Emerson Fluid Chiller Troubleshooting guide

Technical
Help Guide
Thermal Expansion Valves
Electronic Valves & Controls
Solenoid Valves
System Protectors
Regulators
Oil Controls
Temperature Pressure Controls
Basic Rules of Good Practice
Troubleshooting Guide
2014
Introduction
This Technical Guide from Emerson Climate Technologies provides a detailed
explanation on the operation of common refrigeration system components such
as thermal expansion valves, solenoid valves, system protectors, regulators, oil
controls and temperature pressure controls. Also included in this guide is a listing
of the basic rules of good practice and a detailed troubleshooting guide. This guide
is designed to fill a need which exists for a concise, elementary text to aid servicemen, salesmen, students and others interested in refrigeration and air conditioning.
It is intended to cover only the fundamentals of refrigeration and air conditioning
theory and practice. Detailed information for specific products is available from
manufacturers of complete units and accessories. Used to supplement such
literature, and to improve general knowledge of refrigeration and air conditioning,
this guide should prove to be very helpful.
Emerson Climate Technologies, a business of Emerson, is the world’s leading
provider of heating, ventilation, air conditioning and refrigeration solutions for
residential, industrial and commercial applications. The group combines best-inclass technology with proven engineering, design, distribution, educational and
monitoring services to provide customized, integrated climate-control solutions for
customers worldwide. Emerson Climate Technologies’ innovative solutions, which
include industry-leading brands such as Copeland Scroll® and White-Rodgers®,
improve human comfort, safeguard food and protect the environment.
Emerson Climate Technologies - Flow Controls Division is a leading manufacturer
of valves, controls and system protectors commonly applied in air conditioning and
refrigeration systems worldwide. The company continues to pioneer the control of
refrigerant flow through innovative, high performance components, such as thermal
expansion valves and filter driers.
Table of Contents
Thermal Expansion Valves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
Internal Equalizer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
Factory Setting of TXVs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
External Equalizer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
Superheat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
TXV Selection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
Application Tips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
Balanced Port TXVs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
M.O.P. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
Other TXV Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
Emerson TXVs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
Electronic Valves & Controls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
Electronic Valve Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
Parts Required for Electronic Valves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
Pressure Transmitter – PT4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
TXV Controller – EC3-X32 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
TXV Controller – EC3-X33 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
Universal Driver – EXD-U00 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
Electrical Control Valve – EX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
Component Selection Table . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
Solenoid Valves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
What are Solenoid Valves? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
Principles of Solenoid Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
Types of Solenoids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
Installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
Emerson Solenoid Valves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
System Protectors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
Filter driers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
HFC Refrigerants and POE Lubricants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
Clean-up Procedure for Compressor Motor Burnout . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
Emerson System Protectors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
Regulators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
Suction Line Regulators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
Applications of EPRs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
Crankcase Regulators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
Headmaster Pressure Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
Hot Gas Bypass . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
Liquid Injection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
Oil Controls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
Temperature Pressure Controls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
Basic Rules of Good Practice . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
Troubleshooting Guide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
Thermal Expansion
Valves
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Emerson Climate Technologies
Thermal Expansion Valves
Thermal Expansion Valves
is charged with the same refrigerant as that in the system.
The power assembly pressure (P1), which corresponds to the saturation pressure of the refrigerant gas
temperature leaving the evaporator, moves the TXV pin
in the opening direction.
Opposed to this opening force on the underneath
side of the diaphragm and acting in the closing direction are two forces: the force exerted by the evaporator
pressure (P2) and that exerted by the superheat spring
(P3). In the first condition, the TXV will assume a stable
control position when these three forces are in balance
(P1 = P2 + P3). See figure 1A.
The most commonly used device for controlling the
flow of liquid refrigerant into the evaporator is the thermostatic expansion valve (TXV). Also known as thermal
expansion valves, TXVs are precision devices designed
to regulate refrigerant liquid flow into the evaporator in
exact proportion to evaporation of refrigerant liquid in
the evaporator.
Refrigerant gas leaving the evaporator can be regulated since the TXV responds to the temperature of the
refrigerant gas leaving the evaporator and the pressure in the evaporator. This controlled flow prevents the
return of refrigerant liquid to the compressor. The TXV
controls the flow of refrigerant by maintaining a pre-determined superheat.
An orifice in the TXV meters the flow into the evaporator. Flow is modulated as required by a needle type
plunger and seat, which varies the orifice opening. The
needle is controlled by a diaphragm subject to three
forces:
1. The power element and remote bulb pressure (P1)
2. The evaporator pressure (P2)
3. The superheat spring equivalent pressure (P3)
These forces are shown in Figure 1.
If the temperature of the refrigerant gas at the
evaporator outlet (remote bulb location) rises above the
saturation temperature corresponding to the evaporator
pressure as it becomes superheated (P1 greater than
P2 + P3), the TXV pin moves in an opening direction.
When the temperature of the refrigerant gas leaving
the evaporator decreases, the pressure in the remote
bulb and power assembly also decreases and the combined evaporator and spring pressure cause the TXV pin
to move in a closing direction (P1 less than P2 + P3).
For example, when the evaporator is operating with
R-134a at a temperature of 40°F or a pressure of 35
psig and the refrigerant gas leaving the evaporator at
the remote bulb location is 45°F a condition of 10°F
superheat exists. Since the remote bulb and power assembly are charged with the same refrigerant as that
used in the system R-134a, its pressure (P1) will follow
its saturation pressure-temperature characteristics. With
the liquid in the remote bulb at 45°F, the pressure inside
the remote bulb and power assembly will be 40 psig
acting in an opening direction. Beneath the diaphragm
and acting in a closing direction are the evaporator pressure (P2) of 35 psig and the spring pressure (P3) for a
10°F superheat setting of 5 psig (35 psi + 5 psi = 40 psi)
making a total of 40 psig. The TXV is balanced, 40 psig
above and 40 psig below the diaphragm.
P1 = 45.4 PSIG
P2 = 35 PSIG
P3 = 10.4 PSIG
A
35 PSIG = 40°F
35 PSIG = 40°F
B
C
35 PSIG = 50°F
TXV with internal
equalizer on evaporator with
no pressure drop.
Fig. 1
The following sections describe the operation and application of single-outlet TXVs in two general categories:
internally equalized and externally equalized.
Internal Equalizer
Three conditions are present in the operation of a
TXV:
1. The balanced forces
2. An increase in superheat
3. A decrease in superheat
The remote bulb and power element make up a
closed system (power assembly), and in the following
discussion, it’s assumed that the power assembly
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Thermal Expansion Valves
Emerson Climate Technologies
External Equalizer
Changes in load cause the TXV pin to move:
• Increasing the superheat will cause the TXV to open
• Decreasing the superheat will cause the TXV to close
A TXV with an external equalizer is required when the
pressure drop through the evaporator is substantial:
• 3°F for residential air conditioning
• 2°F for commercial air conditioning
• 1°F for refrigeration low temperature range
This is because the pressure drop will hold the TXV
in a fairly “restricted” position and reduce system capacity. The evaporator should be designed or selected for
the operating conditions and the TXV selected and applied accordingly.
For example, an evaporator is fed by a TXV with an
internal equalizer, where a sizable pressure drop of 10
psi is present (See fig. 3). The pressure at point “C”
is 25 psig or 10 psi lower than at the TXV outlet, point
“A”, however, the pressure of 35 psig at point “A” is the
pressure acting on the lower side of the diaphragm in a
closing direction. With the TXV spring set at a compression equivalent to 10°F superheat or a pressure of 10.4
psig, the required pressure above the diaphragm to
equalize the forces is (35 + 10.4) or 45.4 psig. This pressure corresponds to a saturation temperature of 50°F.
The refrigerant temperature at point “C” must be 50°F
if the TXV is to be in equilibrium. Since the pressure at
this point is only 25 psig and the corresponding saturation temperature is 28°F, a superheat of (50°F - 29°F) or
21°F is required to open the TXV.
This increase in superheat, from 10°F to 21°F means
that more of the evaporator surface needs to be used
to produce this higher superheated refrigerant gas. The
evaporator surface available for absorption of heat is reduced and the evaporator is starved before the required
superheat is reached.
Factory Settings of TXVs
The factory superheat setting of TXVs is made with
the TXV pin just starting to move away from the seat.
The superheat necessary to get the pin ready to move is
called static superheat.
TXVs are designed so that an increase in superheat
of refrigerant gas leaving the evaporator is needed for
the TXV pin to open to its rated position.
This added superheat is known as gradient. For example, if the factory static is 6°F superheat, the operating superheat at the rated stroke or pin position (full load
rating of TXV) will be 10°F to 14°F superheat (See
fig. 2).
Manufacturers usually furnish the adjustable type
TXV with a factory static superheat setting of 6°F to
10°F unless otherwise specified.
When using non-adjustable TXVs, it’s important that
they are ordered with the correct factory superheat
setting. For manufacturer’s production lines it is recommended that an adjustable TXV be used in a pilot model
lab test to determine the correct factory superheat setting before ordering the non-adjustable type TXV.
If the operating superheat is raised unnecessarily
high, the evaporator capacity decreases, since more of
the evaporator surface is required to produce the superheat needed to operate the TXV.
A minimum change of superheat to open the TXV is
important because it provides savings in first cost of the
evaporator and cost of operation.
The TXV described so far is internally equalized,
where the evaporator pressure at the TXV outlet is
admitted internally and allowed to exert its force beneath
the diaphragm. In the next section the externally equalized TXV will be discussed.
P1 = 45.4 PSIG
A
P2 = 35 PSIG
P3 = 10.4 PSIG
35 PSIG = 40°F
25 PSIG = 29°F
B
25 PSIG = 50°F
C
TXV with internal
equalizer on evaporator with
10 PSI drop.
Fig. 3
Since the pressure drop across the evaporator increases with load, the restricting effect becomes worse
when the demand on the TXV capacity is greatest.
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Emerson Climate Technologies
Thermal Expansion Valves
To compensate for an excessive pressure drop
through an evaporator, the TXV must be externally
equalized. The equalizer line should be connected to
the suction line at the evaporator outlet, past the remote
bulb location so that the true evaporator outlet pressure
is exerted beneath the TXV diaphragm. The operating
pressure on the TXV diaphragm is now free from any
effect of the pressure drop through the evaporator, and
the TXV will respond to the superheat of the refrigerant
gas leaving the evaporator.
When the same conditions of pressure drop exist in a
system with an externally equalized TXV (see fig. 4), the
same pressure drop still exists through the evaporator,
however, the pressure under the diaphragm is now the
same as the pressure at the end of the evaporator, point
“C”, or 25 psig.
This change from 10°F to 11°F in the operating
superheat is caused by the change in the pressuretemperature characteristic of R-134a at the lower
suction pressure of 25 psig.
P1 = 35 PSIG
Location of External Equalizer
P2 = 25 PSIG
A
P3 = 10 PSIG
35 PSIG = 40°F
B
25 PSIG = 29°F
C
25 PSIG & 40°F
TXV with external
equalizer on evaporator with
10 PSI pressure drop.
Fig. 4
The required pressure above the diaphragm for equilibrium is (25 + 10) or 35 psig. This pressure, 35 psig,
corresponds to a saturation temperature of 40°F and
the superheat required is now (40°F minus 29°F) 11°F.
The external equalizer has lowered superheat from 22°F
to 11°F. The capacity of a system having an evaporator with a sizable pressure drop will be increased by a
TXV with the external equalizer when compared to an
internally equalized TXV.
When the pressure drop through an evaporator is
substantial, or when a refrigerant distributor is used at
the evaporator inlet, the TXV must have the external
equalizer feature for best performance.
An externally equalized TXV is required when a liquid
distributor is used. Although a multi-circuit evaporator
may not have an excessive pressure drop, the liquid
distributor will introduce a pressure drop, because the
distributor is installed between the TXV outlet and the
evaporator inlet (See fig. 5).
4
The external equalizer line must be installed beyond
the point of greatest pressure drop. Since it may be
difficult to determine this point, it is best to connect the
equalizer line to the suction line at the evaporator outlet
on the compressor side of the remote bulb location.
(See fig. 4 & 5). When the external equalizer is connected to a horizontal line, always make the connection
at the top of the line to avoid oil logging in the equalizer
line.
On a multi-evaporator system including two or more
evaporators each fed by a separate TXV, the external
equalizer lines must be installed so that they will be free
from the effect of pressure changes in the evaporators
fed by other TXVs. At no time should the equalizer lines
be joined in a common line to the main suction line.
If individual suction lines from the separate evaporator outlets to the common suction line are short, then
install the external equalizer lines into the separate
evaporator suction headers, or as described in the preceding paragraph.
When the pressure drop through the evaporator is
not substantial, install the external equalizer connection
at one of the return bends midway through the evaporator. This equalizer location will provide smoother TXV
control when used in conjunction with an Evaporator
Pressure Regulator. Anytime a control valve is installed
in the suction line, the external equalizer line for the TXV
must be connected on the evaporator side of the control
valve or regulator.
Never cap or plug the external equalizer connection
on a TXV, as it will not operate. If the TXV is furnished
with an external equalizer feature, the external equalizer
line must be connected.
Thermal Expansion Valves
Emerson Climate Technologies
Superheat
suring superheat, install a calibrated pressure gauge in
a gauge connection at the evaporator outlet. In the absence of a gauge connection, a tee installed in the TXV
external equalizer line can be used just as effectively.
A refrigeration type pocket thermometer with appropriate bulb clamp or an electric thermometer with thermocouples may be used to measure gas temperature.
The temperature element from the thermometer
should be taped to the suction line at the point of remote
bulb location and must be insulated. Thermometers will
give an average reading of suction line and ambient if
not insulated. Assuming an accurate gauge and thermometer, this method will provide accurate superheat
readings.
A vapor is said to be superheated whenever its
temperature is higher than the saturation temperature
corresponding to its pressure. The superheat equals the
temperature increase above the saturation temperature
at that pressure. For example, a refrigeration evaporator is operating with R-134a at 35 psig suction pressure
(See fig. 6). The R-134a saturation temperature at 35
psig is 40°F. As long as any liquid exists at this pressure,
the refrigerant temperature will remain 40°F as it evaporates or boils off in the evaporator.
P1 = 45.5 PSIG
P2 = 35 PSIG
P3 = 10.4 PSIG
Approximate Methods
of Reading Superheat
35 PSIG = 40°F
A
When a gauge connection is not available and the
TXV is internally equalized there are two ways of estimating superheat. Neither of these methods will yield an
exact superheat reading.
The first is the two-temperature method, which uses
the difference in temperature between the evaporator
inlet and outlet as the superheat. The error is caused by
the pressure drop in the evaporator. When the pressure
drop between the evaporator inlet and outlet is 1 psi or
less, the two-temperature method will yield fairly accurate results. But evaporator pressure drop is usually not
known and will vary with load. For this reason, the twotemperature method cannot be relied on for absolute
superheat readings. The error in this method is negative
and always shows a lower superheat.
The second method involves taking the temperature
at the evaporator outlet and using the compressor suction pressure as the evaporator saturation pressure. The
error is caused by the pressure drop in the suction line
between the evaporator outlet and the compressor suction gauge. On packaged equipment and close-coupled
installations, the pressure drop and resulting error are
usually small. But on large built-up systems or systems
with long runs of suction lines, considerable error can
result. Since estimates of suction line pressure drop are
usually not accurate enough to give a true picture of the
superheat, this method cannot be relied on for absolute
values. The error in this method is positive and always
shows a higher superheat.
The only method for checking superheat that will
yield an absolute value involves a pressure and temperature reading at the evaporator outlet.
By realizing the limitations of these approximate
methods and the direction of the error, it is often pos-
35 PSIG = 40°F
B
C
35 PSIG = 50°F
TXV with internal
equalizer on evaporator with
no pressure drop.
Fig. 6
As the refrigerant moves along in the coil, the liquid
boils off into a vapor. The liquid is completely evaporated at point B because it has absorbed enough heat to
change the refrigerant liquid to a vapor. The refrigerant
gas continues along the coil and remains at the same
pressure (35 psig); however, its temperature increases
due to continued absorption of heat. When the refrigerant gas reaches the end of the evaporator (point “C”) its
temperature is 50°F. This refrigerant gas is now superheated and the superheat is 10°F. (50°F minus 40°F).
The amount of superheat depends on how much refrigerant is being fed into the evaporator by the TXV and
the heat load to which the evaporator is exposed.
Superheat Adjustment
The function of a TXV is to control the superheat of
the suction gas leaving the evaporator. If superheat is
within reasonable limits, the TXV is operating in a satisfactory way. If superheat cannot be checked directly, it
is important to know the size and direction of whatever
error is present.
The pressure and temperature of the refrigerant suction gas passing the TXV remote bulb are required for
an accurate determination of superheat. When mea-
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Emerson Climate Technologies
Thermal Expansion Valves
sible to determine that the cause of the trouble call is
because of improper methods of instrumentation rather
than any malfunction of the TXV.
When troubleshooting in mountain areas (such
as Denver, Colorado or Salt Lake City, Utah) use a
Pressure-Temperature chart that has correct readings
such as Emerson Climate Technologies’ 5,000 ft. pocket
chart. Gauge pressures will read lower than they would
at sea level.
ASHRAE tables should be consulted for determining
pressure drops in liquid and suction line.
Here is the procedure for properly selecting a TXV:
1. Determine pressure drop across TXV: using the
maximum and minimum condensing pressures, subtract
the evaporating pressure from each to get the total highto-low side pressure drop. From these values subtract
the other possible pressure losses– piping and heat
exchanger losses; pressure drop thru accessories; vertical lift pressure drop; and the pressure drop across the
refrigerant distributor.
2. Consider the maximum and minimum liquid temperatures of the refrigerant entering the TXV and select the
correction factors for those temperatures from the table
below the capacity ratings. Determine the corrected capacity requirement by dividing the maximum evaporator
load in tons by the liquid correction factors.
3. Select the TXV size from the proper capacity table for
the evaporator temperature, pressure drop available,
and corrected capacity requirement.
4. Select the proper thermostatic charge based on the
evaporator temperature, refrigerant, and whether a
Maximum Operating Pressure (see MOP section) type
charge is needed.
TXV Selection
Proper TXV size is determined by the BTU/HR or
tons load requirement, the pressure drop across the
TXV, and the evaporator temperature. Do not assume
that the pressure drop across the TXV is equal to the
difference between discharge and suction pressures at
the compressor. This assumption could lead to incorrect
sizing of the TXV.
The pressure at the TXV outlet will be higher than the
suction pressure at the compressor because of the frictional losses through the distribution header, evaporator
tubes, suction lines, fittings, and hand valves. On rack
systems, the EPR valve also adds substantial pressure
drop.
The pressure at the TXV inlet will be lower than the
discharge pressure at the compressor because of frictional losses created by the length of liquid line, valves
and fittings, and vertical lift. The only exception is if the
TXV is installed considerably below the receiver and
static head built up is more than enough to offset frictional loses. The liquid line should be properly sized for
its actual length plus equivalent length due to fitting and
hand valves. Vertical lift in the liquid line adds pressure
drop and thus static head must be included.
The pressure drop across the TXV will be the difference between the discharge and suction pressures at
the compressor less the pressure drops in the liquid line,
through the distributor, evaporator, and suction line.
5. Determine connections and whether an externally
equalized model is required. Always use an externally
equalized TXV when a distributor is used.
A solid column of liquid refrigerant is required for
proper TXV operation. Calculate the pressure drop
in the liquid line to determine if there will be enough
subcooling to prevent flash gas. If the subcooling of the
liquid refrigerant from the condenser is not adequate,
then a heat exchanger, liquid subcooler, or some other
means must be used to get enough subcooling to ensure solid liquid entering the TXV at all times.
Emerson Climate Technologies has prepared
extended TXV capacity tables. These tables can be
found in the Emerson catalog. Always select a TXV
based on operating conditions rather than nominal TXV
capacities.
6
Thermal Expansion Valves
Emerson Climate Technologies
Application Tips
sion and faulty remote bulb contact with the line.
On lines smaller than 7/8” OD the remote bulb may
be installed on top of the line. With 7/8” OD and over,
the remote bulb should be installed at the position of
about 4 or 8 o’clock. (See fig. 8)
It is good practice to insulate the bulb with a material
which will not absorb moisture.
For best evaporator performance, the TXV should be
installed as close to the evaporator as possible and in
an easily-accessible location for adjustment and servicing. On pressure drop and centrifugal type distributors,
apply the TXV as close to the distributor as possible.
(See fig.7)
Remote Bulb Well
A remote bulb well will improve the sensitivity of the
remote bulb. This occurs with short coupled installations
and installations with large suction lines (2-1/8” OD or
larger). Remote bulb wells should be used when low
superheat is desired or where converted heat from warm
rooms can influence the remote bulb. (See fig. 9).
Remote Bulb Location
Never install a remote bulb in a location where the
suction line is trapped (See fig. 10). If the liquid refrigerant collects at the point of remote bulb location the TXV
operation will be erratic.
Since evaporator performance depends on good TXV
control, and TXVs respond to the temperature change of
the refrigerant gas leaving the evaporator, care must be
given to types of remote bulbs and their locations. The
external remote bulb meets the requirements of most
installations. The bulb should be clamped to the suction
line near the evaporator outlet on a horizontal run. If
more than one TXV is used on adjacent evaporators or
evaporator sections, make sure that remote bulb of each
TXV is applied to the suction line of the evaporator fed
by that TXV.
Clean the suction line thoroughly before clamping the
remote bulb in place. When a steel suction line is used,
paint the line with aluminum paint to reduce future corro-
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Emerson Climate Technologies
Thermal Expansion Valves
Large fluctuations in superheat in the suction gas are
usually the result of trapped liquid at the remote bulb
location. Even on properly designed suction lines, it is
sometimes necessary to move the remote bulb a few
inches from the original location to improve TXV performance.
On multi-circuit evaporators fed by one TXV, install
the remote bulb at a point where the suction gas has
had an opportunity to mix in the suction header. Tighten
clamps so that the remote bulb makes good contact with
the suction line. NEVER APPLY HEAT NEAR THE
REMOTE BULB LOCATION WITHOUT FIRST REMOVING THE REMOTE BULB.
direction allows the superheat of the gas to increase still
further.
In response to the rising superheat during the time
lags, the TXV has moved further in the opening direction, overshooting the control point and allowing more
refrigerant to flow to the evaporator than can be boiled
off by load.
When the TXV finally responds to the over-feeding of
the evaporator coil, it closes and will tend to again overshoot the control point and remain overly throttled until
most of the liquid refrigerant has left the evaporator.
The ensuing time delay before the TXV moves in the
opening direction allows superheat of the suction gas
to again rise beyond the control point. This cycle, being
self-propagating, continues to repeat.
Experience has shown that a TXV is more likely to
hunt at low load conditions when the TXV pin is close to
the valve seat. This is because of an unbalance between the forces which operate the TXV.
Besides the three main forces that operate the TXV,
the pressure difference across the TXV port also acts
against the port area and depending on TXV construction, tends to force the TXV either open or closed.
When operating with the pin close to seat, the following will occur:
With the TXV closed, there is liquid pressure on the
inlet side of the pin and evaporator pressure on the
outlet.
When the TXV starts to open allowing flow to take
place, the velocity through the TXV throat will cause a
point of lower pressure at the throat, raising the pressure
difference across the pin and seat.
This sudden rise in pressure differential while acting
on the port area will tend to force the TXV pin back into
the seat. When the TXV again opens, the same type of
action occurs and the pin bounces off the seat with a
rapid frequency. This phenomenon is more frequently
encountered with the larger conventional ported TXVs
as compared to balance ported TXVs as the force
caused by the pressure differential is magnified by the
larger port area.
Most TXVs, when properly selected and applied, will
overcome these factors and operate with virtually no
hunting over a fairly wide load range.
Conventional ported TXVs will perform well to somewhat below 50% of nominal capacity depending on
evaporator design, refrigerant piping, size and length of
evaporator, and rapid changes in loading.
Nothing will cause a TXV to hunt quicker than unequal feeding of the parallel circuits by a distributor or
unequal air loading across the evaporator circuits.
Hunting
“Hunting” of TXVs is defined as the alternate overfeeding and starving of the refrigerant flow to the
evaporator. Hunting is characterized by extreme cyclic
changes in the superheat of the refrigerant gas leaving
the evaporator and the evaporator or suction pressure.
Hunting is a function of the evaporator design, length
and diameter of tubing in each circuit, load per circuit,
refrigerant velocity in each circuit, temperature difference (TD) under which the evaporator is operated, arrangements of suction piping and application of the TXV
remote bulb. “Hunting” can be reduced or eliminated by
the correct rearrangement of the suction piping, relocation of the bulb and use of the recommended remote
bulb and power assembly charge for the TXV.
Operation at Reduced Capacity
The conventional TXV is a self-contained direct operated regulator which is inherently susceptible to hunting
because of its design and the design of the system to
which it is applied.
The ideal flow rate would require a TXV with perfect
dynamic balance, capable of instantaneous response
to any change in evaporation (anticipation) and with a
means of preventing the TXV from over shooting the
control point because of inertia (compensation). With
these features a TXV would be in phase with the system
demand at all times and hunting would not occur.
A conventional TXV does not have built in anticipating
or compensating factors. A time lag will exist between
demand and response, along with the tendency to over
shoot the control point. The conventional TXV may get
out of phase with the system and hunt. An example of
overshooting occurs when the load increases, causing
the superheat of the suction gas to increase. The time
interval between the instant the remote bulb senses the
increase and causes the TXV pin to move into opening
8
Thermal Expansion Valves
Emerson Climate Technologies
Balanced Port TXV Operation
In conventional TXVs, as the pressure drop across
the TXV port changes due to changes in head pressure
or suction pressure, the operating superheat of the TXV
will vary.
Depending on the operating conditions under which
the superheat was originally set, this “unbalance” can
sometimes result in compressor flooding or evaporator
starvation. A unique design concept called “Balanced
Port” cancels the effect of this pressure unbalance, permitting the TXV to operate at a fairly constant superheat
over a wide range of operating conditions.
There are 2 fundamental Balanced Port designs:
Double Ported Design (Figure 11a) – In this design,
there are 2 paths for the refrigerant to flow. One path
creates a force that tends to push the pin in the “open”
direction; whereas the other path creates a force pushing the pin in the “closed” position. These paths are designed in such a way that the forces generated in each
path are equal to one another, resulting in a “balanced”
design.
Single Ported Design (Figure 11b) – In this design, the
valve pin has a shoulder added that is on the inlet side
of the valve. The high pressure times the area of the
shoulder results in an upward (closing) force. The pressure differential across the pin results in a “downward”
force. By designing the shoulder carefully, the downward
force is negated or “balanced”.
Any refrigeration system which experiences changes
in operating pressures because of varying ambient, gas
defrost, heat reclaim, or swings in evaporator load will
benefit from using a balanced port TXV.
Fig. 11b
M.O.P.
Maximum Operating Pressure (sometimes referred
to as Motor Overload Protection) is the ability of a TXV
to close down, starve, or shut off if the suction pressure
should approach a dangerously high predetermined limit
condition. These conditions could overheat a suction
cooled compressor or load the crankcase with too dense
a vapor pressure. With the TXV in a closed condition
the compressor has a chance to pull the suction back
down to satisfactory operating conditions. Once below
the MOP, the TXV will re-open and feed normally or until
there is an overload again.
Power Element Charges
There are several basic types of charges in use
today. Most common are the: liquid charge; gas charge;
liquid cross-charge; gas cross-charge; and the adsorption charge.
Liquid Charges
IN
IN
OUT
IN
OUT
OUT
BALANCED CAGE
ASSEMBLY
Fig. 11a
The power element contains the same refrigerant
as the system in which the TXV is used. When manufactured, it is put into the remote bulb in a liquid state.
Volume is controlled so that within the design temperature range some liquid always remains in the bulb.
Therefore, the power element pressure is always the
saturation pressure corresponding to the temperature of
the remote bulb.
OUT
IN
CONVENTIONAL
CAGE ASSEMBLY
Fig. 11
9
Emerson Climate Technologies
Thermal Expansion Valves
Liquid charges have the following properties:
•Not subject to cross-ambient control loss
•Little or no superheat at start-up
•Superheat increase at lower evaporator temperatures
•Slow suction pressure pulldown after start-up
REFRIGERANT CODE NAMES
ARI Standard 750-2007 recommends the
following color coding of the TXVs:
R-12White
R-22
Light Green
R-134a
Light Blue
R-290
N/A
R-404A
Orange
R-407A
Lime Green
R-407C
Medium Brown (Brown)
R-408A
Medium Purple
R-409A
Medium Brown (Tan)
R-410A
Rose
R-502
Orchid
R-507A
Blue Green (Teal)
R-744
N/A
As in liquid charges, the remote bulb can be filled
with the same refrigerant as the system refrigerant (producing a gas charge). Or, it can be filled with a different
refrigerant, producing a gas cross-charge.
Adsorption Charges
The final type of charge is adsorption. In adsorption,
solids hold large quantities of gas, not by taking them
into the body of the solid, as in absorption, but by gathering them and holding them on the surface of the solid
without chemical reaction.
The vapor penetrates into the cracks and furrows of
the solid, allowing far greater capacity than possible with
absorption.
The advantage of an adsorption charge is that in a
fixed volume, the quantity of vapor adsorbed varies with
the temperature and the system. So it can be used to
exert operating pressure as a function of temperature.
Typical adsorbents include: charcoal, silica gel, activated alumina.
Liquid Cross-Charges
Liquid cross-charges means that the power element
contains a liquid refrigerant different from the system
refrigerant in which the TXV is used. The pressure temperature curve of the charge crosses the curve of the
system refrigerant.
Liquid cross-charge advantages are:
•Moderately slow pull down
•Insensitive to cross-ambient conditions.
•Damped response to suction line temperature changes
(reduces tendency for TXV hunting)
•Superheat characteristics can be tailored for special
applications
Gas & Gas Cross-Charges
Using a gas charge in place of a liquid alters the
operational characteristics, because gas is compressible. At some predetermined temperature, the gas in the
remote bulb becomes superheated, limiting the force it
exerts. This produces higher superheats at higher evaporator pressures and is labeled the Maximum Operating
Pressure (MOP) effect.
The MOP point temperature depends on how that
bulb was charged and where it will be used. All gas
charges are susceptible to cross-ambient control loss
when the power element is colder than the remote bulb.
They respond faster, but tend to hunt for the proper
operating level, so a ballast is often added to the remote
bulb to reduce that tendency.
What happens with an adsorption charge
Which Charge to Use?
Here are some typical examples of applications by
refrigerant charge:
Liquid Charge
Ice makers, pilots, liquid injection valves
Liquid Cross-Charges
Commercial refrigeration (low & medium temp.), ice
makers, transport refrigeration and air conditioning
Gas Charge
Air conditioning (including mobile), water chillers
Gas Cross-Charge
Heat pumps and air conditioning
MOP
Maximum Operating Pressure
10
Thermal Expansion Valves
Emerson Climate Technologies
Other TXV Considerations
Factory Superheat Setting
Solenoid Liquid Stop Valves
Unless otherwise specified, all Emerson TXVs will
be preset at the factory at a bath temperature which is
pre- determined by the charge symbol or the MOP rating. The bath temperature at which the TXV superheat is
set is coded alphabetically in the superheat block on the
TXV nameplate, as shown in Fig. 15.
The TXV is produced as a tight seating device. But
if the TXV is exposed to dirt, moisture, corrosion, and
erosion the TXV will not be able to positively shut off.
If the remote bulb is installed in a location where during
the “off’ cycle it is influenced by a higher ambient temperature than the evaporator, the valve will open and admit liquid to the evaporator. Installing a Solenoid Liquid
Stop Valve ahead of any TXV is highly recommended.
Filter driers for System Protection
TXV SUPERHEAT ADJUSTMENT
Degrees of SH Per Turn
Valve “Total
R-22
R-134a R-404A/507R-410A
FamilyTurns”+20°F -20°F +20°F +20°F -20°F +40°F
A
8
3.0
5.0
4.5
2.0
4.0
2.0
C/NXT
12
–
–
–
–
–
4.0
HF
10
2.2
4.2
3.8
1.8
3.2
N/A
TF
10
3.0
5.0
4.5
2.0
4.0
2.0
TRAE
10
2.2
4.2
3.8
1.8
3.2
N/A
Pressure Switch Setting
TCLE
32
0.8
1.5
1.0
0.5
1.0
N/A
On TXVs with M.O.P., a Pressure Switch must be set
to cut in at a pressure lower than M.O.P. rating of the
TXV.
Turn adjustment clockwise to increase superheat, counterclockwise to decrease superheat. To return to approximate
original factory setting, turn adjustment stem counterclockwise until the spring is completely unloaded (reaches stop or
starts to “ratchet”). Then, turn it back in one half of the “Total
Turns” shown on the chart.
To protect the precision working parts of control
valves from dirt and chips which can damage them and
make them inoperative, and to protect the entire system
from the damaging affects of moisture, sludge and acids, a filter drier should be installed on every system.
Emerson TXVs
Emerson’s TXVs are designed for a wide range of air
conditioning, refrigeration, heat pump, and chiller applications. Emerson uses stainless steel power elements
that will not corrode.
Emerson’s integral TXV line includes valves for commercial and refrigeration applications, and heat pump
and residential applications. The “Take-Apart Series”
TXVs are available for almost any type of application,
temperature range, or refrigerant. Emerson also offers a
complete line of specialty TXVs.
11
Fig. 15
For example, a TXV with “10A” stamped in the nameplate superheat block is set for 10°F static superheat
with a 32°F bath. A TXV stamped “10C” is set for 10° of
static superheat with a 0°F bath.
When ordering a TXV for an exact replacement,
specify the code letter and the superheat setting desired. When ordering for general stock, it is not necessary to specify either the superheat or the code letter,
since the standard setting will cover most applications
and minor superheat adjustments may be made in the
field.
Emerson Climate Technologies
Thermal Expansion Valves
Emerson “T” Series TXVs [except “W”-(MOP),
G-(MOP) or GS-(MOP) gas charged types] may be
installed in any location in the system. The gas charged
type must always be installed so that the power assembly will be warmer than the remote bulb. The remote
bulb tubing must not be allowed to touch a surface colder than the remote bulb location. If the power assembly
or remote bulb tubing becomes colder than remote bulb,
the vapor charge will condense at the coldest point and
remote bulb will lose control.
For exact TXV selection (i.e., refrigerant tonnage,
connections, equalizer style, cap tube length, adjustment and proper application, air conditioning, commercial, low temperature) refer to Emerson catalog.
To help you match the correct charge to your specific
application, see the TXV Charge Code Selector on the
next page. Also provided here are some typical examples of applications by refrigerant charge.
Emerson MOP
Gas Cross-Charge – CA, AA
Heat pumps and air conditioning
The Emerson “W” charge can be supplied with the
MOP feature if needed for system protection. This need
rarely occurs in modern day refrigeration except such
conditions as immediately after defrost or on gasoline
driven compressors such as truck refrigeration.
For special applications, other charges may be used
from time to time. For help in selecting a charge with
Motor Overload Protection (if required by compressor
manufacturer) see the table below and the TXV Charge
Selector on page 13.
APPLICATION
R134a
R22
COMMERCIAL
MW35
HW65
R404A/R507A
*W65
LOW TEMP.
MW15
HW35
*W45
* Add refrigerant code as follows: S = R404A, P = R507A
NOTE: MOP not available with Rapid Response Bulb.
Superheat adjustment of “W–MOP” charged TXVs
will change the MOP point. An increase in superheat
setting will lower the MOP point and a decrease in superheat setting will raise the MOP.
TABLE 1 – Maximum Dehydration Temperature (in °F)
REFRIGERANT L
R134a
195
R22
160
R404A/R507A 150
R717
N/A
Liquid Charge – L
Ice makers, pilots, liquid injection valves
Liquid Cross-Charges – C, Z
Commercial refrigeration (low & medium temp.), ice
makers, transport refrigeration and air conditioning
Gas Charge – G
Air conditioning (including mobile), water chillers
Gas Cross-Charge – HAA
Heat pumps and air conditioning
W(MOP)
Maximum Operating Pressure
Refrigerant Code Names
ARI Standard 750-2007 recommends the following color coding of thermostatic
expansion valves: R-12 White; R-22 Green; R-502 Orchid; R-40 Red;
R-500 Orange. Uncommon refrigerants with no designated color should use Blue.
ASHRAE
TRADE OR
REF. NO.
CHEMICAL NAME
THERMOSTATIC CHARGE
C
Z
G WMOP/CA X
190 250 250 250 N/A
160 185 250 250 N/A
150 170 250 250 N/A
N/A 150 N/A N/A 200
The table above refers to the maximum dehydration temperatures when the bulb and TXV body are subjected to the same
temperature. On A, L, C, Z, and X charges, 250°F maximum
TXV body temperature is permissible (if the bulb temperature) does not exceed those shown in the table.
NOTE: Emerson charges “A”, “C” and “Z” are liquid crosscharges.
12
R-12
R-22
R-502
R-134a
R-404A
R-401A
R-507A
R-410A
EMERSONEMERSON
CODE
CODE
COLOR
LETTER
Dichlorodifluoromethane
WhiteF
Chlorodifluoromethane
Green
H
22/115
PurpleR
Tetrafluoroethane
LIGHT BlueM
125/134a/143A
ORANGES
22/152A/124
CORALX
125/143A
TEAL
P
32/125
ROSE
Z
Thermal Expansion Valves
Emerson Climate Technologies
TXV Charge Code Selector
Applications
Operating Ranges
MC/FC
MZ/FZ
MW15/FW15 (MOP)
MW35/FW35 (MOP)
MW55
HCA/HAA AIR COND. & HEAT PUMP
HW/HW100
HC
HW65 (MOP)
HZ
SC/RC
SZ/RZ
SW45/RW45 (MOP)
ZW195/ZAA
R-134a/R-12
Domestic Refrigerators and Freezers, Ice Makers,Dehumidifiers,
Transport Refrigeration, Medium Temperature Supermarket
Equipment,Medium Temperature Commercial Equipment
R-22
Residential Air Conditioners &Heat Pumps, Commercial and
Industrial Chillers, Medium Temperature Supermarket
Equipment, Commercial Air Handlers
R-404A/R-507A/R-502
Low Temperature Cases, Ice Makers, Commercial Air Handlers,
Conditioners, Soft Ice Cream Machines, Environmental Chambers
R-410A
-50
-40
-30
-20
-10
0
+10
+20
+30
+40
+50
TXV Replacement Charge Symbols Cross Reference
Old Bulb Charges vs. New Replacement Bulb Charge
AIR CONDITIONING
OLD CHARGE
REPLACEMENT
COMMERCIAL REFRIGERATION
LOW TEMPERATURE
OLD CHARGE
REPLACEMENT
OLD CHARGE
REPLACEMENT
REFRIGERANT R12/R134a
F or FL
—
—
FC
FC
—
FZ
FW
FW
FWZ
FG55
FC
FG35
—
—
FW55
FW35
FW35
FW15
FW15/MW15
FQ55
FQ35
FW15
FGA
—
—
FLA
—
—
FGS
FGS35
FGS35
FWS
FWS
FWS
FWS
FWS
FWS
FZ/MZ
FZ/MZ
FX
FX
REFRIGERANT R22
H or HL
—
—
HC
HC
HC
—
HZ
HW
HCA
HW
HWZ
HG100
HG65
—
—
HW100
HW65
HW65
HW35
HW35
HQ100
HC
HQ65
HQ35
HGA
HLA
—
—
HW85
HW85
—
—
HGS
HGS65
HGS65
HWS
HWS
HWS
HWS
HWS
HWS
HZ
HZ
HX
HX
REFRIGERANT R502/R404A/R507A
RL
—
—
RC/SC/PC
RW
RC/SC/PC
RW
RWZ
RZ
RW110
RW65
RW65
RW35
RW45/SW45
RWS
RWS
RWS
RWS
RWS
RWS
RZ
RZ/SZ/PZ
NOTE: ALL OTHER CHARGE SYMBOLS MUST BE REPLACED WITH AN IDENTICAL MODEL OR AT THE OPTION OF THE EMERSON TECHNICAL SERVICE DEPARTMENT WHO MAY MAKE ENGINEERING AUTHORIZED SUBSTITUTION OF EQUIVALENT TYPE TO PROVIDE EQUIVALENT OPERATION AND PERFORMANCE.
NOTE: FOR FIELD REPLACEMENT PURPOSES, HC CAN BE USED TO REPLACE HCA.
13
Electronic Valves
& Controls
14
Emerson Climate Technologies
Electronic Valves & Controls
Electronic Valves – Introduction
Advantages of Electronic Solution
Thermostatic expansion valves and mechanical
regulator valves have been used in the refrigeration and
air conditioning industry to control superheat and refrigerant mass flow since the very beginning. As today’s
systems require improved energy efficiency, tighter
temperature control, wider range of operating conditions
and incorporate new features like remote monitoring
and diagnostics, the application of electronically operated valves becomes mandatory. These valves offer the
control performance necessary to meet these needs.
As more new refrigerants appear on the market
requiring an ever increasing number of different charges
and settings for thermostatic expansion valves, electrical control valves can work with all refrigerants.
• Wide operating range
– Fewer valves to cover the entire capacity and
refrigerant range
• Energy savings
– Allows floating head pressures and provides
tighter superheat control
• Suitable for higher pressure refrigerants
(R-410A and CO2)
• Diagnostics and remote monitoring capabilities
Electronic Valve Applications
Valves can be used for a variety of applications:
• Expansion valves
• Capacity control valves
– Hot gas bypass
– Controlled by temperature
or pressure
• Evaporator pressure regulator
– Controlled by temperature
or pressure
• Liquid injection – oil cooling
– Desuperheating In screw compressors
• Liquid level control
– Flooded evaporator
• Crankcase pressure regulator
• Head pressure control
15
Emerson Climate Technologies
Electronic Valves & Controls
Parts Required for Electronic Valves when used as TXV and Driven by Superheat
EC3-32 and EC3-33 Systems
Description
Type
PCN
Notes
EX4
097719
EX5
097720
EX6
097721
Select one valve based on
capacity requirements of
system
EX7
097722
EX8
097723
EXV-M60
097741
Cable used to connect
valve to controller EXDU00
Universal
Superheat
Controller
EC3-33
097707
Basic SH controller
EC3-32
097708
Basic with option to connect to PC
Terminal Kit
K03-X32
097711
Needed for EC3 to connect wires
PT5-07M
097748
Use with R22, R134a,
R507, R404A, R407C,
R124
PT5-18M
097749
Use with R410A systems
PT5-30M
097753
Use with R744 systems
This is required always
when transducer ordered
Electronic
Valves
Valve Cable
Connector
Pressure
Transducer
Pressure
Transducer
Cable
PT4-M60
097717
Temperature
Sensor
ECN-N60
097714
ECD-002
097712
Must be used with EC3-33
but is an option with EC332. Used to set parameters of system
Ethernet Cable
ECC-N30
097713
Used for both ECD-002
and connection to PC thru
router
097724
Transformer has primary
120/208/240V AC, secondary 24V AC. This is only
for customer who cannot
obtain 24V AC to run this
system.
T2
ELECTRONIC VALVE
CUSTOMERS
CONTROLS
VALVE CABLE/
CONNECTOR
ETHERNET CABLE
TERMINAL KIT
DISPLAY/
KEYBOARD
UNIT
This is a required item
Display/Keyboard Unit
Transformer
DIRECTIONS
FOR
MOUNTING
VALVE CABLE
OUTPUT TO CUSTOMERS
CONTROL IF NEEDED
TEMPERATURE SENSOR
TRANFORMER
(IF NEEDED)
Temperature Sensor ECN-N60
PRESSURE TRANSDUCER
CABLE/CONNECTOR
PRESSURE
TRANSDUCER
Temperature/Resistance
Conversion
TemperatureResistance
°C
°F
KW
25
77
10,0
10
50
19,9
5
41
25,4
0
32
32,7
-10
14
55,3
-20
-4
97,0
-30
-22
176,7
-40
-40
335,7
-45
-49
470,6
16
Emerson Climate Technologies
Electronic Valves & Controls
Pressure Transmitter – PT4
The heart of the transmitter is a pressure sensitive
piezo resistive cell. This is surrounded by an oil cushion
enclosed by a stainless steel diaphragm. The integrated
electronic module conditions the output of the pressure
cell to produce a temperature compensated signal of
4…20 mA.
The pressure cell consists of a silicon diaphragm with
strain gauges diffused into it. A particular advantage of
using silicon is its good hysteresis and creeping behavior. The direct integration of the strain gauges means
that no additional errors can be introduced between the
location where the pressure acts and where it is measured.
Separation of the pressure sensitive element by the
oil cushion protects the sensor cell against external mechanical loads such as vibrations, pressure pulsations.
This ensures reliable operation and a long life-time
expectation even under severe operating conditions.
PT4 – PRESSURE TRANSMITTER
TXV Controller – EC3-X32
Sensor
Electronic
Board
directives 89/336/EC complying with EN-61000-6-2, EN61000-6-3, EN-61000-6-4.
Pressure transmitters PT4 with current output (two
wire connection) offer the following advantages:
• More suitable for signal transmission over long
distance.
• Higher immunity to electro-magnetic interference.
• Open circuit detection enables fail-safe operation.
EC3-X32 is a stand-alone universal superheat controller for air conditioning, refrigeration and industrial
applications such as chillers, industrial process cooling, rooftops, heat pumps, package unit, close control,
cold room, food process and air driers. EC3-X32 offers
remote access with built-in TCP/IP Ethernet communications and WebServer functionality. Any standard
WebBrowser (e.g. Internet Explorer® 5.0 or higher or
Mozilla Firefox) can be used for monitoring or parameter
setting.
Oil Cushion
Stainless Steel
Diaphragm
PRESSURE
The protective stainless steel diaphragm ensures
compatibility with the media frequently encountered in
refrigeration systems. The outside of the PT4 consists
of a corrosion resistant stainless steel enclosure. It is
sealed at the electrical connector socket and at the
pressure connector joint. This way, the PT4 meets the
requirements of IP65.
The sensor works internally as an absolute measuring device. However, it is calibrated to produce a relative
output signal assuming an ambient pressure of 14.5 psi.
When using PT4 in heights significantly above sea level
the output signal deviation must be taken into account.
i.e. at a height of 1000m the signal reads approximately
1 psi lower than the actual pressure.
Short-term protection against wrong polarity is provided by an internal diode, up to 33 Vdc for the 4...20
mA output version PT4.
PT4 is compliant with the present electromagnetic
compatibility legislation and in particular with the EMC
17
EC3-X32
The EC3-X32 controls the opening of an electrical
control valve according to desired superheat. As Emerson Electrical Control Valves (ECV) are able to provide
a positive shut-off function better than conventional
solenoid valves, there will be no flow through Emerson
ECV as long as the compressor is not running. In the
event of cooling request and compressor start-up, EC3X32 needs to be informed. This can be achieved by a
digital input. EC3-X32 will start to control the refrigerant
mass flow stand alone by precise positioning of the ECV
Emerson Climate Technologies
Electronic Valves & Controls
under different operating conditions such as compressor start-up, start of further compressor, high head
pressure, low head pressure, high load, low load and
partial load operation.
EC3-X32 is capable for diagnostics and alarm. The
alarm can be received via relay output, via TCP/IP network as well as optical LED/alarm code on ECD-002.
TXV Controller – EC3-X33
EC3-X33 is a stand-alone universal superheat controller for air conditioning, refrigeration and industrial
applications such as chillers, industrial process cooling,
rooftops, heat pumps, package unit, close control, cold
room, food process and air driers. The optional ECD002 Display/Keypad Unit is necessary for setup but not
for operation of the controllers. ECD-002 can be connected or disconnected to EC3-X33 at any time.
• Electronic expansion valve.
• Capacity control by means of hot gas bypass or
evaporating pressure regulator.
• Crankcase pressure regulator.
• Condenser pressure regulator.
• Liquid level actuator.
• Liquid injection valve.
The input signal for the driver module can be
4…20mA or 0…10V. The output pulses provide the proportional opening/closing of EX4/EX5/EX6/EX7/EX8 and
consequently the control of liquid or vapor refrigerant
mass flow. The universal driver module can be connected to any controller which provides the analogue signal.
This gives system manufacturers the extreme flexibility
to use any desired controller in conjunction with the
universal driver module to achieve different functionality.
For further details please refer to EXD-U technical data
sheet.
EC3-X33 with ECD-002
EXD-U00
Optional ECD-002 Display/Keypad Unit
The ECD-002 is required to set parameters during
start-up. After completion of start-up of the EC3-X33, it
may be left connected or removed.
The display unit can be switched from K/bar/°C to
R/psig/°F. Indicator LEDs show the status of valve opening, valve closing, demand and alarm.
Blinking: valve is opening
ON: valve is fully open
Blinking: valve is closing
ON: valve is fully closed
Parameters setting/saving
Next parameter/
value (higher)
ON: demand
OFF: no demand
ON: alarm
OFF: no alarm
Prg & Sel (5 sec)
Manual reset for
blinking alarm codes
XEV22 Superheat Controller
The XEV22 Superheat Controller responds to
temperature and pressure inputs to precisely control
the position of an electronic stepper expansion valve
thereby maintaining accurate superheat control. A fast
recovery algorithm corrects for superheat changes more
rapidly than traditional systems after verifying a superheat alarm condition. This superheat controller improves
system efficiency through its ability to maintain low,
accurate, stable superheat settings.
The device supports R-22, R-134a, R-404A, R-407,
R-507 and R-744 (CO2) refrigerants.
Next parameter/
value (lower)
Selecting/confirming
Universal Driver – EXD-U00
EXD-U Universal driver is a stepper motor driver
which uses an analogue input signal to define the valve
opening. It enables the operation of EX4/EX5/EX6/
EX7/EX8 as:
18
Emerson Climate Technologies
Electronic Valves & Controls
Third Party Controller
The direction of the rotation depends on the phase
relationship of the current pulses, the amount of rotation is dependent on the number of pulses. One pulse
will drive the motor one step i.e. the rotor will move
by a=1.8°. Successive pulses will lead to continuous
rotation.
The drive shaft of the rotor is connected to a spindle
which transforms the rotation into linear motion of the
valve slide.
The EXD-U driver simply converts a 4-20ma/0-10
volt signal directly proportional to the valves position of
0-100%, a third party controller is required to supply the
input signal to the EXD-U00.
The third party controller is typically a programmable,
stand alone set point control. It would contain built-in
PID control or algorithms capable of being tuned and
modified to achieve optimum control of the controlled
medium. This signal could also originate from a BAS
(building automation system), EMCS (energy management control system) or industrial process controller
as long as the signal type is compatible and the proper
programming capabilities are available.
1α
0
2α
3α
Pulse
Setting
The universal driver needs no setting except configuration with dip-switches for the application of a different
valve, different analogue input signal, and type of start
mode.
1
2
3
Time
Angular rotation (cross section of shaft)
Dip Switch Number
Function
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
EX4/EX5/EX6 operation
0
1
1
0
1
0
–
–
EX7 operation
1
0
0
1
0
1
–
–
EX8 operation
1
1
0
1
1
1
–
–
4-20 mA analogue input signal
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
0
0-10V analogue input signal
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
1
With start mode
–
–
–
–
–
–
1
–
Without start mode
–
–
–
–
–
–
0
–
2) Valve
The gate type valve is optimized to provide a wide
range of capacity with a linear relation between flow and
positioning of the valve (capacity vs. number of steps).
Slide and ports are made from ceramic for precise flow
characteristics, high resolution and infinite life.
The compliant slide eliminates undesirable horizontal
forces caused by differential pressure (across the valve)
to the cage assembly and shaft of stepper motor. The
internal design of the EX4/5/6/7/8 is patented.
Total valve travel is 750 full steps for EX4/5/6, 1600
steps for EX7 and 2600 steps for EX8.
A mechanical stop in the fully closed position of the
valve acts as reference point. The controller is reset
by driving the valve towards the fully closed position
against the mechanical stop. By overdriving the valve
i.e. applying more than the full number of steps, it can
be assured that the reference point is correct.
Electrical Control Valve – EX
Function
1) Motor
A 2-phase bipolar stepper motor drives the
EX4/5/6/7/8. This motor follows the basic operating
characteristics of any stepper motor i.e. the motor will
be held in position unless current pulses from a driver
board initiate rotation in either direction.
19
M
M
closed
open
Emerson Climate Technologies
Electronic Valves & Controls
3) Driving of stepper motor
There are many different options to drive stepper
motors like the one used in the EX4/5/6/7/8. Emerson
stepper motors need a driver board with chopper drive
function (constant current), an interface and a controller.
4
10
Chopper drive (constant current)
The stepper motor of EX4/5/6/7/8 is a bipolar, 2phase permanent-magnet motor and operates with
constant DC current in each phase.
8
7
1
6
9
5
2
6
1 Stainless steel body
2 Stepper motor
3 Electrical connector
4 Cage assembly
5 Shaft
6 Welding and/or brazing
7 Ceramic inlet port
8 Ceramic slide
9 Ceramic outlet port
10 Brass ball
3
EX VALVE
CUTAWAY VIEW
COMPONENT SELECTION TABLE
APPLICATION
LIQUID
HOT
HEAD
COMPONENT
TXV
INJECTION
GAS
PRESSURE
EPR
CPR
KEYPAD (ECD-002)
YES
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
*
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
TEMP SENSOR (ECN-N60)
YES
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
PRESSURE TRANSDUCER (PT4)
YES
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
CONTROLLER (EC3-X33)
YES
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
LAPTOP
CONTROLLER (EC3-X32)
*
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
AUXILLARY CONTROLLER **
NO
YES
YES
YES
YES
YES
DRIVER (EXD-U00)
NO
YES
YES
YES
YES
YES
VALVE (EX)
YES
YES
YES
YES
YES
YES
*Optional
**3rd party (Emerson does not offer an auxillary controller)
Electronic Valves Programming
Programming Emerson TXV Controller (5):
1) Enter specific data using keypad or laptop com puter (i.e. refrigerant, tonnage, superheat, etc.).
Programming a 3rd Party Auxillary Controller (6):
1) Follow manufacturers additional instructions.
NOTE: The keypad (1) cannot be used to program
these auxillary controllers.
20
Solenoid Valves
21
Emerson Climate Technologies
Solenoid Valves
Solenoid Valves
In most refrigeration applications, it is necessary to
start or stop the flow in a refrigerant circuit to automatically control the fluids in the system. An electrically
operated solenoid valve is usually used for this purpose.
Its basic function is the same as a manually operated
shut off valve, but by being solenoid actuated, it can be
positioned in remote locations and may be conveniently
controlled by simple electrical switches.
Solenoid valves can be operated by a thermostatic
switch, float switches, low pressure switches, high pressure switches or any other device for making or breaking
an electric circuit, with the thermostatic switch being the
most common device used in refrigeration systems.
What Are Solenoid Valves?
A solenoid valve consists of two distinct but integral
acting parts, a coil and a valve. See drawing below for
complete valve anatomy.
Direct Acting Solenoid Anatomy
Enclosing Tube
Top Plug
Assembly
Return Spring
Plunger Assembly
Collar
O-Ring
Body
Assembly
the valve. Less common are normally-open valves which
are open when the coil is de-energized.
Principles of Solenoid Operation
Solenoids are either direct acting or pilot operated.
The application determines the need for either of these
types. The direct acting valve is used on valves with low
capacities and small port sizes. The pilot operated type
is used on the larger valves, eliminating the need for
larger coils and plungers.
1. Direct Acting
In the direct acting type valve, as discussed under
Solenoid Valve operation, the plunger is mechanically
connected to the needle valve. When the coil is energized, the plunger pulling the needle off the orifice is
raised into the center of the coil. A direct acting valve will
The coil is nothing more than electrical wire wound
around the surface of a cylindrical form usually of circu- operate from zero pressure differential to its maximum
rated pressure differential, regardless of the line preslar cross section. When an electric current is sent thru
sure.
the windings, they act as an electromagnet. The force
The direct acting type valve is only used on small
field that is created in the center of the solenoid is the
driving force for opening the valve. Inside is a moveable capacity circuits because of the increased coil size that
magnetic steel plunger that is drawn toward the center would be required to counter the large pressure differential of large capacities. The required coil would be
of the coil when energized.
large, uneconomical, and not feasible for large capacity
The valve contains an orifice through which fluid
flows when open. A needle or rod is seated on or in the circuits. To overcome this problem on large systems,
pilot operated solenoid valves are used.
orifice and is attached directly to the lower part of the
plunger.
When the coil is energized, the plunger is forced
toward the center of the coil, lifting the needle valve off
of the orifice and allowing flow. With a normally-closed
valve, when the coil is de-energized, the weight of the
plunger and in some designs, a spring, causes it to fall
and close off the orifice, thus stopping the flow through
22
Solenoid Valves
Emerson Climate Technologies
2. Pilot Operated Valve
The pilot operated solenoid valve uses a combination
of the solenoid coil and the line pressure to operate. In
this type valve the plunger is attached to a needle valve
covering a pilot orifice rather than the main port. The
line pressure holds an independent piston or diaphragm
closed against the main port. See figures 2a and 2b.
When the coil is energized, the plunger is pulled into the
center of the coil, opening the pilot orifice. Once the pilot
port is opened, the line pressure above the diaphragm is
allowed to bleed off to the low side or outlet of the valve,
thus relieving the pressure on the top of the diaphragm.
The inlet pressure then pushes the diaphragm up and
off of the main valve port and holds it there allowing full
fluid flow. When the coil is de-energized, the plunger
drops and closes the pilot orifice. Pressure starts to build
up above the diaphragm by means of a bleed hole in the
piston diaphragm until it and the diaphragm’s weight and
spring cause it to close on the main valve port. A pilot
operated solenoid valve requires a minimum pressure
difference of several pounds between inlet and outlet to
operate.
Figures 1A and 1B show a simple schematic
of a Direct Acting Solenoid Valve in operation.
FIG. 1A DE-ENERGIZED
FIG. 1B ENERGIZED
Figures 2A and 2B show a simple schematic
of a Pilot Operated Solenoid Valve in operation.
FIG. 2A DE-ENERGIZED
Types of Solenoids
There are different types of solenoid valves for different applications. The three main types of valves are the
2-way, 3-way, and 4-way valves. The 2-way valve is the
most common.
2-Way Valves
The 2-way valve controls fluid flow in one line. It has
an inlet and an outlet connection. This valve can be of
the direct acting or pilot operated type of valve depending on the need. When the coil is de-energized, the 2way valve is normally closed. Although normally closed
is the most widely used, two-way and three-way valves
are manufactured to be normally open when the coil is
de-energized. See Figure 3 for an example of a 2-way
valve.
FIG. 2B ENERGIZED
Figure 3
NOTE: 2-way valves are usually designed to have
flow in one direction only. Some valves may be modified
to have flow in both directions. A “bi-flow” kit must be
used.
23
Emerson Climate Technologies
Solenoid Valves
Solenoid Valve Selection
Minimum Operating Pressure Differential
The selection of a Solenoid Valve for a control application requires the following information:
1. Fluid to be controlled
2. Capacity required
3. Maximum operating pressure differential (MOPD)
4. Electrical characteristics
5. Maximum working pressure required (MWP)
The capacities of Solenoid Valves for normal liquid
or suction gas refrigerant service are given in tons of
refrigeration at some nominal pressure drop and standard conditions. Manufacturers’ catalogs provide extended tables to cover nearly all operating conditions for
common refrigerants. Follow the manufacturer’s sizing
recommendations. Do not select a valve based on line
size. Pilot operated valves require a pressure drop to
operate and selecting an oversize valve will result in the
valve failing to open. Undersized valves result in excessive pressure drops.
The solenoid valve selected must have a MOPD rating equal to or greater than the maximum possible differential against which the valve must open. The MOPD or
Maximum Operating Pressure Differential considers the
inlet and outlet valve pressures. If a valve has a 500 psi
inlet pressure and a 250 outlet pressure, and a MOPD
rating of 300 psi it will operate, since the pressure difference (or 500-250) is less than the 300 MOPD rating.
If the pressure difference is larger than the MOPD, the
valve will not open.
Consideration of the maximum working pressure
required is also important for proper and safe operation.
A solenoid valve should not be used for an application
when the pressure is higher than the valve maximum
working pressure. Solenoid valves are designed for a
given type of fluid so that the materials of construction
will be compatible with that fluid. Special seat materials and synthetics may be used for high temperature
or ultra-low temperature service. Special materials are
required for corrosive fluids. Special attention to the
electrical characteristics is also important. Required
voltage and Hertz must be specified to ensure proper
selection. Valves for DC service often have different internal construction than valves for AC applications, so it
is important to study the manufacturer’s catalog information. Solenoid valves should never be used as a Safety
Shut Off unless specifically designed and rated for that
service.
50 psig
50 psig
194 psig
sP = 0 psig
200 psig
sP = 6 psig
NOTE: No minimum pressure differential – valve
will not operate.
NOTE: Pressure differential greater than minimum
– valve will operate.
24
Solenoid Valves
Emerson Climate Technologies
Installation
Emerson Solenoid Valves
Solenoid Valves having a spring loaded piston or diaphragm may be installed and operated in any position,
but installing more than 90° from vertical is not recommended since dirt or debris may collect in the solenoid
area and prevent it from operating. An adequate strainer
or filter drier should be installed ahead of each solenoid
valve to keep scale, pipe dope, solder, and other foreign
matter out of the valve.
When installing a solenoid valve, be sure the arrow
on the valve body points in the direction of refrigerant
flow.
When brazing valves with extended solder type connections do not use too hot a torch and point the flow
away from the valve. These valves do not normally need
to be disassembled before installation; if the valve does
not have extended connections, disassemble the valve
before brazing. Wet rags or chill blocks are recommended during brazing. They are needed to keep the
valve body cool so that body distortion on close-coupled
valves will not occur. Allow the valve body to cool before
replacing the valve’s operating insides to ensure that the
seat material and gaskets are not damaged by the heat.
When reassembling, do not over torque.
Emerson offers a complete line of refrigerant solenoid
valves for refrigeration and air-conditioning applications.
As part of Emerson’s commitment to the industry, each
valve undergoes stringent Emerson testing to ensure
fail-safe operation. And, with the lowest external leak
rates in the industry, Emerson solenoid valves ensure
precise refrigerant flow, preventing system failures and
aiding in environmental protection.
Application Overview
Application
Product Family
Liquid, Suction Line Service
or Hot Gas By-Pass
Pressure Differential Valve for Gas Defrost
25
240RA/540RA
50RB
100RB
200RB/500RB
710RA
713RA
System Protectors
26
Emerson Climate Technologies
System Protectors
Liquid line and suction line filter driers are often
referred to as System Protectors because they remove
harmful elements from the circulating refrigerant before
serious damage results.
Keeping the system clean and free of foreign contaminants that can restrict the operation of valves, block
capillary tubes or damage compressors is the best way
to assure trouble-free operation. These contaminants
can be solids, such as metal filings, flux, dust and dirt.
Other equally menacing contaminants are solubles,
such as acid, water, resins and wax.
No matter how many precautions are taken during
assembly and installation or servicing of a system,
contaminants can find a way into the system. Filterdriers are designed to protect a system during operation.
It is the function of this all important unit to remove those
residual elements that can attack and eventually destroy
the system components.
MWP-680
Filtration Capacity
Solid particles or semi-solids such as sludges
circulating in a refrigerant system can destroy valve
seats, plug control valves, and score cylinder walls or
compressor bearings. These contaminants can be the
result of manufacturing, servicing, or can be generated
during normal system operation.
It is important to remove these contaminants as
quickly as possible and prevent them from returning to
the system. Properly specified filter driers are designed
to trap and hold large quantities of these contaminants
while maintaining low pressure drop during their service
life.
Moisture Capability
Moisture in a refrigeration system can cause frozen
valves, copper plating, damaged motor insulation, corrosion, and sludges. Filter driers remove and retain moisture through one or more desiccants. The most popular
and effective desiccant in use today for the removal of
moisture is molecular sieve which can hold three to four
times the water of other commercial absorbents.
Moisture capacity of a filter drier is normally given
in drops of water per ARI Standard 710. These rated
capacities are in addition to any residual moisture that
might be absorbed during manufacturing.
Acid Pick-Up Capability
Various organic acids result during the decomposition
of the refrigerant and oil in a system. This decomposition
can be the result of moisture in the system, excessive
temperatures, air, or exposure to foreign substances in
the system. It is important that acid in a system is absorbed as soon as it is formed to prevent the acid from
causing system damage. Activated alumina is the most
popular of the desiccants used to remove acid.
Tests have shown that the amount of acid and resin
pick-up of an adsorbing agent is almost proportional to
the weight of the desiccant. Size or granulation makes
little difference.
There is no industry-approved method for rating acid
removal. So weight of the desiccant provides the handiest measure.
Wax Removal
The ability of a filter drier to remove wax and resins is
important in low temperature applications that use R-22.
Wax when present in a system tends to solidify on valve
seats and pins, resulting in system malfunctions.
Flow Rate
Published flow rates for filter driers are established in
accord with ARI Standard 710 for liquid line driers, and
ARI Standard 730 for suction line driers.
27
System Protectors
Emerson Climate Technologies
Absorption vs. Adsorption
One factor to consider in selection is ab- vs. adsorption. Absorption means a material’s ability to take
another substance into its inner molecular structure.
An adsorbed substance doesn’t penetrate the molecular structure. It simply starts building up on the surface of the adsorbent. Walls, cracks, crevices are part of
the surface area and are able to hold other substances,
greatly increasing capacity.
Modern desiccants are extremely porous and have
a large surface area and internal pore volume of a size
and shape to adsorb and retain water molecules.
Types of Filter driers
All the liquid line filter driers on the market today are
a variation of one of two types: the molded core type or
the bead type.
Molded core type filter driers are manufactured by
mixing desiccants (which remove the soluble contaminants) with a bonding agent, then baking them to give
them permanent shape and to activate the drying ingredients. The result is a porous core which acts as filter
and drying agent.
Compacted bead style filter driers are manufactured
with the active desiccant in bead or pellet form; no bonding material is used. Rather, compacting comes from
mechanical pressure exerted by a spring. Compacted
bead-style filter driers usually include an additional filter
network to trap solid contaminants from the refrigerant,
unlike most core styles.
The separate and distinctive filter media can take
various forms that permit depth filtration with greater
solid contaminant capacity and contaminant retention
during start-up and shut- down when turbulent conditions exist.
Compacted bead filter driers offer the maximum
volume of desiccant because filtering and drying is done
in one mass. But, because a molded core is porous,
it does not hold all solid contaminants; often particles
are washed through channels within in the core when
pressures surge. Better holding power is possible with
a more compacted core. But pressure drops increase
inversely.
Compacted bead style filter drier, Emerson’s EK-Plus
Dirt, Waxes, Acid
Every system has contaminants in it as soon as it is
opened. These contaminants may be insoluble, such as
metal filings not removed in manufacturing, or airborne
dirt that entered when the system was opened. Or they
may be soluble, such as waxes, acids, water and resins
that develop through reactions between air, the refrigerant, or lubricant.
Any of these can cause system failure. Installing an
all-purpose filter drier can lessen chances for trouble.
There are basic differences to consider: type of filter,
how it filters, and its true capacity.
Most manufacturers rate their filters to ARI Standard
710. But even though two clean filter driers may be rated
the same, there can be a vast difference in flow as the
quantity of solids picked up increases.
Fig 1. Proper placement of filter drier in the system
28
Emerson Climate Technologies
System Protectors
HFC Refrigerants and POE Lubricants
2500
2000
Water Content
(ppm)
1500
1000
500
0
Mineral POE Oil
Oil
R-12
R-134a
R-22
R-502
R-404A R-410A
0.2
Total Acid Number
The use of HFC refrigerants and Polyolester (POE)
lubricants for air-conditioning and refrigeration has
generated new system chemistry related problems. New
and redesigned system protectors have been developed
to counter these problems and provide a long, reliable
life for the operating refrigeration system.
Moisture is the major problem causing contaminate
for HFC/POE oil systems just as it was for CFC and
HCFC systems using Mineral oil. Many HFCs can hold
much more water than their CFC counterparts but the oil
differences are much worse than those of the refrigerant. POE oil can hold as much as 10 times more water
than Mineral oils. Evacuation alone has proved ineffective at removing this moisture so a filter drier is required
to perform this function.
0.15
0.1
0.05
0
0
100
200
300
400
500
600
700
Refrigerant Water Concentration (ppm)
Figure 2
Acid Generation in a 1.5 Ton POE Oil Containing System
Another aspect of POE oil is the ability to keep more
solid particles in suspension than Mineral oil. This is
important in retrofitted systems where pockets of solid
contamination are now flushed from low flow areas and
need to be removed before moving parts in the system
are damaged. The filter drier for POE oils needs to have
higher solid particle holding capacity with little impact to
refrigerant flow capacity or pressure drop.
The filter drier should also have improved contaminate removal efficiency as well to ensure that all particles are captured the first time they enter the filter drier.
The ability to remove smaller particles is also advantageous. The Emerson EK series filter driers provide a
unique combination of these characteristics to provide
outstanding filtration as shown in Figure 4.
Water poses a new problem for POE oils above and
beyond those experienced with Mineral oil. POE oil will
react with water to form organic acids at normal operating conditions in refrigerating and air-conditioning systems. This reaction starts at water levels as low as 75
ppm. These acids attack system components including
motor insulation and metallic parts, reducing system life.
To combat the detrimental effects of water in HFC
and POE oil systems it is imperative to hold moisture
levels as low as possible. Water level must be maintained less than 50 ppm in the refrigerant and the same
for the oil.
125
Moisture Level (ppm)
100
75
HMI
50
Typical
Sightglass
25
0
75
100
125
R-134a Refrigerant Temperature
Figure 3
Dry Indication Water Level
29
System Protectors
Emerson Climate Technologies
Flow Restriction
Suction Filter Driers
EK
Typical drier
Solid Contamination Captured
Figure 4
Filtration Capability of Filter driers
The filter driers for use in HFC and POE oil systems
must keep the system dry and free of any acids generated. However, since water capacity is of primary importance the filter drier should contain a higher percentage of molecular sieve than was required for CFC and
HCFC systems. But molecular sieve alone is not enough
since it has almost no organic acid capacity. An organic
acid removal desiccant must be used such as activated
alumina to ensure low acid levels are maintained. The
filter drier should also have higher filtration capacity
and efficiency. The EK series of filter driers provides the
best combination of these properties to ensure the long,
trouble-free life of any air-conditioning or refrigeration
system.
The moisture indicating sightglass must also indicate
moisture levels less than 50 ppm moisture. Also, it must
be able to perform this function at the temperature of the
liquid line on which it is placed. Many sightglasses cannot perform this function at all liquid line temperatures.
This low level indication ability is needed to ensure that
the system moisture never exceeds the level at which
organic acid formation starts. The Emerson HMI moisture indicating sightglass provides this low level detection ability.
The function of filter driers in refrigeration and air
conditioning systems is to trap moisture and harmful
contaminants. But their use in the liquid line still tends
to be thought of as the “standard” application; including
them also in the suction line hasn’t yet become standard practice to the same degree.
A filter drier in the liquid line essentially protects the
system controls – solenoid valves, expansion valves,
and pressure regulators. The function of the filter or
filter drier in the suction line is specifically to protect the
compressor against contaminants.
Emerson ASD suction line filter drier
Such protection is encouraged by compressor manufacturers in any case, but there are two circumstances
that make suction line filters or filter driers advisable:
1) It is practically impossible to avoid contamination when assembling a refrigeration system in the field. Dirt, moisture, metal particles, and copper oxide from brazing all can be present in the system de
spite the greatest care, and all can damage or reduce the service life of the compressor. 2) In large and complex systems, such as a single system serving several food cases throughout a
supermarket, it is a generally accepted practice to install a cartridge-type filter in the suction line. Then, because of the virtual certainty of contamination during assembly of the system, the initial cartridge is
removed and replaced after the first few days of system operation.
When considering the price of a compressor, the cost
of protecting it with a suction line filter is insignificant.
30
Emerson Climate Technologies
System Protectors
Internal Design
Internally, suction line filter driers employ the
same types of elements as liquid line units. One
is the core type, in which the filter drier consists of
a rigid, cylindrical, porous core that may perform
both the filter and drier functions, or be used in
combination with a separate accordion-type filter
element.
The core type filter drier is available either in a
hermetically sealed configuration or in take-apart
designs with a replaceable element.
The latest advancement is the bead-type unit,
in which the desiccant is compacted into the shell.
This design offers several advantages over older
types, including lower pressure drop, more desiccant surface area, and greater capacity.
Cross-section shows desiccant beads surrounding
accordion-type filter element
Application Tips
Using a liquid line filter drier as a suction line
filter drier is not recommended. A suction line filter
drier should provide for greater capacity than a
liquid line unit, for better compressor protection
and for less pressure drop. Two access valves
are required to measure pressure drop across the
suction line filter drier.
Typical system arrangements show suction line filter drier
installed ahead of the compressor.
31
System Protectors
Emerson Climate Technologies
Compressor Burnout
A compressor burnout can be expected to release a
variety of pollutants into the system, including acids. The
clean-up procedure below describes the use of system
protectors in cleaning up a system.
Clean-Up Procedure for Compressor Motor Burnout
1. Determine the extent of the burnout. For mild burnouts where contamination has not spread thru the system it
may be economical to save the refrigerant charge, if the system has service valves on the compressor. A severe
burnout exists if the oil is discolored, an acid odor is present, and contamination products are found on the high
and low side. In this condition, caution should be exercised to avoid breathing the acid vapors. Also, avoid skin
contact with the contaminated liquid.
2. Thoroughly clean and replace all system controls such as TXVs, solenoids, check valves, and reversing valves.
Remove all strainers and filter driers.
3. Install replacement compressor and make a complete electrical check.
4. Make sure that the suction line near the compressor is clean. Install an over-sized liquid line filter drier and a
suction line filter drier.
5. Pressure and leak-test the system according to unit manufacturer’s recommendations.
6. Triple evacuate to at least 200 microns. Break the vacuum with clean, dry refrigerant at 0 psig.
7. Charge the system through an Emerson EK filter drier to equipment manufacturer’s recommendations.
8. Start the compressor and put the system in operation. Record the pressure drop across the suction line filter
drier on the enclosed label and apply label to the side of the shell.
9. Replace the suction line filter drier if the pressure drop becomes excessive.
10.Observe the system during the first 4 hours. Repeat step 9 as often as required, until no further change in pressure drop is observed.
11.After the system has been in operation for 48 hours, check the condition of the oil with an acid test kit. If the oil
test indicates an acid condition, replace the liquid and suction line filter driers.
12.Check the system again after 2 weeks of operation. If the oil is still discolored, replace the liquid and suction line
filter drier.
13.Clean-up is finished when the oil is clean and odor-free, and is determined to be acceptable with the acid test
kit.
For detailed burnout clean-up procedure and recommendations, consult the RSES Service Manual, Section 91.
32
Emerson Climate Technologies
System Protectors
Filter Driers for Heat Pumps
A heat pump is essentially a refrigeration system that can flow in either direction. The key to its
operation is a four-way reversing valve that routes
the discharge gas from the compressor.
Depending on whether the system is cooling or
heating, the indoor and outdoor coils swap roles,
taking turns serving as the condenser and evaporator.
Since conventional refrigerant control components are designed for unidirectional operation,
their use in heat pumps requires installation in
pairs, one for each direction, with check valves
routing the flow through or around them. Today,
because of the growing use of heat pumps, components such as thermostatic expansion valves
are available in bi-directional versions, as are filter
driers.
Schematic of a basic heat pump system.
Removing Contaminants
Just like any other refrigeration system, heat
pump system components need filter drier protection to remove solid and soluble contaminants.
This may be handled several ways.
First, in systems with one-way expansion
valves and check valves, a one-way filter drier
might be installed in series with a check valve.
This would be a “part-time” arrangement, in that
filtration would be provided in only one direction.
Second, a one-way filter drier might be installed
with each of the check valves, so that one provides filtration in each direction.
Third, the simplest arrangement is to install a
bi-directional filter drier in the common liquid line.
Used in combination with a bi-directional thermostatic expansion valve such as Emerson’s HF series, the complexity of multiple expansion valves,
check valves, and filter driers can be completely
eliminated.
Emerson BKF bi-directional pump filter drier
One-Way Flow, Both Directions
Inside a bi-directional filter drier the refrigerant always flows in the same direction through the dessicant
core regardless of which way the refrigerant is flowing
through the system. The internal flow in this case is
controlled by an inlet flapper valve and an outlet poppet
valve on each side of the desiccant core. As the liquid
enters the filter drier from either direction, the inlet flapper valve routes it to the outside of the desiccant core.
After it flows through to the inside of the desiccant core,
it exits through the opposite poppet valve.
The purpose of the arrangement shown below is to
prevent contaminants collected in one direction from being flushed back out when the flow reverses.
33
System Protectors
Emerson Climate Technologies
Simplifying While Servicing
Cross section showing BFK internal components
INTERNAL
CONSTRUCTION
Inlet
Flapper
Valve
Molded Desiccant Block
When servicing or repairing heat pump systems,
especially older units, it’s a good idea to simplify them
by replacing unidirectional driers and check valves with
bi-directional driers. When a bi-directional filter drier
is installed, check valves, and filter driers can all be
replaced at once with copper tubing.
Inlet
Flapper
Valve
Outlet
Poppert
Valve
Outlet
Poppert
Valve
Inlet
Flapper
Valve
Steel Retaining Screen
Inlet
Flapper
Valve
Final Filter Pad
Steel Retaining Screen
Refrigerant flow either direction passes from
outside to inside of desiccant core
BASIC FLOW
PATTERNS
Cooling
Cycle
Heating
Cycle
Emerson System Protectors
Emerson filter driers were redesigned for increased
water removal capacity to reach these low moisture
levels. However, since no system is entirely without
water on startup some organic acids will be generated
and must be removed. The desiccant formulation for
the Emerson EK series of filter driers was designed to
provide the best mix of water capacity and acid capacity
to ensure that harmful contaminates are removed. This
desiccant mixture contains molecular sieve and activated alumina. The molecular sieve is specifically designed
to provide maximum drying in today’s systems. The
activated alumina is ideal for capturing the large organic
acids that the molecular sieve cannot.
Replace two check valves and two
expansion valves with one EMERSON
Bi-directional Thermal Expansion Valve
Emerson 4-way
Reversing Valve
Expansion Device
Filter-Drier
Check Valve
Emerson
Discharge
Muffler
Remove both filter-driers &
replace each with a piece of
copper tube
Expansion Device
Emerson
Suction Line
Compressor Filter-Drier
Install One BFK
in a convenient
Location in Common
Liquid Line
Filter-Drier
Check Valve
Bi-directional components allow simplification of system
34
Regulators
35
Emerson Climate Technologies
Regulators
Types of Regulators:
Suction Line Regulators
EVAPORATOR
PRESSURE
REGULATOR
Suction line regulators provide a wide variety of refrigerant control functions, but are mainly used for regulating suction gas pressures. These regulators provide
a method of balancing the output of the refrigeration
system with the load requirements. Two basic types are
covered here:
1) Upstream pressure regulators, which control from an
inlet pressure signal.
2) Downstream pressure regulators, which control from
an outlet pressure signal.
EVAPORATOR
PRESSURE
REGULATOR
EXTERNAL
STRAINER
EXTERNAL
STRAINER
RECOMMENDED
RECOMMENDED
NOTE: HIGH SIDE PILOT
PRESSURE REQUIRED
FOR EPRBS
60 PSIG
HIGH
EVAPORATOR
PRESSURE
50 PSIG
INTERMEDIATE
EVAPORATOR
PRESSURE
NOTE: HIGH SIDE PILOT
PRESSURE REQUIRED
FOR EPRBS
20 PSIG
LOW
EVAPORATOR
PRESSURE
Figure 1: Evaporator Pressure Regulators
used in multiple system.
Application of
Evaporator Pressure Regulators
EPR Installation
Evaporator Pressure Regulators are normally used
on multiple-compressor refrigeration systems fed by
TXVs, low side floats or solenoid liquid valve and float
switch combination. They are used whenever a minimum evaporator pressure or temperature is desired.
Controlling from an inlet side pressure signal, they
prevent upstream pressure from going below a pre-set
point.
EPR valves are used on brine or water chillers to prevent freeze-up during low load periods, by keeping the
refrigerant saturation pressure above the fluid freezing
temperature. Similarly, they may be used to prevent frost
formation on fan coil evaporators. They may also be
used to provide a given evaporator saturation pressure
to produce the required evaporation/room temperature
difference, (especially useful where humidity control is
required). On multiple evaporator systems where different evaporator temperatures are required, EPR valves
will hold the saturation pressure at the required set point
above the common system suction pressure. Here, the
EPRs prevent lowering of the desired temperature in the
warmer evaporators, while the compressor continues
operating to satisfy the coldest evaporators. See
figure 1.
EPRs may be installed at the compressor rack or
close to the evaporator.
Suction line regulators can be direct acting or internally piloted such as an Emerson IPR regulator. These
are hermetically sealed, non-repairable valves for use
on low capacity systems.
For higher sensitivity and accurate control, an externally piloted EPRB regulator will provide control of larger
units. These are repairable in the line. The EPRB valve
is a lightweight, brass body valve which eliminates the
need for normal system pressure drop needed to make
the valve move through the full stroke. This is accomplished by using compressor discharge gas to pilot the
regulator.
Combining an EPRB with a suction stop or shut off is
done with the EPRBS models. When the pilot solenoid is
de-energized, the valve closes. This eliminates the cost
of a separate suction solenoid and offers a tight shut off.
Figure 2: Cutaway view of an EPRBS.
36
Emerson Climate Technologies
Regulators
Upstream Regulators
Series EPRB & IPR
The sole function of the Evaporator Pressure Regulator is to prevent the evaporator pressure from falling
below a predetermined pressure setting. This enables
the system to meet certain load requirements over a
wide range of conditions and offers improvement over
the simple “on-off” compressor control usually provided
by thermostats or pressure switches.
These are all upstream regulators which can be
selected from the capacity charts available. Combining the regulator with a suction stop or shutoff solenoid
will cause the regulator to act as a suction stop valve.
Certain basic design operating condition data must be
determined to properly apply the regulator. For best
results, follow the simple procedure outlined below.
To select the proper regulator port size, the following
information is required:
1. System refrigerant (R134a, R22, R404A/R507A).
2. The required pressure setting (lowest allowable
evaporator pressure and corresponding refrigerant
saturation temperature).
3. The system suction pressure at the regulator outlet
(suction pressure where compressor capacity balances with system load) making allowance for any
common suction line pressure drop.
4. Pressure drop across regulator port. Subtract suction
pressure (3) from regulator set point (2).
5. Evaporator load in tons at regulator setting (required
minimum evaporator saturation temperature).
Downstream Pressure Regulators
Suction pressure regulators are used to prevent
compressor motor overload. By throttling the suction gas
flow during high load conditions, the compressor motor
is permitted to remain within current draw limitations.
Often referred to as holdback valves, crankcase pressure regulators or suction pressure regulators, they also
serve many other useful applications.
A downstream pressure regulator can be direct acting
such as an OPR valve. These are hermetically sealed,
non-repairable outlet pressure regulators for use on low
capacity systems.
Adjustable Range Table
Valve
EPRB(S)-12 thru -20
IPR-6, -10
OPR-6, -10
Adjustable Range
0 to 110 psig
0 to 50 psig
30 to 100 psig
65 to 225 psig
0 to 60 psig
50 to 130 psig
100 to 225 psig
With the above information, select the proper regulator as follows:
1. Select the valve extended capacity table from that
page which covers the system refrigerant.
2. Find the required evaporator saturation temperature
column.
3. For the available regulator pressure drop, find the
rated capacity for each regulator port size.
4. Select the proper port size from the capacity which
matches the evaporator load.
Standard Voltage & Frequencies Table
Voltage
24
120
208-240
Cycles
50-60 Hz, AC
Figure 3: EPRB(S) Brass Body
Upstream Pressure Regulator with Suction Stop Option
37
Emerson Climate Technologies
Regulators
Crankcase Regulators
Normally open, the CPR (Fig. 4) closes when compressor pressure rises above the pre-set maximum,
forcing the valve back onto its seat. As suction pressure
drops, the valve starts to reopen, maintaining a balance.
Fig 5. Cutaway of evaporator pressure regulator
(Emerson EPRB).
Where to Apply Regulators
Fig 4. Cutaway of crankcase pressure
regulator (Emerson OPR)
How to Apply Regulators
It isn’t normally necessary to apply both an EPR and
a crankcase regulator. Most installations only utilize an
EPR.
Typical installations of EPRs are in supermarket
systems, large chillers, and industrial processes where
large amounts of heat must be absorbed. Smaller
(including residential) systems of less than 5 tons are
usually equipped with compressors designed to operate
well within 30°-40°F variations.
One of the advantages of suction line regulators in
supermarkets is that by adding EPRs you can control
the operating temperatures of the individual cases in a
single loop system.
EPRs are most commonly used on multiple evaporator systems, installed in the branch lines close to
the required control source. They are used for indirect
temperature control. They also maintain evaporator
pressure during defrost, conserving power, expediting
the defrost and reducing flood back.
CPRs are usually only applied if the system is being
continually “over-pressured,” causing the compressor
to be overloaded. If you suspect that’s the case, check
the amp draw on the compressor while it’s running. If it’s
higher than the plate rating, the system may be a CPR
candidate.
38
Emerson Climate Technologies
Regulators
HeadMaster Head Pressure Controls
The application of air-cooled condensers for yearround operation, or during periods of low ambient
temperature, requires some means of control to maintain adequate condensing pressures that ensure proper
system performance. It is essential that proper liquid
refrigerant pressure be controlled to:
1) Maintain liquid subcooling and prevent liquid line
flash gas.
2) Provide adequate pressure at the inlet side of the
Thermostatic Expansion Valve to get enough pressure drop across the valve port.
3) Properly operate systems with hot gas defrost or hot
gas bypass.
4) Provide adequate temperature for operation of heat
reclaim systems.
Without proper control of condensing pressure a
refrigeration system might not perform properly and
components can be damaged. Emerson’s HeadMaster
Control offers an efficient and economical approach to
this common industry problem on air cooled condensers.
The HeadMaster 3-Way Head Pressure Control
eliminates the need for special piping or multiple control valves. As a single unit it simplifies piping and cuts
installation costs.
As ambient air temperature falls, an uncontrolled air
cooled condenser will exhibit a corresponding decrease
in head pressure. As the discharge (bypass) pressure
falls, it no longer counters the dome charge pressure
and the diaphragm moves downward, moving the pushrod and seat disc toward the bottom seat. This allows
discharge (bypass) gas to be metered into the receiver,
creating a higher pressure at the condenser outlet. The
higher pressure at the condenser outlet reduces the flow
from Port C and causes the level of condensed liquid to
rise in the condenser.
The flooding of the condenser with liquid cuts the
available condensing surface. The result is to raise the
pressure in the condenser and maintain an adequate
high side pressure. Figure 7 illustrates a typical application of the 3-way control valve. This system is perhaps the most economical and reliable way to control
discharge pressure. The three-way valve as shown in
figure 6 is a fixed, non-adjustable valve. The wholesaler
replacement setting is normally furnished for a pressure
corresponding to 95° to 98°F condensing temperature
for the given system refrigerant.
HeadMaster HP Operation
The HP control is a three-way modulating valve
controlled by the discharge pressure. The charged dome
exerts a constant pressure on top of the diaphragm. At
high ambient air temperature, bypass gas entering Port
B is allowed under the diaphragm where it counters the
pressure of the dome charge. This upward push on the
diaphragm allows the seat disc to seal against the top
seat, preventing flow from Port B (discharge gas) while
flow from Port C is unrestricted (see figure 6).
Figure 6: HeadMaster HP Valve CutAway View
Figure 7: Typical 3-Way Valve
Head Pressure Control Application
As with all head pressure control applications, additional liquid receiver capacity is required to prevent loss
of a liquid seal in the receiver when the condenser is
flooded. The receiver must be large enough to hold the
total system charge. The total system charge consists of
the following:
1. An operating charge which is the amount of refrigerant needed to operate the system during summer
(high ambient temperature) conditions.
2. An additional charge equaling the amount of refrigerant required to flood the condenser with liquid. The
condenser must be filled with liquid to a point where
a minimum head pressure is created for cold weather
(low ambient temperature) conditions.
39
Emerson Climate Technologies
Regulators
NOTE: Should the outdoor temperature fall below design conditions, more refrigerant will be required.
The total above is the total charge needed for satisfactory system performance during the lowest expected
ambient air temperature conditions. During summer
operation the receiver must be sized to safely hold the
total system charge. Good refrigeration practice states
that the total system charge should not exceed 80% of
the receiver capacity.
CAUTION:
1. The HP control should not be used on a system
which does not have a liquid receiver or on one with
a receiver which is too small. If the receiver does not
have adequate storage space, the refrigerant will
back up in the condenser to produce excessively high
discharge pressures during high ambient air temperatures, with could cause system damage or personal
injury.
2. The HP control should be used only on systems
which employ a Thermostatic Expansion Valve.
Installation of HP HeadMaster Series
Head pressure control systems are used on refrigeration systems that are temperature operated. The
compressor is started by a thermostat or the system
operates on a pump down cycle, where the thermostat
controls the liquid line solenoid valve and the compressor starts on a rise in suction pressure with a low pressure switch.
On systems that are pressure operated, migration of
the refrigerant to the cold condenser on the “off” cycle
should be prevented. If the system does not operate on a pump down cycle, migration can take place
through some compressors, from the suction line to the
condenser. Crankcase heaters will prevent liquid from
condensing in the crankcase, but will not stop migration
to the cold condenser. If the system is properly charged,
the filled condenser will permit the excess to remain in
the receiver and low side.
Under some conditions where the receiver is located
in a warm ambient, a check valve in the liquid drain line
between the HeadMaster control and the receiver may
be required to prevent the liquid receiver pressure from
equalizing to that of the condenser during the “off” cycle.
This enables the system to start on a pressure switch.
Some systems may require a time delay on the low
pressure switch. Condenser fans should not be cycled
when using the HeadMaster control. The sudden changes in high side pressure caused by fan cycling will result
in erratic Thermostatic Expansion Valve performance,
and shortened head pressure control life. To prevent this
from happening, make sure fan controls are set to operate at pressures above the HP valve setting.
HP Series Capacity & Selection
The nominal HP control capacity in tons for various
refrigerants is shown in Table 1 for R134a, R22 and
R404A/R507A. The nominal capacity is based on 100°F
liquid, 40°F evaporator and the pressure drop shown.
To get capacities in tons at other liquid and evaporator
conditions, multiply the nominal capacity at the desired
pressure drop by the correction factor given in the
catalog for the liquid temperature and evaporator
temperature.
Table 1 – Nominal Capacity (tons)
Pressure Drop – PSI
Valve
Refrigerant 12345
HP-5
2.0 2.9 3.6 4.1 4.6
HP-8
R-134a
5.5 7.8 9.6 11.0 12.4
HP-14
14.0 19.8 24.2 28.3 31.7
HP-5
2.2 3.2 3.9 4.5 5.0
HP-8
R-22
6.0 8.5 10.5 12.0 13.5
HP-14
14.7 20.8 25.6 29.7 33.8
HP-5
1.5 2.1 2.6 3.0 3.3
R-404A
HP-8
3.9 5.5 6.7 7.8 8.7
R-507A
HP-14
10.1 14.3 17.6 20.5 23.0
Based on 100°F liquid and 40°F evaporator
NOTE: Not recommended for systems utilizing patented subcooling coils in conjunction with low head pressure systems or
on sytems where the condensate line bypassses the receiver
in order to maintain subcooling effect in the liquid line.
NOTE: Do not select a valve for a capacity rating exceeding 5 psi pressure drop from Port C to Port B or for
a system with more than 20 psi pressure drop across
the condenser.
During normal ambient conditions, the available liquid
subcooling in the condenser will be adequate to cover
the pressure drop through the HeadMaster control.
If a valve is selected for a given flow rate, the resulting pressure drop must not cause the liquid pressure to
drop below saturation and produce flash gas. If enough
sub-cooling is not available to cover this pressure drop,
it is suggested that more than one valve be installed in
parallel to lower the pressure drop to tolerable limits.
Do not parallel valves of different capacities. Liquid
drain lines from the condenser to receiver are sized for a
velocity of 150 ft./min. or less.
40
Emerson Climate Technologies
Regulators
Hot Gas Bypass
HP Parallel Piping
Demand continues to mount for improved comfort
conditioning combined with lower operating costs. New
architectural designs have created real problems for
contractors and engineers to maintain humidity control at reduced loads, and to control load variations.
Refrigeration and air conditioning systems are usually designed to provide a given capacity at maximum
conditions. These operate with little fluctuation throughout a narrow load range. However, only the larger size
machines make any provisions for operation at reduced
capacity. In some systems, integral cylinder unloading,
gas engine drives with variable speed control, or even
several smaller systems, provide a logical solution.
Additional Refrigerant
Function – Hot Gas Bypass Method
On most systems, an added refrigerant charge will be
required. It is essential to have enough to completely fill
the condenser for the lowest ambient condition. To accurately determine the added refrigerant charge required
to fill the condenser, find the total length of condenser
tubing in feet, and multiply by pounds of refrigerant per
foot for a given size tubing.
Many manufacturers now recommend use of a
modulating control valve to provide a metered flow of
compressor discharge gas to the system low side, in a
proportion that will balance the system capacity to the
load demand. This is commonly known as the hot gas
bypass method. It permits full modulation of capacity
on all types of reciprocating compressors, and extends
capacity reduction below the last step of cylinder unloading.
The system must provide a means of bypassing high
pressure refrigerant to the system low pressure side, to
maintain operation at a given minimum suction pressure. Proper bypass control can be accomplished by a
modulating type pressure regulator, which opens on a
decrease in valve outlet pressure.
Factory Settings
The HeadMaster Control is factory-set to provide
an average condensing temperature consistent with
good system performance. The complete type number
includes the service reference code, port size, connection size and style. When ordering, be sure to specify
the complete type number.
UL File No. SA5312
CSA File No. LR44005
Operation of Bypass Valves
Bypass pressure regulators are grouped into the following categories:
1. Direct acting conventional port valves (figure 3)
2. Direct acting balanced port valves (figure 4). Any of
these regulators are available with either an adjustable setting, or a fixed, non adjustable setting.
Figure 4: Balance port CPHE adjustable field-serviceable
hot gas bypass regulator.
Figure 3: DGRE adjustable hot gas bypass regulator.
41
Emerson Climate Technologies
Regulators
Applications: Hot Gas Bypass to
Compressor Suction Line
Figure 6 shows the most common hot gas bypass
system. In this system, the bypass line is taken directly
from the compressor discharge line, through a bypass
regulator, and into the suction line at the compressor.
Although the hot gas bypass regulator is considered a
downstream control, there is a big difference in function
between a Crankcase Regulator and a hot gas regulator.
Pilot operated bypass valve main regulators have
a long stroke stem with a restrictor plug characterized
by either a parabolic or vee port restrictor plug design.
This prevents the valve from operating close to the seat
where pressure differential unbalance may occur, eliminating the need for a balanced port design.
The characterized port will provide smooth bypass
flow modulation. Pilot operated valves usually have the
extra features of a manual opening stem for testing or
emergency operation, flanged connections, synthetic
tight seating seats, and replaceable parts. Hot gas
bypass valves can be applied to a system in several
ways, differing only in the point to which the hot gas is
to be bypassed. Several mixing methods are available.
The one recommended is piped so that discharge gas is
admitted to the suction line to flow against the direction
of the suction gas as in figure 6.
Applications: Bypass to Evaporator Inlet
LIQUID
INJECTION
SOLENOID VALVE
Figure 6: Hot gas bypass using type LCL
liquid injection valve.
Figure 7: Direct acting hot gas regulator admitting flow
between TEV and venturi distributor.
Bypass to flooded evaporators and suction line
accumulators also present special cases. Contact the
equipment manufacturer or the bypass control valve
manufacturer for specific, detailed information.
Another method is to bypass the hot discharge gas to
the evaporator inlet, usually between the Thermal Valve Solenoid Valve for Positive Shut-off &
and the refrigerant distributor (see figure 7). This proPump-down Cycle
vides distinct advantages. The artificial load imposed on
It is recommended that a solenoid valve be installed
the evaporator causes the Thermal Valve to respond to
ahead
of the bypass regulator. This permits the system
the rise in superheat, eliminating the need for the liquid
to
operate
on an automatic pump-down cycle.
injection valve. The evaporator serves as an excellent
chamber to provide homogeneous mixing of the gases
before reaching the compressor.
Hot gas bypass into the evaporator is suggested
when the evaporator elevation is below the compressor, to prevent oil trapping caused by low velocity at low
loads. This assures proper oil return. Although there
are many advantages to this system, it is not used on a
multiple coil system, or where the evaporator sections
may be located a distance from the compressor. The
coil should be a free draining circuiting design to prevent
the increase in velocity, due to forcing a large quantity of
trapped liquid out of the low side, which in some cases
may have enough volume to flood the compressor
crankcase. Separate regulators must be used for each
evaporator when bypassing to multiple evaporators
located below the compressor to help oil return.
42
Emerson Climate Technologies
Regulators
Thermal Valves for Liquid Injection
Application and Installation
When hot gas is bypassed directly into the suction
line, it is necessary to make some provision for desuperheating the gas returning to the compressor. Without a
small Thermal valve to lower suction gas temperature to
tolerable limits, compressor damage may occur. Standard Thermal Valves cannot be adjusted for control over
20°F superheat and, therefore, are not recommended.
Liquid Injection Thermal Valves with special adjustment
ranges are used to conform to compressor manufacturer
temperature recommendations.
To simplify selection, Emerson has developed Liquid
Injection Thermal Valves with four basic adjustment
ranges. These are designated as models A, B, C and D.
The adjustable superheat range chart (page 11) shows
the proper power assembly charge symbol suffix for a
given saturated suction temperature and a given superheated suction gas temperature entering the compressor.
Nearly all Thermal valves for liquid injection may be
internally equalized. However, if pressure drop occurs
at the valve outlet due to a distributor, spray nozzle or
other restrictive device, externally equalized valves may
be needed.
Model LER and LIR valves are furnished with a 1/4”
SAE male flare external equalizer as standard. Other
models must include the code letter “E” to specify the
1/4” SAE male flare external equalizer connection.
Example: LCLE and LJLE.
Liquid injected into a gas to be desuperheated should
be injected in a way which provides a homogeneous
mixing of the liquid and superheated gas. Desuperheating hot gas bypass in the suction line may be accomplished in several ways.
The preferred method is to bullhead the hot gas and
liquid injection in a tee to permit good mixing before it
enters the suction line. A good mix with the suction gas
may be gained by injecting the liquid/hot gas mixture
into the suction line at a 45° angle against the flow of
suction gas to the compressor. See figure 6.
For suction lines 7/8” OD and smaller, the bypass
mixture may be introduced into a tee rather than an
angle connection. For lines larger than 2-5/8” OD, introduce the desuperheated bypass mixture into a 90° ell
inserted against the flow of suction gas to the compressor.
Arranging a bypass directly into a suction accumulator is often a convenient way to get proper desuperheating of suction gas.
Introducing the hot gas and liquid into the suction line
with separate connections is not recommended.
NOTE: Excessive suction gas superheat can cause
serious damage to the compressor. As a safety precaution, the bypass line solenoid valve should be wired in
series with a discharge line thermostat.
Special Applications
On systems where evaporator pressure regulators
are used, better control can be reached by installing
the bypass regulator equalizer line on the downstream
(outlet) side of the EPR so it responds to compressor
suction pressure, not evaporator pressure. This results
in nearly constant evaporator load balance. See figure 8.
Figure 8
43
Emerson Climate Technologies
Regulators
Adjusting the Set Point
Application Tips
The suction pressure at which the valve opens is
selectable by increasing or decreasing the load on the
spring by turning an adjusting screw. To set it, the evaporator must be cooled down by shutting off the fans,
blocking off the airflow, or some other means, until the
suction pressure drops to at least five pounds below the
desired set point. Then, by allowing the pressure to be
raised by the bypass gas, the spring load can be varied
until the valve closes at precisely the desired set point.
The pressure is set to maintain an evaporator temperature just above that at which frost forms.
• In systems that use a Venturi type distributor, the
bypass gas should be fed into the system between
the outlet of the expansion valve and the inlet to the
distributor. For pressure drop distributors that use an
orifice, the inlet must be between the orifice and the
inlet to the distributor.
• The hot gas bypass line should be insulated to minimize system heat loss.
• In systems with sequential compressor unloading, the
valve should be set to start opening at two to three
pounds below the last stage of unloading, because
compressor unloading is considerably more efficient
and should be used before resorting to bypassing.
• For oil return considerations, the bypass line must
feed in ahead of the evaporator when the evaporator
is installed below the compressor.
• The hot gas bypass valve should be installed as close
as practical to the condensing unit, to reduce condensing ahead of it.
• In systems that operate on a pump down cycle, there
must be a solenoid valve or some other means of
shutoff in the bypass line.
44
Oil Controls
45
Oil Controls
Emerson Climate Technologies
Oil Controls
Any time that compressors are operated in a parallel operation (Suction and Discharge lines manifolded
together), an oil control system in needed to ensure that
each compressor has enough oil to operate properly.
Oil control systems are sometimes as basic as a
common line connected between compressors to allow
oil and gas equalization. This is usually referred to as a
“passive” oil system. Although this may suffice on twocompressor systems, compressor racks of three or more
compressors almost always have an “active” system
since even small differences in crankcase pressures can
cause oil starving. This system uses an oil separator to
capture most of the oil from the compressor discharge
gas since some oil is carried out of the compressor
with the refrigerant. Several types of oil separators are
commonly used in these applications. The older style is
called an impingement type while newer, more efficient
types are the centrifugal and coalescing types.
After the oil is separated from the refrigerant, it collects in the bottom of the oil separator where it is fed
directly to the crankcase in a high-pressure oil system
using oil controls on the compressor crankcases.
To
Condenser
Compressor
Discharge
Filter-Drier
Common Suction
Oil Separator
Reservoir
OMB
OMB
OMB
Differential
Pressure Valve
Reservoir
Compressor
Discharge
Filter-Drier
Common Suction
To
Condenser
Oil
Separator
OMB
OMB
On all oil systems, it is important to install an oil filter
downstream of the oil separator to ensure a supply of
clean oil to the compressors.
Emerson Oil Controls
A high-pressure oil system can use an Emerson OMB
oil control mounted on the compressor crankcase. The
OMB is a device which uses a reverse Hall-effect magnetic float to activate a solenoid to allow oil to flow into
the crankcase whenever the level falls below 1/2sight
glass level. It is designed to operate at oil pressures up
to 350 psid.
OMB
High-Pressure Oil System
A low-pressure oil system incorporates a separate oil
reservoir which is downstream of the separator. Oil separators
in low-pressure oil systems have a float valve in the bottom to
allow excess oil to pass to the reservoir whenever the level is
high enough in the separator to open the valve. The pressure
in the oil reservoir is usually held 20-30 psi above the crankcase pressure through a differential check valve. This lower
pressure allows mechanical oil floats, which use a float valve
which opens when the crankcase oil level falls below 1/sight
glass, to be used to feed oil into the compressor crankcases.
The mechanical floats cannot be used on high-pressure oil
systems because the oil pressure entering them would be too
high and cause them to not be able to control the oil level.
OMB
Low-Pressure Oil System
OMB
46
Temperature
Pressure Controls
47
Emerson Climate Technologies
Temperature-Pressure Controls
Temperature Pressure Controls
Temperature pressure controls serve a number of
purposes in refrigeration systems, including the control
of compressor cycling, pump-down, defrost control,
pressure limiting, loss of charge freeze protection and
fan speed control.
TS1 Introduction
tion are capillary type of sensors, which do not have a
bulb, instead, their capillary serves as the bulb directly.
Charges and sensor types are matched to temperature ranges and other application specific characteristics. TS1 thermostats come with one of three charge
types: vapor charges, adsorption charges or liquid
charges. The application temperature range covered by
each charge type is shown below:
The TS1 Series is Emerson’s adjustable thermostats
for application in refrigeration and heat pump systems.
In these systems, thermostats provide space temperature control, high/low temperature alarming or defrost
termination. By operating an electrical contact, a temperature value is kept inside a certain limit.
Liquid Charge
Housing Variants
Vapour Charge
TS1 controls are top operated. Top operated
controls have adjustment spindles at the top and a
display scale, showing temperature setpoint and differential, at the front. A knob which may be permanently
plugged onto one of the adjustment spindles comes with
every control. Frost monitors and room thermostats are
derivatives of top operated thermostats. They differ by
their sensors and other features to suit their target
applications.
TS1 Top Operated
Temperature Sensing
TS1 thermostats sense temperature by a thermal
system, consisting of temperature charge, bulb, capillary
and bellows. The temperature charge changes its pressure based on the refrigerant temperature to be sensed.
The sensor is the part of the system which is in thermal
contact with the refrigerant. The capillary connects the
sensor with the bellows and the bellows contracts or
expands depending on the temperature, causing the
thermostat to operate the electrical contacts. An excep-
Adsorption Charge
-148°F
-58
32
122
212
302
392°F
Vapor Charge – Sensor Type A, E, P
These sensing elements always sense from the coldest point on the capillary, coil, bulb or power element
head. For proper operation, the coldest point must be at
the part of the sensor which is exposed to the medium
temperature to be sensed. The sensing location should
be at least 4 degrees F colder than the other parts of the
thermal system.
To avoid unwanted effects of heat transfer, for example from a cold wall, vapor charged thermostats come
with an integrated bellows heater (not for frost monitors),
which is rated for 230V applications. For other applications, the heater must be disabled or a bellows heater
with a different rating should be used.
Besides the bellows heater, room thermostats are
supplied with an insulation console for the same reason.
Sensor type ‘A’ is a coiled bulb sensor with two meter
capillary, which may be used with or without a bulb well.
Style ‘E’ is a coil sensor for space temperature sensing,
and type ‘P’ is a capillary type of sensor which can be
wrapped around a heat exchanger’s surface to sense
the coldest point on the heat exchanger for frost protection applications.
Vapor charges respond faster to temperature changes than adsorption and liquid charges.
48
Emerson Climate Technologies
Temperature-Pressure Controls
Adsorption Charge – Sensor Type F
Adsorption charged sensor types operate on a temperature dependent adsorption material, which is inside
the bulb only. These sensor types always respond to
temperature changes at the bulb only. This makes them
suitable to applications where it is not always defined
which part of the thermal system the coldest point is
(cross ambient applications). An example for such applications is defrost control.
Adsorption charges are slower in response to temperature changes than vapor charges.
electrical loads, for example in electronic signaling applications.
For applications using a supply voltage other than
230V and for applications using gold plated contacts,
the bellows heater of vapor charged thermostats (sensor
style A, E or P – not for frost monitors function C or D)
must be disabled.
Contact Function
Thermostat contacts TS1 are labeled 1-2-4 where ‘1’
refers to the common pole, ‘2’ refers to the lower setpoint and ‘4’ refers to the upper setpoint.
The contact function for automatic and manual reset
versions is as described below.
Liquid Charge – Sensor Type C
Liquid charge sensors of type ‘C’ always sense from
the warmest point of the thermal system. The sensing
location must always be 4 degrees F warmer than other
parts of the thermal system.
Setpoints
TS1 are adjustable controls with adjustment spindles
for range and differential. Note that manual reset controls and some other controls have a fixed differential
and no differential spindle. By turning the range spindle,
the upper setpoint is defined and by adjusting the differential spindle, the differential and the lower setpoint is
defined.
The dependency between upper and lower setpoint is
always as follows:
lower setpoint = upper setpoint – differential
The following two rules should be kept in mind:
➯ an adjustment of the range spindle always affects
both upper and lower setpoint.
➯ an adjustment of the differential spindle affects the
lower setpoint only.
The controls are equipped with display scale and
pointers to show the approximate settings.
Top operated controls have display scales in units °C
and °F, front operated controls have a display scale in
units °C.
For precise setting of the controls, external thermometers must be used.
Electrical Contacts
TS1 temperature controls are equipped with high
rated double snap action contacts for shatter-free and
reliable operation.
All contacts in these controls are designed as Single
Pole Double Throw (SPDT) contacts. One contact may
be used for control and the other contact for alarm/status indication or auxiliary control.
Gold plated contacts are available on request for low
Automatic Reset
On temperature rise above the upper setpoint,
contacts 1-open and contacts 4 close. On decreasing
temperature lower setpoint contacts 4 open and contacts close.
2
4
1
-
+
Automatic reset contact function
Manual Reset Low Temperature
On decreasing temperature below the lower setpoint,
contacts 1-4 open, contacts close and latch. Only on
temperature rise above upper setpoint and after pressing the manual reset button contacts will open and
contacts 4 will close again.
2
-
4
1
+
Manual reset low temperature contact function
Manual Reset High Temperature
On increasing temperature above the upper setpoint,
contacts 1-open, contacts 4 close and latch. Only on
falling temperature below lower setpoint and after pressing the manual reset button, contacts 4 will open and
contacts 1-will close again.
2 4
-
1
+
Manual reset high temperature contact function
49
Emerson Climate Technologies
Temperature-Pressure Controls
For operational safety, all TS1 with manual reset are
designed as trip-free controls, i.e. pressing the manual
reset button while the temperature has not reached its
reset threshold will not operate the electrical contacts.
Bellows Heater
TS1 with vapor charges, i.e. sensor types A, E, P
(not frost monitors function C or D) have a bellows
heater wired across the contacts in the following way.
Should the inner bellows leak, then the larger surface area of the outer bellows creates a larger force
and causes the pressostat to a pre-empted cut out. This
represents a fail-safe function. Standard controls for
refrigeration applications are equipped with a bronze
bellows and can be used with all common HFC, HCFC
and CFC refrigerants.
4
1
2
+
Ω
Single Pressostat PS1
Bellows heater
PS1/PS2 Introduction
The PS1/PS2 Series is Emerson’s adjustable pressostats for application in refrigeration and heat pump
systems.
In these systems, pressure controls serve control
and protection functions. Examples of control are
compressor cycling, pump-down or defrost control.
Protection includes pressure limiting and cut out against
excessive pressures, against loss of charge or for freeze
protection.
Pressure Sensing
All pressures mentioned in this document are understood as gauge pressures. PS1/PS2 controls sense
pressure by bellows which expand or contract when
exposed to medium pressure.
High pressure limiters and pressure cut outs with
type approval according to EN 12263 feature a double
bellows design. The inner bellows serves as the operating bellows and is enclosed by the outer bellows featuring a larger surface area.
Dual Pressostat PS2
Pressure Connectors
A variety of pressure connectors, including male
and female flare type connectors, capillary and solder
connectors are available. The standard connector is a
7-16”-20 UNF male flare connector, which, in its high
pressure versions, is equipped with a snubber to protect
against pressure pulsations.
Electrical Contacts
PS1/PS2 pressure controls are equipped with high
rated double snap action contacts for shatter-free and
reliable operation.
All contacts in these controls are designed as Single
Pole Double Throw (SPDT) contacts. One contact may
be used for control and the other contact for alarm/status indication or auxiliary control. Dual Pressostats PS2
come with two independently actuated SPDT contacts,
providing for even further application flexibility by allowing for a variety of wiring options.
50
Emerson Climate Technologies
Temperature-Pressure Controls
Setpoints
PS1/PS2 are adjustable controls with external adjustment spindles for range and differential. Note that
manual reset controls have a fixed differential and no
differential spindle. By turning the range spindle, the
upper setpoint is defined and by adjusting the differential
spindle, the differential and the lower setpoint is defined.
The dependency between upper and lower setpoint is
always as follows:
lower setpoint = upper setpoint – differential
The following two rules should be kept in mind:
➯ an adjustment of the range spindle always affects
both upper and lower setpoint.
➯ an adjustment of the differential spindle affects the
lower setpoint, only.
The controls are equipped with display scale and pointers to show the approximate settings. The display scales
are printed in relative pressure units “bar” and “psi”. For
precise setting of the controls, external gauges must be
used.
Contact Function
Contacts on Single Pressostats, PS1 are labeled
1-2-4 where ‘1’ refers to the common pole, ‘2’ refers to
the lower setpoint and ‘4’ refers to the upper setpoint.
This is true for all types of controls, irrespective whether
they are low pressure controls, high pressure controls,
manual or automatic reset types.
The contact function for automatic and manual reset
versions is as described below.
Automatic Reset
When pressure rises above the upper setpoint,
contacts 1-2 open and contacts 1-4 close. On decreasing temperature lower setpoint contacts 1-4 open and
contacts 1-2 close.
2
P
2
P
-
4
1
+
Manual reset low pressure contact function
Manual Reset High Pressure
When pressure rises above the upper setpoint,
contacts 1-2 open, contacts 1-4 close and latch. Only on
falling pressure below lower setpoint and after pressing the manual reset button, contacts 1-4 will open and
contacts 1-2 will close again.
2 4
P
-
1
+
Manual reset high pressure contact function
For operational safety, all PS1/PS2 with manual
reset are designed as trip-free controls, i.e. pressing the
manual reset button while the pressure has not reached
its reset threshold will not operate the electrical contacts.
As Dual Pressostats PS2 have two sets of contacts,
their function is the same as on Single Pressostats PS1
with the only difference that the contact labels are preceded by an additional index. One side of the control is
labeled 11-12-14 and the second side is 21-22-24.
The contact function of controls with convertible reset
is as described above but depends on the position of the
convertible reset toggle, i.e. automatic or manual reset
position.
4
1
- +
Automatic reset contact function
Manual Reset Low Pressure
When pressure drops below the lower setpoint,
contacts 1-4 open, contacts 1-2 close and latch. Only
on pressure rise above upper setpoint and after pressing the manual reset button contacts 1-2 will open and
contacts 1-4 will close again.
51
Emerson Climate Technologies
Temperature-Pressure Controls
PSC Pressure Switch
The Emerson PSC is a Pressure Switch with fixed
switch-point settings.
Features
• Maximum Operating Pressure up to 623 psig Test
Pressure up to 696 psig
• Standard factory settings from stock in small volumes
• High and low pressure switches
• High temperature version with snubber for direct compressor mounting (Range 6)
• Direct mounting reduces the number of joints and thus
avoiding potential leakage
• Precise setting and repeatability
• IP 65 protection if used with the cables with plug
PSC
Options
•For direct mounting on a pressure connection
(free standing) or with a capillary tube
•Direct compressor head mounting with high
temperature bellows and snubber
-reduces the number of joints
-avoids potential leakage
-saves high cost of flexible hose
•TÜV approved versions for high and low pressure
•Micro-switch for narrow pressure differentials
•Gold plated contacts for low voltage/current
applications
•Cables with plug ordered separately
4
1
2
P
PSC Introduction
+
-
Single Diaphragm
PSC is equipped with a SPDT snap action contact,
switching from 1-2 to 1-4 on rising pressure and from 4
to on falling pressure (see diagram). Several models are
available:
• Low pressure switch, with automatic or manual reset
• High pressure switch, with automatic or manual reset
• DIN/TÜV approved safety high pressure limiter with
automatic reset
• DIN/TÜV approved safety high pressure cut-out, with
internal or external manual reset
Bellows (Pressure Range 6)
TÜV approval for pressure switches can be reached
either by using a double diaphragm (Pressure range
1-5) which acts in a fail-safe mode or by a single pressure element (Bellows, Pressure range 6) which is able
to resist to >Mio. cycles between 50% and 100% of the
maximum operating pressure (see 4.6.1 of EN 12263).
52
Emerson Climate Technologies
Temperature-Pressure Controls
FSX Introduction
Description of control behavior
FSX electronic speed controllers are designed to
control the speed of fan motors in commercial refrigeration system depending on condensing pressure changes. It is suitable for single phase. FSX can be used in
air-cooled condensers, air-cooled condensing units and
air-conditioning units.
Using variable fan speed controllers offers the
following benefits in commercial refrigeration or airconditioning applications:
• Head pressure can be kept high enough to ensure
proper operation of the expansion valve, and sufficient
mass flow through the expansion valve to feed the
evaporator. This maintains the required cooling capacity.
• Efficiency increase of the compressor by controlling
the head pressure, improved performance and energy
saving for the complete system.
• The noise of the motor can be kept at a minimum by
avoiding permanent on/off cycling.
FSX control behavior can be easily described by
looking at the function of output voltage versus input
pressure (see figure 1) and by dividing it into maximum,
proportional and minimum range.
Supply Output
Voltage Voltage
99%
230 V
Maximum range
Minimum
50% range
Cut-off
0%
Proportional range
Proportional range: Pressure (bar)
FSX-41_: 2,5 bar
FSX-42_: 3,8 bar
FSX-43_: 4,6 bar
Figure 1 – FSX Output Voltage Versus Input Pressure
FSX-43S
In the maximum range, the FSX provides a constant
output voltage of about 1% below the supply voltage.
The fan runs at maximum speed.
Along the proportional range the output voltage varies between maximum and minimum voltage of approximately 50% of the supply voltage. This causes the fan
speed to slow down from maximum speed to minimum
speed.
Further decrease of pressure in the minimum range
leads to cut-off of the fan motor. Increase of input pressure will start the motor with a hysteresis of approximately 10 psig to avoid cycling (Fig. 1).
The pressure from which motor is cut off (FSX), see
column “pressure range” in the selection chart. The proportional range is fixed at:
36 psig for FSX-41_/FSM-41_
55 psig for FSX-42_/FSM-42_
66 psig for FSX-43_/FSM-43_
53
Basic Rules of
Good Practice
54
Emerson Climate Technologies
Basic Rules of Good Practice
Basic Rules of Good Practice
Doing a good job in any line of work almost always involves following some basic “good practice” rules, and servicing refrigeration systems is no exception. Knowing and observing such basic rules, to the point that it becomes
automatic, can prevent a lot of problems by cutting them off at the pass before they have a chance to happen.
A list of DO’s, procedures that should be followed, and a list of DON’Ts representing pitfalls that should be
avoided are presented here to promote the general adoption of good servicing practices and a better understanding of the WHYs behind them. An occasional quick review may serve to reinforce awareness and help make their
application second nature.
DOs
DO maintain test instruments in good working order and periodically check
them against accurately calibrated instruments.
Good diagnoses can’t be made with faulty inputs.
DO familiarize yourself with the operation of a control before attempting to
make adjustments or repairs.
If you don’t understand how a control is supposed to function, you can’t be sure if
it’s defective or not. When you know what you’re doing, you achieve good results
on purpose; when you don’t know what you’re doing, you achieve good results only
by accident.
DO make it a practice to check suction gas superheat at the compressor.
Too low superheat may result in liquid flood-back, while high superheats cause
high discharge temperatures. Always follow equipment manufacturers’ instructions.
DO replace filter driers or replaceable cartridges whenever it’s necessary to
open a system for service.
The Brand You Know.
The Products You Trust.
P R E S S U R E T E M P E R AT U R E C H A R T AT S E A L E V E L
Red (in of Hg) = Vacuum
°F
-50
-48
-46
-44
-42
-40
-38
-36
-34
-32
-30
-28
-26
-24
-22
-20
-18
-16
-14
-12
-10
-8
-6
-4
-2
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
20
22
24
26
28
30
32
34
36
38
40
42
44
46
48
50
52
54
56
58
60
62
64
66
68
70
72
74
76
78
80
82
84
86
R-12
15.5
14.6
13.8
12.9
12.0
11.0
10.0
8.9
7.9
6.7
5.5
4.3
3.0
1.7
0.3
0.5
1.3
2.0
2.8
3.6
4.5
5.3
6.2
7.2
8.1
9.1
10.1
11.2
12.3
13.4
14.6
15.8
17.0
18.3
19.6
21.0
22.4
23.8
25.3
26.8
28.4
30.0
31.6
33.3
35.1
36.9
38.7
40.6
42.6
44.6
46.6
48.7
50.8
53.1
55.3
57.6
60.0
62.4
64.9
67.5
70.1
72.7
75.4
78.2
81.1
84.0
87.0
90.0
93.2
Black (psig) = Vapor
R-22
6.1
4.8
3.4
1.9
0.4
0.6
1.4
2.2
3.1
4.0
4.9
5.9
6.9
8.0
9.1
10.2
11.4
12.6
13.9
15.2
16.5
17.9
19.4
20.9
22.4
24.0
25.7
27.4
29.1
31.0
32.8
34.8
36.8
38.8
40.9
43.1
45.3
47.6
50.0
52.4
55.0
57.5
60.2
62.9
65.7
68.6
71.5
74.5
77.6
80.8
84.1
87.4
90.8
94.4
98.0
101.6
105.4
109.3
113.2
117.3
121.4
125.7
130.0
134.5
139.0
143.6
148.4
153.2
158.2
R-134a
18.7
18.0
17.3
16.5
15.7
14.8
13.9
13.0
12.0
10.9
9.8
8.7
7.5
6.3
5.0
3.7
2.3
0.8
0.3
1.1
1.9
2.8
3.6
4.6
5.5
6.5
7.5
8.5
9.6
10.8
11.9
13.1
14.4
15.7
17.0
18.4
19.9
21.3
22.9
24.5
26.1
27.8
29.5
31.3
33.1
35.0
37.0
39.0
41.1
43.2
45.4
47.7
50.0
52.4
54.9
57.4
60.0
62.7
65.4
68.2
71.1
74.1
77.1
80.2
83.4
86.7
90.0
93.5
97.0
Bold (psig) = Liquid
R-401A
R-402A
R-404A
MP-39
HP-80
HP-62
17.9
17.2
16.4
15.6
14.7
13.8
12.9
11.9
10.9
9.8
8.7
7.5
6.3
5.0
3.6
2.2
0.8
0.3
1.1
1.9
2.8
3.6
4.5
5.4
6.4
7.4
8.5
9.5
10.7
11.8
13.0
14.2
15.5
16.9
18.2
19.6
21.1
22.6
24.2
25.8
27.4
29.1
30.9
32.7
34.6
36.5
38.5
40.5
42.6
44.8
47.0
60.4
63.0
65.7
68.4
71.2
74.1
77.0
80.0
83.1
86.3
89.5
92.8
96.2
99.7
103.2
106.8
110.6
114.4
1.1
1.9
2.8
3.7
4.7
5.7
6.8
7.8
9.0
10.1
11.4
12.6
13.9
15.3
16.7
18.2
19.7
21.2
22.9
24.5
26.3
28.0
29.9
31.8
33.8
35.8
37.9
40.0
42.3
44.6
46.9
49.4
51.9
54.4
57.1
59.8
62.6
65.5
68.5
71.5
74.7
77.9
81.2
84.6
88.0
91.6
95.3
99.0
102.9
106.8
110.8
115.0
119.2
123.6
128.0
132.6
137.2
142.0
146.9
151.9
157.0
162.2
167.5
173.0
178.5
184.2
190.1
196.0
202.1
0.1
0.7
1.6
2.4
3.4
4.3
5.3
6.3
7.4
8.5
9.6
10.8
12.0
13.3
14.6
16.0
17.4
18.9
20.4
22.0
23.6
25.3
27.0
28.8
30.7
32.6
34.6
36.6
38.7
40.9
43.1
45.4
47.8
50.2
52.7
55.3
58.0
60.7
63.5
66.4
69.3
72.4
75.5
78.7
82.0
85.4
88.8
92.4
96.0
99.8
103.6
107.5
111.6
115.7
119.9
124.2
128.7
133.2
137.8
142.6
147.4
152.4
157.5
162.7
168.0
173.4
179.0
184.6
190.4
Regardless of how careful you are, it’s virtually impossible to prevent the entry of
moisture and other contaminants while the system is open. Driers or cartridges
cannot be successfully activated in the field for reuse. A new filter drier or cartridge
is cheap insurance for a compressor.
DO use an accurate moisture indicator in the liquid line to watch out for
moisture contamination.
It is the single most common contaminant, and it can lead to a variety of problems
including acid, sludge, and freeze-ups.
DO check expansion valve superheat by using the temperature-pressure
method.
This involves measuring the suction line pressure at the evaporator outlet and then
referring to the appropriate temperature-pressure chart to determine the saturation temperature. Subtracting this temperature from the suction line temperature
measured at the remote bulb gives you the operating superheat, which should be
adjusted to the equipment manufacturer’s specifications.
55
Basic Rules of Good Practice
Emerson Climate Technologies
DON’T be a “parts-changer.”
DON’Ts
Analyze problems based on the symptoms, and determine the specific cause before making any changes or repairs. Emerson’s Troubleshooting Guide describes
a wide variety of problems that may be encountered, and their probable causes.
DON’T think of a TXV as a temperature or pressure control.
Thinking of it as a superheat control is basic to achieving optimum system performance.
DON’T attempt to use any control for any application other than the one it
was designed for.
Using a pressure regulator for a pressure relief valve, or any similar substitution,
is not good practice and almost certainly won’t deliver proper performance. Misapplications can lead to equipment damage and even injury. When doubt exists,
check with the manufacturer.
DON’T energize a solenoid coil while it is removed from the valve.
Without the magnetic effect of the solenoid core, the coil will burn out in a matter
of seconds.
DON’T install a previously used filter drier or replaceable cartridge.
It could introduce contaminants that it has picked up since its removal from a
system.
DON’T select solenoid valves by line size or port size, but by valve capacity.
They must also be compatible with the intended application with regard to the
specific refrigerant used, the maximum opening pressure differential (MOPD), the
maximum working pressure (MWP), and the electrical characteristics. Never apply a valve outside of its design limits or for uses not specifically catalogued.
DON’T rely on sight or touch for temperature measurements.
Use an accurate thermometer. Once again, you can’t get accurate diagnoses
with faulty inputs.
56
Troubleshooting
Guide
57
SYSTEM TROUBLESHOOTING GUIDE
System
Problem
Discharge
Pressure
Suction
Pressure
Superheat
Overcharge
Undercharge
Liquid
Restriction
(Drier)
Low
Evaporator
Airflow
Dirty
Condenser
Low Outside
Ambient
Temperature
Inefficient
Compressor
TXV Bulb
Loose
Mounted
TXV Bulb
Lost
Charge
Poorly
Insulated
Bulb
58
Subcooling
Amps
Troubleshooting Expansion Valves
Superheat Is Too Low -- TXV Feeds Too Much
Problem
Symptoms
1) Liquid Slugging
Valve Feeds
2) Low Superheat
Too Much
3) Suction Pressure Normal or High
Causes
Corrective Action
Oversized Valve
Replace with correct size valve
Incorrect Superheat Setting
Adjust the superheat to correct setting
Moisture
Replace the filter-driers; evacuate the system
and replace the refrigerant
Dirt or Foreign Material
Clean out the material or replace the valve
Incorrect Charge Selection
Select proper charge based on refrigerant type
Incorrect Bulb Location
Relocate the bulb to proper location
Incorrect Equalizer Location
Relocate the equalizer to proper location
Plugged Equalizer (Balanced Port Valve)
Remove any restriction in the equalizer tube
Superheat Is Too High -- TXV Doesn't Feed or Doesn't Feed Enough
Problem
Symptoms
Causes
Short of Refrigerant
Valve
Doesn't
Feed or
Doesn't
Feed
Enough
1) Evaporator Temperature Too High
2) High Superheat
3) Low Suction Pressure
Corrective Action
Add correct amount of refrigerant
High Superheat
Change superheat setting
Flash Gas In Liquid Line
Remove source of restriction
Low or Lost Bulb Charge
Replace power element or valve
Moisture
Replace driers or evacuate the system and
replace refrigerant
Plugged Equalizer (Conventional Valve)
Remove restriction in equalizer tube
Insufficient Pressure Drop or Valve Too
Small
Replace existing valve with properly sized valve
Dirt or Foreign Material
Clean out material or replace valve
Incorrect Charge Selection
Select correct charge
Incorrect Bulb Location
Move bulb to correct location
Incorrect Equalizer Location
Move equalizer to correct location
Charge Migration (MOP Only, Vapor
Charges)
Move valve to a warmer location or apply heat
tape to powerhead
Wax
Use charcoal drier
Wrong equalizer Type Valve
Use externally equalized valve
Rod Leakage (Balanced Port Valve)
Replace valve
Heat Damaged Powerhead
Replace powerhead or valve
No Superheat At Start Up Only
Problem
Symptoms
Valve Feeds 1) Liquid Slugging
Too Much At 2) Zero Superheat
Start Up
3) Suction Pressure Too High
Causes
Corrective Action
Refrigerant Drainage
Use pump down control; Install trap at the top
of the evaporator
Compressor or Suction Line in a Cold
Location
Install crankcase heater; Install suction solenoid
Partially Restricted or Plugged External
Equalizer (Balanced Port Valve)
Remove restriction
Liquid Line Solenoid Won't Shut
Replace powerhead or valve
Superheat Is Erratic Or Hunts
Problem
System
Hunts or
Cycles
Symptoms
1) Suction Pressure Hunts
2) Superheat Hunts
3) Erratic Valve Feeding
Causes
Bulb Location Incorrect
Corrective Action
Reposition Bulb
Valve Too Large
Replace with correctly sized valve
Incorrect Superheat Setting
Adjust superheat to correct setting
System Design
Redesign system
59
Superheat Appears Normal -- System Performs Poorly
Problem
Symptoms
Valve Doesn't Feed Properly
Causes
1) Poor System Performance
2) Low or Normal Superheat
3) Low Suction Pressure
Corrective Action
Unequal Circuit Loading
Make modification to balance load
Flow From One Coil Affecting
Another Coil
Correct piping
Low Load
Correct conditions causing low load
Mismatched Coil/Compressor
Correct match
Incorrect Distributor
Install correct distributor
Evaporator Oil-Logged
Increase gas velocity through coil
Troubleshooting Electronic Valves & Controls
EXD-U00 TROUBLESHOOTING – (Driver with Auxillary Controller)
Symptom
Possible Cause
Action
Remark
Digital input has priority to
analogue signal input
Digital input must be activated
and deactivated along with
compressor start and stop
Wrong setting of dipswitches
Adjust the dip switches correctly. The power supply must
be off during this action
Valve is not moving
Supply voltage: 24VAC ± 10%
if external ECP-024 is used.
Supply voltage: 24VAC or
VDC ± 10% if external
ECP-024 is not connected
Supply voltage too low
Wrong wiring between valve
and driver
Correct the wiring
Valve operating in reverse
direction
Wrong wiring between driver
and valve
Correct the wiring
The valve is not at the position corresponding to input
signal
Digital input of driver has
been jumpered so there is no
synchronization at all
Driver does not show any life
Wrong supply voltage applied
Temporary high voltage such
as 110V/230V may damage
the driver
Change EXDU00
Dip Switch Number
Function
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
EX4/EX5/EX6 operation
0
1
1
0
1
0
–
–
EX7 operation
1
0
0
1
0
1
–
–
EX8 operation
1
1
0
1
1
1
–
–
4-20 mA analogue input signal
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
0
0-10V analogue input signal
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
1
With start mode
–
–
–
–
–
–
1
–
Without start mode
–
–
–
–
–
–
0
–
60
1
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
Troubleshooting Electronic Valves & Controls
EC3-X33 TROUBLESHOOTING – (Controller with Keypad)
Symptom
Cause
Action
Superheat is several degrees Incorrect signal from pressure or
higher or lower than set-point temperature sensors
1. Check the sensors
2. Make sure ECN-Nxx temperature
sensor is used
3. For optimum accuracy, please use:
PT4-07S for R22/R134a/R507/R404A/R407C/R124
PT4-18S for R410A or for economizer applications
PT4-30S for R744
4. Make sure the sensor cables are not installed along with
other high voltage cables (keep minimum 1.5 inch away)
Superheat is too low
i.e. compressor wet running
1. Incorrect wiring of ECVs
2. Defective sensors
1. Check the wiring
2. Check the sensor
Valve is not fully closing
1. The digital input is ON (24V)
2. Wrong setting of parameter ut
1. Valve is shut off only when the digital input is turned off
(0V)
2. Check the setting of parameter ut
Instable superheat (hunting)
Uneven refrigerant distribution or Change superheat control mode from standard to slow
evaporator with very long length/
time constant
Evaporator is designed to operate Increase the superheat set-point
at higher superheat
Valve opens when EC3
commands to close and vice
versa
Wrong wiring between EC3-X33
and valve
Correct the wiring
EX8 is not able to open at
high differential pressure
Wrong setting of parameter ut
Check the parameter ut. (Larger valve requires higher
torque and higher current)
Superheat set-point is shifting after several months of
uninterrupted operation or
permanent jumper of 24V
digital input
Stepper motor driven valves
require synchronization
Do not apply permanent 24V digital input. Interrupt digital
input once every week for 5 seconds if compressor never
stops
No connection or improper connection between ECD-002 and
EC3-X33
Wrong electrical plug
EC3-X33 is defective
Use only CAT 5 LAN cable
Wrong supply voltage applied
Change EC3-X33
Short circuit of output terminals
(for connection to ECV) or short
circuit between output terminal
with ground
Change EC3-X33
ECD-002 display unit does
not show any information
EC3-X33 does not show any
life
EC3-X33 internal stepper
motor chip is burn out
61
Use RJ45 only (RJ11 is not suitable)
Change the EC3-X33
Troubleshooting Electronic Valves & Controls
EC3-X33 TROUBLESHOOTING – (Controller with Computer)
Symptom
Cause
Action
Superheat is several degrees Incorrect signal from pressure or
higher or lower than set-point temperature sensors
1. Check the sensors
2. Make sure ECN-Nxx temperature sensor is used
3. For optimum accuracy, please use:
PT4-07S for R22/R134a/R507/R404A/R407C/R124
PT4-18S for R410A or for economizer applications
PT4-30S for R744
4. Make sure the sensor cables are not installed along with
other high voltage cables (keep minimum 1.5 inch away)
Superheat is too low
i.e. compressor wet running
1. Incorrect wiring of ECVs
2. Defective sensors
1. Check the wiring
2. Check the sensor
1. The digital input is ON (24V)
1. Valve is shut off only when the digital input is turned off
(0V)
2. Check the setting of parameter ut
Valve is not fully closing
Instable superheat (hunting)
2. Wrong setting of parameter ut
Uneven refrigerant distribution or Change superheat control mode from standard to slow
evaporator with very long length/
time constant
Evaporator is designed to operate Increase the superheat set-point
at higher superheat
Valve opens when EC3
commands to close and vice
versa
Wrong wiring between EC3-X32
and valve
Correct the wiring
EX8 is not able to open at
high differential pressure
Wrong setting of parameter ut
Check the parameter ut. (Larger valve requires higher
torque and higher current)
Superheat set-point is shifting after several months of
uninterrupted operation or
permanent jumper of 24V
digital input
Stepper motor driven valves
require synchronization
Do not apply permanent 24V digital input. Interrupt digital
input once every week for 5 seconds if compressor never
stops
No connection or improper
connection between PC and
EC3-X32
Wrong electrical plug
EC3-X32 and PC are not in a logical network
Check the network wiring
Wrong supply voltage applied
Change EC3-X32
Short circuit of output terminals
(for connection to ECV) or short
circuit between output terminal
with ground
Change EC3-X32
Not able to get data on PC
monitor
EC3-X32 does not show any
life
EC3-X32 internal stepper
motor chip is burn out
62
Use RJ45 only (RJ11 is not suitable)
Check TCP/IP configuration of Windows(2000, XP or
Vista)
Troubleshooting Solenoid Valves
Problem
Normally Closed Valve Will Not Open
-orNormally Open Valve Will Not Close
Causes
Corrective Action
Movement of plunger or diaphragm restricted
a) Corroded parts
b) Foreign material lodged in valve
c) Dented or bent enclosing tube
d) Warped or distorted body due to improper
brazing or crushing in vice
Clean affected parts and replace parts as
required. Correct the cause of corrosion or source
of foreign materials in the system.
Improper wiring
Check electrical circuit for loose or broken
connections. Attach voltmeter to coil leads and
check voltage, inrush and holding currents
Faulty contacts on relays or thermostats
Check contacts in relays and thermostats. clean or
replace as required.
Voltage and frequency rating or solenoid coil not
matched to electrical supply:
a) low voltage
b) high voltage
c) incorrect frequency
Check voltage and frequency stamped on coil
assembly to make certain it matches electrical
source. If it does not, obtain new coil assembly
with proper voltage and frequency rating:
a) Locate cause of voltage drop and correct.
Install proper transformer, wire size as needed. Be
sure all connections are tight and that relays
function properly.
b) Excessively high voltage will cause coil burnout.
Obtain new coil assembly with proper voltage
rating.
c) Obtain new coil assembly with proper frequency
rating.
Oversized Valve
Install correct sized valve. Consult extended
capacities tables.
Valve improperly assembled.
Assemble parts in proper position making certain
none are missing from valve assembly.
Coil Burnout
a) Supply voltage at coil too low (below 85% of
rated coil voltage)
b) Supply voltage at valve too high (more than
10% above coil voltage rating)
c) Valve located at high ambient
Problem
Normally Closed Valve Will Not Close
-orNormally Open Valve Will Not Open
a) Locate cause of low voltage and correct (check
transformer, wire size, and control rating)
b) Locate cause of high voltage and correct
(install proper transformer or service)
c) Ventilate the area from high ambient. Remove
covering from coil housing
d) Plunger restricted due to: corroded parts,
d) Clean affected parts and replace as required.
foreign materials lodged in valve, dented or bent Connect cause of corrosion or source of foreign
enclosing tube or warped or distorted body due to material in the system
improper brazing or curshing in vise
e) With valve closed, pressure difference across e) Reduce pressure differential to less than
valve is too high preventing valve from opening
300psi
f) Improper wiring. Inrush voltage drop causing
f) Correct wiring according to valve manufacturers'
plunger to fail to pull magnetic field due to:
instructions. Solder all low voltage connections.
- Wiring the valve to the load side of the motor
Use correct wire size.
starter
- Wiring the valve in parallel with another
appliance with high inrush current draw
- Poor connetions, especially on low voltage,
where connections should be soldered
- Wire size of electrical supply too small
g) Check coil voltage and frequency to ensure
g) Electrical supply (voltage and frequency) not
match to electrical service rating. Install new coil
matched to solenoid coil rating
Causes
Corrective
Actionrating.
with proper voltage
and frequency
Diaphragm or plunger restricted due to: corroded
parts, foreign material lodged in valve, dented or
bent closing tube, or warped body due to
improper brazing or crushing in vise
Clean affected parts and replace parts as
required. Correct the cause of corrosion or source
of foreign materials in the system. Install a filterdrier upstream of solenoid valve
Manual opening stem holding valve open
With coil de-energized, turn manual stem in
counter clockwise direction until valve closes
Closing spring missing or inoperative
Re-assemble with spring in proper position
Electrical feedback keeping coil energized, or
switch contacts not breaking circuit to coil
Attach voltmeter at coil leads and check for
feedack or closed circuit. Correct faulty contacts
or wiring
Reverse pressures (outlet pressure greater than
inlet pressure), or valve installed backwards
Install check valve at valve outlet, or install with
flow arrow in proper direction
Problem
Causes
Foreign material lodged under seat
Valve Closes, But Flow Continues
(Seat Leakage)
Corrective Action
Clean internal parts and remove foreign material
Valve seat damaged
Replace valve or affected parts
Synthetic seat materials chipped
Replace valve or affected parts
Valve improperly applied or assembled
Replace valve with proper valve or re-assemble
63
Special Considerations For Industrial Solenoid Valves
Symptoms
Causes
High Internal Seat Leakage (high temperature
steam up to 400°)
Corrective Action
Wrong Seat Elastomer Used (Buna N)
Use Valve with Teflon Seat Elastomer
External Leakage (high temperature steam up to
Wrong Gasket Material Used (Neoprene)
400°)
Use Ethylene Propylene Gasket
High Internal Seat Leakage (high temperature
steam up to 250° or water up to 210°)
Wrong Seat Elastomer Used (Buna N)
Use Valve with Ethylene Propylene Seat
Elastomer
External leakage (high temperature steam up to
250° or water up to 210°)
Wrong Gasket Material Used (Neoprene)
Use Ethylene Propylene Gasket
Troubleshooting Ball Valves
Symptoms
Causes
Corrective Action
Doesn't Flow
Valve Isn't Open
Turn Stem
Leak at Access Schrader Valve
Schrader Valve Isn't Tight
Tighten Schrader Valve
Leak at Stem
Valve Stem is Leaking
Replace Valve
Excessive Pressure Drop
Valve Isn't Fully Open
Turn Stem to Open Valve
Troubleshooting System Protectors
Allowable Pressure Drop -- Permanent Installation
Evaporator Temperature
Refrigerant
40°F
20°F
0°F
-20°F
-40°F
R12, R134a
2.0
1.5
1.0
0.5
-
R22, R410A
3.0
2.0
1.5
1.0
0.5
R502, R404A/507
3.0
2.0
1.5
1.0
0.5
Troubleshooting Storage Devices
Suction Line Accumulators
Problem
Oil Not Returning to Compressor
Causes
Corrective Action
Bleed Hole in U-Tube Plugged
Replace Accumulator; Install Filter Ahead of
Accumulator
U-Tube Broken Off
Replace Accumulator
Accumulator Too Large for Application
Replace with Smaller Accumulator
Accumulator Installed Incorrectly
Re-Install with Correct Inlet & Outlet Connections
Liquid Refrigerant Receivers
Problem
Flashing In Liquid Sight Glass Downstream Of
Receiver
Causes
Corrective Action
Receiver Outlet Not Fully Open
Open Valve Fully
On Receivers with Top Outlet Connections, the
Dip Tube may be Broken Off Or Plugged
Replace Receiver
Receiver Installed Upside Down
Re-Install Receiver Correctly
64
Troubleshooting Regulators
Problem
Causes
Erratic Pressure Control
Pilot inlet filter screen obstructed
Piston bleed hole restriction
Excessive dirt in pilot/solenoid
Regulator Will Not Open
(EPRBS Version)
Coil is damaged or not energized
Verify coil is energized. Replace if necessary.
Piston bleed partially obstructed
Disassemble and clean regulator.
Piston bleed port obstructed
Pilot inlet filter screen obstructed
Regulator Will Not Close
(EPRBS Version)
Replace pilot assembly.
Refer to extended capacities table. Install correct
sized regulator.
Regulator undersized
Regulator Will Not Provide Pressure Control
Disassemble valve and clean. Replace if
necessary.
Piston bleed hole restriction
Excessive Pressure Drop Across the Regulator Pilot or solenoid leaking internally
Regulator Hunting
(Fluctuations in Controlled Pressure)
Corrective Action
Clean or replace.
Clean or replace.
Regulator oversized
Refer to extended capacities table. Install correct
sized regulator.
Regulator and TXV have control interaction
Turn off pilot pressure. Ensure regulator is wide
open. Adjust superheat to required setting. Turn
pilot pressure back on.
Regulator and cylinder unloaders have control
interaction
The unloader should be set to control at least 5
psig lower than regulator.
Pilot inlet filter screen obstructed
Clean or replace.
Pilot inlet pressure is too low
Increase pressure to a minimum of 25 psi higher
than the main valve outlet pressure.
Locate and remove the stoppage or dirt. Replace
Piston jammed due to excessive dirt; Inoperative
pilot. A broken diaphragm can be detected by
pilot or broken diaphragm
checking for leaks around the adjusting stem.
Dirt under seat
Disassemble and clean.
Excessive piston seal leakage
Replace bell piston assembly.
Plugged pilot filter
Clean or replace.
Pilot supply turned off or restricted
Verify pilot inlet pressure is at least 25 psig
greater than valve outlet.
Excessive dirt in pilot/solenoid
Replace pilot assembly.
Troubleshooting Hot Gas Regulators
Problem
Causes
Low Suction Pressure - Valve Open
Will Not Bypass - Valve Not Open
Suction Pressure Swings Erratically
Bypass Continuously - Suction Pressure High
Setpoint Drifts
Corrective Action
Valve undersized
Replace valve with correct size
1. Solenoid (if present) not energized
2. Valve sticking closed
3. Not set properly
4. Bad pilot
1. Repair (replace solenoid coil)
2. Replace
3. Recalibrate
4. Replace
Oversized valve
Replace valve with correct size
1. Manual stem screwed down
2. Valve sticking open
3. Bad pilot
1. Back stem out
2. Repair/replace valve
3. Replace pilot
Bad pilot
Replace pilot
Troubleshooting Crankcase Regulators
Problem
Valve Won't Adjust or Is Erratic
Valve Throttles Constantly
Causes
Corrective Action
With system running, open the valve adjustment
to open the valve and flush away the contaminant.
If this fails, replace valve.
Dirt under seat
Re-adjust bypass and/or CPR valve so that the
On system equipped with Hot Gas Bypas Valves,
CPR setting is higher than the discharge bypass
the bypass valve setting is higher than CPR
valve
TXV with MOP feature used with the CPR
To improve pull-down time, replace TXV with
equivalent without MOP feature
Valve setting is too low
Re-adjust the CPR to a higher setting - see
adjustment procedure
Temperature Pull-Down After Defrost is Too Long
65
Problem
Causes
Compressor tripping on Internal Thermal
Protector - Fails to Start-Up and Run Long
Enough to Pull Down Temperature
Corrective Action
CPR setting too high
Re-adjust the CPR to a lower setting - see
adjustment procedure
CPR setting is too low
Valve Fails to Open
Valve defective - bellows leak, pressurizing the
upper adjustment assembly
Replace valve
Troubleshooting Head Pressure Controls
Problem
Causes
Low Head Pressure During Operation
System Runs High Head Pressure
-orCycles on High Pressure Cut-Out
Corrective Action
Valve unable to throttle "C" port
1. Foreign material wedged between "C" port
seat and seat disc
2. Power element lost its charge
3. Insufficient winter-time system charge
1. Artificially raise head pressure and tap valve
body to dislodge foreign material
2. Change valve
3. Add refrigerant per Table 3
Wrong charge pressure in valve for refrigerant
Change valve
Receiver exposed to low ambient conditions is
acting as condenser
Insulate the receiver
Hot gas bypass line restricted or shut off
Clear obstruction or open valve
Compressor not pumping, restriction in liquid
line, low side causing very low suction pressure
Change or repair compressor; clear obstruction
or other reason for low suction pressure
Condenser fan not running or turning in wrong
direction
Replace or repair fan motor, belts, wiring or
controls as required
Fan cycling
Run condenser fan continuously while system is
running
Pressure drop through condenser exceeds
allowable 20 psi forcing "B" port partially open
Repipe, recircuit, or change condenser as
required to reduce condenser pressure drop to
less than 20 psi
Condenser undersized or air flow restricted or
short circuiting
Increase size of condenser or remove air flow
restriction or short circuit as required
"B" port wedged open due to foreign material
between seat and seat disc
Artificially reduce head pressure below valve
setpoint and tap valve body with system running
to dislodge foreign material
"B" port seat damaged due to foreign material
Wrong charge pressure in valve for refrigerant
Change valve
Excessive system charge or air in system
Purge or bleed off refrigerant or noncondensables as system requires
Obstruction or valve closed in discharge or
condenser drain line
Clear obstruction or open valve
Liquid line solenoid fails to open
Check solenoid
CHARGING THE SYSTEM - THEORETICAL METHOD
Weighing the Charge (Method has practical limitations)
Add refrigerant until the sight glass is clear and free of bubbles.
Determine refrigerant required to fill the condenser, see Table 3 below. Add this additional amount.
Table 3 - Refrigerant lbs. per ft.*
Condenser Tube Size - O.D. (in inches)** and Ambient Temperature ° F
Refrigerant
3/8"
1/2"
5/8"
40°
0°
-20°
-40°
40°
0°
-20°
-40°
40°
0°
R134a
.051
.054
.055
.057
.095
.099
.102
.105
.150
R22
.051
.054
.055
.056
.094
.099
.102
.104
.150
R404A/R507A
.053
.056
.058
.059
.098
.104
.107
.109
.157
* Return bends: 3/8” O.D. - 20 ft; 1/2 O.D. - 25 ft.; 5/8 O.D. - 30 ft. (equivalent length of tubing/return bend)
** Wall thickness: 3/8” O.D. - .016”; 1/2 O.D. - .017”; 5/8 O.D. - .018”
66
-20°
-40°
.157
.164
.167
.159
.163
.167
.166
.171
.175
Troubleshooting Oil Controls - OMB
Problem
Causes
Oil Level Too High In Sight Glass
Corrective Action
OMB out of calibration
Replace OMB
Too much oil in system
Remove oil from oil separator or reservoir until
proper level is maintained
Too much oil coming back from evaporator
Check system piping design for:
- Proper velocities
- P-traps at the bottom of all suction risers
- Piping pitched to compressor
- Overlapping or defrosts that are not staggered
Debris under solenoid valve seat
Unscrew solenoid valve, clean & replace
Problem
Causes
Oil separator or reservoir empty
Oil Level Too Low In Sight Glass
Problem
Corrective Action
Add oil to maintain a liquid seal in the bottom of
the separator or reservoir
Plugged oil line filter
Replace filter
Plugged inlet strainer(s) on OMB
Remove and clean strainer on all affected OMB
Solenoid coil defective
Replace coil
Power loss to OMB
Check power to OMB. Green light should be lit.
Causes
Liquid refrigerant in oil
Foaming In Sight Glass
Problem
Corrective Action
Flood back through suction; Increase superheat
on expansion valve; Refrigerant condensing in oil
separator - add heater to oil separator and/or
adjust system setting to eliminate flood back
If so equipped, liquid injection overfeeding
Correct liquid injection overfeed
Excess quantity of oil in crankcase
Remove excess oil
Causes
Corrective Action
"Filling" light remains on even though level is 1/2
Replace OMB
above sight glass
Alarm light on all the time
Replace OMB
Intermittent oil return from system
Check system piping design for:
- Proper veloicties
- P-traps at the bottom of all suction risers
- Piping pitched to compressor
- Overlapping or defrosts that are not staggered
Nuisance Oil Alarms
Troubleshooting Oil Separators
Problem
Causes
Oil outlet valve closed or partially closed
Reduced or No Oil Feed to Compressor
Hot Gas Entering Compressor
Corrective Action
Open oil outlet valve
Inadequate oil charge in system
Add oil in system
Oil float defective or dirty (will not open)
Disassemble and clean or replace defective float
component (flanged versions); Replace oil
separator (welded version).
Separator too small for application
Replace separator with larger size
Oil float defective or dirty (will not close)
Disassemble and clean or replace defective float
component (flanged versions); Replace oil
separator (welded version).
67
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