
4223
4231
4238
4244
4249
4253
4256
4258
2
2
2
95
94
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
4
4
5
5
6
6
7
7
8
8
9
9
10
10
11
11
12
12
13
13
14
14
15
15
16
16
17
17
18
18
Beat Packet Quantity
330 MHz
450 MHz
550 MHz
600 MHz
750 MHz
40 Channels 60 Channels 77 Channels 85 Channels 110 Channels
Frequency CTB CSO
CTB CSO CTB CSO
CTB CSO
CTB CSO
421.25
899
19 1891
19
2415
19
427.25
877
19 1875
19
2403
19
433.25
854 20 1857
20
2389
20
439.25
829 20 1839
20
2375
20
445.25
801
21 1819
21
2359
21
451.25 1799
21
2343
21
457.25 1777
22
2325
22
463.25 1755
22
2307
22
469.25 1731
23
2287
23
475.25 1707
23
2267
23
481.25 1681
24
2245
24
487.25 1655
24
2223
24
493.25 1628
25
2199
25
499.25 1602
25
2175
25
505.25 1575
26
2149
26
511.25 1548
26
2123
26
517.25 1519
27
2095
27
523.25 1490
27
2067
27
529.25 1459
28
2037
28
535.25 1428
28
2007
28
541.25 1394
29
1976
29
547.25 1358
29
1946
29
553.25
1915
30
559.25
1884
30
565.25
1851
31
571.25
1818
31
577.25
1783
32
583.25
1748
32
589.25
1710
33
595.25
1670
33
601.25
607.25
613.25
619.25
625.25
631.25
637.25
643.25
649.25
655.25
661.25
667.25
673.25
679.25
685.25
691.25
697.25
703.25
709.25
715.25
721.25
727.25
733.25
739.25
745.25
117
4259
4259
4258
4256
4253
4249
4244
4238
4231
4223
4214
4204
4193
4181
4168
4154
4139
4123
4106
4088
4069
4049
4028
4006
3983
3959
3934
3908
3881
3853
3824
3794
3763
3731
3698
3664
3629
3593
3556
3518
3479
3439
3398
3356
3313
3270
3227
3184
3140
3095
3049
3002
2954
2904
2851
19
19
20
20
21
21
22
22
23
23
24
24
25
25
26
26
27
27
28
28
29
29
30
30
31
31
32
32
33
33
34
34
35
35
36
36
37
37
38
38
39
39
40
40
41
41
42
42
43
43
44
44
45
45
46
Fiber Optics
Fiber Loss vs Path Length - Single Mode @1550 nm
118
Fiber Optics
Siecor MIC™ Cable Fiber Identification Guide
(SOLID)
1 -1O
1 Blue
2 Orange
3 Green
4 Brown
5 Slate
6 White
7 Red
8 Black
9 Yellow
10 Violet
(DASHED)
11 -20
11 Blue + Black Dash
12 Orange+ Black Dash
13 Green+ Black Dash
14 Brown+ Black Dash
15 Slate+ Black Dash
16 White+ Black Dash
17 Red+ Black Dash
18 Black+ White Dash
19 Yellow+ Black Dash
20 Violet+ Black Dash
(STRIPED)
21-30
21 Blue + Black Stripe
22 Orange+ Black Stripe
23 Green+ Black Stripe
24 Brown+ Black Stripe
25 Slate+ Black Stripe
26 White+ Black Stripe
27 Red+ Black Stripe
28 Black+ White Stripe
29 Yellow+ Black Stripe
30 Violet+ Black Stripe
Standard Single Mode Fiber
Wavelength
1310 nm
1550 nm
Attenuation
0.35 dB/km
0.24 dB/km
Dispersion
3 ps/(nm•km)
19 ps/(nm•km)
Wavelength Division Multiplexers (WDM)
Wavelengths
Bandpass
Insertion Loss
Directivity
1310/1550 nm
+ 20 nm
< 0.5 dB
≥ 60 dB
Amphenol Optical Connectors
Insertion Loss
Back Reflection
SC-FC/APC
≤ 0.3 dB
≤ -65 dB
119
Super SC-FC/PC
≤ .15 dB
≤ -45 dB
Fiber Optics
Converting MW to DBM
Use the conversion table below, to convert milliwatts (mW) to
decibel milliwatts (dBm).
mW
dBm
mW
dBm
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1.0
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4
1.5
1.6
1.7
1.8
1.9
-10.0
-6.99
-5.23
-3.97
-3.00
-2.20
-1.55
-0.96
-0.45
0.00
0.41
0.79
1.14
1.46
1.76
2.04
2.30
2.55
2.79
2.0
3.0
4.0
5.0
6.0
7.0
8.0
9.0
10.0
11.0
12.0
13.0
14.0
15.0
16.0
17.0
18.0
19.0
20.0
3.01
4.77
6.02
6.99
7.78
8.45
9.03
9.54
10.00
10.41
10.79
11.14
11.46
11.76
12.04
12.30
12.55
12.79
13.01
120
Fiber Optics
Transmitter Design Tool
FIBT/MIBT-S3A-8XX & FIBT-10-1550
The optimal RF input level needed at the transmitter is based on
channel loading. Find the channel loading figure on the X axis
on the chart below. Follow this intersection across to the Y axis
to determine the RF input level. This is the level that you need to
apply to the transmitter to ensure a quality signal for your channel
loading configuration. 121
Fiber Optics
FRDA/FRRA Series RF Attenuation Requirements
The RF output level from the optical receiver module varies considerably over its operational optical input range. It is also dependent upon
the transmitter’s channel loading, its resultant RF input level and the
FRRA/FRDA RF output capability. In order not to overload the amplifier section input, an internal attenuator must be installed. To find the
recommended attenuator value, first determine the receivers optical input level as noted in the "Input Optical Power”. Refer to the
Configuration Table below, locate the power monitor voltage or
input dBm in the left hand columns. Read across on the corresponding row to find the value required.
G
R
E
E
N
L
E
D
Model
FRRA-S4A-860P
CH. Loading
110 CH.
Output Level
34/42
Optical Input
dBm mW
Increase Optical Input Power
-10 0.10
Orange Optical LED Indication
-9
0.13
-8
0.16
-7
0.20
-6
0.25
0 dB
-5
0.32
2 dB
-4
0.40
4 dB
-3
0.50
Recommended 6 dB
-2
0.63
8 dB
Attenuator
-1
0.79
10 dB
Value
0
1.00
12 dB
1
1.26
14 dB
2
1.58
16 dB
3
2.00
18 dB
4
2.51
Decrease Optical Input Power
5
3.16
Red Optical LED Indication
122
Fiber Optics
FIBT Design Tool
Laser Power Monitor
This jack allows accurate measurements of the optical output
power with a standard voltmeter. The voltage is scaled at 0.1VDC
per mW of optical output.
herefore, mW = VDC x 10. T
Output level in dBm = 10 x LOG(mW). Example: A 1.0 VDC reading is therefore a 10 mW or 10 dBm of optical output power. Refer to the table below.
0.1 V/mW
VDC
0.25
0.32
0.40
0.50
0.63
0.79
1.00
1.26
1.59
2.00
2.51
3.16
3.98
Laser Power Monitor
dBm
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
123
mW
2.51
3.16
3.98
5.01
6.31
7.94
10.00
12.59
15.85
19.95
25.12
31.62
39.81
Fiber Optics
Optical Coupler Design Tool
Coupler Ports
Ratio
Loss (dB)
1 x 2
50/50
3.6/3.6
40/60
4.7/2.7
30/70
6.0/1.9
20/80
7.9/1.2
10/90
11.3/0.6
5/95
15.1/0.5
Coupler Ports
Ratio
Loss (dB)
1 x 3
33/33/33
6.0/6.0/6.0
40/30/30
4.7/6.4/6.4
50/25/25
3.6/7.3/7.3
60/20/20
2.7/8.4/8.4
70/15/15
1.9/9.6/9.6
80/10/10
1.2/11.3/11.3
Coupler Ports
1 x 4
Coupler Ports
1 x 6
Coupler Ports
1 x 8
Ratio
Loss (dB)
25% per port
7.3 per port
Ratio
Loss (dB)
16.6% per port
9.7 per port
Ratio
Loss (dB)
12.5% per port
10.8 per port
124
Frequency Charts
CATV Channels, North America
EIA
CH.
T7
T8
T9
T10
T11
T12
T13
T14
2
3
4
A8
5
6
A5
A4
A3
A2
A1
A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
I
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
J
K
L
CH.
none
none
none
none
none
none
none
none
02
03
04
01
05
06
95
96
97
98*
99*
14*
15*
16*
17
18
19
20
21
22
07
08
09
10
11
12
13
23
24*
25*
Standard
Video
Audio
7.0000 11.5000
13.0000 17.5000
19.0000 23.5000
25.0000 29.5000
31.0000 35.5000
37.0000 41.5000
43.0000 47.5000
49.0000 53.5000
55.2500 59.7500
61.2500 65.7500
67.2500 71.7500
NA
N A
77.2500 81.7500
83.2500 87.7500
91.2500 95.7500
97.2500 101.7500
103.2500 107.7500 109.2750 113.7750
115.2750 119.7750
121.2625 125.7625
127.2625 131.7625
133.2625 137.7625
139.2500 143.7500
145.2500 149.7500
151.2500 155.7500
157.2500 161.7500
163.2500 167.7500
169.2500 173.7500
175.2500 179.7500
181.2500 185.7500
187.2500 191.7500
193.2500 197.7500
199.2500 203.7500
205.2500 209.7500
211.2500 215.7500
217.2500 221.7500
223.2500 227.7500 229.2625 233.7625
Incremental
Video
Audio
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
55 2625 59.7625
61.2625 65.7625
67.2625 71.7625
73.2625 77.7625
79.2625 83.7625
85.2625 89.7625
91.2625 95.7625
97.2625 101.7625
103.2625 107.7625
109.2750 113.7750
115.2750 119.7750
121.2625 125.7625
127.2625 131.7625
133.2625 137.7625
139.2625 143.7625
145.2625 149.7625
151.2625 155.7625
157.2625 161.7625
163.2625 167.7625
169.2625 173.7625
175.2625 179.7625
181.2625 185.7625
187.2625 191.7625
193.2625 197.7625
199.2625 203.7625
205.2625 209.762
211.2625 215.7625
217.2625 221.7625
223.2625 227.7625
229.2625 233.7625
Harmonic
Video
Audio
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
54.0027 58.5027
60.0030 64.5030
66.0033 70.5030
72.0036 76.5036
78.0039 82.5039
84.0042 88.5042
90.0045 94.5045
96.0048100.5048
102.0051106.5051
Cannot lock to comb
ref: refer to FCC regs
120.0060124.5060
126.0063 130.5063
132.0066 136.5066
138.0069 142.5069
144.0072 148.5072
150.0075 154.5075
156.0078 160.5078
162.0081 166.5081
168.0084 172.5084
174.0087 178.5087
180.0090 184.5090
186.0093 190.5093
192.0096 196.5096
198.0099202.5099
204.0102 208.5102
210.0105 214.5105
216.0108 220.5108
222.0111 226.5111
228.0114 232.5114
* Means aeronautical channels visual carrier frequency tolerance ± 5 kHz
125
Frequency Charts
CATV Channels, North America
EIA
CH.
M
N
O
P
Q
R
S
T
U
V
W
AA
BB
CC
DD
EE
FF
GG
HH
II
JJ
KK
LL
MM
NN
00
PP
QQ
RR
SS
TT
UU
VV
WW
XX
YY
ZZ
AAA
CH.
26*
27*
28*
29*
30*
31*
32*
33*
34*
35*
36*
37*
38*
39*
40*
41*
42*
43*
44*
45*
46*
47*
48*
49*
50*
51*
52*
53*
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
Standard
Video
235.2625
241.2625
247.2625
253.2625
259.2625
265.2625
271.2625
277.2625
283.2625
289.2625
295.2625
301.2625
307.2625
313.2625
319.2625
325.2625
331.2750
337.2625
343.2625
349.2625
355.2625
361.2625
367.2625
373.2625
379.2625
385.2625
391.2625
397.2625
403.2500
409.2500
415.2500
421.2500
427.2500
433.2500
439.2500
445.2500
451.2500
457.2500
Audio
239.7625
245.7625
251.7625
257.7625
263.7625
269.7625
275.7625
281.7625
287.7625
293.7625
299.7625
305.7625
311.7625
317.7625
323.7625
329.7625
335.7750
341.7625
347.7625
353.7625
359.7625
365.7625
371.7625
377.7625
383.7625
389.7625
395.7625
401.7625
407.7500
413.7500
419.7500
425.7500
431.7500
437.7500
443.7500
449.7500
455.7500
461.7500
Incremental
Video
235.2625
241.2625
247.2625
253.2625
259.2625
265.2625
271.2625
277.2625
283.2625
289.2625
295.2625
301.2625
307.2625
313.2625
319.2625
325.2625
331.2750
337.2625
343.2625
349.2625
355.2625
361.2625
367.2625
373.2625
379.2625
385.2625
391.2625
397.2625
403.2625
409.2625
415.2625
421.2625
427.2625
433.2625
439.2625
445.2625
451.2625
457.2625
Audio
239.7625
245.7625
251.7625
257.7625
263.7625
269.7625
275.7625
281.7625
287.7625
293.7625
299.7625
305.7625
311.7625
317.7625
323.7625
329.7625
335.7750
341.7625
347.7625
353.7625
359.7625
365.7625
371.7625
377.7625
383.7625
389.7625
395.7625
401.7625
407.7625
413.7625
419.7625
425.7625
431.7625
437.7625
443.7625
449.7625
455.7625
461.7625
Harmonic
Video
Audio
234.0117 238.5117
240.0120 244.5120
246.0123 250.5123
252.0126 256.5126
258.0129 262.5129
264.0132 268.5132
270.0135 274.5135
276.0138 280.5138
282.0141 286.5141
288.0144 292.5144
294.0147 298.5147
300.0150 304.5150
306.0153 310.5153
312.0156 316.5156
318.0159 322.5159
324.0162 328.5162
330.0165 334.5165
336.0168 340.5168
342.0168 346.5168
348.0168 352.5168
354.0168 358.5168
360.0168 364.5168
366.0168 370.5168
372.0168 376.5168
378.0168 382.5168
384.0168 388.5168
390.0168 394.5168
396.0168 400.5168
402.0201406.5201
408.0204 412.5204
414.0207 418.5207
420.0210 424.5210
426.0213 430.5213
432.0216 436.5216
438.0219 442.5219
444.0222448.5222
450.0225454.5225
456.0228460.5228
* Means aeronautical channels visual carrier frequency tolerance ± 5 kHz
126
Frequency Charts
CATV Channels, North America
EIA
CH.
BBB
CCC
DDD
EEE
FFF
GGG
HHH
III
JJJ
KKK
LLL
MMM
NNN
000
PPP
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
CH.
64
65
66
67
68
69
70
71
72
73
74
75
76
77
78
79
80
81
82
83
84
85
86
87
88
89
90
91
92
93
94
100
101
102
103
104
105
106
Standard
Video
Audio
463.2500 467.7500
469.2500 473.7500
475.2500 479.7500
481.2500 485.7500
487.2500 491.7500
493.2500 497.7500
499.2500 503.7500
505.2500 509.7500
511.2500 515.7500
517.2500 521.7500
523.2500 527.7500
529.2500 533.7500
535.2500 539.7500
541.2500 545.7500
547.2500 551.7500
553.2500 557.7500
559.2500 563.7500
565.2500 569.7500
571.2500 575.7500
577.2500 581.7500
583.2500 587.7500
589.2500 593.7500
595.2500 599.7500
601.2500 605.7500
607.2500 611.7500
613.2500 617.7500
619.2500 623.7500
625.2500 629.7500
631.2500 635.7500
637.2500 641.7500
643.2500 647.7500
649.2500 653.7500
655.2500 659.7500
661.2500 665.7500
667.2500 671.7500
673.2500 677.7500
679.2500 683.7500
685.2500 689.7500 Incremental
Video
Audio
463.2625 467.7625
469.2625 473.7625
475.2625 479.7625
481.2625 485.7625
487.2625 491.7625
493.2625 497.7625
499.2625 503.7625
505.2625 509.7625
511.2625 515.7625
517.2625 521.7625
523.2625 527.7625
529.2625 533.7625
535.2625 539.7625
541.2625 545.7625
547.2625 551.7625
553.2625 557.7625
559.2625 563.7625
565.2625 569.7625 571.2625 575.7625
577.2625 581.7625
583.2625 587.7625
589.2625 593.7625
595.2625 599.7625
601.2625 605.7625
607.2625 611.7625
613.2625 617.7625
619.2625 623.7625
625.2625 629.7625
631.2625 635.7625
637.2625 641.7625
643.2625 647.7625
649.2625 653.7625
655.2625 659.7625
661.2625 665.7625
667.2625 671.7625
673.2625 677.7625
679.2625 683.7625
685.2625 689.7625
Harmonic
Video
Audio
462.0231 466.5231
468.0234472.5234
474.0237478.5237
480.0240484.5240
486.0243490.5243
492.0246496.5246
498.0249502.5249
504.0252508.5252
510.0255 514.5255
516.0258520.5258
522.0261 526.5261
528.0264532.5264
534.0267538.5267
540.0270544.527C
546.0273550.5273
552.0276556.5276
558.0279562.5279
564.0282568.5282
570.0285574.5285
576.0288580.5288
582.0291 586.5291
588.0294592.5294
594.0297598.5297
600.0300604.5300
606.0303 610.5303
612.0306 616.5306
618.0309622.5309
624.0312 628.5312
630.0315 634.5315
636.0318 640.5318
642.0321 646.5321
648.0324652.5324
654.0327658.5327
660.0330664.5330
666.0333670.5333
672.0336676.5336
678.0339682.5339
684.0342688.5342
* Means aeronautical channels visual carrier frequency tolerance ± 5 kHz
127
Frequency Charts
CATV Channels, North America
EIA
CH.
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
CH.
107
108
109
110
111
112
113
114
115
116
117
118
119
120
121
122
123
124
125
126
127
128
129
130
131
132
133
134
135
136
137
138
139
140
141
142
143
Standard
Video
691.2500
697.2500
703.2500
709.2500
715.2500
721.2500
727.2500
733.2500
739.2500
745.2500
751.2500
757.2500
763.2500
769.2500
775.2500
781.2500
787.2500
793.2500
799.2500
805.2500
811.2500
817.2500
823.2500
829.2500
835.2500
841.2500
847.2500
853.2500
859.2500
865.2500
871.2500
877.2500
883.2500
889.2500
895.2500
901.2500
907.2500
Audio
695.7500
701.7500
707.7500
713.7500 719.7500
725.7500
731.7500
737.7500
743.7500
749.7500
755.7500
761.7500
767.7500
773.7500
779.7500
785.7500
791.7500
797.7500
803.7500
809.7500
815.7500
821.7500
827.7500
833.7500
839.7500
845.7500
851.7500
857.7500
863.7500
869.7500
875.7500
881.7500
887.7500
893.7500
899.7500
905.7500
911.7500
Incremental
Video
691.2625
697.2625
703.2625
709.2625
715.2625
721.2625
727.2625
733.2625
739.2625
745.2625
751.2625
757.2625
763.2625
769.2625
775.2625
781.2625
787.2625
793.2625
799.2625
805.2625
811.2625
817.2625
823.2625
829.2625
835.2625
841.2625
847.2625
853.2625
859.2625
865.2625
871.2625
877.2625
883.2625
889.2625
895.2625
901.2625
907.2625
128
Audio
695.7625
701.7625
707.7625
713.7625
719.7625
725.7625
731.7625
737.7625
743.7625
749.7625
755.7625
761.7625
767.7625
773.7625
779.7625
785.7625
791.7625
797.7625
803.7625
809.7625
815.7625
821.7625
827.7625
833.7625
839.7625
845.7625
851.7625
857.7625
863.7625
869.7625
875.7625
881.7625
887.7625
893.7625
899.7625
905.7625
911.7625
Harmonic
Video
Audio
690.0345 694.5345
696.0348 700.5348
702.0351 706.5351
708.0354 712.5354
714.0357 718.5357
720.0360 724.5360
726.0363 730.5363
732.0366 736.5366
738.0369 742.5369
744.0372 748.5372
750.0375 754.5375
756.0378 760.5378
762.0381 766.5381
768.0384 772.5384
774.0387 778.5387
780.0390 784.5390
786.0393 790.5393
792.0396 796.5396
798.0399 802.5399
804.0402 808.5402
810.0405 814.5405
816.0408 820.5408
822.0411 826.5411
828.0414 832.5414
834.0417 838.5417
840.0420 844.5420
846.0423 850.5423
852.0426 856.5426
858.0429 862.5429
864.0432 868.5432
870.0435 874.5435
876.0438 880.5438
882.0441 886.5441
888.0444 892.5444
894.0447 898.5447
900.0450 904.5450
906.0453 910.5453
Frequency Charts
CATV Channels, North America
EIA
CH.
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
CH.
144
145
146
147
148
149
150
151
152
153
154
155
156
157
158
Standard
Video
Audio
913.2500 917.7500
919.2500 923.7500
925.2500 929.7500
931.2500 935.7500
937.2500 941.7500
943.2500 947.7500
949.2500 953.7500
955.2500 959.7500
961.2500 965.7500
967.2500 971.7500
973.2500 977.7500
979.2500 983.7500
985.2500 989.7500
991.2500 995.7500
997.25001001.7500
Incremental
Video
913.2625
919.2625
925.2625
931.2625
937.2625
943.2625
949.2625
955.2625
961.2625
967.2625
973.2625
979.2625
985.2625
991.2625
997.2625
129
Audio
917.7625
923.7625
929.7625
935.7625
941.7625
947.7625
953.7625
959.7625
965.7625
971.7625
977.7625
983.7625
989.7625
995.7625
1001.7625
Harmonic
Video
Audio
912.0456 916.5456
918.0459 922.5459
924.0462 928.5462
930.0465 934.5465
936.0468 940.5468
942.0471 946.5470
948.0474 952.5474
954.0477 958.5477
960.0480 964.5480
966.0483 970.5483
972.0486 976.5486
978.0489 982.5489
984.0492 988.5492
990.0495 994.5495
996.04981000.5498
Frequency Charts
CATV QAM Channel Center Frequency - 54 MHz to 860 MHz
EIA CH.
2
3
4
5
6
95
96
97
98
99
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
MHz
Center
Frequency
57
63
69
79
85
93
99
105
111
119
123
129
135
141
147
153
159
165
171
177
183
189
195
201
207
213
219
225
231
237
243
249
255
261
267
273
279
285
291
297
303
309
315
321
327
EIA CH.
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70
71
72
73
74
75
76
77
78
79
80
81
82
83
84
85
86
MHz
Center
Frequency
333
339
345
351
357
363
369
375
381
387
393
399
405
411
417
423
429
435
441
447
453
459
465
471
477
483
489
495
501
507
513
519
525
531
537
543
549
555
561
567
573
579
585
591
597
130
EIA CH.
87
88
89
90
91
92
93
94
100
101
102
103
104
105
106
107
108
109
110
111
112
113
114
115
116
117
118
119
120
121
122
123
124
125
126
127
128
129
130
131
132
133
134
135
MHz
Center
Frequency
603
609
615
621
627
633
639
645
651
657
663
669
675
681
687
693
699
705
711
717
723
729
735
741
747
753
759
765
771
777
783
789
795
801
807
813
819
825
831
837
843
849
855
861
Frequency Charts
Off Air Channels, North America (CCIR Standard M; NTSC)
CH.
BW (MHz)
VIDEO
Lo VHF
2
3
4
5
6
54-60
60-66
66-72
76-82
82-88
55.25
61.25
67.25
77.25
83.25
58.83
64.83
70.83
80.83
86.83
59.75
65.75
71.75
81.75
87.75
Hi VHF
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
174-180
180-186
186-192
192-198
198-204
204-210
210-216
175.25
181.25
187.25
193.25
199.25
205.25
211.25
178.83
184.83
190.83
196.83
202.83
208.83
214.83
179.75
185.75
191.75
197.75
203.75
209.75
215.75
UHF
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
470-476
476-482
482-488
488-494
494-500
500-506
506-512
512-518
518-524
524-530
530-536
536-542
542-548
548-554
554-560
560-566
566-572
572-578
578-584
584-590
590-596
596-602
602-608
608-614
614-620
471.25
477.25
483.25
489.25
495.25
501.25
507.25
513.25
519.25
525.25
531.25
537.25
543.25
549.25
555.25
561.25
567.25
573.25
579.25
585.25
591.25
597.25
603.25
609.25
615.25
474.83
480.83
486.83
492.83
498.83
504.83
510.83
516.83
522.83
528.83
534.83
540.83
546.83
552.83
558.83
564.83
570.83
576.83
582.83
588.83
594.83
600.83
606.83
612.83
618.83
475.75
481.75
487.75
493.75
499.75
505.75
511.75
517.75
523.75
529.75
535.75
541.75
547.75
553.75
559.75
565.75
571.75
577.75
583.75
589.75
595.75
601.75
607.75
613 75
619.75
131
CHROMA
AUDIO
Frequency Charts
Off Air Channels, North America (CCIR Standard M; NTSC)
CH.
BW (MHz)
VIDEO
CHROMA
UHF
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
620-626
626-632
632-638
638-644
644-650
650-656
656-662
662-668
668-674
674-680
680-686
686-692
692-698
698-704
704-710
710-716
716-722
722-728
728-734
734-740
740-746
746-752
621.25
627.25
633.25
639.25
645.25
651.25
657.25
663.25
669.25
675.25
681.25
687.25
693.25
699.25
705.25
711.25
717.25
723.25
729.25
735.25
741.25
747.25
624.83
630.83
636.83
642.83
648.83
654.83
660.83
666.83
672.83
678.83
684.83
690.83
696.83
702.83
708.83
714.83
720.83
726.83
732.83
738.83
744.83
750.83
132
AUDIO
625.75
631.75
637.75
643.75
649.75
655.75
661.75
667.75
673.75
679.75
685.75
691.75
697.75
703.75
709.75
715.75
721.75
727.75
733.75
739.75
745.75
751.75
PAL B Channels
Band
IF
I
I
I
L
L
L
L
L
L
L
L
L
L
III
III
III
III
III
III
III
III
U
U
U
U
U
U
U
U
U
U
U
U
U
U
Channel
Channel Visual Carrier Aural Carrier
Designation Designation Frequency
Frequency
Standard
Ordering
MHz
MHz
IF
IF
38.90
33.40
E2
02
48.25
53.75
E3
03
55.25
60.75
E4
04
62.25
67.75
S1
S01
105.25
110.75
S2
S02
112.25
117.75
S3
S03
119.25
124.75
S4
S04
126.25
131.75
S5
S05
133.25
138.75
S6
S06
140.25
145.75
S7
S07
147.25
152.75
S8
S08
154.25
159.75
S9
S09
161.25
166.75
S10
S10
168.25
173.75
E5
05
175.25
180.75
E6
06
182.25
187.75
E7
07
189.25
194.75
E8
08
196.25
201.75
E9
09
203.25
208.75
E10
10
210.25
215.75
E11
11
217.25
222.75
E12
12
224.25
229.75
S11
S11
231.25
236.75
S12
S12
238.25
243.75
S13
S13
245.25
250.75
S14
S14
252.25
257.75
S15
S15
259.25
264.75
S16
S16
266.25
271.75
S17
S17
273.25
278.75
S18
S18
280.25
285.75
S19
S19
287.25
292.75
S20
S20
294.25
299.75
S21
S21
303.25
308.75
S22
S22
311.25
316.75
S23
S23
319.25
324.75
S24
S24
327.25
332.75
133
PAL B Channels
Band
U
U
U
U
U
U
U
U
U
U
U
U
U
U
U
U
U
Channel
Channel Visual Carrier Aural Carrier
Designation Designation Frequency
Frequency
Standard
Ordering
MHz
MHz
S25
S26
S27
S28
S29
S30
S31
S32
S33
S34
S35
S36
S37
S38
S39
S40
S41
S25
S26
S27
S28
S29
S30
S31
S32
S33
S34
S35
S36
S37
S38
S39
S40
S41
134
335.25
343.25
351.25
359.25
367.25
375.25
383.25
391.25
399.25
407.25
415.25
423.25
431.25
439.25
447.25
455.25
463.25
340.75
348.75
356.75
364.75
372.75
380.75
388.75
396.75
404.75
412.75
420.75
428.75
436.75
444.75
452.75
460.75
468.75
PAL G Channels
Band
IV
IV
IV
IV
IV
IV
IV
IV
IV
IV
IV
IV
IV
IV
IV
IV
IV
V
V
V
V
V
V
V
V
V
V
V
V
Channel
Channel Visual Carrier Aural Carrier
Designation Designation Frequency
Frequency
Standard
Ordering
MHz
MHz
21
U21
471.25
476.75
22
U22
479.25
484.75
23
U23
487.25
492.75
24
U24
495.25
500.75
25
U25
503.25
508.75
26
U26
511.25
516.75
27
U27
519.25
524.75
28
U28
527.25
532.75
29
U29
535.25
540.75
30
U30
543.25
548.75
31
U31
551.25
556.75
32
U32
559.25
564.75
33
U33
567.25
572.75
34
U34
575.25
580.75
35
U35
583.25
588.75
36
U36
591.25
596.75
37
U37
599.25
604.75
38
U38
607.25
612.75
39
U39
615.25
620.75
40
U40
623.25
628.75
41
U41
631.25
636.75
42
U42
639.25
644.75
43
U43
647.25
652.75
44
U44
655.25
660.75
45
U45
663.25
668.75
46
U46
671.25
676.75
47
U47
679.25
684.75
48
U48
687.25
692.75
49
U49
695.25
700.75
135
PAL G Channels
Band
V
V
V
V
V
V
V
V
V
V
V
V
V
V
V
V
V
V
V
V
Channel
Channel Visual Carrier Aural Carrier
Designation Designation Frequency
Frequency
Standard
Ordering
MHz
MHz
50
U50
703.25
708.75
51
U51
711.25
716.75
52
U52
719.25
724.75
53
U53
727.25
732.75
54
U54
735.25
740.75
55
U55
743.25
748.75
56
U56
751.25
756.75
57
U57
759.25
764.75
58
U58
767.25
772.75
59
U59
775.25
780.75
60
U60
783.25
788.75
61
U61
791.25
796.75
62
U62
799.25
804.75
63
U63
807.25
812.75
64
U64
815.25
820.75
65
U65
823.25
828.75
66
U66
831.25
836.75
67
U67
839.25
844.75
68
U68
847.25
852.75
69
U69
855.25
860.75
136
PAL D Channels
Channel
Designation
Standard
IF
DS-1
DS-2
DS-3
DS-4
DS-5
Z-1
Z-2
Z-3
Z-4
Z-5
Z-6
Z-7
DS-6
DS-7
DS-8
DS-9
DS-10
DS-11
DS-12
Z-8
Z-9
Z-10
Z-11
Z-12
Z-13
Z-14
Z-15
Channel
Visual Carrier
Designation
Frequency
Ordering
MHz
IF
38.00
01
49.75
02
57.75
03
65.75
04
77.25
05
85.25
Z01
112.25
Z02
120.25
Z03
128.25
Z04
136.25
Z05
144.25
Z06
152.25
Z07
160.25
06
168.25
07
176.25
08
184.25
09
192.25
10
200.25
11
208.25
12
216.25
Z08
224.25
Z09
232.25
Z10
240.25
Z11
248.25
Z12
256.25
Z13
264.25
Z14
272.25
Z15
280.25
137
Aural Carrier
Frequency
MHz
31.50
56.25
64.25
72.25
83.75
91.75
118.75
126.75
134.75
142.75
150.75
158.75
166.75
174.75
182.75
190.75
198.75
206.75
214.75
222.75
230.75
238.75
246.75
254.75
262.75
270.75
278.75
286.75
PAL D Channels
Channel
Designation
Standard
Z-16
Z-17
Z-18
Z-19
Z-20
Z-21
Z-22
Z-23
Z-24
Z-25
Z-26
Z-27
Z-28
Z-29
Z-30
Z-31
Z-32
Z-33
Z-34
Z-35
Z-36
Channel
Visual Carrier
Designation
Frequency
Ordering
MHz
Z16
288.25
Z17
296.25
Z18
304.25
Z19
312.25
Z20
320.25
Z21
328.25
Z22
336.25
Z23
344.25
Z24
352.25
Z25
360.25
Z26
368.25
Z27
376.25
Z28
384.25
Z29
392.25
Z30
400.25
Z31
408.25
Z32
416.25
Z33
424.25
Z34
432.25
Z35
440.25
Z36
448.25
138
Aural Carrier
Frequency
MHz
294.75
302.75
310.75
318.75
326.75
334.75
342.75
350.75
358.75
366.75
374.75
382.75
390.75
398.75
406.75
414.75
422.75
430.75
438.75
446.75
454.75
PAL K Channels
Channel
Designation
Standard
IF
DS-13
DS-14
DS-15
DS-16
DS-17
DS-18
DS-19
DS-20
DS-21
DS-22
DS-23
DS-24
DS-25
DS-26
DS-27
DS-28
DS-29
DS-30
DS-31
DS-32
DS-33
DS-34
DS-35
DS-36
DS-37
DS-38
Channel
Visual Carrier
Designation
Frequency
Ordering
MHz
IF
38.00
U13
471.25
U14
479.25
U15
487.25
U16
495.25
U17
503.25
U18
511.25
U19
519.25
U20
527.25
U21
535.25
U22
543.25
U23
551.25
U24
559.25
U25
607.25
U26
615.25
U27
623.25
U28
631.25
U29
639.25
U30
647.25
U31
655.25
U32
663.25
U33
671.25
U34
679.25
U35
687.25
U36
695.25
U37
703.25
U38
711.25
139
Aural Carrier
Frequency
MHz
31.50
477.75
485.75
493.75
501.75
509.75
517.75
525.75
533.75
541.75
549.75
557.75
565.75
613.75
621.75
629.75
637.75
645.75
653.75
661.75
669.75
677.75
685.75
693.75
701.75
709.75
717.75
PAL K Channels
Channel
Designation
Standard
DS-39
DS-40
DS-41
DS-42
DS-43
DS-44
DS-45
DS-46
DS-47
DS-48
DS-49
DS-50
DS-51
DS-52
DS-53
DS-54
DS-55
DS-56
Channel
Visual Carrier
Designation
Frequency
Ordering
MHz
U39
719.25
U40
727.25
U41
735.25
U42
743.25
U43
751.25
U44
759.25
U45
767.25
U46
775.25
U47
783.25
U48
791.25
U49
799.25
U50
807.25
U51
815.25
U52
823.25
U53
831.25
U54
839.25
U55
847.25
U56
855.25
140
Aural Carrier
Frequency
MHz
725.75
733.75
741.75
749.75
757.75
765.75
773.75
781.75
789.75
797.75
805.75
813.75
821.75
829.75
837.75
845.75
853.75
861.75
PAL I Channels
HRC
Channel
Designation
Standard
IF
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
Channel
Designation
Ordering
IF
01
02
03
04
05
06
07
08
09
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
Visual Carrier
Frequency
(MHz)
38.90
56.00
64.00
72.00
80.00
88.00
96.00
104.00
112.00
120.00
128.00
136.00
144.00
152.00
160.00
168.00
176.00
184.00
192.00
200.00
208.00
216.00
224.00
232.00
240.00
248.00
256.00
264.00
272.00
280.00
288.00
296.00
304.00
312.00
320.00
328.00
141
Aural Carrier
Frequency
(MHz)
32.90
62.00
70.00
78.00
86.00
94.00
102.00
110.00
118.00
126.00
134.00
142.00
150.00
158.00
166.00
174.00
182.00
190.00
198.00
206.00
214.00
222.00
230.00
238.00
246.00
254.00
262.00
270.00
278.00
286.00
294.00
302.00
310.00
318.00
326.00
334.00
PAL I Channels
HRC
Channel
Designation
Standard
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
Channel
Designation
Ordering
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
Visual Carrier
Frequency
(MHz)
336.00
344.00
352.00
360.00
368.00
376.00
384.00
392.00
400.00
408.00
416.00
424.00
432.00
440.00
448.00
456.00
464.00
472.00
480.00
488.00
596.00
504.00
512.00
520.00
528.00
536.00
544.00
552.00
560.00
568.00
576.00
584.00
592.00
142
Aural Carrier
Frequency
(MHz)
342.00
350.00
358.00
366.00
374.00
382.00
390.00
398.00
406.00
414.00
422.00
430.00
438.00
446.00
454.00
462.00
470.00
478.00
486.00
494.00
502.00
510.00
518.00
526.00
534.00
542.00
550.00
558.00
566.00
574.00
582.00
590.00
598.00
PAL I Channels
UHF
Channel
Designation
Standard
IF
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
Channel
Designation
Ordering
IF
U21
U22
U23
U24
U25
U26
U27
U28
U29
U30
U31
U32
U33
U34
U35
U36
U37
U38
U39
U40
U41
U42
U43
U44
U45
U46
U47
U48
U49
U50
U51
U52
Visual Carrier Aural Carrier
Frequency
Frequency
(MHz)
(MHz)
31.50
38.00
477.25
471.25
485.25
479.25
493.25
487.25
501.25
495.25
509.25
503.25
517.25
511.25
525.25
519.25
533.25
527.25
541.25
535.25
549.25
543.25
557.25
551.25
565.25
559.25
573.25
567.25
581.25
575.25
589.25
583.25
597.25
591.25
605.25
599.25
613.25
607.25
621.25
615.25
629.25
623.25
637.25
631.25
645.25
639.25
653.25
647.25
661.25
655.25
669.25
663.25
677.25
671.25
685.25
679.25
693.25
687.25
701.25
695.25
709.25
703.25
717.25
711.25
725.25
719.25
143
PAL I Channels
UHF
Channel
Designation
Standard
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
Channel
Designation
Ordering
U53
U54
U55
U56
U57
U58
U59
U60
U61
U62
U63
U64
U65
U66
U67
U68
U69
Visual Carrier Aural Carrier
Frequency
Frequency
(MHz)
(MHz)
733.25
727.25
741.25
735.25
749.25
743.25
757.25
751.25
765.25
759.25
773.25
767.25
781.25
775.25
789.25
783.25
797.25
791.25
805.25
799.25
813.25
807.25
821.25
815.25
829.25
823.25
837.25
831.25
845.25
839.25
853.25
847.25
861.25
855.25
144
FM Broadcast Channel Frequencies (MHz)
Channel Frequency Channel Frequency Channel Frequency
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
88.1
88.3
88.5
88.7
88.9
89.1
89.3
89.5
89.7
89.9
90.1
90.3
90.5
90.7
90.9
91.1
91.3
91.5
91.7
91.9
92.1
92.3
92.5
92.7
92.9
93.1
93.3
93.5
93.7
93.9
94.1
94.3
94.5
94.7
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
94.9
95.1
95.3
95.5
95.7
95.9
96.1
96.3
96.5
96.7
96.9
97.1
97.3
97.5
97.7
97.9
98.1
98.3
98.5
98.7
98.9
99.1
99.3
99.5
99.7
99.9
100.1
100.3
100.5
100.7
100.9
101.1
101.3
101.5
145
69
70
71
72
73
74
75
76
77
78
79
80
81
82
83
84
85
86
87
88
89
90
91
92
93
94
95
96
97
98
99
100
101.7
101.9
102.1
102.3
102.5
102.7
102.9
103.1
103.3
103.5
103.7
1039
104.1
104.3
104.5
104.7
104.9
105.1
105.3
105.5
105.7
105.9
106 1
1063
106.5
106.7
106.9
107.1
107.3
107.5
107.7
107.9
International Channel Standards
Country
Color
System
Broadcast
Standard
VHF UHF
PAL
PAL
PAL
NTSC
PAL
NTSC
NTSC
PAL
NTSC
NTSC
PAL
NTSC
NTSC
NTSC
PAL
NTSC
SECAM
PAL
SECAM
SECAM/PAL
SECAM
PAL
SECAM
SECAM
PAL
PAL
SECAM
SECAM
PAL
N
B
B
M
B
M
M
M
M
M
D
M
M
M
B
M
B
B
L
B
B
D
D
B
B
B
B
A
Argentina
Australia
Austria
Bahamas
Belgium
Bermuda
Bolivia
Brazil
Canada
Chile
China
China, Rep Colombia
Costa Rica
Denmark
Ecuador
Egypt
Finland
France
Germany
Greece
Hong Kong
Hungary
Hungary
India
Indonesia
Iran
Iraq
Ireland
146
N
G
G
H
M
M
M
M
G
G
L
G
G
I
K
K
G
I
Channel
Frequencies
Amer
Australian
West Euro
Amer
West Euro
Amer
Amer
Amer
Amer
Amer
Chinese
Amer
Amer
Amer
West Euro
Amer
West Euro
West Euro
French
West Euro
West Euro
West Euro
East Euro
East Euro
West Euro
West Euro
West Euro
West Euro
Irish
International Channel Standards
Country
Color
System
Broadcast
Standard
VHF UHF
PAL
PAL
W
PAL
NTSC
PAL
NTSC
SECAM
PAL
PAL
PAL
NTSC
NTSC
NTSC
SECAM
PAL
SECAM
SECAM
PAL
PAL
PAL
PAL
PAL
PAL
NTSC
NTSC
B
B
M
B
M
B
M
B
B
B
B
M
M
M
D
B
D
D
B
B
B
B
I
N
M
M
Israel
Italy
Japan
Jordan
Korea S.
Malaysia
Mexico
Morocco
Netherlands
New Zealand
Norway
Panama
Peru
Philippines
Poland
Portugal
Romania
Russia
Singapore
Spain
Sweden
Switzerland
United King.
Uruguay
USA
Venezuela
147
G
G
M
G
M
G
M
G
G
G
M
M
K
G
K
K
G
G
G
G
I
M
Channel
Frequencies
West Euro
Italian
JPN
West Euro
Amer
West Euro
Amer
Morocco
West Euro
NZ
West Euro
Amer
Amer
Amer
East Euro
West Euro
East Euro
East Euro
West Euro
West Euro
West Euro
West Euro
West Euro
Amer
Amer
Amer
CCIR Television Transmission Characteristics
For Off Air Channels
LINES
Freq.
SYSTEM (Hz)
FIELD
Freq.
(MHz)
LINE
Width
(MHz)
B/G 625
50
15,625
7/8
5
625
50
15,625
7
D/K 625
50
15,625
8
H
625
50
15,625
8
I
625
50
15,625
8
K1
625
50
15,625
8
6
L
525
50
15,625
8
6
M
525
60
15,734
6
4.2 + 4 5
0.75
NEG FM
625
50
15,625
6
4.2 + 4.5
0.75
NEG FM
C
N
CCIR: CHAN. VIDEO VID/SND
B/W Spacing Sideb
(MHz) (MHz) (MHz)
VEST
MOD
VISUAL
MOD AURAL
+ 5.5
0.75
NEG FM
5
+ 5.5
0.75
POS AM
6
+6.5
0.75
NEG FM
5
+ 5.5
1.25
NEG FM
5.5 + 6.0
1.25
NEG FM
1.25
NEG FM
+/- 6.5 1.25
POS AM
+ 6.5
Commité Consulatif International Radiocommunications
NTSC: N
ational Television Systems Committee
“Never Twice the Same Color”
PAL:
hase Alternating Lines P
“Pay for Additional Luxury”
SECAM: S
equential Color with Memory (Sequentiel Couleur Avec
Memoire)
“System Essentially Contrary to the American Method”
OIRT:
Organisation Internationale Radiodiffusion - Television
148
Cable TV Channel Format
NTSC
NTSC Composite Video Waveform
149
US Frequency Spectrum
150
FCC Aeronautical Band Frequencies
Used for Communication and Navigation
151
North American Satellite
C & Ku-Band
61.5°
61.5° W
W
63.0° W
65.0° W
70.0° W
72.0° W
72.0° W
72.5° W
74.0° W
75.0° W
76.8° W
77.0° W
79.0° W
80.9° W
82.0° W
83.0° W
83.0° W
84.0° W
85.0° W
85.1° W
87.0° W
89.0° W
91.0° W
91.0° W
92.0° W
93.0° W
95.0° W
95.0° W
97.0° W
99.0° W
99.2° W
100.7° W
101.0°
101.0° W
W
EchoStar 3
Rainbow 1
Estrela do Sul 1
Star One C1
Star One C2
Nahuel 1 (incl. 0.9°)
AMC 6
DirecTV 1R
Horizons 2
Brasilsat B1 (incl. 1.3°)
Galaxy 4R (incl. 1.8°)
EchoStar 4 (incl. 0.7°)
AMC 5
SBS 6 (incl. 0.9°)
Nimiq 2
Brasilsat B4 (moves 0.5°W/day)
AMC 9
Brasilsat B3
AMC 16
XM 3
AMC 3
Galaxy 28
Galaxy 11
Nimiq 1
Brasilsat B2
Galaxy 26
Galaxy 3C
Spaceway 3
Galaxy 25
Galaxy 16
Spaceway 2
DirecTV 11
AMC 2
AMC 4
DirecTV 4S/8
101.1° W 102.8° W 102.8° W
103.0° W 105.0° W 105.0° W
107.3° W 107.3° W
110.0° W 110.0°
W
111.1° W 112.0° W 113.0° W 114.9° W 115.0° W 116.8° W 119.0° W 119.0°
W
121.0° W 123.0° W 125.0° W 127.0° W 129.0° W 129.0°
W
131.0° W 133.0° W 135.0° W 137.0° W 139.0° W 148.0° W 148.0° W
148.0° W DirecTV 9S
Spaceway 1
DirecTV 10
AMC 1
AMC 15
AMC 18
Anik F1
Anik F1R
DirecTV 5
EchoStar 8
EchoStar 10
Anik F2
Galaxy 17 (moving 1.7°E/day)
SatMex 6
Solidaridad 2
XM 4
SatMex 5
Anik F3
EchoStar 7
DirecTV 7S
EchoStar 9/Galaxy 23
Galaxy 18
Galaxy 14
Galaxy 13/Horizons 1
EchoStar 5
Galaxy 27
AMC 11
Galaxy 15
AMC 10
AMC 7
AMC 8
EchoStar 1
EchoStar 2
For up to date info visit http://www.lyngsat.com/america.html
152
Programming Services
DISH Network™
Video/Audio Programming Service
EchoStar I = 148° W, 15 DBS Transponders
EchoStar II = 148° W, 10 DBS Transponders
EchoStar III = 61.5° W, 14 DBS Transponders
EchoStar IV = 77° W, Not in Services
EchoStar V = 129° W, 20 DBS Transponders
EchoStar VII = 119° W, 21 DBS Transponders
EchoStar VIII = 110° W, 19 DBS Transponders
EchoStar IX = 121° W, 15 Ku & 2 Ka Transponders
EchoStar X = 110° W, 10 DBS Transponders
Rainbow 1 = 61.5° W, 7 DBS Transponders
Dish Network Programming changes frequently. Please visit http://www.lyngsat.com for the latest information.
153
Programming Services
DirecTV®
Video/Audio Programming Services
DirecTV 1R = 72.5° W, 15 Transponders
DirecTV 4S = 101.0° W, 32 Transponders
DirecTV 5 = 109.8° W, 3 Transponders
DirecTV 7S = 119.0° W, 8 Transponders
DirectTV 10 = 102.8° W, 17 Ka Transponders
Spaceway-1 = 102.8° W, 6 Ka Transponders
Spaceway-2 = 99.2° W, 48 Ka Transponders
DirecTV 9S = 101.1° W
DirecTV 11 = 100.7° W
DirecTV Programming changes frequently. Please visit http://www.lyngsat.com for the latest information.
Bell ExpressVu™
Video/Audio Programming Services
Nimiq 1 = 91° W, 32 Transponders
Nimiq 2 = 82° W, 32 Transponders
Bell ExpressVu Programming changes frequently. Please visit http://www.lyngsat.com for the latest information.
154
Conversion Factors
Ohm’s Law & Joule’s Law
Ohm’s Law
V = IR
V = voltage in volts
I = current in amperes
R = resistance in ohms
Joule’s Law
P = IV
P = power in watts
I = current in amperes
V = voltage in volts
Equations Summary of Ohm’s & Joule’s Laws
Ohms Law (1863)
A Law in Electricity: the strength of a direct current is directly
proportional to the potential difference and inversely proportional
to the resistance of the circuit (Georg Simon Ohm - 1870)
155
Table of Conversions
The following table lists the conversions between voltage and
power measurements for the range of signal levels commonly
encountered in Broadband networks. The equations described on
pages 87, 88 and 89 were used in the compilation of this table.
mV dBmV dBµV dBm
0.0010 -60
0
-108.75
0.0011
-59
1
-107.75
0.0013 -58
2
-106.75
0.0014
-57
3
-105.75
0.0016 -56
4
-104.75
0.0018 -55
5
-103.75
0.0020 -54
6
-102.75
0.0022 -53
7
-101.75
0.0025 -52
8
-100.75
0.0028 -51
9
-99.75
0.0032 -50
10
-98.75
0.0035 -49
11
-97.75
0.0040 -48
12
-96.75
0.0045 -47
13
-95.75
0.0050 -46
14
-94.75
0.0056 -45
15
-93.75
0.0063 -44
16
-92.75
0.0071 -43
17
-91.75
0.0079 -42
18
-90.75
0.0089 -41
19
-89.75
0.0100 -40
20
-88.75
0.0112
-39
21
-87.75
0.0126 -38
22
-86.75
0.0141
-37
23
-85.75
0.0158 -36
24
-84.75
0.0178 -35
25
-83.75
0.0200 -34
26
-82.75
0.0224 -33
27
-81.75
0.0251 -32
28
-80.75
0.0282 -31
29
-79.75
0.0316 -30
30
-78.75
0.0355 -29
31
-77.75
0.0398 -28
32
-76.75
156
mV dBmV dBµV
0.0447 -27
33
0.0501 -26
34
0.0562 -25
35
0.0631 -24
36
0.0708 -23
37
0.0794 -22
38
0.0891 -21
39
0.1000 -20
40
0.1122
-19
41
0.1259 -18
42
0.1413
-17
43
0.1585 -16
44
0.1778 -15
45
0.1995 -14
46
0.2239 -13
47
0.2512
-12
48
0.2818
-11
49
0.3162 -10
50
0.3548
-9
51
0.3981
-8
52
0.4467
-7
53
0.5012
-6
54
0.5623
-5
55
0.6310
-4
56
0.7079
-3
57
0.7943
-2
58
0.8913
-1
59
1.0000
0
60
1.1220
1
61
1.2589
2
62
1.4125
3
63
1.5849
4
64
1.7783
5
65
dBm
-75.75
-74.75
-73.75
-72.75
-71.75
-70.75
-69.75
-68.75
-67.75
-66.75
-65.75
-64.75
-63.75
-62.75
-61.75
-60.75
-59.75
-58.75
-57.75
-56.75
-55.75
-54.75
-53.75
-52.75
-51.75
-50.75
-49.75
-48.75
-47.75
-46.75
-45.75
-44.75
-43.75
Table of Conversions
mV
1.9953
2.2387
2.5119
2.8184
3.1623
3.5481
3.9811
4.4668
5.0119
5.6234
6.3096
7.0795
7.9433
8.9125
10.0000
11.2202
12.5893
14.1254
15.8489
17.7828
19.9526
22.3872
25.1189
28.1838
31.6228
35.4813
39.8107
44.6684
50.1187
56.2341
63.0957
70.7946
79.4328
89.1251
100.0000
112.2018
125.8925
141.2538
dBmV dbµV
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
66
67
68
69
70
71
72
73
74
75
76
77
78
79
80
81
82
83
84
85
86
87
88
89
90
91
92
93
94
95
96
97
98
99
100
101
102
103
dBm
dBmV dbµV
dBm
-42.75
-41.75
-40.75
-39.75
-38.75
-37.75
-36.75
-35.75
-34.75
-33.75
-32.75
-31.75
-30.75
-29.75
-28.75
-27.75
-26.75
-25.75
-24.75
-23.75
-22.75
-21.75
-20.75
-19.75
-18.75
-17.75
-16.75
-15.75
-14.75
-13.75
-12.75
-11.75
-10.75
-9.75
-8.75
-7.75
-6.75
-5.75
158.4893 44
104
177.8279 45
105
199.5262 46
106
223.8721 47
107
251.1886 48
108
273.8420 48.75 108.75
281.8383 49
109
316.2278 50
110
354.8134 51
111
398.1072 52
112
446.6836 53
113
501.1872 54
114
562.3413 55
115
630.9573 56
116
707.9458 57
117
794.3282 58
118
891.2509 59
119
1000.0000 60
120
1122.0185 61
121
1258.9254 62
122
1412.5375 63
123
1584.8932 64
124
1778.2794 65
125
1995.2623 66
126
2238.7211 67
127
2511.8864 68
128
2818.3829 69
129
3162.2777 70
130
3548.1339 71
131
3981.0717 72
132
4466.8359 73
133
5011.8723 74
134
5623.4133 75
135
6309.5734 76
136
7079.4578 77
137
7943.2823 78
138
8912.5094 79
139
10000.0000 80
140
-4.75
-3.75
-2.75
-1.75
-0.75
0
0.25
1.25
2.25
3.25
4.25
5.25
6.25
7.25
8.25
9.25
10.25
11.25
12.25
13.25
14.25
15.25
16.25
17.25
18.25
19.25
20.25
21.25
22.25
23.25
24.25
25.25
26.25
27.25
28.25
29.25
30.25
31.25
157
mV
Return Loss, Reflection Coefficient, and
Voltage Standing Wave Ratio (VSWR)
Return Loss
Reflec. VSWR Return Reflec. VSWR
Loss (dB) Reflec.Coefficient (%)
Loss (dB)Coefficient (%)
0.0
4.3
100.00
20.0
10.00
1.222
0.5
2.2
94.41
34.753
20.5
9.44
1.208
1.0
1.26
89.13
17.391
21.0
8.91
1.196
1.5
.74
84.14
11.610
21.5
8.41
1.184
2.0
.45
79.43
8.724
22.0
7.94
1.173
2.5
.28
74.99
6.997
22.5
7.50
1.162
3.0
.17
70.79
5.848
23.0
7.08
1.152
3.5
.11
66.83
5.030
23.5
6.68
1.143
4.0
.07
63.10
4.419
24.0
6.31
1.135
4.5
.04
59.57
3.946
24.5
5.96
1.127
5.0
56.23
3.570
25.0
5.62
1.119
5.5
53.09
3.263
25.5
5.31
1.112
6.0
50.12
3.010
26.0
5.01
1.106
6.5
47.32
2.796
26.5
4.73
1.099
7.0
44.67
2.615
27.0
4.47
1.094
7.5
42.17
2.458
27.5
4.22
1.088
8.0
39.81
2.323
28.0
3.98
1.083
8.5
37.58
2.204
28.5
3.76
1.078
9.0
35.48
2.100
29.0
3.55
1.074
9.5
33.50
2.007
29.5
3.35
1.069
10.0
31.62
1.925
30.0
3.16
1.065
10.5
29.85
1.851
30.5
2.99
1.062
11.0
28.18
1.785
31.0
2.82
1.058
11.5
26.61
1.725
31.5
2.66
1.055
12.0
25.12
1.671
32.0
2.51
1.052
12.5
23.71
1.622
32.5
2.37
1.049
13.0
22.39
1.577
33.0
2.24
1.046
13.5
21.13
1.536
33.5
2.11
1.043
14.0
19.95
1.499
34.0
2.00
1.041
14.5
18.84
1.464
34.5
1.88
1.038
15.0
17.78
1.433
35.0
1.78
1.036
15.5
16.79
1.404
35.5
1.68
1.034
16.0
15.85
1.377
36.0
1.58
1.032
16.5
14.96
1.352
36.5
1.50
1.030
17.0
14.13
1.329
37.0
1.41
1.029
17.5
13.34
1.308
37.5
1.33
1.027
18.0
12.59
1.288
38.0
1.26
1.025
18.5
11.89
1.270
38.5
1.19
1.024
19.0
11.22
1.253
39.0
1.12
1.023
19.5
10.59
1.237
39.5
1.06
1.021
158
Return Loss Ratio (RLR)
RLR (dB) VSWR
The column marked Loss Reflec., on page 137
indicates the insertion loss that is attributable to the
amount of signal reflected at the device input.
Note: In a 75-Ohm transmission line.
159
Conversion Factors
Signal Levels
0 dBm
0 dBW
0 dBmV
=
=
=
+ 48.75 dBmV /75 ohms
+ 78.75 dBmV /75 ohms
60 dBµV
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
1/1,000
1/1,000,000
1/1,000,000,000
1/1,000,000,000,000
1,000
1,000,000
1,000,000,000
=
=
=
=
=
=
One Ton
3.415 Btu
746 Watts
14.6 pounds per square inch
(9/5 x °C) + 32
5/9 x (°F - 32)
Prefixes
milli (m)
micro (µ)
nano (n)
pica (p)
kilo (k)
mega (M)
giga (G)
Energy/Heat
12,000 BTU
1 Watt / hour
1 horsepower
1 atmosphere
°Fahrenheit
°CELSIUS
160
Conversion Factors
Volume
1 cubic yard
1 cubic inch
1 cubic meter
1 US gallon
1 US gallon
1 US gallon
1 liter
1 liter
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
27 cubic feet
16.38716 cubic centimeters
1.307943 cubic yards
3.7853 liters
128 fluid ounces
0.8327 Imperial Gallons
61.025 cubic inches
1000 cubic centimeters
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
16 ounces
453.592 grams
2.20462 pounds
1000 grams
2000 pounds
907.185 kilograms
2205 pounds
Weight
1 pound
1 pound
1 kilogram
1 kilogram
1 ton
1 ton
1 metric ton
161
Conversion Factors
Linear
1 mile
1 mile
1 kilometer
1 kilometer
1 kilometer
1 meter
1 meter
1 meter
1 centimeter
1 centimeter
1 millimeter
1 micron
1 foot
1 inch
1 inch
1 mil
1 micron
1 yard
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
5280 feet
1.60935 kilometers
3280.83 feet
0.621 miles
1000 meters
39.37 inches
3.281 feet
100 centimeters
10 millimeters
0.394 inches
1000 microns
1000 nanometers
30.48 centimeters
25.4 millimeters
1000 mils
25.4 microns
0.3937 mil
36 inches
162
Conversion Factors
Degrees, Fahrenheit to Celsius
F
0
-1
-2
- 3
-4
- 5
- 6
- 7
- 8
9
-40 -40.0 -40.6 -41.1 -41.7 -42.2 -42.8 -43.3 -43.9 -44.4 -45.0
-30 -34.4 -35.0 -35.6 -36.1 -36.7 -37.2 -37.8 -38.3 -38.9 -39.4
-20 -28.9 -29.4 -30.0 -30.6 -31.1 -31.7 -32.2 -32.8 -33.3 -33.9
-10 -23.3 -23.9 -24.4 -25.0 -25.6 -26.1 -26.7 -27.2 -27.8 -28.3
0 -17.8 -18.3 -18.9 -19.4 -20.0 -20.6 -21.1 -21.7 -22.2 -22.8
+
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
0 -17.8 -17-.2 -16.7 -16.1 -15.6 -15.0 -14.4 -13.9 -13.3 -12.8
10 -12.2 -11.7 -11.1 -10.6 -10.0 -9.4 -8.9
-8.3
-7.8
20 -6.7 -6.1 -5.6 -5.0 -4.4 -3.9 -3.3
-2.8
-2.2 -1.7
30 -1.1 -0.6 0.0
0.6
1.1
1.7
2.2
2.8
3.3 3.9
40 4.4
6.1
6.7
7.2
7.8
8.3
8.9
5.0
5.6
-7.2
9.4
50 10.0 10.6 11.1 11.7 12.2 12.8 13.3 13.9 14.4 15.0
60 15.6 16.1 16.7 17.2 17.8 18.3 18.9 19.4 20.0 20.6
70 21.1 21.7 22.2 22.8 23.3 23.9 24.4 25.0 25.6 26.1
80 26.7 27.2 27.8 28.3 28.9 29.4 30.0 30.6 31.1 31.7
90 32.2 32.8 33.3 33.9 34.4 35.0 35.6 36.1 36.7 37.2
100 37.8 38.3 38.9 39.4 40.0 40.6 41.1 41.7 42.2 42.8
110 43.3 43.9 44.4 45.0 45.6 46.1 46.7 47.2 47.8 48.3
120 48.9 49.4 50.0 50.6 51.1 51.7 52.2 52.8 53.3 53.9
130 54.4 55.0 55.6 56.1 56.7 57.2 57.8 58.3 58.9 59.4
140 60.0 60.6 61.1 61.7 62.2 62.8 63.3 63.9 64.4 65.0
150 65.6 66.1 66.7 67.2 67.8 68.3 68.9 69.4 70.0 70.6
160 71.1 71.7 72.2 72.8 73.3 73.9 74.4 75.0 75.6 76.1
170 76.7 77.2 77.8 78.3 78.9 79.4 80.0 80.6 81.1 81.7
163
Temperature Conversion Nomograph
°C
°F
FAHRENHEIT, °F
°F = (°C x 9 ) + 32
5
CELSIUS, °C
°C = 5 (°F - 32)
9
KELVIN, °K
°K = °C + 273
164
Wire Gauge Data (AWG)
AWG
0000
000
00
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
Diameter Area, circularOhms per 1000 ft. Weight per
mils, d
mils, d2 at 20°C, or 68° F 1000 ft. (lbs.)
460.00
409.64
364.80
324.86
289.30
257.63
229.42
204.31
181.94
162.02
144.28
129.49
114.43
101.89
90.742
80.808
71.961
64.084
57.068
50.820
45.257
40.303
35.890
31.961
28.465
25.347
22.571
20.100
17.900
15.940
14.195
12.641
11.257
10.025
8.928
7.950
7.080
6.305
5.615
5.000
4.453
3.965
3.531
3.145
211,600
167,805
133.079
105.534
83,694
66.373
52,634
41,743
33,102
26,250
20,817
16,768
13,094
10,382
8,234.1
6,529.9
5,178.4
4,106.8
3,256.8
2,582.7
2,048.2
1,624.3
1,288.1
1,021.5
810.10
642.47
509.45
404.01
320.41
254.08
201.50
159.79
126.72
100.50
79.71
63.20
50.13
39.75
31.53
25.00
19.83
15.72
12.47
9.89
165
0.04901
0.06180
0.07793
0.09827
0.1239
0.1563
0.1970
0.2485
0.3133
0.3951
0.4982
0.6282
0.7921
0.9989
1.260
1.588
2.003
2.525
3.184
4.016
5.064
6.385
8.051
10.15
12.80
16.14
20.36
25.67
32.37
40.81
51.47
64.90
81.83
103.2
130.1
164.1
206.9
260.9
329.0
414.8
523.1
059.6
831.8
1049
640.5
508.0
402.8
319.5
253.3
200.9
159.3
126.4
100.2
79.46
63.02
49.98
39.63
31.43
24.93
19.77
15.68
12.42
9.858
7.818
6.200
4.917
3.899
3.092
2.452
1.945
1.542
1.223
0.9699
0.7692
0.6100
0.4837
0.3836
0.3042
0.2413
0.1913
0.1517
0.1203
0.0954
0.0757
0.0600
0.0476
0.0377
0.0299
Current Ratings for Electronic Cables
The maximum continuous current rating for an electronic cable is
limited by conductor size, number of conductors contained
within the cable, maximum temperature rating of the cable, and
environmental conditions such as ambient temperature and air
flow. To use the current capacity chart, first determine conductor size,
temperature rating, and number of conductors from the applicable
product description for the cable of interest.
Next, find the current value on the chart for the proper temperature
rating and conductor size. To calculate the maximum current
rating/conductor, multiply the chart value by the appropriate
conductor factor. The chart assumes cable is surrounded by still
air at an ambient temperature of 25˚ C. Current values are in
RMS Amperes and are valid for copper conductors only.
No. of Conductors**
Factors
1
1.6
2 - 3
1.0
4 - 5
.8
6 - 15
.7
16 - 30
.5
NOTE: Current ratings are intended as general guidelines
for low power electronic communications and
control applications. Current ratings for power
applications generally are set by regulatory
agencies such as UL, CSA, NEC, and others.
** Do not count shields unless used as a conductor.
166
Cable Substitution Chart (Per NEC*)
*National Electrical Code and NEC are registered trademarks
of the National Fire Protection Association, Inc., Quincy, MA.
167
Type MP =
Multipurpose Cables
Type CM =
Communications Cables
Type CL2, CL3 =
Class 2 and Class
3 Remote Control,
Signaling and Power
Limited Cables
Type FPL =
Power-Limited Fire
Alarm Cables
Type CATV =
Community Antenna
Television and Radio
Distribution Cables
Type OFN =
Non-conductive Optical
Fiber Cables
Type OFC =
Conductive Optical Fiber
Cables
Type PLTC =
Power-Limited Tray
Cables
Type CMG =
A CM Which Passes CSA FT4
Type MPG=
A MP Which Passes CSA FT4
Type OFNG=
A OFN Which Passes CSA FT4
Type OFCG=
A OFC Which Passes CSA FT4
Common CATV Symbols
168
Common CATV Symbols
169
Digital “L-Band” Distribution Symbols
170
Digital “L-Band” Distribution Symbols
171
Passive & Coaxial Cable Characteristics
Cable and Equalizer Formulas
1. Cable Loss Ratio
The ratio of cable attenuation at two frequencies is approximately
equal to the square root of the ratio of the two frequencies.
Example: T
o calculate the approximate cable loss at 55 MHz
when the loss at 450 MHz is 20 dB,
2. Tilt to Cable Loss
To convert tilt (differential in signal level between end frequencies
of the cable bandpass) to cable loss at the highest frequency:
Example: T
o calculate the cable loss at the highest frequency
when the measured tilt is 12 dB between 55 and
450 MHz
172
Cable and Equalizer Formulas
3. Equalizer Loss at any Frequency
To calculate the equalizer loss at any frequency, the following
formula may be used:
Example: T
o calculate the loss of an equalizer for 20 dB of cable
at 450 MHz at a frequency f1 of 55 MHz,
173
Cable Loss Conversion Chart
Use this chart to find a cable span’s attenuation at a new frequency if
you already know its attenuation at one frequency.
If you know the cable loss at f1 and want to find the corresponding loss
at a higher frequency f2 multiply the loss at f1 by the conversion factor.
The result is the cable loss at f2.
If you know the cable loss at f2 and want to find the corresponding loss
at a lower frequency f1 divide the loss at f2 by the conversion factor.
The result is the cable loss at f1.
f1
f2 f1
f2 (MHz)(MHz) (MHz)(MHz)
220 270
1.108
400 440
1.049
220 300
1.168
400 500
1.118
220 330
1.225
400 550
1.173
220 400
1.348
400 600
1.225
220 440
1.414
400 750
1.369
220 500
1.508
400 860
1.466
220 550
1.581
400 1000
1.581
220 600
1.651
270 300
1.054
440 500
1.066
270 330
1.106
440 550
1.118
270 400
1.217
440 600
1.168
270 440
1.277
440 750
1.306
270 500
1.361
440 860
1.398
270 550
1.427
440 1000
1.508
270 600
1.491
300 330
1.049
500 550
1.049
300 400
1.155
500 600
1.095
300 440
1.211
500 750
1.225
300 500
1.291
500 860
1.311
300 550
1.354
500 1000
1.414
300 600
1.414
330 400
1.101
550 600
1.044
330 440
1.155
550 750
1.168
330 500
1.231
550 860
1.250
330 550
1.291
550 1000
1.348
330 600
1.348
1000 1250
1.118
330 750
1.508
1000 1500
1.225
330 860
1.614
1000 1750
1.323
330 1000
1.741
1000 2000
1.414
1000 2150
1.466
Example: If a cable span attenuates a 220 MHz signal by 10 dB, by how much will it
attenuate a 300 MHz signal?
Loss at 300 MHz = Loss at 220 MHz x conversion factor = 10 dB x 1.168 = 11.68 dB
174
Cable Loss and Temperature
This equation calculates the percentage of change in cable
attenuation (loss) caused by a temperature change:
% change in cable loss = 1.1% per 10° F
This equation calculates the change in cable loss in a span of cable,
expressed in dB.
change in cable loss (in dB) =
standard loss x % change in cable loss
Example: If the standard loss is 22 dB* when the temperature is
70°F and the temperature drops to -40°F, what is the change in attenuation for that cable span?
1.
Determine the number of degrees of temperature change.
T = T2 - T1 = (-40°F) - 70°F = (-110° F)
2.
Find the percent change in cable loss.
% change = 1% per 10°F x (-110°F)
= (1%/10°F) x (-110°F)
= - 11%
3.
Find the dB change in the span’s loss.
Change in cable loss (in dB) = -11% x 22 dB
= -2.42 dB
So, if the span’s loss was 22 dB at 70°F it becomes
22 dB + (-2.42 dB) = 19.58 dB at -40°F.
Changes in cable loss accumulate over multiple cable spans and can cause performance degradation if not controlled by
AGC/ASC units.
175
Typical Cable Attenuation Chart
in dB/100 Feet @ 68°F (20°C)
176
Miscellaneous Data & Constants
75 Ohm Attenuator Table & Equation
Loss
(dB)
0.5
1.0
1.5
2.0
2.5
3.0
4.0
5.0
6.0
7.0
8.0
9.0
10.0
11.0
12.0
13.0
14.0
15.0
16.0
17.0
18.0
19.0
20.0
T-Attenuator
Resistor (Ohm)
a
b
2.16
1302.16
4.31
650.00
6.46
432.14
8.60
322.86
10.72
257.01
12.82
212.89
16.97
157.24
21.01
123.36
24.92
100.40
28.69
83.70
32.29
70.96
35.72
60.89
38.96
52.70
42.02
45.92
44.89
40.22
47.56
35.35
50.05
31.17
52.35
27.55
54.48
24.39
56.43
21.62
58.23
19.19
59.87
17.04
61.36
15.15
177
Pi-Attenuator
Resistor (Ohm)
c
d
2606.49
4.32
1304.32
8.65
870.75
13.02
654.32
17.42
524.75
21.89
438.60
26.42
331.46
35.77
267.73
45.60
225.71
56.03
196.09
67.20
174.21
79.27
157.49
92.38
144.37
106.73
133.87
122.49
125.32
139.87
118.27
159.11
112.39
180.46
107.44
204.21
103.25
230.67
99.67
260.18
96.60
293.15
93.96
330.01
91.67
371.25
75 Ohm Attenuator Table & Equations
The equations necessary to calculate the resistance values in ohms
for T and Pi pad Attenuators are as follows:
where:
n = loss in dB
z = impedance value in Ohm
To obtain resistance values at various impedances, simply
multiply the resistances by the impedance value.
Example:
Given n =
2.0, calculate
the resistance values for a
75 Ohm T-Attenuator:
178
Ghosts
Ghosts are duplicates of the reproduced picture located to the right
or left of the picture. Ghosts displaced to the left are generally due
to ingress, for example, direct pick up. Assuming ghosts are not
present in the signals at the headend, ghosts displaced to the right
are generally indicative of impedance mismatches in the system,
for example, devices with poor return loss. The following will help to find the
cause of a ghost that is displaced to the right.
d
D
25845 = c onstant derived from speed of light x scan time for
horizontal line
X = distance in feet between the source of reflection and re-reflection
d = displacement of ghost on TV set in inches
D = horizontal width of TV set in inches
Vp= Velocity of Propagation referenced to free air
Example:
TV screen, D = 24 inches wide Ghost image, d = 0.16 inches wide
Velocity of propagation for cable, Vp = 0.88
X = (25845 ft) x (0.16 in) x (0.88)
= 152 ft between devices
24 in.
Once distance X is calculated, check the system maps for both (1)
the circumstance where there are devices that are approximately
distance X apart and (2) that the circumstance is between to the
signal source and the location where the ghost is being viewed.
179
Echo Rating Graph
180
Signal to Interference Limits
Non-Coherent Carriers
181
Error Corrections Chart
Use this table to find the error correction when measuring levels
within 10 dB of the noise floor. For example, measuring a level 7
dB above the noise floor would give a display error of 1 dB.
182
Heterodyne Modulator - Analog
183
Heterodyne Processor - Analog
184
Broadband RF Network Powering
When determining the power supply location in a cable system, it
is important to know OHM’s Law, cable loop resistance, amplifier
current drain and the minimum operating voltage required for
amplifier operation.
The cable resistance is included in the manufacturers specification
sheet. Resistance is usually stated as center conductor, shield,
and loop. Loop resistance is the sum of the center conductor and
shield resistance.
The amplifier current drain and voltage requirements are also part
of the manufacturers specifications.
The ideal location of the power supply is such that the current
supplied flows equally both, away from, and towards the
headend. The total current supplied should be between 80-90%
of the power supply’s rated output. Current passing through
the amplifiers is usually limited to about 6 Amps. Since power
supplies are available with various current handling abilities, one
with slightly higher capability than required should be selected.
Determining power supply placement, refer to the figure on the
next page.
1. First determine the loop resistance for each span of cable.
Example: Loop resistance = 1.7 Ohms/1000
ft. x 800’ = 1.36 Ohms.
2. Locate the last amplifier, determine the
voltage drop across the span of cable.
3. Using the current draw of the amplifier, determine
the voltage drop across the span of cable.
Example: 0.375A x 1.36 Ohms = 0.51 volts.
4. Since the minimum operating voltage for the amplifier
is 43 volts, the voltage level at the beginning of the
800’ span would be 43.5 volts (43.0 + 0.51).
5. At this point, the total current flow in the coax will increase
due to the addition of another amplifier. Current flow
in this span of cable will be 0.75A (0.375 + 0.375).
185
Broadband RF Network Powering
6. Determine the voltage across the next span of cable.
0.75 x 1.36 Ohms = 1.02 Volts
Therefore the voltage at the output of the bridger amp is 44.5
volts. The total current at the input to the bridger amp is 2.0
amps. This is the sum of both output legs of the bridger (1.5A)
and the current draw of the bridger amp itself.
7. Continue working towards the headend until the current
draw is 40-50% of the power supplies rated capability or the
voltage level nears 60 volts.
8. At this time, a guesstimate of where to place a power block
in the section between the power supply and headend must
be made. Add the current draw for the line extender(s) off
each trunk station to the trunk station current requirements.
A few trial calculations will show how many amplifiers can be
powered going in this direction.
186
FCC Rules
Cumulative Leakage Index
Cumulative Leakage Index (CLI), also referred to as a “figure
of merit” measurement, is a method for assessing the leakage
integrity of a cable plant. The cable operator demonstrates
compliance with a cumulative signal leakage index by showing
either that:
using either:
where:
r
ø
R
E
n
and where:
=Distance in meters (m) between the leakage source and
the center of the cable system.
=Fraction of the system cable length actually examined for
leakage sources. The fraction is equal to the strand miles
tested divided by total strand miles.
=Slant height distance (m) from leakage source i to a point
3,000 meters above the center of the cable system.
=Electric field strength in microvolts per meter (µV/m)
measured 3 meters from leak i.
=Number of leaks found with a field strength ≥ 50 µV/m.
187
FCC Rules
Cumulative Leakage Index - continued
The following formula may be substituted to determine the CLI
figure of merit. Compliance is attained if the formula yields a figure
of merit less than or equal to 64.
where:
Mp =
Md =
n =
L
=
k
=
Total Plant Miles (miles)
Total Plant Miles Driven (miles)
Number of leaks with the same level
Level of the leak in microvolts per meter (µV/m)
Number of different levels
Example:Given the following information about a cable system, determine the CLI.
Mp = Total plant miles = 1500 miles
Md = Plant miles driven = 1350 miles
Number of leaks and level of each in µV/m =
n1 = 300 leaks @ L1 = 50 µV/m
n2 = 30 leaks @ L2 = 100 µV/m
n3 = 3 leaks @ L3 = 450 µV/m
Sum of:
niLi2 +
n2L22 +
n3L32 =
(300 x 50 x 50) + (30 x 100 x 100) + (3 x 450 x 450) =
750000 + 300000 +
607500 =
1657500
CLI =
=
=
10 log (1.11 x 1657500)
10 log (1839825)
62.65 ≤ 64
188
FCC Rules
Maximum Leakage Levels
The following table gives the maximum leakage levels at the given
channels and voltage level.
CH#
T-7
T-8
T-9
T-10
T-11
T-12
T-13
2
3
4
5
6
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
23
24
Visual
Carrier
7.0000
13.0000
19.0000
25.0000
31.0000
37.0000
43.0000
55.2500
61.2500
67.2500
77.2500
83.2500
121.2625
127.2625
133.2625
139.2500
145.2500
151.2500
157.2500
163.2500
169.2500
175.2500
181.2500
187.2500
193.2500
199.2500
205.2500
211.2500
217.2500
223.2500
20 µV/M
(dBmV)
-17.33
-22.70
-26.00
-28.38
-30.25
-31.79
-33.09
-35.27
-36.17
-36.98
-38.18
-38.83
-42.10
-42.52
-42.92
-43.30
-43.67
-44.02
-44.36
-44.68
-44.99
-45.30
-45.59
-45.87
-46.15
-46.41
-46.67
-46.92
-47.16
-47.40
50 µV/m
(dBmV) CH#
-9.37
25
-14.74
26
-18.04 27
-20.42 28
-22.29 29
-23.83 30
-25.13
31
-27.31
32
-28.21 33
-29.02 34
-30.22 35
-30.87 36
-34.14
37
-34.56 38
-34.96 39
-35.34 40
-35.71
41
-36.06 42
-36.40 43
-36.72 44
-37.04 45
-37.34 46
-37.63 47
-37.91 48
-38.19 49
-38.45 50
-38.71
51
-38.96 52
-39.20 53
-39.44 54
189
Visual
Carrier
229.2625
235.2625
241.2625
247.2625
253.2625
259.2625
265.2625
271.2625
277.2625
283.2625
289.2625
295.2625
301.2625
307.2625
313.2625
319.2625
325.2625
331.2625
337.2625
343.2625
349.2625
355.2625
361.2625
367.2625
373.2625
379.2625
385.2625
391.2625
397.2625
403.2500
20 µV/M 50 µV/m
(dBmV) (dBmV)
-47.63 -39.67
-47.85 -39.90
-48.07 -40.11
-48.29 -40.33
-48.50 -40.54
-48.70 -40.74
-48.90 -40.94
-49.09 -41.13
-49.28 -41.32
-49.47 -41.51
-49.65 -41.69
-49.83 -41.87
-50.00 -42.04
-50.17 -42.22
-50.34 -42.38
-50.51 -42.55
-50.67 -42.71
-50.83 -42.87
-50.98 -43.02
-51.14 -43.18
-51.29 -43.33
-51.43 -43.48
-51.58 -43.62
-51.72 -43.76
-51.86 -43.91
-52.00 -44.04
-52.14 -44.18
-52.27 -44.31
-52.41 -44.45
-52.54 -44.58
FCC Rules
Maximum Leakage Levels - continued
CH.
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70
71
72
73
74
75
76
77
78
79
80
81
82
83
84
85
86
87
Visual
Carrier
409.2500
415.2500
421.2500
427.2500
433.2500
439.2500
445.2500
451.2500
457.2500
463.2500
469.2500
475.2500
481.2500
487.2500
493.2500
499.2500
505.2500
511.2500
517.2500
523.2500
529.2500
535.2500
541.2500
547.2500
553.2500
559.2500
565.2500
571.2500
577.2500
583.2500
589.2500
595.2500
601.2500
20 µV/M 50 µV/m
(dBmV) (dBmV) CH.
-52.66 -44.70 88
-52.79 -44.83 89
-52.91 -44.96 90
-53.04 -45.08 91
-53.16 -45.20 92
-53.28 -45.32 93
-53.40 -45.44 94
-53.51 -45.55 100
-53.63 -45.67 101
-53.74 -45.78 102
-53.85 -45.89 103
-53.96 -46.00 104
-54.07 -46.11 105
-54.18 -46.22 106
-54.29 -46.33 107
-54.39 -46.43 108
-54.49 -46.54 109
-54.60 -46.64 110
-54.70 -46.74 111
-54.80 -46.84 112
-54.90 -46.94 113
-54.99 -47.04 114
-55.09 -47.13 115
-55.19 -47.23 116
-55.28 -47.32 117
-55.38 -47.42 118
-55.47 -47.51 119
-55.56 -47.60 120
-55.65 -47.69 121
-55.74 -47.78 122
-55.83 -47.87 123
-55.92 -47.96 124
-56.00 -48.05 125
190
Visual 20 µV/M 50 µV/m
Carrier (dBmV) (dBmV)
607.2500 -56.09 -48.13
613.2500 -56.18 -48.22
619.2500 -56.26 -48.30
625.2500 -56.34 -48.39
631.2500 -56.43 -48.47
637.2500 -56.51 -48.55
643.2500 -56.59 -48.63
649.2500 -56.67 -48.71
655.2500 -56.75 -48.79
661.2500 -56.83 -48.87
667.2500 -56.91 -48.95
673.2500 -56.99 -49.03
679.2500 -57.06 -49.11
685.2500 -57.14 -49.18
691.2500 -57.22 -49.26
697.2500 -57.29 -49.33
703.2500 -57.37 -49.41
709.2500 -57.44 -49.48
715.2500 -57.51 -49.55
721.2500 -57.59 -49.63
727.2500 -57.66 -49.70
733.2500 -57.73 -49.77
739.2500 -57.80 -49.84
745.2500 -57.87 -49.91
751.2500 -57.94 -49.98
757.2500 -58.01 -50.05
763.2500 -58.08 -50.12
769.2500 -58.15 -50.19
775.2500 -58.21 -50.25
781.2500 -58.28 -50.32
787.2500 -58.35 -50.39
793.2500 -58.41 -50.45
799.2500 -58.48 -50.52
FCC Rules
Maximum Leakage Levels - continued
CH.
126
127
128 129
130
131
132
133
134
135
136
137
138
139
140
141
142
Visual
Carrier
805.2500
811.2500
817.2500
823.2500
829.2500
835.2500
841.2500
847.2500
853.2500
859.2500
865.2500
871.2500
877.2500
883.2500
889.2500
895.2500
901.2500
20 µV/m
(dBmV)
-58.54
-58.61
-58.67
-58.73
-58.80
-58.86
-58.92
-58.98
-59.05
-59.11
-59.17
-59.23
-59.29
-59.35
-59.40
-59.46
-59.52
50 µV/m
(dBmV) CH.
-50.58 143
-50.65 144
-50.71 145
-50.78 146
-50.84 147
-50.90 148
-50.96 149
-51.03 150
-51.09 151
-51.15 152
-51.21 153
-51.27 154
-51.33 155
-51.39 156
-51.45 157
-51.50 158
-51.56
Visual
Carrier
907.2500
913.2500
919.2500
925.2500
931.2500
937.2500
943.2500
949.2500
955.2500
961.2500
967.2500
973.2500
979.2500
985.2500
991.2500
997.2500
20 µV/M 50 µV/m
(dBmV) (dBmV)
-59.58 -51.62
-59.64 -51.68
-51.73 -51.73
-59.75 -51.79
-59.81 -51.85
-59.86 -51.90
-59.92 -51.96
-59.97 -52.01
-60.03 -52.07
-60.08 -52.12
-60.13 -52.18
-60.19 -52.23
-60.24 -52.28
-60.29 -52.34
-60.35 -52.39
-60.40 -52.44
Determine the maximum leakage levels by using the following equation:
where:
L = Maximum leakage level (dBmV)
E = Voltage
ƒ = Visual Carrier Frequency (MHz)
Step 1
Convert dBmV to µV.
Use tables in Section 6 to convert dBmV to mV. Multiply mV by
1000 to set µV.
Step 2
Convert µV to µV/m.
Multiply µV times frequency (in MHz) times .021
191
Highlights of FCC Rules & Regulations Part 76
!
This section is a summary of FCC specifications that CATV systems
are required to meet. This section was created so technicians and
engineers could have a ready reference at their fingertips.
All specifications in this handbook were taken from Title 47
Telecommunications, part 76.605 from the FCC. It spells out the
rule, standard, number of channels to be tested, frequency of testing, and equipment needed to perform each test.
The intention of this section is to summarize FCC specifications it is
not intended to replace them. Consult the current editions of all
specifications and regulations for complete and detailed requirements.
Aeronautical Operational Requirements
Frequency Offsets
All carrier signals or signal components carried at an average power
level equal to or greater than 10-4 watts in a 25 kHz bandwidth
in any 160 microseconds period must operate at frequencies offset from certain frequencies which may be used by aeronautical
radio services operated by FCC licensees or by the United States
Government or its Agencies. The following table summarizes the
frequency offset requirements.
Frequency Offsets
Frequency Band(Standard and IRC)
Offset
Tolerance
118-137, 225-325.6 and 335.4-400 MHz
12.5 kHz
±5 kHz
108-118 and 328.6-335.4 MHz
25.0 kHz
±5 kHz
For Harmonically Related Carrier (HRC) systems, the fundamental
frequency from which the visual carrier frequencies are derived
should be a multiple of 6.0003 MHz ±1 Hz
http://www.fcc.gov/Bureaus/Cable/WWW/aeronaut.html
192
Highlights of FCC Rules & Regulations Part 76
Aeronautical Frequency Notifications
Cable operators planning to use the frequencies in the
communications and navigational frequency bands must notify the
FCC prior to the activation of these frequencies. The aeronautical
operational requirements in the aeronautical bands are contained
in 47 CFR Sections 76.610-76.616. Each notification shall include
an FCC Form 159.
❏ Legal name and local address of the cable television operator;
❏The names and FCC identifiers (e.g. CA0001) of the system
communities affected;
❏The names and telephone numbers of local system officials
who are responsible for compliance with 76.610, 76.611, and
76.612 through 76.616 of the rules;
❏Carrier and subcarrier frequencies and tolerance, type of
modulation and the maximum average power levels of all
carriers and subcarriers occurring at any location in the cable
distribution system;
❏The geographical coordinates of a point near the center of the
cable system, together with the distance (in kilometers) from
the designated point to the most remote point of the cable
plant, existing or planned, which defines a circle enclosing the
entire cable plant;
❏A description of the routine monitoring procedure to be
used;
❏The cumulative leakage index derived under 76.611 (a)(1) or
the results of airspace measurements derived under 76.611
(a)(2), including a description of the method by which
compliance with the basic signal leakage criteria is achieved
and the method of calibrating the measurement equipment.
Use FCC Form 320 to submit the results.
193
Highlights of FCC Rules & Regulations Part 76
Visual Carrier Center Frequency
Tolerance: aeronautical channels ± 5 KHz indicated by asterisk.
For all other channels no specific tolerance indicated by FCC.
Good engineering practice ± 10 KHz for non broadcast. Local
VHF broadcasts carried “on channel” should be zero frequency
tolerance. See Option 14 in Section 1.
Rule
76.605 (a)(2) Aural Carrier Center Frequency
Standard4.5 MHz 5 kHz at subscriber terminal
& out put of modulating or processing
equipment
Number Of Channels 4 channels minimum, plus 1 channel for every 100 MHz or fractional increase:
5 Channels/54-216 MHz
6 Channels/54-300 MHz
7 Channels/54-400 MHz
8 Channels/54-500 MHz
Frequency Of Testing Two times per year
Type Of EquipmentSpectrum analyzer, frequency counter, or
automated testing system
Rule
76.605 (a)(3) Minimum Visual Carrier Level
Standard0 dBmV at subscriber terminal and
3.0 dBmV at end of 100 ft. drop cable
connected to tap
Number Of Channels All NTSC or similar video channels
Frequency Of Testing Two times per year
Type Of EquipmentSLM system analyzer, spectrum analyzer,
or automated test system
194
Highlights of FCC Rules & Regulations Part 76
Rule
76.605 (a)(4)
Visual Carrier Level 24 Hour Variation
StandardNot to vary more than 8 dB within any
six month interval (measured before the
converter)
Number Of Channels
All NTSC or similar video channels
Frequency Of TestingIn July/August and January/February, 1
test each channel every 6 hours for each
24 hour test
Type Of EquipmentSLM, system analyzer, spectrum
analyzer, or automated test system
Rule
76.605 (a)(4)(i) Maximum Signal Level
of Adjacent Channel
StandardWithin 3 dB of any visual carrier within
6 MHz
Number Of Channels All NTSC or similar video channels
Frequency Of TestingIn July/August and January/February, 1
test each channel every 6 hours for each
24 hour test
Type Of EquipmentSLM system analyzer, spectrum analyzer,
or automated test system
195
Highlights of FCC Rules & Regulations Part 76
Rule
76.605 (a) (4) (ii)
Minimum/Maximum Bandwidth
Standard Within 10 dB of the visual signal on any
other channel on a cable system of up
to 300 MHz. A 1 dB increase in level
separation for each additional 100 MHz
of bandwidth
11 dB for a 400 MHz System
12 dB for a 500 MHz System
13 dB for a 600 MHz System
Number Of Channels All NTSC or similar video channels
Frequency Of TestingIn July/August and January/February, 1
test each channel every 6 hours for each
24 hour test
Type Of EquipmentSLM, system analyzer, spectrum analyzer,
or automated test system
Rule
76.605 (a) (4) (iii) Maximum Visual
Standard A maximum level that will not overload
the subscribers terminal or receiver
Number Of Channels
All NTSC or similar video channels
Frequency Of Testing
Two times per year
Type Of EquipmentSLM, system analyzer, spectrum
analyzer, or automated test system
196
Highlights of FCC Rules & Regulations Part 76
Rule
76.605 (a)(5) Aural Carrier Level
Standard10 dB to 17 dB below the associated
visual signal level. Baseband converter:
6.5 dB to 17 dB below the associated
visual-signal level
Number Of Channels
All NTSC or similar video channels
Frequency Of Testing
Two times per year
Type Of EquipmentSLM system analyzer, spectrum analyzer,
or automated test system
Rule
76.605 (a)(6) Amplitude Characteristic
of a Single CATV Channel
Standard± 2 dB from -0.75 MHz to 5.0 MHz from
the channels bottom boundary at tap and
before converter (prior to Dec. 30, 1999)
above lower boundary frequency of CATV
channel (referenced to average of the
highest and lowest amplitudes)
Number Of Channels
4 channels minimum, plus 1 channel for every 100 MHz or fractional increase:
5 Channels/54-216 MHz
6 Channels/54-300 MHz
7 Channels/54-400 MHz
8 Channels/54-500 MHz
Frequency Of Testing Two times per year
Type Of EquipmentSweep transmitter/receiver, spectrum
analyzer, or automated test system
197
Highlights of FCC Rules & Regulations Part 76
Rule
76.605 (a)(7)(ii) Carrier to Noise (C/N)
76.605 (a)(7)(iii) Carrier to Noise (C/N)
Standard
Carrier to noise shall not be less than:
1) 40 dB (June 30,1993-June 30, 1995)
2) 43 dB (As of July 1,1995)
Number Of Channels4 channels minimum, + 1 channel for
every 100 MHz or fractional increase:
5 Channels/54-216 MHz
6 Channels/54-300 MHz
7 Channels/54-400 MHz
8 Channels/54-500 MHz
Frequency Of Testing Two times per year
Type Of EquipmentSLM system analyzer, spectrum analyzer,
or automated test system
Rule
76.605 (a)(8)(i)
Visual Signal-to-Coherent Beats
StandardNot less than 51 dB for non-coherent
(standard) CATV systems Or not less
than 47 dB for coherent (HRC/IRC)
CATV systems
Number Of Channels4 channels minimum, plus 1 channel for every 100 MHz or fractional
increase:
5 Channels/54-216 MHz
6 Channels/54-300 MHz
7 Channels/54-400 MHz
8 Channels/54-500 MHz
Frequency Of Testing
Two times per year
Type Of EquipmentSLM system analyzer, spectrum
analyzer, or automated test system
198
Highlights of FCC Rules & Regulations Part 76
Rule
76.605 (a)(9)(i)(ii) Terminal Isolation
Standard
Not less than 18 dB (manufacturer’s
specification) and sufficient to prevent
subscriber-caused terminal reflections
Number Of Channels4 channel minimum, plus 1 channel
for every 100 MHz or fractional
increase:
5 Channels/54-216 MHz
6 Channels/54-300 MHz
7 Channels/54-400 MHz
8 Channels/54-500 MHz
Frequency Of Testing
Two times per year
Type Of Equipment
Manufacturer’s specifications
Rule
76.605 (a)(10) Hum
StandardNot to exceed 3% of visual signal
level
Number Of ChannelsOnly on a single channel with a single
unmodulated carrier
Frequency Of Testing
Two times per year Testing
Type Of EquipmentSLM system analyzer, spectrum
analyzer, or automated test system
199
Highlights of FCC Rules & Regulations Part 76
Rule
Standard
76.605 (a)(11)(i) Chrominance
Luminance Delay
± 170 ns
Number Of Channels4 channels minimum, plus 1 channel for
every 100 MHz or fractional increase:
5 Channels/54-216 MHz
6 Channels/54-300 MHz
7 Channels/54-400 MHz
8 Channels/54-500 MHz
Frequency Of Testing once every 3 years Testing
Type Of Equipment
Vectorscope, waveform monitor, or
automated test system
Rule
76.605 (a)(11)(ii) Differential Gain
Standard
Not to exceed ± 20%
Number Of Channels4 channels minimum, plus 1 channel
for every 100 MHz or fractional increase
5 Channels/54-216 MHz
6 Channels/54-300 MHz
7 Channels/54-400 MHz
8 Channels/54-500 MHz
Frequency Of Testing
once every 3 years Testing
Type Of Equipment
Vectorscope, waveform monitor, or
automated test system
200
Highlights of FCC Rules & Regulations Part 76
Rule
Standard
76.605 (a)(11)(iii)
Differential Phase
Not to exceed ± 10 degrees
Number Of Channels4 channels minimum, plus 1 channel for every 100 MHz or fractional
increase:
5 Channels/54-216 MHz
6 Channels/54-300 MHz
7 Channels/54-400 MHz
8 Channels/54-500 MHz
Frequency Of Testing
once every 3 years
Type Of Equipment
Vectorscope, waveform monitor, or
automated test system
Rule
Standard
76.605 (a)(12) RF Signal Leakage
< 54 MHz = 15 µV/M @ 30 m
54-216 MHz = 20 µV/M @ 3 m
>216 MHz = 15µV/M @ 30 m
Number Of Channels4 channels minimum, plus 1 channel for every 100 MHz or fractional
increase:
5 Channels/54-216 MHz
6 Channels/54-300 MHz
7 Channels/54-400 MHz
Frequency Of Testing
Two times per year
Type Of EquipmentSLM, system analyzer, or spectrum
analyzer and dipole, leakage field
strength meter
201
Broadband Communication Design &
Performance Standards
Parameter
IEEE 802.7
MAP*
C/L Delay
Differential Gain
Differential Phase
Headend Input LevelOutbound
+54 dBmV
+54 dBmV
User Outlet Level-
+10 dBmV
Outbound
User Input LevelInbound
+54 dBmV
+54 dBmV
Path Loss - Outbound
44 ± 5 dB
44 ± 3 dB
Design Accept
44 ± 6 dB Oper.
Path Loss- Inbound
44 ± 5 dB
Same as
Outbound
CNR - Outbound
43 dB
43 dB
CNR - Inbound
41 dB
40 dB
CTB - Outbound
53 dB
CTB - Inbound
53 dB
CSO - Outbound
3 IM - Outbound
78 dB
60 dB @ 66
dBmV Input
3 IM - Inbound
78 dB
60 dB @ 66
dBmV Input
2 IM - Outbound
60 dB
60 dB
2 IM - Inbound
60 dB
60 dB
X-MOD; Outbound
53 dB
X-MOD - Inbound
53 dB
Hum Distortion
2%
1.5% (37 dB)
(Incidental Modulation)
FCC
± 170 ns
± 20%
± 10 degrees
≥0 dBmV &
≥3.0 dBmV @
100’ Drop
43 dB
51 dB
(47 dB HRC)
51 dB
(47 dB HRC)
51 dB
(47 dB HRC)
51 dB
(47 dB HRC)
* MAP = Manufacturing Automation Protocol (based on Token Bus - IEEE 802.4)
202
3%
Broadband Communication Design &
Performance Standards
Parameter
IEEE 802.7
Signal Leakage
76.605(a)12
54 MHz
15 µV/m @
54 to 216 MHz
30 m
>216 MHz
20 µV/m @ 3 m
MAP*
FCC
same
15 µV/m
@ 30 m
same
Frequency ResponsePeak to Valley
0.17 dB
1 MHz
1.0 dB
1.5 dB
± 2 dB
6 MHz
1.5 dB
2.0 dB
12 MHz
2.0 dB
2.0 dB
18 MHz
≤ 3.0 dB
between adjc.
carriers
Entire inbound or ≤ 3 dB or
≤10 dB/300 MHz
outbound frequency
N/1 0 + 1.5 dB ≤11 dB/400 MHz
range
≤12 dB/500 MHz
etc.
Return Loss
16 dB
Amplifiers/Passives
16 dB
Semi-rigid coaxial cable reel 30 dB
Semi-rigid coaxial cable
26 dB
installed
26 dB
Flexible coaxial cable, reel 26 dB
Flexible coaxial cable, installed
Isolation Outlet to Outlet
25 dB
25 dB
18 dB
@ > 10 MHz
* MAP = Manufacturing Automation Protocol (based on Token Bus - IEEE 802.4)
203
Wavelength & Antennas
1. Vertical antenna separation
Antennas for different frequencies mounted on a common mast
should be separated by at least the length of the longest element
of the largest antenna.
2.
Wavelength in inches is given by:
3.
Approximate length of a quarter wave whip antenna in inches is given by:
l = Wavelength
F = Frequency, MHz
4.
Distance to the horizon is given by:
Assume smooth earth D = Distance, statute miles
H = Height, feet
5.
aximum Line of M
Sight is Given by:
6.
Radio Frequency Propagation
In free space, it is approximately 186,000 mi/sec or 982 ft/msec.
Multiply by the velocity of propagation to determine the distance
in coaxial cable.
204
Dipole Antenna Equations
Shown below is a typical half-wave dipole antenna. The radiation
pattern of a Hertz dipole antenna is perpendicular to the axis of
the antenna. In directions other than the optimum directions, the
antenna is ineffective.
λ
L
To calculate the wavelength of a signal, l or the dipole length, L, or
the frequency, f, of a half-wave dipole antenna, use the following
three formulas:
where:
l = Wavelength (m)
k = Velocity Factor
c = Speed of light = 3 x 108 (m/s)
f = Frequency (Hz)
L = Length of the Dipole (m)
205
Multiplexers
206
Antenna General Information
Factors Which Determine The Quality Of Reception:
A) Distance to transmitter
B) Height of transmitting antenna
C) Transmitter power
D) Transmitter frequency (TV channel)
E) Type of receiving antenna
F) Height of receiving antenna
G) Terrain between the transmitter and receiving antenna
H) Obstacles between the transmitter and receiving antenna (tall buildings, water tower, etc.)
Major Characteristics:
Gain:
Indicates the amount of received signal level
increase as compared to reference antenna. (usually a resonant dipole)
Bandwidth:The range of frequencies (TV channels) over
which the antenna is designed to operate. In
principle, there are two types of antennas:
1)Broadband
2)Single-Channel
Impedance:Home type antennas are usually 300 Ohms and commercial antennas are usually 75 Ohms.
Pattern: Generally consists of two components, beam width
and front to back ratio. Refer to diagram.
207
Antenna Stacking
Methods to Increase Received Signal Level
NOTE: Refer to Antenna Spacing Chart for dimensions
208
Antenna Spacing
Mounting Channelized Antennas on the Same Mast
NOTE: Refer to Antenna Spacing Chart for dimensions
209
Antenna Spacing Chart
Dimension Notes:
A) The minimum horizontal spacing between the tower structure and the antenna crossbar.
Channel
B) The recommended vertical spacing for a gain of 3 dB.
A
No.
2
113
3
101
4
91
5
78
6
72
FM
72
7
40
8
39
9
37
10
36
11
35
12
34
13
34
B
2/3 λ
138
125
115
100
93
80
44
43
42
40
39
38
37
C
1 λ
208
188
172
150
139
120
67
65
62
61
59
57
55
D
1/2 λ
104
94
86
75
70
60
33
32
31
30
29
29
28
Dimensions are in inches
B/2) The minimum vertical spacing between the antenna
crossbar and adjacent mechanical structures.
C) The recommended horizontal spacing for a gain of 3 dB.
D) The minimum spacing between antennas of different channels
and is the figure given for the antenna with the lowest frequency
Formulae:
One Wavelength in space . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . λ (inches) =
11811
Freq. in MHz
One Wavelength in 75 Ohm coax (solid) λ (inches) = 7783
Freq. in MHz
One Wavelength in 75 Ohm coax (foam) . . . . λ (inches) =
9565
Freq. in MHz
Antenna Nulling (finding H) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . d (λ) =
210
1
2 sin φ
Antenna Phasing
Signal Nulling
Chart No. II
φ° λ(inches)
2
3
4
5
6
FM
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
208
188
172
150
139
120
67
65
62
61
59
57
55
Chart No. III
φ°
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
d(λ)
5.733
2.880
1.931
1.462
1.183
1.000
0.871
0.777
0.707
φ°
50
55
60
65
70
75
80
85
90
d(λ)
0.653
0.610
0.577
0.551
0.532
0.517
0.507
0.502
0.500
Instructions:
1.
etermine angle “φ“ using a field strength meter, compass, and a
D
single channel antenna.
2.
Locate angle “φ“ in chart No. III and determine d(λ);
multiply λ(inches) in chart No. II to find the spacing of “H”.
3.
oth antennas must be identical, facing in the same direction, in the
B
same horizontal plane and both be right side up.
4. For angles not listed,
d(λ) = 1
2 sin (φ)
211
Pre-Amp Noise Figure vs.
Carrier To Noise (4 MHz BW)
Input
SignalNoise Figure (dB)
Level 2 3
4
5
6
7
8
-30
-29
-28
-27
-26
-25
-24
-23
-22
-21
-20
-19
-18
-17
-16
-15
-14
-13
-12
-11
-10
-9
-8
-7
-6
-5
-4
-3
-2
-1
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
4
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43 44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60 61
62
63
64
65
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32 33
34
35 36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49 50
51
52
53
54
55
56 57
58
59
60
61
62
63
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36 37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56 57 58
59
60
61
212
9 10
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
TASO
(TELEVISION
ALLOCATION STUDY
ORGANIZATION)
GRADES
EXCELLENT
46 dB
FINE
36 dB
PASSABLE
30 dB
MARGINAL
25 dB
INFERIOR
19 dB
A SNR OF 36 dB
MEANS A FINE
PICTURE TO AN
AVERAGE VIEWER,
A 30 dB RATIO
MEANS A PASSABLE
PICTURE AND SO ON.
System Planning
Headend HVAC Considerations
To maximize equipment reliability and life span, the headend room
should be temperature controlled. The heat generated by the
headend is one of the major contributors to the total amount of
BTU’s required for heating and cooling. The specified AC wattage
dissipation of a headend component directly correlates to the
amount of heat it generates. The conversion from watts to the
amount of heat generated in BTU’s is as follows:
Watts x 3.4144 = BTU’s/hour
With the total BTU’s per hour the headend generates along with the
buildings room details, a qualified HVAC technician can determine
the necessary heating and cooling requirements..
Sample Headend BTU Calculations
213
System Planning
Headend & Distribution System Construction
The System Contractor must adhere to both national and local
building codes when constructing a Broadband CATV System.
This includes, but is not limited to the NEC, NFPA Codes and local
building ordinances.
Related National Electrical Code (NEC) Articles
Article 250 - Grounding is one of the largest, most important,
and least understood articles in the NEC. As specified in Section
90-1(a), safety is the key element and purpose of the NEC. Proper
grounding and bonding is essential for maximum protection of life
and property. If over-current protection is considered the first line of
defense, grounding could be considered the last line of defense.
Article 810 - Radio and Television Equipment covers radio and
television receiving equipment and amateur radio transmitting and
receiving equipment, but not equipment and antennas used for
coupling carrier current to power line conductors.
Article 820 - Community Antenna Television and Radio
Distribution Systems covers coaxial cable distribution of radio
frequency signals typically employed in community antenna television
(CATV) systems.
National Fire Protection Agency (NFPA) - www.nfpa.org
214
Digital Signal Analysis
Digital signals such as QPSK & QAM use many different factors to
determine the quality and performance of the signal. The following
section will describe some of the most common factors used in
digital signal analysis.
QAM Signal to Noise Ratio vs. BER
The theoretical bit-error rate of the QAM signal as a function of the
SNR is provided for reference.
To obtain an estimated BER of the QAM signal, one can use the
following diagram to get theoretical values for BER. In the case
that the QAM 64 mode SNR is >32, it indicates 10-12 BER. It
should be noted that changing the S/N value by as little as 1 dB
alters approximately one decade. The diagram below depicts the
theoretical BER vs. SNR.
215
Digital Signal Analysis
QAM Signal to Noise Ratio
The following table depicts the theoretical maximum values for
various orders of QAM:
Order of QAM
4
16
32
64
128
256
SNR max
46.0 dB
46.0 dB
43.0 dB
46.0 dB
43.0 dB
46.0 dB
QAM MER — Modulation Error Ratio
The modulation error is a calculated quantity indicating the mean
or the maximum deviation of the I/Q values from ideal signal states
and thus provides a measure of signal quality.
The following diagram shows the vectors used for calculating the
modulation error:
216
Digital Signal Analysis
The modulation error is specified as rms and as peak value. To
calculate the modulation error, all decisions fields are investigated
on after the other:
To obtain peak modulation error, the maximum magnitude of the
difference vector (error vector) formed by the vector of the ideal and
the actual signal status is determined for each decision field. From
the maximum value of these results, the peak MER (modulation
error ratio) is calculated using the following formula:
To obtain the rms modulation error, the squares of the magnitude
of all differential vectors formed by the ideal-status and actualstatus vectors are added up, and the number of symbols is counted.
Then the rms modulation error is calculated as follows:
The peak and rms modulation error can also be specified on a
logarithmic scale. Conversion is done using the following formula:
217
Digital Signal Analysis
For quantized I/Q values, the peak value is output in discrete form
only since no averaging is performed in the calculation. The rms
modulation error can be calculated within the limit values specified
in the following table. The limit values are obtained for quantized
I/Q values:
Order
of QAM
MERRMS
min
MERPK
min
MERPK
min
MERdB
max
4
0.5 %
1.563 %
98.44 %
46 dB
16
0.5 %
1.398 %
43.32 %
46 dB
32
0.7 %
1.976 %
29.33 %
43 dB
64
0.5 %
1.364 %
20.46 %
46 dB
128
0.7 %
1.952 %
13.66 %
43 dB
256
0.5 %
1.356 %
9.471 %
46 dB
The term “Modulation Error Ratio” and the prescribed method of
calculation were declared an international standard by the DVB
Measurement Group.
218
Digital Signal Analysis
What is a QAM Signal
Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (QAM) uses many different
phases known as states: 16, 32, 64, and 256. Each state is defined
by a specific amplitude and phase. This means the generation
and detection of symbols is more complex than a simple phase or
amplitude device. Each time the number of states per symbol is
increased the total data and bandwidth increases. The modulation
schemes shown occupy the same bandwidth (after filtering), but
have varying efficiencies (in theory at least).
QAM — Constellation Diagrams
Constellation diagrams are used to graphically represent the
quality and distortion of a digital signal. In practice, there is
always a combination of modulation errors that may be difficult
to separate and identify, as such, it is recommended to evaluate
the measured constellation diagrams using mathematical and
statistically methods. The following section will provide application
and interpretation information of constellation diagrams of digital
modulated signals.
219
Digital Signal Analysis
The constellation diagram examples shown are based on 64
QAM modulation and use the following basic settings: maximum
possible DVB data transmission rate of 6.92 Msps or 41.73 Mbit/s
(64 QAM); Cosine roll-off filtering with roll-off factor r = 0.15 and
PRBS (pseudo random binary sequence) data stream, no coding.
Constellation Diagram for an Ideal 64 QAM Signal
Amplitude Imbalance describes the different gains of the I and
Q components of a signal. In a constellation diagram, amplitude
imbalance shows by one signal component being expanded and
the other one being compressed. This is due to the fact that the
receiver AGC makes a constant average signal level.
Phase Error is the difference between the phase angles of the I and
Q components referred to 90°. A phase error is caused by an error
of the phase shifter of the I/Q modulator. The I and Q components
are in this case not orthogonal to each other after demodulation.
220
Digital Signal Analysis
Interferers are understood to be sinusoidal spurious signals
occurring in the transmission frequency range and superimposed
on the QAM signal at some point in the transmission path. After
demodulation, the interferer is contained in the baseband form of
low-frequency sinusoidal spurious signals. The frequency of these
signals corresponds to the difference between the frequency of
the original sinusoidal interference and the carrier frequency in
the RF band.
In the constellation diagram, an interferer shows in the form of a
rotating pointer superimposed on each signal status. The example
applies the condition that there is no other error present at the
same time, The constellation diagram shows the path of the
pointer as a circle around each ideal signal status.
Constellation Diagram — 64 QAM signal with
Interferer (C/I = 25.0 dB)
221
Digital Signal Analysis
Carrier suppression or leakage is a special type of interference
in which it’s frequency equals the carrier frequency in the RF
channel. Carrier leakage can be superimposed on the QAM signal
in the I/Q modulator. In the constellation diagram, carrier leakage
shows up as a shifting of the signal states corresponding to the
DC components of the I and Q components.
Additive Gaussian noise can disturb the digitally modulated signal
during analog transmission, for instance in the analog channel.
Additive superimposed noise normally has a constant power
density and a Gaussian amplitude distribution throughout the
bandwidth of a channel. If no other error is present at the same
time, the points representing the ideal signal status are expanded
to form circular “clouds”.
Constellation Diagram — 64 QAM signal with
Additive Noise (SNR = 30.0 dB)
(Note: This diagram may also be obtained for other types of interference so
that a distinction from noise-produced patterns cannot be made)
222
Digital Signal Analysis
Phase Jitter or phase noise in the QAM signal is caused by
transponders in the transmission path or by the I/Q modulator.
It may be produced in carrier recovery, a possibility that is to be
excluded here. In contrast to the phase error described above,
phase jitter is a statistical quantity that affects the I and Q path
equally. In the constellation diagram, phase jitter shows up by the
signal states being shifted about their coordinate origin.
Constellation Diagram — 64 QAM signal with
Phase Jitter (PJRMS = 1.73°)
Source: Rohde & Schwarz — EFA QAM Analyzer documentation
223
Station List
Prior to the digital transition date of February 17, 2009 the FCC
assigned interim "Companion DTV" channel assignments to all
eligible full power TV stations. The companion channels enabled
the broadcasters to begin delivering digital programming simultaneously along with their original analog broadcasts.
The FCC subsequently released the "Final DTV" channel allotments
on March 21, 2008. The final DTV channels are the RF channels
that will be used post transition (after February 17, 2009). The
Final DTV assignments reflect the new core spectrum for TV broadcasts of channels 2 to 51. Channels 52 to 69 have been re-assigned
for public safety and advanced wireless services.
The former analog channel number information will be carried in
the new digital channel's PSIP (Program and System Information
Protocol) information. It may also be referred to as the "tune to"
(NAB) or as a "virtual" channel. Digital TV’s and STB's use this channel number to tune to the particular program that in most cases
is transmitted over a completely different RF channel. Refer to the
DTV Companion or Final DTV columns on the preceding station list
tables for actual RF channels used.
Station
NTSC Ch. DTV Companion Final DTV
Primary
State
City
Call Letters (Virtual Ch.) (Pre-2-17-09) (Post-2-17-09) Net Affiliation
AK ANCHORAGE KTUU-TV
2
10
10
NBC
AK ANCHORAGE KTBY
4
20
20
FOX
AK ANCHORAGE KYES-TV
5
6
5
My TV
AK ANCHORAGE KAKM
7
8
8
PBS
AK ANCHORAGE
CP
9
26
26
PBS
AK ANCHORAGE KTVA
11
28
28
CBS
AK ANCHORAGE KIMO
13
12
12
ABC
AK ANCHORAGE KDMD
33
32
32
ION
AK BETHEL
KYUK
4
3
3
IND
AK FAIRBANKS
KATN
2
18
18
IND
AK FAIRBANKS KFXF-TV
7
22
7
FOX
AK FAIRBANKS KUAC-TV
9
24
9
PBS
AK FAIRBANKS
KTVF
11
26
26
NBC
AK
JUNEAU
KTOO-TV
3
10
10
PBS
AK
JUNEAU
KJUD
8
11
11
IND
AK KETCHIKAN
KUBD
4
13
13
ION
224
Station List
Station
NTSC Ch. DTV Companion Final DTV
Primary
State
City
Call Letters (Virtual Ch.) (Pre-2-17-09) (Post-2-17-09) Net Affiliation
AK NORTH POLE KJNP-TV
4
20
20
IND
AK
SITKA
KTNL
13
2
7
CBS
AL ANNISTON WJSU-TV
40
9
9
ABC
AL BESSEMER
WDBB
17
18
18
CW
AL BIRMINGHAM WBRC
6
50
50
FOX
AL BIRMINGHAM WBIQ
10
53
10
PBS
AL BIRMINGHAM WVTM-TV
13
52
13
NBC
AL BIRMINGHAM WIAT
42
30
30
CBS
AL BIRMINGHAM WABM-TV
68
36
36
My TV
AL DEMOPOLIS
WIIQ
41
19
19
PBS
AL DOTHAN
WTVY-TV
4
36
36
CBS
21
ABC
AL DOTHAN
WDHN
18
21
AL
DOZIER
WDIQ
2
11
10
PBS
AL FLORENCE
WHDF
15
14
14
CW
AL FLORENCE
WYLE
26
20
20
IND
AL FLORENCE
WFIQ
36
22
22
PBS
AL GADSDEN
WPXH
44
45
45
ION
AL GADSDEN
WTJP
60
26
26
REL
AL GULF SHORES WBPG
55
12
25
CW
AL HOMEWOOD WTTO
21
28
28
CW
AL HUNTSVILLE WHNT-TV
19
59
19
CBS
AL HUNTSVILLE WHIQ
25
24
24
PBS
AL HUNTSVILLE WAAY-TV
31
32
32
ABC
AL HUNTSVILLE WAFF
48
49
49
NBC
AL HUNTSVILLE WZDX
54
41
41
FOX
AL LOUISVILLE
WGIQ
43
44
44
PBS
AL MOBILE
WKRG-TV
5
27
27
CBS
AL MOBILE
WALA-TV
10
9
9
FOX
AL MOBILE
WPMI
15
47
15
NBC
AL MOBILE WMPV-TV
21
20
20
IND
AL MOBILE
WEIQ
42
41
41
PBS
AL MOBILE
WDPM
23
23
CP
AL MONTGOMERY WSFA
12
14
12
NBC
AL MONTGOMERY WCOV-TV
20
16
16
FOX
AL MONTGOMERY WAIQ
26
27
27
PBS
AL MONTGOMERY WNCF-TV
32
51
32
ABC
AL MONTGOMERY WMCF-TV
45
46
46
REL
Refer to page 224 for more information.
225
Station List
Station
NTSC Ch. DTV Companion Final DTV
Primary
State
City
Call Letters (Virtual Ch.) (Pre-2-17-09) (Post-2-17-09) Net Affiliation
AL MT. CHEAHA
WCIQ
7
56
7
PBS
AL OPELIKA
WLGA
66
31
47
CW
AL
OZARK
WDFX-TV
34
33
33
FOX
AL
SELMA
WAKA
8
55
42
CBS
AL
SELMA
WBIH
29
29
29
IND
AL
TROY
WRJM
67
48
48
IND
AL TUSCALOOSA WUOA
23
6
6
ED
AL TUSCALOOSA WCFT-TV
33
5
33
ABC
AL TUSKEGEE
WBMM
22
24
22
IND
9
13
13
PBS
AR ARKADELPHIA KETG
AR CAMDEN KKYK-DT
49
49
49
IND
AR EL DORADO
KTVE
10
27
27
NBC
AR EL DORADO
43
43
43
IND
KEJB
AR EL DORADO
KETZ
12
10
PBS
AR EUREKA SPR. KPBI
34
34
34
IND
AR FAYETTEVILLE KAFT
13
9
9
PBS
AR FAYETTEVILLE KHOG-TV
29
15
15
ABC
AR FORT SMITH KFSM-TV
5
18
18
CBS
AR FORT SMITH KFTA-TV
24
27
27
NBC
AR FORT SMITH KHBS
40
21
21
ABC
AR HARRISON
KWBM
31
31
31
IND
AR HOT SPRINGS KVTH
26
26
26
REL
AR JONESBORO KAIT-TV
8
9
8
ABC
AR JONESBORO
KTEJ
19
20
20
PBS
AR JONESBORO
KVTJ
48
48
48
REL
7
PBS
AR LITTLE ROCK KETS
2
5
AR LITTLE ROCK KARK-TV
4
32
32
NBC
AR LITTLE ROCK KATV
7
22
22
ABC
AR LITTLE ROCK KTHV
11
12
12
CBS
AR LITTLE ROCK KLRT
16
30
30
FOX
AR LITTLE ROCK KKAP
36
36
36
ED AR LITTLE ROCK KWBF
42
44
44
My TV
AR MOUNT. VIEW KEMV
6
13
13
PBS
AR PINE BLUFF KVTN
25
24
24
IND
AR PINE BLUFF KASN
38
39
39
CW
AR ROGERS KNWA-TV
51
50
50
NBC
AR SPRINGDALE KWOG
57
39
39
IND
Refer to page 224 for more information.
226
Station List
Station
NTSC Ch. DTV Companion Final DTV
Primary
State
City
Call Letters (Virtual Ch.) (Pre-2-17-09) (Post-2-17-09) Net Affiliation
AZ DOUGLAS
KFTU
3
36
36
TLF
AZ FLAGSTAFF KNAZ-TV
2
22
2
NBC
AZ FLAGSTAFF
KTFL
4
18
18
IND
AZ FLAGSTAFF
KCFG
9
32
32
IND
AZ FLAGSTAFF
KFPH
13
27
13
TLF
AZ GREEN VAL. KUVE-TV
46
47
46
UNV
AZ HOLBROOK
KDTP
11
11
11
ED
AZ KINGMAN
KMOH
6
19
19
IND
AZ
MESA
KPNX-TV
12
36
12
NBC
AZ PHOENIX KTVK-TV
3
24
24
IND
AZ PHOENIX KPHO-TV
5
17
17
CBS
AZ PHOENIX
KAET
8
29
8
PBS
AZ PHOENIX KSAZ-TV
10
31
10
FOX
AZ PHOENIX
KNXV
15
56
15
ABC
AZ PHOENIX KPAZ-TV
21
20
20
REL
AZ PHOENIX KTVW-TV
33
34
33
UNV
AZ PHOENIX KMCT-TV
39
38
39
IND
AZ PHOENIX
KUTP
45
26
26
My TV
AZ PHOENIX
KASW
61
49
49
CW
AZ PRESCOTT KAZT-TV
7
25
7
IND
AZ SIERRA VISTA KWBA
58
44
44
CW
AZ TOLLESON
KPPX
51
52
51
ION
AZ TUCSON
KVOA
4
23
23
NBC
AZ TUCSON
KUAT-TV
6
30
30
PBS
AZ TUCSON
KGUN-TV
9
35
9
ABC
AZ TUCSON KMSB-TV
11
25
25
FOX
13
32
32
CBS
AZ TUCSON
KOLD-TV
AZ TUCSON
KTTU-TV
18
19
19
My TV
AZ TUCSON
KUAS-TV
27
28
28
PBS
AZ TUCSON
KHRR
40
42
40
TLM
AZ
YUMA
KYMA
11
41
11
NBC
AZ
YUMA
KSWT-TV
13
16
16
CBS
CA ANAHEIM KDOC-TV
56
32
32
IND
CA
ARCATA
KAEF
23
22
22
ABC
CA AVALON
KAZA-TV
54
47
47
Azteca
CA BAKERSFIELD KGET
17
25
25
NBC
CA BAKERSFIELD KERO-TV
23
10
10
ABC
Refer to page 224 for more information.
227
Station List
Station
NTSC Ch. DTV Companion Final DTV
Primary
State
City
Call Letters (Virtual Ch.) (Pre-2-17-09) (Post-2-17-09) Net Affiliation
CA BAKERSFIELD KBAK-TV
29
33
33
CBS
CA BAKERSFIELD KUVI-TV
45
55
45
My TV
CA BARSTOW
KHIZ
64
44
44
IND
CA
BISHOP
KBBC
20
20
20
IND
CA CALIPATRIA
KAJB
54
36
36
IND
CA
CERES
KBSV
23
15
15
CA
CHICO
KHSL-TV
12
43
43
CBS
CA
CHICO
KNVN
24
36
24
NBC
CA
CLOVIS
KGMC
43
44
43
IND
CA CONCORD KTNC-TV
42
63
14
Azteca
CA CORONA
KVEA
52
39
39
TLM
23
PBS
CA
COTATI
KRCB
22
23
CA EL CENTRO
KVYE
7
22
22
UNV
CA EL CENTRO
KECY
9
48
9
FOX
CA EUREKA
KIEM-TV
3
16
3
NBC
CA EUREKA
KVIQ-TV
6
17
17
CBS
CA EUREKA
KEET
13
11
11
PBS
CA EUREKA
KBVU
29
28
28
FOX
CA FORT BRAGG KUNO
8
15
8
IND SP
CA FRESNO
KVPT
18
40
40
PBS
CA FRESNO
KSEE
24
38
38
NBC
CA FRESNO
KCVU
30
20
30
FOX
CA FRESNO
KFSN-TV
30
9
30
ABC
CA FRESNO
KGPE
47
34
34
CBS
CA FRESNO
KAIL
53
7
7
My TV
20
20
UNV
CA HANFORD
KFTV
21
CA HUNT. BEACH KOCE-TV
50
48
48
PBS
CA LONG BEACH KSCI
18
61
18
IND
CA LOS ANGELES KCBS
2
60
43
CBS
CA LOS ANGELES KNBC
4
36
36
NBC
CA LOS ANGELES KTLA
5
31
31
CW
CA LOS ANGELES KABC-TV
7
53
7
ABC
CA LOS ANGELES KCAL-TV
9
43
9
IND
CA LOS ANGELES KTTV
11
65
11
FOX
CA LOS ANGELES KCOP
13
66
13
My TV
CA LOS ANGELES KWHY-TV
22
42
42
IND
CA LOS ANGELES KCET
28
59
28
PBS
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228
Station List
Station
NTSC Ch. DTV Companion Final DTV
Primary
State
City
Call Letters (Virtual Ch.) (Pre-2-17-09) (Post-2-17-09) Net Affiliation
CA LOS ANGELES KMEX-TV
34
35
34
UNV
CA LOS ANGELES KLCS
58
41
41
PBS
CA MERCED
KNSO
51
5
11
TLM
CA MODESTO
KUVS
19
18
18
UNV
CA MONTEREY
KION
46
32
32
CBS
CA MONTEREY KSMS-TV
67
31
31
UNV
CA NOVATO
KTLN-TV
68
47
47
IND
CA OAKLAND
KTVU
2
56
44
FOX
CA ONTARIO
KFTR
46
29
29
TLF
CA OXNARD KBEH-TV
63
24
24
MTV
CA PALM SPR. KMIR-TV
36
46
46
NBC
42
ABC
CA PALM SPR. KESQ-TV
42
52
CA PARADISE
KCVU
30
20
20
IND
CA PORTERVILLE KTFF
61
48
48
TLF
RANCHO
KXLA
44
51
51
IND
CA
PALOS VERDES
CA REDDING KRCR-TV
7
34
7
IND
CA REDDING
KIXE-TV
9
18
9
ED
CA RIVERSIDE KRCA-TV
62
68
45
IND
CA SACRAMENTO KCRA-TV
3
35
35
NBC
CA SACRAMENTO KVIE
6
53
9
PBS
CA SACRAMENTO KXTV
10
61
10
ABC
CA SACRAMENTO KSPX
29
48
48
ION
CA SACRAMENTO KMAX-TV
31
21
21
CW
CA SACRAMENTO KTXL
40
55
40
FOX
CA SALINAS
KSBW
8
10
8
NBC
CA SALINAS
KCBA
35
13
13
FOX
CA SAN BERN. KVCR-TV
24
26
26
PBS
CA SAN BERN.
KPXN
30
38
38
ION
CA SAN DIEGO KFMB-TV
8
55
8
CBS
CA SAN DIEGO
KGTV
10
25
10
ABC
CA SAN DIEGO
KPBS
15
30
30
PBS
CA SAN DIEGO
KNSD
39
40
40
NBC
CA SAN DIEGO KUSI-TV
51
18
18
IND
CA SAN DIEGO KSWB-TV
69
19
19
CW
CA SAN FRAN. KRON-TV
4
57
38
My TV
CA SAN FRAN.
KPIX
5
29
29
CBS
Refer to page 224 for more information.
229
Station List
Station
NTSC Ch. DTV Companion Final DTV
Primary
State
City
Call Letters (Virtual Ch.) (Pre-2-17-09) (Post-2-17-09) Net Affiliation
CA SAN FRAN. KGO-TV
7
24
7
ABC
CA SAN FRAN.
KQED
9
30
30
PBS
CA SAN FRAN. KDTV-TV
14
51
51
UNV
CA SAN FRAN.
KBWB
20
19
19
IND
CA SAN FRAN.
KTSF
26
27
27
IND
CA SAN FRAN. KMTP-TV
32
33
33
ED CA SAN FRAN. KCNS-TV
38
39
39
IND
CA SAN FRAN.
KBCW
44
45
45
CW
CA SAN JOSE KNTV-TV
11
12
12
NBC
CA SAN JOSE KICU-TV
36
52
36
IND
CA SAN JOSE
KSTS
48
49
49
TLM
CA SAN JOSE
KTEH
54
50
50
PBS
KKPX
65
41
41
ION
CA SAN JOSE
6
15
15
NBC
CA SAN LUIS OBISPO KSBY
33
34
34
TLM
CA SAN LUIS OBISPO KTAS
CA SAN MATEO KCSM-TV
60
43
43
PBS
CA SANGER
KFRE-TV
59
36
36
CW
CA SANTA ANA KTBN-TV
40
23
23
REL
CA SANTA BARB. KEYT-TV
3
27
27
ABC
CA SANTA BARB. KPMR
38
21
21
UNV
CA SANTA MARIA KCOY-TV
12
19
19
CBS
CA SANTA ROSA KFTY
50
54
32
IND
CA STOCKTON KOVR-TV
13
25
25
CBS
CA STOCKTON
KQCA
58
46
46
My TV
CA STOCKTON
KTFK
64
62
26
TLF
CA 29 PALMS KVMD-DT
23
23
IND
CA VALLEJO
KFSF
66
34
34
TLF
CA VENTURA
KJLA
57
49
49
IND
CA
VISALIA
KMPH-TV
26
28
28
FOX
CA
VISALIA
KNXT-TV
49
50
50
ED CA WATSONVILLE KQET
25
58
25
PBS
CO BOULDER KTFD-TV
14
15
15
TLF
CO BROOMFIELD KBDI-TV
12
38
13
PBS
CO CASTLE ROCK KWHD
53
46
46
IND
CO CO. SPRINGS KKTV
11
10
10
My TV
CO CO. SPRINGS KRDO-TV
13
24
24
ABC
CO CO. SPRINGS KXRM-TV
21
22
22
FOX
Refer to page 224 for more information.
230
Station List
Station
NTSC Ch. DTV Companion Final DTV
Primary
State
City
Call Letters (Virtual Ch.) (Pre-2-17-09) (Post-2-17-09) Net Affiliation
CO DENVER KWGN-TV
2
34
34
CW
CO DENVER
KCNC-TV
4
35
35
CBS
CO DENVER KRMA-TV
6
18
18
PBS
CO DENVER KMGH-TV
7
17
7
ABC
CO DENVER
KUSA-TV
9
16
9
NBC
CO DENVER
KTVD-TV
20
19
19
My TV
CO DENVER
KDVR
31
32
32
FOX
CO DENVER
KRMT
41
40
40
REL
CO DENVER
KCEC
50
51
51
UNV
CO DENVER
KPXC
59
43
43
ION
CO DURANGO KREZ-TV
6
15
15
CBS
33
IND
CO DURANGO KTLL-TV
33
33
CO DURANGO
KRMU
20
20
PBS
CO FT. COLLINS
KFCT
22
21
21
FOX
CO FT. MORGAN KUPN
3
23
23
My TV
CO GLNWD. SPR. KREG-TV
3
23
23
CBS
CO GRAND JUNCT. KFQX
4
15
15
FOX
CO GRAND JUNCT. KREX-TV
5
2
2
CBS
CO GRAND JUNCT. KJCT-TV
8
7
7
ABC
CO GRAND JUNCT. KKCO
11
12
12
NBC
CO GRAND JUNCT. KRMJ
18
17
18
PBS
CO GREELEY KPJR-TV
38
38
38
IND
CO LONGMONT KDEN-TV
25
29
29
TLM
CO MONTROSE KREY-TV
10
13
13
CBS
CO PUEBLO
KOAA-TV
5
42
42
NBC
8
26
8
PBS
CO PUEBLO
KTSC
CO PUEBLO
KVSN
48
48
IND
CO STMBOAT SPR. KRMZ
24
10
10
PBS
CO STERLING
KCDO
3
23
23
IND
CT BRIDGEPORT WSAH
43
42
42
IND
CT BRIDGEPORT WEDW
49
52
49
PSB
CT HARTFORD
WFSB
3
33
33
CBS
CT HARTFORD WUVN-TV
18
46
46
UNV
CT HARTFORD
WEDH
24
45
45
PBS
CT HARTFORD WTIC-TV
61
31
31
FOX
CT NEW BRITAIN WVIT
30
35
35
NBC
CT NEW HAVEN WTNH-TV
8
10
10
ABC
Refer to page 224 for more information.
231
Station List
Station
NTSC Ch. DTV Companion Final DTV
Primary
State
City
Call Letters (Virtual Ch.) (Pre-2-17-09) (Post-2-17-09) Net Affiliation
CT NEW HAVEN WCTX-TV
59
39
39
My TV
CT NEW HAVEN WEDY
65
6
6
PBS
CT NEW LONDON WHPX
26
34
26
ION
CT NORWICH
WEDN
53
45
9
PBS
CT WATERBURY WTXX
20
12
20
CW
DC WASHINGTON WRC-TV
4
48
48
NBC
DC WASHINGTON WTTG-TV
5
36
36
FOX
DC WASHINGTON WJLA-TV
7
39
7
ABC
DC WASHINGTON WUSA
9
34
9
CBS
DC WASHINGTON WDCA
20
35
35
My TV
DC WASHINGTON WETA-TV
26
27
27
PBS
33
ED DC WASHINGTON WHUT-TV
32
33
DC WASHINGTON WDCW
50
51
50
CW
DE SEAFORD WDPB
64
44
44
PBS
DE WILMINGTON WHYY-TV
12
12
12
PBS
DE WILMINGTON WPPX
61
31
31
ION
FL BOCA RATON WBEC
63
40
40
ED
FL BRADENTON WXPX
66
42
42
ION
FL CAPE CORAL WFTX
36
35
35
FOX
FL CLEARWATER WCLF
22
21
21
IND
FL CLERMONT
WKCF
18
17
17
CW
FL
COCOA
WHLV-TV
52
51
51
REL
FL
COCOA
WBCC
68
30
30
PBS
FL DAYTONA BCH. WESH
2
11
11
NBC
FL DAYTONA BCH. WVEN
26
49
49
UNV
FL
DESTIN
WFBD DT
48
48
IND
FL FT. LAUDER. WSCV
51
52
30
TLM
FL FORT MYERS WINK-TV
11
9
9
CBS
FL FORT MYERS WBBH-TV
20
15
15
NBC
FL FORT MYERS WGCU-TV
30
31
31
PBS
FL FORT PIERCE WTCE
21
38
38
ED
FL FORT PIERCE WTVX
34
50
34
CW
FL FT. WALTON
WFGX
35
50
50
My TV
BEACH
FL FT. WALTON WPAN
53
40
40
IND
BEACH
FL FT. WALTON WAWD
58
49
49
IND
BEACH
Refer to page 224 for more information.
232
Station List
Station
NTSC Ch. DTV Companion Final DTV
Primary
State
City
Call Letters (Virtual Ch.) (Pre-2-17-09) (Post-2-17-09) Net Affiliation
FL GAINESVILLE WUFT
5
36
36
PBS
FL GAINESVILLE WCJB
20
16
16
ABC
FL GAINESVILLE WNBW
29
9
9
IND
FL HIGH SPRINGS WGFL
53
28
28
CBS
FL HOLLYWOOD WAMI-TV
69
47
47
TLF
FL JACKSONVILLE WJXT
4
42
42
IND
FL JACKSONVILLE WJCT
7
38
7
PBS
FL JACKSONVILLE WTLV
12
13
13
NBC
FL JACKSONVILLE WCWJ
17
34
34
CW
FL JACKSONVILLE WAWS-TV
30
32
32
FOX
FL JACKSONVILLE WTEV-TV
47
19
19
CBS
FL JACKSONVILLE WJEB-TV
59
44
44
PBS
FL KEY WEST WGEN-TV
8
12
8
IND SP
FL KEY WEST WSBS-TV
22
3
3
IND SP
FL LAKE WORTH WPXP
67
36
36
ION
FL LAKELAND WMOR-TV
32
19
19
IND
FL LEESBURG
WTGL
45
46
46
REL
FL LEESBURG
WACX
55
40
40
IND
FL LIVE OAK
WFXU
57
48
48
CW
FL MARIANNA
WBIF
51
51
51
CW
FL MELBOURNE WOTF
43
20
43
TLF
FL MELBOURNE WOPX
56
48
48
ION
FL
MIAMI
WPBT
2
18
18
PBS
FL
MIAMI
WFOR-TV
4
22
22
CBS
FL
MIAMI
WTVJ
6
31
31
NBC
FL
MIAMI
WSVN-TV
7
8
7
FOX
FL
MIAMI
WPLG
10
9
10
ABC
FL
MIAMI
WLRN-TV
17
20
20
PBS
FL
MIAMI
WLTV
23
24
23
UNV
FL
MIAMI
WBFS-TV
33
32
32
My TV
FL
MIAMI
WPXM
35
26
35
ION
FL
MIAMI
WSFL-TV
39
19
19
CW
FL
MIAMI
WHFT
45
46
46
IND
FL NAPLES
WZVN-TV
26
41
41
ABC
FL NAPLES
WXCW
46
45
45
CW
FL NEW SMYRNA WCEU
15
33
33
PBS
BEACH
Refer to page 224 for more information.
233
Station List
Station
NTSC Ch. DTV Companion Final DTV
Primary
State
City
Call Letters (Virtual Ch.) (Pre-2-17-09) (Post-2-17-09) Net Affiliation
FL
OCALA
WOGX
51
31
31
FOX
FL ORANGE PARK WJXX
25
10
10
ABC
FL ORLANDO WKMG-TV
6
58
26
CBS
FL ORLANDO
WFTV
9
39
39
ABC
FL ORLANDO WMFE-TV
24
23
23
PBS
FL ORLANDO
WRDQ
27
14
27
IND
FL ORLANDO
WOFL
35
22
22
FOX
FL ORLANDO
WRBW
65
41
41
My TV
FL PALM BEACH WFGC-TV
61
49
49
IND
FL PANAMA CITY WJHG-TV
7
8
7
NBC
FL PANAMA CITY WMBB
13
19
13
ABC
FL PANAMA CITY WPGX
28
9
9
FOX
FL PANAMA CITY WFSG
56
38
38
PBS
FL PANAMA CITY WPCT
46
47
47
IND
BEACH
FL PENSACOLA WEAR-TV
3
17
17
ABC
FL PENSACOLA WSRE
23
31
31
ED
FL PENSACOLA WHBR
33
34
34
IND
FL PENSACOLA
WJTC
44
45
45
IND
FL SARASOTA
WWSB
40
52
24
ABC
FL ST. PETERS. WTSP
10
24
10
CBS
FL ST. PETERS.
WTTA
38
57
38
My TV
FL ST. PETERS. WTOG
44
59
44
CW
FL
STUART
WHDT
44
44
IND
FL TALLAHASSEE WFSU-TV
11
32
32
PBS
FL TALLAHASSEE WTXL-TV
27
22
27
ABC
FL TALLAHASSEE WTWC
40
2
40
NBC
24
24
CW
FL TALLAHASSEE WTLF-DT
FL
TAMPA
WEDU
3
54
13
PBS
FL
TAMPA
WFLA-TV
8
7
7
NBC
FL
TAMPA
WTVT
13
12
12
FOX
FL
TAMPA
WUSF-TV
16
34
34
PBS
FL
TAMPA
WFTS
28
29
29
ABC
FL
TAMPA
WFTT
50
47
47
TLF
FL TEQUESTA
WPBF
25
16
16
ABC
FL
TICE
WRXY-TV
49
33
33
IND
FL
VENICE
WVEA-TV
62
25
25
UNV
Refer to page 224 for more information.
234
Station List
Station
NTSC Ch. DTV Companion Final DTV
Primary
State
City
Call Letters (Virtual Ch.) (Pre-2-17-09) (Post-2-17-09) Net Affiliation
FL W. PALM BCH. WPTV
5
55
12
NBC
FL W. PALM BCH. WPEC
12
13
13
CBS
FL W. PALM BCH. WFLX
29
28
28
FOX
FL W. PALM BCH. WXEL-TV
42
27
27
PBS
GA ALBANY WALB-TV
10
17
10
NBC
GA ALBANY
WFXL
31
12
12
FOX
GA ATHENS
WGTV
8
8
8
PBS
GA ATHENS
WUVG-TV
34
48
48
UNV
GA ATLANTA WSB -TV
2
39
39
ABC
GA ATLANTA
WAGA
5
27
27
FOX
GA ATLANTA
WXIA-TV
11
10
10
NBC
GA ATLANTA WPCH-TV
17
20
20
IND
GA ATLANTA
21
21
PBS
WPBA
30
GA ATLANTA
WATL
36
25
25
My TV
GA ATLANTA
WGCL
46
19
19
CBS
GA ATLANTA
WATC
57
41
41
ED
GA ATLANTA
WUPA
69
43
43
CW
GA AUGUSTA
WJBF
6
42
42
ABC
GA AUGUSTA WRDW-TV
12
31
12
My TV
GA AUGUSTA
WAGT
26
30
30
NBC
GA AUGUSTA
WFXG
54
51
51
FOX
GA BAINBRIDGE WTLH
49
50
49
FOX
GA BAXLEY
WGSA
34
35
35
CW
GA BRUNSWICK WPXC
21
24
24
ION
GA CHATSWORTH WNGH-TV
18
33
33
PBS
GA COCHRAN
WMUM
29
7
7
PBS
WRBL
3
15
15
CBS
GA COLUMBUS
GA COLUMBUS
WTVM
9
47
9
ABC
GA COLUMBUS WJSP-TV
28
23
23
PBS
GA COLUMBUS
WLTZ
38
35
35
NBC
GA COLUMBUS
WXTX
54
49
49
FOX
GA CORDELE WSST-TV
55
51
51
IND
GA DALTON
WELF-TV
23
16
16
REL
GA DAWSON WACS-TV
25
8
8
PBS
GA
MACON
WMAZ-TV
13
4
13
CBS
GA
MACON
WGXA
24
16
16
FOX
GA
MACON
WMGT-TV
41
40
40
NBC
Refer to page 224 for more information.
235
Station List
Station
NTSC Ch. DTV Companion Final DTV
Primary
State
City
Call Letters (Virtual Ch.) (Pre-2-17-09) (Post-2-17-09) Net Affiliation
GA
MACON
WGNM
64
45
45
REL
GA MONROE
WHSG
63
44
44
IND
GA PELHAM WABW-TV
14
6
6
PBS
GA
PERRY
WPGA
58
32
32
ABC
GA
ROME
WPXA
14
51
51
ION
GA SAVANNAH WSAV-TV
3
39
39
NBC
GA SAVANNAH WVAN-TV
9
9
9
PBS
GA SAVANNAH WTOC-TV
11
15
11
CBS
GA SAVANNAH
WJCL
22
23
22
ABC
GA THOMASVILLE WCTV
6
46
46
CBS
GA TOCCOA
WNEG-TV
32
24
24
CBS
GA VALDOSTA
WSWG
44
43
43
CBS
GA WAYCROSS WXGA-TV
8
8
8
PBS
GA
WRENS
WCES-TV
20
6
6
PBS
GU AGANA KUAM-TV
8
8
8
NBC
GU
AGANA
KGTF
12
12
12
ED
GU TAMUNING
KTGM
14
14
14
ABC
HI
HILO
KHBC-TV
2
22
22
NBC
HI
HILO
KGMB
9
22
9
CBS
HI
HILO
KHAW
11
21
11
FOX
HI
HILO
KHVO
13
18
13
ABC
HI
HILO
KWHH
14
23
23
IND
HI HONOLULU KHON-TV
2
8
8
FOX
HI HONOLULU
KITV
4
40
40
ABC
HI HONOLULU
KFVE
5
23
23
My TV
HI HONOLULU
KGMB
9
8
9
CBS
PBS
HI HONOLULU
KHET
11
18
11
HI HONOLULU
KHNL
13
35
35
NBC
HI HONOLULU
KWHE
14
31
31
IND
HI HONOLULU KIKU-TV
20
19
19
IND
HI HONOLULU
KAAH
26
27
27
IND
HI HONOLULU
KBFD
32
33
33
IND
HI HONOLULU
KALO
38
10
10
REL
HI HONOLULU
KWBN
44
43
43
ED
HI
KAILUA
KKAI
50
50
50
IND
HI KAILUA KONA KLEI
6
25
25
IND
HI KANEOHE
KPXO
66
41
41
ION
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236
Station List
Station
NTSC Ch. DTV Companion Final DTV
Primary
State
City
Call Letters (Virtual Ch.) (Pre-2-17-09) (Post-2-17-09) Net Affiliation
HI WAILUKU
KGMV
3
24
24
CBS
HI WAILUKU
KAII-TV
7
36
7
FOX
HI WAILUKU
KMEB
10
30
10
PBS
HI WAILUKU
KMAU
12
29
12
ABC
HI WAILUKU
KOGG
15
16
16
NBC
HI WAILUKU
KWHM
21
45
21
IND
HI WAIMANALO KUPU
56
38
38
REL
IA
AMES
WOI -TV
5
59
5
ABC
IA
AMES
KCWI-TV
23
23
23
CW
IA
AMES
KEFB
34
34
34
REL
IA BURLINGTON KGCW-TV
26
41
41
CW
IA CEDAR RAP.
KGAN
2
51
51
CBS
IA CEDAR RAP. KCRG-TV
9
52
9
ABC
IA CEDAR RAP.
KFXA
28
27
27
FOX
IA CEDAR RAP.
KPXR
48
47
47
ION
IA COUNCIL BL. KBIN
32
33
33
PBS
IA DAVENPORT KWQC-TV
6
56
36
NBC
IA DAVENPORT KLJB-TV
18
49
49
FOX
IA DAVENPORT
KQIN
36
34
34
PBS
IA DES MOINES KCCI-TV
8
31
8
CBS
IA DES MOINES KDIN-TV
11
50
11
PBS
IA DES MOINES WHO -TV
13
19
13
NBC
IA DES MOINES KDSM-TV
17
16
16
FOX
IA DES MOINES KDMI
31
31
My TV
IA DUBUQUE
KFXB
40
43
43
REL
IA FORT DODGE KTIN
21
25
25
PBS
PBS
IA IOWA CITY KIIN-TV
12
45
12
IA IOWA CITY
KWKB
20
25
25
CW
IA MASON CITY
KIMT
3
42
42
CBS
IA MASON CITY
KYIN
24
18
18
PBS
IA NEWTON
KFPX
39
39
39
ION
IA OTTUMWA KYOU-TV
15
14
15
FOX
IA RED OAK
KHIN
36
35
35
PBS
IA SIOUX CITY
KTIV
4
41
41
NBC
IA SIOUX CITY KCAU-TV
9
30
9
ABC
IA SIOUX CITY
KMEG
14
39
39
CBS
IA SIOUX CITY
KSIN
27
28
28
PBS
Refer to page 224 for more information.
237
Station List
Station
NTSC Ch. DTV Companion Final DTV
Primary
State
City
Call Letters (Virtual Ch.) (Pre-2-17-09) (Post-2-17-09) Net Affiliation
IA SIOUX CITY
KPTH
44
49
44
FOX
IA WATERLOO
KWWL
7
55
7
NBC
IA WATERLOO
KWWF
22
22
22
IND
IA WATERLOO
KRIN
32
35
35
PBS
ID
BOISE
KBCI-TV
2
28
28
CBS
ID
BOISE
KAID
4
21
21
PBS
ID
BOISE
KTVB
7
26
7
NBC
ID
BOISE
KKJB
39
39
39
IND
ID CALDWELL KNIN-TV
9
10
10
CW
26
45
45
PBS
ID COEUR D'ALENE KCDT
ID
FILER
KBGH
19
18
18
ED
ID IDAHO FALLS KIDK
3
36
36
CBS
ID IDAHO FALLS KIFI-TV
8
9
8
ABC
ID IDAHO FALLS
CP
20
20
20
ID LEWISTON KLEW-TV
3
32
32
CBS
ID MOSCOW
KUID-TV
12
12
12
PBS
ID
NAMPA
KIVI
6
24
24
ABC
ID
NAMPA
KTRV-TV
12
13
13
FOX
ID POCATELLO
KPVI
6
23
23
NBC
ID POCATELLO KISU-TV
10
17
17
PBS
ID POCATELLO
KPIF
15
15
15
CW
ID POCATELLO
KFXP
31
31
31
FOX
ID SUN VALLEY
KIDA
5
32
5
IND
ID TWIN FALLS KMVT
11
16
11
CBS
ID TWIN FALLS
KIPT
13
22
22
PBS
ID TWIN FALLS
KXTF
35
34
34
FOX
59
50
TLF
IL AURORA
WXFT
60
43
28
28
FOX
IL BLOOMINGTON WYZZ-TV
IL CARBONDALE WSIU-TV
8
40
8
PBS
IL CHAMPAIGN
WCIA
3
48
48
CBS
IL CHAMPAIGN
WICD
15
41
41
ABC
IL CHARLESTON WEIU-TV
51
50
50
PBS
IL CHICAGO WBBM-TV
2
3
12
CBS
IL CHICAGO WMAQ-TV
5
29
29
NBC
IL CHICAGO
WLS -TV
7
52
7
ABC
IL CHICAGO WGN -TV
9
19
19
CW
IL CHICAGO
WTTW
11
47
47
PBS
Refer to page 224 for more information.
238
Station List
Station
NTSC Ch. DTV Companion Final DTV
Primary
State
City
Call Letters (Virtual Ch.) (Pre-2-17-09) (Post-2-17-09) Net Affiliation
IL CHICAGO
WYCC
20
21
21
PBS
IL CHICAGO
WCIU-TV
26
27
27
IND
IL CHICAGO
WFLD
32
31
31
FOX
IL CHICAGO
WCPX
38
43
43
ION
IL CHICAGO WSNS-TV
44
45
45
TLM
IL DECATUR WAND-TV
17
18
18
NBC
IL DECATUR
WBUI
23
22
22
CW
IL E. ST. LOUIS WRBU
46
47
47
My TV
IL FREEPORT WIFR-TV
23
41
23
CBS
IL GALESBURG
CP
8
8
IL HARRISBURG WSIL-TV
3
34
34
ABC
IL JACKSONVILLE WSEC
14
15
15
PBS
IL
JOLIET
WGBO-TV
66
53
UNV
38
IL LASALLE WWTO-TV
35
10
10
REL
IL MACOMB
WMEC
22
21
21
PBS
IL
MARION
WTCT
27
17
17
IND
IL
MOLINE
WQAD-TV
8
38
38
ABC
IL
MOLINE
WQPT-TV
24
23
23
PBS
IL MT. VERNON WPXS
13
21
21
IND
IL
OLNEY
KUSI-TV
16
19
19
ED IL
OLNEY
WUSI-TV
16
19
19
PBS
IL
PEORIA
WHOI
19
40
19
ABC
IL
PEORIA
WEEK-TV
25
57
25
NBC
IL
PEORIA WMBD-TV
31
30
30
CBS
IL
PEORIA
WTVP
47
46
46
PBS
IL
PEORIA
WAOE
59
39
39
My TV
IL
QUINCY
WGEM-TV
10
54
10
NBC
IL
QUINCY
WTJR
16
32
32
IND
IL
QUINCY
WQEC
27
34
34
PBS
IL ROCK ISLAND KHBF-TV
4
58
4
IND
IL ROCK ISLAND WHBF-TV
4
58
4
CBS
IL ROCKFORD WREX-TV
13
54
13
NBC
IL ROCKFORD
WTVO
17
16
16
ABC
IL ROCKFORD WQRF-TV
39
42
42
FOX
IL SPRINGFIELD WICS
20
42
42
ABC
IL SPRINGFIELD WCFN
49
53
13
My TV
IL SPRINGFIELD WRSP-TV
55
44
44
FOX
Refer to page 224 for more information.
239
Station List
Station
NTSC Ch. DTV Companion Final DTV
Primary
State
City
Call Letters (Virtual Ch.) (Pre-2-17-09) (Post-2-17-09) Net Affiliation
IL
URBANA
WILL-TV
12
9
9
PBS
IL
URBANA
WCCU
27
26
26
FOX
IN ANGOLA
WINM
63
12
12
IND
4
48
48
CW
IN BLOOMINGTON WTTV
30
14
14
PBS
IN BLOOMINGTON WTIU
42
56
42
IND
IN BLOOMINGTON WCLJ
63
27
27
ION
IN BLOOMINGTON WIPX
IN ELKHART
WSJV
28
58
28
FOX
IN EVANSVILLE WTVW
7
28
28
FOX
IN EVANSVILLE WNIN
9
12
9
PBS
IN EVANSVILLE WFIE-TV
14
46
46
NBC
IN EVANSVILLE WEHT-TV
25
59
7
ABC
IN EVANSVILLE WEVV
44
45
45
CBS
IN FORT WAYNE WANE-TV
15
31
31
CBS
IN FORT WAYNE WPTA
21
24
24
ABC
IN FORT WAYNE WISE-TV
33
19
19
NBC
IN FORT WAYNE WFWA
39
40
40
PBS
IN FORT WAYNE WFFT-TV
55
36
36
FOX
IN
GARY
WPWR-TV
50
51
51
My TV
IN
GARY
WYIN
56
17
17
PBS
IN HAMMOND
WJYS
62
36
36
IND
IN INDIANAPOLIS WRTV
6
25
25
ABC
IN INDIANAPOLIS WISH-TV
8
9
9
CBS
IN INDIANAPOLIS WTHR
13
46
13
NBC
IN INDIANAPOLIS WFYI
20
21
21
PBS
IN INDIANAPOLIS WHMB-TV
40
16
16
IND
IN INDIANAPOLIS WXIN
59
45
45
FOX
IN INDIANAPOLIS WDTI-TV
69
44
44
IND
IN KOKOMO
WTTK
29
54
29
CW
IN LAFAYETTE WLFI-TV
18
11
11
CBS
IN
MARION
WNDY
23
32
32
My TV
IN
MUNCIE
WIPB
49
52
23
PBS
IN RICHMOND
WKOI
43
39
39
IND
IN
SALEM
WMYO
58
51
51
My TV
IN SOUTH BEND WNDU-TV
16
42
42
NBC
IN SOUTH BEND WSBT-TV
22
30
22
CBS
IN SOUTH BEND WNIT-TV
34
35
35
PBS
Refer to page 224 for more information.
240
Station List
Station
NTSC Ch. DTV Companion Final DTV
Primary
State
City
Call Letters (Virtual Ch.) (Pre-2-17-09) (Post-2-17-09) Net Affiliation
IN SOUTH BEND WHME-TV
46
48
48
IND
IN TERRE HAUTE WTWO
2
36
36
NBC
IN TERRE HAUTE WTHI-TV
10
24
10
CBS
IN TERRE HAUTE WFXW
38
39
39
FOX
IN VINCENNES
WVUT
22
52
22
PBS
KS
COLBY
KLBY
4
17
17
ABC
KS
COLBY
KWKS
19
19
PBS
KS
DERBY
KDCU
46
46
UNV
KS DODGE CITY KDCK
21
21
21
PBS
KS
ENSIGN
KBSD-TV
6
6
6
CBS
KS GARDEN CITY KSNG-TV
11
16
11
NBC
KS GARDEN CITY KUPK-TV
13
18
13
ABC
KS GOODLAND KBSL-TV
10
10
10
CBS
KS GREAT BEND KSNC
2
22
22
NBC
KS
HAYS
KOOD
9
16
16
PBS
KS HOISINGTON KOCW
14
14
14
FOX
KS HUTCHINSON KPTS
8
29
8
PBS
KS HUTCHINSON KWCH-TV
12
19
12
CBS
KS HUTCHINSON KMTW
36
35
35
My TV
KS
LAKIN
KSNW
3
45
8
NBC
KS
LAKIN
KSWK
3
8
8
PBS
KS LAWRENCE
KMCI
38
36
41
IND
KS PITTSBURG KOAM-TV
7
13
7
CBS
KS PITTSBURG
KFJX
14
13
13
FOX
KS
SALINA
KAAS-TV
18
17
17
FOX
KS TOPEKA
KTWU
11
23
11
PBS
KS TOPEKA
KIBW-TV
13
44
13
CBS
KS TOPEKA
KSQA
22
12
12
CP
KS TOPEKA
KSNT
27
28
27
NBC
KS TOPEKA
KTKA-TV
49
48
49
ABC
KS WICHITA
KSNW
3
45
45
NBC
KS WICHITA
KAKE-TV
10
21
10
ABC
KS WICHITA
KSAS-TV
24
26
26
FOX
KS WICHITA
KSCW
33
31
19
CW
KY ASHLAND
WKAS
25
26
26
PBS
KY ASHLAND
WTSF
61
44
44
IND
KY BEATTYVILLE WLJC-TV
65
7
7
IND
Refer to page 224 for more information.
241
Station List
Station
NTSC Ch. DTV Companion Final DTV
Primary
State
City
Call Letters (Virtual Ch.) (Pre-2-17-09) (Post-2-17-09) Net Affiliation
KY BOWL. GREEN WBKO
13
33
13
ABC
KY BOWL. GREEN WKYU-TV
24
18
18
PBS
KY BOWL. GREEN WNKY
40
16
16
NBC
KY BOWL. GREEN WKGB-TV
53
48
48
PBS
34
19
19
CW
KY CAMPBELLSVILLE WBKI
KY COVINGTON WCVN
54
24
24
PBS
KY DANVILLE WDKY-TV
56
4
4
FOX
23
43
43
PBS
KY ELIZABETHTOWN WKZT-TV
KY HARLAN
WAGV
44
51
51
IND
KY HAZARD
WKHA
35
16
16
PBS
KY HAZARD WYMT-TV
57
12
12
CBS
KY LEXINGTON WLEX-TV
18
39
39
NBC
KY LEXINGTON WKYT-TV
27
13
13
CW
KY LEXINGTON WTVQ-TV
36
40
40
ABC
KY LEXINGTON
WKLE
46
42
42
PBS
KY LOUISVILLE
WAVE
3
47
47
NBC
KY LOUISVILLE WHAS-TV
11
55
11
ABC
KY LOUISVILLE WKPC-TV
15
17
17
PBS
KY LOUISVILLE WBNA
21
8
8
ION
KY LOUISVILLE
WLKY
32
26
26
CBS
KY LOUISVILLE WDRB
41
49
49
FOX
KY LOUISVILLE
WKMJ
68
38
38
PBS
KY MADISONVILLE WAZE-TV
19
20
20
CW
KY MADISONVILLE WKMA
35
42
42
PBS
KY MOREHEAD WKMR
38
15
15
PBS
KY MOREHEAD WUPX
67
21
21
ION
KY MURRAY
WKMU
21
36
36
PBS
KY NEWPORT WXIX-TV
19
29
29
FOX
KY OWENSBORO WKOH
31
30
30
PBS
KY OWENTON
WKON
52
44
44
PBS
KY PADUCAH WPSD-TV
6
32
32
NBC
KY PADUCAH
WKPD
29
41
41
PBS
KY PADUCAH
WDKA
49
50
49
My TV
KY PIKEVILLE
WKPI
22
24
24
PBS
KY SOMERSET WKSO-TV
29
14
14
PBS
LA ALEXANDRIA KALB-TV
5
35
35
NBC
LA ALEXANDRIA KLPA-TV
25
26
26
PBS
Refer to page 224 for more information.
242
Station List
Station
NTSC Ch. DTV Companion Final DTV
Primary
State
City
Call Letters (Virtual Ch.) (Pre-2-17-09) (Post-2-17-09) Net Affiliation
LA ALEXANDRIA KLAX-TV
31
32
31
ABC
LA ALEXANDRIA KBCA
41
41
41
CW
LA BAT. ROUGE WBRZ
2
13
13
ABC
LA BAT. ROUGE WAFB
9
46
9
CBS
LA BAT. ROUGE WLPB-TV
27
25
25
PBS
LA BAT. ROUGE WVLA
33
34
34
NBC
LA BAT. ROUGE WGMB-TV
44
45
45
FOX
LA COLUMBIA
KAQY
11
57
11
ABC
LA HAMMOND KGLA-DT
42
TLM
LA LAFAYETTE
KATC
3
28
28
ABC
LA LAFAYETTE KLFY-TV
10
56
10
CBS
LA LAFAYETTE
KADN
15
16
16
FOX
LA LAFAYETTE KLPB-TV
24
23
23
PBS
LA LK. CHARLES KPLC-TV
7
8
7
NBC
LA LK. CHARLES KLTL-TV
18
20
20
PBS
LA LK. CHARLES KVHP
29
30
30
FOX
LA MINDEN
KPXJ
21
21
21
CW
LA MONROE
WVUE
8
29
8
FOX
LA MONROE KNOE-TV
8
7
8
CBS
LA MONROE
KLTM 13
19
13
PBS
LA NEW IBERIA KLWB
50
50
50
CW
LA NEW ORLEANS WWL -TV
4
36
36
CBS
LA NEW ORLEANS WDSU-TV
6
43
43
NBC
LA NEW ORLEANS WVUE
8
29
8
FOX
LA NEW ORLEANS WYES-TV
12
11
11
PBS
LA NEW ORLEANS WHNO-TV
20
21
21
IND
LA NEW ORLEANS WGNO
26
15
26
ABC
LA NEW ORLEANS WLAE-TV
32
31
31
PBS
LA NEW ORLEANS WNOL-TV
38
40
15
CW
LA NEW ORLEANS WPXL
49
50
50
ION
LA SHREVEPORT KTBS-TV
3
28
28
ABC
LA SHREVEPORT KSLA-TV
12
17
17
CBS
LA SHREVEPORT KLTS-TV
24
25
25
PBS
LA SHREVEPORT KMSS-TV
33
34
34
FOX
LA SHREVEPORT KSHV
45
44
44
My TV
LA SLIDELL
WUPL
54
24
24
My TV
LA W. MONROE KARD
14
36
36
FOX
Refer to page 224 for more information.
243
Station List
Station
NTSC Ch. DTV Companion Final DTV
Primary
State
City
Call Letters (Virtual Ch.) (Pre-2-17-09) (Post-2-17-09) Net Affiliation
LA W. MONROE KMCT-TV
39
38
38
REL
MA ADAMS WCDC-TV
19
36
36
ABC
MA BOSTON WGBH-TV
2
19
19
PBS
MA BOSTON
WBZ -TV
4
30
30
CBS
MA BOSTON WCVB-TV
5
20
20
ABC
MA BOSTON
WHDH
7
42
7
NBC
MA BOSTON
WFXT
25
31
31
FOX
MA BOSTON WSBK-TV
38
39
39
IND
MA BOSTON WGBX-TV
44
43
43
PBS
MA BOSTON WBPX-TV
68
32
32
ION
MA CAMBRIDGE WLVI-TV
56
41
41
CW
18
IND
MA LAWRENCE
WMFP
62
18
66
23
27
TLF
MA MARLBOROUGH WUTF
MA NEW BEDFORD WLNE
6
49
49
ABC
MA NEW BEDFORD WLWC
28
22
22
CW
MA NORWELL
WWDP
46
52
10
IND
MA PITTSFIELD
WNYA
51
13
13
My TV
MA SPRINGFIELD WWLP
22
11
11
NBC
MA SPRINGFIELD WGGB-TV
40
55
40
ABC
MA SPRINGFIELD WGBY-TV
57
58
22
PBS
MA VNYD. HAVEN WDPX
58
40
40
ION
MA WORCESTER WUNI
27
29
29
UNV
MA WORCESTER WYDN
48
47
47
PBS
MD ANNAPOLIS WMPT
22
42
42
PBS
MD BALTIMORE WMAR-TV
2
52
38
ABC
MD BALTIMORE WBAL-TV
11
59
11
NBC
MD BALTIMORE WJZ-TV
13
38
13
CBS
MD BALTIMORE WUTB
24
41
41
My TV
MD BALTIMORE
WBFF
45
46
46
FOX
MD BALTIMORE WNUV-TV
54
40
40
CW
MD BALTIMORE WMPB
67
29
29
PBS
MD FREDERICK
WFPT
62
28
28
PBS
MD HAGERSTOWN WHAG-TV
25
55
26
NBC
MD HAGERSTOWN WWPB
31
44
44
PBS
MD HAGERSTOWN WJAL
68
16
39
IND
MD OAKLAND
WGPT
36
54
36
PBS
MD SALISBURY WBOC-TV
16
21
21
CBS
Refer to page 224 for more information.
244
Station List
Station
NTSC Ch. DTV Companion Final DTV
Primary
State
City
Call Letters (Virtual Ch.) (Pre-2-17-09) (Post-2-17-09) Net Affiliation
MD SALISBURY
WCPB
28
56
28
PBS
MD SALISBURY
WMDT
47
53
47
ABC
ME AUGUSTA
WCBB
10
17
10
PBS
ME BANGOR
WLBZ
2
25
2
NBC
ME BANGOR
WABI-TV
5
19
19
CBS
ME BANGOR
WVII-TV
7
14
7
ABC
ME BIDDEFORD WMEA-TV
26
45
45
PBS
ME
CALAIS
WMED-TV
13
10
10
PBS
ME LEWISTON
WPME
35
28
35
My TV
ME ORONO
WMEB-TV
12
9
9
PBS
ME POLAND SPR. WMTW
8
46
8
ABC
ME PORTLAND
WCSH
6
44
44
NBC
ME PORTLAND WGME-TV
13
38
38
CBS
ME PORTLAND
WPXT
51
43
43
CW
ME PRESQUE ISLE WAGM-TV
8
16
8
CBS
ME PRESQUE ISLE WMEM-TV
10
20
10
PBS
ME PRESQUE ISLE
CP
47
47
47
ME WATERVILLE WPFO
23
23
23
FOX
MI ALPENA WCML-TV
6
57
24
PBS
MI ALPENA WBKB-TV
11
13
11
CBS
MI ANN ARBOR WPXD
31
33
31
ION
MI BAD AXE WDCQ-TV
35
15
15
PBS
MI BATTLE CRK. WOTV
41
20
20
ABC
MI BATTLE CRK. WZPX
43
44
44
ION
MI BAY CITY WNEM-TV
5
22
22
CBS
MI BAY CITY
WBSF
46
46
46
CW
MI CADILLAC
WWTV
9
40
9
CBS
MI CADILLAC
WCMV
27
17
17
PBS
MI CADILLAC
WFQX
33
47
47
FOX
MI CALUMET
WBKP
5
5
5
CW
MI CHEBOYGAN WTOM-TV
4
35
35
NBC
MI DETROIT
WJBK
2
58
7
FOX
MI DETROIT
WDIV
4
45
45
NBC
MI DETROIT WXYZ-TV
7
41
41
ABC
MI DETROIT
WMYD
20
21
21
My TV
MI DETROIT WKBD-TV
50
14
14
CW
MI DETROIT
WTVS
56
56
43
PBS
Refer to page 224 for more information.
245
Station List
Station
NTSC Ch. DTV Companion Final DTV
Primary
State
City
Call Letters (Virtual Ch.) (Pre-2-17-09) (Post-2-17-09) Net Affiliation
MI DETROIT
WWJ-TV
62
44
44
CBS
MI EAST LANSING WKAR-TV
23
55
40
PBS
MI ESCANABA WJMN-TV
3
48
48
CBS
MI
FLINT
WJRT-TV
12
36
12
ABC
MI
FLINT
WFUM
28
52
28
PBS
MI
FLINT
WSMH
66
16
16
FOX
MI GRAND RAPIDS WOOD-TV
8
7
7
NBC
MI GRAND RAPIDS WZZM-TV
13
39
13
ABC
MI GRAND RAPIDS WXMI
17
19
19
FOX
MI GRAND RAPIDS WGVU
35
11
11
PBS
MI IRON MOUNT. WDHS
8
22
8
IND
WBUP
10
10
10
ABC
MI ISHPEMING
MI JACKSON WHTV-TV
18
34
34
My TV
MI KALAMAZOO WWMT
3
2
8
CW
MI KALAMAZOO WGVK
52
5
5
PBS
MI KALAMAZOO WLLA
64
45
45
IND
MI LANSING WLNS-TV
6
59
36
CBS
MI LANSING WSYM-TV
47
38
38
FOX
MI LANSING
WLAJ
53
51
51
ABC
MI MANISTEE
WCMW
21
58
21
PBS
MI MARQUETTE WLUC-TV
6
35
35
NBC
MI MARQUETTE WNMU-TV
13
33
13
PBS
MI MARQUETTE WMQF
19
19
19
My TV
MI MT. CLEMENS WADL
38
39
39
IND
MI MT. PLEASANT WCMU-TV
14
56
26
PBS
MI MUSKEGON
WTLJ
54
24
24
IND
MI ONONDAGA WILX-TV
10
57
10
NBC
MI SAGINAW
WEYI-TV
25
30
30
NBC
MI SAGINAW
WAQP
49
48
48
IND
MI
SAULT
WGTQ
8
9
8
ABC
STE. MARIE
MI
SAULT
WWUP-TV
10
49
10
CBS
STE. MARIE
MI TRAVERSE CITY WPBN-TV
7
50
7
NBC
MI TRAVERSE CITY WGTU
29
31
29
ABC
MI VANDERBILT WFUP
45
45
45
FOX
MN ALEXANDRIA KCCO-TV
7
24
7
CBS
Refer to page 224 for more information.
246
Station List
Station
NTSC Ch. DTV Companion Final DTV
Primary
State
City
Call Letters (Virtual Ch.) (Pre-2-17-09) (Post-2-17-09) Net Affiliation
MN ALEXANDRIA KSAX
42
36
42
ABC
MN APPLETON KWCM-TV
10
31
10
PBS
MN AUSTIN
KAAL
6
33
36
ABC
MN AUSTIN
KSMQ-TV
15
20
20
PBS
MN BEMIDJI
KAWE
9
18
9
PBS
MN BEMIDJI
KFTC
26
26
26
FOX
MN BRAINERD
KAWB
22
28
28
PBS
MN CHISHOLM
KRII
11
11
11
NBC
MN CROOKSTON KCGE-DT
16
16
PBS
MN DULUTH
KDLH
3
33
33
CBS
MN DULUTH
WDSE-TV
8
38
8
PBS
MN DULUTH
WDIO-TV
10
43
10
ABC
MN DULUTH
KQDS-TV
21
17
17
FOX
MN DULUTH
KCWV
27
27
27
CP
MN HIBBING
WIRT
13
36
13
ABC
MN HIBBING
WRPT
31
31
CP
MN MANKATO KEYC-TV
12
38
12
CBS
MN MINNEAPOLIS WCCO-TV
4
32
32
CBS
MN MINNEAPOLIS KMSP-TV
9
26
9
FOX
MN MINNEAPOLIS KARE
11
35
11
NBC
MN MINNEAPOLIS WUCW
23
22
22
CW
MN MINNEAPOLIS WFTC
29
21
29
My TV
MN MINNEAPOLIS KSTC-TV
45
44
45
IND
43
27
27
ABC
MN REDWOOD FALLS KRWF
MN ROCHESTER
KTTC
10
36
10
NBC
MN ROCHESTER KXLT-TV
47
46
46
FOX
MN ST. CLOUD
KPXM
41
40
40
ION
MN ST. PAUL
KTCA-TV
2
34
34
PBS
MN ST. PAUL
KSTP-TV
5
50
35
ABC
MN ST. PAUL
KTCI-TV
17
16
26
PBS
10
10
10
FOX
MN THIEF RIV. FALLS KBRR
MN WALKER
KCCW-TV
12
20
12
CBS
MN WORTHINGTON KSMN
20
15
15
PBS
12
57
12
CBS
MO CAPE GIRARDEAU KFVS-TV
23
22
22
FOX
MO CAPE GIRARDEAU KBSI
MO COLUMBIA KOMU-TV
8
36
8
NBC
MO COLUMBIA
KMIZ
17
22
17
ABC
Refer to page 224 for more information.
247
Station List
Station
NTSC Ch. DTV Companion Final DTV
Primary
State
City
Call Letters (Virtual Ch.) (Pre-2-17-09) (Post-2-17-09) Net Affiliation
MO HANNIBAL KHQA-TV
7
29
7
CBS
13
12
12
CBS
MO JEFFERSON CITY KRCG
25
20
20
IND
MO JEFFERSON CITY KNLJ
MO
JOPLIN
KODE
12
43
43
ABC
MO
JOPLIN
KSNF
16
46
46
NBC
MO
JOPLIN
KOZJ
26
25
25
PBS
MO KANSAS CITY WDAF-TV
4
34
34
FOX
MO KANSAS CITY KCTV
5
24
24
CBS
MO KANSAS CITY KMBC-TV
9
7
9
ABC
MO KANSAS CITY KCPT
19
18
18
PBS
MO KANSAS CITY KCWE
29
31
31
CW
MO KANSAS CITY KSHB-TV
41
42
42
NBC
MO KANSAS CITY KPXE
50
51
51
ION
MO KANSAS CITY KSMO-TV
62
47
47
My TV
MO KIRKSVILLE
KTVO
3
33
33
ABC
MO OSAGE BEACH KRBK
49
49
49
CP
MO POPLAR BLUFF KPOB-TV
15
15
15
MO SEDALIA KMOS-TV
6
15
15
PBS
MO SPRINGFIELD KYTV
3
44
44
NBC
MO SPRINGFIELD KOLR
10
52
10
CBS
MO SPRINGFIELD KOZK
21
23
23
PBS
MO SPRINGFIELD KSFX
27
28
28
FOX
MO SPRINGFIELD KSPR
33
19
19
ABC
MO ST. JOSEPH
KQTV
2
53
7
ABC
MO ST. JOSEPH
KTAJ
16
21
21
REL
MO ST. LOUIS KTVI-TV
2
43
43
FOX
CBS
MO ST. LOUIS
KMOV
4
56
24
MO ST. LOUIS
KSDK
5
35
35
NBC
MO ST. LOUIS
KETC
9
39
39
PBS
MO ST. LOUIS KPLR-TV
11
26
26
CW
MO ST. LOUIS
KNLC
24
14
14
IND
MO ST. LOUIS KDNL-TV
30
31
31
ABC
MS BILOXI
WLOX
13
39
13
ABC
MS
BILOXI
WMAH-TV
19
16
16
PBS
MS BOONEVILLE WMAE-TV
12
55
12
PBS
MS
BUDE
WMAU-TV
17
18
18
PBS
MS COLUMBUS WCBI-TV
4
35
35
CBS
Refer to page 224 for more information.
248
Station List
Station
NTSC Ch. DTV Companion Final DTV
Primary
State
City
Call Letters (Virtual Ch.) (Pre-2-17-09) (Post-2-17-09) Net Affiliation
MS COLUMBUS
WMAA
43
43
ED MS GREENVILLE WXVT
15
17
15
CBS
MS GREENWOOD WABG-TV
6
32
32
ABC
MS GREENWOOD WMAO-TV
23
25
25
PBS
MS GULFPORT WXXV-TV
25
48
48
FOX
MS HATTIESBURG WHLT
22
58
22
CBS
MS HOLLY SPRINGS WBUY
40
41
41
IND
MS HOUSTON
WKDH
45
45
45
ABC
MS JACKSON WLBT-TV
3
9
7
NBC
MS JACKSON
WJTV
12
52
12
CBS
MS JACKSON
WAPT
16
21
21
ABC
29
20
20
PBS
MS JACKSON WMPN-TV
MS JACKSON
WDBD
40
41
40
FOX
MS JACKSON
WWJX
51
51
51
CP
MS LAUREL
WDAM-TV
7
28
28
NBC
MS
MAGEE
WRBJ
34
34
34
CW
MS MERIDIAN WTOK-TV
11
49
11
ABC
MS MERIDIAN WMAW-TV
14
44
44
PBS
MS MERIDIAN
WMDN
24
26
24
CBS
MS MERIDIAN
WGBC
30
31
31
NBC
MS MS STATE WMAB-TV
2
10
10
PBS
MS NATCHEZ WNTZ-TV
48
49
49
FOX
MS OXFORD WMAV-TV
18
36
36
PBS
MS TUPELO
WTVA
9
8
8
NBC
MS VICKSBURG
WUFX
35
41
41
My TV
MS WEST POINT WLOV-TV
27
16
16
FOX
MT BILLINGS
KTVQ
2
10
10
CBS
MT BILLINGS
KSVI
6
18
18
ABC
MT BILLINGS KULR-TV
8
11
11
NBC
MT BOZEMAN
KBZK
7
13
13
CBS
MT BOZEMAN
KUSM
9
8
8
PBS
MT
BUTTE
KXLF-TV
4
5
5
CBS
MT
BUTTE
KTVM
6
33
6
NBC
MT
BUTTE
KWYB
18
19
19
ABC
MT
BUTTE
KBTZ
24
24
24
FOX
MT GLENDIVE KXGN-TV
5
10
10
CBS
MT GREAT FALLS KRTV
3
7
7
CBS
Refer to page 224 for more information.
249
Station List
Station
NTSC Ch. DTV Companion Final DTV
Primary
State
City
Call Letters (Virtual Ch.) (Pre-2-17-09) (Post-2-17-09) Net Affiliation
MT GREAT FALLS KFBB-TV
5
8
8
ABC
MT GREAT FALLS KTGF
16
45
45
FOX
MT GREAT FALLS KLMN
26
26
26
FOX
MT HARDIN
KHMT-TV
4
22
22
FOX
MT
HAVRE
KBBJ
9
9
9
NBC
MT HELENA
KMTF
10
29
29
CW
MT HELENA
KTVH
12
14
12
NBC
MT KALISPELL KCFW-TV
9
38
9
NBC
MT LEWISTOWN KBAO
13
13
13
NBC
MT MILES CITY KYUS-TV
3
3
3
NBC
MT MISSOULA KPAX-TV
8
7
7
CBS
MT MISSOULA KUFM-TV
11
27
11
PBS
MT MISSOULA KECI-TV
13
40
13
NBC
MT MISSOULA
KMMF
17
17
17
FOX
MT MISSOULA KTMF-TV
23
36
23
ABC
NC ASHEVILLE WLOS
13
56
13
ABC
NC ASHEVILLE WUNF-TV
33
25
25
PBS
NC ASHEVILLE
WYCW
62
45
45
CW
NC BELMONT
WJZY
46
47
47
CW
NC BURLINGTON WGPX
16
14
14
ION
NC CHAPEL HILL WUNC-TV
4
59
25
PBS
NC CHARLOTTE WBTV
3
23
23
CBS
NC CHARLOTTE WSOC-TV
9
34
34
ABC
NC CHARLOTTE
WCCB
18
27
27
FOX
NC CHARLOTTE WCNC-TV
36
22
22
NBC
NC CHARLOTTE
WTVI
42
11
11
PBS
NC CONCORD WUNG-TV
58
44
44
PBS
NC DURHAM
WTVD
11
52
11
ABC
NC DURHAM
WRDC
28
27
28
My TV
NC EDENTON WUND-TV
2
20
20
PBS
NC FAYETTEVILLE WUVC
40
38
38
UNV
NC FAYETTEVILLE WFPX
62
36
36
ION
NC GOLDSBORO WUNE-TV
17
54
17
PBS
NC GREENSBORO WFMY-TV
2
51
51
CBS
NC GREENSBORO WMYV
48
33
33
My TV
NC GREENSBORO WLXI-TV
61
43
43
IND
NC GREENVILLE WNCT-TV
9
10
10
CBS
Refer to page 224 for more information.
250
Station List
Station
NTSC Ch. DTV Companion Final DTV
Primary
State
City
Call Letters (Virtual Ch.) (Pre-2-17-09) (Post-2-17-09) Net Affiliation
NC GREENVILLE WYDO
14
21
14
FOX
NC GREENVILLE WUNK-TV
25
23
23
PBS
NC GREENVILLE WEPX
38
51
51
ION
NC HICKORY WHKY-TV
14
40
40
IND
NC HIGH POINT WGHP
8
35
8
FOX
NC JACKSONVILLE WUNM-TV
19
18
19
PBS
NC JACKSONVILLE WPXU
35
34
34
ION
NC KANNAPOLIS WAXN
64
50
50
IND
NC LEXINGTON
WCWG
20
19
19
CW
NC LINVILLE WNCN-TV
17
55
17
NBC
NC LUMBERTON WUNU
31
25
31
PBS
NC MANTEO WSKY-TV
4
4
9
IND
8
24
8
FOX
NC MOREHEAD CITY WFXI
NC NEW BERN
WCTI
12
48
12
ABC
NC RALEIGH WRAL-TV
5
53
48
CBS
NC RALEIGH
WLFL
22
57
27
CW
NC RALEIGH
WRAZ
50
49
49
FOX
NC ROANOKE RAP. WUNP-TV
36
39
36
PBS
NC ROCKY MT.
WRPX
47
15
15
ION
NC WASHINGTON WITN-TV
7
32
32
NBC
NC WILMINGTON WWAY
3
46
46
ABC
NC WILMINGTON WECT
6
44
44
NBC
NC WILMINGTON WSFX
26
30
30
FOX
NC WILMINGTON WUNJ-TV
39
29
29
PBS
NC WILSON
WRAY-TV
30
42
42
IND
12
31
31
NBC
NC WINSTON-SALEM WXII
26
32
32
PBS
NC WINSTON-SALEM WUNL-TV
45
29
29
ABC
NC WINSTON-SALEM WXLV-TV
ND BISMARCK KBME-TV
3
22
22
PBS
ND BISMARCK KFYR-TV
5
31
31
NBC
ND BISMARCK KXMB-TV
12
23
12
CBS
ND BISMARCK
KBMY
17
16
16
ABC
ND BISMARCK
KNDX
26
26
26
FOX
ND DEVILS LAKE WDAZ-TV
8
59
8
ABC
ND DEVILS LAKE KMDE
25
25
PBS
ND DICKINSON KXMA-TV
2
19
19
CBS
ND DICKINSON KQCD-TV
7
7
7
NBC
Refer to page 224 for more information.
251
Station List
Station
NTSC Ch. DTV Companion Final DTV
Primary
State
City
Call Letters (Virtual Ch.) (Pre-2-17-09) (Post-2-17-09) Net Affiliation
ND DICKINSON
KDSE
9
20
9
PBS
ND ELLENDALE
KJRE
19
20
20
PBS
ND
FARGO
WDAY-TV
6
21
21
ABC
ND
FARGO
KXMD-TV
11
14
44
CBS
ND
FARGO
KXMC-TV
13
45
13
CBS
ND
FARGO
KVRR
15
19
19
FOX
ND GRAND FORKS KGFE
2
15
15
PBS
ND GRAND FORKS KCPM
27
27
27
Not on Air
ND JAMESTOWN
KJRR
7
7
7
FOX
ND
MINOT
KSRE
6
40
40
PBS
ND
MINOT
KMOT
10
10
10
NBC
ND
MINOT
KFME
13
23
13
PBS
ND
MINOT
KMCY
14
14
14
ABC
ND
MINOT
KXND
24
24
24
FOX
ND PEMBINA
KNRR
12
15
12
FOX
ND VALLEY CITY KXJB-TV
4
38
38
CBS
ND WILLISTON
KWSE
4
51
51
PBS
ND WILLISTON KUMV-TV
8
8
8
NBC
ND WILLISTON KVLY-TV
11
44
14
NBC
NE ALLIANCE KTNE-TV
13
24
13
PBS
NE BASSETT KMNE-TV
7
15
7
PBS
NE GRAND ISLAND KGIN
11
32
11
CBS
NE GRAND ISLAND KTVG
17
19
19
FOX
NE HASTINGS KHAS-TV
5
21
5
NBC
NE HASTINGS KHNE-TV
29
28
28
PBS
NE HAYES CTR. KWNB-TV
6
18
18
ABC
ABC
NE KEARNEY KHGI-TV
13
36
36
NE LEXINGTON KLNE-TV
3
26
26
PBS
NE LINCOLN
KLKN
8
31
8
ABC
NE LINCOLN
KOLN
10
25
10
CBS
NE LINCOLN KUON-TV
12
40
12
PBS
NE LINCOLN KCWL-TV
51
51
51
CW
NE MCCOOK
KSNK
8
12
12
NBC
NE MERRIMAN KRNE-TV
12
17
12
PBS
NE NORFOLK KXNE-TV
19
16
19
PBS
NE NORTH PLATTE KNOP-TV
2
22
2
NBC
NE NORTH PLATTE KPNE-TV
9
16
9
PBS
Refer to page 224 for more information.
252
Station List
Station
NTSC Ch. DTV Companion Final DTV
Primary
State
City
Call Letters (Virtual Ch.) (Pre-2-17-09) (Post-2-17-09) Net Affiliation
NE
OMAHA
KMTV
3
45
45
CBS
NE
OMAHA
WOWT
6
22
22
NBC
NE
OMAHA
KETV
7
20
20
ABC
NE
OMAHA
KXVO
15
38
15
CW
NE
OMAHA
KYNE-TV
26
17
17
PBS
NE
OMAHA
KPTM
42
43
43
FOX
NE SCOTTSBLUFF KDUH-TV
4
7
7
ABC
NE SCOTTSBLUFF KSTF-TV
10
29
29
CBS
NE SCOTTSBLUFF KTUW
16
16
17
IND
NE SUPERIOR KSNB-TV
4
34
34
FOX
NH CONCORD WPXG
21
33
33
ION
50
35
35
My TV
NH
DERRY
WZMY-TV
NH DURHAM
WENH
11
57
11
PBS
NH
KEENE
WEKW-TV
52
49
49
PBS
NH LITTLETON WLED-TV
49
48
48
PBS
NH MANCHESTER WMUR-TV
9
59
9
ABC
NH MERRIMACK WNEU
60
34
34
TLM
NJ ATL. CITY WWSI-TV
62
49
49
TLM
NJ ATL. CITY WMCN-TV
44
44
IND
NJ BURLINGTON WGTW-TV
48
27
27
REL
NJ CAMDEN
WNJS
23
22
22
PBS
NJ
LINDEN
WNJU
47
36
36
TLM
NJ MONTCLAIR
WNJN
50
51
51
PBS
NJ NEW BRUNS. WNJB
58
8
8
PBS
NJ NEWARK
WNET
13
61
13
PBS
TLF
NJ NEWARK
WFUT
68
53
30
NJ NEWTON WMBC-TV
63
18
18
IND
NJ PATERSON
WXTV
41
40
40
UNV
NJ SECAUCUS WWOR-TV
9
38
38
My TV
NJ TRENTON
WNJT
52
43
43
PBS
NJ VINELAND
WUVP
65
66
29
UNV
NJ W. MILFORD WFME-TV
66
29
29
ED
NJ WILDWOOD WMGM-TV
40
36
36
NBC
4
26
26
NBC
NM ALBUQUERQUE KOB -TV
5
35
35
PBS
NM ALBUQUERQUE KNME-TV
7
21
7
ABC
NM ALBUQUERQUE KOAT-TV
13
16
13
CBS
NM ALBUQUERQUE KRQE
Refer to page 224 for more information.
253
Station List
State
City
NM ALBUQUERQUE
NM ALBUQUERQUE
NM ALBUQUERQUE
NM ALBUQUERQUE
NM ALBUQUERQUE
NM CARLSBAD
NM CARLSBAD
NM
CLOVIS
NM FARMINGTON
NM FARMINGTON
NM HOBBS
NM LAS CRUCES
NM LAS CRUCES
NM PORTALES
NM ROSWELL
NM ROSWELL
NM ROSWELL
NM ROSWELL
NM SANTA FE
NM SANTA FE
NM SANTA FE
NM SANTA FE
NM SILVER CITY
NM SILVER CITY
NV
ELKO
NV
ELY
NV
ELY
NV GOLDFIELD
NV HENDERSON
NV LAS VEGAS
NV LAS VEGAS
NV LAS VEGAS
NV LAS VEGAS
NV LAS VEGAS
NV LAS VEGAS
NV LAS VEGAS
NV LAUGHLIN
Station
NTSC Ch. DTV Companion Final DTV
Primary
Call Letters (Virtual Ch.) (Pre-2-17-09) (Post-2-17-09) Net Affiliation
KTFQ-TV
14
22
22
TLF
KNAT
23
24
24
IND
KAZQ
32
17
17
IND
KLUZ-TV
41
42
42
UNV
KASY
50
45
45
My TV
KOCT-TV
6
19
19
ABC
KTEL-TV
25
25
25
TLM
KVIH-TV
12
20
20
ABC
KOFT
3
8
8
ABC
KOBF-TV
12
17
12
NBC
KUPT
29
16
29
My TV
KRWG-TV
22
23
23
PBS
KTDO
48
47
47
TLM
KENW
3
32
32
PBS
KOBR-TV
8
38
8
NBC
KBIM-TV
10
41
10
CBS
KRWB-TV
21
21
21
CW
KRPV
27
28
27
REL
KASA-TV
2
27
27
FOX
KCHF
11
10
10
IND
KWBQ
19
29
29
CW
KNMD-TV
9
9
PBS
KOBG-TV
6
26
12
NBC
KOVT
10
12
10
ABC
KENV
10
10
10
NBC
KVNV
3
3
3
NBC
KBNY
6
27
27
CP
KEGS
7
50
50
IND
KVVU-TV
5
9
9
FOX
KVBC
3
2
2
NBC
KLAS-TV
8
7
7
CBS
KLVX
10
11
11
PBS
KTNV-TV
13
12
13
ABC
KINC
15
16
16
UNV
KVMY
21
22
22
My TV
KVCW
33
29
29
CW
KMCC
34
32
32
NBC
Refer to page 224 for more information.
254
Station List
Station
NTSC Ch. DTV Companion Final DTV
Primary
State
City
Call Letters (Virtual Ch.) (Pre-2-17-09) (Post-2-17-09) Net Affiliation
NV PARADISE
KBLR
39
40
40
TLM
NV
RENO
KTVN
2
13
13
CBS
NV
RENO
KRNV-TV
4
7
7
NBC
NV
RENO
KNPB
5
15
15
PBS
NV
RENO
KOLO-TV
8
9
8
ABC
NV
RENO
KRXI
11
44
44
FOX
NV
RENO
KAME-TV
21
20
20
My TV
NV
RENO
KREN-TV
27
26
26
CW
NV TONOPAH KBMO-TV
9
9
9
CP
NV WINNEMUCCA KWNV
7
7
7
NBC
NY ALBANY
WTEN
10
26
26
ABC
12
NBC
NY ALBANY
WNYT-TV
13
12
NY ALBANY
WXXA-TV
23
7
7
FOX
NY AMSTERDAM WYPX
55
50
50
ION
NY BATAVIA
WPXJ-TV
51
53
23
ION
NY
BATH
WFBT
14
14
14
CP
NY BINGHAMTON WBNG-TV
12
7
7
CBS
NY BINGHAMTON WIVT
34
4
34
ABC
NY BINGHAMTON WICZ-TV
40
8
8
FOX
NY BINGHAMTON WSKG
46
42
42
PBS
NY BUFFALO WGRZ-TV
2
33
33
NBC
NY BUFFALO WIVB-TV
4
39
39
CBS
NY BUFFALO WKBW-TV
7
38
38
ABC
NY BUFFALO WNED-TV
17
43
43
PBS
NY BUFFALO
WNLO
23
32
32
CW
29
14
14
FOX
NY BUFFALO
WUTV
NY BUFFALO WNYO-TV
49
34
34
My TV
NY CARTHAGE WWNY-TV
7
35
7
CBS
NY CORNING
WSKA
30
30
30
PBS
NY CORNING WYDC-TV
48
50
48
FOX
NY
ELMIRA
WETM-TV
18
2
18
NBC
NY
ELMIRA
WENY-TV
36
55
36
ABC
NY GARDEN CITY WLIW
21
22
21
PBS
NY
ITHACA
WNYI
52
20
20
UNV
NY JAMESTOWN WNYB
26
27
26
REL
NY KINGSTON WRNN-TV
48
48
IND
NY NEW YORK WCBS-TV
2
56
33
CBS
Refer to page 224 for more information.
255
Station List
Station
NTSC Ch. DTV Companion Final DTV
Primary
State
City
Call Letters (Virtual Ch.) (Pre-2-17-09) (Post-2-17-09) Net Affiliation
NY NEW YORK
WNBC
4
28
28
NBC
NY NEW YORK
WNYW
5
44
44
FOX
NY NEW YORK WABC-TV
7
45
7
ABC
NY NEW YORK
WPIX
11
33
11
CW
NY NEW YORK WNYE-TV
25
24
24
PBS
NY NEW YORK WPXN-TV
31
30
31
ION
NY NORTH POLE WPTZ
5
14
14
NBC
NY NORWOOD WNPI-TV
18
23
23
PBS
NY PLATTSBURGH WCFE-TV
57
38
38
PBS
NY POUGHKEEPSIE WTBY
54
27
27
IND
NY RIVERHEAD
WLNY
55
57
47
IND
NY ROCHESTER WROC-TV
8
45
45
CBS
NY ROCHESTER WHEC-TV
10
58
10
NBC
NY ROCHESTER WHAM
13
59
13
ABC
NY ROCHESTER WXXI-TV
21
16
16
PBS
NY ROCHESTER WUHF
31
28
28
FOX
NY SARANAC LAKE WCWF
40
40
40
ION
NY SCHENECTADY WRGB
6
39
6
CBS
NY SCHENECTADY WMHT
17
34
34
PBS
NY SCHENECTADY WCWN
45
43
43
CW
NY SMITHTOWN WFTY
67
23
23
TLF
NY SPRINGVILLE WNGS
67
46
7
IND
NY SYRACUSE WSTM-TV
3
54
24
NBC
NY SYRACUSE
WTVH
5
47
47
CBS
NY SYRACUSE
WSYR
9
17
17
ABC
NY SYRACUSE WCNY-TV
24
25
25
PBS
My TV
NY SYRACUSE WNYS-TV
43
44
44
NY SYRACUSE
WSPX
56
15
15
ION
NY SYRACUSE
WSYT
68
19
19
FOX
NY
UTICA
WKTV
2
29
29
NBC
NY
UTICA
WUTR
20
30
30
ABC
NY
UTICA
WFXV
33
27
27
FOX
NY WATERTOWN WPBS-TV
16
41
41
PBS
NY WATERTOWN WWTI
50
21
21
ABC
OH AKRON
WVPX
23
59
23
ION
OH
AKRON
WEAO
49
50
50
PBS
OH
AKRON
WBNX-TV
55
30
30
CW
Refer to page 224 for more information.
256
Station List
Station
NTSC Ch. DTV Companion Final DTV
Primary
State
City
Call Letters (Virtual Ch.) (Pre-2-17-09) (Post-2-17-09) Net Affiliation
OH ALLIANCE
WNEO
45
46
45
PBS
OH ATHENS WOUB-TV
20
27
27
PBS
OH BOWL. GREEN WBGU-TV
27
56
27
PBS
OH CAMBRIDGE WOUC-TV
44
35
35
PBS
OH CANTON
WDLI
17
39
39
IND
OH CANTON
WOAC
67
47
47
IND
OH CHILLICOTHE WWHO
53
46
46
CW
OH CINCINNATI
WLWT
5
35
35
NBC
OH CINCINNATI WCPO-TV
9
10
10
ABC
OH CINCINNATI WKRC-TV
12
31
12
CBS
OH CINCINNATI
WCET
48
34
34
PBS
OH CINCINNATI WSTR-TV
64
33
33
My TV
OH CLEVELAND WKYC-TV
3
2
17
NBC
OH CLEVELAND WEWS
5
15
15
ABC
OH CLEVELAND
WJW
8
31
8
FOX
OH CLEVELAND WVIZ-TV
25
26
26
PBS
OH CLEVELAND WQHS-TV
61
34
34
UNV
OH COLUMBUS WCMH-TV
4
14
14
NBC
OH COLUMBUS
WSYX
6
13
13
ABC
OH COLUMBUS WBNS-TV
10
21
21
CBS
OH COLUMBUS
WTTE
28
36
36
FOX
OH COLUMBUS WOSU-TV
34
38
38
PBS
OH DAYTON
WDTN
2
50
50
NBC
OH DAYTON
WHIO-TV
7
41
41
CBS
OH DAYTON
WPTD
16
58
16
PBS
OH DAYTON
WKEF
22
51
51
ABC
FOX
OH DAYTON
WRGT-TV
45
30
30
OH
LIMA
WLIO
35
8
8
NBC
OH
LIMA
WTLW
44
47
44
IND
OH LORAIN
WUAB
43
28
28
My TV
OH MANSFIELD WMFD-TV
68
12
12
IND
OH NEWARK
WSFJ-TV
51
24
24
IND
OH OXFORD
WPTO
14
28
28
PBS
OH PORTSMOUTH WQCW
30
17
17
CW
OH PORTSMOUTH WPBO-TV
42
43
43
PBS
OH SANDUSKY WGGN-TV
52
42
42
IND
OH SH. HEIGHTS WOIO
19
10
10
CBS
Refer to page 224 for more information.
257
Station List
Station
NTSC Ch. DTV Companion Final DTV
Primary
State
City
Call Letters (Virtual Ch.) (Pre-2-17-09) (Post-2-17-09) Net Affiliation
OH SPRINGFIELD WBDT-TV
26
18
26
CW
OH STEUBENVILLE WTOV-TV
9
57
9
NBC
OH TOLEDO
WTOL-TV
11
17
11
CBS
OH TOLEDO
WTVG
13
19
13
ABC
OH TOLEDO WNWO-TV
24
49
49
NBC
OH TOLEDO
WGTE-TV
30
29
29
PBS
OH TOLEDO
WUPW
36
46
46
FOX
OH TOLEDO
WLMB
40
5
5
IND
OH YOUNGSTOWN WFMJ-TV
21
20
20
NBC
OH YOUNGSTOWN WKBN-TV
27
41
41
CBS
OH YOUNGSTOWN WYTV
33
36
36
ABC
OH ZANESVILLE WHIZ-TV
18
40
40
NBC
OK
ADA
KTEN
10
26
26
NBC
OK BARTLESVILLE KDOR
17
15
17
IND
OK CHEYENNE
KWET
12
8
8
PBS
OK CLAREMORE KRSC-TV
35
36
36
ED
OK EUFAULA
KOET
3
31
31
PBS
OK LAWTON KSWO-TV
7
11
11
ABC
OK MUSKOGEE
KQCW
19
20
20
CW
OK NORMAN
KOCM
46
46
46
IND
OK OK. CITY KFOR-TV
4
27
27
NBC
OK OK. CITY KOCO-TV
5
7
7
ABC
OK OK. CITY
KWTV
9
39
9
CBS
OK OK. CITY
KETA
13
32
13
PBS
OK OK. CITY KTBO-TV
14
15
15
REL
OK OK. CITY
KOKH
25
24
24
FOX
CW
OK OK. CITY KOCB-TV
34
33
33
OK OK. CITY
KAUT-TV
43
40
40
My TV
OK OK. CITY
KSBI
52
51
51
IND
OK OK. CITY
KOPX
62
50
50
ION
OK OKMULGEE
KTPX
44
28
28
ION
OK SHAWNEE
KTUZ
30
29
29
TLM
OK
TULSA
KJRH
2
56
8
NBC
OK
TULSA
KOTV-TV
6
55
45
CBS
OK
TULSA
KTUL
8
10
10
ABC
OK
TULSA
KOED-TV
11
38
11
PBS
OK
TULSA
KOKI-TV
23
22
22
FOX
Refer to page 224 for more information.
258
Station List
Station
NTSC Ch. DTV Companion Final DTV
Primary
State
City
Call Letters (Virtual Ch.) (Pre-2-17-09) (Post-2-17-09) Net Affiliation
OK
TULSA
KMYT-TV
41
42
42
My TV
OK
TULSA
KWHB
47
48
47
IND
OK
TULSA
KGEB
53
49
49
IND
OK WOODWARD KUOK
35
35
35
UNV
OR
BEND
KOAB-TV
3
11
11
PBS
OR
BEND
KTVZ
21
18
21
NBC
OR
BEND
KOHD
51
51
ABC
OR COOS BAY KCBY-TV
11
21
11
CBS
OR COOS BAY
KMCB
23
22
22
NBC
OR CORVALLIS KOAC-TV
7
39
7
PBS
OR EUGENE
KEZI
9
44
9
ABC
OR EUGENE
KVAL-TV
13
25
13
CBS
OR EUGENE KMTR-TV
16
17
17
NBC
OR EUGENE
KEPB-TV
28
29
29
PBS
OR EUGENE
KLSR-TV
34
31
31
FOX
OR GRANTS PASS KBLN
30
30
30
REL
2
13
13
NBC
OR KLAMATH FALLS KOTI
22
33
33
PBS
OR KLAMATH FALLS KFTS
31
29
29
ABC
OR KLAMATH FALLS KDKF
OR LA GRANDE
KTVR
13
5
13
PBS
OR LA GRANDE
KUNP
16
29
29
UNV
OR MEDFORD
KOBI
5
15
5
NBC
OR MEDFORD
KSYS
8
42
8
PBS
OR MEDFORD
KTVL
10
35
10
CBS
OR MEDFORD
KDRV
12
38
12
ABC
OR MEDFORD KMVU-TV
26
27
26
FOX
OR PENDLETON KFFX
11
8
11
FOX
OR PORTLAND
KATU
2
43
43
ABC
OR PORTLAND KOIN-TV
6
40
40
CBS
OR PORTLAND KGW -TV
8
46
8
NBC
OR PORTLAND KOPB-TV
10
27
10
PBS
OR PORTLAND
KPTV
12
30
12
FOX
OR PORTLAND KNMT-TV
24
45
45
IND
OR ROSEBURG
KPIC
4
19
19
CBS
OR ROSEBURG
KTVC
36
18
18
IND
OR ROSEBURG
KTCW
46
45
45
NBC
OR
SALEM
KPXG
22
4
22
ION
Refer to page 224 for more information.
259
Station List
Station
NTSC Ch. DTV Companion Final DTV
Primary
State
City
Call Letters (Virtual Ch.) (Pre-2-17-09) (Post-2-17-09) Net Affiliation
OR
SALEM
KRCW-TV
32
33
33
CW
PA ALLENTOWN WLVT-TV
39
62
39
PBS
PA ALLENTOWN WFMZ-TV
69
46
46
IND
PA ALTOONA WTAJ-TV
10
32
32
CBS
PA ALTOONA WATM-TV
23
24
24
ABC
PA ALTOONA WKBS-TV
47
46
46
IND
PA BETHLEHEM WBPH-TV
60
9
9
IND
PA CLEARFIELD WPSU-TV
3
15
15
PBS
PA
ERIE
WICU-TV
12
52
12
NBC
PA
ERIE
WJET-TV
24
58
24
ABC
PA
ERIE
WSEE
35
16
16
CBS
PA
ERIE
WQLN-TV
54
50
50
PBS
PA
ERIE
WFXP
66
22
22
FOX
PA GREENSBURG WPCB-TV
40
50
50
IND
PA HARRISBURG WHP -TV
21
4
21
CBS
PA HARRISBURG WHTM-TV
27
10
10
ABC
PA HARRISBURG WITF-TV
33
36
36
PBS
PA HAZLETON WOLF-TV
56
45
45
FOX
PA JEANNETTE WPCW
19
49
11
CW
PA JOHNSTOWN WJAC-TV
6
34
34
NBC
PA JOHNSTOWN WWCP-TV
8
29
8
FOX
PA LANCASTER WGAL-TV
8
58
8
NBC
PA LANCASTER WLYH-TV
15
23
23
CW
PA PHILADELPHIA KYW -TV
3
26
26
CBS
PA PHILADELPHIA WPVI-TV
6
64
6
ABC
10
67
34
NBC
PA PHILADELPHIA WCAU
PA PHILADELPHIA WPHL-TV
17
54
17
My TV
PA PHILADELPHIA WTXF-TV
29
42
42
FOX
PA PHILADELPHIA WYBE
35
34
35
PBS
PA PHILADELPHIA WPSG
57
32
32
CW
PA PITTSBURGH KDKA-TV
2
25
25
CBS
PA PITTSBURGH WTAE-TV
4
51
51
ABC
PA PITTSBURGH WPXI
11
48
48
NBC
PA PITTSBURGH WQED
13
38
13
PBS
PA PITTSBURGH WQEX
16
26
38
PBS
PA PITTSBURGH WPMY
22
42
42
My TV
PA PITTSBURGH WPGH-TV
53
43
43
FOX
Refer to page 224 for more information.
260
Station List
Station
NTSC Ch. DTV Companion Final DTV
Primary
State
City
Call Letters (Virtual Ch.) (Pre-2-17-09) (Post-2-17-09) Net Affiliation
PA READING
WTVE
51
25
25
REL
PA RED LION WGCB-TV
49
30
30
IND
PA SCRANTON WNEP-TV
16
49
49
ABC
PA SCRANTON
WYOU
22
13
13
CBS
PA SCRANTON WSWB-TV
38
31
38
CW
PA SCRANTON WVIA-TV
44
41
41
PBS
PA SCRANTON
WQPX
64
32
32
ION
PA WILKES-BARRE WBRE-TV
28
11
11
NBC
PA WILLIAMSPORT WMCN-DT
53
44
29
IND
PA
YORK
WPMT
43
47
47
FOX
PR AGUADA WQHA-TV
50
62
50
IND
PR AGUADILLA WOLE-TV
12
69
12
IND SP
PR AGUADILLA
WELU
32
34
34
PR AGUADILLA
WVEO
44
17
17
IND SP
PR ARECIBO WCCV-TV
54
53
46
IND SP
PR ARECIBO
WMEI
60
14
14
PR BAYAMON
WDWL
36
59
30
REL
PR CAGUAS
WLII
11
56
11
UNV
PR CAGUAS
WUJA
58
57
48
PBS
PR CAROLINA
WRFB
52
51
51
IND
PR FAJARDO WORO-TV
13
33
13
IND SP
PR FAJARDO
WRUA
34
33
33
PR FAJARDO
WMTJ
40
16
16
PR GUAYAMA
WIDP
46
45
45
REL
PR HUMACAO WVSN-TV
68
49
49
IND
PR MAYAGUEZ WIPM-TV
3
35
35
PBS
29
29
IND
PR MAYAGUEZ WORA-TV
5
PR MAYAGUEZ
WOST
16
22
22
PR MAYAGUEZ WNJX-TV
22
23
23
IND
PR NARANJITO
WECN
64
18
18
REL
PR
PONCE
WSTE
7
8
7
IND SP
PR
PONCE
WSUR-TV
9
43
9
UNV
PR
PONCE
WTIN
14
15
15
IND
PR
PONCE
WKPV
20
19
19
IND
PR
PONCE
WQTO
26
25
25
PBS
PR
PONCE
WVOZ
48
47
47
IND SP
PR SAN JUAN WKAQ-TV
2
28
28
TLM
Refer to page 224 for more information.
261
Station List
Station
NTSC Ch. DTV Companion Final DTV
Primary
State
City
Call Letters (Virtual Ch.) (Pre-2-17-09) (Post-2-17-09) Net Affiliation
PR SAN JUAN WAPA-TV
4
27
27
IND SP
PR SAN JUAN WIPR-TV
6
55
43
PBS
PR SAN JUAN
WTCV
18
32
32
IND SP
PR SAN JUAN
WJPX
24
21
21
IND SP
PR SAN JUAN
WSJU
30
31
31
IND
38
39
39
IND
PR SAN SEBASTIAN WJWN-TV
PR
YAUCO
WIRS
42
41
41
IND
69
17
17
ION
RI BLOCK ISLAND WPXQ
RI PROVIDENCE WJAR
10
51
51
NBC
RI PROVIDENCE WPRI-TV
12
13
13
CBS
RI PROVIDENCE WSBE-TV
36
21
21
PBS
RI PROVIDENCE WNAC-TV
64
54
12
FOX
SC ALLENDALE WEBA-TV
14
33
33
PBS
SC ANDERSON WMYA-TV
40
14
14
My TV
SC BEAUFORT WJWJ-TV
16
44
44
PBS
SC CHARLESTON WCBD-TV
2
50
50
NBC
SC CHARLESTON WCIV
4
34
34
ABC
SC CHARLESTON WCSC-TV
5
47
47
CBS
SC CHARLESTON WITV
7
49
7
PBS
SC CHARLESTON WTAT-TV
24
40
24
FOX
SC CHARLESTON WMMP
36
35
36
My TV
SC COLUMBIA
WIS
10
41
10
NBC
SC COLUMBIA
WLTX
19
17
17
CBS
SC COLUMBIA WOLO-TV
25
8
8
ABC
SC COLUMBIA WRLK-TV
35
32
32
PBS
SC COLUMBIA
WZRB
47
47
47
CW
SC COLUMBIA
WACH
57
48
48
FOX
SC CONWAY
WHMC
23
9
9
PBS
SC FLORENCE
WBTW
13
56
13
CBS
SC FLORENCE WPDE-TV
15
16
16
ABC
SC FLORENCE
WWMB
21
20
21
CW
SC FLORENCE WJPM-TV
33
45
45
PBS
SC GEORGETOWN WPJT-DT
38
38
SC GREENVILLE WYFF-TV
4
59
36
NBC
SC GREENVILLE WGGS-TV
16
35
16
IND
SC GREENVILLE WHNS
21
57
21
FOX
SC GREENVILLE WNTV
29
9
9
PBS
Refer to page 224 for more information.
262
Station List
Station
NTSC Ch. DTV Companion Final DTV
Primary
State
City
Call Letters (Virtual Ch.) (Pre-2-17-09) (Post-2-17-09) Net Affiliation
SC GREENWOOD WNEH
38
18
18
PBS
SC HARDEEVILLE WTGS
28
27
28
FOX
SC MYRTLE BCH. WMBF-TV
32
32
32
NBC
SC MYRTLE BCH. WFXB
43
18
18
FOX
SC ROCK HILL WNSC-TV
30
15
15
PBS
SC ROCK HILL WMYT-TV
55
39
39
My TV
SC SPARTANBURG WSPA-TV
7
53
7
CBS
SC SPARTANBURG WRET-TV
49
43
43
PBS
SC SUMTER
WRJA-TV
27
28
28
PBS
SC SUMTER
WKTC
63
39
39
My TV
SD ABERDEEN KABY
9
28
9
ABC
SD ABERDEEN KDSD-TV
16
17
17
PBS
SD BROOKINGS KESD-TV
8
18
8
PBS
SD EAGLE BUTTE KPSD-TV
13
25
13
PBS
SD FLORENCE KOTA-TV
3
2
3
ABC
SD
HURON
KTTM
12
22
12
FOX
SD
LEAD
KIVV-TV
5
29
5
FOX
SD
LEAD
KHSD-TV
11
10
10
ABC
SD
LOWRY
KQSD-TV
11
15
11
PBS
SD MARTIN
KZSD-TV
8
23
8
PBS
SD MITCHELL KDLV-TV
5
26
26
NBC
SD
PIERRE
KPRY-TV
4
19
19
ABC
SD
PIERRE
KTSD-TV
10
21
10
PBS
SD RAPID CITY KDLO-TV
3
2
2
CBS
SD RAPID CITY KEVN-TV
7
18
7
FOX
SD RAPID CITY KBHE-TV
9
26
26
PBS
16
16
CBS
SD RAPID CITY KCLO-TV
15
SD RAPID CITY
KNBN
21
21
21
NBC
SD RELIANCE KPLO-TV
6
13
13
CBS
SD SIOUX FALLS KELO-TV
11
32
11
CBS
SD SIOUX FALLS KSFY-TV
13
29
13
ABC
SD SIOUX FALLS KTTW
17
7
7
FOX
SD SIOUX FALLS KCSD-TV
23
24
24
PBS
SD SIOUX FALLS KWSD-TV
36
51
36
CW
SD SIOUX FALLS KDLT-TV
46
47
47
NBC
SD VERMILLION KUSD-TV
2
34
34
PBS
3
13
13
NBC
TN CHATTANOOGA WRCB-TV
Refer to page 224 for more information.
263
Station List
Station
NTSC Ch. DTV Companion Final DTV
Primary
State
City
Call Letters (Virtual Ch.) (Pre-2-17-09) (Post-2-17-09) Net Affiliation
TN CHATTANOOGA WTVC
9
35
9
ABC
12
47
12
CBS
TN CHATTANOOGA WDEF-TV
45
29
29
PBS
TN CHATTANOOGA WTCI
61
40
40
FOX
TN CHATTANOOGA WDSI-TV
TN CLEVELAND WFLI-TV
53
42
42
CW
TN COOKEVILLE WCTE
22
52
22
PBS
TN COOKEVILLE WNPX
28
36
36
ION
TN CROSSVILLE WBXX-TV
20
50
20
CW
TN GREENEVILLE WHTN
39
38
38
IND
50
51
51
My TV
TN HENDERSONVILLE WPXX
TN JACKSON WBBJ-TV
7
43
43
ABC
TN JACKSON
WJKT
16
39
39
FOX
TN JELLICO
WPXK
54
23
23
ION
TN JOHNSON CITY WJHL-TV
11
58
11
CBS
TN KINGSPORT WKPT-TV
19
27
27
ABC
TN KNOXVILLE WATE-TV
6
26
26
ABC
TN KNOXVILLE WVLT-TV
8
30
30
CBS
TN KNOXVILLE WBIR-TV
10
31
10
NBC
TN KNOXVILLE WKOP-TV
15
17
17
PBS
TN KNOXVILLE WTNZ-TV
43
34
34
FOX
TN KNOXVILLE WMAK
7
7
IND
TN LEBANON
WJFB
66
44
44
IND
TN LEXINGTON WLJT-TV
11
47
47
PBS
TN MEMPHIS WREG-TV
3
28
28
CBS
TN MEMPHIS WMC -TV
5
52
5
NBC
TN MEMPHIS WKNO-TV
10
29
29
PBS
53
13
FOX
TN MEMPHIS WHBQ-TV
13
TN MEMPHIS
WTWV
14
23
23
REL
TN MEMPHIS WPTY-TV
24
25
25
ABC
TN MEMPHIS
WLMT
30
31
31
CW
TN MEMPHIS
WPGD
50
51
51
IND
TN MEMPHIS
NEW
10
10
PBS
39
38
38
FOX
TN MURFREESBORO WEMT
TN NASHVILLE WKRN-TV
2
27
27
ABC
TN NASHVILLE
WSMV
4
10
10
NBC
TN NASHVILLE
WTVF
5
56
5
CBS
TN NASHVILLE
WNPT
8
46
8
PBS
Refer to page 224 for more information.
264
Station List
Station
NTSC Ch. DTV Companion Final DTV
Primary
State
City
Call Letters (Virtual Ch.) (Pre-2-17-09) (Post-2-17-09) Net Affiliation
TN NASHVILLE
WZTV
17
15
15
FOX
TN NASHVILLE
WUXP
30
21
21
My TV
TN NASHVILLE
WNAB
58
23
23
CW
TN SNEEDVILLE WETP-TV
2
41
41
PBS
TN TAZEWELL
WVLR
48
48
48
REL
TX ABILENE KRBC-TV
9
29
29
NBC
TX ABILENE
KXVA
15
15
15
FOX
TX ABILENE KTAB-TV
32
24
24
CBS
TX
ALVIN
KFTH
67
36
36
TLF
TX AMARILLO KACV-TV
2
8
8
PBS
TX AMARILLO KAMR-TV
4
19
19
NBC
TX AMARILLO KVII-TV
7
23
7
ABC
TX AMARILLO KFDA-TV
10
9
10
CBS
TX AMARILLO
KCIT
14
15
15
FOX
TX ARLINGTON
KPXD
68
42
42
ION
TX
AUSTIN
KTBC
7
56
7
FOX
TX
AUSTIN
KLRU
18
22
22
PBS
TX
AUSTIN
KVUE-TV
24
33
33
ABC
TX
AUSTIN
KXAN-TV
36
21
21
NBC
TX
AUSTIN
KEYE
42
43
43
CBS
TX
AUSTIN
KNVA
54
49
49
CW
TX BAYTOWN
KAZH
57
41
41
Azteca
TX BEAUMONT KFDM-TV
6
21
21
CBS
TX BEAUMONT
KBMT
12
50
12
ABC
TX BEAUMONT
KITU
34
33
33
IND
TX BELTON
KNCT
46
38
46
PBS
NBC
TX BIG SPRING KWAB-TV
4
33
33
TX BLANCO
KNIC-TV
17
18
18
TLF
TX BORGER
KEYU
31
31
UNV
TX BROWNSVILLE KVEO
23
24
24
NBC
TX
BRYAN
KBTX-TV
3
50
50
CBS
TX
BRYAN
KYLE-TV
28
29
28
FOX
TX COL. STATION KAMU-TV
15
12
12
PBS
TX CONROE
KPXB
49
5
32
ION
TX CONROE
KTBU
55
42
42
IND
TX CORP. CHRISTI
KIII
3
8
8
ABC
TX CORP. CHRISTI KRIS-TV
6
13
13
NBC
Refer to page 224 for more information.
265
Station List
Station
NTSC Ch. DTV Companion Final DTV
Primary
State
City
Call Letters (Virtual Ch.) (Pre-2-17-09) (Post-2-17-09) Net Affiliation
TX CORP. CHRISTI KZTV
10
18
10
CBS
TX CORP. CHRISTI KEDT-TV
16
23
23
PBS
TX CORP. CHRISTI KORO
28
27
27
UNV
TX CORP. CHRISTI KUQI
38
38
38
FOX
TX
DALLAS
KDFW
4
35
35
FOX
TX
DALLAS
WFAA-TV
8
9
8
ABC
TX
DALLAS
KERA-TV
13
14
14
PBS
TX
DALLAS
KDFI-TV
27
36
36
My TV
TX
DALLAS
KDAF
33
32
32
CW
TX
DALLAS
KXTX-TV
39
40
40
IND
TX
DALLAS
KDTX-TV
58
45
45
IND
TX DECATUR
KMPX
29
30
30
IND SP
TX DEL RIO
KTRG
10
28
28
IND SP
TX DENTON
KDTN
2
43
43
IND
TX EAGLE PASS KVAW
16
18
24
IND
TX EL PASO KDBC-TV
4
18
18
CBS
TX EL PASO
KVIA-TV
7
17
7
ABC
TX EL PASO KTSM-TV
9
16
9
NBC
TX EL PASO
KCOS
13
30
13
PBS
TX EL PASO
KFOX-TV
14
15
15
FOX
TX EL PASO
KINT-TV
26
25
25
UNV
TX EL PASO
KSCE-TV
38
39
39
IND
TX EL PASO
KTFN
65
51
51
TLF
TX FARWELL
KPTF
18
18
18
REL
TX FORT WORTH KXAS-TV
5
41
41
NBC
TX FORT WORTH KTVT
11
19
11
CBS
TX FORT WORTH KTXA
21
18
18
IND
TX FORT WORTH KFWD
52
51
9
IND
2
5
5
CW
TX FREDERICKSBURG KCWX
TX GALVESTON
KLTJ
22
23
23
REL
TX GALVESTON KTMD
47
48
48
TLM
TX GARLAND KUVN-TV
23
24
23
UNV
TX GREENVILLE KTAQ-TV
47
46
46
IND
TX HARLINGEN KGBT-TV
4
31
31
CBS
TX HARLINGEN
KLUJ
44
34
34
ED
TX HARLINGEN KMBH-TV
60
38
38
PBS
TX HOUSTON KPRC-TV
2
35
35
NBC
Refer to page 224 for more information.
266
Station List
Station
NTSC Ch. DTV Companion Final DTV
Primary
State
City
Call Letters (Virtual Ch.) (Pre-2-17-09) (Post-2-17-09) Net Affiliation
TX HOUSTON
KUHT
8
9
8
PBS
TX HOUSTON KHOU-TV
11
31
11
CBS
TX HOUSTON KTRK-TV
13
32
13
ABC
TX HOUSTON
KETH
14
24
24
IND
TX HOUSTON
KTXH
20
19
19
My TV
TX HOUSTON
KRIV
26
27
26
FOX
TX HOUSTON
KIAH
39
38
38
CW
TX HOUSTON
KZJL
61
44
44
IND SP
TX
IRVING
KSTR-TV
49
48
48
TLF
TX JACKSONVILLE KETK-TV
56
22
22
NBC
TX
KATY
KNWS-TV
51
52
47
IND
TX KERRVILLE
KMYS
35
32
32
My TV
TX KILLEEN
KAKW
62
13
13
UNV
TX LAKE DALLAS KLDT
55
54
39
IND
TX LAREDO
KGNS-TV
8
15
8
NBC
TX LAREDO
KVTV
13
14
13
CBS
TX LAREDO
KLDO-TV
27
19
19
UNV
TX
LLANO
KXAM-TV
14
27
27
NBC
TX LONGVIEW KFXK-TV
51
31
31
FOX
TX LONGVIEW
KCEB
54
38
38
CW
TX LUBBOCK KTXT-TV
5
39
39
PBS
TX LUBBOCK KCBD-TV
11
9
11
NBC
TX LUBBOCK KLBK-TV
13
40
40
CBS
TX LUBBOCK KPTB-TV
16
25
16
REL
TX LUBBOCK
KAMC
28
27
27
ABC
TX LUBBOCK
KJTV
34
35
35
FOX
ABC
TX
LUFKIN
KTRE
9
11
9
TX MCALLEN
KNVO
48
49
49
UNV
TX MIDLAND
KMID
2
26
26
ABC
TX MIDLAND
KUPB
18
18
18
UNV
19
18
18
CBS
TX NACOGDOCHES KYTX
TX ODESSA
KOSA-TV
7
31
7
CBS
TX ODESSA
KWES
9
13
9
NBC
TX ODESSA
KPEJ
24
23
23
FOX
TX ODESSA
KWWT
30
30
30
CW
TX ODESSA
KPBT-TV
36
38
38
PBS
TX ODESSA
KMLM
42
43
42
REL
Refer to page 224 for more information.
267
Station List
Station
NTSC Ch. DTV Companion Final DTV
Primary
State
City
Call Letters (Virtual Ch.) (Pre-2-17-09) (Post-2-17-09) Net Affiliation
TX PORT ARTHUR KBTV
4
40
40
NBC
TX RIO GR. CITY KTLM
40
20
20
TLM
TX ROSENBERG KXLN-TV
45
46
45
UNV
TX SAN ANGELO KSAN-TV
3
16
16
NBC
TX SAN ANGELO KIDY
6
19
19
FOX
TX SAN ANGELO KLST
8
11
11
CBS
TX SAN ANTONIO WOAI
4
58
48
NBC
TX SAN ANTONIO KENS-TV
5
55
39
CBS
TX SAN ANTONIO KLRN-TV
9
8
9
PBS
TX SAN ANTONIO KSAT-TV
12
48
12
ABC
TX SAN ANTONIO KHCE
23
16
16
REL
TX SAN ANTONIO KABB
29
30
30
FOX
TX SAN ANTONIO KWEX-TV
41
39
41
UNV
TX SAN ANTONIO KVDA
60
38
38
TLM
TX SHERMAN
KXII
12
20
12
CBS
TX SNYDER
KPCB
17
10
17
REL
TX SWEETWATER KTXS-TV
12
20
20
ABC
TX TEMPLE
KCEN-TV
6
9
9
NBC
TX TEXARKANA KTAL-TV
6
15
15
NBC
TX
TYLER
KLTV
7
10
7
ABC
TX UVALDE
KPXL
26
26
26
IND
TX VICTORIA
KVCT
19
11
11
FOX
TX VICTORIA KAVU-TV
25
15
15
ABC
TX
WACO
KWTX-TV
10
53
10
CBS
TX
WACO
KXXV
25
26
26
ABC
TX
WACO
KWBU
34
20
20
PBS
FOX
TX
WACO
KWKT
44
57
44
TX WESLACO KRGV-TV
5
13
13
ABC
TX WICHITA FALLS KFDX-TV
3
28
28
NBC
TX WICHITA FALLS KAUZ-TV
6
22
22
CBS
TX WICHITA FALLS KJTL
18
15
15
FOX
TX WOLFFORTH KLCW-TV
22
43
43
CW
UT CEDAR CITY KCSG
4
14
14
IND
UT
LOGAN
KUTF
12
12
12
TLF
UT
OGDEN
KUEN
9
36
36
PBS
UT
OGDEN
KPNZ
24
24
24
IND
UT
OGDEN
KUCW
30
48
48
CW
Refer to page 224 for more information.
268
Station List
Station
NTSC Ch. DTV Companion Final DTV
Primary
State
City
Call Letters (Virtual Ch.) (Pre-2-17-09) (Post-2-17-09) Net Affiliation
UT
PRICE
KCBU
3
11
11
IND
UT
PROVO
KBYU-TV
11
44
44
PBS
UT
PROVO
KUPX
16
29
29
ION
UT
PROVO
KCBU
32
3
32
IND
UT RICHFIELD
KUES
19
19
PBS
2
34
34
CBS
UT SALT LAKE CITY KUTV
4
40
40
ABC
UT SALT LAKE CITY KTVX
5
38
38
NBC
UT SALT LAKE CITY KSL -TV
7
42
42
PBS
UT SALT LAKE CITY KUED
13
28
13
FOX
UT SALT LAKE CITY KSTU
14
46
46
My TV
UT SALT LAKE CITY KJZZ-TV
20
20
20
IND
UT SALT LAKE CITY KTMW
UT ST. GEORGE
KUSG
12
9
9
CBS
UT ST. GEORGE KUEW
18
18
PBS
UT VERNAL
KBCJ
6
16
16
CP
VA ARLINGTON WFDC-TV
14
15
15
UNV
VA ASHLAND
WUPV
65
47
47
CW
VA BRISTOL WCYB-TV
5
28
5
NBC
19
19
19
CBS
VA CHARLOTTESVILLE WCAV-TV
29
32
32
NBC
VA CHARLOTTESVILLE WVIR-TV
41
46
46
PBS
VA CHARLOTTESVILLE WHTJ
VA DANVILLE
WDRL
24
41
24
IND
VA FAIRFAX
WNVC
56
57
24
ED
VA FRONT ROYAL WVPY
42
21
21
PBS
VA GOLDVEIN
WNVT
30
30
ED
VA GRUNDY
WLFG
68
49
49
IND
VA HAMPTON WVEC-TV
13
41
13
ABC
15
16
16
PBS
VA HAMPTON-NORFOLK WHRO-TV
3
49
49
ABC
VA HARRISONBURG WHSV-TV
VA LYNCHBURG WSET-TV
13
34
13
ABC
VA LYNCHBURG WWCW
21
20
20
CW
VA MANASSAS
WPXW
66
43
34
ION
VA MARION
WMSY-TV
52
42
42
PBS
VA NORFOLK WTKR-TV
3
40
40
CBS
VA NORFOLK
WTVZ
33
38
33
My TV
VA NORFOLK
WPXV
49
46
46
ION
VA NORTON WSBN-TV
47
32
32
PBS
Refer to page 224 for more information.
269
Station List
Station
NTSC Ch. DTV Companion Final DTV
Primary
State
City
Call Letters (Virtual Ch.) (Pre-2-17-09) (Post-2-17-09) Net Affiliation
VA PETERSBURG WRIC-TV
8
22
22
ABC
VA PORTSMOUTH WAVY-TV
10
31
31
NBC
VA PORTSMOUTH WGNT
27
50
50
CW
VA RICHMOND WTVR-TV
6
25
25
CBS
VA RICHMOND
WWBT
12
54
12
NBC
VA RICHMOND WCVE-TV
23
42
42
PBS
VA RICHMOND WRLH-TV
35
26
26
FOX
VA RICHMOND
WCVW
57
44
44
PBS
VA ROANOKE
WDBJ
7
18
18
CBS
VA ROANOKE WSLS-TV
10
30
30
NBC
VA ROANOKE WBRA-TV
15
3
3
PBS
VA ROANOKE
WFXR
27
17
17
FOX
VA ROANOKE
WPXR
38
36
36
ION
VA STAUNTON
WVPT
51
11
11
PBS
VA VIRGINIA BCH. WHRE
21
7
7
REL
VA VIRGINIA BCH. WVBT
43
29
29
FOX
12
44
44
PBS
VI CHARLOTTE AMALIE WTJX-TV
17
48
17
CBS
VI CHARLOTTE AMALIE WVXF-TV
43
43
ABC
VI CHARLOTTE AMALIE WZVI
8
20
20
ABC
VI CHRISTIANSTED WSVI
15
15
15
Silent
VI CHRISTIANSTED WVIF
39
23
23
CW
VI CHRISTIANSTED WCVI-TV
VT BURLINGTON WCAX-TV
3
53
22
CBS
VT BURLINGTON WVNY
22
13
13
ABC
VT BURLINGTON WETK
33
32
32
PBS
VT BURLINGTON WFFF-TV
44
43
43
FOX
VT HARTFORD WNNE-TV
31
25
25
NBC
VT RUTLAND
WVER
28
9
9
PBS
20
18
18
PBS
VT ST. JOHNSBURY WVTB
VT WINDSOR
WVTA
41
24
24
PBS
WA BELLEVUE KWPX
33
32
33
ION
WA BELLEVUE KUNS-TV
51
50
50
UNV
WA BELLINGHAM KVOS-TV
12
35
35
IND
WA BELLINGHAM KBCB
24
19
19
IND
WA CENTRALIA
KCKA
15
19
19
PBS
WA EVERETT KONG-TV
16
31
31
IND
WA KENNEWICK KVEW
42
44
44
ABC
Refer to page 224 for more information.
270
Station List
Station
NTSC Ch. DTV Companion Final DTV
Primary
State
City
Call Letters (Virtual Ch.) (Pre-2-17-09) (Post-2-17-09) Net Affiliation
WA
PASCO
KEPR-TV
19
18
18
CBS
WA PULLMAN KWSU-TV
10
17
10
PBS
WA PULLMAN
KQUP
24
24
24
IND
WA RICHLAND
KNDU
25
26
26
NBC
WA RICHLAND
KTNW
31
38
38
PBS
WA SEATTLE KOMO-TV
4
38
38
ABC
WA SEATTLE
KING-TV
5
48
48
NBC
WA SEATTLE
KIRO-TV
7
39
39
CBS
WA SEATTLE
KCTS-TV
9
41
9
PBS
WA SEATTLE
KMYQ
22
25
25
My TV
WA SEATTLE
KHCV
45
44
44
IND
WA SPOKANE KREM-TV
2
20
20
CBS
WA SPOKANE KXLY-TV
4
13
13
ABC
WA SPOKANE KHQ-TV
6
15
7
NBC
WA SPOKANE KSPS-TV
7
8
8
PBS
WA SPOKANE
KSKN
22
36
36
CW
WA SPOKANE KAYU-TV
28
30
28
FOX
WA SPOKANE
KGPX
34
34
34
ION
WA TACOMA
KSTW
11
36
11
CW
WA TACOMA
KCPQ
13
18
13
FOX
WA TACOMA
KTBW-TV
20
14
14
IND
WA TACOMA
KBTC-TV
28
27
27
PBS
WA TACOMA
KWDK
56
42
42
ED
WA VANCOUVER KPDX
49
48
30
My TV
WA WALLA WALLA KCWK
9
9
9
Defunct
WA YAKIMA
KNDO
23
16
16
NBC
WA YAKIMA
KIMA-TV
29
33
33
CBS
WA YAKIMA
KAPP
35
14
14
ABC
WA YAKIMA
KYVE
47
21
21
PBS
WI ANTIGO
WTPX
46
46
ION
WI APPLETON
WACY
32
27
27
My TV
48
49
49
FOX
WI CHIPPEWA FALLS WEUX
WI CRANDON
WBIJ
4
12
12
REL
WI EAGLE RIVER WYOW
34
28
28
ABC
WI EAU CLAIRE WEAU-TV
13
39
13
NBC
WI EAU CLAIRE WQOW-TV
18
15
15
ABC
WI FOND DU LAC WWAZ-TV
68
44
44
IND
Refer to page 224 for more information.
271
Station List
Station
NTSC Ch. DTV Companion Final DTV
Primary
State
City
Call Letters (Virtual Ch.) (Pre-2-17-09) (Post-2-17-09) Net Affiliation
WI GREEN BAY WBAY-TV
2
23
23
ABC
WI GREEN BAY WFRV-TV
5
56
39
CBS
WI GREEN BAY WLUK-TV
11
51
11
FOX
WI GREEN BAY
WGBA
26
41
41
NBC
WI GREEN BAY WPNE
38
42
42
PBS
WI JANESVILLE WBUW
57
32
32
CW
WI KENOSHA
WPXE
55
40
40
ION
WI LA CROSSE
WKBT
8
41
8
CBS
WI LA CROSSE WXOW-TV
19
14
14
ABC
WI LA CROSSE
WLAX
25
17
17
FOX
WI LA CROSSE WHLA-TV
31
30
30
PBS
WI MADISON WISC-TV
3
50
50
CBS
WI MADISON
WMTV
15
19
19
NBC
WI MADISON WHA -TV
21
20
20
PBS
WI MADISON WKOW-TV
27
26
26
ABC
WI MADISON WMSN-TV
47
11
11
FOX
WI MAYVILLE
WWRS
52
43
43
IND
WI MENOMONIE WHWC-TV
28
27
27
PBS
WI MILWAUKEE WTMJ-TV
4
28
28
NBC
WI MILWAUKEE
WITI
6
33
33
FOX
WI MILWAUKEE WMVS
10
8
8
PBS
WI MILWAUKEE WISN-TV
12
34
34
ABC
WI MILWAUKEE
WVTV
18
61
18
CW
WI MILWAUKEE WCGV-TV
24
25
25
My TV
WI MILWAUKEE WVCY-TV
30
22
22
REL
WI MILWAUKEE WMVT
36
35
35
PBS
CBS
WI MILWAUKEE WDJT-TV
58
46
46
WI PARK FALLS WLEF-TV
36
47
36
PBS
WI
RACINE
WBME-TV
49
48
48
IND
WI RHINELANDER WJFW-TV
12
16
16
NBC
WI SUPERIOR KBJR-TV
6
19
19
NBC
WI
SURING
WIWB
14
21
21
CW
WI WAUSAU WSAW-TV
7
40
7
CBS
WI WAUSAU WAOW-TV
9
29
9
ABC
WI WAUSAU WHRM-TV
20
24
24
PBS
WI WITTENBERG WPXE
55
40
50
ION
WV BLUEFIELD WVVA
6
46
46
NBC
Refer to page 224 for more information.
272
Station List
Station
NTSC Ch. DTV Companion Final DTV
Primary
State
City
Call Letters (Virtual Ch.) (Pre-2-17-09) (Post-2-17-09) Net Affiliation
WV BLUEFIELD
WLFB
40
14
40
IND
WV CHARLESTON WCHS-TV
8
41
41
ABC
WV CHARLESTON WVAH-TV
11
19
19
FOX
WV CHARLESTON WLPX-TV
29
39
39
ION
WV CLARKSBURG WBOY-TV
12
52
12
NBC
WV CLARKSBURG WVFX
46
10
10
FOX
WV GRANDVIEW WSWP-TV
9
53
10
PBS
WV HUNTINGTON WSAZ-TV
3
23
23
NBC
WV HUNTINGTON WOWK-TV
13
47
13
CBS
WV HUNTINGTON WPBY-TV
33
34
34
PBS
WV LEWISBURG WVNS
59
8
8
CBS
ION
WV MARTINSBURG WWPX
60
12
12
WV MORGANTOWN WNPB-TV
24
33
33
PBS
WV OAK HILL WOAY-TV
4
50
50
ABC
15
49
49
NBC
WV PARKERSBURG WTAP-TV
WV WESTON
WDTV
5
6
5
CBS
WV WHEELING WTRF-TV
7
32
7
CBS
WY CASPER KTWO-TV
2
17
17
ABC
WY CASPER
KPTW 6
6
6
PBS
WY CASPER
KCWY
13
12
12
NBC
WY CASPER
KGWC-TV
14
15
14
CBS
WY CASPER
KFNB
20
18
20
FOX
WY CHEYENNE
KGWN
5
30
30
CBS
WY CHEYENNE
KLWY
27
28
27
FOX
WY CHEYENNE
KDEV
33
11
11
ABC
WY CHEYENNE
KQCK
33
11
11
ABC
WY JACKSON
KJWY
2
2
2
NBC
WY JACKSON
KBEO
11
11
11
CW
WY LANDER
KCWC-TV
4
8
8
PBS
WY LANDER
KGWL-TV
5
7
7
CBS
WY LARAMIE KWYP-TV
8
8
8
PBS
WY RAWLINS
KFNR
11
9
9
FOX
WY RIVERTON
KFNE
10
16
10
FOX
WY ROCK SPR. KGWR-TV
13
13
13
CBS
WY SHERIDAN
KSWY
7
7
7
NBC
WY SHERIDAN KSGW-TV
12
13
13
ABC
Refer to page 224 for more information.
273
Acronyms
ACA
Apartment Complex Amplifier
AD
Agile Demodulator
AM
Agile Modulator
AMCM
Agile Micro Modulator
AMT
Addressable Multi-Tap
AP
Agile Processor
AQD
ATSC/QAM Demodulator
AQM
Agile QAM Modulator
AQT
ATSC/QAM Transcoder
ATX
Addressable Transmitter
BIDABroadband Indoor Distribution Amplifier
BPF
Bandpass Filter
CAM
Channelized Agile A/V Modulator
CAP
Channelized Agile A/V Processor
CDSRCommercial Digital Satellite Receiver
DA
Distribution Amplifier
DAP
Digital to Analog Processor
DC
Directional Coupler
DSR
Digital Satellite Receiver
FRDAFiber Receiver/Distribution Amplifier
FSM
Field Strength Meter
IRD
Integrated Receiver Decoder
ITX
Intelligent Transmitter
LA
Launch Amplifier
LNBF
Low Noise Block Converter Feed
MAVM
Masterline Audio/Video Modulator
MICM
Micro-Modulator
MIDM
Micro-Demodulator
OC
Output Combiner
274
Acronyms
OCA
Output Combiner- Active
RMDARack Mounted Distribution Amplifier
SE
Stereo Encoder
SMI
Subscriber Module Interdiction
TVCB
TV Channel Blocker
VMI
VideoMask Interdiction
Industry Standard Acronyms
A
Ampere
AM
Amplitude Modulation
AC
Alternating Current
AGC
Automatic Gain Control
ASI
Asynchronous Serial Interface
AT
Attenuator
AWG
American Wire Gauge
BER
Bit Error Rate
CATV
Community Antenna Television
CCTV
Closed-Circuit Television
CMTS
Cable Modem Termination System
CNR
Carrier to Noise Ratio
CSO
Composite Second Order
CTB
Composite Triple Beat
dB
Decibel
DBS
Direct Broadcast Satellite
DC
Direct Current
DOCSISData Over Cable Service Interface Spec
EBS
Educational Broadband Service
EQ
Equalizer
FDM
Frequency Division Multiplexing
275
Acronyms
FMFrequency Modulation (88-108 MHz band)
HE
Headend
HFC
Hybrid Fiber Coax
Hz
Hertz
IF
Intermediate Frequency
kHz
Kilohertz
LAN
Local Area Network
LED
Light Emitting Diode
LNB
Low Noise Block Converter
MDU
Multiple Dwelling Unit
MER
Modulation Error Ratio
MHz
Megahertz
mbps
Megabits Per Second
mW
Milliwatt
PSI
Pound Per Square Inch
QAM
Quadrature Amplitued Modulation
QPSKQuadrature Phase Shift Key Modulation
RF
Radio Frequency
SNR
Signal to Noise Ratio
TDM
Time Division Multiplexing
UHFUltra High Frequencies TV Channels 14-69
(470-806 MHz)
V
Volt
W
Watt
WAN
Wide Area Network
VHFVery High Frequencies TV Channels 2 thru 13 and
FM (54-216 MHz)
VSB/AMVestigial Side Band/Amplitude Modulation
XMOD
Cross-Modulation
276
One Jake Brown Rd.
Old Bridge, NJ 08857
TEL: 732-679-4000
FAX: 732-679-4353
800-523-6049
www.blondertongue.com
Please Access our Website for a List of
Company Contacts and Literature Requests.
©2008 Blonder Tongue Laboratories, Inc. All rights reserved.
Specifications are subject to change without notice.
Trademarks are the property of their respective owner.
277
Rev 8.0