Siemens SPC3 Specifications

BusWorksTM 900PB Series
ProfiBus/RS485 Network I/O Modules
Technical Reference
INTRODUCTION TO PROFIBUS DP
ACROMAG INCORPORATED
30765 South Wixom Road
P.O. BOX 437
Wixom, MI 48393-7037 U.S.A.
Copyright 2002, Acromag, Inc., Printed in the USA.
Data and specifications are subject to change without notice.
Tel: (248) 624-1541
Fax: (248) 624-9234
8500-698-A02M000
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Introduction To ProfiBus DP
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TABLE OF
CONTENTS
INTRODUCTION TO PROFIBUS DP
ABOUT PROFIBUS.……………………………………………
PROFIBUS DP SLAVE STATE MACHINE..…………………
Power ON/Reset State…………………………………..
Parameterization State………………………………….
I/O Configuration State………………………………….
Data Exchange State…………………………………….
Fail Safe Operation…………………..…………………..
Watchdog……………………………..…………………..
GSD FILES………………………………………………………
REQUIRED SOFTWARE…..………………..…………………
TYPES OF TRANSMISSION………………..…………………
SRD Send and Request Data w/Acknowledge……..
SDN Send Data w/No Acknowledge…………………..
PROFIBUS DP DATA CHARACTER FORMAT…………….
ProfiBus Data Error Checking………….……………..
PROFIBUS TELEGRAM STRUCTURE……………………..
Start Delimiter…………………………………………….
Length Of Telegram……………………………………..
Destination Address & Source Address……………..
Function Code Or Frame Control……………………..
Service Access Points…………………………………..
Data Unit…………………………………………………..
Frame Check Sequence…………………………………
End Delimiter……………………………………………..
DP COMMAND FUNCTIONS………………………………….
Function Status…………………………………………..
OPERATING STATES AND APPLICABLE FUNCTIONS....
Initial Power ON/Reset…………………………………..
Set_Slave_Add Telegram…………………………
Parameterization……..…………………………………..
Set_Prm Telegram………………………………….
I/O Configuration……..…………………………………..
Chk_Cfg Telegram………………………………….
Get_Cfg Telegram………………………………….
Diag_Data Telegram……………………………….
Data Exchange State..…………………………………..
Data_Exchange Telegram……..………………….
Read_Inp Telegram……..………………………….
Read_Outp Telegram…………..………………….
Global_Control Services..……..………………….
Use Of Freeze..……..……..………………….
Use Of Sync/Unsync.……..………………….
BUS TIMING………………….………………………………….
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This information is provided as a service to our customers and to others
interested in learning more about Profibus. Acromag assumes no
responsibility for any errors that may occur in this document, and makes no
commitment to update or keep this information current.
Be sure to visit Acromag on the web at www.acromag.com.
Windows® is a registered trademark of Microsoft Corporation.
Modbus® is a registered trademark of Modicon, Incorporated.
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Introduction To ProfiBus DP
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3
The following information describes the operation of ProfiBus DP as it
relates to Acromag Series 900PB DP slave I/O modules. For more detailed
information on ProfiBus, you may refer to the ProfiBus Trade Organization at
the PTO website www.profibus.com.
Acromag manufactures a line of I/O modules that support Profibus DP
over RS485. Feel free to visit our website at www.acromag.com to obtain
the latest information about these and other Acromag products.
Acromag Series 900PB modules utilize the popular ProfiBus DP
FieldBus communication format. ProfiBus was created in 1989 by the
German government in cooperation with several manufacturers of
automation equipment. It is a messaging format specifically designed for
high-speed serial I/O in factory and building automation applications. It is an
open standard and is recognized as the fastest FieldBus in operation today.
It is based on RS485 and the European EN50170 Electrical Specification.
The DP suffix refers to “Decentralized Periphery”, which is used to describe
distributed I/O devices connected via a fast serial data link with a central
controller. To contrast, a programmable logic controller (PLC) normally has
its input/output channels arranged centrally. By introducing a network bus
between the main controller (master) and its I/O channels (slaves), we have
decentralized the I/O.
ABOUT PROFIBUS
ProfiBus is based on universal international standards and oriented to
the OSI (Open System Interconnection) reference model per international
standard ISO 7498. In this model, every layer handles precisely defined
tasks. Layer 1 of this model is the physical layer and defines the physical
transmission characteristics. Layer 2 is the data link layer and defines the
bus access protocol. Layer 7 is the application layer and defines the
application functions. ProfiBus DP uses only layers 1 & 2 of this model, plus
the user interface. Layers 3 to 7 are not used.
A ProfiBus system uses a bus master to poll slave devices distributed in
multi-drop fashion on an RS485 serial bus. A ProfiBus slave is any
peripheral device (I/O transducer, valve, network drive, or other measuring
device) which processes information and sends its output to the master.
The slave forms a “passive station” on the network since it does not have
bus access rights, and can only acknowledge received messages, or send
response messages to the master upon request. It is important to note that
all ProfiBus slaves have the same priority, and all network communication
originates from the master. Acromag I/O modules form intelligent slave
devices.
Acromag modules implement the ProfiBus protocol via an industrystandard SPC3 ASIC from Siemens. This ASIC acts like a RAM or UART
chip to the internal microcontroller and completely handles the requirements
of the protocol standard. The ASIC will transfer network data to and from
the microcontroller and automatically provide the response to the bus
according to the ProfiBus specification.
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Introduction To ProfiBus DP
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A ProfiBus master forms an “active station” on the network. ProfiBus
DP defines two classes of masters. A class 1 master handles the normal
communication or exchange of data with the slaves assigned to it. A class 2
master is a special device primarily used for commissioning slaves and for
diagnostic purposes. Some masters may support both class 1 and class 2
functionality. Master-to-master communication is normally not permitted in
Profibus, except in order to grant bus access rights to another master via the
exchange of a token. However, master-to-master communication between
two mono-master systems can be facilitated using a DP-DP gateway. Note
that the exchange of bus access rights via this “token ring” only applies
between masters on the bus.
A class 1 master device is normally a central programmable controller
(PLC), or a PC running special software. The class 1 master sets the baud
rate and the slave’s auto-detect this rate. The class 1 master handles the
data exchange with the slaves assigned to it, and acts as the main controller
for the exchange of I/O information with its distributed slaves, cyclically
retrieving user I/O data according to a defined message cycle. A master can
communicate actively with its assigned slaves, but only passively (upon
request) with another class 2 master device.
The class 2 master is usually a configuration device, perhaps a laptop
or programming console, and is provided for commissioning, maintenance,
or diagnostic purposes. It acts like a “supervisory” master in that it can
actively communicate with class 1 masters and their slaves, in addition to its
own slaves, but usually only for the purpose of configuration, problem
diagnosis, and data/parameter exchange. That is, class 2 masters may only
briefly take over control of a slave. All exchanges between a class 2 master
and class 1 master originate with the class 2 master.
ProfiBus DP normally operates using a cyclic transfer of data between
master(s) and slave(s) on an RS485 network. That is, an assigned master
periodically requests (polls) each node (slave) on the network. All data
communication exchanges between a master and slave originate from the
master device. Each slave device is assigned to one master and only that
master may write output data to that slave. Other masters may read
information from any slave, but can only write output data to their own
assigned slaves.
Masters can address individual slaves, a defined group of slaves (multicast), or can broadcast a telegram to all connected slaves. Slaves will return
a response to all telegrams addressed to them individually, but do not
respond to broadcast or multi-cast telegrams from a master device.
ProfiBus sends Broadcast and Multi-Cast messages as global control
telegrams using address 127 and an optional group number for a targeted
group of slaves.
Because ProfiBus uses a cyclic (periodic) polling mechanism between
masters and slaves, it is also deterministic. That is, the behavior of a
ProfiBus system can be reliably predicted over time. In fact, ProfiBus was
designed to guarantee a deterministic response. To contrast, CAN and
Ethernet are event-driven bus systems and consequently form nondeterministic systems.
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Introduction To ProfiBus DP
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5
The length (and timing) of the I/O data to be transferred from a single
slave to a master is predefined in the slave’s device data base or GSD file.
The GSD files of each device connected via the network (slaves and class 1
masters only) are compiled into a master parameter record which contains
parameterization and configuration data, an address allocation list, and the
bus parameters for all connected stations. A master uses this information to
set up communication with each slave during startup.
After a master receives its master parameter record, it is ready to begin
exchanging data with its slaves. During startup, after a system reset, or
upon return to power, a master will attempt to re-establish contact with all the
slaves assigned to it before assuming the cyclic exchange of I/O data. Each
slave must already have a unique valid address from 0-125 in order to
communicate with the master. Any slave that has a default address of 126
will await the Set_Slave_Address command from a class 2 master before it
can be parameterized. In attempting to establish communication, the master
starts with the lowest address slave and ends with the highest address
slave. A master will send parameterization and configuration telegrams to all
of its assigned slaves (a slave may only be write-accessed by its assigned
master, the master that parameterized and configured it during startup). The
parameterization and configuration telegrams ensure that the functionality
and configuration of a slave is known to the master. If an additional slave is
added to the network bus and is not already accounted for in the master
record, a new master record must be generated and a new configuration
performed so that the master is informed of the status of the new device.
ProfiBus DP most often uses a single class 1 master device (monomaster), cyclically polling many distributed slaves. However, ProfiBus also
allows for acyclic communication between class 2 masters and slaves,
making more than one active station or master possible. A class 1 master
will automatically detect the presence of a new active station connected to
the network bus (a class 2 master). When the class 1 master completes its
polling cycle, it will pass a “token” to the class 2 master granting it temporary
access to the bus. Deterministic behavior is maintained because the class 2
master can only use the time allotted to it via the gap time specified.
Although, mono-master operation is generally recommended, it is not
mandatory. That is, a ProfiBus system may have more than one class 1
master, but master to master communication is not permitted, except for the
granting of bus access rights via token exchange.
To illustrate the idea of communication between masters in a ProfiBus
DP system, a class 1 master cyclically exchanges data with all of the slaves
assigned to it, one at a time, according to its list of assigned slaves taken
from the master record. At the end of this data cycle, additional time (gap
time) is allotted to provide for acyclic communication between a class 2
master and the same slaves. During this time, the class 1 master will pass a
token to the class 2 master granting it bus access rights. The class 2
master which currently holds the token has the opportunity to exchange data
with all the slaves within a specific period of time called the token half-time or
token hold-time (TH). The class 2 master may then proceed to read data or
diagnostic information from any of the slaves, and then at the completion of
its cycle, it will pass the token back to the class 1 master.
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Introduction To ProfiBus DP
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Since there usually is not enough time during the gap to complete a full data
exchange, this process of data retrieval by the class 2 master may continue
over several cycles. At the end of record transfer, the class 2 master will
clear the connection. Note however, that the class 2 master may only
establish communication with the slaves during the gap time.
As stated earlier, it is possible for a class 2 master to temporarily take
over control of a DP slave. During this time, the DP slave will stop its normal
data exchange with its class 1 master. The class 1 master recognizes this
and will proceed to cyclically request diagnostics from the slave, checking
the Master Address field for as long as another valid address is present.
After the class 2 master finishes its communication with the slave, it sets the
Master Address field of the slave to invalid (255). This causes the class 1
master to attempt to regain control of the slave and it will reparameterize and
reconfigure the slave before resuming data exchange with it.
Key Concepts
ProfiBus DP –
•
•
•
•
•
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Open standard based on EN 50170.
Fastest Fieldbus standard to date with data rates up to 12MB.
Plug & play operation.
Up to 244 bytes of input/output data per message.
Up to 126 stations may connect to the bus.
Up to 32 stations per bus segment.
Class 1 Master –
•
•
•
Central controller that exchanges I/O data with connected slaves.
Determines the baud rate (slaves auto-detect this rate).
Manages the token transfer between masters. Detects another
master during the gap time.
Class 2 Master –
•
•
•
•
Diagnostic, configuration, or startup tool.
Can only control one slave at a time.
Does not have write-access to the slave.
Does not have a GSD file.
Slave •
•
A passive station which can only respond per a master request and
acknowledge messages. A slave has no bus control rights.
The GSD file defines the slave for the master.
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Introduction To ProfiBus DP
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The following state machine helps illustrates how ProfiBus DP operates
with respect to the slaves.
ProfiBus DP Slave State Machine
Power ON/Reset
Invalid
Address
Valid Address
Set_Slave_Add
Wait_Prm
Parameterization
Slave_Diag
Get_Cfg
Chk_Cfg
Not OK
Wait_Cfg
I/O Configuration
Chk_Cfg
Not OK
Set_Prm
Not OK
Slave_Diag
Set_Prm OK
Get_Cfg
Chk_Cfg OK
Data_Exch
Data Exchange
Data_Exch OK
Rd_Inp
Rd_Out
Slave_Diag
Chk_Cfg OK
Set_Prm OK
Get_Cfg
(GC commands:
Sync, Freeze, etc.)
7
PROFIBUS DP SLAVE
STATE MACHINE
Note the four main states:
Power ON/Reset,
Parameterization, I/O
Configuration, and Data
Exchange.
The master uses the following
general telegram sequence
during startup:
1. Request Diagnostics.
2. Change Station Address
(optional service, Class 2
Master only).
3. Parameterize the Slaves.
4. Configure the Slaves.
5. Request Diagnostics
again before data
exchange to ensure that
system startup was OK.
6. Data exchange.
7. Global Control (optional).
Power ON/Reset State
The power on/reset state is the initial state following power up for the
DP slave. In this state, the slave may receive a telegram from a class 2
master to change its station address. A slave will be held in this state if it
does not have a valid address from 0-125. After completion of its power-on
initialization routine and if the slave has a valid station address, the slave will
proceed to the Wait for Parameterization state.
Parameterization State
In this state, the DP slave awaits the parameterization telegram from
the master which identifies the slave’s master and the mode the slave is to
operate in. A slave in this state will reject all other telegrams except a
request telegram for diagnostics or configuration. After its parameters have
been set, the slave will proceed to the I/O Configuration State.
I/O Configuration State
In this state, the slave awaits a configuration telegram that specifies the
number of input and output bytes that are to be exchanged in each data
telegram cycle with the slave. The configuration telegram also causes the
slave to check the configuration which was sent against the stored
configuration. A slave in this state will accept a request telegram for
diagnostics or configuration, or a set parameters telegram.
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Introduction To ProfiBus DP
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Data Exchange State
After parameterization and configuration have been accomplished, the
slave cyclically exchanges I/O data with the master. This is a cyclic transfer
of I/O data and possible diagnostic information.
Fail Safe Operation
A ProfiBus master runs in two modes: Operate and Clear. With
respect to the master of a ProfiBus DP system, the term fail-safe simply
refers to whether the class 1 master sends 0 length data, or data set to 0,
when it is in Clear Mode. With respect to a DP slave device, the term failsafe refers to whether the slave will process output telegrams with zero
length data, or not. Whether the combined master/slave system is
considered fail-safe depends on the actions taken by the slaves if the master
fails, or if the master switches to Clear Mode. Ideally, the failure of a master
should not cause errors in any of its slaves and the slave outputs should go
to a predictable (defined) state. Using a fail-safe mode, the slave outputs
can automatically switch to a fail-safe state in the event of master failure, or
when the master switches to Clear Mode.
A slave may assume a fail-safe state if its watchdog time expires
without having received a message from its assigned master. Normally this
timer is reset every time the master talks to the slave. If this time expires,
this means the master has not communicated with the slave recently, and
the slave is not being controlled. The slave will then leave the data
exchange mode and its outputs will go to a pre-defined state (either their
reset state, or another user-defined state). This state is usually set via userdefined parameters of the parameterization telegram and its GSD file, or
sometimes via hardware switches on the slave. Some slaves may provide
parameters or switches that also allow the slave outputs to retain their last
state, but this is not considered fail-safe.
A slave may also assume a fail-safe state if its master switches from
Operate Mode to Clear Mode. With normal operation in Data_Exchange
mode, a class 1 master is in Operate Mode and cyclically exchanges I/O
data with its assigned slaves. The class 1 master may use a global control
telegram to inform the slaves that it is switching from Operate Mode to Clear
Mode. A master may elect to switch to Clear Mode while it is bringing slaves
online and not all slaves have been parameterized and configured yet. It
may also switch to Clear Mode as a result of a run/stop switch on the
master. In the Clear State, the master may attempt to parameterize and
configure the remaining slaves assigned to it in an effort to reinitiate data
exchange, while it continues data exchange with the other slaves (they will
be receiving output data of 0, or output data of zero length). Operate mode
does not resume until all slaves are online and exchanging data, or until the
master is told to resume operation via a run/stop switch or under program
control. Further, some masters may go to Clear Mode if a slave is disabled,
rather than continue to control a partial system (this response may be
specified as a parameter in the master’s GSD file and parameterization
telegram, via a mechanical switch, or as part of its master program).
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Introduction To ProfiBus DP
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9
When a master switches to Clear Mode, it sends a global control
telegram to all slaves with the first data byte (octet 1) = 2 and the second
data byte (octet 2) = 0. In the next data cycle, the master sends data
telegrams to all stations with either the output data equal to 0, or the output
data length equal to 0 (i.e. only the telegram header and no data). If the
slave GSD file contains “Fail_Safe = 0”, the master sends output telegrams
with the data set to 0 in Clear Mode. However, if the slave GSD file contains
“Fail_Safe = 1” (supports Fail-Safe Mode), the master will send output
telegrams with a data length of 0 in Clear Mode. . Slaves that do not support
fail-safe mode do not process data telegrams with no data. Some older
masters do not make this distinction of fail-safe mode and will send data
telegrams with the output data set to 0 in Clear Mode. This will force all
slave outputs to go to 0 in Clear Mode and this may not be desirable for
some critical control applications.
By the master sending output telegrams with no data in Clear Mode, a
fail-safe slave has the option of either setting all outputs to 0, retaining the
last output state (though this response is not fail-safe), or going to a predefined default “fail-safe” state. This state may be defined in the GSD file
and included in the user-parameters portion of the parameterization
telegram, or it may be set via switches at the slave. The slave will stay in
this state until it receives a global control broadcast telegram from the
master telling it the master is returning to Operate Mode and it receives an
output telegram with the correct output data length, whereupon it updates its
outputs normally as part of data exchange mode.
To summarize, fail-safe mode in ProfiBus DP simply refers to whether
the master sends output data messages of zero length in Clear Mode or not,
and whether a slave is able to process output messages of zero length. The
actions taken by the slave in response to these messages is optional and
specific to the slave implementation. Note that a “fail-safe” slave may not
actually act in a fail-safe manner (for example, it may retain the last state
prior to Clear Mode). In any case, for PTO compliance, a fail-safe slave
must at least give the option of clearing the outputs if the master fails or
switches to Clear Mode.
Watchdog
A slave may assume a defined state if its watchdog time expires without
having received a message from its assigned master. Normally this timer is
reset by the slave every time the master talks to the slave. If this time
expires, this means the master has not communicated with the slave
recently, and the slave is not being controlled. A communication error is
detected by the slave and reported with a diagnostic telegram (see function
codes). The slave will then leave the data exchange mode and its outputs
will go to a predefined state (either the reset/clear state, or a user-defined
state) and await reparameterization and reconfiguration by the master. The
timeout state is clear by default, or it may be set via user-defined parameters
of the parameterization telegram and GSD file, or sometimes via hardware
switches on the slave. Some slaves may provide parameters or switches
that also allow the slave outputs to retain their last state, but this is not
considered fail-safe.
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Introduction To ProfiBus DP
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During parameterization, a master sets up the communication and
monitoring times for the slave including the watchdog time (TWD set by
Watchdog Factors in DU bytes 2 & 3 of the Set_Prm Telegram). The slave
ASIC implements a watchdog function where the slave will monitor the bus
communications with the master over time, and in the event of master failure
(timeout), the slave outputs go to a defined state. If the watchdog timer is
not retriggered by the slave station via bus communication with the master
within the time specified, then the slave will set its outputs to a defined state
and return to the Wait_Prm state (Wait For Parameterization). In setting
watchdog time TWD, you need to consider the bus cycle time, plus a safety
factor for repeated telegrams (usually 25% minimum).
Before we examine slave operation in detail, we need to get a little
background information on a device’s GSD file and how the software is used
to build a ProfiBus system.
GSD FILES
The GSD file is an electronic device data sheet or device data base file
that identifies the ProfiBus device. All ProfiBus devices (class 1 masters and
slaves) have their own GSD files. The GSD file is the fundamental building
block for the master parameter record. Use of the GSD file by a ProfiBus
configuration tool permits plug & play interoperability among different
devices from different manufacturers. This file does not reside within the
device itself, but usually on a separate disk/drive. It is an ASCII text file that
contains device-specific data, such as, vendor identification information,
supported baud rates, supported message length, number of input/output
data, meaning of diagnostic messages, timing information, plus options and
features supported, data formats, and available I/O signals. For modular
ProfiBus systems, a GSD file may contain several configurations (one for
each I/O module), one of which will be found valid during startup.
A GSD file is named by combining a vendor name identifier with the
device’s ident_ number. For example, “ACRO06F3.GSD” is used for the
Acromag 981PB-1012 device. The suffix “.GSD” denotes a language
independent GSD file. A “.GSE” file would specify an English file, “.GSF” for
French, “.GSS” for Spanish, “.GSI” for Italian, and “.GSG” for German.
The GSD file begins with the specifier “#Profibus_DP”. In the body of
the file, the parameters are specified as parameters of a keyword (as in
“keyword = parameter”, see below). Comment lines begin with a semicolon.
Case is not significant and the sequence of parameters is not important.
Lines are limited to 80 characters, but may be continued by placing a
backslash character “\” at the end of the line to be continued. A GSD file is
divided into sections as follows:
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Introduction To ProfiBus DP
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GSD General Specifications
This section contains
information on vendor and
device names, hardware and
software revisions,
ident_number, supported baud
rates, reaction time intervals at
supported baud rates for
monitoring times, and optional
signal support at the bus
connector.
Keyword
Vendor_name
Model_Name
Revision
Ident_Number
Protocol_Ident
Station_type
FMS_Support
Hardware_Release
Software_Release
9.6_supp
19.2_supp
93.75_supp
Keyword
187.5_supp
500_supp
1.5M_supp
MaxTsdr_9.6
MaxTsdr_19.2
MaxTsdr_93.75
MaxTsdr_187.5
MaxTsdr_500
MaxTsdr_1.5M
Redundancy
Repeater_Ctrl_Sig
24V_Pins
GSD Slave Specifications
This section contains all
slave-related specifications,
such as the number and type
of I/O channels, specification
of diagnostic text, auto-baud
support, alternate mode
support and information on
available modules with
modular devices.
Keyword
Freeze_Mode_supp
Sync_Mode_supp
Auto_Baud_supp
Set_Slave_Add_supp
User_Prm_Data_Len
User_Prm_Data
Min_Slave_Intervall
Modular_Station
Max_Module
Keyword
Max_Input_Len
Max_Output_Len
Max_Data_Len
Unit_Diag_Bit
Diag_Text
Unit_Diag_Area
Module
Channel_Diag
11
GSD FILES
Master Specifications (Master Devices Only): This section contains all
master-related parameters, such as: the maximum number of slaves that
can be connected, or upload/download options. This section is not present
for slave devices and not covered here.
The GSD files of all connected devices are compiled together to form
the master parameter record. The master parameter record contains the
parameterization and configuration data taken from the all the GSD files, and
includes an address allocation list, plus the bus parameters for all the
connected slaves. During startup, a master will use this information to set
up communication with each of its assigned slaves prior to exchanging
actual I/O data with them.
The ProfiBus Trade Organization offers an easy to use, menu-driven
editor which can be used to prepare GSD files. This GSD-Editor also
contains a GSD-Checker which guarantees the conformance of the GSD file
to the ProfiBus standard. The format of GSD files is precisely specified in
the EN50170 standard and described in ProfiBus Guideline 2.041.
The ProfiBus Trade Organization also maintains a library of GSD files
for all certified slave devices. You can access these files via the internet at
http://www.profibus.com.
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Introduction To ProfiBus DP
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To give you an idea of what a GSD file might look like, consider the
following partial GSD file taken from Acromag Model 983PB-2012.
#Profibus_DP
GSD_Revision
=1
; Version of the GSD file
Vendor_Name
= “Acromag, Inc.” ; Vendor name
Model_Name
= “983PB-2012”
; Product name
Revision
= “A”
Ident_Number
= 0x06F1
; Ident Number
Protocol_Ident
=0
; ProfiBus DP Only (1-DP/FMS)
Station_Type
=0
; Type of device (Slave)
Hardware_Release
= “A”
; Hardware version of the device
Software_Release
= “A”
; Software version of the device
;
9.6_supp
=1
; 9600bps Supported
19.2_supp
=1
93.75_supp
=1
187.5_supp
=1
500_supp
=1
1.5M_supp
=1
3M_supp
=1
6M_supp
=1
12M_supp
=1
MaxTsdr_9.6
= 60
; Maximum response time
MaxTsdr_19.2
= 60
; at different baud rates.
MaxTsdr_93.75
= 60
MaxTsdr_187.5
= 60
MaxTsdr_500
= 100
MaxTsdr_1.5M
= 150
MaxTsdr_3M
= 250
MaxTsdr_6M
= 450
MaxTsdr_12M
= 800
;
Redundancy
=0
; Redundancy Not Supported
Repeater_Ctrl_Sig
=2
; Includes RTS Support w/TTL
Implementation_Type = “SPC3”
; Uses Siemens SPC3 ASIC
24V_Pins
=0
; Does Not Include 24V
Fail_Safe
=1
; Supports Fail-Safe Mode
Freeze_Mode_supp
=1
; Supports FREEZE
Sync_Mode_supp
=1
; Supports SYNC
Auto_Baud_supp
=1
; Includes Auto Baud Detection
Set_Slave_Add_supp = 1
; Addr can be set via ProfiBus
User_Prm_Data_Len = 3
User_Prm_Data
= 0x00,0x00,0x00 ; Module Specific Parameters
; 00H = Set outputs to 0
; 01H = Maintain Last Output Values
; 02H = Set output to user-defined values in bytes 1 and 2
; Byte 1 is the lower byte of user-defined output data which is outputs 0 to 7
; Byte 2 is the upper byte of user-defined output data which is outputs 8 to 11
;
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Slave_Family
Min_Slave_Interval
Modular_Station
Max_Diag_Data_Len
; I/O Byte
Module
EndModule
;
=3
=1
=0
=6
13
; Min_Slave_Interval is 100us
; 0-compact, 1-modular
; No User Diagnostics are Sent
= “12 CH DIG I/O:xxxx1198 76543210” 0x11,0x21
Leading PLC manufacturers offer configuration software for their
products that make it easy to generate the master parameter record for their
devices. This software is generally master-specific and depends on the
design of the master device. In order to setup a ProfiBus system, you will
need a software configuration tool, such as Allen Bradley’s Plug and Play
software, or the Siemens COM ProfiBus package. This software configures
the active stations and tells them what devices are present on the bus and
how much data it needs to exchange with them.
REQUIRED SOFTWARE
Recall that the master parameter record contains all the required data
for the bus system, including an address allocation list and the bus
parameters of the connected slaves. The address allocation list assigns
each remote I/O byte a unique address in the I/O space of the master’s I/O
space.
As an alternative method to PLC specific software, Siemens offers an
easy to use configuration tool called COM PROFIBUS that can be run on
any PC (offline version). An online version of COM PROFIBUS requires an
interface card.
The configuration software utilizes the GSD files (device master data) of
the connected slaves to create the master parameter record. This record is
typically transferred or downloaded to the class 1 master from floppy disk,
dual port RAM, or Flash EPROM. Typically, if you need to add another slave
to an existing system, you simply upload the current master parameter
record, add the new parameterization data for the slave (imported from the
GSD file), then download the new master record to the master again. Since
an active bus station automatically detects a new active bus station, you can
then perform a reset, and the bus system will reconfigure itself.
In addition to the slave-specific data which the configuration tool
gathers from the GSD file, you may also have to provide the following bus
and protocol-related data via the configuration tool:
•
•
•
•
•
•
The Protocol Used (DP, FMS, or mixed network).
The transmission baud rate (the tool checks to determine whether
all stations or slaves actually support this speed).
The GAP factor (number of bus passes after which an additional
active station is searched for). A master automatically detects the
connection of other masters via a periodic search driven by this
factor.
The Highest Station Address (HSA).
The Watchdog Time.
Within a PLC, the CPU type and type of addressing used.
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Introduction To ProfiBus DP
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Most configuration tools also allow you to permanently store user
parameters and configuration bytes which the master will automatically send
to the slave during system startup.
TYPES OF
TRANSMISSION
ProfiBus DP uses two types of transmission services in sending
message telegrams that are defined in Layer 2 (The Data Link Layer) of the
ISO/OSI model and summarized below:
SRD (Send and Request Data with acknowledge)
With SRD, data is sent and received in one telegram cycle. That is, the
master sends output data to the slave and receives input data from the slave
in its response (if applicable) within a specified period of time. The important
thing to remember about this service, is that a master may send output data
to a slave and request input data from the slave in its response, all in a
single telegram cycle. This is the transmission service most often used in
ProfiBus DP that makes the data exchange very efficient for mixed I/O
devices.
SDN (Send Data with No acknowledge)
This service is used when a message must be sent simultaneously to a
group of slaves (multi-cast), or all slaves (broadcast). Slaves do not respond
or acknowledge broadcast or multi-cast messages.
A third type of transmission service used in ProfiBus FMS is SDA (Send
Data with Acknowledge), with data sent to a master or slave and a short
acknowledgement sent in response. This is not used in ProfiBus DP and is
not covered here.
PROFIBUS DP
DATA CHARACTER
FORMAT
All ProfiBus characters are comprised of 11 bits (1 start bit + 8 data bits
+ 1 even parity bit + 1 stop bit). ProfiBus DP exchanges data in NRZ code
(Non Return to Zero). That is, the signal form of binary “0” or “1” does not
change during the duration of the bit. If nothing is being transmitted, the idle
state potential on the line is “1”. A start bit causes the line to go to “0”.
ProfiBus NRZ-Coded Character Frame (Even Parity)
Start
D0
D1 D2
D3
D4
D5
D6
D7
“0”
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
←
LSB
←
←
←
←
←
← MSB
Parity
even
←
Stop
“1”
←
This character frame applies to all data/character bytes, including the
telegram header bytes. When messages are transmitted on ProfiBus serial
networks, each character or data byte is sent in the order of least significant
bit (lsb) to most significant bit (msb), as shown above. For word transfer
(more than 1 byte), the high byte is transmitted first, followed by the low byte
(Big-Endian/Motorola format).
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ProfiBus networks employ the even parity method of data error
checking which controls how the parity bit of a data frame is set.
15
ProfiBus Data Error
Checking
With even parity checking, the number of 1 bits in the data portion of
each character frame is counted. Each character contains 8 bits. The parity
bit will then be set to a 0 or 1, as required in order to result in an even total
number of 1 bits. For example, if a character frame contains the following
eight data bits: 1100 0011, then since the total number of 1 bits is 4 (already
an even number), the frame’s parity bit will be set to 0 for even parity.
When a message is transmitted, the parity bit is calculated and applied
to the frame of each character transmitted. The receiving device counts the
quantity of 1 bits in the data portion of the frame and sets an error flag if the
count differs from that sent. As such, parity checking can only detect an
error if an odd number of bits are picked up, or dropped off, from a character
frame during transmission. For example, with even parity, if two 1 bits are
dropped from a character, the result is still an even count of 1 bits and no
parity error will be detected.
A ProfiBus telegram may contain up to 256 bytes--up to 244 bytes of
data per node per message, plus 11 bytes of overhead. This overhead is
referred to as the Telegram Header. All telegram headers are 11 bytes,
except for Data_Exchange telegrams which have 9 bytes of header
information (the DSAP and SSAP bytes are dropped). Note that 12 bytes is
a lot of overhead for a single message and this makes ProfiBus less efficient
for small amounts of data. However, since up to 244 bytes of data may
occur per message, and since the output data is sent and the input data
received in a single telegram cycle, this makes ProfiBus more efficient when
large amounts of data must be transferred. Note that an idle state of at least
33Tbits (sync-time in bit time) must be present before every request
telegram to be sent, and all data is transferred without gaps between
individual characters. All data exchanges between a Master and Slave are
handled in the telegram header using Service Access Points (SAP’s).
ProfiBus DP uses SAP’s 54 to 62, plus the default SAP (Data_Exchange).
Telegram Header Data and Frame
SD LE LEr SD DA SA FC
1b 1b
1b
1b
1b
1b
1b
DSAP
1b
SSAP
1b
DU
var
FCS
1b
PROFIBUS TELEGRAM
(MESSAGE)
STRUCTURE
ED
1b
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ProfiBus DP Telegram Header Abbreviations and Frame Bytes
SD
1 byte
Start Delimiter (used to distinguish telegram
format).
LE
1 byte
Net Data Length (DU) + DA + SA + FC + DSAP +
SSAP.
LEr
1 byte
Length repeated.
DA
1 byte
Destination Address– Where this message goes to.
SA
1 byte
Source Address – Where this message came from.
The address of the sending station.
FC
1 byte
Function Code (FC=Type/Priority of this message).
Used to identify the type of telegram, such as
request, acknowledgement, or response telegrams
(FC=13 signals diagnostic data). See below.
DSAP
1 byte
Destination Service Access Point (COM port of
receiver). The destination station uses this to
determine which service is to be executed.
SSAP
1 byte
Source Service Access Point (COM port of sender).
DU
1 to 32b
Data Units/ Net Data from 1 to 244 bytes.
(or 1-244b)
FCS
1 byte
Frame Checking Sequence (ASIC addition of the
bytes within the specified length).
ED
1 byte
End Delimiter (always 16H).
The following picture depicts the telegram sequence between a class 1
master and DP slave. The paragraphs that follow describe each telegram
frame byte in greater detail.
DP MASTER
REQUEST FRAME
TRAILER
OUTPUT DATA
DP SLAVE
HEADER
TELEGRAM CYCLE
Immediate
Response
REPONSE FRAME
HEADER
INPUT DATA
TRAILER
DP MASTER SRD Request (Send & Request Data w/ Acknowledge)
DU is Variable Length User Data
Sync
SD2
Time
LE
LE
SD2 DA
rep
SA
FC
DP SLAVE
DU FCS ED
33Tbits
Idle Time
TELEGRAM CYCLE w/FRAME
SD2
LE
LE
SD2 DA
rep
SA
FC
DU FCS ED
SRD Response, DU is Variable Length User Data
Start Delimiter (SD)
The Start Delimiter identifies the beginning of a telegram and its general
format. ProfiBus DP uses four types of Start Delimiters (SD) for request and
response telegrams, plus a fifth response for a short acknowledgement as
shown below. Note that the short acknowledge response does not use a
start delimiter. Also, a telegram response does not have to use the same
Start Delimiter as the request telegram.
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Telegram
Format
SD1
SD2
SD3
SD4
SC
Value
10H
68H
A2H
DCH
E5H
17
Data Field Length
0 bytes (No Data Field)
1 to 32 bytes (or up to 244)
8 bytes fixed.
0 bytes (No Data Field)
0 bytes (No Data Field), Short Acknowledge.
Start Delimiter SD1 (SD=10H) = Request_FDL_Status
Telegram with fixed information section and no data field…
DA
SA
FC
FCS
SD1
10H
xx
Xx
x
x
ED
16H
An active station sends this telegram to look for new active stations on
the bus after the GAP time has expired.
Start Delimiter SD2 (SD=68H) = Telegram w/ variable DU.
Telegram with variable information section and data field length…
SD2 LE LEr SD
DA SA FC DSAP SSAP DU FCS
68H X
x
68H xx xx x
3CH
3EH
x..x X
←-----------VAR LENGTH-------------→
ED
16H
Data telegram with variable data length. Used in SRD service (Send
and Request Data with acknowledge) which allows output data to be sent
and input data to be received in one telegram cycle.
Start Delimiter SD3 (SD=A2H) = Telegram w/ fixed DU.
Telegram with fixed information section and data field length…
DA
SA
FC
DU
FCS
ED
SD3
A2H
xx
xx
x
x..x
x
16H
This delimiter is used for data telegrams with fixed data length (the DU
data is always 8 bytes long).
Start Delimiter SD4 (SD=DCH) = Token Telegram
Master-to-master token telegram…
DA
SA
ED
SD4
DCH
xx
xx
16H
This delimiter is used between 2 active bus stations to grant bus access
rights.
No Start Delimiter
No Start Delimiter - Short Acknowledgement Telegram…
The short acknowledgement frame SC is a 1 byte
SC
message that can be used to positively acknowledge
E5H
an SDA request (ProfiBus FMS only), or negatively
acknowledge an SRD request.
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Length of Telegram
(LE & LEr)
This byte specifies the length of a telegram with variable data length
(i.e. SD2 Telegrams) from the DA byte to the end DU byte (range is DU+5b
to 249). Note that the length of the DU is generally limited to 32 bytes, but
the standard allows for lengths up to 244 bytes. LE is repeated in the LEr
field for redundant data protection.
Destination Address &
Source Address
(DA & SA, 00H..7FH)
The master device addresses a specific slave device by placing the 8bit slave address in the DA address field of the telegram (Destination
Address). It includes its own address in the SA address field (Source
Address). Valid addresses are from 0-127 (00H..7FH). Address 126 is
reserved for commissioning purposes and may not be used to exchange
user data. Address 127 is reserved as the broadcast address, which all
slave devices on a network recognize. When the slave responds, it will
place its own address in the source address field of its response to let the
master know which slave is responding, and it will place its assigned
master’s address in the destination address field of its respone. Recall that
a slave does not issue a response to broadcast messages (address 127).
Note that the inclusion of a DSAP or SSAP entry in a request or
response telegram is identified by setting the highest bit in the address byte
of the DA (Destination Address) or SA (Source Address), respectively. This
may look like an address greater than 127, but only the lower 7 bits of the
DA and SA contain the actual address.
Function Code or
Frame Control (FC)
The Function Code (FC) or Frame Control field specifies the type of
telegram (request, response, acknowledgement), type of station (passive or
active/slave or master), priority, and telegram acknowledgement (successful
or unsuccessful) as follows:
ProfiBus DP Function Codes for Request Telegrams
FC Code Function (The MSB in FC = 1)
4
SDN low (Send Data with No acknowledge)
6
SDN high (Send Data with No acknowledge)
7
Reserved/Request Diagnostic Data
9
Request FDL Status With Reply
12
SRD low (Send and Request Data with acknowledge)
13
SRD high (Send and Request Data with acknowledge)
14
Request ID With Reply
15
Request LSAP Status With Reply
ProfiBus DP Function Codes for Acknowledgement Telegrams
FC Code Function (The MSB in FC = 0)
0
ACK Positive
1
ACK Negative (FDL/FMA1/2 user error UE, interface error)
2
ACK Negative (No resource/memory space for Send Data (RR).
3
ACK Negative (No service activated (RS), SAP not activated).
8
Response FDL/FMA ½ Data low and Send Data OK)
9
ACK Negative (No response FDL/FMA1/2 Data & Send Data OK).
10
Response FDL Data High and Send Data OK.
12
Response FDL Data Low, No resource for Send Data.
13
Response FDL Data High Resource For Send Data.
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Data exchanges are handled in the telegram header using Service
Access Points (SAP’s). The SAP tells what data is to be transmitted or
which function is to be performed. Only telegrams that include data fields
use DSAP & SSAP bytes (i.e. SD2 & SD3 telegrams). Recall that SRD
transmission combines an output message with an input response in a
single telegram cycle. The telegram header contains an SSAP (Source
Service Access Point) and/or DSAP (Destination Service Access Point) that
indicates the service(s) to be executed. One exception is the cyclical
Data_Exchange telegram which is performed with the default SAP (SSAP or
DSAP is not provided in its header). Additionally, some telegrams may only
provide a DSAP or SSAP, but not both.
19
Service Access Points
(SSAP & DSAP)
The inclusion of a DSAP or SSAP entry in a request or response
telegram is identified by setting the highest bit in the address byte of the DA
(Destination Address) or SA (Source Address), respectively. Based on the
detected SAP’s, each station is able to recognize which data has been
requested and which response data is to be supplied. ProfiBus DP uses
SAP’s 54 to 62 listed below, plus the default SAP.
SAP
Default SAP=0
SAP54
SAP55
SAP56
SAP57
SAP58
SAP59
SAP60
SAP61
SAP62
SERVICE
Cyclical Data Exchange (Write_Read_Data)
Master-to-Master SAP (M-M Communication)
Change Station Address (Set_Slave_Add)
Read Inputs (Rd_Inp)
Read Outputs (Rd_Outp)
Control Commands to a DP Slave (Global_Control)
Read Configuration Data (Get_Cfg)
Read Diagnostic Data (Slave_Diagnosis)
Send Parameterization Data (Set_Prm)
Check Configuration Data (Chk_Cfg)
SAP55 is optional and may be disabled if the slave does not provide
non-volatile storage memory for the station address. Note that SAP’s 56, 57,
and 58 are not enabled until the DP slave assumes the Data_Exchange
state. SAP’s 59, 60, 61, and 62 are always enabled.
Note that the DSAP & SSAP entries in a request telegram are also
included in the response telegram, where DA + SA + DSAP + SSAP in the
response message corresponds to SA + DA + SSAP + DSAP in the request
telegram (content position flips).
This field contains the data for the station at DA (request data), or the
data for the station at SA (response data). DU is generally limited to 32
bytes, but the standard allows for lengths up to 244 bytes (assuming 11
bytes of header information for 255 bytes total).
Data Unit (DU)
This field contains the Frame Check Sequence or telegram checksum
(00H..FFH). It is simply the sum of the ASCII bytes of information from DA
to DU modulus 256. Checksum = (DA + SA + FC + DU) mod 256. This is
simply the bytes added together and divided by FFH (255). This is an
integrated function that is normally performed by the ProfiBus ASIC.
Frame Check Sequence
(FCS)
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End Delimiter (ED)
This byte identifies the end of a ProfiBus telegram and has a fixed value
of 16H.
DP COMMAND
FUNCTIONS
The following functions are implemented in DP slaves and class 1
masters (see SAP descriptions above). There are only 8 mandatory slave
functions, plus the optional Set_Slave_Add function (the slave address can
usually be set via external switches). All commands noted below are
optional for class 2 master devices.
Functions
Data_Exchange
Rd_Inp
Rd_Outp
Slave_Diag
Set_Prm
Chk_Cfg
Get_Cfg
Global_Control
Set_Slave_Address
Get_Master_Diag
Start_Seq
Download
Upload
End_Seq
Act_Para_Brct
Act_Para
Function Status
DP Slave
√
√
√
√
√
√
√
√
√ (Optional)
Class 1 Master
√
√
√
√
√
√
√ (Optional)
√ (Optional)
√ (Optional)
√ (Optional)
√ (Optional)
√ (Optional)
The corresponding function acknowledgements will contain a status
parameter that may be tested to verify the success of a function request.
Possible status values are shown in the following table:
Status Value
OK
IV
NO
DS
NA
RS
RR
UE
NR
TO
FE
RE
LE
NI
EA
Description
Acknowledgement positive.
Invalid parameters in request.
Service in this state not possible.
Local FDL/PHY entity is not in logical token ring or
disconnected from line.
Negative Acknowledge – No reaction from remote station.
Service or remote-address at remote-LSAP or remoteLSAT not activated:
Remote station is no DP-Station,
Remote station is not ready for these functions,
Remote station is associated with another requestor,
Optional service not available.
Resources of the remote-FDL entity not sufficient or not
available.
Remote-DDLM/FDL interface error.
No response data.
Function timeout expired.
Format error in request frame.
Format error in response frame.
Data block length too large (Upload/Download)
Function not implemented.
Area too large (Upload/Download)
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Status Value
AD
IP
SC
SE
NE
DI
NC
Description
Access denied.
Invalid parameter.
Sequence conflict.
Sequence error.
Area Non-existent.
Data incomplete.
Master parameter set not compatible.
21
Function Status
Refer to EN 50170 for more information on function status codes.
Recall that a ProfiBus DP slave must pass through 3 other states prior
to the Data Exchange state: Power On/Reset, Parameterization, and I/O
Configuration. Each DP slave state and the related function telegrams are
described in the following paragraphs. Refer to EN 50170 Volume 2 for a
more detailed explanation.
OPERATING STATES
AND APPLICABLE
FUNCTIONS
In the initial state following power up, the slave initializes itself and
automatically detects the correct baud rate for communication. If a valid
address from 0-125 has been set, the slave will pass to the parameterization
state. However, if the slave’s address is set to 126 (the default
commissioning address), then the slave will await a “Set_Slave_Address”
telegram from a class 2 master to change its station address before
proceeding to the parameterization state. A class 2 master can use SAP 55
(Set_Slave_Add) in a telegram header to change the address of a slave
following power-up, but only if the slave’s Set_Slave_Address lock bit is clear
and it has the default address of 126. Recall that stations whose address
cannot be set externally will have a default address of 126 and this address
can only be changed with a class 2 master device.
Initial Power ON/Reset
So that the slave address does not have to be reassigned after powerup, this address is normally stored in non-volatile memory and uploaded
upon initialization, or it may be loaded from switches on the unit. If there are
several similar stations whose address cannot be set externally and have a
default address of 126, be sure to connect them to the network one at a time
in order to set their addresses.
The address must be set to a
valid address from 0-125 in
order for the slave to pass to
the parameterization state.
The important point about initialization is that the slave address must be
set to a valid address from 0-125 (either through external switches or via the
Set_Slave_Address command from a class 2 master) in order for the slave
to pass from the initialization state to the parameterization state.
From the factory, Acromag modules have a default address of 126.
However, address 126 may not be used for data exchange, as it is reserved
for the purpose of commissioning. Acromag modules have external
switches for setting the slave address, but also support address changes via
the Set_Slave_Address command when the external switches are preset to
126 and the internal EEPROM address is also 126. If the unit is instead
powered-up with the external address switches set from 0-125, the
Set_Slave_Address request is refused with an RS error message. If the unit
is powered-up with the external address switches set to 126, then the unit
will retrieve its address from the internal EEPROM memory.
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The address stored in EEPROM can only be modified via the
Set_Slave_Address command. Additional changes to the internal EEPROM
address can also be locked out. If the internal EEPROM address is also set
to 126 (and the external switches are at 126), then the unit will await the
Set_Slave_Address command to change its EEPROM address to a valid
address from 0-125, before proceeding to the parameterization state. Note
that if the address lock bit has been set (locked), then further changes via
Set_Slave_Address are effectively locked out. In this case, you may set the
external switches to 255 (FFH) and re-power the unit, this will clear the lock
bit and restore the internal EEPROM address to 126.
Set_Slave_Add Telegram (SAP 55)
Before commissioning, a station must have already been assigned a
unique station address from 0-125. This is usually accomplished via
hardware switches on the device. In the event that the device does not
provide switches for setting its address (or its address switches are set to
126), the address can be set via this bus command from a class 2 master.
The Set_Slave_Add telegram is used by a class 2 master to change a
slave’s address following power-up when its address cannot otherwise be
set via hardware switches (and it has a default address of 126). This
command also allows further address changes over the bus to be locked
out. Note that this telegram transmits the Ident_Number for security
reasons. If the ident_number does not match that of the targeted slave, the
address will not be changed. Additionally, if the lock bit has already been
set, then again, the address will not be changed.
DP slaves that have not been assigned an address typically have a
default address of 126, which is reserved for commissioning via class 2
master devices. No class 1 master is allowed to use address 126 to
communicate. Further, only one slave with address 126 is permitted to be
connected to the network at one time and this address may not be used to
exchange I/O data.
With respect to Acromag modules which support address changes via
external switches and optionally via this command, the Set_Slave_Address
command is used to modify the internal (EEPROM) address setting. The
internal address setting will determine the slave address if the unit is
powered-up with the external switches set to 126. Otherwise, if the external
switches are set from 0-125, then the switch settings determine the slave
address, not the value stored in EEPROM. However, in order for the
Set_Slave_Address command to change the slave address, both the internal
EEPROM address and external switches must be set to address 126 prior to
power-up. The Set-Slave_Address command will be rejected with the RS
error code for any other conditions.
Set_Slave_Add Telegram
SD
LE
LEr
SD
DA
SA
FC
DSAP
SSAP
68H
09H
09H
68H
XX
XX
X
37H
(55)
3EH
(62)
DU
X..
FCS
X
ED
16H
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23
DU Byte 1 (New_Slave_Add, 0-125)
7
X
6
X
5
X
4
X
3
X
2
X
1
X
0
X
1
X
0
X
1
X
0
X
DU Byte 2 (Ident_Number for security check, High Byte)
7
X
6
X
5
X
4
X
3
X
2
X
DU Byte 3 (Ident_Number for security check, Low Byte)
7
X
6
X
5
X
4
X
3
X
2
X
The identification number (Ident_Number) is used to establish a
reference between a slave and its corresponding GSD file. This number is
assigned by the ProfiBus Trade Organization and cannot be changed. It is
used here for security purposes--if the ident_number does not match that of
the slave, the address will not be changed. Note that only class 2 masters
do not require an ident_number.
DU Byte 4 (LOCK - Enable/Disable Further Address Changes)
7
X
6
X
5
X
4
X
3
X
2
X
1
X
0
X
00H = False/Unlocked, Change of address possible later.
1
01H = True/Lock, No further address changes possible .
1
To unlock an Acromag module for address changes, set the external
switches to 255 (FFH) prior to applying power and this will clear the lock bit
and restore the internal EEPROM setting to 126. Next, simply set the
switches as desired from 0-125, or to 126 if you intend to use the SetSlave_Address command, and re-power the unit.
The parameter Status can be tested to indicate if the Set_Slave_Add
request frame was sent successfully and accepted by the slave. However,
the acknowledgement does not indicate whether the new values were
actually accepted by the slave. A master can check the correct execution of
this function by using Slave_Diag with the new DP-slave address and then
testing Status for the possible values of: OK, DS, NA, RS, RR, UE, and RE.
After completion of the power-on initialization routine and after the
slave’s address has been set to a valid address from 0-125, the slave will
proceed to the Wait_Prm state (Wait for Parameterization).
After the slave completes its power-on initialization routine and its
address has been set to a valid address from 0-125, the slave will proceed
to await the Parameterization Telegram (Set_Prm) from the master which
serves to identify the master for the slave and specify the slave’s operating
mode. The slave address must already be set to a valid address from 0-125
for a master to perform parameterization (Set_Prm). If the slave address is
instead set to 126, then it will await the Set Slave Address command before
proceeding. While awaiting the parameterization telegram, a slave will reject
all other telegrams except Slave_Diag or Get_Cfg.
Parameterization
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Set_Prm Telegram – SAP 61
This function is used to set the parameters of a slave at startup, after a
restart or system reset, and at any time except within data exchange mode.
At a minimum, the parameterization telegram contains 7 bytes of specific
information required by the ProfiBus standard. This includes: Response
Monitoring/Watchdog Time TWD, TSDR time for Master/Slave timing,
Freeze/Sync Mode Enable/Disable, Lock/Unlock Slave for this Master,
Group Assignment, Master Address, and Identification Number. Additionally,
it may also contain other user-related parameters in bytes 8 to 32, or up to
244.
Set_Prm Parameterization Telegram With Header
SD
LE LEr SD DA SA FC DSAP SSAP
68H X
X
X
8x 8x
X
3DH
3EH
(61)
(62)
DU
X..
FCS
X
ED
16H
Note that with SRD transmission, the DSAP specifies the Set_Prm
function (61) request, while the SSAP requests that the Chk_Cfg function
(62) follows (return response).
Set_Prm Parameterization Telegram DU Byte 1 – Station_status
7
6
Lock_Req Unlock_Req
WD_Fact_1
5
Sync_Req
4
Freeze_Req
3
WD_On
2
1
0
Reserved –Set to 0
WD_On (Watchdog On): Set this bit to 1 to activate the watchdog control.
Refer to the Watchdog section for more information.
Freeze_Req (Freeze Mode Request): If this bit is set, the slave will operate
in the Freeze Mode as soon as the Global_Control function is received.
If a slave does not support the Freeze control, it sets the
Diag.Not_Supported bit within the diagnostic information.
Sync_Req (Sync Mode Request): If this bit is set, the slave will operate in
Sync Mode as soon as the Global_Control function is received. If a
slave does not support the Sync control, it sets the Diag.Not_Supported
bit within the diagnostic information.
Unlock_Req (Unlock Request): See Table below.
Lock_Req (Lock Request): See Table below.
Lock
Bit 7
0
Unlock
Bit 6
0
0
1
1
0
1
1
Description
The Min TSDR parameter may be changed. All other
parameters remain unchanged.
DP Slave is unlocked/released for other masters.
DP Slave locked for other masters. All parameters are
accepted and can be carried over (except min TSDR = 0).
DP Slave is unlocked/released for other masters.
Set_Prm Telegram DU Byte 2 – WD_Fact_1, Range 1 to 255
7
X
WD_Fact_1
6
X
5
X
4
X
3
X
2
X
1
X
0
X
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Set_Prm Telegram DU Byte 3 – WD_Fact_2, Range 1 to 255
7
X
WD_Fact_2
6
X
5
X
4
X
3
X
2
X
1
X
0
X
The watchdog is switched on or off via the WD_On bit of DU byte 1.
Bytes 2 & 3 are factors used for setting the watchdog control (TWD) time.
The watchdog time is calculated between 10ms and 650 seconds as follows:
TWD =10ms * WD_Fact_1 * WD_Fact_2. The watchdog control causes the
slave outputs to go to a failsafe state if the master fails to communicate with
the slave before this time expires.
Set_Prm Telegram DU Byte 4 – Min TSDR , Range 11 to 255 Tbit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
Min TSDR: Minimum time in Tbit (bit time) after which a slave is allowed to answer. This
value must be less than Max TSDR. 11 Tbits are specified permanently in the standard.
Byte 4 sets the minimum TSDR time (in bit time, 11-255) a slave will wait
before it is allowed to send a response to the master. If 00H is specified, the
previous or default value is used.
Set_Prm Telegram DU Byte 5 (Ident_Number, High Byte)
7
X
6
X
5
X
4
X
3
X
2
X
1
X
0
X
1
X
0
X
Set_Prm Telegram DU Byte 6 (Ident_Number, Low Byte)
7
X
6
X
5
X
4
X
3
X
2
X
The Ident_Number of the slave is transmitted for security purposes.
The Set_Prm parameters will not be accepted if this number does not match
that of the slave. However, the min TSDR can still be set if the Ident_number
doesn’t match and both the Lock_Req and Unlock_Req bits are set to 0.
Set_Prm Telegram DU Byte 7 (Group_Ident)
7
6
X
X
Group_Ident
5
X
4
X
3
X
2
X
1
X
0
X
ProfiBus DP supports multi-cast messaging via a Global_Control
telegram function directed to a specific group of connected slaves identified
via this group number. Each bit represents a unique group. Note that
Group_Ident is only accepted if the Lock_Req bit is also set.
Set_Prm Telegram DU Bytes 8 to 32 or 244 (Optional, User_Prm_Data)
7
6
5
4
X
X
X
X
Spec_User_Prm_Byte 8 (SPC3 ASIC related)
0
0
0
0
3
X
2
X
0
WD_
Base
1
X
Dis_
Stopbit
0
X
Dis_
Startbit
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In general, these bytes are user-defined for specific DP Slave
device/module related parameters. They can be used to transmit startup
information or for adjusting values or levels and generally take the place of
DIP switches. Their meaning and range are application specific. Because
the Acromag modules use the SPC3 ASIC, DU Byte 8 is defined as follows,
and the remaining bytes are user-defined.
Set_Prm Telegram DU Byte 8: Spec_User_Prm_Byte (SPC3 ASIC)
Bit
0
Name
Dis_Startbit
1
Dis_Stopbit
2
WD_Base
3-7
Reserved
Description
Used to disable start bit monitoring in the
receiver (1=disabled).
Used to disable stop bit monitoring in the
receiver (1=disabled).
Used to specify the time base with which the
watchdog is pulsed (0=10ms, 1=1ms)
Not Used – Set to 0.
Default Status
Dis_Startbit = 1
(Disabled)
Dis_Stopbit = 0
(Enabled)
WD_Base = 0
(Time base is 10ms)
0
Parameterization Telegram DU Bytes 9-244 (Optional User_Prm_Data)
7
6
X
X
User_Prm_Data
5
X
4
X
3
X
2
X
1
X
0
X
The first 7 bytes of Set_Prm are evaluated by the slave’s ASIC (without
user-prm_data) and in accordance with the standard, or the first 8 bytes
(with Spec_user_prm_data). For Acromag slaves, the eighth byte is used
for SPC3 related characteristics. The remaining bytes are available to the
application.
The response of a slave to the parameterization telegram is “E5H” (a
short acknowledge). After its parameters are set, the slave proceeds to the
I/O Configuration State.
The parameter Status can be tested to indicate the success or failure of
the parameterization telegram with possible values of: OK, DS, NA, RS, RR,
UE, and RE.
I/O Configuration
After parameterization (Set_Prm), the slave awaits the configuration
telegram (Chk_Cfg). This telegram specifies the number of input and output
bytes that are to be exchanged in each telegram cycle with the slave. The
configuration telegram also causes the slave to check the configuration
which was sent against the stored configuration. A slave awaiting Chk_Cfg
will only accept the Set_Prm, Slave_Diag, or Get_Cfg telegrams.
Chk_Cfg Telegram – SAP 62
The Chk_Cfg configuration telegram causes a slave to check the
configuration which was sent, against the stored configuration. If the slave
detects a conflict when it compares the sent information with the entries
originating from the GSD file, it will report the incorrect configuration to the
master when asked for diagnostics later and will not proceed to exchange
data with the master. A slave will acknowledge a configuration telegram with
“E5H” (short acknowledge).
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27
A ProfiBus master can scan the configuration of the input/output data
with the Read_Cfg telegram, and then configure the slave with Chk_Cfg.
The slave response must contain a configuration with which the slave can
actually boot.
Chk_Cfg Configuration Telegram With Header
SD
LE LEr SD DA SA FC DSAP SSAP
68H X
X
X
8x
8x
X
62
62
(3EH)
(3E)
Configuration Telegram DU Byte 1
7
6
5
4
X
X
X
X
…
Configuration Telegram DU Byte x
7
6
5
4
X
X
X
X
Format of DU Bytes 1-X
7
6
X
X
0=Consistency 0=Byte
of Byte/Word
1=Word
1=Consistency
Entire Length
DU
X..
FCS
X
ED
16H
3
X
2
X
1
X
0
X
3
X
2
X
1
X
0
X
5
4
X
X
Input/Output:
00=Special Format
01=Input
10=Output
11=Input and Output
3
2
1
0
X
X
X
X
Length of Data:
0000 = 1 Byte/Word
1111 = 16 Bytes/Word
Get_Cfg Telegram – SAP 59
Note that the Read Configuration Data (Get_Cfg) telegram is accepted
by a slave in any state and allows a master to scan the actual configuration
of the slave (Real_Cfg_Data).
The parameter Real_Cfg_Data contains the configuration data as a
string of 1 to 32 bytes (optionally up to 244 bytes) that have the same format
as the identifiers of Chk_Cfg noted above.
The parameter Status can be tested to indicate the success or failure of
this function with possible values of: OK, DS, NA, RS, UE, NR, and RE.
Diag_Data Telegram (Diagnostics Request) – SAP 60
If a diagnostic message becomes necessary during data exchange, the
DP slave will signal this to the master by sending its response with high
priority (see Function Code). Then in the next bus cycle, the master will
send a diagnostic request telegram to the slave instead of the normal data
exchange telegram. Further, any master (not just the assigned master) can
request diagnostic data from any slave at any time.
The Diag_Data telegram is used by the master to request diagnostic
information from the slave. During startup, a master typically requests
diagnostic data before sending the parameterization telegram, and then
again after configuration, before it assumes the data exchange mode with
the slave.
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The master evaluates the diagnostic information to determine if the
parameterization and configuration info is correct. If no further diagnostic
service is required, the master proceeds to exchange data with the slave.
Diag_Data Request Diagnostics Telegram With Header
SD2
LE
LEr
68H
X
X
SD
68H
DA
SA
FC
8x
8x
X
DSAP
3CH (60)
SSAP
3EH (62)
FCS
X
ED
16H
Request Diagnostics Response Telegram With Header
SD
LE
LEr
SD
DA
SA
FC
DSAP
SSAP
DU
FCS
ED
68H
X
X
68H
8x
8x
X
3EH
(62)
3CH
(60)
X..
X
16H
The diagnostic information of a DP slave consists of 6 bytes of standard
diagnostic information, plus any user-diagnostic information (slave specific).
A set bit (1) in a position means the linked definition has occurred. The
parameter Status can be tested to indicate the success or failure of the
Diag_Data function with possible values of: OK, DS, NA, RS, UE, NR, & RE.
Diag_Data Response Telegram DU Byte 1 – Station_status_1
Bit DIAGNOSTIC
0 Diag.Station_Non_Existent: Set to 1 by the master if slave cannot be
reached over the line. Slave sets this bit to 0.
1 Diag.Station_Not_Ready: Set by slave if slave is not ready for data
transfer.
2 Diag.Cfg_Fault: Set by slave if it detects a mismatch in config data.
3 Diag.Ext_Diag: Set by slave to indicate a diagnostic entry is in the
slave-specific diagnostic area (see below).
4 Diag.Not_Supported: Set by slave if requested function/service is not
supported.
5 Diag.Invalid_Slave_Response: Slave sets this bit to 0. Set to 1 by the
master if it receives an implausible response from the slave.
6 Diag.Prm_Fault: Set by slave if last parameter frame was faulty
(wrong parameterization, bad length, bad ident_number, etc.).
7 Diag.Master_Lock: Set by a class 1 master to indicate slave has been
parameterized by another master (if address in DU byte 4 is not 255
and differs from its own address). Set to 0 by slave.
Diag_Data Response Telegram DU Byte 2 – Station_status_2
Bit DIAGNOSTIC
0 Diag.Prm_Req: Set by a slave if it needs to be parameterized and
cleared once parameterization is complete.
1 Diag.Stat_Diag: Static diagnostics. Slave sets this bit to cause the
master to retrieve diagnostic information until this bit is cleared (the
slave sets it if it’s not able to provide user data).
2 Slave sets this bit to 1.
3 Diag.WD_ON: Set by slave to indicate Watchdog is active.
4 Diag.Freeze_Mode: Set by slave after it has received the Freeze
control command.
5 Diag.Sync_Mode: Set by slave after it has received a Sync command.
6 Reserved.
7 Diag.Deactivated: Set by the master if slave has been marked inactive
within the slave parameter set and is removed from cyclic processing.
Slave sets this bit to 0.
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Diag_Data Response Telegram DU Byte 3 – Station_status_3
Bit DIAGNOSTIC
0-6 Reserved.
7
Diag.Ext_Diag_Overflow: Set if there is more diagnostic
information than specified in Ext_Diag_Data. For example, slave
sets if slave has more diagnostics than it can enter into its send
buffer. Set by master if slave sends more diagnostic information
than it can enter into its diagnostic buffer.
Diag_Data Response Telegram DU Byte 4 (Para Master Address)
Bit DIAGNOSTIC
0-7 Diag.Master_Add: The master’s address that parameterized this
slave is entered here. If no master has parameterized this slave,
then the DP Slave inserts 255 here (FF without parameterization).
Diag_Data Response Telegram DU Byte 5 - Ident_Number High Byte
Bit DIAGNOSTIC
0-7 Manufacturer Identification Number High byte for ID & verification
Diag_Data Response Telegram DU Byte 6 - Ident_Number Low Byte
Bit DIAGNOSTIC
0-7 Manufacturer Identification Number Low byte for ID & verification.
DU Bytes 7-32 (or optionally up to 244 bytes) contain DP-Slave specific
diagnostic information structured in blocks according to format type: devicerelated, identifier-related, and channel-related.
Diag_Data Response Telegram DU Byte 7-X – Ext_Diag_Data
Bit DIAGNOSTIC
0-7 Ext_Diag_Data (see formats below, refer to your model
specifications for extended diagnostic data).
Ext_Diag_Data - Application Specific Diagnostics
The master can store user-related diagnostics in the following three
different formats: device related, identifier related, and channel related.
Device-Related Diagnostic
This information is device-related and can be coded in any form. It can
be used to indicate general diagnostic information such as: overtemperature, under-voltage, over-voltage, etc.
Device Related Diagnostic Byte 1 of X – Header Byte
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
0
0
X
X
X
X
X
X
Bits 7,6 = 00
Bits 5-0 = Block Length in bytes including header byte 2
to header byte 63.
Device Related Diagnostic Byte 2 of X – Diagnostic Field Byte(s)
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
Diagnostic coding is device-specific and can be coded as desired.
0
X
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Device-Related Diagnostic Example:
6
5
4
3
2
1
Byte 7
1
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
2
3
4
5
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
0
1
X
X
X
X
Device Related Diagnostic,
5 bytes (Header + 4bytes)
Code As Desired
Code As Desired
Code As Desired
Code As Desired
Identifier-Related Diagnostic (For Modular Systems)
This diagnostic structure is based on a modular system, where each
module has one identifier (configuration byte). Thus, a defective or faulty
module can be easily detected and no additional description necessary. One
bit is reserved for every identifier byte specified in the configuration (e.g. 0 x
10 for 1-byte input). A set bit in a bit position means that this I/O diagnostic
is pending. Bits not configured are set to 0 and bytes are padded to the byte
limits. When modular systems with one identifier byte per module are
involved, you can indicate diagnostics by specific module. One bit per
module indicates the diagnosis.
Identifier-Related Diagnostic Byte 1 of X – Header Byte
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
X
X
X
X
X
X
0
1
Bits 7,6 = 01
Bits 5-0 = Block Length in bytes including header byte 2
to header byte 63.
Identifier-Related Diagnostic Byte 2 of X – Bit Structure
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
A set bit in a bit position means that the corresponding identifier byte has
the diagnostic..
Identifier-Related Diagnostic Example:
6
5
4
3
2
1
Byte 7
1
0
0
0
1
0
0
1
0
1
2
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
3
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
4
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
5
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
Identifier Related
Diagnostic, 5 bytes
(Header + 4bytes)
Identifier Number 0
(Module 1) Has Diagnostic
Identifier Number 13
(Module 14) Has
Diagnostic
Identifier Number 18
(Module 19) Has
Diagnostic.
Identifier Number 28
(Module 29) Has
Diagnostic.
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31
Channel-Related Diagnostic
This diagnostic structure is used for pre-defined failure types with specific
identifiers used to identify the specific faults. Fault definitions can be defined
per module and per channel. Additional device-specific definitions are also
possible. In this block beginning at DU byte 7, the diagnosed channels and
diagnostic reasons are entered in sequence, one at a time, with 3 bytes per
diagnostic entry according to the following format:
Channel Related Diagnostic Byte 1 of 3 – Identifier Number
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
X
X
X
X
X
1
0
Bits 7,6 = 10
Bits 5-0 = Identifier Number, 0 to 63
Channel Related Diagnostic Byte 2 of 3 – Channel Number
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
Bits 7,6 = Input/ Bits 5-0 = Channel Number, 0 to 63
Output Coding:
00=Reserved
01=Input
10=Output
11=Input/Output
0
X
0
X
Channel Related Diagnostic Byte 3 of 3 – Error Type
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
Channel Type:
Error Type:
000 = Reserved
0 = Reserved
001 = Bit
1 = Short Circuit
010 = 2 Bit
2 = Under-voltage
011 = 4 Bit
3 = Over-voltage
100 = Byte
4 = Overload
101 = Word
5 = Over-temperature
110 = 2 Words
6 = Line/wire Break
111 = Reserved
7 = Upper Limit Value Exceeded
8 = Lower Limit Value Exceeded
9 = Error
10..15 = Reserved
16..31 = Manufacturer Specific/Device Related
If a slave transmits more diagnostic data than the master is able to
process in its diagnostic buffer, the master sets the Diag.Ext_Diag_Overflow
bit. If there is more diagnostic information pending at the slave than can be
transmitted, the slave is only allowed to truncate at the block limits of the
device, identifier, or channel related diagnostic. Further, if the block length
field of the device or identifier related diagnostic contains a non-zero length,
this marks a complete (not truncated) diagnostic block. For the sake of
efficiency, the slave is allowed to transmit a Diag_Data field of fixed length
(the unused bytes following Ext_Diag_Data are filled with zero at the slave
and/or class 1 master).
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The parameter Status can be tested to indicate the success or failure of
the Diag_Data function with possible values of: OK, DS, NA, RS, UE, NR,
and RE.
The following bits are taken from the diagnostic information bytes above
and treated as follows:
PRM_REQ (From DU Byte 2)
If this flag is set, the slave has to be parameterized. The application
has detected a state requiring a new startup with appropriate
reparameterization and reconfiguration. Following this diagnostic, the
master performs a startup with specified reparameterization and
configuration.
An example where this type of diagnostic might occur is if a modular
ProfiBus system has been expanded (i.e. a module was added).
There are three diagnostic bits that can be driven by the application:
STAT_DIAG, EXT_DIAG, and EXT_DIAG_OVERFLOW.
STAT_DIAG (From DU Byte 2)
Because of a state in the application, the slave cannot provide valid
data. After receiving this diagnostic, the master continues to request only
diagnostic information from this slave until the slave resets this bit. If the
normal ProfiBus DP state is data exchange, data communication can be
resumed immediately after the static diagnosis bit is cleared. An example of
where this diagnostic may be encountered is for a slave whose output driver
voltage supply has failed.
EXT_DIAG (From DU Byte 1)
The slave uses the EXT_DIAG=1 bit to signal that user-specific
diagnostic data is present in the user diagnostics area. EXT_DIAG=1
causes a diagnostic telegram to be sent to the ProfiBus master. After the
cause of the diagnostic message has been corrected (the applicable bit
combination in the user-related diagnostic data is 0), the EXT_DIAG bit must
also be reset (set to 0) and this is necessary for certification.
If this bit is set, a diagnostic entry must be present in the user-related
diagnostic area. If this bit is clear, then the standard status information of
the diagnostic area is involved and this is handled with a lower priority.
When the EXT_DIAG bit is cleared (0), the data must be considered as
status information from the viewpoint of the system and this data is not
treated as diagnostic data by the master.
EXT_DIAG_OVERFLOW (From DU Byte 3)
The slave sets this bit when more diagnostic data is available than will
fit into the area provided for diagnostic data. For example, more channel
diagnostic data may be present than the sending buffer or the receiving
buffer of the master can hold.
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Introduction To ProfiBus DP
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After parameterization and configuration have been accomplished, the
master can start exchanging cyclical I/O data with the slaves. The following
services are available in data exchange mode: Read_Inp (read the inputs of
any slave), Read_Outp (read the outputs of any slave), and Data_Exchange
(send and receive data to the slave parameterized and configured by the
master). A slave will automatically check the transferred output data,
respond with the input data, and generate a message if it detects a
discrepancy.
33
Data Exchange State
The Data_Exchange function refers to the cyclic transfer of I/O data and
possible diagnostic information between slaves and their class 1 masters.
Recall that ProfiBus may use SRD transmission (Send and Request Data
with Acknowledge) that allows it to send output data and receive input data
in a single message/response cycle. With Data_Exchange, the number of
inputs and outputs has already been defined in the configuration data at the
system startup. In Data_Exchange mode, the master cyclically sends the
output data to the slave and receives input data (if present) in return. If the
slave is purely an output device (no input data to return), it responds with
“E5H” in its response data field (a short acknowledge). Unlike every other
telegram which has 11 bytes of header information, the Data_Exchange
telegram has only 9 bytes of header information as it uses the default SAP
(implied), with the DSAP & SSAP bytes are dropped from the telegram
header. In Data_Exchange mode, the slave will allow the reconfiguration of
I/O data to occur (Chk_Cfg), but will not permit reparameterization.
Data_Exchange Send Output or Receive Input Data Telegram
SD LE LEr SD
DA SA
FC
DU
FCS
68H X
X
68H
8x
8x
X
X..
X
ED
16H
Recall that with data exchange, the telegram header has only nine
bytes since the default SAP is used and the DSAP & SSAP bytes are
dropped from the telegram header. This is indicated by the most significant
bit of the DA & SA bytes which are clear (0). If the MSB is set to 1 in the DA
& SA bytes, this indicates a DSAP & SSAP follows in the telegram header.
The DU contains from 1 to 244 bytes of user data to be transferred (output
data and/or input data).
In Data_Exchange mode, any master can read the I/O data of any slave
at any time using the “Read_Inputs” and “Read_Outputs” telegrams. These
telegrams have the same structure as the cyclic Data_Exchange telegram,
but include the DSAP and SSAP bytes. For these telegrams, the MSB of the
DA & SA bytes will be set to “1” to indicate that a DSAP & SSAP byte follows
in the telegram header.
Read_Inp Telegram – SAP 56
The master can use this telegram to asynchronously read the input
data (Inp_Data) of any slave in Data_Exchange mode.
SD
68H
LE
05H
LEr
05H
SD
68H
DA
8x
SA
8x
FC
X
DSAP
38H
(56)
SSAP
3EH
(62)
FCS
X
ED
16H
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Introduction To ProfiBus DP
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The response telegram format is the same as noted above, but with the
DSAP/SSAP mirrored (swapped) and the DU bytes embedded.
Read_Outp Telegram – SAP 57
The master can use the Read Outputs telegram to asynchronously read
the output data (Outp_Data) of any slave in Data_Exchange mode.
SD
68H
LE
05H
LEr
05H
SD
68H
DA
8x
SA
8x
FC
X
DSAP
39H
(57)
SSAP
3EH
(62)
FCS
X
ED
16H
The response telegram format is the same as noted above, but with the
DSAP/SSAP mirrored (swapped) and the DU bytes embedded.
Global_Control Service – SAP 58
ProfiBus DP uses the Global Control function to send special
commands addressed to a single slave, a specific group of slaves (multicast), or to all slaves at once (broadcast). ProfiBus sends broadcast and
multi-cast messages as global control telegrams using address 127 (an
optional group number is included for a select group with multi-cast).
Using SDN transmission (Send Data with No acknowledge), a class 1
master will use the Global_Control service to inform the slaves of his mode
(Operating or Clear Mode), or to send commands such as sync, unsync,
freeze, unfreeze, and clear data to a group of slaves, typically for
synchronization purposes. Note that a slave will only accept this command
from the same master that parameterized and configured it. There is no
response returned to an SDN telegram.
Global_Control Telegram
SD
LE LEr SD
DA
68H X
X
68H 8x
SA
8x
FC
X
DSAP
3EH
(62)
SSAP
3AH
(58)
DU Byte 1 (Control_Command To Be Executed)
7
6
5
4
3
2
Res. Res. Sync
Unsync Freeze Unfreeze
0
0
00=No Function
01=Deactivated
10=Activated
11=Deactivated
00=No Function
01=Deactivated
10=Activated
11=Deactivated
DU
X..
FCS
X
1
Clear_Data
All outputs
cleared.
0=Do Not
Clear Outp
1=Clear
Outputs
ED
16H
0
Res.
0
Sync: The output states transferred in Data_Exchange are delivered and
frozen. The output data which follows is held until the next Sync
command or Unsync command.
Unsync: This control cancels the sync command.
Freeze: This causes the states of the inputs to be read and frozen until the
next Freeze command or Unfreeze. Slaves must ensure that following
a freeze command, the last frozen values of the inputs must be
transferred in the next data exchange cycle.
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35
Unfreeze: This control cancels the freeze command.
Clear_Data: A class 1 master may use a global control telegram to inform
the slaves that it is switching from Operate Mode to Clear Mode. This
bit is set in Clear Mode (02 00H), and cleared in Operate Mode (00
00H). A slave will respond by either clearing its outputs, or it may
optionally assume a user-defined state with its master in Clear Mode.
Please refer to Failsafe Operation for more information on the use of
this bit.
DU Byte 2 (Group_Select or Group_Ident Number)
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
Group_Select: 0-255, Number must match the Group_Ident number of
the parameterization data (multi-cast). If set to 0, all slaves are addressed
(broadcast).
Sync & Freeze are optional slave services and may not be supported by
some slaves. A master uses a Freeze telegram to make a slave or group of
slaves freeze their inputs in the current state. A Sync telegram causes the
output data currently available to be transferred to the outputs, to be frozen.
An Unsync & Unfreeze command will cancel this state. The Clear Data
service allows the outputs to be switched to a defined state if an error
occurs. The response parameter Status can be tested to indicate whether
transmission of the request frame was successful or not, with possible
values of: OK, DS, NO, and IV.
Use of Freeze
In closed-loop control systems and for the synchronization of drives,
etc., it is sometimes necessary to have a precise time image of the process
inputs of a group. Freeze is used to accomplish this as follows:
The master sends a Freeze command to the selected group (A global
control telegram goes to the selected group at a precise time). This causes
all addressed slaves to freeze their inputs. During the next Data Exchange
cycle, the slaves transfer the frozen inputs of the group to the master.
After the master receives this data, the master sends an Unfreeze
command to the group and the bus system returns to the normal data
exchange mode again, and all input changes are transferred during each
data cycle.
Use of Sync/Unsync
For the time-controlled operation of output devices which belong to a
group, sync and unsync are used as follows:
After the data is frozen with a Freeze command and has been
processed by the master, the master reacts by sending a sync command to
the slave group to obtain the outputs. During the next data cycle, the master
supplies the slave group with the data to be output, then concludes this cycle
with an unsync command in the following data exchange cycle. Unsync
causes the slaves to transfer their outputs at a precise time.
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Introduction To ProfiBus DP
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BUS TIMING
Unlike CAN and Ethernet which are event-driven busses, ProfiBus was
designed to guarantee a deterministic response.. The determinism of a
system refers to the ability to precisely predict the behavior of the system
over time.
ProfiBus uses a polling mechanism between master and slave. The
time it takes a slave to respond to a message from the master is the reaction
time. Even if a ProfiBus system receives many I/O signal changes at some
point in time, there is no change in reaction time. Further, even if another
master (class 2) is used to perform diagnostics on a slave device while it is
communicating with its class 1 master, the reaction time for the system will
remain the same. This is because the class 2 master used to perform
diagnostics will not be allowed to use more time than the configured gap
time within the bus cycle.
Because ProfiBus is deterministic, we can calculate a reliable system
reaction time. But before we get into the details of calculating bus cycle
times, we must define a few terms as follows:
Bit-Time: To help simplify timing calculations, it is convenient to normalize
the time units with respect to the baud rate by using units of Bit-Time (Tbit).
One bit-time is the time it takes to transmit one bit and is the reciprocal of
the transmission rate (baud rate). For example:
1 Tbit (Bit Time) at 12MB = 1/12000000bps = 83ns/bit
Sync-Time (TSYN): The synchronization time is the minimum time a station
must remain in the idle state before it can accept another request. For
ProfiBus DP, an idle state of 33Tbits (bit-time) must be present before every
request telegram and this is called the sync-time.
Slave Reaction Time (TSDR): The reaction time is the time it takes a slave
to respond to a message. This time is often expressed as a minimum value
(min TSDR), or maximum value (max TSDR). Min TSDR is set within the
parameterization telegram during startup. Max TSDR varies with the
transmission rate and is specified at the supported baud rates within the
device GSD file. For ProfiBus DP, this value may range from a minimum of
11Tbits (min TSDR default) to a maximum of 255Tbits.
Initiator Delay Time (TSDI): TSDI refers to the station delay of the initiator of
a request or token frame (the master).
Initiator Idle Time (TID1): After receiving the last character of a telegram,
the initiator must wait this amount of time until it sends the next telegram.
The idle time (Tid1) is the time between transmission of the last bit of a
frame (no acknowledge) and the transmission of the first bit of the next
frame. It is at least the sync time (TSYN), plus some safety margin (Tsm), but
is also calculated as the maximum of these three values: TSYN + Tsm, min
TSDR, or TSDI (station delay of telegram initiator). The addition of safety
margin (Tsm) is very important at high baud rates.
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37
Minimum Slave Interval: The minimum slave interval is the minimum time
that must expire between two slave polling cycles in which a slave can
exchange data with the master. To permit the slave station to be able to
respond during every data cycle, it controls the bus cycle with this
parameter. It is defined in the slave’s GSD file via the parameter
Min_Slave_Interval, which is specified as a 16 bit factor of 100us
(Min_Slave_Interval = 1 is 100us). On some older equipment, the ProfiBus
link was implemented in software (as opposed to within the slave ASIC) and
a typical value was about 2ms. On newer equipment with modern ASIC’s,
values down to 100us can be achieved.
Calculating System Reaction Time
A simplified calculation of system reaction time for a ProfiBus DP
system is derived from the following parameters:
•
•
•
•
TSDR (Station Reaction Time).
The Transmission (Baud) Rate.
The Net Data Length specified.
Min_Slave_Interval (min time between two slave polling cycles).
Example: One master and 5 slaves are connected via ProfiBus DP. Ten
bytes of output data and 20 bytes of input data are to be transferred per
slave at 12Mbps. Each slave utilizes an SPC3 ASIC. Calculate the relative
bus cycle time for this network.
Let TMC = Time of 1 telegram cycle
(request telegram + TSDR + slave response).
Let TBC = Time of 1 bus cycle (the sum of all telegram cycles).
Given:
TSYN = 33 TBits (Bus idle time or ProfiBus Sync-Time)
TID1 = 75 TBits (SPC3 bus idle time, at 1.5MB Tid1 = 36 TBit).
TSDR = 30 TBits typical for baud rates ≥ 1.5MB (SPC3 ASIC).
Min_Slave_Interval = 1 (100us, from slave GSD file).
Calculate:
1 Tbit (Bit Time) at 12MB = 1/12000000bps = 83ns/bit
In data exchange mode, a telegram header consists of only 9 character
bytes. If we include the bits of the character frame, there are 11 bits for
every character byte (Start Bit + 8bits/char + Stop Bit + Parity). Since only 1
master is present, we can ignore the token hold time of token telegrams.
Thus, the basic time required by one telegram cycle (not including data) is
obtained by adding the relevant bus times and the time to transmit the
telegram header as follows:
TMC (in TBits) = 2 * 9(header byte length) * 11bits/byte + TSDR + TSYN + Tid1
TMC = 198 bits + 30 bits + 33 bits + 75 bits = 336 Tbits
TMC (us) = 336Tbits * 83ns/Tbit = 28us
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Thus, 28us is the basic time required by the telegram header including
the bus times without accounting for the data. For our example, we must
include the data (10 bytes Output + 20 bytes Input). Recall that the SRD
service (Send and Request Data with acknowledge) will send data to the
outputs and receive data from the inputs in one telegram cycle. The time for
a single telegram cycle with this data included is:
TMC = [336Tbits] + amount of net data
= 336 + [10bytes Output + 20bytes Input]*(11bits/byte) = 666Tbits
TMC = [28us] + 330Tbits*83ns/bit
TMC = [28us] + 27.39us = 55.39us/slave.
To simplify this calculation, you can assume that a basic transfer time of
28us plus approximately 1us per DU data byte (actually 0.83us/byte) is
required to complete a telegram cycle. The following figure gives an
overview of the dominant bus times in a telegram cycle (assuming no
interference or repetitions).
DP MASTER
33Tbits
33Tbits
TID1
TSYN
33Tbits+
TID1 > TSYN
DP SLAVE
(Header Bytes + Output Data Bytes) * 11bits/byte
REQUEST Header + Output Data
TA/R
(11-255 Tbit)
TS/R
RESPONSE Header + Input Data
TSDR
(Header Bytes + Input Data Bytes) * 11bits/byte
TELEGRAM CYCLE WITH RELEVANT BUS TIMES
Timing of 1 Message Cycle = TMC = ((TS/R + TSDR + TA/B)*TTD) + TID
Note that the slave has a Min_Slave_Interval of 100us and this
dominates the bus timing for one telegram cycle. However, the
Min_Slave_Interval is 100us between two polling cycles at the same station.
If you have at least 3 stations present, then the actual transmission time at
12MB will become the determining time factor for the bus cycle rather than
the Min_Slave_Interval. Refer to the EN50170 standard for a more detailed
calculation of transmission time.
HIGH SPEED
REQUIREMENTS
Please note the following for communication at baud rates greater than
1.5Mbps:
•
•
The ProfiBus connector has built in series inductors on the data
lines for operation at the higher baud rates. This is one more
reason that you should only use approved ProfiBus connectors.
For operation at 12Mbps, a minimum cable length of 1M is
required between stations.
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