Casio FX-500 User`s guide

E
fx-500ES
User's Guide
http://world.casio.com/edu/
RCA502127-001V01
CASIO Europe GmbH
Bornbarch 10, 22848 Norderstedt, Germany
About this Manual
• The MATH mark indicates an example that uses Math format,
while the LINE mark indicates Linear format. For details about
input/output formats, see “Specifying the Input/Output Format”.
• Keycap markings indicate what a key inputs or what function it
performs.
Example: 1, 2, +, -, !, A, etc.
• Pressing the 1 or S key followed by a second key performs
the alternate function of the second key. The alternate function is
indicated by the text printed above the key.
Alternate function
–1
sin
Keycap function
D
s
• The following shows what the different colors of the alternate
function key text mean.
If key marking
text is this color:
It means this:
Yellow
Press 1 and then the key to access
the applicable function.
Red
Press S and then the key to input the
applicable variable, constant, or symbol.
• The following shows an example of how an alternate function
operation is represented in this User’s Guide.
Example: 1s(sin–1)1=
Indicates the function that is accessed by the key
operation (1s) before it. Note that this is not part
of the actual key operation you perform.
• The following shows an example of how a key operation to select
an on-screen menu item is represented in this User’s Guide.
Example: 1(Setup)
Indicates the menu item that is selected by the number
key operation (1) before it. Note that this is not part
of the actual key operation you perform.
E-1
• The cursor key is marked with four arrows,
indicating direction, as shown in the
illustration nearby. In this User’s Guide, cursor
key operation is indicated as f, c, d,
and e.
REPLAY
• The displays and illustrations (such as key markings) shown in
this User’s Guide and the separate Appendix are for illustrative
purposes only, and may differ somewhat from the actual items
they represent.
• The contents of this manual are subject to change without notice.
• In no event shall CASIO Computer Co., Ltd. be liable to anyone for
special, collateral, incidental, or consequential damages in
connection with or arising out of the purchase or use of this product
and items that come with it. Moreover, CASIO Computer Co., Ltd.
shall not be liable for any claim of any kind whatsoever by any
other party arising out of the use of this product and the items that
come with it.
k Using the Separate Appendix
Whenever you see the symbol Appendix in this manual, it
means you should refer to the separate Appendix.
Example numbers (like “<#021>”) in this User’s Guide refer to the
corresponding example number in the Appendix.
Specify the angle unit in accordance with the marks in the Appendix:
Deg : Specify Degree for the angle unit.
Rad : Specify Radian for the angle unit.
Initializing the Calculator
Perform the following procedure when you want to initialize the
calculator and return the calculation mode and setup to their initial
default settings. Note that this operation also clears all data currently
in calculator memory.
19(CLR)3(All)=(Yes)
• For information about calculation modes and setup settings, see
“Calculation Modes and Calculator Setup”.
• For information about memory, see “Using Calculator Memory”.
E-2
Safety Precautions
Be sure to read the following safety precautions before using this
calculator. Keep this manual handy for later reference.
Caution
This symbol is used to indicate information that can result in
personal injury or material damage if ignored.
Battery
• After removing the battery from the calculator, put it in a safe
place where it will not get into the hands of small children and
accidentally swallowed.
• Keep batteries out of the reach of small children. If accidentally
swallowed, consult with a physician immediately.
• Never charge the battery, try to take the battery apart, or allow
the battery to become shorted. Never expose the battery to
direct heat or dispose of it by incineration.
• Improperly using a battery can cause it to leak and damage
nearby items, and can create the risk of fire and personal injury.
• Always make sure that the battery’s positive k and negative
l ends are facing correctly when you load it into the
calculator.
• Remove the battery if you do not plan to use the calculator
for a long time.
• Use only the type of battery specified for this calculator in
this manual.
Disposing of the Calculator
• Never dispose of the calculator by burning it. Doing so can
cause certain components to suddenly burst, creating the risk
of fire and personal injury.
E-3
Handling Precautions
• Be sure to press the O key before using the calculator for
the first time.
• Even if the calculator is operating normally, replace the battery
at least once every two years.
A dead battery can leak, causing damage to and malfunction of
the calculator. Never leave a dead battery in the calculator.
• The battery that comes with this unit discharges slightly during
shipment and storage. Because of this, it may require
replacement sooner than the normal expected battery life.
• Low battery power can cause memory contents to become
corrupted or lost completely. Always keep written records of
all important data.
• Avoid use and storage of the calculator in areas subjected to
temperature extremes.
Very low temperatures can cause slow display response, total
failure of the display, and shortening of battery life. Also avoid
leaving the calculator in direct sunlight, near a window, near a heater
or anywhere else it might be exposed to very high temperatures.
Heat can cause discoloration or deformation of the calculator’s
case, and damage to internal circuitry.
• Avoid use and storage of the calculator in areas subjected to
large amounts of humidity and dust.
Take care never to leave the calculator where it might be splashed
by water or exposed to large amounts of humidity or dust. Such
conditions can damage internal circuitry.
• Never drop the calculator or otherwise subject it to strong
impact.
• Never twist or bend the calculator.
Avoid carrying the calculator in the pocket of your trousers or other
tight-fitting clothing where it might be subjected to twisting or
bending.
• Never try to take the calculator apart.
• Never press the keys of the calculator with a ballpoint pen or
other pointed object.
• Use a soft, dry cloth to clean the exterior of the calculator.
If the calculator becomes very dirty, wipe it off with a cloth moistened
in a weak solution of water and a mild neutral household detergent.
Wring out all excess liquid before wiping the calculator. Never use
thinner, benzene or other volatile agents to clean the calculator.
Doing so can remove printed markings and can damage the case.
E-4
Before Using the Calculator
k Removing the Hard Case
Before using the calculator, slide its hard case downwards to remove
it, and then affix the hard case to the back of the calculator as shown
in the illustration below.
k Turning Power On and Off
• Press O to turn on the calculator.
• Press 1A(OFF) to turn off the calculator.
k Adjusting Display Contrast
1N(SETUP)c6(]CONT')
This displays the contrast adjustment screen. Use d and e to
adjust display contrast. After the setting is the way you want, press
A.
• You can also adjust contrast using d and e while the mode
menu (which appears when you press N) is on the display.
Important!
• If adjusting display contrast does not improve display readability, it
probably means that battery power is low. Replace the battery.
E-5
k About the Display
Your calculator has a 31-dot × 96-dot LCD screen.
Example:
Input expression
Calculation result
{
k Display Indicators
Sample Display:
This
indicator:
STAT
Means this:
S
The keypad has been shifted by pressing the 1
key. The keypad will unshift and this indicator will
disappear when you press a key.
A
The alpha input mode has been entered by pressing
the S key. The alpha input mode will be exited
and this indicator will disappear when you press a
key.
M
There is a value stored in independent memory.
STO
The calculator is standing by for input of a variable
name to assign a value to the variable. This indicator
appears after you press 1t(STO).
RCL
The calculator is standing by for input of a variable
name to recall the variable’s value. This indicator
appears after you press t.
STAT
The calculator is in the STAT Mode.
7
The default angle unit is degrees.
8
The default angle unit is radians.
9
The default angle unit is grads.
FIX
A fixed number of decimal places is in effect.
SCI
A fixed number of significant digits is in effect.
Math
Math style is selected as the input/output format.
$`
Calculation history memory data is available and can
be replayed, or there is more data above/below the
current screen.
Disp
The display currently shows an intermediate result
of a multi-statement calculation.
E-6
Important!
• For a very complex calculation or some other type of calculation
that takes a long time to execute, the display may show only the
above indicators (without any value) while it performs the calculation
internally.
Calculation Modes and
Calculator Setup
k Calculation Modes
When you want to perform this type of
operation:
General calculations
Select this
mode:
COMP
Statistical and regression calculations
STAT
Equation solution
EQN
Generation of a number table based on an
expression
TABLE
Specifying the Calculation Mode
(1) Press N to display the mode
menu.
(2) Press the number key that corresponds to the mode you want to
select.
• To select the STAT Mode, for example, press 2.
k Configuring the Calculator Setup
Pressing 1N(SETUP) displays the setup menu, which you can
use to control how the calculations are executed and displayed. The
setup menu has two screens, which you can jump between using
c and f.
c
f
• See “Adjusting Display Contrast” for information about how to use
“]CONT'”.
E-7
Specifying the Input/Output Format
For this input/output format:
Perform this key operation:
Math
1N1(MthIO)
Linear
1N2(LineIO)
• Math format causes fractions, irrational numbers, and other
expressions to be displayed as they are written on paper.
• Linear format causes fractions and other expressions to be
displayed in a single line.
Math
Math Format
Linear Format
Specifying the Default Angle Unit
To specify this as the default
Perform this key operation:
angle unit:
Degrees
1N3(Deg)
Radians
1N4(Rad)
Grads
1N5(Gra)
90° =
π
2
radians = 100 grads
Specifying the Number of Display Digits
To specify this:
Perform this key operation:
Number of Decimal Places
1N6(Fix)0–9
Number of Significant Digits
1N7(Sci)0–9
Exponential Display Range
1N8(Norm)1(Norm1)
or 2(Norm2)
Calculation Result Display Examples
• Fix: The value you specify (from 0 to 9) controls the number of
decimal places for displayed calculation results. Calculation results
are rounded off to the specified digit before being displayed.
Example: 100 ÷ 7 = 14.286 (Fix3)
14.29 (Fix2)
• Sci: The value you specify (from 1 to 10) controls the number of
significant digits for displayed calculation results. Calculation results
are rounded off to the specified digit before being displayed.
Example: 1 ÷ 7 = 1.4286 × 10–1 (Sci5)
1.429 × 10–1 (Sci4)
E-8
• Norm: Selecting one of the two available settings (Norm1, Norm2)
determines the range in which results will be displayed in nonexponential format. Outside the specified range, results are
displayed using exponential format.
Norm1: 10–2 > x, x > 1010
Norm2: 10–9 > x, x > 1010
Example: 1 ÷ 200 = 5 × 10–3
0.005
(Norm1)
(Norm2)
Specifying the Fraction Display Format
To specify this fraction
display format:
Perform this key operation:
Mixed
1Nc1(ab/c)
Improper
1Nc2(d/c)
Specifying the Complex Number Display Format
To specify this complex
Perform this key operation:
number format:
Rectangular Coordinates 1Nc3(CMPLX)1(a+bi)
Polar Coordinates
1Nc3(CMPLX)2(r∠θ)
The complex number display format specifies the display format to
be used for complex number solutions produced by equation
operations in the EQN Mode.
Specifying the Statistical Display Format
Use the following procedure to turn display of the frequency (FREQ)
column of the STAT Mode STAT editor screen on or off.
To specify this:
Perform this key operation:
Show FREQ Column
1Nc4(STAT)1(ON)
Hide FREQ Column
1Nc4(STAT)2(OFF)
Specifying the Decimal Point Display Format
To specify this decimal
point display format:
.
Perform this key operation:
1Nc5(Disp)1(Dot)
Dot ( )
,
Comma ( )
1Nc5(Disp)2(Comma)
• The setting you configure here is applied for calculation results
only. The decimal point for input values is always a dot ( ).
.
E-9
k Initializing the Calculation Mode and Other
Settings
Performing the following procedure initializes the calculation mode
and other setup settings as shown below.
19(CLR)1(Setup)=(Yes)
This setting:
Calculation Mode
Input/Output Format
Angle Unit
Display Digits
Fraction Display Format
Complex Number Format
Statistical Display
Decimal Point
Is initialized to this:
COMP
MthIO
Deg
Norm1
d/c
a+bi
OFF
Dot
• To cancel initialization without doing anything, press A(Cancel)
instead of =.
Inputting Expressions and
Values
k Inputting a Calculation Expression Using
Standard Format
Your calculator lets you input calculation expressions just as they
are written. Then simply press the = key to execute it. The calculator
automatically judges the calculation priority sequence for addition,
subtraction, multiplication, and division, functions, and parentheses.
Example: 2 (5 + 4) – 2 × (–3) =
LINE
2(5+4)2*y3=
Inputting a Function with Parenthesis
When you input any of the functions shown below, it is automatically
input with the open parenthesis ( ( ) character. Next, you need to
input the argument and the closing parenthesis ( ) ).
sin(, cos(, tan(, sin–1(, cos–1(, tan–1(, sinh(, cosh(, tanh(, sinh–1(,
cosh–1(, tanh–1(, log(, ln(, e^(, 10^(, '(, 3'(, Abs(, Pol(, Rec(,
Rnd(
E-10
Example: sin 30 =
LINE
s30)=
Pressing s inputs “sin(”.
• Note that the input procedure is different if you want to use Math
format. For more information, see “Inputting with Math Format”.
Omitting the Multiplication Sign
You can omit the multiplication sign (×) in any of the following cases.
• Before an open parentheses ( ( ): 2 × (5 + 4), etc.
• Before a function with parenthesis: 2 × sin(30), 2 × '(3), etc.
• Before a variable name, constant, or random number:
20 × A, 2 × π, etc.
Final Closed Parenthesis
You can omit one or more closed parentheses that come at the end
of a calculation, immediately before the = key is pressed. For
details, see “Omitting a Final Closed Parenthesis”.
Displaying a Long Expression
The display can show up to 14 characters at a time. Inputting the
15th character causes the expression to shift to the left. At this time,
the ] indicator appears to the left of the expression, indicating that
it runs off the left side of the screen.
Input expression: 1111 + 2222 + 3333 + 444
Math
Displayed portion:
Cursor
• When the ] indicator is displayed, you can scroll left and view the
hidden part by pressing the d key. This will cause the ' indicator
to appear to the right of the expression. At this time, you can use
the e key to scroll back.
Number of Input Characters (Bytes)
• You can input up to 99 bytes of data for a single expression.
Basically, each key operation uses up one byte. A function that
requires two key operations to input (like 1s(sin–1)) also uses
only one byte. Note, however, that when you are inputting functions
with Math format, each item you input uses up more than one
byte. For more information, see “Inputting with Math Format”.
E-11
• Normally the input cursor appears as a straight vertical (I) or
horizontal ( ) flashing line on the display screen. When there are
10 or fewer bytes of input remaining in the current expression, the
cursor changes shape to I to let you know. If the I cursor
appears, terminate the expression at a convenient point and
calculate the result.
k Correcting an Expression
This section explains how to correct an expression as you are
inputting it. The procedure you should use depends on whether you
have insert or overwrite selected as the input mode.
About the Insert and Overwrite Input Modes
With the insert mode, the displayed characters shift to the left to
make room when you input a new character. With the overwrite mode,
any new character you input replaces the character at the current
cursor position. The initial default input mode is insert. You can change
to the overwrite mode when you need it.
• The cursor is a vertical flashing line (I) when the insert mode is
selected. The cursor is a horizontal flashing line ( ) when the
overwrite mode is selected.
• The initial default for Linear format input is the insert mode. You
can switch to the overwrite mode by pressing 1Y(INS).
• With Math format, you can only use the insert mode. Pressing
1Y(INS) when the Math format is selected does not switch to
the overwrite mode. See “Incorporating a Value into a Function” for
more information.
• The calculator automatically changes to the insert mode whenever
you change the input/output format from Linear to Math.
Changing the Character or Function You Just Input
Example: To correct the expression 369 × 13 so it becomes
369 × 12
LINE
369*13
Y
2
E-12
Deleting a Character or Function
Example: To correct the expression 369 × × 12 so it becomes
369 × 12
LINE
Insert Mode: 369**12
dd
Y
Overwrite Mode:
369**12
ddd
Y
Correcting a Calculation
Example: To correct cos(60) so it becomes sin(60)
LINE
Insert Mode:
c60)
dddY
s
Overwrite Mode:
c60)
dddd
s
Inserting Input into a Calculation
Always use the insert mode for this operation. Use d or e to
move the cursor to the location where you want to insert new input,
and then input what you want.
E-13
k Displaying the Location of an Error
If an error message (like “Math ERROR” or “Syntax ERROR”)
appears when you press =, press d or e. This will display the
part of the calculation where the error occurred, with the cursor
positioned at the error location. You can then make necessary
corrections.
Example: When you input 14 ÷ 0 × 2 = by mistake instead of 14 ÷
10 × 2 =
Use the insert mode for the following operation.
LINE
14/0*2=
Press e or d.
This is causing the error.
d1
=
You can also exit the error screen by pressing A, which clears the
calculation.
k Inputting with Math Format
When inputting with Math format, you can input and display fractions
and some functions using the same format as they appear in your
textbook.
Important!
• Certain types of expressions can cause the height of a calculation
formula to be greater than one display line. The maximum allowable
height of a calculation formula is two display screens (31 dots × 2).
Further input will become impossible if the height of the calculation
you are inputting exceeds the allowable limit.
• Nesting of functions and parentheses is allowed. Further input will
become impossible if you nest too many functions and/or
parentheses. If this happens, divide the calculation into multiple
parts and calculate each part separately.
E-14
Functions and Symbols Supported for Math Format
Input
• The “Bytes” column shows the number of bytes of memory that
are used up by input.
Function/Symbol
Key Operation
Bytes
Improper Fraction
'
9
Mixed Fraction
1'(()
13
log(a,b) (Logarithm)
&
6
10^x (Power of 10)
1l($)
4
e^x (Power of e)
1i(%)
4
Square Root
!
4
Cube Root
1!(#)
9
Square, Cube
w, W
4
Reciprocal
E
5
Power
6
4
Power Root
16(")
9
Absolute Value
D
4
Parentheses
( or )
1
Math Format Input Examples
• The following operations are all performed while Math format is
selected.
• Pay close attention to the location and size of the cursor on the
display when you input using Math format.
Example 1: To input 23 + 1
MATH
Math
263
Math
e+1
Example 2: To input 1 + '
2+3
MATH
Math
1+!2
Math
e+3
E-15
Example 3: To input (1 + 2 )2 × 2 =
5
MATH
Math
(1+'2c5e)
w*2=
• When you press = and obtain a calculation result using Math
format, part of the expression you input can be cut off as shown in
the Example 3 screen shot. If you need to view the entire input
expression again, press A and then press e.
Incorporating a Value into a Function
When using Math format, you can incorporate part of an input
expression (a value, an expression within parentheses, etc.) into a
function.
Example: To incorporate the expression inside of the parentheses
of 1 + (2 + 3) + 4 into the ' function
MATH
Math
Move the cursor to here.
Math
1Y(INS)
This changes the shape of the cursor as shown here.
Math
!
This incorporates the expression in the
parentheses into the function '.
• If the cursor is located left of a particular value or fraction (instead
of an open parentheses), that value or fraction will be incorporated
into the function specified here.
• If the cursor is located left of function, the entire function is
incorporated into the function specified here.
The following examples show the other functions that can be used
in the above procedure, and the required key operations to use them.
Original Expression:
Function
Key Operation
Fraction
'
log(a,b)
&
E-16
Resulting Expression
Function
Power Root
Key Operation
Resulting Expression
16(")
You can also incorporate values into the following functions.
1l($), 1i(%), !, 6, 1!(#), D
Displaying Calculation Results
in a Form that Includes '
2, π,
etc. (Irrational Number Form)
When “MthIO” is selected for the input/output format, you can specify
whether calculation results should be displayed in a form that includes
expressions like '
2 and π (irrational number form).
• Pressing = after inputting a calculation displays the result using
irrational number form.
• Pressing 1= after inputting a calculation displays the result
using decimal values.
Note
• When “LineIO” is selected for the input/output format, calculation
results are always displayed using decimal values (no irrational
number form) regardless of whether you press = or 1=.
• π form (form that includes π within irrational number display) display
conditions are the same as those for S-D conversion. For details,
see “Using S-D Transformation”.
Example 1: '
2 +'
8 = 3'
2
MATH
Math
1
!2e+!8=
2
!2e+!81=
Math
Example 2: sin (60) =
MATH
'
3
2
(Angle Unit: Deg)
Math
s60=
E-17
Example 3: sin–1 (0.5) =
MATH
1
π
6
(Angle Unit: Rad)
Math
1s(sin–1)0.5=
• The following are the calculations for which ' form (form that
includes ' within irrational number display) results can be
displayed.
a. Arithmetic calculations of values with square root symbol ('),
x2, x3, x–1
b. Trigonometric function calculations
The following are the input value ranges for which ' form is always
used for display of trigonometric calculation results.
Angle Unit
Setting
Deg
Rad
Gra
Angle Value Input
Input Value Range
for ' Form
Calculation Result
Units of 15°
1
Multiples of
π radians
12
50
Multiples of
grads
3
앚x앚
< 9 × 109
앚x앚
< 20π
앚x앚
< 10000
Calculation results may be displayed in decimal form for input values
outside of the above ranges.
k ' Form Calculation Range
Results that include square root symbols can have up to two terms
(an integer term is also counted as a term).
' form calculation results use display formats like those shown
below.
b ± d'
e
± a'
b , ± d ± a'
b , ± a'
c
f
The following shows the range for each of the coefficients (a, b, c, d,
e, f ).
1 < a < 100, 1 < b < 1000, 1 < c < 100
0 < d < 100, 0 < e < 1000, 1 < f < 100
E-18
Example:
2'
3 × 4 = 8'
3
' form
35'
2 × 3 = 148.492424
(= 105'
2)
decimal form
150'
2
= 8.485281374
25
2 × (3 – 2'
5 ) = 6 – 4'
5
' form
23 × (5 – 2'
3 ) = 35.32566285
(= 115 – 46'
3)
decimal form
10'
2 + 15 × 3'
3 = 45'
3 + 10'
2
' form
15 × (10'
2 + 3'
3 ) = 290.0743207
(= 45'
3 + 150'
2)
decimal form
'
2+'
3+'
8='
3 + 3'
2
'
2+'
3+'
6 = 5.595754113
' form
decimal form
The underlined areas in the above examples indicate what caused
decimal form to be used.
Reasons why the results of the examples are displayed in
decimal form
- Value outside of the allowable range
- More than two terms in the calculation result
• Calculation results displayed in ' form are reduced to a common
denominator.
a'
b + d'
e → a′'
b + d′'
e
c
f
c′
• c′ is the least common multiple of c and f.
• Since calculation results are reduced to a common denominator,
they are displayed in ' form even if coefficients (a′, c′, and d′)
are outside the corresponding ranges of coefficients (a, c, and d).
'
3 '
2 10'
3 + 11'
2
+
=
Example:
11
10
110
• The result is displayed in decimal form even when any intermediate
result has three or more terms.
Example: (1 + '
2+'
3 )(1 – '
2–'
3 )(= –4 – 2'
6)
= –8.898979486
• If a term is encountered during the calculation cannot be displayed
as a root (') form or a fraction, the calculation result is displayed
in decimal form.
Example: log3 + '
2 = 1.891334817
E-19
Basic Calculations
(COMP)
This section explains how to perform arithmetic, fraction, percent,
and sexagesimal calculations.
All calculations in this section are performed in the COMP Mode
(N1).
k Arithmetic Calculations
Use the +, -, *, and / keys to perform arithmetic calculations.
Example: 7 × 8 – 4 × 5 = 36
LINE
7*8-4*5=
• The calculator automatically judges the calculation priority
sequence. For more information, see “Calculation Priority
Sequence”.
Number of Decimal Places and Number of
Significant Digits
You can specify a fixed number of decimal places and significant
digits for the calculation result.
Example: 1 ÷ 6 =
LINE
Initial default setting (Norm1)
FIX
3 decimal places (Fix3)
SCI
3 significant digits (Sci3)
• For more information, see “Specifying the Number of Display Digits”.
E-20
Omitting a Final Closed Parenthesis
You can omit any closed parenthesis ( ) ) immediately preceding
operation of the = key at the end of a calculation.
This is true only in the case of Linear format.
Example: (2 + 3) × (4 – 1) = 15
LINE
(2+3)*
(4-1=
k Fraction Calculations
How you should input fractions depends on the input/output format
that is currently selected.
Improper Fraction
Mixed Fraction
Math
Format
Linear
Format
7
3
2
1
3
('7c3)
(1'(()2e1c3)
7{3
2{1{3
Numerator Denominator Integer Part
(7'3)
Denominator
Numerator
(2'1'3)
• Under initial default settings, fractions are displayed as improper
fractions.
• Fraction calculation results are always reduced before being
displayed.
Appendix
2
1
7
<#001> — + — = —
3
2
6
1
2
11
<#002> 3 — + 1 — = 4 — (Fraction Display Format: ab/c)
4
3
12
1
1
4 – 3 — = — (Fraction Display Format: ab/c)
2
2
• If the total number of digits used for a mixed fraction (including
integer, numerator, denominator, and separator symbols) is greater
than 10, the value is automatically displayed in decimal format.
• The result of a calculation that involves both fraction and decimal
values is displayed in decimal format.
Switching between Improper Fraction and Mixed
Fraction Format
b
d
Pressing the 1f( a —
c ⇔—
c ) key toggles the display fraction
between mixed fraction and improper fraction format.
E-21
Switching between Fraction and Decimal Format
f
• The format of the fraction depends on the currently selected fraction
display format setting (improper fraction or mixed fraction).
• You cannot switch from decimal format to mixed fraction format if
the total number of digits used in the mixed fraction (including
integer, numerator, denominator, and separator symbols) is greater
than 10.
• For details about the f key, see “Using S-D Transformation”.
k Percent Calculations
Inputting a value and pressing 1((%) causes the input value to
become a percent.
Appendix
2
(——
100 )
20
<#004> 150 × 20% = 30
(150 × ——
100 )
<#003> 2% = 0.02
<#005>
<#006>
<#007>
<#008>
<#009>
Calculate what percentage of 880 is 660.
(75%)
Increase 2500 by 15%.
(2875)
Discount 3500 by 25%.
(2625)
Discount the sum of 168, 98, and 734 by 20%.
(800)
If 300 grams are added to a test sample originally weighing
500 grams, what is the percentage increase in weight?
(160%)
<#010> What is the percentage change when a value is increased
from 40 to 46? How about to 48?
(15%, 20%)
k Degree, Minute, Second (Sexagesimal)
Calculations
You can perform calculations using sexagesimal values, and convert
values between sexagesimal and decimal.
Inputting Sexagesimal Values
The following is the syntax for inputting a sexagesimal value.
{Degrees}e{Minutes}e{Seconds}e
Appendix
<#011> Input 2°0´30˝.
• Note that you must always input something for the degrees and
minutes, even if they are zero.
E-22
Sexagesimal Calculations
• Performing the following types of sexagesimal calculations
produces a sexagesimal result.
- Addition or subtraction of two sexagesimal values
- Multiplication or division of a sexagesimal value and a
decimal value
Appendix
<#012> 2°20´30˝ + 39´30˝ = 3°00´00˝
Converting Values between Sexagesimal and
Decimal
Pressing e while a calculation result is displayed toggles the value
between sexagesimal and decimal.
Appendix
<#013> Convert 2.255 to its sexagesimal equivalent.
Using Multi-statements in
Calculations
You can use the colon character (:) to connect two or more
expressions and execute them in sequence from left to right when
you press =.
Example: To create a multi-statement that performs the following
two calculations: 3 + 3 and 3 × 3
LINE
3+3SW(:)3*3
Disp
=
“Disp” indicates this is an intermediate result of a multi-statement.
=
E-23
Using Calculation History
Memory and Replay
(COMP)
Calculation history memory maintains a record of each calculation
expression you input and execute, and its result.
You can use calculation history memory in the COMP Mode
(N1) only.
Recalling Calculation History Memory Contents
Press f to back-step through calculation history memory contents.
Calculation history memory shows both calculation expressions and
results.
Example:
LINE
1+1=
2+2=
3+3=
f
f
• Note that calculation history memory contents are cleared
whenever you turn off the calculator, press the O key, change to
the calculation mode or the input/output format, or perform any
reset operation.
• Calculation history memory is limited. When the calculation you
are performing causes calculation history memory to become full,
the oldest calculation is deleted automatically to make room for
the new calculation.
Replay Function
While a calculation result is on the display, you can press A and
then d or e to edit the expression you used for the previous
calculation. If you are using Linear format, you can display the
expression by pressing d or e, without pressing A first.
Appendix
<#014>
E-24
Using Calculator Memory
Memory Name
Description
Answer Memory Stores the last calculation result obtained.
Independent
Memory
Calculation results can be added to or subtracted
from independent memory. The “M” display
indicator indicates data in independent memory.
Variables
Six variables named A, B, C, D, X, and Y can
be used for storage of individual values.
This section uses the COMP Mode (N1) to demonstrate how
you can use memory.
k Answer Memory (Ans)
Answer Memory Overview
• Answer Memory contents are updated whenever you execute a
calculation using any one of the following keys: =, 1=, m,
1m(M–), t,1t(STO). Answer Memory can hold up to
15 digits.
• Answer Memory contents are not change if an error occurs during
the current calculation.
• Answer Memory contents are maintained even if you press the
A key, change the calculation mode, or turn off the calculator.
Using Answer Memory to Perform a Series of
Calculations
Example: To divide the result of 3 × 4 by 30
LINE
3*4=
(Continuing)/30=
Pressing / automatically inputs
“Ans” command.
• With the above procedure, you need to perform the second
calculation immediately after the first one. If you need to recall
Answer Memory contents after pressing A, press the G key.
E-25
Inputting Answer Memory Contents into an Expression
Example: To perform the calculations shown below:
123 + 456 = 579
789 – 579 = 210
LINE
123+456=
789-G=
k Independent Memory (M)
You can add calculation results to or subtract results from
independent memory. The “M” appears on the display when
independent memory contains a value.
Independent Memory Overview
• The following is a summary of the different operations you can
perform using independent memory.
To do this:
Perform this key operation:
Add the displayed value or
result of the expression to
independent memory
m
Subtract the displayed value
or result of the expression from
independent memory
1m(M–)
Recall current independent
memory contents
tm(M)
• You can also insert the M variable into a calculation, which tells
the calculator to use the current independent memory contents at
that location. The following is the key operation for inserting the M
variable.
Sm(M)
• The “M” indicator appears in the upper left of the display when
there is any value other than zero stored in independent memory.
• Independent memory contents are maintained even if you press
the A key, change the calculation mode, or turn off the calculator.
E-26
Calculation Examples Using Independent Memory
• If the “M” indicator is on the display, perform the procedure under
“Clearing Independent Memory” before performing this example.
Example: 23 + 9 = 32
23+9m
53 – 6 = 47
53-6m
–)45 × 2 = 90
45*21m(M–)
99 ÷ 3 = 33
99/3m
(Total) 22
tm(M)
Clearing Independent Memory
Press01t(STO)m. This clears independent memory and
causes the “M” indicator to disappear from the display.
k Variables (A, B, C, D, X, Y)
Variable Overview
• You can assign a specific value or a calculation result to a variable.
Example: To assign the result of 3 + 5 to variable A.
3+51t(STO)y(A)
• Use the following procedure when you want to check the contents
of a variable.
Example: To recall the contents of variable A
ty(A)
• The following shows how you can include variables inside of an
expression.
Example: To multiply the contents of variable A by the contents of
variable B
Sy(A)*Se(B)=
• Variable contents are maintained even if you press the A key,
change the calculation mode, or turn off the calculator.
Appendix
<#015>
Clearing the Contents of a Specific Variable
Press 01t(STO) and then press the key for the name of the
variable whose contents you want to clear. To clear the contents of
variable A, for example, press 01t(STO)y(A).
k Clearing the Contents of All Memories
Use the following procedure to clear the contents of Answer Memory,
independent memory, and all of the variables.
Press 19(CLR)2(Memory)=(Yes).
• To cancel the clear operation without doing anything, press
A(Cancel) instead of =.
E-27
Function Calculations
This section explains how to use the calculator’s built-in functions.
The functions available to you depends on the calculation mode
you are in. The explanations in this section are mainly about the
functions that are available in all calculation modes. All of the
examples in this section show operation in the COMP Mode
(N1).
• Certain function calculations may take some time to display
calculation results. Before performing an operation, be sure to wait
until execution of the current operation is complete. You can interrupt
an ongoing operation by pressing A.
k Pi (π) and Natural Logarithm Base e
You can input pi (π) or natural logarithm base e into a calculation.
The following shows the required key operations and the values this
calculator uses for pi (π) and e.
π = 3.14159265358980 (15(π))
e = 2.71828182845904 (S5(e))
k Trigonometric and Inverse Trigonometric
Functions
• The angle unit required by trigonometric and inverse trigonometric
functions is one specified as the calculator’s default angle unit.
Before performing a calculation, be sure to specify the default angle
unit you want to use. See “Specifying the Default Angle Unit” for
more information.
Appendix
<#016> sin 30 = 0.5, sin–10.5 = 30
k Hyperbolic and Inverse Hyperbolic
Functions
Pressing the w key displays a menu of functions. Press the number
key that corresponds to the function you want to input.
Appendix <#017> sinh 1 = 1.175201194, cosh–1 1 = 0
E-28
k Converting an Input Value to the
Calculator’s Default Angle Unit
After inputting a value, press 1G(DRG') to display the angle
unit specification menu shown below. Press the number key that
corresponds to the angle unit of the input value. The calculator will
automatically convert it to the calculator’s default angle unit.
Example: To convert the following values to degrees:
π
radians = 90°, 50 grads = 45°
2
The following procedure assumes that the calculator’s default angle
unit is degrees.
LINE
(15(π)/2)
1G(DRG')2(r)=
501G(DRG')
3(g)=
Appendix
<#018> cos (π radians) = –1, cos (100 grads) = 0
<#019> cos–1 (–1) = 180
cos–1 (–1) = π
k Exponential Functions and Logarithmic
Functions
• For the logarithmic function “log(”, you can specify base m using
the syntax “log (m, n)”.
If you input only a single value, a base of 10 is used for the
calculation.
• “ln(” is a natural logarithm function with base e.
• You can also use the & key when inputting an expression with
the form of “logmn ” while using Math format. For details, see
Appendix <#020>. Note that you must input the base (base m)
when using the & key for input.
Appendix <#021> to <#023>
*1 A base of 10 (common logarithm) is used if no base is specified.
E-29
k Power Functions and Power Root
Functions
'(
X2, X3, X–1, X^, '(, 3'(, ^'
Appendix
<#024> to <#028>
k Rectangular-Polar Coordinate Conversion
Rectangular
Coordinates (Rec)
Polar Coordinates
(Pol)
• Coordinate conversion can be performed in the COMP and STAT
calculation modes.
Converting to Polar Coordinates (Pol)
Pol(X, Y)
X: Specifies the rectangular coordinate X value
Y: Specifies the rectangular coordinate Y value
• Calculation result θ is displayed in the range of –180° < θ < 180°.
• Calculation result θ is displayed using the calculator’s default angle
unit.
• Calculation result r is assigned to variable X, while θ is assigned
to Y.
Converting to Rectangular Coordinates (Rec)
Rec(r,θ)
r : Specifies r value of polar coordinate
θ : Specifies θ value of polar coordinate
• Input value θ is treated as an angle value, in accordance with the
calculator’s default angle unit setting.
• Calculation result x is assigned to variable X, while y is assigned
to Y.
• If you perform coordinate conversion inside of an expression instead
of a stand-alone operation, the calculation is performed using only
the first value (either the r-value or the X-value) produced by the
conversion.
Example: Pol ('
2, '
2) + 5 = 2 + 5 = 7
Appendix
<#029> to <#030>
E-30
k Other Functions
This section explains how to use the functions shown below.
!, Abs(, Ran#, nPr, nCr, Rnd(
Factorial (!)
This function obtains the factorials of a value that is zero or a positive
integer.
Appendix
<#031> (5 + 3)! = 40320
Absolute Value Calculation (Abs)
When you are performing a real number calculation, this function
simply obtains the absolute value.
Appendix
<#032> Abs (2 – 7) = 5
Random Number (Ran#)
This function generates a 3-digit pseudo random number that is less
than 1.
Appendix
<#033> Generate three 3-digit random numbers.
The random 3 digit decimal values are converted to 3-digit
integer values by multiplying by 1000.
Note that the values shown here are examples only. Values
actually generated by your calculator will be different.
Permutation (nPr) and Combination (nCr)
These functions make it possible to perform permutation and
combination calculations.
n and r must be integers in the range of 0 < r < n < 1 × 1010.
Appendix
<#034> How many four-person permutations and combinations are
possible for a group of 10 people?
Rounding Function (Rnd)
This function rounds the value or the result of the expression in the
function’s argument to the number of significant digits specified by
the number of display digits setting.
Display Digits Setting: Norm1 or Norm2
The mantissa is rounded to 10 digits.
E-31
Display Digits Setting: Fix or Sci
The value is rounded to the specified number of digits.
Example: 200 ÷ 7 × 14 = 400
LINE
200/7*14=
(Specifies three decimal places.)
FIX
1N6(Fix)3
(Calculation is performed internally using 15 digits.)
FIX
200/7=
FIX
*14=
The following performs the same calculation with rounding.
FIX
200/7=
(Round the value to the specified number of digits.)
FIX
10(Rnd)=
(Check rounded result.)
FIX
*14=
E-32
Transforming Displayed
Values
You can use the procedures in this section to transform a displayed
value to engineering notation, or to transform between standard form
and decimal form.
k Using Engineering Notation
A simple key operation transforms a displayed value to engineering
notation.
Appendix
<#035> Transform the value 1,234 to engineering notation, shifting
the decimal point to the right.
<#036> Transform the value 123 to engineering notation, shifting
the decimal point to the left.
k Using S-D Transformation
You can use S-D transformation to transform a value between its
decimal (D) form and its standard (S) form (fraction, π).
Formats Supported for S-D Transformation
S-D transformation can be used to transform a displayed decimal
calculation result to one of the forms described below. Performing
S-D transformation again converts back to the original decimal value.
Note
• When you transform from decimal form to standard form, the
calculator automatically decides the standard form to use. You
cannot specify the standard form.
Fraction: The current fraction display format setting determines
whether the result is an improper fraction or mixed
fraction.
π:
The following are the π forms that are supported.
This is true only in the case of Math format.
nπ (n is an integer.)
dπ
a b π (depending on fraction display format
c or c setting)
• Transformation to a fractional π form is limited to inverse
trigonometric function results and values that are normally
expressed in radians.
• After obtaining a calculation result in ' form, you can convert it
to decimal form by pressing the f key. When the original
calculation result is in decimal form, it cannot be converted to '
form.
E-33
Examples of S-D Transformation
Note that S-D transformation can take some time to perform.
Example: Fraction → Decimal
MATH
Math
'5c6=
• Each press of the f key toggles between the two forms.
f
f
Appendix
<#037> π Fraction → Decimal
<#038> ' → Decimal
Statistical Calculation
(STAT)
All calculations in this section are performed in the STAT Mode
(N2).
Selecting a Statistical Calculation Type
In the STAT Mode, display the statistical calculation type selection
screen.
k Statistical Calculation Types
Key
Menu Item
Statistical Calculation
1
1-VAR
2
A+BX
Linear regression
3
_+CX2
Quadratic regression
4
In X
Logarithmic regression
5
e^X
6
A•B^X
e exponential regression
ab exponential regression
7
A•X^B
Power regression
8
1/X
Inverse regression
Single-variable
E-34
k Inputting Sample Data
Displaying the STAT Editor Screen
The STAT editor screen appears after you enter the STAT Mode
from another mode. Use the STAT menu to select a statistical
calculation type. To display the STAT editor screen from another STAT
Mode screen, press 11(STAT)2(Data).
STAT Editor Screen
There are two STAT editor screen formats, depending on the type of
statistical calculation you selected.
STAT
STAT
Single-variable Statistics
Paired-variable Statistics
• The first line of the STAT editor screen shows the value for the first
sample or the values for their first pair of samples.
FREQ (Frequency) Column
If you turn on the Statistical Display item on the calculator’s setup
screen, a column labeled “FREQ” will also be included on the STAT
editor screen.
You can use the FREQ column to specify the frequency (the number
of times the same sample appears in the group of data) of each
sample value.
Rules for Inputting Sample Data on the STAT Editor
Screen
• Data you input is inserted into the cell where the cursor is located.
Use the cursor keys to move the cursor between cells.
STAT
Cursor
• The values and expressions you can input on the STAT editor
screen are the same as those you can input in the COMP Mode
with Linear format.
• Pressing A while inputting data clears your current input.
• After inputting a value, press =. This registers the value and
displays up to six of its digits in the currently selected cell.
E-35
Example: To input the value 123.45 in cell X1
(Move the cursor to cell X1.)
STAT
123.45
The value you input appears
in the formula area.
STAT
=
Registering a value causes the cursor to move down one cell.
STAT Editor Screen Input Precautions
• The number of lines in STAT editor screen (the number of sample
data values you can input) depends on the type of statistical data
you selected, and on the Statistical Display setting of the calculator’s
setup screen.
Statistical
Display
Statistic Type
OFF
(No FREQ column)
ON
(FREQ column)
80 lines
40 lines
40 lines
26 lines
Single-variable
Paired-variable
• The following types of input are not allowed on the STAT editor
screen.
• m, 1m(M–) operations
• Assignment to variables (STO)
Precautions Concerning Sample Data Storage
Sample data you input is deleted automatically whenever you change
to another mode from the STAT Mode or change the Statistical
Display setting (which causes the FREQ column to be shown or
hidden) on the calculator’s setup screen.
Editing Sample Data
Replacing the Data in a Cell
(1) On the STAT editor screen, move the cursor to the cell you want
to edit.
(2) Input the new data value or expression, and then press =.
Important!
• Note that you must totally replace the existing data of the cell with
new input. You cannot edit parts of the existing data.
Deleting a Line
(1) On the STAT editor screen, move the cursor to the line you want
to delete.
(2) Press Y.
E-36
Inserting a Line
(1) On the STAT editor screen, move the cursor to the line that will
be under the line you will insert.
(2) Press 11(STAT)3(Edit).
(3) Press 1(Ins).
Important!
• Note that the insert operation will not work if the maximum number
of lines allowed for the STAT editor screen are already used.
Deleting All STAT Editor Contents
(1) Press 11(STAT)3(Edit).
(2) Press 2(Del-A).
• This clears all of the sample data on the STAT editor screen.
Note
• Note that you can perform the procedures under “Inserting a Line”
and “Deleting All STAT Editor Contents” only when the STAT editor
screen is on the display.
k STAT Calculation Screen
The STAT calculation screen is for performing statistical calculations
with the data you input with the STAT editor screen. Pressing the
A key while the STAT editor screen is displayed switches to the
STAT calculation screen.
The STAT calculation screen also uses Linear format, regardless of
the current input/output format setting on the calculator’s setup
screen.
k Using the STAT Menu
While the STAT editor screen or STAT calculation screen is on the
display, press 11(STAT) to display the STAT menu.
The content to the STAT menu depends on whether the currently
selected statistical operation type uses a single variable or paired
variables.
Single-variable Statistics
Paired-variable Statistics
E-37
STAT Menu Items
Common Items
Select this
menu item:
When you want to do this:
1Type
Display the statistical calculation type selection
screen
2Data
Display the STAT editor screen
3Edit
Display the Edit sub-menu for editing STAT editor
screen contents
4Sum
Display the Sum sub-menu of commands for
calculating sums
5Var
Display the Var sub-menu of commands for
calculating the mean, standard deviation, etc.
6MinMax
Display the MinMax sub-menu of commands for
obtaining maximum and minimum values
Paired-variable Menu Item
Select this
menu item:
When you want to do this:
7Reg
Display the Reg sub-menu of commands for
regression calculations
• For details see “Commands when Linear
Regression Calculation (A+BX) Is Selected” and
“Commands when Quadratic Regression
Calculation (_+CX2) Is Selected”.
Single-variable (1-VAR) Statistical Calculation
Commands
The following are the commands that appear on the sub-menus that
appear when you select 4(Sum), 5(Var), or 6(MinMax) on the
STAT menu while a single-variable statistical calculation type is
selected.
See Appendix <#039> for information about the calculation
formula used for each command.
Sum Sub-menu (11(STAT)4(Sum))
Select this
menu item:
When you want to obtain this:
1Σx2
Sum of squares of the sample data
2Σx
Sum of the sample data
E-38
Var Sub-menu (11(STAT)5(Var))
Select this
menu item:
When you want to obtain this:
1n
Number of samples
2o
Mean of the sample data
3xσn
Population standard deviation
4xσn–1
Sample standard deviation
MinMax Sub-menu (11(STAT)6(MinMax))
Select this
menu item:
When you want to obtain this:
1minX
Minimum value
2maxX
Maximum value
Appendix
Single-variable Statistical Calculation
<#040> Select single-variable (1-VAR) and input the following data:
{1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10}
(FREQ: ON)
<#041> Edit the data to the following, using insert and delete:
{0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 9, 10}
(FREQ: ON)
<#042> Edit the FREQ data to the following:
{1, 2, 1, 2, 2, 2, 3, 4, 2, 1}
(FREQ: ON)
• Examples <#043> through <#045> all use the same data as
Example <#042>.
<#043> Calculate sum of squares of the sample data and sum of
the sample data.
<#044> Calculate number of samples, mean, and population
standard deviation.
<#045> Calculate minimum value and maximum value.
Commands when Linear Regression Calculation
(A+BX) Is Selected
With linear regression, regression is performed in accordance with
the following model equation.
y = A + BX
The following are the commands that appear on the sub-menus that
appear when you select 4(Sum), 5(Var), 6(MinMax), or
7(Reg) on the STAT menu while linear regression is selected as
the statistical calculation type.
See Appendix <#046> for information about the calculation
formula used for each command.
E-39
Sum Sub-menu (11(STAT)4(Sum))
Select this
menu item:
When you want to obtain this:
1Σx2
Sum of squares of the X-data
2Σx
Sum of the X-data
3Σy2
Sum of squares of the Y-data
4Σy
Sum of the Y-data
5Σxy
Sum of products of the X-data and Y-data
6Σx3
Sum of cubes of the X-data
7Σx2y
Sum of (X-data squares × Y-data)
8Σx4
Sum of biquadrate of the X-data
Var Sub-menu (11(STAT)5(Var))
Select this
menu item:
When you want to obtain this:
1n
Number of samples
2o
Mean of the X-data
3xσn
Population standard deviation of the X-data
4xσn–1
Sample standard deviation of the X-data
5p
Mean of the Y-data
6yσn
Population standard deviation of the Y-data
7yσn–1
Sample standard deviation of the Y-data
MinMax Sub-menu (11(STAT)6(MinMax))
Select this
menu item:
When you want to obtain this:
1minX
Minimum value of the X-data
2maxX
Maximum value of the X-data
3minY
Minimum value of the Y-data
4maxY
Maximum value of the Y-data
Reg Sub-menu (11(STAT)7(Reg))
Select this
menu item:
When you want to obtain this:
1A
Regression coefficient constant term A
2B
Regression coefficient B
3r
Correlation coefficient r
4m
Estimated value of x
5n
Estimated value of y
E-40
Appendix
Linear Regression Calculation: <#047> to <#050>
• Examples <#048> through <#050> all use the data input in Example
<#047>.
*1 Estimated Value (y = –3 → m = ?)
*2 Estimated Value (x = 2 → n = ?)
Commands when Quadratic Regression Calculation
(_+CX2) Is Selected
With quadratic regression, regression is performed in accordance
with the following model equation.
y = A + BX + CX 2
See Appendix <#051> for information about the calculation
formula used for each command.
Reg Sub-menu (11(STAT)7(Reg))
Select this
menu item:
When you want to obtain this:
1A
Regression coefficient constant term A
2B
Linear coefficient B of the regression coefficients
3C
Quadratic coefficient C of the regression
coefficients
4m1
Estimated value of x1
5m2
Estimated value of x2
6n
Estimated value of y
• Sum sub-menu (sums), Var sub-menu (number of samples, mean,
standard deviation), and MinMax sub-menu (maximum value,
minimum value) operations are the same those for linear regression
calculations.
Appendix
Quadratic Regression Calculation: <#052> to <#054>
• Examples <#052> through <#054> all use the data input in
Example <#047>.
Comments for Other Types of Regression
For details about the calculation formula of the command included
in each regression type, refer to the indicated calculation formulas
( Appendix <#055> to <#059>).
Statistical Calculation
Type
Logarithmic Regression
(ln X)
e Exponential Regression
(e^X)
Model Equation
y = A + Bln X
BX
y = Ae
E-41
Calculation
Formula
<#055>
<#056>
Statistical Calculation
Type
Model Equation
ab Exponential Regression
Calculation
Formula
(A•B^X)
y = ABX
<#057>
Power Regression (A•X^B)
y = AXB
<#058>
Inverse Regression (1/X)
y=A+ B
X
<#059>
Appendix
Comparison of Regression Curves
• The following example uses the data input in Example <#047>.
<#060> Compare the correlation coefficient for logarithmic, e
exponential, ab exponential, power, and inverse regression.
(FREQ: OFF)
Appendix
Other Types of Regression Calculation: <#061> to
<#065>
Command Usage Tips
• The commands included in the Reg sub-menu can take a long
time to execute in logarithmic, e exponential, ab exponential, or
power regression calculation when there are a large number of
data samples.
Equation Calculations
(EQN)
All calculations in this section are performed in the EQN Mode
(N3).
k Equation Types
An equation type menu appears when you press N3(EQN) and
enter the EQN Mode.
Key
Menu Item
Equation Type
1
anX + bnY = cn
Simultaneous Linear
Equations with Two
Unknowns
2
anX + bnY + cnZ = dn
Simultaneous Linear
Equations with Three
Unknowns
3
aX2 + bX + c = 0
Quadratic Equation
4
aX3 + bX2 + cX + d = 0
Cubic Equation
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Changing the Current Equation Type Setting
Press N3(EQN) to re-enter the EQN Mode. This clears all current
EQN Mode input and displays the equation type menu described
above.
k Inputting Coefficients
Use the coefficient editor screen to input the coefficients of an
equation. The coefficient editor screen shows input cells for each of
the coefficients required by the currently selected equation type.
Simultaneous linear
equations with two unknowns
Cubic equation
Rules for Inputting and Editing Coefficients
• Data you input is inserted into the cell where the cursor is located.
When you register input into a cell, the cursor moves to the next
cell to the right.
• When simultaneous linear equations with three unknowns or cubic
equation is selected as the equation type, the d column will not be
visible on the display when the coefficient editor screen is first
displayed. The d column will become visible when you move the
cursor to it, which causes the screen to shift.
• The values and expressions you can input on the coefficient editor
screen are the same as those you can input in the COMP Mode
with Linear format.
• Pressing A while inputting data clears your current input.
• After inputting data, press =. This registers the value and displays
up to six of its digits in the currently selected cell.
• To change the contents of a cell, use the cursor keys to move the
cursor to the cell and then input the new data.
Initializing All Coefficients to Zero
You can clear all coefficients to zero by pressing the A key while
inputting values on the coefficient editor screen.
Coefficient Editor Screen Input Precautions
Coefficient editor screen precautions are basically the same as those
for the STAT editor screen. The only difference is that the first STAT
editor screen precaution does not apply in the case of the coefficient
editor screen. For details, see “STAT Editor Screen Input Precautions”.
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k Solution Display
After inputting and registering values on the coefficient editor screen,
press = to display the solution(s) for the equation.
• Each press of = displays the next solution, if there is one. Pressing
= while the final solution is displayed returns to the coefficient
editor screen.
• In the case of simultaneous linear equations, you can use f and
c to switch the display between the solutions for X and Y (and
Z).
• When there are multiple solutions for a quadratic or cubic equation,
you can use the f and c keys to scroll the display between X1,
X 2, and X3. The actual number of solutions depends on the
equation.
• Pressing A while a solution is displayed will return to the coefficient
editor screen.
• The display format of solutions is in accordance with the input/
output format and complex number display format settings of the
calculator’s setup screen.
• Note that you cannot transform values to engineering notation while
an equation solution is displayed.
Appendix
Equation Calculation: <#066> to <#070>
Generating a Number Table
from a Function
(TABLE)
All calculations in this section are performed in the TABLE Mode
(N4).
k Configuring a Number Table Generation
Function
The procedure below configures the number table generation
function with the following settings.
1
Function:
f(x) = x2 +
2
Start Value: 1, End Value: 5, Step Value: 1
LINE
(1) Press N4(TABLE).
(2) Input the function.
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(3) After making sure the function is the way you want, press =.
• This displays the start value input screen.
Indicates the initial default start
value of 1.
• If the initial value is not 1, press 1 to specify the initial start
value for this example.
(4) After specifying the start value, press =.
• This displays the end value input screen.
Indicates the initial default end
value of 5.
• Specify the end value.
(5) After specifying the end value, press =.
• This displays the step value input screen.
Indicates the initial default step
value of 1.
• Specify the step value.
• For details about specifying the start, end, and step values,
see “Start, End, and Step Value Rules”.
(6) After specifying the step value, press =.
• Pressing the A key returns to the function editor screen.
k Supported Function Types
• Except for the X variable, other variables (A, B, C, D, Y) and
independent memory (M) are all treated as values (the current
variable assigned to the variable or stored in independent memory).
• Only variable X can be used as the variable of a function.
• The coordinate conversion (Pol, Rec) functions cannot be used
for a number table generation function.
• Note that the number table generation operation causes the
contents of variable X to be changed.
E-45
k Start, End, and Step Value Rules
• Linear format is always used for value input.
• You can specify either values or calculation expressions (which
must produce a numeric result) for Start, End, and Step.
• Specifying an End value that is less than the Start value causes
an error, so the number table is not generated.
• The specified Start, End, and Step values should produce a
maximum of 30 x-values for the number table being generated.
Executing a number generation table using a Start, End, and Step
value combination that produces more than 30 x-values causes
an error.
Note
• Certain functions and Start, End, Step value combinations can
cause number table generation to take a long time.
k Number Table Screen
The number table screen shows x-values calculated using the
specified Start, End, and Step values, as well as the values obtained
when each x-value is substituted in the function f(x).
• Note that you can use the number table screen for viewing values
only. Table contents cannot be edited.
• Pressing the A key returns to the function editor screen.
k TABLE Mode Precautions
Note that changing the input/output format settings (Math format or
Linear format) on the calculator’s setup screen while in the TABLE
Mode clears the number table generation function.
Technical Information
k Calculation Priority Sequence
The calculator performs calculations according to a calculation priority sequence.
• Basically, calculations are performed from left to right.
• Expressions within parentheses have the highest priority.
• The following shows the priority sequence for each individual command.
1. Function with parentheses:
Pol(, Rec(
sin(, cos(, tan(, sin–1(, cos–1(, tan–1(, sinh(, cosh(, tanh(, sinh–1(, cosh–1(,
tanh–1(
log(, ln(, e^(, 10^(, '(, 3'(
Abs(
Rnd(
2. Functions preceded by values, powers, power roots:
x2, x3, x–1, x!, ° ’ ”, °, r, g, ^(, x'(
Percent %
3. Fractions: a b/c
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4.
5.
6.
7.
Prefix symbol: (–) (negative sign)
Statistical estimated value calculation: m, n, m1, m2
Permutations, combinations: nPr, nCr
Multiplication and division: ×, ÷
Multiplication where sign is omitted: Multiplication sign omitted immediately
before π, e, variables (2π, 5A, πA, etc.), functions with parentheses (2'(3),
Asin(30), etc.)
8. Addition and subtraction: +, –
If a calculation contains a negative value, you may need to enclose the negative
value in parentheses. If you want to square the value –2, for example, you need to
input: (–2)2. This is because x2 is a function preceded by a value (Priority 2,
above), whose priority is greater than the negative sign, which is a prefix symbol
(Priority 4).
Example:
–22 = –4
(–2)2 = 4
y2w=
(y2)w=
Multiplication and division, and multiplication where the sign is omitted are the
same priority (Priority 7), so these operations are performed from left to right
when both types are mixed in the same calculation. Enclosing an operation within
parentheses causes it to be performed first, so the use of parentheses can result
in different calculation results.
Example:
1/215(π)=
1 ÷ 2π = 1.570796327
1/(215(π))=
1 ÷ (2π) = 0.1591549431
k Stack Limitations
This calculator uses memory areas called stacks to temporarily store lower
calculation priority sequence values, commands, and functions. The numeric stack
has 10 levels and the command stack has 24 levels, as shown in the illustration
below.
3
2
1
1 2 3
4
Numeric Stack
1
2
4
5 6
5
7
Command Stack
1
2
3
2
3
4
3
4
5
4
5
4
5
6
7
A Stack ERROR occurs when the calculation you are performing causes the
capacity of either stack to be exceeded.
E-47
k Calculation Ranges, Number of Digits, and
Precision
The calculation range, number of digits used for internal calculation, and calculation
precision depends on the type of calculation you are performing.
Calculation Range and Precision
Calculation Range
±1 × 10–99 to ±9.999999999 × 1099 or 0
Number of Digits for Internal
Calculation
15 digits
In general, ±1 at the 10th digit for a single
calculation. Precision for exponential display
is ±1 at the least significant digit. Errors are
cumulative in the case of consecutive
calculations.
Precision
Function Calculation Input Ranges and Precision
Functions
sinx
cosx
tanx
sin–1x
cos–1x
tan–1x
sinhx
coshx
sinh–1x
Input Range
DEG
0 x 9109
RAD
0 x 157079632.7
GRA
0 x 11010
DEG
0 x 9109
RAD
0 x 157079632.7
GRA
0 x 11010
DEG
Same as sinx, except when x= (2n–1)90.
RAD
Same as sinx, except when x= (2n–1)π/2.
GRA
Same as sinx, except when x= (2n–1)100.
0 x 1
0 x 9.9999999991099
0 x 230.2585092
0 x 4.9999999991099
cosh–1x
1 x 4.9999999991099
tanhx
tanh–1x
0 x 9.9999999991099
logx/lnx
0 x 9.9999999991099
0 x 9.99999999910–1
10x
–9.9999999991099 x 99.99999999
ex
'
x
x2
1/x
3'
x
x!
–9.9999999991099 x 230.2585092
0 x 1 10100
x 1 1050
x 1 10100 ; x G 0
x 1 10100
0 x 69 (x is an integer)
nPr
0 n 11010, 0 r n (n,
1 {n!/(n–r)!} 110100
nCr
0 n 11010, 0 r n (n, r are integers)
1 n!/r! 110100 or 1 n!/(n–r)! 110100
E-48
r are integers)
Functions
Pol(x, y)
Rec(r, )
°’ ”
Input Range
x, y 9.9999999991099
x2+y2 9.9999999991099
0 r 9.9999999991099
θ: Same as sinx
a, b, c 110100
0 b, c
x110100
Decimal ↔ Sexagesimal Conversions
0°0’0” x 9999999°59’59”
y
^(x )
x0: –110100 ylogx100
x0: y0
m
x0: yn,
(m, n are integers)
2n+1
However: –110100 ylogx100
x'
y
y0: x G 0, –1101001/x logy100
y0: x0
y0: x2n1, 2n+1 (m G 0; m, n are integers)
m
However: –110100 1/x logy100
a b/c
Total of integer, numerator, and denominator must be 10 digits or
less (including division marks).
• Precision is basically the same as that described under “Calculation Range and
Precision”, above.
• ^(xy), x'
y, 3', x!, nPr, nCr type functions require consecutive internal
calculation, which can cause accumulation of errors that occur with each
calculation.
• Error is cumulative and tends to be large in the vicinity of a function’s singular
point and inflection point.
k Error Messages
The calculator will display an error message when a result exceeds the calculation
range, when you attempt an illegal input, or whenever any other similar problem
occurs.
When an error message appears...
The following are general operations you can use when any error message
appears.
• Pressing d or e displays to the calculation expression editing screen you
were using before the error message appeared, with the cursor located at the
position of the error. For more information, see “Displaying the Location of an
Error”.
• Pressing A clears the calculation expression you input before the error message
appeared. You can then re-input and re-execute the calculation, if you want.
Note that in this case, the original calculation will not be retained in calculation
history memory.
Math ERROR
• Cause
• The intermediate or final result of the calculation you are performing exceeds
the allowable calculation range.
E-49
• Your input exceeds the allowable input range (particularly when using
functions).
• The calculation you are performing contains an illegal mathematical operation
(such as division by zero).
• Action
• Check the input values, reduce the number of digits, and try again.
• When using independent memory or a variable as the argument of a function,
make sure that the memory or variable value is within the allowable range for
the function.
Stack ERROR
• Cause
• The calculation you are performing has caused the capacity of the numeric
stack or the command stack to be exceeded.
• Action
• Simplify the calculation expression so it does not exceed the capacity of the
stack.
• Try splitting the calculation into two or more parts.
Syntax ERROR
• Cause
• There is a problem with the format of the calculation you are performing.
• Action
• Make necessary corrections.
Insufficient MEM Error
• Cause
• There is not enough memory to perform your calculation.
• Action
• Narrow the table calculation range by changing the Start, End, and Step values,
and try again.
k Before assuming malfunction of the calculator...
Perform the following steps whenever an error occurs during a calculation or when
calculation results are not what you expected. If one step does not correct the
problem, move on to the next step.
Note that you should make separate copies of important data before performing
these steps.
(1) Check the calculation expression to make sure that it does not contain any
errors.
(2) Make sure that you are using the correct mode for the type of calculation you
are trying to perform.
(3) If the above steps do not correct your problem, press the O key. This will
cause the calculator to perform a routine that checks whether calculation
functions are operating correctly. If the calculator discovers any abnormality,
it automatically initializes the calculation mode and clears memory contents.
For details about initialized settings, see “Initializing the Calculation Mode
and Other Settings” under “Calculation Modes and Calculator Setup”.
(4) Initialize all modes and settings by performing the following operation:
19(CLR) 1(Setup) =(Yes).
E-50
Reference
k Power Requirements and Battery
Replacement
This calculator is powered by a single AAA-size battery (R03 (UM4)).
Replacing the Battery
Dim figures on the display of the calculator indicate that battery power
is low. Continued use of the calculator when the battery is low can
result in improper operation. Replace the battery as soon as possible
when display figures becomes dim.
Even if the calculator is operating normally, replace the battery at
least once every two years.
Important!
• Removing the battery from the calculator causes independent
memory contents and values assigned to variables to be cleared.
1 Press 1A(OFF) to turn off the
calculator.
Screw
Screw
2 On the back of the calculator, remove
the screws and the back cover.
3 Remove the old battery.
4 Load a new battery into the calculator
with its positive k and negative l
ends facing correctly.
5 Replace the back cover and secure it
in place with its screws.
6 Perform the following key operation:
O19(CLR)3(All)=(Yes).
• Make sure you perform the above key operation. Do not skip it.
Auto Power Off
Your calculator will turn off automatically if you do not perform any
operation for about six minutes. If this happens, press the O key to
turn the calculator back on.
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Specifications
Power Requirements:
AAA-size battery: R03 (UM-4) × 1
Battery Life: Approximately 17,000 hours (continuous display of
flashing cursor)
Power Consumption: 0.0002 W
Operating Temperature: 0°C to 40°C
Dimensions: 13.7 (H) × 80 (W) × 161 (D) mm
9/16 (H) 31/8 (W) 65/16 (D)
Approximate Weight: 110 g (3.9 oz) including the battery
Bundled Items: Hard Case
E-52
CASIO COMPUTER CO., LTD.
6-2, Hon-machi 1-chome
Shibuya-ku, Tokyo 151-8543, Japan
SA0411-A
Printed in China