BMW 3 ELECTICAL SYSTEM Technical information

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BMW
Rescue manual
Information for emergency service personnel
January 2015
Foreword
Essential information
Medical aspects
Technical aspects
BMW Assist emergency call
Response of the restraint and safety systems after an accident
Notes for using emergency equipment
Opening doors
Opening doors
Forcing dashboard forwards
Forcing dashboard forwards
Electric seat adjustment
Securing vehicles
Safety concepts and systems
Identification of safety systems
Airbag - technical information
Driver's airbag
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Front passenger airbag
Side airbag
ITS head airbag
AITS head airbag
Head airbag
Knee airbag
Safety mechanisms
Belt tensioner - technical information
Mechanical belt tensioner
Pyrotechnic belt tensioner
Pyrotechnic retractor tensioner / end fitting pretensioner
Seat-integrated belt system
Active head restraint
Roll-over protection system
Active engine compartment lid
Body and materials
Glazing
Electrical system - battery management
Disconnecting batteries
High-voltage battery
Alternative engines
Fuels and fuel tanks
Frequently asked questions about the airbag system
High-voltage / hybrid technology
BMW i - the safety of the eDrive is an essential element of all BMW i vehicles
What does "high-voltage system" mean in the vehicle?
Which components make up a hybrid car?
High-voltage safety
High-voltage battery including high-voltage rescue separation point
Electrical machine electronics
Electric machine
High-voltage cables
Identification of high-voltage batteries
Identification of the remaining high-voltage components
First aid & recovery of vehicles with high-voltage systems according to the German Association of the
Automotive Industry)
Expert guide BMW I01
1 Introduction
2 Essential information
3 Rescue & Recovery
4 Towing
Expert guide BMW I12
1 Introduction
2 Essential information
3 Rescue & Recovery
4 Towing
Expert guide BMW 530Le F18PHEV
1 Introduction
2 Essential information
3 Rescue & Recovery
4 Towing
Expert guide BMW F15PHEV
1 Introduction
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2 Essential information
3 Rescue & Recovery
4 Towing
Foreword
One of the main priorities of the products developed and realised by BMW is optimum safety under all conditions.
By taking an holistic view, the precisely-coordinated active and passive safety systems exceed the requirements set
down by law.
They also take into account the technical requirements for emergency crews. This approach also includes providing
specific information about how to work with the BMW restraint and safety systems as well as tips for using emergency
equipment.
This booklet is intended as a user guide for trained emergency crews. Knowledge of the function and operating
principle of the safety systems and vehicle characteristics is also needed.
For emergency crews, the foremost priority is to save the lives of persons who have been involved in accidents without
exposing the victims or themselves to additional danger.
This rescue manual contain information on how rapid and safe access to accident victims can be made easier.
We recommend using state-of-the-art emergency equipment as the materials and production engineering used in the
automotive industry are subject to ongoing developments.
This rescue manual was been drawn up in cooperation with the BMW fire brigade in Munich.
As a rule, this rescue manual is updated twice a year.
Additionally, model-specific emergency services cards with detailed information are available.
In addition, the country-specific rescue guidelines as well as the occupational health and safe guidelines are to be
observed.
The latest version can be found at https://oss.bmw.de/index.jsp.
.
BMW fire brigade Munich
.
Essential information
Both the medical and technical side of the emergency operation must be coordinated and the two aspects must
dovetail.
Medical aspects
The first thing is to gain access (support opening) to the (locked in or trapped) people. As with all other measures, the
patients should be treated with all due care.
All efforts should be made to avoid dragging people out. The casualties should initially be left in the vehicle if they and
emergency services are at no immediate risk.
Immediate life-saving measures and the initial examination (basic check) are usually carried out inside the damaged
vehicle. The medical treatment administered in the vehicle should be restricted to absolutely essential care. Depending
on the injured person's condition, this may however be very extensive. The emergency doctor or rescue personnel must
be provided with access to the injured person (support opening) so that immediate life-saving emergency measures can
be carried out. Depending on the pattern of injuries, persons who have been involved in accidents should essentially be
immobilised, i.e. provided with appropriate splinting before they are extracted from the vehicle (rescue opening). The
rescue opening should be of an adequate size and reflect the overall situation.
The casualties should receive continuous medical care during the technical stage of the rescue. As much of the technical
emergency work as possible should be prepared while medical treatment is being given.
.
Exceptions which require a crash rescue.
Immediate risk from acute threat, e.g. fire or other accidents following the initial one
Medical reasons
Technical aspects
Identification of the vehicle type
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Visual inspection to see what restraint and safety systems are fitted
Special features on the vehicle body which may influence the use of hydraulic emergency equipment
BMW Assist emergency call
BMW vehicles with an activated BMW Assist emergency call system and valid service contract can automatically or
manually establish an emergency call. This is normally directed to a BMW call center, which handles the telephone call
and if necessary notifies the responsible rescue coordination center.
When the crash sensors register a significant accident, the system activates an emergency call.
With advanced emergency calls, data including details about the accident severity is transmitted automatically to the
BMW call center. BMW automatically analyses this data based on medical and accident research and generates a
simple-to-understand evaluation for the rescue coordination center, who can therefore more easily determine the most
appropriate rescue support.
Based on the GPS data transmitted from the vehicle, the BMW call center determines an exact address which, together
with information about access to the accident site, they can pass on to the emergency services. Further customer and
vehicle details are also available to the BMW call center, which can be passed on to help the rescue authorities if
required.
This emergency call system works independently from the customer's mobile phone.
If there is no BMW call center for the location, or no connection can be established on the reserved GSM network, the
system may attempt to establish an emergency call via the emergency call number (112).
Response of the restraint and safety systems after an accident
If a vehicle is stationary, the restraint systems will not normally be triggered.
Exceptions
If the solid propellant in the gas generator (airbag) heats to above 200 °C
\nIf the airbag modules are subject to immense mechanical loads (sawing, drilling, grinding, welding)
If the electric cables short circuit to activate the ignition squibs
If a stationary vehicle is struck by another vehicle (if the triggering criteria are satisfied, the restraint systems
are triggered)
.
Use of radio transceivers
It is perfectly safe for walkie-talkies to be used close to restraint systems that have not been triggered.
Notes for using emergency equipment
Propping up vehicles
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Example: Propping up vehicles
The vehicles can be propped up from underneath the whole of the side sill. The precise position and number of prop
points must be determined as a function of the situation in hand.
Ideally, the mounting points for the jack should be used.
Opening doors
Version 1
Starting points for opening the doors on the A-pillar
1.
Use the hydraulic emergency spreader to crush the front side panel. This produces a larger gap between the
front side panel and the front door.
2.
Use the emergency spreader to increase the gap at the same height as the hinges.
The precise position of the hinges for each vehicle is drawn on the emergency services cards,
3.
Use the hydraulic cutter to cut off the hinges and open the door. Alternatively, the hinges and/or bolts can also
be forced open using the emergency spreader.
Opening doors
Version 2
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Starting points for opening the doors on the A-and/or B-pillar
1.
Use the hydraulic emergency spreader to force the window frame apart. This produces a larger gap between
the front door and B-pillar and/or between the front side panel and front door.
2.
Use the emergency spreader to increase the gap at the same height as the hinges.
The precise position of the hinges for each vehicle is drawn on the emergency services cards.
3.
Open the door on the side of the hinges or lock (use the lock side for vehicles without horizontal side impact
protection).
The precise position of the hinges, door locks and side impact protection for each vehicle is drawn on the
emergency services cards.
Forcing dashboard forwards
There are various ways of pushing the dashboard forwards.
The method to be used depends in part on the following:
Mechanism of the accident
Presence of an instrument panel support tube
.
Version 1
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Danger of injury!
Emergency equipment may slip or slide.
Important!
1.
Place material under the vehicle floor to prevent the base from caving in.
2.
Carry out glass management (including cutting through the front windscreen horizontally in area 2 or 3 ).
3.
Use hydraulic shears to cut off door at its hinges.
4.
Use hydraulic shears to cut through the side sill 1 in front of the occupant towards the floor.
5.
Use hydraulic shears to cut through both A-pillars in the lower section 2 or in the upper section 3.
6.
Attach support angle to the B-pillar as shown.
Note:
If the emergency cylinder is too short, insert the support angle horizontally.
7.
Where possible, insert the emergency cylinder between the central mounting and the dashboard.
8.
Push the front end away.
Forcing dashboard forwards
Version 2
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Danger of injury!
Emergency equipment may slip or slide.
Important!
1.
Place material under the vehicle floor to prevent the base from caving in.
2.
Carry out glass management (including cutting through the front windscreen horizontally in area 2 or 3 ).
3.
Remove doors on both sides of vehicle.
4.
Use hydraulic cutters to cut through both side sills 1 in front of the occupant towards the front end. To achieve
the desired effect, it may be necessary to continue the cut into the front wheel arch ("nibbling technique”).
5.
Use hydraulic shears to cut through both A-pillars in the lower section 2 or in the upper section 3.
6.
Attach support angle to the B-pillar as shown.
Note:
If the emergency cylinder is too short, insert the support angle horizontally.
7.
Where possible, insert the emergency cylinder between the central mounting and the dashboard.
8.
Push the front end away.
Electric seat adjustment
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Since the seats in vehicles with electric seat adjustment cannot be adjusted once the battery has been disconnected,
under certain circumstances we would recommend disconnecting in the area marked.
Securing vehicles
Example: Possible ways of securing vehicles
Chock
Place chock in front of and behind the rear axle wheel on the side opposite that on which the vehicle will be raised.
Ideally, the mounting points for the jack should be used.
Continuous loop
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Secure the continuous loop to the rear or front by passing through the window openings and affix to a suitable counter
support.
Front and rear axles
When securing the vehicle, always combine several axle components (axle support, wishbone, drive shaft).
Towing eye
The towing eye must not be used to recover or secure the vehicle!
Important!
Safety concepts and systems
Complete overview of restraint and safety systems
1 Driver's airbag
2 Front passenger airbag
3 Side airbag
4 Head airbag
5 Positive battery cable
6 Battery
7 Side impact protection
8 Belt tensioner
9 Active head restraint
10 Active engine compartment lid
Identification of safety systems
Airbag system
Driver's airbag
SRS, SRS airbag or AIRBAG labelling on the steering wheel (steering wheel baffle plate)
Front-passenger airbag
SRS, SRS airbag or AIRBAG labelling on the dashboard (passenger's side)
Side airbag
Side airbag in the interior door frame (virtually all BMW models):
SRS, SRS airbag or AIRBAG labelling on the door trim panel (front and rear) in the area of the door lock
Side airbag in the front seat (all MINI models and a few BMW models):
AIRBAG labelling on the outer side of the backrest of the driver's and front passenger seats
Head airbag
SRS, SRS airbag or AIRBAG labelling on the trim panel of the A- and C-pillars
Knee airbag
AIRBAG labelling on the glove box lid (top right) and/or on the steering column shroud (top left)
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Belt tensioners
No identification
The vehicles contain four kinds of systems for reducing belt slack:
Mechanical belt tensioners
Pyrotechnic belt tensioners
Pyrotechnic retractor tensioners / end fitting pretensioners
Seat-integrated belt system (SGS)
.
Active head restraints
No identification
The active head restraints are integrated into the driver's and front passenger seats.
Active head restraints that have not been triggered require no special attention.
.
Roll-over protection system
3-Series (E36): no identification
3-Series (E46): "Rollover protection system" identification on the top side of the head restraint on the rear seat
1-Series(E88), 3-Series(E93), 6-Series(E64): "Rollover protection system" identification
The rollover protection system is only installed in convertibles in the 1-Series (E88), 3-Series (E36, E46, E93)
Convertible and 6-Series (E64).
Rollover protection bars that have not been activated require no special attention.
.
Active engine compartment lid
No identification
Installation depending on series and national-market version.
Engine compartment lids that have not been activated require no special attention.
.
Child restraint systems
Front passenger and side airbags can be switched off when using child restraint systems. Labels can be found near the
airbag in question if this applies.
Airbag - technical information
Use
In view of different legal requirements in Europe and the USA, different airbag variants are used in BMW vehicles.
Front airbag for driver I
Large air cushion fitted as part of the vehicle's standard equipment (the volumes used in the USA and European versions
differ due to differing legislation)
Front airbag for driver II
Small air cushion (compact airbag; Eurobag) used in vehicles equipped with a sports steering wheel
Front airbag for front passenger
Air cushion, under the dashboard on the passenger's side
Side airbag
Small air cushion, on the interior door frame (front door and rear door) or in the outside of the front seats
ITS head airbag
Air pipes, from the bottom end of the A-pillar along the inside of the roof structure to just shortly before the C-pillar
AITS head airbag (Advanced Inflatable Tubular Structure)
Head airbag stretching from the A-pillar to the C-pillar; extension of the ITS head airbag with a canvas between the ITS
airbag and roof frame
Head airbag
Head airbag stretching from the A-pillar to the C-pillar; extended covered area for the front and rear side window glass
Rear head airbag
Small air cushion in the roof frame above the C-pillar
Knee airbag
Small air cushion, behind the glove box lid and/or behind the steering column shroud (only available in the US version)
Driver's airbag
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Triggered driver's airbag
The driver's airbag is located in the steering wheel's impact absorber.
Acceleration is recorded and evaluated by a sensor. If the triggering threshold is exceeded, the airbag control unit and/or
the satellite responsible (= intelligent sensor) transmits an ignition voltage to the ignition squib which then triggers the
airbag.
The gas created by ignition escapes into the airbag which then unfolds in full.
Front passenger airbag
Front passenger airbag that has not been triggered
The front passenger airbag is located in the dashboard above the glove box on the passenger's side.
A seat occupancy detection feature has been integrated in the vehicle for many years to prevent the front passenger
airbag from being unnecessarily triggered in the event of a crash when the front passenger seat is not occupied.
Using sensors in the front passenger seat and by evaluation of data in the airbag control unit and/or in the satellite
(= intelligent sensor), above a weight of 12 kg the front passenger seat is recognised as being occupied and the system
is activated.
Side airbag
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Side airbag not triggered
The side airbags are located behind the side trim panel in the door in most BMW models. On some BMW models, as well
as on all MINI models, the side airbags are located to the side, in the backrest of the driver's and front passenger seats.
In the event of a side collision, the resulting lateral acceleration is recorded by sensors.
If the triggering threshold is exceeded, the airbag control unit and/or the satellite responsible (= intelligent sensors)
activates the side airbags and, if fitted, also the head airbag.
ITS head airbag
ITS not triggered (in the roof area) and triggered
The ITS head airbag, unlike other airbags, involves a tube system that is secured to the body with seat belt straps.
When the generator is ignited, the diameter of the head airbag increases and its overall length is reduced. This process
stretches the head airbag between the lower end of the A-pillar and the rear mounting on the roof frame.
Unlike the front and side airbags that collapse relatively quickly after inflation, the head airbag retains its gas volume and
therefore offers protection in the event of the vehicle rolling or secondary accidents.
The head airbag can be cut off or cut through at the seat belt straps.
AITS head airbag
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AITS for front and rear seat passengers (triggered)
The AITS head airbag is a head protection system like the ITS. Its advantage, however, lies in its curtain-like area
protection.
The AITS prevents the head and limbs from swinging back and forth. This means that the neck experiences lower
shearing forces and there are fewer head injuries.
System features:
Extended covered area for the front and rear side windows
Protection from broken glass and penetrating objects
Optimised covered area, even for very large occupants
Head airbag
Head airbag activated
The head airbag stretches from the A-pillar to the C-pillar and covers the entire side area. It unfolds between the
occupants, side window glass and pillar trim panels.
System features:
Extended covered area for the front and rear side windows
Protection from broken glass and penetrating objects
Optimised covered area, even for very large occupants
The head airbag is stored folded-up in the roof frame area. It comprises the gas generator, two gas lances and the
airbag.
In the event of a side collision, the gas generator is activated. The resulting gas flows through the two gas lances into the
airbag. The simultaneous filling of the airbag at the front and rear ensures a more even filling.
The mounting of the head airbag at the A-pillar and C-pillar ensures that the head airbag is brought into position. As it
unfolds, the head airbag stretches between the side window glass, pillar trim panels and the occupants.
The closed system preserves the structural solidity and stability for several seconds.
Knee airbag
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Knee airbag on driver's and passenger's sides.
In the event of a crash, when the driver or front passenger is not wearing a seat belt, the knee airbag will support their
knees.
This results in the upper body being shifted forwards in a controlled manner and being caught by the airbag.
The knee airbag on the driver's side is located underneath the steering column behind a lid.
The knee airbag on the passenger's side is located in the lid of the glove box behind a cover.
.
Ignition sequence
The airbag is deployed by the airbag control unit and/or the responsible satellite (= intelligent sensor).
The integrated sensors activate the required systems when the triggering thresholds are exceeded. In the gas generator,
the solid propellant sodium azide or nitro-cellulose mainly burns to nitrogen gas. Negligible volumes of carbon monoxide
and nitrogen oxide are produced. This gas then flows into the airbag and unfolds it. As the airbag unfolds, the cover
(impact absorber of driver's airbag, cover of the front passenger airbag, trim panel of the side/head airbags) tears off at
the predetermined breaking points.
The deposits of talc from the airbag in the vehicle interior are totally safe.
Safety mechanisms
The restraint and safety systems are triggered by electronic and mechanical acceleration sensors. Two sensors that
function independently of one another are always needed for airbag deployment.
.
Electronic acceleration sensors
Driver's and front passenger airbag, head and side airbags, belt tensioner and safety battery terminal.
.
Mechanical acceleration sensors (safing sensor)
The driver's and front passenger airbags are triggered in conjunction with the mechanical acceleration sensors.
.
Electronic side impact sensors
The side and head airbags are triggered in conjunction with the electronic acceleration sensors.
.
Airbag control unit
The airbag control unit is the central unit in the entire restraint and safety system and carries out the following tasks:
Impact detection
Calculation of triggering time for airbags, belt tensioner, safety battery terminal
Ignition of airbags, belt tensioner and safety battery terminal
Self-test
Fault display and fault memory with diagnostic capability
Seat occupancy and weight recognition for the front passenger seat
.
Satellites
Satellites consist of a control unit with an integrated sensor system for activating actuators (airbags, belt tensioner, etc.).
Satellites are able to make intelligent decisions on selective and fast triggering of actuators. Any functions not needed are
not activated.
In the 7 Series (E65/66) models, the Intelligent Safety Integration System (ISIS) and, from the 5 Series (E60/E61), 6
Series (E63/E64) and Z4 (E85) models, the passive safety system (ASE) are installed with satellites.
Belt tensioner - technical information
Four different belt tensioner systems are used in the vehicles:
Mechanical belt tensioners
Pyrotechnic belt tensioners
Pyrotechnic retractor tensioners / end fitting pretensioners
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Seat-integrated belt system (SGS)
All the systems have the same goal of reducing belt slack. This is the biomechanical load to which the human body is
subjected after an accident.
Mechanical belt tensioner
On the mechanical belt tensioner, a mechanical sensor detects a crash and triggers the release of the tensioner energy
via a switching mechanism. A force transfer element pulls the seat belt buckle obliquely downwards to tension the seat
belt strap against the occupant's body. When the belt force is subsequently built up, a locking system blocks the seat belt
buckle in any tensioned position. The occupant is therefore secured more effectively to the vehicle.
In the event of a head-on collision, the mechanical impact sensor activates the system. A preloaded spring pulls the seat
belt buckle back. The shoulder and lap belts are tightened.
Pyrotechnic belt tensioner
The pyrotechnic belt tensioner is a further development of the mechanical belt tensioner for reducing belt slack even
more quickly.
The pyrotechnic belt tensioners are activated by the airbag control unit and/or the seat satellites. A pyrotechnic unit is
responsible for tightening the seat belt.
Pyrotechnic retractor tensioner / end fitting pretensioner
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Pyrotechnic retractor tensioner
.
Pyrotechnic end fitting pretensioner
.
The pyrotechnic retractor tensioner reduces belt slack by creating friction in the seat belt guides, primarily in the shoulder
region.
Sensors and control electronics activate a pyrotechnic unit which starts the automatic shaft rotating through a wound
cable.
To eliminate the film spool effect, a clamping fixture holds the seat belt strap secure when the occupant moves forwards.
At present, pyrotechnic end fitting pretensioners can only be fitted on the outer seats in the rear passenger compartment.
Since there is little space under the rear seat, a solution similar to that of the front belt tensioner is not possible. Belt slack
is therefore overcome by drawing in the seat belt strap at the end fitting. The automatic reel forms the top attachment
point, the end fitting pretensioner the bottom one.
The end fitting pretensioners are activated by the seat satellites and/or the seat module. A pyrotechnic unit is responsible
for tightening the seat belt.
Seat-integrated belt system
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In the seat-integrated belt system (SGS) all the belt elements, including the reversing points, are moved into the seats. In
the event of a crash, all forces in vehicles without B-pillars are absorbed by the floor assembly.
The head restraint and top belt reversing point also automatically adjust depending on the seat length adjustment.
A top belt tensioner fitted on the top belt feed also restricts the amount by which the occupant moves forwards in the
event of a crash. The overall arrangement reduces the free seat belt strap lengths to a minimum.
Since all three belt points move with the seat adjustment, the belt geometry automatically guarantees the body is
restrained by the belt as best as possible.
.
Active head restraint
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The active head restraints are integrated into the driver's and front passenger seats.
Function
In the event of a rear-end collision, the head is jolted to the rear because it becomes the most inactive part of the body
due to the long distance to the head restraint. This jolt movement may result in cervical injuries (whiplash).
To reduce the distance between the head and head restraint, the active head restraint swings forward to the head in the
event of a rear-end collision.
Two additional impact sensors and/or satellites in the rear of the vehicle activate the gas generator in the backrest during
a rear-end collision. The gas generator's piston rod moves a sliding piece. This sliding piece moves forward the support
tube to which the head restraint is attached, and thereby reduces the distance between the head and head restraint.
Depending on the height adjustment of the head restraint, adjustment travel of 40 to 60 mm may be produced.
Roll-over protection system
The rollover protection system is an additional safety function in some BMW convertible models. In the event of rollover
or other situations that encourage the vehicle to roll over, the rollover protection system extends, locks positively and
thereby helps maintain a large enough survival space for occupants.
The first thing is to gain access (support opening) to the (locked in or trapped) people. As with all other measures, the
patients should be treated with all due care.
.
Function of the BMW 1-Series E88, 3-Series E93, 6-Series E64 and MINI Convertible R57
Rollover protection of the 6-Series E64 in normal position and triggered (right)
Two extendable rollover protection bars are stored in a structure behind the two rear seats.
The rollover protection system is a separate system and is not linked to the airbag control unit.
On models in the 3 Series (E93), the control electronics (rollover protection controller) are installed in the structure next to
the right-hand rollover protection bar.
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On models in the 6-Series (E64), the rollover sensor is located in one of the satellites.
The rollover protection bars are retracted in the structure during normal operation. The rollover protection bars are pretensioned in the direction of extension by a spring and held by the lock on the actuator.
.
BMW 3-Series E93 and MINI Convertible R57
If the control electronics of the rollover protection controller detect an imminent rollover, the two actuators are triggered
directly. The rollover protection bars are extended by spring force and mechanically locked in their end position.
.
BMW 6-Series E64
If the rollover sensor in the satellite detects an imminent rollover, the data is transmitted via a light-linked bus system to
the safety and gateway module (SGM). At the same time, the signal to release the rollover protection system is sent via a
copper cable (arming cable) to the SGM. This triggers the two actuators via an output stage. The rollover protection bars
are extended by spring force.
.
Function of the 3-Series E36 and E46
Triggered rollover protection system in the 3-Series E46 (A) and E36 (B) Convertible
On models in the 3-Series (E36), the rollover protection system comprises two rollover protection bars behind the head
restraints of the rear seat (visible), and on models in the 3-Series(E46) of two rollover protection bars in the head
restraints of the rear seat (installed concealed).
The rollover protection system is a separate system and is not linked to the airbag control unit.
The rollover sensor is screw-mounted directly to the protective cover behind the seat bench on the right.
The rollover sensor consists of:
A level sensor for identification of vehicle inclination, latitudinal and longitudinal acceleration.
An acceleration sensor for detection of loss of road contact.
Evaluation electronics with self-diagnosis.
Two capacitors to provide the reserve energy needed to trigger the rollover protection bars should the vehicle
voltage fail.
When the limit values are reached, the integrated rollover sensor issues a command to the actuator to enable the locks.
A solenoid operates the lock and releases the spring-loaded rollover protection bar. The rollover protection bars are
extended and mechanically locked in their end position.
Active engine compartment lid
In the event of a collision with a pedestrian, the engine compartment lid is raised. This creates a deformation zone that
protects the pedestrian.
.
Function
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1 Right engine compartment lid catch (with actuator)
2 Bowden cable
3 Right engine compartment lid hinge (with actuator)
4 Left engine compartment lid hinge (with actuator)
5 Left engine compartment lid catch (with actuator)
6 Optical fibres
7 Central sensor (acceleration)
8 Actuator (on engine compartment lid hinge)
9 Sensor (optical fibre)
10 Deformation structure
.
An optical fibre is integrated between the bumper support and impact absorber. The optical fibre is connected to a sensor
and passes in a loop around to the opposite side of the vehicle before heading back to the sensor again.
A force acting on the optical fibre deforms it between the deformation structures. This causes the light in the optical fibre
to be attenuated. The acting force is proportional to the light attenuation. A characteristic signal is thus generated by the
differing damping action on the light, the nature of which depends on the mass and rigidity of the colliding object.
This signal is measured by the sensor and sent along a data line to the Crash Safety Module (ACSM). The Crash Safety
Module (ACSM) uses this data and the data from the central acceleration sensor in the bumper to determine whether the
threshold value for detecting a pedestrian collision has been reached or exceeded. It decides whether to activate the
engine compartment lid actuators based on the result.
The actuators are activated pyrotechnically and lift the engine compartment lid. Gas pressure springs also support the
engine compartment lid when raised.
The active engine compartment lid is only triggered at speeds of approx. 20 –55 km/h. For safety reasons the system
may activate on those rare occasions where a pedestrian collision cannot be unequivocally ruled out, e.g.:
a crash against a dustbin or bollard
a collision with an animal
hitting a rock
driving into a snowdrift
After the active engine compartment lid is triggered, a Check Control message is shown in the instrument cluster and in
the central information display.
The engine compartment lid cannot be returned to its initial position after activation. Active pedestrian protection is only
re-established after a component change has been carried out. After the pedestrian protection has activated, it is only
possible to continue driving carefully at a maximum speed of 80 km/h.
Body and materials
Structure of the body
Thanks to high-strength steels, greater wall thicknesses and a multi-shell construction, the stability of the vehicles is
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optimised and therefore the safety of the occupants is increased.
Modern heavy duty cutting equipment is mandatory for cutting the body; older hydraulic cutting tools could be
overloaded.
The heavy duty cutting equipment must be properly used by trained and qualified personnel.
The optimum cutting point for each vehicle is drawn on the emergency services cards.
.
Materials
The type and percentage proportion of each material differ for individual model ranges.
Structural reinforcements in the A- and B-pillars are primarily installed in convertibles, roadsters and coupés. This is
where there are particular stability requirements on these vehicles.
.
Magnesium moulding
Magnesium moulding may be found in the area of the engine compartment and on the instrument panel.
Glazing
Danger of injury!
Before glass panes are removed, the occupants should be fully protected against dust and splinters.
Important!
.
Single-layer safety glass (ESG)
Single-layer safety glass (ESG) is thermally pretreated glass that can withstand high loads. If the load is too high,
however, it shatters into many fragments with not particularly sharp edges.
ESG is used for side windows, rear windows and the slide/tilt sunroof.
Note:
Intact ESG window glass can jump out of position suddenly when recovery work is being performed on the vehicle.
Depending on the accident situation and the scope of the rescue work, the ESG window glass should be removed first.
ESG window glass can be removed by applying a pointed load, e.g. using a spring centre punch or an emergency
hammer. The ESG window glass should be secured before doing so.
.
Laminated safety glass (VSG)
Laminated safety glass (VSG) consists of two glass panes and an interleaving plastic film. The glass panes remain
largely intact when damaged.
VSG is used for windscreens and possibly for side windows. The windscreens are bonded to the body.
Note:
Since VSG window glass cannot jump suddenly out of place, it only needs to be removed if the rescue work requires it.
VSG window glass can be removed with special glass saws or hooligan tools.
.
Special safety glass
Some vehicles are equipped with special safety glass. It can be identified from outside by virtue of the thicker glass pane.
Special safety glass cannot be cut using conventional emergency equipment.
Electrical system - battery management
12 V batteries
Notes on usage
The procedure should be defined on the basis of the situation assessment at the scene.
The use of active electrical systems, such as power window regulators, seat adjustment or steering column adjustment,
can significantly assist the rescue operation. The decision to disconnect the battery is therefore to be made by the crew
leader on site.
In some cases following an accident, damaged wiring in vehicles can represent a source of ignition despite protection.
Disconnection of the batteries can significantly reduce the risk of fire.
The extremely low risk of an unintentional triggering of the restraint system (airbags, belt tensioners) can be excluded by
disconnecting the batteries.
The ignition must be switched off.
.
Position of the 12 V batteries
The vehicle may be equipped with one or two batteries.
The 12 V batteries are located either in the engine compartment or in the luggage compartment, depending on the
vehicle.
Exception: On the E34 and E32 models the 12 V batteries are located in the engine compartment or under the rear seat
bench.
The precise position of the 12 V batteries for each vehicle is drawn on the emergency services cards.
.
Position of the positive battery cables
If the 12 V batteries are not located in the engine compartment, the red positive battery cable mainly runs on the vehicle
underbody to the engine.
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.
Safety battery terminal
The safety battery terminal is fitted on the battery's positive terminal.
The ignition squib of the safety battery terminal must not be crushed, cut through or heated!
The safety battery terminal disconnects only the positive battery cable between the battery and starter
motor/alternator.
.
Identification
No identification
.
Function
In order to minimise the risk of shorting following an accident, the vehicle electrical system in BMW vehicles is divided
into two circuits: the vehicle electrical system power supply section and the starter circuit.
If the key criteria are satisfied during an accident, the airbag control unit and/or one of the satellites transmits the
command to activate the propellant charge in the safety battery terminal. The gas volume this produces slides the cable
pin out of the battery terminal bracket, thereby disconnecting the plug connection between the battery and starter
motor/alternator.
The other consumers continue to be supplied with voltage by their own connection to the battery (vehicle electrical
system power supply section).
The entire triggering process lasts approximately 3 milliseconds.
Disconnecting batteries
When disconnecting batteries the following must be complied with:
Switch off ignition.
Firstly disconnect the negative terminal, then the positive terminal.
If two batteries are installed, always disconnect both batteries.
.
Note: Mechanical belt tensioners cannot be deactivated by disconnecting the battery.
.
Note: If the vehicle cannot be de-energised:
Do not remain in the area in which the triggered airbag may unfold and do not place material in this area if
heavy emergency equipment is being used.
Wherever possible, treat casualties from the side.
High-voltage battery
High-voltage batteries have a voltage of 60 V to 1000 V.
For detailed information on each vehicle see emergency services cards.
Active hybrid 7 F04, F01, F02, see 7 Series Saloon emergency services card
Active hybrid 5 F10, see 5 Series Saloon emergency services card
Active hybrid 5 F18PHEV, see 5 Series Saloon emergency services card
Active hybrid 3 F30, see 3 Series Saloon emergency services card
X5 ActiveHybrid F15PHEV, see SAV X5 emergency services card.
X6 ActiveHybrid E72, see SAV X6 emergency services card.
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BMW Active E, E82, see 1-Series emergency services card.
MINI E, see MINI E emergency services card.
BMW eDrive, see emergency services card I01, I12
.
For further detailed information on high-voltage technology, see rescue manual.
Alternative engines
Electric vehicles
For detailed information on MINI E, see MINI E emergency services card.
For detailed information on BMW Active E, see 1-Series emergency services card.
For detailed information on BMW eDrive, see emergency services card I01, I12.
Hybrid cars
For detailed information on active hybrid 7 F04, F01, F02, see 7 Series Saloon emergency services card.
For detailed information on active hybrid 5 F10, F18PHEV, see 5 Series Saloon emergency services card.
For detailed information on active hybrid 3 F30, see 3 Series Saloon emergency services card.
For detailed information on X5 ActiveHybrid F15PHEV, see SAV X5 emergency services card.
For detailed information on X6 ActiveHybrid E72, see SAV X6 emergency services card.
For further detailed information on alternative engines, see rescue manual.
Fuels and fuel tanks
Fuels
Diesel engine: Diesel fuel DIN EN 590
Petrol engine:
Premium grade fuel, 98 RON
Premium grade fuel unleaded, 95 RON
Regular-grade fuel unleaded, 91 RON
.
Fuel tank
The fuel tank is located in the area of the rear axle on the vehicle underbody.
Exception: On E32 and Saloon E34 models, the fuel tank is located in the area of the luggage compartment.
The precise position of the fuel tank for each vehicle is drawn on the emergency services cards.
.
Fuel filler flap
BMW: The fuel filler flap is located on the right-hand side.
MINI: The fuel filler flap is located on the left-hand side.
The precise position of the fuel filler flap for each vehicle is drawn on the emergency services cards,.
Frequently asked questions about the airbag system
How does an airbag work?
The acceleration recorded by the sensors is integrated and evaluated. Once the corresponding triggering thresholds are
exceeded, the required airbags are triggered. The ignition squib in the gas generator obtains the ignition voltage from the
airbag control unit and/or relevant satellite. The gas produced escapes into the airbag.
.
How do I identify whether a vehicle is fitted with airbags?
"AIRBAG" or "SRS" or "SRS-AIRBAG" labelling on the steering wheel, instrument panel, door trim panel and A-pillar trim
panel, C-pillar, outer side of the backrest of the driver's and front passenger seats. If in any doubt, assume that newer
vehicles are equipped with an airbag.
.
Is smoke ejected during ignition?
Generally dust is produced from the talcum powder applied to the airbag in the factory.
.
Does the airbag get hot?
The airbag does not get hot. Only the components inside the airbag module reach high temperatures after triggering.
These components are near the airbag attachment and do not pose a risk to the emergency services. The parts need
approximately 15 minutes to cool down.
.
Does the residue contain sodium azide?
Sodium azide, the solid propellant in the gas generator, combusts totally when the gas generator is ignited and is totally
chemically converted. The product of the reaction is mainly safe nitrogen gas which makes up approximately 80 % of the
air we breathe.
.
What precautions need to be taken if an airbag module is mechanically damaged but has not triggered?
In the extremely unlikely event that the airbag gas generator has been destroyed, the propellant (pressed into tablet form)
could fall out. If this happens, avoid contact with the skin at all costs (wear gloves and safety goggles). The tablets must
be treated and disposed of separately. They must be kept away from any source of ignition (electricity, fire etc.).
.
If the vehicle catches fire, is there a risk of the gas generator exploding?
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The gas generator has been designed so that it will be triggered normally when exposed to fire if the surface temperature
of the gas generator exceeds 200 °C.
.
Can water be used as an extinguishant?
Yes. Any effective fire-extinguishing agent can be used, even in vehicles equipped with airbags.
.
Is it safe to inhale the air in the vehicle interior after airbag deployment?
Yes. Chemical and medical analyses confirm that it is totally safe. You may however experience a tickly throat for a short
period.
.
If the airbag was not triggered during the crash, will it probably trigger after the crash?
No. The impact sensors respond to unique physical properties of an accident.
.
Are first-aiders putting themselves at any risk?
No. A first-aider (a helper without emergency equipment) will find the same situation as in normal driving. If the vehicle is
stationary, the airbag systems are not triggered.
.
If the airbag has not been ignited during the crash, how can the system be deactivated?
Switch off ignition. Disconnect both battery cables (first the negative terminal and then the positive terminal) from the
battery.
This rules out the risk of the airbag triggering during the rescue. For exceptions, refer to the "Airbag" section.
.
Should the emergency services wait for the airbag system to be deactivated before administering aid?
No. Switch off ignition. Disconnect both battery cables (first the negative terminal and then the positive terminal) from the
battery.
If the points raised in “Response of the restraint and safety systems after an accident” are noted emergency aid can be
given to the occupants straight away.
.
What should you do if people are trapped in the vehicle, individual airbag systems have not been triggered and
the vehicle cannot be de-energised?
Administer emergency medical aid immediately.
Create support openings as a priority.
Test: which untriggered airbag systems does the vehicle have and where are they in relation to where the
emergency service and recovery helpers are working?
If at all possible, do not pull the steering column with the spreader.
Do not cut through any cables near the airbag systems (this will result in a small risk of the airbag deployment
by a short circuit)
Deployment radius of an untriggered airbag: Administer protective measures to the casualty
Attend to casualties from the side.
Wherever possible, do not move your head or upper body into the area in which the airbag operates when work
is being carried out on the vehicle with heavy emergency equipment.
Do not remain in the area in which the untriggered airbag may unfold and do not place material in this area if
heavy emergency equipment is being used.
.
Can other emergency techniques be used?
Yes, the final decision on the procedure for the rescue always lies with the head of operations, the technical emergency
team and the emergency doctor or emergency services staff on site. They must reach agreement on how to proceed.
They must reach agreement on how to proceed. The technical and tactical possibilities open to them, details of the
accident and extent of vehicle destruction must also be taken into account.
High-voltage / hybrid technology
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BMW i - the safety of the eDrive is an essential element of all BMW i
vehicles
The safety of the eDrive is an essential element of product development. A variety of measures safeguard operating
safety, including in the event of accidents.
Fully insulated high-voltage system.
Automatic safety cutout (disconnection) of the high-voltage battery in the event of an accident with airbag
activation.
Permanent monitoring of the high-voltage cables and other safety-relevant criteria, as well as automatic safety
processes.
All systems have demonstrated their safety in crash tests and standard checks. The BMW system tests have
demonstrated system safety at a level that exceeds the statutory requirements.
What does "high-voltage system" mean in the vehicle?
In vehicles with high-voltage systems, components are installed that are operated with voltages above 60 V direct current
voltage or 25 V AC voltage. Some components in these vehicles need high electrical powers. The high-voltage electrical
system in hybrid cars and electric vehicles operates with direct current voltages of up to 650 V and has to provide large
amounts of electrical energy.
Which components make up a hybrid car?
In addition to the drive unit, a hybrid car is made up from the following fundamental components:
High-voltage battery
High-voltage cables
Electrical machine electronics
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Electric motor(s) and alternator(s)
High-voltage component overview based on the example of the X6 ActiveHybrid E72:
Item Explanation
1
Electrical machine electronics
2
Electrical refrigerant compressor
3
Active transmission with electric motors/alternators for full hybrid
4
High-voltage cables
5
High-voltage battery
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High-voltage component overview based on the example of the 3 Series active hybrid 3 F30:
Item Explanation
1
Electrical refrigerant compressor
2
Electric machine
3
Electrical machine electronics
4
High-voltage battery
High-voltage safety
With improper use, the high voltage in the high-voltage system may become a source of danger. The vehicle therefore
has a comprehensive safety concept. Only technicians who have been appropriately trained are permitted to carry out
the repair, maintenance and servicing of high-voltage components including the orange-coloured high-voltage cables.
Unauthorised repair work on the high-voltage system is forbidden.
Further information on high-voltage safety
The high-voltage battery is located in the crash-protected area. For details see emergency services cards.
By disconnecting the plug connection of the high-voltage rescue separation point, the high-voltage system is
deactivated (de-energised).
The high-voltage system is galvanically isolated from GND.
All connections and connectors on the vehicle high-voltage components are designed to be safe to touch.
.
The high-voltage system is switched-off when:
the plug connection of the high-voltage rescue separation point is disconnected
a crash is identified that causes a triggering of airbag and/or belt tensioner, or
the 12 V battery negative connection at the negative battery terminal is disconnected
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High-voltage battery including high-voltage rescue separation point
Example X6 Active HybridE72
Item
1
2
3
Explanation
High-voltage battery
High-voltage emergency separation point
High-voltage cables
.
Example of a 3 Series active hybrid 3 F30:
Item
1
2
3
Explanation
High-voltage battery
High-voltage emergency separation point
Plug connection for high-voltage cable
The high-voltage rescue separation point plays a crucial role in vehicle manufacturer safety concepts. Its function is
always the same, i.e. to interrupt the circuit between the high-voltage battery and the vehicle. The circuit outside the highvoltage battery and therefore the entire high-voltage system is interrupted immediately when the plug connection of the
high-voltage rescue separation point is removed.
Electrical machine electronics
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In hybrid technology, electrical machine electronics are used to convert currents. The electrical machine electronics are
called an inverter. It converts alternating current generated in the high-voltage alternator into direct current. As with all
other high-voltage components, the inverter is not to be opened in any circumstances as high voltages are applied
internally.
Electric machine
The electrical machine in the ActiveHybrid 5 is a permanently excited synchronous machine. It can convert the electrical
energy from the high-voltage battery into the kinetic energy that drives the vehicle. Driving with electrical power up to
approximately 60 km/h as well as support to the combustion engine, e.g. when overtaking (boot function), or active
torque support during gear change are possible.
Conversely, during braking and in coasting (overrun) mode the electrical machine converts kinetic energy into electrical
energy and feeds it into the high-voltage battery (energy recovery).
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High-voltage cables
The high-voltage cables (1) connect the high-voltage components to each other, for example the high-voltage battery
with the machine electronics or the machine electronics with the electrical machine. High-voltage cables can be identified
by the orange coloured insulation (coating).
Identification of high-voltage batteries
Identification of the remaining high-voltage components
Further information:
It is mandatory to consult the respective emergency services card for vehicle-specific information and
the procedure for vehicles involved in accidents.
.
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First aid & recovery of vehicles with high-voltage systems according
to the German Association of the Automotive Industry)
FAQ (Frequently Asked Questions)
.
Structure
1.
Investigation / vehicle identification
2.
Danger by electrical shock
3.
Danger from HV battery pack
4.
Chemical danger
5.
Thermal danger (fire)
6.
Electrical charging infrastructure
7.
Vehicles in water
8.
Towing away, recovery, transport, BMW breakdown assistance and safekeeping
9.
Further information
.
.
1. Investigation / vehicle identification
1.1 How can I identify if the vehicle concerned has a high-voltage system?
The type designations on the rear of the vehicle, such as hybrid, eDrive or other labelling, e.g. on the front side
panel or similar may provide indication.
If the vehicle does not have any type of such designation, the following characteristics may indicate a vehicle
with HV system:
Electrical charging socket
Orange coloured high-voltage cables
Warning sticker on electrical HV components
Charge indicator in the instrument cluster
Identification on the instrument panel
No exhaust system
However, if this sort of identification is not present, it does not indicate that the vehicle
does not have a HV system
From January 2013 on, vehicle number plate requests for vehicles registered in Germany have been possible
for German emergency control centres to allow clear allocation with the corresponding emergency services
data sheet.
.
2. Dangers of electric shock
2.1 Is there a danger of an electric shock after an accident if touching the vehicle or vehicle components?
The danger of an electric shock is principally not present. However, this depends on the type of the accident.
The vehicles are equipped with several, differing protective mechanisms.
The HV system is designed to be touch-protected.
The HV system is fully electrically insulated from the vehicle body (galvanic/electrical isolation).
In the event of a serious accident with airbag deployment, the HV system on most vehicles is
switched off. Alternatively, comparable protection mechanisms are fitted. (for details see vehiclespecific emergency services data sheet)
In case of doubt, the HV system of the vehicle can be deactivated manually where possible (see question 2.4).
.
2.2 Is it possible to identify whether the HV system has been switched off on an electric or hybrid car that has
been involved in an accident?
Immediate display of the de-energisation of the system after an accident is not possible due to the variety of
potential damage scenarios.
In case of doubt, the HV system of the vehicle can be deactivated manually where possible (see question 2.4).
.
2.3 Is there any electrical hazard from a parked vehicle that has been involved in an accident (stationary crash)?
The high-voltage system of the vehicle can also be active during standstill (for example stationary cooling).
Airbag deployment will normally not occur for high-voltage vehicles that are involved in a "stationary crash".
Thus, the high-voltage system cannot be switched off by this either.
In the event of a serious accident, the vehicle's HV system must be deactivated (see emergency services data
sheet).
This applies for both, vehicles at an electrical charging station and parked vehicles that are not connected to a
charging station.
.
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2.4 Is it possible for emergency service personnel to manually deactivate a HV system?
Yes, electric or hybrid cars offer various ways of manually deactivating the HV system.
Most vehicles are equipped with an additional switch-off device for the HV system, which can be used by
emergency service personnel. These switch-off devices are called 12 volt separation points. These separation
points can also be operated by non-specialists of HV to deactivate the HV system.
Note: The high-voltage battery pack is not discharged by this process – but it is electrically separated from the
HV system.
The recommended procedure for manual deactivation is described in the emergency services datasheet of the
corresponding manufacturer.
.
2.5 What are the dangers from damaged high-voltage cables following an accident if it is identified that the
airbags have not been activated?
There is always an electrical hazard from damaged HV cables or components. Never touch HV cables /
components.
Note: HV cables are always orange coloured.
.
3. Danger from HV battery pack
3.1 Can high-voltage battery packs discharge after an accident?
No, electrical discharging of the HV battery pack is not practical at the scene of an accident.
.
3.2 How should I proceed with a damaged HV battery pack in the vehicle?
Never touch a damaged HV battery pack.
Observe the state of the HV battery pack (for example smoke formation).
Qualified electrical specialists must be requested via the central control centre to assess the specific electrical danger
and determine how to proceed.
.
3.3 How should I proceed with a HV battery pack or parts thereof that have become separated from the vehicle
due to an accident?
In the very unlikely event of this occurring, you should be aware of the possibility of electrical, chemical, mechanical and
thermal risks from the HV battery pack.
Never touch the HV battery pack.
Qualified electrical specialists must be requested via the central control centre to assess the specific electrical
danger and determine how to proceed.
.
4. Chemical damage
4.1 How should I deal with leaked electrolyte from HV battery packs after an accident?
Electrolytes are usually irritants, combustible and potentially corrosive. Contact with the skin and inhalation of
the vapours must always be avoided.
Conventional binders are to be used.
.
4.2 What are the potential hazards from "degassing" a HV battery pack?
In the immediate vicinity, gases are irritants, combustible and potentially corrosive and should not be inhaled
under any circumstances.
The recovery process must be halted and further procedures coordinated with the head of the fire service.
.
5. Thermal danger (fire)
5.1 In the event of a fire, should I expect an explosion of the high-voltage battery pack?
Thanks to appropriate safety technology, the risk of explosion of HV battery packs is absolutely eliminated.
The high-voltage battery and its individual battery cells have mechanical safety fittings, which open, for
example, in the event of temperature and pressure increase relating to a fire, thus leading to targeted
degassing and pressure reduction.
.
5.2 In the event of an electric or hybrid car fire, should I expect the release of toxic smoke from the fire?
Yes, in the event of an electric or hybrid car fire, as well as a conventional vehicle fire, hazardous smoke
should be expected from burning materials such as plastics.
.
5.3 Can a fire in the high-voltage battery pack still take place at a later time after an accident?
Yes, as with conventional vehicles which have been involved an accident, the residual risk of a delayed fire cannot be
ruled out. This particularly applies to damaged HV battery packs (see question 8.5).
.
5.4 Can a vehicle with HV battery packs be extinguished and what extinguishant is to be used?
In general, yes.
Water is to be considered the preferred extinguishant as it cools the HV battery pack at the same time. The use of lots of
water to extinguish and/or cool is recommended.
.
6. Electrical charging infrastructure
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6.1 What do I need to be aware of if an electric or hybrid HV vehicle connected to a charging station is involved
in an accident?
If possible, pull off the charging cable from the charging station/vehicle or switch off the charging station. The
charging cable must always be disconnected from the vehicle.
Visually check cables and connectors for possible damage before removing them.
In the event of a serious accident, the vehicle's HV system must be deactivated (see emergency services
datasheet).
Note: The vehicle's HV system can be active when stationary (e.g. stationary cooling), independently of the charging
station.
.
6.2 What if a charging cable is cut at a public charging station during the charging procedure of an electric
vehicle due to vandalism?
The technical infrastructure of the public charging station has safeguards for this scenario and the charging
procedure is generally switched off.
The operator of the public charging station should be informed.
.
7. Vehicles in water
7.1 Are there special risks to be aware of for an electric or hybrid car that enters water?
In principle, in water there is no increased danger of an electric shock from the HV system.
The notes as described in sections 2 and 3 apply.
The procedure for recovery is identical to conventional vehicles.
This also apples for bodies made of carbon fibre composites.
.
7.2 If an electric or hybrid car enters the water, will the safety of water in a drinking water protection zone (e.g.
reservoir) be endangered?
Compared with conventional vehicles, there is normally no additional danger for the drinking water.
.
8. Towing away, recovery, transport, BMW breakdown assistance and safekeeping
8.1 What should be borne in mind if an electric vehicle or hybrid car is to be removed from a danger area (e.g.
motorway construction site) by tow rope / towbar?
The removal of the vehicle from the immediate danger area with a walking speed is in principle always
permitted.
Further information on towing away can be obtained from the Owner's Handbook of the vehicle manufacturer.
.
8.2 What should be borne in mind when loading an electric or hybrid car after a serious accident?
The HV system should be deactivated before loading. Notes on this can be found in the Owner's Handbook for
the vehicle or in the emergency services datasheet.
In the event of transfer to the authorities representative / recovery company, it is recommended that these are
informed of the measures carried out by the fire service (HV deactivation). Specifically, they must be informed
of the potential danger from damaged HV components (e.g. electric shock or risk of fire from the battery pack).
National regulations / standards for loading and transport must be observed (in Germany: BGI 800 and BGI
8664, BGI 8686 and BGI 5065).
If the vehicle is transferred to third parties, it is recommended to communicate and confirm in written forms the
measures carried out.
When lifting the vehicle with a crane/jack or when loading it, it is recommended to keep in mind the following:
When working with a winch, make sure that no HV components are/were damaged.
.
8.3 What should be borne in mind when it comes to transporting/towing away electric vehicles or hybrid cars
that have been involved in an accident?
The vehicle should always be transported on a flatbed trailer or in accordance with the manufacturer's
stipulations.
When towing away in a hoisting frame, damages to the electrical/hybrid system may occur when the driving
axle(s) remain/remains on the street. Note: Be aware of vehicles with four-wheel drive!
Where possible, vehicles with damaged batteries should be transported to the nearest suitable BMW
authorised workshop or to a safe place of storage (see also question 8.5).
.
8.4 Are regulations in place that restrict passage through a tunnel when a towing vehicle is loaded with a
damaged electric or hybrid car?
No, the rules of the ADR do not apply to battery-powered vehicles and hybrid cars.
(Accord européen relatif au transport international des merchandises Dangereuses par Route - European
Agreement For the International Carriage of Dangerous Goods by Road )
In consideration of previous measures (see 8.2) and the degree of damage, the recovery company must
ensure the road safety of the transport. Be aware of the potential danger from damaged HV components (e.g.
electric shock or risk of fire from the battery pack).
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Country- and operator-specific tunnel regulations are to be observed.
.
8.5 How should damaged electric or hybrid cars be parked and kept safe?
For reasons of fire safety, electric or hybrid cars should be parked just like conventional vehicles in a closed-off
area of an outdoor parking area with sufficient clearance to other vehicles, buildings and combustible objects.
The vehicle should be marked accordingly.
This is particularly important if the vehicle is delivered to the site outside of working hours.
.
9. Further information
The following rule has proved useful in helping the fire service identify alternative drive technology:
A = Leaking operating fluids
U = Check vehicle underbody
T = Open fuel filler cap
O = Check surface
.
The most updated version of the FAQ (Frequently Asked Questions) of the German Association of the Automotive
Industry can be found here: http://www.vda.de/en/publikationen/publikationen_downloads/detail.php?id=1200
Additional notes on electrical hazards at fires are described in BGI/GUV-I 8677 (governing electrical hazards at fires).
.
.
Expert guide BMW I01
1 Introduction
This guide is to be followed after a severe accident when the emergency service personnel is in doubt about the state of
the high-voltage system.
Always observe country-specific guidelines.
In case the intrinsic safety of the vehicle is suspected not to be present any longer and a dangerous situation for the
emergency service personnel is to be assumed, a qualified electrical specialist needs to be consulted.
In case of severe accidents with the risk of damage to the high-voltage battery being present, the high-voltage battery is
automatically disconnected from the high-voltage system.
Prior to any further work on the vehicle (e.g. repair, recycling), an inspection must be carried out by suitably qualified
personnel, according to the BMW specification.
The high-voltage system is generally to be considered intrinsically safe. In the event of an airbag deployment, there are
two switch-off mechanisms in the vehicle that switch off the high-voltage system. The system is switched off by
disconnecting the safety battery terminal at the 12-volt positive terminal of the battery, as well as via a CAN message that
disconnects the voltage supply of the battery contactors in the high-voltage battery, which causes the system to switch
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off. The high-voltage system (IT system) consists of two separate circuits (HV+, HV-), which are completely decoupled
from the 12 V vehicle electrical system. The electrical GND (-) has no high-voltage potential. Only the housings of the
components are connected to GND to allow potential compensation. In order to provoke electrical damage, a person
needs to be in-between the positive and the negative HV circuit. If no damaged high-voltage cables (orange-coloured
lines) or high-voltage components are touched, an electric shock cannot occur under any circumstances.
Important: The instructions described in the following are intended for use exclusively on the BMW I01.
.
2 Essential information
2.1 Definition severely damaged vehicle
A vehicle is to be considered severely damaged if at least one of the following preconditions are met:
Intrusions or deformation of more than 5 millimetres at the housing of the high-voltage battery
Vehicle is completely or partially under water (for example harbour basin, river, channel system)
Vehicle completely or partially on fire
3 Rescue & Recovery
3.1 Securing the high-voltage system
The high-voltage system should be switched off by disconnecting the plug connection of the high-voltage emergency
separation point and by disconnecting the 12 V battery (negative terminal) (see emergency services card for
instructions). In case of airbag deployment, the switch-off of the high-voltage system can be assumed. Touching highvoltage components and high-voltage cables is to be avoided. Ground straps (potential compensation) of the highvoltage components may not be cut through. The de-energised state can be read off from the instrument cluster (12 V
battery must still be connected) or determined by a qualified electrician using defined measurements.
.
3.1.1 Deactivate the high-voltage system (switch to de-energised)
The high-voltage rescue separation point and the 12 V battery are located underneath the engine compartment lid.
The high-voltage system is to be deactivated by disconnecting the plug connection of the high-voltage rescue separation
point and by disconnecting the 12 V battery (negative terminal) (see emergency services card).
If the high-voltage rescue separation point underneath the engine compartment lid cannot be accessed, the switch-off of
the high-voltage system can also be carried out via the large high-voltage connectors at the electrical machine
electronics located in the luggage compartment underneath the service cap.
The high-voltage system can be switched off by removing (1) the small pole connector. See following chapter, point 7.
.
3.1.2 Determine voltage free status
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A switched off high-voltage system can be identified via the Check Control message "High-voltage system deactivated" in
the instrument cluster.
Note: The display requires the 12 V battery to be connected and a terminal change (stop and start vehicle via start/stop
button) to be carried out.
If the de-energised state cannot be identified by means of the instrument cluster, the state can be identified by a qualified
electrical specialists with personal protective equipment via the following measurements.
Operations:
1. Switch off vehicle. Put vehicle in passive state via START-STOP button.
2. Remove vehicle key
3. Open tailgate.
4. Disconnect 12 V battery.
5. Remove luggage compartment floor cover.
6. Remove service cap. Release 8 screws (arrows) and take out the engine compartment cover.
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Underneath the opening, the electrical machine electronics (1) and the electrical machine are located on the left handside while the range extender (2) is located on the right hand-side.
7. Disconnect high-voltage connector.
Push locking at pole connector (1) of the high-voltage connector (2) and remove pole connector (1).
Pull out locking (1) of the high-voltage connector (2) in direction of arrow until the limit position is reached.
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Pull off high-voltage connector (1) upwards.
.
8. Measuring the de-energised state at the high-voltage connector.
The disconnected high-voltage cable is directly linked to high-voltage battery.
It is essential that the contacts are reached with the gauge tips when measuring.
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In the next step, measurements can be taken from each of the contacts to the housing of the electrical machine
electronics. The housings of all high-voltage components are connected via GND by means of potential compensation
lines (aluminium drive module). If a high-voltage potential is present at the housing and/or at GND due to damage, it can
be measured with this procedure.
If no voltage is measured at any time, one can assume that the system is no source of danger.
.
9. Installing the high-voltage connector
In order to rule out further improper treatment, install and lock the high-voltage connector again. The smaller connector
(HV switch-off) must not be installed again.
.
10. Close engine compartment with service cap
.
3.2 Vehicle on fire
In general, all statutory requirements relating to a conventional vehicle on fire are to be observed.
No explosion will occur in the event of a reaction of the lithium ion high-voltage battery triggered by the fire. A quick
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thermal response will take place. Monitoring the high-voltage battery with a thermographic camera is therefore
recommended.
Trapped persons can be rescued using suitable fire fighting equipment.
The BMW I01 consists of a carbon fibre passenger cell based on an aluminium drive module. The carbon fibre are not
combustible. However, since these fibres are held together by a special resin, the resin may catch fire in the event of high
temperatures.
Bear in mind that a fire may lead to the vehicle structure losing its original strength. After a fire, the vehicle solely consists
of the structure of the drive module. Observe chapter 3.2.3 during recovery!
Personal protective equipment as per conventional vehicle on fire!
Electrical danger can also occur after a fire!
.
3.2.1 Extinguishing
In the event of fire, the high-voltage battery is to be cooled with a lot of water in order to prevent further reactions inside
the high-voltage battery. When extinguishing the fire, audible processes can occur inside the high-voltage battery. This
takes place in the safety valves of the battery cells. This process is no source of danger. These audible processes can
also occur after extinguishing the fire.
BGI/GUV-I 8677 governing electrical hazards at fires
Observe the following safety distance when extinguishing
1 m - spray jet
5 m - full jet
.
3.2.2 Determine de-energised state at burned down vehicle
There may still be electrical hazard potential after the fire. The insulation of the high-voltage cables can be damaged or
even removed by the heat.
In this case, the vehicle may only be approached when wearing personal protecting equipment.
As described in chapter 3.1.2, point 8, both cables need to be checked for the de-energised state in this case as well. In
the next step, measurements need to be taken between both cables and the housing of the high-voltage battery. Further
cables can be checked in the front part of the vehicle, if necessary. If a voltage potential is still present, the high-voltage
cables coming out of the high-voltage battery need to disconnected from the high-voltage battery. Therefore, the copper
lines are to insulated against each other and to be cut through one by one in order to prevent a short circuit. Afterwards,
a short circuit to ground should be checked.
Note: The high-voltage cables of the high-voltage battery can be identified by their considerably greater cross-section. If
the insulation is melted due to the fire, only the copper lines can be identified.
.
3.2.3 Procedure for fire residues of vehicle
Personal protective equipment must be used when disposing of fire residues.
In case of fire, the high-voltage battery can bond to the roadway due to the high temperature. In this case, no metallic
objects may be used to remove the high-voltage battery from the roadway. Since the carbon fibre structure no longer
provides any strength, the vehicle needs to be lifted directly beneath the high-voltage battery. Lifting via the wheels does
not help. The drive unit would be pulled out. The drive unit (front/rear axle) would disconnect from the life module.
The residues of the vehicle should be removed from the roadway using pointed wedges made of insulating material (for
example wood). Afterwards, the high-voltage battery must be supported using insulating material in order to feed through
the lifting sling. If a forklift truck is available, it can be used to lift the high-voltage battery (with insulating support between
the high-voltage battery and the truck) and the vehicle.
The residues of the vehicle can be lifted onto a truck with insulation on the loading platform and then covered with an
insulating cover. A corresponding high-voltage identification (warning sticker) must be attached.
First recovery of the vehicle with damaged high-voltage battery is secured by law.
.
3.3 Vehicle in and under water
After recovery of the vehicle out of water the high-voltage system is to be switched-off by removing the high-voltage
service disconnect and disconnecting the 12 V battery (negative terminal). In case of airbag deployment, the switch-off of
the high-voltage system can be assumed. Touching high-voltage components and high-voltage cables is to be avoided.
After recovery out of water:
Observe vehicle thoroughly.
Store vehicle outdoors with sufficient clearance to combustible material!
Provide access for fire brigade.
.
3.4 Split or separated high-voltage battery
The voltage within the high-voltage battery cannot in principle be switched off. The high-voltage battery of the BMW I01 is
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however designed to be intrinsically safe on the inside. This includes, for example, an adequate touching protection. All
high-voltage cables can be plugged in and are highlighted in orange. In case of a damaged high-voltage battery, a
damaged touching protection needs to be assumed.
In this very improbable case, electrical and thermal danger by the high-voltage battery need to be assumed. Adequate
personal protective equipment is required.
The elements of the high-voltage battery should be lifted from the ground with insulating material (for example wood). If
any elements are held together only by individual lines, disconnecting and/or cutting through the lines may be
recommended. Disconnect and/or cut through lines one by one in order to provide dangerous short circuits.
The elements can be lifted onto a truck with insulating facing on the loading platform and then be covered with an
insulating cover. Install an adequate high-voltage sign with a corresponding note.
First recovery of the vehicle with damaged high-voltage battery is secured by law.
.
4 Towing
When towing away a severely damaged vehicle, the following points need to be kept in mind:
Observe notes on towing away inside the rescue manual, the emergency services data sheet and/or the
Owner's Handbook.
The vehicle may only be towed away be trained personnel.
The high-voltage system is to be switched off before transporting (de-energised).
Insulating tensioning straps and lifting gear are to be used.
Not specifically trained persons are to be kept away.
If the vehicle does not stand on its own wheels, adequate insulation material is to be used. The vehicle body
may not have any metallic contact to the loading platform.
The elements of the high-voltage battery can be lifted onto a truck with insulating facing on the loading
platform and then be covered with an insulating cover.
The vehicle is to be secured sufficiently in order to avoid further damage to the high-voltage battery due to
movement.
If the vehicle can be repaired, it should be transported to the nearest BMW authorised workshop if possible.
.
The vehicle must not be pulled or towed away. Transportation is possible exclusively on a truck. Any other variants of
towing away a vehicle are forbidden. Pulling the vehicle out of the danger area is possible. Securing the vehicle via its
wheels is recommended.
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When lifting the vehicle, the areas surrounded by red colour may not be used as a supporting area (exception: after a
fire)
.
Expert guide BMW I12
1 Introduction
This guide is to be followed after a severe accident when the emergency service personnel is in doubt about the state of
the high-voltage system.
Always observe country-specific guidelines.
In case the intrinsic safety of the vehicle is suspected not to be present any longer and a dangerous situation for the
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emergency service personnel is to be assumed, a qualified electrical specialist needs to be consulted.
In case of severe accidents with the risk of damage to the high-voltage battery being present, the high-voltage battery is
automatically disconnected from the high-voltage system.
Prior to any further work on the vehicle (e.g. repair, recycling), an inspection must be carried out by suitably qualified
personnel, according to the BMW specification.
The high-voltage system is generally to be considered intrinsically safe. In the event of an airbag deployment, there are
two switch-off mechanisms in the vehicle that switch off the high-voltage system. The system is switched off by
disconnecting the safety battery terminal at the 12-volt positive terminal of the battery, as well as via a CAN message that
disconnects the voltage supply of the battery contactors in the high-voltage battery, which causes the system to switch
off. The high-voltage system (IT system) consists of two separate circuits (HV+, HV-), which are completely decoupled
from the 12 V vehicle electrical system. The electrical GND (-) has no high-voltage potential. Only the housings of the
components are connected to GND to allow potential compensation. In order to provoke electrical damage, a person
needs to be in-between the positive and the negative HV circuit. If no damaged high-voltage cables (orange-coloured
lines) or high-voltage components are touched, an electric shock cannot occur under any circumstances.
Important: The instructions described in the following are intended for use exclusively on the BMW I12.
.
2 Essential information
2.1 Definition severely damaged vehicle
A vehicle is to be considered severely damaged if at least one of the following preconditions are met:
Intrusions or deformation of more than 5 millimetres at the housing of the high-voltage battery
Vehicle is completely or partially under water (for example harbour basin, river, channel system)
Vehicle completely or partially on fire
3 Rescue & Recovery
3.1 Securing the high-voltage system
The high-voltage system should be switched off by disconnecting the plug connection of the high-voltage emergency
separation point and by disconnecting the 12 V battery (negative terminal) (see emergency services card for
instructions).
In case of airbag deployment, the switch-off of the high-voltage system can be assumed. Touching high-voltage
components and high-voltage cables is to be avoided. Ground straps (potential compensation) of the high-voltage
components may not be cut through. The de-energised state can be read off from the instrument cluster (12 V battery
must still be connected).
.
3.1.1 Deactivate the high-voltage system (switch to de-energised)
The high-voltage emergency separation point and the 12 V battery are located underneath the engine compartment lid
(see emergency services card).
The high-voltage system is to be deactivated by disconnecting the plug connection of the high-voltage rescue separation
point and by disconnecting the 12 V battery (negative terminal) (see emergency services card).
High-voltage emergency separation point closed.
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High-voltage emergency separation point open.
.
3.1.2 Determine voltage free status
A switched off high-voltage system can be identified via the Check Control message "High-voltage system deactivated" in
the instrument cluster.
Note: The display requires the 12 V battery to be connected and a terminal change (stop and start vehicle via start/stop
button) to be carried out.
.
3.2 Vehicle on fire
In general, all statutory requirements relating to a conventional vehicle on fire are to be observed.
No explosion will occur in the event of a reaction of the lithium ion high-voltage battery triggered by the fire. A quick
thermal response will take place.
Monitoring the high-voltage battery with a thermographic camera is therefore recommended.
Trapped persons can be rescued using suitable fire fighting equipment.
The BMW I12 consists of a carbon fibre passenger cell. The carbon fibre are not combustible. However, since these
fibres are held together by a special resin, the resin may catch fire in the event of high temperatures.
Bear in mind that a fire may lead to the vehicle structure losing its original strength. After a fire, the vehicle solely consists
of the structure of the drive module. Observe chapter 3.2.3 during recovery!
Personal protective equipment as per conventional vehicle on fire!
Electrical danger can also occur after a fire!
.
3.2.1 Extinguishing
In the event of fire, the high-voltage battery is to be cooled with a lot of water in order to prevent further reactions inside
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the high-voltage battery. When extinguishing the fire, audible processes can occur inside the high-voltage battery. This
takes place in the safety valves of the battery cells. This process is no source of danger. These audible processes can
also occur after extinguishing the fire.
BGI/GUV-I 8677 governing electrical hazards at fires
Observe the following safety distance when extinguishing
1 m - spray jet
5 m - full jet
.
3.2.2 Determine de-energised state at burned down vehicle
There may still be electrical hazard potential after the fire. The insulation of the high-voltage cables can be damaged or
even removed by the heat.
In this case, the vehicle may only be approached when wearing personal protecting equipment.
After the fire has been extinguished, any high-voltage cables must be disconnected from the high-voltage battery, if they
are accessible. Therefore, the copper lines are to insulated against each other and to be cut through one by one in order
to prevent a short circuit. Afterwards, a short circuit to ground should be checked.
Note: The high-voltage cables can be recognised from their much larger cross-section. If the insulation has melted due to
the fire, only the copper wires can be identified.
.
Position of the high-voltage components
.
3.2.3 Procedure for fire residues of vehicle
Personal protective equipment must be used when disposing of fire residues.
In case of fire, the high-voltage battery can bond to the roadway due to the high temperature. In this case, no metallic
objects may be used to remove the high-voltage battery from the roadway. Since the carbon fibre structure no longer
provides any strength, the vehicle needs to be lifted directly beneath the high-voltage battery. Lifting via the wheels does
not help. The drive unit (front/rear axle) would disconnect from the life module.
The residues of the vehicle should be removed from the roadway using pointed wedges made of insulating material (for
example wood). Afterwards, the high-voltage battery must be supported using insulating material in order to feed through
the lifting sling. If a forklift truck is available, it can be used to lift the high-voltage battery (with insulating support between
the high-voltage battery and the truck) and the vehicle.
The residues of the vehicle can be lifted onto a truck with insulation on the loading platform and then covered with an
insulating cover. A corresponding high-voltage identification (warning sticker) must be attached.
First recovery of the vehicle with damaged high-voltage battery is secured by law.
.
3.3 Vehicle in and under water
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After recovery of the vehicle out of water the high-voltage system is to be switched-off by removing the high-voltage
service disconnect and disconnecting the 12 V battery (negative terminal). In case of airbag deployment, the switch-off of
the high-voltage system can be assumed. Touching high-voltage components and high-voltage cables is to be avoided.
After recovery out of water:
Observe vehicle thoroughly.
Store vehicle outdoors with sufficient clearance to combustible material!
Provide access for fire brigade.
.
3.4 Split or separated high-voltage battery
The voltage within the high-voltage battery cannot in principle be switched off. The high-voltage battery of the BMW I12 is
however designed to be intrinsically safe on the inside. This includes, for example, an adequate touching protection. All
high-voltage cables can be plugged in and are highlighted in orange. In case of a damaged high-voltage battery, a
damaged touching protection needs to be assumed.
In this very improbable case, electrical and thermal danger by the high-voltage battery need to be assumed. Adequate
personal protective equipment is required.
The elements of the high-voltage battery should be lifted from the ground with insulating material (for example wood). If
any elements are held together only by individual lines, disconnecting and/or cutting through the lines may be
recommended. Disconnect and/or cut through lines one by one in order to provide dangerous short circuits.
The elements can be lifted onto a truck with insulating facing on the loading platform and then be covered with an
insulating cover. Install an adequate high-voltage sign with a corresponding note.
First recovery of the vehicle with damaged high-voltage battery is secured by law.
.
4 Towing
When towing away a severely damaged vehicle, the following points need to be kept in mind:
Observe notes on towing away inside the rescue manual, the emergency services data sheet and/or the
Owner's Handbook.
The vehicle may only be towed away be trained personnel.
The high-voltage system is to be switched off before transporting (de-energised).
Insulating tensioning straps and lifting gear are to be used.
Not specifically trained persons are to be kept away.
If the vehicle does not stand on its own wheels, adequate insulation material is to be used. The vehicle body
may not have any metallic contact to the loading platform.
The elements of the high-voltage battery can be lifted onto a truck with insulating facing on the loading
platform and then be covered with an insulating cover.
The vehicle is to be secured sufficiently in order to avoid further damage to the high-voltage battery due to
movement.
If the vehicle can be repaired, it should be transported to the nearest BMW authorised workshop if possible.
.
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The vehicle must not be pulled or towed. Transportation is possible exclusively on a truck. Any other variants of towing
away a vehicle are forbidden. Pulling the vehicle out of the danger area is possible. Securing the vehicle via its wheels is
recommended.
When lifting the vehicle, the areas surrounded by red colour may not be used as a supporting area (exception: after a
fire)
.
Expert guide BMW 530Le F18PHEV
1 Introduction
This guide is to be followed after a severe accident when the emergency service personnel is in doubt about the state of
the high-voltage system.
Always observe country-specific guidelines.
In case the intrinsic safety of the vehicle is suspected not to be present any longer and a dangerous situation for the
emergency service personnel is to be assumed, a qualified electrical specialist needs to be consulted.
In case of severe accidents with the risk of damage to the high-voltage battery being present, the high-voltage battery is
automatically disconnected from the high-voltage system.
Prior to any further work on the vehicle (e.g. repair, recycling), an inspection must be carried out by suitably qualified
personnel, according to the BMW specification.
The high-voltage system is generally to be considered intrinsically safe. In the event of an airbag deployment, there are
two switch-off mechanisms in the vehicle that switch off the high-voltage system. The system is switched off by
disconnecting the safety battery terminal at the 12-volt positive terminal of the battery, as well as via a CAN message that
disconnects the voltage supply of the battery contactors in the high-voltage battery, which causes the system to switch
off. The high-voltage system (IT system) consists of two separate circuits (HV+, HV-), which are completely decoupled
from the 12 V vehicle electrical system. The electrical GND (-) has no high-voltage potential. Only the housings of the
components are connected to GND to allow potential compensation. In order to provoke electrical damage, a person
needs to be in-between the positive and the negative HV circuit. If no damaged high-voltage cables (orange-coloured
lines) or high-voltage components are touched, an electric shock cannot occur under any circumstances.
Important: The instructions described in the following are intended for use exclusively on the BMW F18PHEV.
.
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2 Essential information
2.1 Vehicle type
The BMW 530Le is a PHEV. The abbreviation PHEV stands for "Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle" – a motor vehicle with
hybrid drive, the high-voltage battery of which can also be charged externally via the power grid.
.
2.2 Definition severely damaged vehicle
A vehicle is to be considered severely damaged if at least one of the following preconditions are met:
Intrusions or deformation of more than 5 millimetres at the housing of the high-voltage battery
Vehicle is completely or partially under water (for example harbour basin, river, channel system)
Vehicle completely or partially on fire
3 Rescue & Recovery
3.1 Securing the high-voltage system
The high-voltage system is to be switched off by disconnecting the plug connection of the high-voltage emergency
separation point and by disconnecting the 12 V batteries (negative terminal) (see emergency services card for
instructions).
In case of airbag deployment, the switch-off of the high-voltage system can be assumed. Touching high-voltage
components and high-voltage cables is to be avoided. Ground straps (potential compensation) of the high-voltage
components may not be cut through. The de-energised state can be read off from the instrument cluster (12 V batteries
must still be connected) or determined by a qualified electrician using defined measurements.
.
3.1.1 Deactivate the high-voltage system (switch to de-energised)
The high-voltage service disconnect (installation location: on the right behind the luggage compartment trim panel) and
the two 12 V batteries (system battery and auxiliary battery) are located in the luggage compartment.
The high-voltage system is deactivated by:
Unlocking the plug connection (pull apart high-voltage service disconnect in direction of arrow) of the highvoltage rescue separation point (see graphic) as well as
Disconnecting the 12 V battery at the negative terminal (see emergency services card)
If the high-voltage rescue separation point in the luggage compartment cannot be accessed, the high-voltage system can
be switched off at the large high-voltage connector of the high-voltage battery behind the rear seat bench.
.
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Installation position of high-voltage battery behind the rear seat bench
.
The high-voltage system is to be switched off by removing the small pole connector (HV interlock) (see chapter 3.1.2
point 8).
.
3.1.2 Determine voltage free status
A switched off high-voltage system can be identified via the Check Control message "High-voltage system deactivated" in
the instrument cluster.
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Note: The display requires the 12 V batteries to be connected and a terminal change (stop and start vehicle via start/stop
button) to be carried out.
If the de-energised state cannot be identified by means of the instrument cluster (no message), the state can be identified
by a qualified electrical specialist with personal protective equipment via the following measurements.
.
Operations:
1. Switch off vehicle. Put vehicle in passive state via START-STOP button.
2. Remove vehicle key
3. Open tailgate.
4. Disconnect 12 V batteries.
.
Installation positions of the 12 V batteries
On the right behind the luggage compartment trim panel (auxiliary battery)
In the centre under the storage shelf (system battery)
.
5. Pull apart the small connector (high-voltage service disconnect) at the high-voltage rescue separation point.
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.
6. Disassemble the rear seat bench by the reaching underneath and pulling firmly.
.
7. Disassemble the rear seat backrest
Release the screw connections (Torx T50).
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.
-
Detach the rear seat backrest by lifting.
.
The high-voltage battery is located behind the rear seat backrest.
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.
8. Disconnect high-voltage connector
Remove "HV interlock" (1)
Pull out lock (2) in direction of arrow up to limit position
Pull off high-voltage connector (3)
.
9. Measure the de-energised state at the high-voltage connector
The disconnected high-voltage cable is directly linked to high-voltage battery.
It is essential that the contacts are reached with the gauge tips when measuring.
In the next step, measurements can be taken from each of the contacts to the housing of the high-voltage battery. The
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housings of all high-voltage components are connected via GND by means of potential compensation lines. If a highvoltage potential is present at the housing and/or at GND due to damage, it can be measured with this procedure.
If no voltage is measured at any time, one can assume that the system is no source of danger.
.
10. Installing the high-voltage connector
In order to rule out further improper treatment, install and lock the high-voltage connector again. The smaller connector
(HV interlock) must not be installed again.
.
3.2 Vehicle on fire
In general, all statutory requirements relating to a conventional vehicle on fire are to be observed.
No explosion will occur in the event of a reaction of the lithium ion high-voltage battery triggered by the fire. A quick
thermal response will take place.
Monitoring the high-voltage battery with a thermographic camera is therefore recommended.
Trapped persons can be rescued using suitable fire fighting equipment.
As with conventional vehicles, hazardous smoke may be produced if the vehicle catches fire (e.g. due to burning
plastics).
Personal protective equipment as per conventional vehicle on fire!
Electrical danger can also occur after a fire!
.
3.2.1 Extinguishing
In the event of fire, the high-voltage battery is to be cooled with a lot of water in order to prevent further reactions inside
the high-voltage battery. When extinguishing the fire, audible processes can occur inside the high-voltage battery. This
takes place in the safety valves of the battery cells. This process is no source of danger. These audible processes can
also occur after extinguishing the fire.
BGI/GUV-I 8677 governing electrical hazards at fires
Observe the following safety distance when extinguishing:
1 m - spray jet
5 m - full jet
.
3.2.2 Determine de-energised state at burned down vehicle
There may still be electrical hazard potential after the fire. The insulation of the high-voltage cables can be damaged or
even removed by the heat.
In this case, the vehicle may only be approached when wearing personal protecting equipment.
As described in chapter 3.1.2, point 9, both cables need to be checked for the de-energised state in this case as well. In
the next step, measurements need to be taken between both cables and the housing of the high-voltage battery. Further
cables can be checked in the front part of the vehicle, if necessary. If a voltage potential is still present, the high-voltage
cables coming out of the high-voltage battery need to disconnected from the high-voltage battery. Therefore, the copper
lines are to insulated against each other and to be cut through one by one in order to prevent a short circuit. Afterwards,
a short circuit to ground should be checked.
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Note: The high-voltage cables of the high-voltage battery can be identified by their considerably greater cross-section. If
the insulation is melted due to the fire, only the copper lines can be identified.
.
3.3 Vehicle in and under water
After recovery of the vehicle out of water the high-voltage system is to be switched off by removing the high-voltage
service disconnect and disconnecting the 12 V batteries (negative terminal). In case of airbag deployment, the switch-off
of the high-voltage system can be assumed. Touching high-voltage components and high-voltage cables is to be
avoided.
After recovery out of water:
Observe vehicle thoroughly.
Store vehicle outdoors with sufficient clearance to combustible material!
Provide clear access for fire brigade.
.
3.4 Split or separated high-voltage battery
The voltage within the high-voltage battery cannot in principle be switched off. The high-voltage battery is, however,
designed to be intrinsically safe on the inside. This includes, for example, an adequate touching protection. All highvoltage cables can be plugged in and are highlighted in orange. In case of a damaged high-voltage battery, a damaged
touching protection needs to be assumed.
In this very improbable case, electrical and thermal danger by the high-voltage battery need to be assumed. Adequate
personal protective equipment is required.
The elements of the high-voltage battery should be lifted from the ground with insulating material (for example wood). If
any elements are held together only by individual lines, disconnecting and/or cutting through the lines may be
recommended. Disconnect and/or cut through lines one by one in order to provide dangerous short circuits.
The elements can be lifted onto a truck with insulating facing on the loading platform and then be covered with an
insulating cover. Install an adequate high-voltage sign with a corresponding note.
First recovery of the vehicle with damaged high-voltage battery is secured by law.
.
4 Towing
When towing away a severely damaged vehicle, the following points need to be kept in mind:
Observe notes on towing away inside the rescue manual, the emergency services data sheet and/or the
Owner's Handbook.
The vehicle may only be towed away be trained personnel.
The high-voltage system is to be switched off before transporting (de-energised).
Insulating tensioning straps and lifting gear are to be used.
Not specifically trained persons are to be kept away.
If the vehicle does not stand on its own wheels, adequate insulation material is to be used. The vehicle body
may not have any metallic contact to the loading platform.
The elements of the high-voltage battery can be lifted onto a truck with insulating facing on the loading
platform and then be covered with an insulating cover.
The vehicle is to be secured sufficiently in order to avoid further damage to the high-voltage battery due to
movement.
If the vehicle can be repaired, it should be transported to the nearest BMW authorised workshop if possible.
.
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The vehicle must not be pulled or towed. Transportation is possible exclusively on a truck. Any other variants of towing
away a vehicle are forbidden. Pulling the vehicle out of the danger area is possible. Securing the vehicle via its wheels is
recommended.
When lifting the vehicle, the areas surrounded by red colour may not be used as a supporting area (exception: after a
fire)
.
Expert guide BMW F15PHEV
1 Introduction
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This guide is to be followed after a severe accident when the emergency service personnel is in doubt about the state of
the high-voltage system.
Always observe country-specific guidelines.
In case the intrinsic safety of the vehicle is suspected not to be present any longer and a dangerous situation for the
emergency service personnel is to be assumed, a qualified electrical specialist needs to be consulted.
In case of severe accidents with the risk of damage to the high-voltage battery being present, the high-voltage battery is
automatically disconnected from the high-voltage system.
Prior to any further work on the vehicle (e.g. repair, recycling), an inspection must be carried out by suitably qualified
personnel, according to the BMW specification.
The high-voltage system is generally to be considered intrinsically safe. In the event of an airbag deployment, there are
two switch-off mechanisms in the vehicle that switch off the high-voltage system. The system is switched off by
disconnecting the safety battery terminal at the 12-volt positive terminal of the battery, as well as via a CAN message that
disconnects the voltage supply of the battery contactors in the high-voltage battery, which causes the system to switch
off. The high-voltage system (IT system) consists of two separate circuits (HV+, HV-), which are completely decoupled
from the 12 V vehicle electrical system. The electrical GND (-) has no high-voltage potential. Only the housings of the
components are connected to GND to allow potential compensation. In order to provoke electrical damage, a person
needs to be in-between the positive and the negative HV circuit. If no damaged high-voltage cables (orange-coloured
lines) or high-voltage components are touched, an electric shock cannot occur under any circumstances.
Important: The instructions described in the following are intended for use exclusively on the BMW F15PHEV.
.
2 Essential information
2.1 Vehicle type
The BMW F15PHEV is a PHEV. The abbreviation PHEV stands for "Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle" – a motor vehicle
with hybrid drive, the high-voltage battery of which can also be charged externally via the power grid.
.
2.2 Definition severely damaged vehicle
A vehicle is to be considered severely damaged if at least one of the following preconditions are met:
Intrusions or deformation of more than 5 millimetres at the housing of the high-voltage battery
Vehicle is completely or partially under water (for example harbour basin, river, channel system)
Vehicle completely or partially on fire
3 Rescue & Recovery
3.1 Securing the high-voltage system
The high-voltage system is to be switched off by disconnecting the plug connection of the high-voltage emergency
separation point and by disconnecting the 12 V batteries (negative terminal) (see emergency services card for
instructions).
In case of airbag deployment, the switch-off of the high-voltage system can be assumed. Touching high-voltage
components and high-voltage cables is to be avoided. Ground straps (potential compensation) of the high-voltage
components may not be cut through. The de-energised state can be read off from the instrument cluster (12 V battery
must still be connected) or determined by a qualified electrician using defined measurements.
.
3.1.1 Deactivate the high-voltage system (switch to de-energised)
The luggage compartment houses the high-voltage service disconnect (installation location: on the right behind the
luggage compartment trim panel) and the two 12 V batteries (system battery and auxiliary battery).
The high-voltage system is deactivated by:
Removing the red connector lock (1) and pulling apart the plug connection of the high-voltage rescue
separation point (2) (high-voltage service disconnect) and
-
Disconnecting the 12 V batteries at the negative terminal (see emergency services card)
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If the high-voltage rescue separation point behind the trim panel cannot be accessed, the high-voltage system is
switched off at the large high-voltage connector of the high-voltage battery (installation position below the luggage
compartment floor cover).
.
The high-voltage system is to be switched off by removing the small pole connector (HV interlock) (see chapter 3.1.2
point 9).
.
3.1.2 Determine voltage free status
A switched off high-voltage system can be identified via the message "High-voltage system deactivated" in the instrument
cluster.
Note: The display requires the 12 V battery to be connected and a terminal change (stop and start vehicle via start/stop
button) to be carried out.
If the de-energised state cannot be identified by means of the instrument cluster (no message), the state can be identified
by a qualified electrical specialist with personal protective equipment via the following measurements.
.
Operations:
1. Switch off vehicle. Put vehicle in passive state via START-STOP button.
2. Remove vehicle key
3. Open tailgate and lift luggage compartment floor cover (1).
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4. Remove the trim panel components.
.
After lifting the luggage compartment floor cover:
Loosen expanding rivets (1) and screws (2), remove storage tray.
Open right side trim panel (4).
.
5. Disconnect 12 V battery at the negative terminal.
.
6. Remove red connector lock (1) and pull apart plug connection of the high-voltage rescue separation point (2) (highvoltage service disconnect).
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.
7. Disassemble luggage compartment floor cover:
Raise front section, loosen Torx screws T50 (1), remove damper (2) and remove luggage compartment floor
cover (3).
.
-
Remove rear panel by lifting; the high-voltage connector (1) becomes visible.
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.
8. Disconnect high-voltage connector
Remove "HV interlock" (1)
Pull out lock (2) in direction of arrow up to limit position
Pull off high-voltage connector (3)
.
9. Measure the de-energised state at the high-voltage connector
The disconnected high-voltage cable is directly linked to high-voltage battery.
It is essential that the contacts are reached with the gauge tips when measuring.
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.
In the next step, the voltage of each of the two contacts to the housing of the electrical machine electronics is measured.
The housings of all high-voltage components are connected via GND by means of potential compensation lines. If a highvoltage potential is present at the housing and/or at GND due to damage, it can be measured with this procedure.
.
If no voltage is measured at any time, one can assume that the system is no source of danger.
.
10. Installing the high-voltage connector
In order to rule out further improper treatment, install and lock the high-voltage connector again. The smaller connector
(HV interlock) must not be installed again.
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.
3.2 Vehicle on fire
In general, all statutory requirements relating to a conventional vehicle on fire are to be observed.
No explosion will occur in the event of a reaction of the lithium ion high-voltage battery triggered by the fire. A quick
thermal response will take place.
Monitoring the high-voltage battery with a thermographic camera is therefore recommended.
Trapped persons can be rescued using suitable fire fighting equipment.
As with conventional vehicles, hazardous smoke may be produced if the vehicle catches fire (e.g. due to burning
plastics).
Personal protective equipment as per conventional vehicle on fire!
Electrical danger can also occur after a fire!
.
3.2.1 Extinguishing
In the event of fire, the high-voltage battery is to be cooled with a lot of water in order to prevent further reactions inside
the high-voltage battery. When extinguishing the fire, audible processes can occur inside the high-voltage battery. This
takes place in the safety valves of the battery cells. This process is no source of danger. These audible processes can
also occur after extinguishing the fire.
BGI/GUV-I 8677 governing electrical hazards at fires
Observe the following safety distance when extinguishing:
1 m - spray jet
5 m - full jet
.
3.2.2 Determine de-energised state at burned down vehicle
There may still be electrical hazard potential after the fire. The insulation of the high-voltage cables can be damaged or
even removed by the heat.
In this case, the vehicle may only be approached when wearing personal protecting equipment.
As described in chapter 3.1.2, point 9, both cables need to be checked for the de-energised state in this case as well. In
the next step, measurements need to be taken between both cables and the housing of the high-voltage battery. Further
cables can be checked in the front part of the vehicle, if necessary. If a voltage potential is still present, the high-voltage
cables coming out of the high-voltage battery need to disconnected from the high-voltage battery. Therefore, the copper
lines are to insulated against each other and to be cut through one by one in order to prevent a short circuit. Afterwards,
a short circuit to ground should be checked.
Note: The high-voltage cables of the high-voltage battery can be identified by their considerably greater cross-section. If
the insulation is melted due to the fire, only the copper lines can be identified.
.
3.3 Vehicle in and under water
After recovery of the vehicle out of water the high-voltage system is to be switched-off by removing the high-voltage
service disconnect and disconnecting the 12 V batteries (negative terminal). In case of airbag deployment, the switch-off
of the high-voltage system can be assumed. Touching high-voltage components and high-voltage cables is to be
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avoided.
After recovery out of water:
Observe vehicle thoroughly.
Store vehicle outdoors with sufficient clearance to combustible material!
Provide clear access for fire brigade.
.
3.4 Split or separated high-voltage battery
The voltage within the high-voltage battery cannot in principle be switched off. The high-voltage battery is, however,
designed to be intrinsically safe on the inside. This includes, for example, an adequate touching protection. All highvoltage cables can be plugged in and are highlighted in orange. In case of a damaged high-voltage battery, a damaged
touching protection needs to be assumed.
In this very improbable case, electrical and thermal danger by the high-voltage battery need to be assumed. Adequate
personal protective equipment is required.
The elements of the high-voltage battery should be lifted from the ground with insulating material (for example wood). If
any elements are held together only by individual lines, disconnecting and/or cutting through the lines may be
recommended. Disconnect and/or cut through lines one by one in order to provide dangerous short circuits.
The elements can be lifted onto a truck with insulating facing on the loading platform and then be covered with an
insulating cover. Install an adequate high-voltage sign with a corresponding note.
First recovery of the vehicle with damaged high-voltage battery is secured by law.
.
4 Towing
When towing away a severely damaged vehicle, the following points need to be kept in mind:
Observe notes on towing away inside the rescue manual, the emergency services data sheet and/or the
Owner's Handbook.
The vehicle may only be towed away be trained personnel.
The high-voltage system is to be switched off before transporting (de-energised).
Insulating tensioning straps and lifting gear are to be used.
Not specifically trained persons are to be kept away.
If the vehicle does not stand on its own wheels, adequate insulation material is to be used. The vehicle body
may not have any metallic contact to the loading platform.
The elements of the high-voltage battery can be lifted onto a truck with insulating facing on the loading
platform and then be covered with an insulating cover.
The vehicle is to be secured sufficiently in order to avoid further damage to the high-voltage battery due to
movement.
If the vehicle can be repaired, it should be transported to the nearest BMW authorised workshop if possible.
.
The vehicle must not be pulled or towed. Transportation is possible exclusively on a truck. Any other variants of towing
away a vehicle are forbidden. Pulling the vehicle out of the danger area is possible. Securing the vehicle via its wheels is
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recommended.
When lifting the vehicle, the areas surrounded by red colour may not be used as a supporting area (exception: after a
fire)
.
© 2015 BMW AG Munich, Germany. Copying, reprinting or reproduction, even in excerpt form, the written permission of
BMW AG Munich. 01/2015
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