Yamaha SPX90II Specifications

YAMAHA
Digit a l M ulti-E ff e c t Pro c e s s or
O p era ting M a nu al
INTRODUCTION
Congratulations on your purchase of a Yamaha SPX90 Digital Multi-Effect
Processor. The SPX90 is an amalgam of advanced acoustical research and
digital technology designed to provide musicians and home recording enthusiasts with a wide range of exciting effects.
The SPX90 Digital Multi-Effect Processor utilizes highly refined LSI
(Large Scale Integration) technology to create natural reverberation. Not
only is its assortment of 30 preset effects comprehensive enough to suit
most studio and performance applications, the SPX90 also allows you to
create up to 60 additional effects and store them for instant recall.
Your SPX90 can create effects far beyond mere reverberation, though that
in itself is of a truly superior quality. A variety of echo, delay, and special
effects—each with comprehensive parameter adjustments—can be accessed at the touch of a switch. And as the SPX90 is MIDI-compatible, it can
be programmed to apply separate reverberation effects to a variety of
MIDI-compatible instruments.
Your SPX90 Digital Multi-Effect Processor will prove extremely useful
in a variety of applications: acoustic electric, PA, MIDI instrument, and
home recording systems. In order to take advantage of the vast potential
of this component, we urge you to study this manual before connecting
the SPX90 to your system.
We at Yamaha thank you, and wish you years of enjoyment with your
SPX90.
CONTENTS
PRECAUTIONS
FRONT PANEL
REAR PANEL
BASIC OPERATIONS
PRESET PROGRAM SELECTION
EDIT: CHANGING PARAMETERS
STORE: SAVING EDITED PROGRAMS
OUTPUT BALANCE AND LEVEL
PROGRAMMING
BYPASS
UTILITY FUNCTIONS
EDIT TITLE
MIDI FUNCTIONS
FOOTSWITCH MEMORY RECALL RANGE
DESCRIPTION OF PROGRAMS AND
PARAMETERS
REVERB
ER1, ER2
DELAY
ECHO
MODULATION
STEREO FLANGE
CHORUS
STEREO PHASING
1
2
3
4
5
5
5
6
7
7
8
8
8
9
10
10
10
11
11
12
12
13
TREMOLO
SYMPHONIC
PITCH CHANGE
FREEZE
REVERB & GATE
GATE
ADR-NOISE GATE
COMPRESSOR
PAN
AUTO PAN
TRIGGERED PAN
DELAY VIBRATO
PARAMETRIC EQ
SAMPLE APPLICATIONS
SPECIFICATIONS
ROM CONTENTS AND CONTROLABLE
PARAMETERS
EARLY REFLECTION MODE CHART
ROOM SIZE CHART
BLOCK DIAGRAM
DIMENSIONS
USER PROGRAMMING TABLE
MIDI IMPLEMENTATION CHART
13
13
13
14
17
17
18
19
19
20
20
21
23
24
26
27
28
28
29
30
PRECAUTIONS
NOTE: It is vital to read this section before using your SPX90 Digital Multi-Effect Processor. This unit utilizes
state-of-the-art digital technology which, although designed to provide years of trouble-free use, requires
careful handling.

VOLTAGE RATINGS
Be sure the AC supply in your area is appropriate
for your SPX90.
U.S./Canadian Model: 110V — 120V, 50/60Hz.
General Model: 220 — 240V, 50/60Hz.

ENVIRONMENTAL TEMPERATURE
Do not expose the SPX90 to excessive heat. The
operating temperature range of this unit is between
0 and 40 degrees centigrade (32 and 104 degrees
Fahrenheit).

EXTERNAL CLEANING
Do not clean the exterior of the SPX90 with solvents
such as benzine or paint thinner. Dust, dirt, or fingermarks should simply be removed with a soft, dry
cloth. Internal cleaning of the unit should only be performed by a qualified technician.
The LCD may not function properly under extreme
temperature conditions. It will return to normal after
cooling down to within the proper temperature
range.

BACKUP BATTERY
To ensure that User Programs are not lost when the
SPX90’s power is turned off, a built-in long-life battery acts as a backup. In normal use, this battery
lasts 5 years, but it is advisable to change the battery before this time has elapsed. Contact your local
Yamaha dealer for details.
NOTE: When you change the battery, the User Programs may be lost. As a safeguard, take
note of all parameters of your User Programs
in the USER PROGRAMMING TABLE accompanying this manual. The SPX90 can then
be reprogrammed once a new battery is installed. The preset programs are permanent,
and will not be affected by a change of
battery.

ERROR MESSAGES
When power is initially turned ON an automatic circuit test program is executed to ensure proper
operation. If an error is encountered, one of the
following error messages will be displayed:
E0 : ROM checksum error.
E1 : CPU RAM read/write error.
E2 : External RAM read/write error.
Make a note of the error message and inform the
service personnel when the unit is to be serviced.
FCC CERTIFICATION (USA)
This equipment generates and uses radio frequency
energy and if not installed and used properly, that is, in
strict accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions,
may cause interference to radio and television reception.
It has been type tested and found to comply with the
limits for a Class B computing device in accordance with
the specifications in Subpart J of Part 15 of FCC Rules,
which are designed to provide reasonable protection
against such interference in a residential installation.
However, there is no guarantee that interference will not
occur in a particular installation. If this equipment does
cause interference to radio or television reception, which
can be determined by turning the equipment off and on,
the user is encouraged to try to correct the interference
by one or more of the following measures:
Reorient the receiving antenna.
Relocate the computer with respect to the receiver.
Move the computer away from the receiver.
Plug the computer into a different outlet so that
computer and receiver are on different branch circuits.
If necessary, the user should consult the dealer or an
experienced radio/television technician for additional
suggestions. The user may find the following booklet
prepared by the Federal Communications Commission
helpful:
“How to identify and Resolve Radio-TV interference
Problems”.
This booklet is available from the U.S. Government
Printing Office, Washington, DC 20402, Stock
No. 004-000-00345-4.
2
FRONT PANEL
Power ON/OFF Switch
When the power is turned ON, the program which
was selected immediately before the power was
turned OFF will be re-selected. Due to the safety
muting circuit, no sound will be produced by the
SPX90 for a few seconds after the power is turned
3
Input Level Control (0 ~ 10)
Regulates the level of the input signal. Set the INPUT LEVEL control while watching the INPUT LEVEL
meter. The seven LED meter segments should not
all be continuously on when an input signal is applied, as this will result in input amplifier overload
and distortion. When the INPUT LEVEL control is set
to “8” on the scale, the input/output gain is 1
(unity). A setting of “10” increases gain by about
10 dB.
Input Level Meter
This easy-to-read LED level meter is a visual aid to
setting appropriate input levels. Generally, the best
input level setting will produce continuous lighting
of the lower green LED segments, while the upper
red segments flash only occasionally.
Memory Number LED
This LED display shows the number of the currently selected program. Memory numbers 1 through 30
contain factory-preset effects (ROM). Memory
numbers 31 through 90 can be used to store edited
versions of the preset effects (RAM).
LCD Program and Parameter Indicator
This high-contrast Liquid Crystal Display indicates
the effect name and parameter data value.
Parameter Key
Selects successive effect parameters. Pressing this
key sequentially calls the programmable parameters
within the currently selected effect program. Once
the desired parameter has been selected, the
PARAMETER INCREMENT/DECREMENT keys are
used to change the value of that parameter, thereby
modifying the effect. The parameters available for
each program are different: refer to the parameter
chart on page 24.
Parameter Increment/Decrement Keys
These keys are used to change the value of a
selected parameter. Press the increment key (up arrow) to increase the value, or the decrement key
(down arrow) to decrease the value.
Balance/Output Level Key
Adjusts proportion of effect signal to direct signal.
Pressing this key alternately causes the current
balance and output level values to be displayed on
the LCD. The Parameter Increment/Decrement keys
are then used to adjust the displayed values.
Store Key
Stores any edited preset effect in a selected RAM
memory position (31 ~ 90).
Memory Increment/Decrement Keys
These keys select any desired memory number to
call a specific program or store an edited program
in the user memory area. The selected memory
number is shown on the MEMORY NUMBER display.
When a new memory number is called, the
MEMORY number display will flash until either the
STORE or RECALL function is activated.
Recall Key
Press this key to recall the program that resides in
the selected memory number.
Utility Key
Multi-purpose key accesses MIDI control functions,
facilitates program title editing and sets footswitch
memory control range. See pages 8 and 9 for details.
Foot Trigger Key
When this key is pressed and its LED is ON, the
footswitch connected to the Memory/Trigger jack
functions as a foot trigger for the GATE and FREEZE
programs, rather than for memory selection.
Bypass Key
When this key is pressed, the effect signal is shut
off and only the direct signal will be output. Direct
signal level is affected by the INPUT LEVEL control
setting.
Memory/Trigger Footswitch Jack
Facilitates remote memory selection via optional
footswitch. The range of memory locations to be
recalled by the footswitch can be set with a Utility
program. When the foot trigger function (above) is
ON, the footswitch connected to this jack acts as
a trigger footswitch rather than memory control. Use
of a Yamaha FC5 Foot Controller is recommended.
Bypass Footswitch Jack
Facilitates foot control of the BYPASS function
described above. A Yamaha FC-5 Foot Controller is
recommended.
REAR PANEL
Remote Control Connector
Permits remote access to SPX90 effect programs.
The optional remote control unit, model RC7, permits direct access to programs 1 through 7 and 31
through 37, while all other preset programs may be
accessed sequentially.
MIDI IN Connector
Permits SPX90 effect programs to be automatically selected via a MIDI signal. This connector must
be connected to the MIDI OUT connector of the
transmitting MIDI instrument via a standard MIDI
cable.
Output Level Selector (– 20 dB, + 4 dB)
Facilitates SPX90 source/line level (sensitivity)
matching.
This LED lights whenever
a remote control key is
pressed.
Preset keys.
It is possible to call user
programs when this LED
is lighted.
MIDI THRU Connector
Re-transmits MIDI data received at the MIDI IN connector to subsequent MIDI instruments.
When this key is
pressed, the USER LED
will light and it becomes
possible to select user
programs 31 through 37.
USER LED OFF
USER LED ON
— Preset programs —
— User programs —
1. REV 1 HALL
3 1 . User program
2. REV 2 ROOM
3 2 . User program
3. REV 2 VOCAL
3 3 . User program
4. REV 4 PLATE
34. User program
5. EARLY REFLECTION 1
35. User program
6. EARLY REFLECTION 2
36. User program
7. DELAY L, R
37. User program
Output Jacks (L and R)
These are standard mono 1/4” phone jacks which
deliver the direct and effect signal to subsequent
mixing or amplification equipment. Since the SPX90
offers stereo output, we recommend that the output signal be fed in stereo to a stereo sound system
in order to take full advantage of the superb stereo
effects provided. Output impedance is 600 ohms.
Input Level Selector ( – 20 dB, + 4 dB)
Permits SPX90 source/line level (sensitivity)
matching.
Input jack
This standard unbalanced mono 1/4” phone jack accepts the input signal to the SPX90. Input impedance is 10 k-ohms.
30. PARAMETRIC EQ
(Programs 8 through 30
selected sequentially by
pressing OTHERS/ -37key)
4
BASIC OPERATIONS
Before actually selecting or editing programs on your SPX90, make sure that all connections have been made properly, and that the INPUT LEVEL switch, OUTPUT LEVEL switch, and INPUT LEVEL control have been properly
set according to the source signal and equipment to which the SPX90 signal will be fed.
PRESET PROGRAM SELECTION
EDITING: CHANGING PARAMETERS
Your SPX90 is equipped with a selection of 30 outstanding preset effect programs which are listed in the ROM
CONTENTS AND CONTROLABLE PARAMETERS on
page 24. The preset (and user) programs are selected
as follows:
1. Use MEMORY INCREMENT/DECREMENT keys to
select desired memory number (remember, 1
through 30 are the presets).
The SPX90 offers incredible sonic flexibility, as each
effect type comprises its own set of parameters (see
parameter chart on page 24). These parameters can be
adjusted to suit your tastes and the tonal characteristics
of your musical equipment. We therefore recommend
that you examine each preset effect program, and
observe how these parameters affect the sound. You
will soon discover many new and exciting applications
for the SPX90’s preset effect programs.
2. Press RECALL key to call program in selected
memory number.
1. Select and recall desired program as described
above.
2. Press PARAMETER key to access the various
parameters available in the selected program. Each
time the PARAMETER key is pressed, the next
parameter in the list is called.
NOTE: The same process is used to select user pro
grams (memory number 31 through 90) once
you have edited and stored your own programs
in user memory.
5
3. Use PARAMETER INCREMENT/DECREMENT keys
to set desired value of the selected parameter.
STORE: SAVING EDITED PROGRAMS
Once you’ve edited parameters on a preset program,
those changes will remain in effect only until you select
(RECALL) another program. The STORE function,
however, allows you to save the edited program in any
one of the user memory locations — from 31 to
90 — from which it can then be recalled at any time.
1. Select and edit a program as described above.
2. Use the MEMORY INCREMENT/DECREMENT keys
to select a clear memory location between 31 and
90.
3. Press the STORE key.
NOTE: A description of each parameter and its effect
will be given in the PROGRAMMABLE PARAMETERS section, beginning on page 10.
The edited program has now been stored in the selected
user memory location. The stored program may now
be recalled at any time by following the normal program
selection procedure.
NOTE: If you attempt to store a program in one of
the read-only preset locations (1 through 30),
the SPX90 will display the “# 1 ~ # 30 READ
ONLY” error message.
: SPX90 has an Edit Title Function, so you can
which allows you to provide your own titles for
edited programs. (See the UTILITY function on
page 8.)
6
OUTPUT BALANCE AND LEVEL
PROGRAMMING
The BALANCE key selects the BALANCE and OUTPUT
LEVEL functions for all programs.
1. Press the BALANCE key while any parameter is
selected.
2. The first function called will be BALANCE. Adjust
the BALANCE of the effected and direct signal between 0 and 100% using the PARAMETER INCREMENT/DECREMENT keys.
* Balance = 100% : effect sound only.
Balance = 0% : direct sound only.
3. Press the BALANCE key again to call the OUTPUT
LEVEL function. Adjust using the PARAMETER INCREMENT/DECREMENT keys.
* OUT LVL = 100% : maximum output level.
OUT LVL = 0% : no sound will be output.
7
BYPASS
When the BYPASS key is pressed and its LED lights,
the effect signal is defeated and only the direct input
signal is delivered via the OUTPUT jacks. The BALANCE
and OUTPUT LEVEL functions are also bypassed.
The BYPASS function can also be activated via a
footswitch connected to the BYPASS jack. A normallyclosed-type footswitch such as the Yamaha FC-5 must
be used.
UTILITY FUNCTIONS
The UTILITY key provides access to four utility functions. These functions are selected in the following sequence each time the UTILITY key is pressed:
MIDI CONTROL
Normal mode
EDIT TITLE
MIDI PROGRAM CHANGE
FOOTSWITCH
MEMORY RECALL
Normal mode.
The UTILITY key LED will light during selection of the
four utility functions, and will go out when the normal
mode is returned to. When the UTILITY LED is ON, the
PARAMETER and MEMORY NUMBER INCREMENT/
DECREMENT keys will perform special functions as
described below, so normal parameter and memory
selection can not be performed until the normal mode
is selected.
EDIT TITLE
This function makes it possible to provide new titles
for programs which you have edited and stored in user
memory (31 through 90). When the EDIT TITLE function is called, the lower line of the LCD will display the
“EDIT TITLE” function name, and the upper line will
display the title of the currently selected program.
The PARAMETER and BALANCE keys can then be used to move the cursor left and right, respectively, to
select the character to be changed. Place the cursor
over a character, then use the PARAMETER INCREMENT/DECREMENT keys to scroll through the
character list, stopping at the desired character. Move
the cursor to the next character location and repeat this
operation until the new title is complete.
The available characters are as follows:
MIDI FUNCTIONS
With the SPX90 it is possible to select specific programs via external MIDI control. For example, you can
set the SPX90 so that when you select a specific voice
on your MIDI synthesizer, the most appropriate effect
program for that voice is selected automatically. In this
case, the SPX90 is detecting the MIDI Program Change
signal. For the following programs only, the SPX90 also
detects the MIDI Note ON/OFF signal:
* GATE programs (GATE ON/OFF).
* PITCH programs (sets pitch).
* FREEZE programs (begin playback).
For MIDI program change operation, it is possible to program four independent sets of program change/memory
number combinations. These are referred to as “banks”
in the SPX90. For example, you could program the four
banks with different combinations as shown in the
chart below.
The second function accessed by the UTILITY key —
MIDI CNTRL — permits BANK selection and setting of
the MIDI channel number on which MIDI program
change data for that BANK will be received. The third
function accessed by the UTILITY key — MIDI PGM
CHANGE — makes it possible to set the SPX memory
number which will be called when a specific MIDI program change number is received.
8
MIDI Bank and Channel Programming
When this function is called, the LCD will appear as
follows:
Use the PARAMETER INCREMENT/DECREMENT keys
to select the desired BANK, and the MEMORY INCREMENT/DECREMENT keys to select the desired MIDI
channel number for that BANK. When “CH = OMNI”
is selected, reception will be carried out on all 16 MIDI
channels simultaneously. When CH = OFF is selected,
MIDI reception will be turned OFF.
Use the PARAMETER INCREMENT/DECREMENT keys
to set the MIDI program number (PGM), and the
MEMORY INCREMENT/DECREMENT keys to select the
SPX90 memory number (MEM) to be called when that
program number is received. For example, if “PGM
12 = MEM 4” is set, SPX90 memory number 4 will
automatically be called whenever voice number 12 is
selected on your MIDI synthesizer.
The MIDI program number range is from 1 to 128, while
the SPX90 memory number range is from 1 to 90.
FOOTSWITCH MEMORY RECALL
RANGE
The SPX90 permits memory number selection via a
footswitch plugged into the front-panel MEMORY/
TRIGGER jack. The fourth function accessed by the
UTILITY key — FOOTSWITCH MEMORY RECALL —
permits setting the range of memory numbers to be
selected via the footswitch.
If, for example, the RANGE is set to “1 TO 30” as
shown on the LCD above, each press on the footswitch
will successively call the next highest memory number:
1
2
3 . . . . . . . . 30
1. Note that the sequence
returns to the first number in the range once the highest
number is passed. Reverse sequences can be programmed by entering the highest number in the range
before the lowest.
Setting MIDI Program Number/SPX90 Memory Number
Combinations.
When this function is called by pressing the utility key
again the LCD will appear as follows:
In this case the sequence is: 34
34, etc.
9
33
32
31
DESCRIPTION OF PROGRAMS AND PARAMETERS
The preset programs in the SPX90 fall into the following types: REV (Reverb), ER1 and ER2 (Early Reflections),
DELAY, ECHO, MOD (Modulation), GATE, PITCH, FREEZE, PAN, VIBRATO and PEQ (parametric equalizer). Each
of these program types has a specific selection of programmable parameters.
“Parameters” indicates the separate, individual functions that make up each effect. There are two types of parameters
in the SPX90: “invisible” parameters (non-programmable, fixed-value parameters) and programmable parameters
(those you can edit, or modify).
Most commonly associated with-musical “ambience,”
reverberation is a result of myriad reflected sound
waves within an acoustical environment, i.e. a concert
hall, auditorium, or soundstage. The SPX90 creates extremely vibrant, natural sounding reverb.
1. REVERBERATION TIME (R/T). Range: 0.3 ~ 99.0
sec
The length of the time it takes for the level of
reverberation at 1 kHz to decrease by 60 dBvirtually to silence. In a live setting, this depends on
several factors: room size, room shape, type of
reflective surfaces, among others.
2. HIGH (High Frequency Reverb Time Ratio). Range:
0.1 ~ 1.0
Natural reverberation varies according to the frequency of the sound — the higher the frequency, the
more the sound tends to be absorbed by walls, furnishings, and even air. This parameter permits you
to alter the reverberation time of the high frequencies in proportion to the mid-frequency reverb time.
3. DELAY. Range: 0.1 ~ 50.0 msec
For a listener in a concert hall; there is a time delay
between the direct sound of the instrument, and the
first of the many reflected sounds that together are
known as reverberation. On the SPX90, this is
known as the DELAY time.
4. HPF (High Pass Filter). Range: THRU, 32 Hz ~
1 kHz
Permits cutting the low frequency content of the
reverb signal below the set frequency. When set to
THRU, the HPF is OFF.
5. LPF (Low Pass Filter). Range: 1 kHz ~ 11 kHz,
THRU
Permits cutting the high frequency content of the
reverb signal above the set frequency. When set to
THRU, the LFP is OFF.
“Early Reflection” effects. ER1 has fewer reflections, and is a LOW DENSITY early reflection effect,
while ER2 has more reflections, and is a HIGH DENSITY early reflection effect.
1. TYPE. Range: HALL, RANDOM, PLATE, REVERSE
TYPE selects the pattern of the earliest reflections
of the reverb sound. All “Early Reflection” presets
are switchable between 4 different types. These are
HALL (a typical grouping of early reflections that
would occur in a performing environment like a hall),
RANDOM (an irregular series of reflections that
could not occur naturally), PLATE (a typical grouping of early reflections that would occur in a plate
reverb unit), and REVERSE (a series of reflections
that increase in level, like the effect produced by
playing a recorded reverb/echo backwards). See the
E/R Mode chart on page 26.
2. ROOM SIZE. RANGE: 1.0 ~ 20.0
The ROOM SIZE parameter sets the time “gaps”
between the early reflections — directly proportionate to the size of the room. The effect of this
parameter also depends on which Early Reflection
mode has been selected. A Room Size Chart can be
found on page 27 in this manual.
3. LIVENESS. Range: 0 ~ 10
Refers to the rate at which the reflected sounds
fade. Set this parameter at zero to simulate an
acoustically “dead” room, with absorbent surfaces
to “soak up” the reflected sounds. As you increase
the setting, the room appears to contain more “live”
surfaces, with the reflected sounds fading more
slowly, as they reflect from wall to wall, until at the
maximum setting the effect is of an intensely reflective environment containing many highly polished
surfaces (tiles, glass, etc).
4. DELAY. Range: 0.1 ~ 400 msec
The time delay between the direct sound of the instrument and the first reflection to reach the
listener’s ear.
5. LPF Range: 1 kHz ~ 11 kHz, THRU
Same function as the LPF parameter of the pro10
grams.
This effect, commonly used in contemporary recordings, produces independently variable left- and rightchannel signal delays. The result is an intriguing “doubled” sound.
1. LEFT CHANNEL DELAY TIME. Range: 0.1 ~ 500.0
msec
Permits highly accurate setting of the left channel
delay following the direct sound.
2. LEFT CHANNEL FEEDBACK GAIN. Range:
– 99% ~ + 99%
Sets the amount of delay signal fed back to the input circuitry. The higher the feedback gain setting
the greater the number of delay repeats produced.
A negative value setting produces out of phase
feedback.
3. RIGHT CHANNEL DELAY TIME. Range: 0.1 ~ 500.0
msec
Sets the delay time of the right channel.
4. RIGHT CHANNEL FEEDBACK GAIN. Range: – 99%
~+99%
Permits setting the feedback gain setting of the right
channel delay.
5. HIGH (FEEDBACK HIGH). Range: 0.1 ~ 1.0
Controls feedback of the high-frequency range. The
high frequency feedback is reduced as the value of
this parameter is reduced.
Similar to Delay, Echo brings added dimension and force
to both instrumental and vocal music. While Reverberation recreates an abundance of partial sound reflections, and Delay produces a limited number of signal
repetitions, Echo can produce limitless signal
repetitions.
1. LEFT CHANNEL DELAY TIME. Range: 0.1 ~ 250.0
msec
After this delay time has elapsed, the first echo will
appear. Subsequent echoes will appear at the same
time interval, the number of echoes depending on
how the Feedback Gain parameter is set.
2. LEFT CHANNEL FEEDBACK GAIN. Range: – 99%
~ + 99%
This parameter permits adjustment of the number
of echoes that follow the direct signal, from zero to
a virtually infinite repeat at the maximum setting.
The overall decay time of the effect is proportionate
to the Feedback Gain setting.
3. RIGHT CHANNEL DELAY TIME. Range: 0.1 ~ 250.0
msec
4. RIGHT CHANNEL FEEDBACK GAIN. Range: – 99%
~ + 99%
Parameter 3 and 4 have the same function as those
of 1 and 2 but the signal will be produced from the
Right output.
5. HIGH (FEEDBACK HIGH). Range: 0.1 ~ 1.0
Determines the portion of high frequency feedback.
The lower the value, the less high frequency is
produced.
11
STEREO FLANGE
CHORUS
A combination of Delay and LFO (Low Frequency
Oscillation) modulation, the popular Flanging effect can
dramatically thicken the sound of keyboard instruments, or produce the “aircraft” sound popular
among guitarists. Basically, a short delay time is varied
with LFO modulation so that the delayed signal moves
in relation to the direct signal. The resultant variations
in pitch and stereo imaging are known as “flanging”.
With the Chorus effect, a violin, keyboard, or guitar can
sound like an entire ensemble. Chorusing splits the incoming signal into three signals placed at the center,
left, and right in the stereo image. Each signal is delayed
slightly, and then its delay time and level are modulated
by the LFO (Low Frequency Oscillator).
1. MOD FREQ. Range: 0.1 ~ 20.0 Hz
Sets the speed of modulation, and hence the rate
at which the effect varies.
1. MOD FREQ. Range: 0.1 ~ 20.0 Hz
Sets the delay time modulation speed (frequency).
2. MOD DEPTH. Range: 0 ~ 100%
This sets the amount of delay time variation, thus
adjusting the “depth” of the effect. At the maximum setting, the delay time is varied by +/4 msec.
3. MOD DELAY TIME. Range: 0.1 ~ 100 msec
This sets the basic delay time from the initial direct
sound to the flange effect. When set to lower than
1 msec, more high-frequency variation is produced,
while a setting higher than 3 msec will create more
low-frequency variation.
2. DELAY MODULATION DEPTH. Range: 0 ~ 100%
This sets the amount by which the delay time of one
delay signal is varied in relation to the other. At the
maximum setting, the delay time is varied by +/4 msec.
3. AMPLITUDE MODULATION DEPTH. Range: 0 ~
100%
This sets the amount by which the amplitude (level)
of the input signal is varied.
4. F. B. GAIN. Range: 0 ~ 99%
Sets the amount of flange signal which is fed back
into the circuit for further modulation. This controls
the complexity of the effect, its “strength,” and its
overall decay time.
12
STEREO PHASING
The SPX90 can produce a wide range of Phasing effects from a barely perceptible shift to a rapid pulsation. Phasing lends an animated quality to musical instrument and vocal recordings:
This effect has the same parameters as STEREO
FLANGE, except that the DELAY TIME range is from
0.1 to 8.0 msec and omits FB Gain.
TREMOLO
The TREMOLO effect operates in the same way as the
CHORUS effect, except that modulation is deeper and
the delay variation is greater. Refer to STEREO FLANGE
for the description of the parameters.
SYMPHONIC
The programmable parameters for this preset are identical to those for the Stereo Flange preset, omitting
FEEDBACK GAIN and MOD DELAY.
This program is used to change the pitch of an input
signal. Pitch can be changed in semitone increments
over a plus/minus one-octave range. Fine adjustment
of pitch in one-cent (1/100th of a semitone) increments/decrements is also possible.
Pitch change programs B and C permit setting two different pitches. This makes it possible to produce harmonizer type effects (i.e. when you play a note the
SPX90 outputs two additional notes), or, if only a slight
pitch difference is used, chorus-type effects are
created.
Pitch change programs A and D permit the application
of feedback so that an echo that changes in pitch with
each repeat can be produced. Programs A and D further permit pitch control via the MIDI IN connector. Any
MIDI synthesizer, such as the Yamaha DX7, can be used to alter the pitch setting of the program by simply
playing the appropriate note on the synthesizer
keyboard.
PITCH CHANGE
FEEDBACK
MIDI PITCH
CONTROL
PITCH CHANGE A
1 TONE
YES
YES
PITCH CHANGE B
2 TONES
(CENTER)
NO
NO
PITCH CHANGE C
2 TONES
(1 EACH IN
L & R CH.)
NO
NO
PITCH CHANGE D
1 TONE
YES
YES
PROGRAM
1. PITCH. Range: – 12 ~ + 12
Sets the degree of pitch change in semitone steps.
+ 12 corresponds to an output pitch one octave
higher than the input pitch, and – 12 produces an
output pitch one octave lower than the input pitch.
2. FINE. Range: – 100 ~ + 100
Adjusts pitch in one-cent increments or decrements.
3. DELAY Range: 0.1 ~ 400 msec (A, B, D), 0.1 ~ 200
msec (C)
Sets the delay between the direct (input signal) and
the pitch-changed output signal.
4. F. B. GAIN. Range: 0 ~ 99% (A, D only)
The higher this setting, the more echo repeats are
produced (each changed in pitch from the previous
repeat).
5. BASE KEY. Range: OFF, C1 ~ C6 (A, D only)
This parameter sets the “BASE KEY” for an external MIDI synthesizer used to control the pitch varia-
13
tion of the PITCH CHANGE program. For example,
if BASE KEY = C4, then pressing the C3 key on the
synthesizer keyboard will set the pitch change value
to – 12 (one octave down). Pressing D4 on the
keyboard would produce a pitch increase of one tone
(+ 2). If a key more than one octave higher or lower
than the BASE KEY is pressed, the resultant pitch
change setting will still be within the + 12 to – 12
range, as shown in the following illustration.
If the BASE KEY setting is OFF, pitch can not be controlled via the MIDI IN terminal.
The FREEZE programs permit “recording” up to a
500-millisecond signal in the SPX90 memory; and playing it back as required. The FREEZE programs have two
basic steps: RECORD and PLAY.
With the FREEZE A program it is possible to program
a specific segment of the recorded 500-millisecond
signal to be replayed by programming the START and
END points.
The FREEZE B program does not permit programming
START and END points, but the pitch of the recorded
signal can be changed for playback.
1. REC. MODE Selection. Range: Manual, Auto
Press the Parameter key and select the Manual mode
with the Parameter Increment key or AUTO Mode
by pressing the Parameter Decrement key.
In the MANUAL mode a Parameter Increment panel
key is pressed to begin recording, while in the AUTO
mode recording begins automatically when the
SPX90 detects an input signal.
2. TRIGGER DELAY Parameter. Range: – 500 ~ 500
msec.
This parameter determines the actual point at which
recording begins in relation to the trigger signal. If
TRG DLY is set at 0, recording begins immediately
when the FREEZE function is triggered. If a negative
TRG DLY value is set the input signal is delayed so
that in effect recording begins before the function
is triggered.
3 . RECORDING
After the desired MODE has been set, press the
PARAMETER key and the LCD will display the
“RECORD” message. Then, enter the standby mode
by pressing the PARAMETER DECREMENT key. The
LCD will display the “REC READY” message.
14
TRIGGERING

MANUAL Mode
To actually begin recording if the MANUAL mode
has been selected, press the PARAMETER INCREMENT key. The SPX90 will record for 500
milliseconds.
Also the optional foot switch FC-5 can be used.
Connect the FC-5 to the MEMORY/TRIGGER
Foot Switch Jack and press the FOOT TRIGGER
Key. Then FC-5 works as the trigger switch when
it is pressed.

AUTO Mode
If the AUTO mode has been selected, the SPX90
will automatically begin recording when an input signal of sufficient level is detected.
The LCD displays “TRIGGER!” when the freeze
function is triggered.
When the recording begins the LCD displays
“......”.
The freeze (recording) ends automatically after
500msec and the display says “OK”.
4. OVERDUB Recording
To “overdub,” or record new material without erasing the previously recorded material, use the following procedure.
1. Press the PARAMETER key until the OVERDUB
display appears.
2. Press the PARAMETER DECREMENT key. This
sets the record ready status, and recording will
begin as soon as a trigger signal is received.

FREEZE operation
* To begin recording again, press
the parameter decrement key to enter
the Rec Ready Mode.
15
5. PLAYBACK
To play back the recorded material, press the
PARAMETER key to enter the playback standby
mode. The LCD will display the “PLAY” message.
To actually play the recording, press the
PARAMETER INCREMENT/DECREMENT key. The
recorded material will be played each time the
PARAMETER INCREMENT/DECREMENT key is
pressed.
To program a specific segment of the recording to be
played back in the FREEZE A program, set the START
and END parameters to appropriate values (0 ~ 500).
The example below depicts how the START and END
parameters affect output.
START/END POINTS
Another way to trigger playback is to use the Input Trigger Parameter. Select the Input Trigger Parameter and
press the parameter Increment key to enter the standby mode. Playback will be automatically triggered when
the input signal exceeds nominal level.
The FREEZE B program PITCH and FINE parameters
function identically to those in the PITCH CHANGE program to change the pitch of the playback signal.
Playback start and stop can be triggered by the
PARAMETER INCREMENT/DECREMENT keys, foot
switch or via a MIDI keyboard connected to the MIDI
IN connector. With the FREEZE B program, playing a
key on the MIDI keyboard produces the corresponding
pitch change in the playback output, and triggers
playback.
PLAYBACK SIGNAL
“GOOD LUCK”
“OOD LUCK”
“LUCK”
“OD LU”
“LUCK GOOD”
Playback can also be triggered by a footswitch connected to the front-panel MEMORY/FOOT TRIGGER
jack when the FOOT TRIGGER key is pressed and its
LED is ON. A MIDI keyboard connected to the MIDI IN
terminal can also be used to trigger playback — simply
play a note on the keyboard.
16
This program feeds the reverb signal through a gate circuit, making it possible to output only a segment of a
longer reverb sound. Parameters provided for the reverb
portion of the signal are REV TIME, HIGH, DELAY, HPF
and LPF, while parameters for the gate portion are
HOLD TIME, RELEASE TIME, and MIDI TRIGGER.
ADR-NOISE GATE
This program uses a gate circuit to pass or shut off the
input signal in a number of ways. It can be used to pass
just a short segment of a longer input signal, or it can
be used to pass only signals that exceed a specific level
(noise-gate type operation). It is also possible to achieve
reverse gate effects in which the gain increases
gradually after the gate is triggered.
In addition to signal-level triggering, it is also possible
to trigger the gate via a footswitch connected to the
front-panel MEMORY TRIGGER jack when the FOOT
TRIGGER key LED is ON.
1 . REVERB TIME (R/T). Range: 0.3 ~ 99.0 sec
2. HIGH (High Frequency Reverb Time Ratio
Range: 0.1 ~ 1.0
3. DELAY. Range: 0.1 ~ 50.0 msec
4 . HPF (High Pass Filter). Range: 32 Hz ~ 1.0 kHz,
THRU
5. LPF (Low Pass Filter). Range: 1.0 kHz ~ 11 kHz
All these parameters have the same function as
those of the REV programs. See page 10 for details.
6. TRIGGER LEVEL. Range: 0 ~ 100%
Determines the strength (amplitude) of the input
signal required to trigger opening of the gate. At
100%, only extremely high-level input signals will
trigger the gate, while at 0% even this slightest input signal will trigger the gate.
7. HOLD TIME. Range: 1 ~ 30,000 msec
This parameter sets the amount of time the gate is
“open,” allowing the reverb sound to come through.
8. RELEASE TIME. Range: 5 ~ 32,000 msec
This parameter determines the time it takes for the
gate to close completely after the HOLD TIME.
9. MIDI TRIGGER. Range: ON, OFF
When ON, a KEY ON signal from an external MIDI
keyboard can be used to trigger the R & G effect.
17
1. TRIGGER LEVEL. Range: 1 ~ 100%
Determines the strength (amplitude) of the input
signal required to trigger opening of the gate. At
100%, only extremely high level input signals will
trigger the gate, while at 0% even the slightest input signal will trigger the gate.
2. TRIGGER DELAY. Range: – 100 ~ 100 msec
Produces a delay between the time at which the
gate is triggered and that at which it actually opens.
If a minus value is programmed, the input signal
itself is delayed so that, effectively, the gate opens
before the signal appears.
3. TRIGGER MASK. Range: 5 ~ 32,000 msec
This parameter makes it impossible to re-trigger the
gate function until the programmed time has
elapsed.
4. ATTACK TIME. Range: 5 msec ~ 32,000 msec
Determines how long it takes for the gate to open
fully from the time it begins to open.
5. DECAY TIME. Range: 5 msec ~ 32,000 msec
Determines the length of time it takes for the gate
to fall to DECAY LEVEL after it is fully open.
6. DECAY LEVEL. Range: 0 ~ 100%
Determines the level at which the gate remains open
for the HOLD TIME. The lower the value the lower
the HOLD gate level.
7. HOLD TIME. Range: 1 msec ~ 30,000 msec
Determines how long the gate stays open, allowing
the input signal to pass.
COMPRESSOR
The COMPRESSOR effect reduces the level of the attack
portion of a music signal and keeps overall signal level
within narrow limits.
8. RELEASE TIME. Range: 5 msec ~ 32,000 msec
Determines how long it takes for the gate to close
fully from the time it begins to close.
9. MIDI TRIGGER. Range: ON, OFF
When ON, a KEY ON signal from an external MIDI
keyboard can be used to trigger the gate.
1. TRIGGER LEVEL. Range: 1 ~ 100%
Determines the strength of the attack signal required
to trigger the compressor effect.
2. TRIGGER DELAY. Range: – 100 ~ 100 msec
Produces a delay between the time at which the effect is triggered and that at which the compression
actually begins. If a negative value is programmed,
the input signal is delayed so that effectively, the
compression begins before the signal appears.
3. TRIGGER MASK. Range: 5 ~ 32,000 msec
This parameter makes it impossible to re-trigger the
compressor function until the programmed time has
elapsed.
4. ATTACK TIME. Range: 5 msec ~ 32,000 msec
Determines how long it takes until the HOLD level
(below) is reached after the effect is triggered.
5. HOLD TIME. Range: 1 msec ~ 30,000 msec
Determines how long the maximum compression effect is maintained after the ATTACK TIME has
elapsed.
6. HOLD LEVEL. Range: 0 ~ 100%
Determines the actual level to which all input signals
will be compressed during the HOLD TIME. The
smaller the value, the lower the level of the output
signal.
7. RELEASE TIME. Range: 5 msec ~ 32,000 msec
Determines how long it takes to return to normal
level once the HOLD TIME has elapsed.
8. MIDI TRIGGER. Range: ON, OFF
When ON, a KEY ON signal from an external MIDI
keyboard can be used to trigger the compressor
effect.
18
AUTO PAN
TRIGGERED PAN
This program automatically pans the sound image between left and right in the stereo sound field. Pan direction, speed, and phase can be programmed.
In this program the pan effect is triggered by the input
signal or footswitch.
1. PAN SPEED. Range: 0.1 ~ 20.0 Hz
Sets the speed of pan.
2. DIRECTION. Range: L
R, L
R, L
Determines the direction of pan.
R
3. DEPTH. Range: 0 ~ 100%
Sets the degree of level variation. The higher the
value, the stronger the pan effect.
1. TRIGGER LEVEL. Range: 1 ~ 100%
Determines the strength of the attack signal required
to trigger the pan effect. The higher the value, the
higher the input signal level required to trigger the
effect.
2. TRIGGER DELAY. Range: – 100 ~ 100 msec
Produces a delay between the time at which the effect is triggered and that at which the pan effect actually begins. If a negative value is programmed, the
input signal is delayed so that effectively, the pan
effect begins before the signal appears.
3. TRIGGER MASK. Range: 5 ~ 32,000 msec
This parameter makes it impossible to re-trigger the
pan function until the programmed time has elapsed.
4. ATTACK TIME. Range: 5 mec ~ 32 sec
Determines how quickly or slowly the pan effect
reaches maximum depth after it is triggered.
5. PANNING TIME. Range: 5 msec ~ 32 sec
Determines how long the maximum-depth pan effect remains active.
6. RELEASE TIME. Range: 5 msec ~ 32 sec
Determines how long it takes for the pan effect to
fade out after the PANNING TIME has elapsed.
7. DIRECTION. Range: L
R, L
Sets the direction of pan.
R
8. L/R BALANCE. Range: 0 ~ 100%
Determines the volume balance between the left and
right channels.
9. MIDI TRIGGER. Range: ON, OFF
When ON, a KEY ON signal from an external MIDI
keyboard can be used to trigger the pan effect.
NOTE: To use footswitch FC-5, connect the FC-5 to
the MEMORY/TRIGGER FOOT Switch Jack and
press the Foot Trigger key.
19
This program makes it possible to add delay vibrato effects to virtually any instrument or sound. When the
input signal exceeds a programmed trigger level, the
vibrato effect is cancelled and then gradually builds up
to the programmed depth.
This program permits variation of the input signal frequency response over an extremely broad range.
1. TRIGGER LEVEL. Range: 1 ~ 100%
Determines the input signal level at which the
vibrato effect is cancelled and begins to build up
again.
2. VIBRATO DELAY. Range: 1 ~ 30,000 msec
Determines how long the vibrato effect is cancelled once triggered.
3. VIBRATO RISE TIME. Range: 5 msec ~ 32,000
msec
Determines how long it takes for the vibrato effect
to reach maximum depth after the VIBRATO DELAY
time has elapsed.
4. VIBRATO FREQUENCY. Range: 0.1 ~ 20.0 Hz
This parameter sets the frequency (speed) of the
vibrato effect.
5. VIBRATO DEPTH. Range: 0 ~ 100%
Sets the depth (strength) of the vibrato effect.
6. MIDI TRIGGER. Range: ON, OFF
When ON, a KEY ON signal from an external MIDI
keyboard can be used to trigger the vibrato effect.
1. HPF. Range: THRU, 32 Hz ~ 1.0 kHz.
This sets the cutoff frequency of the high-pass filter.
Frequencies below the set frequency are rolled off
at a rate of 6 dB/octave. When set to THRU, the HPF
is OFF.
2. MID FRQ. Range: 315 Hz ~ 4.0 kHz
Determines the center frequency of the midrange
equalization band. The midrange frequency can be
set in 1/6 octave increments.
3. MID GAIN. Range: – 15 ~ + 15 dB
Determines the amount of boost or cut applied to the
midrange equalization band.
4. MID Q. Range: 0.5 ~ 5.0
Sets the “Q” (Quality factor = bandwidth) of the
midrange EQ band. The higher the value, the narrower the bandwidth.
5. HI FRQ. Range: 800 Hz ~ 8.0 kHz
Determines the center frequency of the highfrequency equalization band.
6. HI GAIN. Range: – 15 ~ + 15 dB
Determines the amount of boost or cut applied to
the high-frequency equalization band.
7. HI Q. Range: 0.5 ~ 5.0
Sets the “Q” (Quality factor = bandwidth) of the
high EQ band. The higher the value, the narrower
the bandwidth.
8. LPF. Range: 1 kHz ~ 11 kHz, THRU
Determines the cutoff frequency of the low-pass
filter.
9. DELAY. Range: 0.1 ~ 400.0 msec
Sets the delay time of equalized signal following the
direct signal.
20
SAMPLE APPLICATIONS
MIDI KEYBOARD PERFORMANCE SYSTEM
In this system the SPX90 is connected immediately following a MIDI keyboard, and its output feeds either an instrument amplifier or sound
reinforcement mixing console. The MIDI OUT terminal of the keyboard is connected to the MIDI IN terminal of the SPX90, permitting automatic
selection of different effects programs for specific voices selected at the keyboard. The SPX90 is under direct control of the keyboard player
(rather than the mixing engineer) so he can produce exactly the effects he wants for each voice or musical selection.
In a multi-keyboard system the SPX90 could be patched into the effects loop of the keyboard mixer. The MIDI keyboards could be chained
MIDI IN
MIDI THRU
MIDI IN
MIDI THRU
together via the MIDI THRU terminals (MIDI OUT
etc.) with the SPX90 MIDI IN terminal
fed from the MIDI THRU terminal of the last keyboard in the chain. This way, all keyboards in the system could be used for MIDI effect selection.
(SYSTEM DIAGRAM 1)
BASIC SOUND REINFORCEMENT SYSTEM
The SPX90 is an excellent addition to the small to medium size sound reinforcement system. Its input can be fed from either a mono effects
send or auxilliary send bus on the mixing console, and its stereo outputs can be fed back to the corresponding effects or auxilliary return inputs
on the console. Assuming the console used has independent effects or auxilliary send level controls on each input channel, it is possible to
add the required amount of SPX90 effect to each input. It is also possible to use two SPX90 units for full stereo reverb and effects in a larger system.
(SYSTEM DIAGRAM 2)
21
RECORDING SYSTEM
In a recording system it is most desirable to have the SPX90 input and outputs available at a patch bay where they may accessed and patched
into virtually any part of the system. In some cases it might be best to have the SPX90 connected directly in line between the source and the
mixing console inputs, while in other situations—final mixdown, for example—the SPX90 should be patched into the mixing console’s effects
loop so it may be applied to the entire mix. Naturally, the SPX90 is also an ideal choice for the truly modern digital sequencer recording system, too.
(SYSTEM DIAGRAM 3)
22
SPECIFICATIONS
INPUT
Number of Channels
Nominal Level
Impedance
Level Control
Level Monitor
Unbalanced x 1 (Phone Jack)
– 20 dBm/+4 dBm, Selectable
10 k-ohms
Volume, Max. Gain + 12 dB
7 points LED
A/D CONVERSION
Sampling Freq.
Quantization
Band Width
Number of Channels
31.25 kHz
Linear 16 Bit
20 Hz to 12 kHz
1
D/A CONVERSION
Number of Channels
Sampling Freq.
Quantization
Band Width
2
31.25 kHz
Linear 16 Bit
20 Hz to 12 kHz
OUTPUT
Number of Channels
Nominal Level
Impedance
Mixing
Bypass
Unbalanced x 2 (Phone Jack)
– 20 dBm/+4 dBm, Selectable
600 ohms
Direct Signal, Effect Signal
ON/OFF
MEMORY
Presets (ROM)
User Memory (RAM)
MIDI CONTROL
FRONT PANEL
Display
Knob
Keys
23
1~30
31 ~ 90 (Non Volatile)
All parameters except Input Level,
can be memorized
Key On triggers the program 18,
19, 20, 28 and 29
MIDI Channel (1 to 16, OMNI), (4
banks), Program Number (1 to
128)
Note on/off is recognized only for
pitch change A, D and freeze B
16 character 2 lines LCD x 1, 2
digits numeric LED for Memory
No., 7 points level meter LED
Input Level Volume
Parameter/Balance/Data Increment/Data Decrement, Memory
Store/ Recall/Data Increment/Data
Decrement, Utility/Foot Trigger/
Bypass
ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS
Reverb: more than 75 dB
Dynamic Range
Delay : more than 81 dB
Distortion
Bypassed Signal: less than
0.01%
Effect Signal
: less than
0.03%
Bypassed Signal: 20 Hz to 20
Band Width
kHz
Effect Signal
: 20 Hz to 12
kHz
POWER SUPPLY
U. S. & Canadian Models
General Model
110V – 120V, 60Hz
220V – 240V, 50/60Hz
POWER CONSUMPTION
U. S. & Canadian Models
General Model
20W
20W
DIMENSIONS
(W x H x D)
480mm x 45.2mm x 285mm
(18-7/8” x 1-3/4” x 11-1/4”)
WEIGHT
3.2 kg (7 Ibs)
OPTIONAL REMOTE CONTROL
(model RC7)
PRESET PROGRAM 1 ~ 30, USER
MEMORY 31 ~ 37
* NOTE: Since natural sounding reverberation is mixed with the
direct sound, and hence does not constitute 100% of the
sound, the effective dynamic range will nearly always exceed
90 dB.
** 0 dBu is 0.775 volts RMS. This value represents voltage across
a high impedance input. dBu is the equivalent of dBu if specified
across a 600 ohm load.
ROM CONTENTS AND CONTROLABLE PARAMETERS
24
25
ROOM SIZE CHART
EARLY REFLECTION MODE CHART
26
27
EARLY REFLECTION MODE CHART
26
ROOM SIZE CHART
27
BLOCK DIAGRAM
DIMENSIONS
28
USER PROGRAMMING TABLE
Program No.
Type
Progaram Title
Parameter
New Value
Parameter
New Value
Parameter
New Value
Remarks
Program No.
Type
Progaram Title
Parameter
Remarks
29
New Value
[ Digital Sound Processor ]
Date : 10/5, 1985
Model SPX90
MIDI Implementation Chart Version : 1.0
Function . . .
Basic
Default
Channel Changed
Recognized
1-16
1-16
memorized
memorized
Mode
Default
Messages
Altered
OMNI OFF/OMNI ON
x
x
Note
Number
True voice
o Ø - 127
x
Velocity Note ON
Note OFF
x
x
After
Touch
x
x
Key's
Ch's
Pitch Bender
Remarks
1
x
x
Control
Change
Prog
Change
True #
o
System Exclusive
o
System
x
x
x
Common
Song Pos
Song Sel
Tune
System
Real Time
Aux
Message
Notes
Clock
Commands
x
x
Local ON/OFF
All Notes OFF
Active Sense
Reset
x
x
x
x
0-127
2
1 Note ON/OFF is recognized only for pitch
change and freeze B.
2 For program 1 - 128, memory #1 - #90 is
selected.
Mode 1 : OMNI ON, POLY
Mode 3 : OMNI OFF, POLY
Mode 2 : OMNI ON, MONO
Mode 4 : OMNI OFF, MONO
o : Yes
x : No
30
SINCE 1887
YAMAHA
NIPPON GAKKI CO., LTD. HAMAMATSU, JAPAN
SERVICE
The SPX90 is supported by Yamaha’s worldwide network
of factory trained and qualified dealer service personnel. In
the event of a problem, contact your nearest Yamaha dealer.
OMD-163
85124
printed in Japan