Sharp VC-488NS Technical data

GPS Timing Receiver for eMGW/MGW
System
Installation and Operation
Manual
February 2005
Alvarion P/N 214028
Symmetricom P/N 197-03850-02, Issue 1
Error! No text of specified style in document.
GPS Timing Receiver Installation and Operation
Manual
ii
About this Guide
Chapter 1 – System Description. This chapter gives an introduction
to the GPS Receiver and describes the command channel and
control-display-unit ports and the Alvarion hardware.
Chapter 2 – Installation. This chapter describes how to install the
GPS Receiver and position location.
Chapter 3 – Operations. This chapter describes the system
indicators and command channel operation.
Appendix A –Technical Data.
Appendix B – EMC Emissions and Immunity.
Appendix C – Maintenance.
Appendix D – The Global Positioning System (GPS).
Appendix E – Glossary.
Contents
Chapter 1 - System Description...............................................................1-1
Introduction ........................................................................................... 1-2
Command Channel and Control-Display-Unit (CDU) Ports ........................ 1-3
Alvarion Hardware .................................................................................. 1-4
GPS Receiver : Specification ......................................................................... 1-4
Input Power.................................................................................................. 1-4
Output Specification .................................................................................... 1-5
1PPS ......................................................................................................... 1-5
2.048 MHz................................................................................................. 1-6
Time of Day ............................................................................................... 1-6
LEDs ......................................................................................................... 1-7
Input / Output Message Format................................................................... 1-7
Time of Day Output ................................................................................... 1-7
Electrical Safety ........................................................................................... 1-7
Chapter 2 - Installation .............................................................................2-1
Installation............................................................................................. 2-2
Antenna Mounting ....................................................................................... 2-2
Lightning Protection Considerations ............................................................. 2-4
Protection Against Lightning......................................................................... 2-6
At the Antenna .......................................................................................... 2-6
At the GPS Receiver Unit ........................................................................... 2-8
The Lightning Arrestor ............................................................................... 2-10
Detailed Installation procedure................................................................... 2-11
Installing the Surge Protection................................................................. 2-11
Connecting the N-type to TNC adaptor .................................................... 2-11
Connecting the Grounding Cable............................................................. 2-12
Connecting the “Equipment” side ............................................................ 2-12
Connecting the Surge side ....................................................................... 2-14
Connection Diagram................................................................................ 2-15
Mounting the GPS Receiver ........................................................................ 2-16
Mounting in Equipment Cabinets ............................................................ 2-16
Contents
Cable and Power Connections.....................................................................2-17
Casing Ground Connection ......................................................................2-17
Antenna Connection ................................................................................2-18
Output (Timing/Frequency) Connection ...................................................2-18
Command Channel to Alvarion eMGW/MGW System...............................2-18
CDU-PC Connection.................................................................................2-19
Time of Day Connection ...........................................................................2-20
Ground Topography .................................................................................2-20
Power Connection ....................................................................................2-20
Position Location.................................................................................. 2-22
Automatic Position Location........................................................................2-22
User Entered Position .................................................................................2-23
Chapter 3 - Operations ............................................................................ 3-1
Operation ............................................................................................... 3-2
Indicators .....................................................................................................3-2
Command Channel Operation.......................................................................3-3
Appendix A - Technical Data Symmetricom™GPS Receiver................A-1
Performance Characteristics .........................................................................A-1
1PPS Output:.............................................................................................A-2
2.048 MHz Output: ....................................................................................A-2
Timing Receiver Connectors: .........................................................................A-2
Indicators: ....................................................................................................A-3
Environmental Conditions: ...........................................................................A-3
GPS Receiver..............................................................................................A-3
Antenna.....................................................................................................A-3
Electromagnetic Compatibility ...................................................................A-3
Safety ........................................................................................................A-4
Appendix B - EMC Emissions and Immunity.........................................B-1
FCC Class B Notice...................................................................................... B-1
Appendix C - Maintenance ......................................................................C-1
Appendix D - The Global Positioning System (GPS) ............................D-1
Precise Timing ............................................................................................. D-2
GPS Receiver Positioning and Navigation ..................................................... D-2
Standard Positioning Service (SPS) .............................................................. D-3
Precise Positioning Service (PPS) .................................................................. D-5
Geodetic Datums ......................................................................................... D-5
Appendix E - Glossary............................................................................. E-1
GPS Timing Receiver Installation and Operation Manual
ii
Figures
Figure
1-1: Alvarion GPS Timing Receiver ........................................................ 1-4
Figure
1-2: Output Connections ...................................................................... 1-5
Figure
1-3: 1PPS Pulse .................................................................................... 1-6
Figure
1-4: 2.048 MHz Signal .......................................................................... 1-6
Figure
2-1: Alvarion GPS Timing Receiver - Back ............................................. 2-2
Figure
2-2: Typical Antenna Mounting............................................................. 2-3
Figure
2-3: Typical Antenna Lightning Arrestor ............................................... 2-7
Figure
2-4: Example of Connections ................................................................ 2-9
Figure
2-5: Lightening Arrestor...................................................................... 2-10
Figure
2-6: Installation of Lightening Arrestor on Mast .................................. 2-11
Figure
2-7: Connecting the TNC to N-type Adaptor ........................................ 2-12
Figure
2-8: Connecting the RF TNC-type side to the “Equipment” side........... 2-13
Figure
2-9: Connecting the Coax Cable to the Surge Side .............................. 2-14
Figure
2-10: Lightening Protector Connection Diagram.................................. 2-15
Figure
2-11: Typical Mounting in Cabinet...................................................... 2-16
Figure
2-12: Cable Connections..................................................................... 2-17
Figure
2-13: Female Power Connector (cable end view) ................................. 2-21
Tables
Table
2-1: J7 Pin Connection......................................................................... 2-19
Table
2-2: J8 Pin Connections ....................................................................... 2-20
Table
2-3: J21 Pin Connections ..................................................................... 2-21
Table
3-1: LED Display.................................................................................... 3-3
1
Chapter 1 - System Description
In this Chapter
Introduction, page 1-2
Command Channel and Control-Display-Unit (CDU) Ports, page 1-3
Alvarion Hardware, page 1-4
Chapter 1 - System Description
Introduction
Optimized for the Alvarion eMGW/MGW System, the GPS Receiver is a
complete, stand-alone, Global Positioning System (GPS) Time and
Frequency generator. It has been designed to provide a stable signal
source which possesses the long-term stability of a cesium clock, but at
a fraction of the cost.
This equipment provides an accurate Primary Reference Source (PRS)
for applications requiring absolute timing/frequency accuracy.
Developed with flexibility in mind, the GPS Receiver delivers precise
measurement and control of both Time and Frequency for
synchronizing the Alvarion eMGW/MGW System anywhere in the world,
without the need for calibration.
The GPS Receiver comprises a GPS receiver integrated with a stable
OCXO oscillator, within a unit designed for mounting in a standard 19
inch telecommunications rack system. A 50 meter coaxial cable
connects an active antenna to the GPS receiver.
The GPS Receiver Timing Receiver contains a GPS receiver, power
supply module, oscillator, and the basic output connections. LEDs on
the front panel display status information.
If the satellite signal is interrupted, the GPS Receiver enters a holdover
mode which typically maintains frequency to better than ±5x10-10 per
day. When the GPS signal is restored, the GPS Receiver automatically
reverts to normal operation mode.
The GPS Receiver is designed for automatic operation without the need
for user intervention. It can however, be accessed via a serial port for
configuration and debug purposes.
NOTE
It is essential to adhere to the specified power supply rating if serious damage to the
GPS Receiver is to be avoided.
GPS Timing Receiver Installation and Operation Manual
1-2
Command Channel and Control-Display-Unit (CDU) Ports
Command Channel and ControlDisplay-Unit (CDU) Ports
The Command Channel rear panel port enables any commercially
available PC (running Windows 95/98/NT/2000/XP and a terminal
display program) to initialize, customize, and control the unit. In
addition, the Control-Display-Unit (CDU) port connected to a PC and
using commercially available software allows the operator to interrogate
and display the many available parameters for tracking, and timing
applications.
It should be noted that it is not always necessary to have a PC
connected and running the software since the unit will retain all
settings, output selections, and almanacs in its internal memory. These
are ready to function at the next switch on, without further operator
intervention.
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Chapter 1 - System Description
Alvarion Hardware
GPS Receiver: Specification
The GPS Timing Receiver for the Alvarion eMGW/MGW System,
includes fittings and attachments for the majority of installations.
The GPS Receiver includes Motorola™ M12 technology forming its
receiver section, plus the latest in PLD technology to provide the signal
processing and digital support features.
Figure 1-1: Alvarion GPS Timing Receiver
The GPS Timing Receiver is a complete stand-alone system, designed to
operate in an internal environment requiring only power and GPS
antenna connections.
On the Timing Receiver, there is one R.F. antenna input, a 1PPS port
providing precise timing, one 2.048MHz frequency output, plus two
RS232 serial ports providing command/control functions. A Time of
Day channel also supplies time information.
The GPS Receiver is thermally designed to ensure operation in the
temperature range 0°C to +60°C, with a maximum temperature shock
rate of 10°C per hour when in holdover mode. A full technical
specification is given in Appendix A, page A-1.
Input Power
The GPS is operated from a nominal supply voltage of 48 volts DC (3672 volts). This power rating is printed on the casing, above the power
connector on the back of the GPS Timing Receiver.
GPS Timing Receiver Installation and Operation Manual
1-4
Alvarion Hardware
The positive and negative supply leads may be left floating or either one
may be connected to Ground (encompassing the -48V
telecommunications standard). We do not recommend connecting the
positive or the negative supply leads to ground. A safety ground must
be connected to the external case using the terminal provided (see
Figure 1-2).
An externally accessible fuse is provided on the rear panel. Normally,
field replacement of the fuse is neither required nor recommended.
Replace only with same type and rating, 250V, 2A, Time Lag.
The integrity of the GPS Receiver cannot be guaranteed if operated
outside design specification limits. The rise and fall times of the
power supply should be less than 1 second.
Output Specification
The following sections describe the individual outputs with illustrations
of the pulse shapes.
For a description of the individual PIN connections, see the.Cable and
Power Connections section from page 2-17.
Command Unit: rear panel
POWER
ANTENNA
GPS TIME & FREQUENCY
RECEIVER
1PPS
2.048MHz
COMMAND
CHANNEL
TIME OF DAY
CHANNEL
FUSE
2A
-48V
POWER LED
Figure 1-2: Output Connections
1PPS
This output (locked in phase with the 2.048MHz frequency output)
represents the 1 second pulse transmitted from the GPS satellites,
aligned to GPS time. All signals are square waves with TTL compatible
levels when driving a 50Ω load.
GPS Timing Receiver Installation and Operation Manual
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2A
Chapter 1 - System Description
1PPS Pulse Format
2.048 MHz
1PPS Pulse
488ns
1 second
New second
mark
New second
mark
Figure 1-3: 1PPS Pulse
2.048 MHz
This signal may be used as a synchronization interface. The pulse is a
continuous DC biased square wave with TTL compatible levels when
driving a 50Ω load.
V OH
V OL
488ns
V OH
≥ 2.4
Volts
V OL
≤ 0.8
Volts
Figure 1-4: 2.048 MHz Signal
Time of Day
This communication port utilizes an RS232 9-pin ‘D’ type female
connector. A full description of the output message is given on page 1-7.
GPS Timing Receiver Installation and Operation Manual
1-6
Alvarion Hardware
LEDs
A set of three function (or mode) indicators are located on the front
panel. These consist of colored LEDs configured to illuminate as
described in the Indicators section, page 3-2.
Input / Output Message Format
Three RS-232 communication interfaces are available from the GPS
Receiver, a time output port, a Command port, and a CDU port. The
Time of Day channel is a uni-directional output, with the PC
report/control port being bi-directional. The defaults are as follows;
Baud Rate
Parity
Stop Bits
Start bits
Data bits
9600
None
1
1
8
The GPS Receiver may be configured, and will report both status and
satellite conditions via the CDU port, utilizing an upgraded TSIP
protocol.
Time of Day Output
The RS-232 Time of Day port will output the following message once
every second. Messages will continue to be output during a loss of sync,
providing the output clocks are valid. The message is in ASCII, starting
more than 1 microsecond, and less than 5 milliseconds, from the
leading edge of the 1 PPS output.
Electrical Safety
This equipment has been designed and tested to meet the following
safety specifications:
EN 60950
UL 60950
GPS Timing Receiver Installation and Operation Manual
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2
Chapter 2 - Installation
In this Chapter:
Installation, page 2-2
Position Location, page 2-22
Chapter 2 - Installation
Installation
Installing a basic system will require the following:
Mounting of the antenna and the 2 lightning arrestors
Connecting a power supply to the GPS Receiver
Interconnecting the antenna, the 2 lightning arrestors, the GPS
Receiver, and a PC.
Connecting the Command Channel and CDU ports to a PC.
Installing the TSIP compatible Software to the PC.
Figure 2-1: Alvarion GPS Timing Receiver - Back
Antenna Mounting
The antenna supplied is of the active type, and is suitable for almost all
applications. It is supplied with a pre-attached, 1-meter RG58 cable,
terminated with a male TNC connector. Before commencing
installation, check that all the items detailed in the contents list have
been supplied. The antenna is supplied with two O-type mounting
clamps for attachment to a mounting pole. Figure 2-2 shows an
example of how this might be achieved.
When mounting the antenna, ensure the antenna has a clear view of
the horizon and is at least 2 meters away from transmission sources
which may interfere with reception. Avoid the direct path of any
microwave links. Using the C-MAP software and the GTU check that the
S/N ratio is at least 33.dB and that at least 4 satellites are in view with
this minimum S/N signal. If you do not get these results check another
antenna position.
GPS Timing Receiver Installation and Operation Manual
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Installation
Figure 2-2: Typical Antenna Mounting
CAUTION
DO NOT allow the pole or other surfaces to extend higher than the underside of the
antenna. Such a condition would impair signal reception.
The most important consideration in selecting a position for the
antenna is the presence of objects which obscure the sky or horizon.
Where possible, there should be no obstruction to a full view of the sky.
Overhead wires and other very narrow obstructions may be considered
as invisible to the signals, provided that they are a few meters away.
Large flat surfaces can decrease performance of the receiver.
GPS Timing Receiver Installation and Operation Manual
2-3
Chapter 2 - Installation
Be especially wary about mounting the antenna directly onto the fascia
of a flat roof. To overcome this situation, elevate the pole about 1 meter
above the flat surface.
A satellite prediction program may usefully be employed to check a
potential installation, and also to identify directions in which
obstructions may be a particular source of problems.
The antenna is connected to the GPS Receiver by a coaxial cable fitted
with TNC connectors at each end. Where possible, avoid exposing the
cable and connectors to weather and other environmental conditions.
To install the antenna:
1. Insert the antenna cable through the bracket and the tightening
pipe.
2. Fasten the tightening pipe to antenna.
3. Insert 2 U bolts through the mounting pole and connect to the
bracket.
4. Insert flat Washers & Spring Washers & Nuts and close.
NOTE
Except for very temporary periods, it is desirable that the antenna TNC connector
should be protected from the effects of weather. When connecting the cable to the
antenna, a smear of silicone grease (not supplied) will provide added protection.
The connector supplied is designed to be weather proof. It should not be
altered or refitted to another cable. Otherwise, the connection may not
be fully protected from a hostile environment, leading to operational
problems.
When the GPS Receiver is operational, the antenna assembly may be
disconnected for short periods (e.g. maintenance or repair) without
interruption to the unit outputs.
Lightning Protection Considerations
As the antenna is roof mounted (to have a clear view of the sky) it is
likely to be exposed to lightning strikes. Protection against this is
afforded by ensuring adequate grounding of the mountings as described
below.
GPS Timing Receiver Installation and Operation Manual
2-4
Installation
There is no way to provide 100% protection for electronic equipment
from direct strike damage. It is possible however, to reduce the
likelihood of damage from near strike induced fields by ensuring the
installation obeys some fundamental rules.
Lightning arrestors are not 100% efficient, a residual attenuated
electrical pulse being transmitted down the antenna cable, may still
contain sufficient energy to damage equipment within the building.
Therefore, a second lightning arrestor is required at the equipment end
of the cable, preferably where the antenna cable enters the building.
Basic Considerations:ENSURING THE MOUNTING BRACKET IS PROPERLY GROUNDED.
This must be achieved by employing a certified, low impedance
connection (a broad, flat lightning conductor strap of sufficient
thickness to provide adequate mechanical durability) able to carry
the thousands of amperes which may flow. Attaching the antenna
mounting clamp onto a pole which is correctly grounded is the
recommended method.
The second lightning arrestor should be mounted where the
antenna cable enters the building and properly grounded to earth
termination.
Implementation
In order to divert the lightening currents induced in the coax cable,
from entering the facilities, we recommend the use of Andrew grounding
kit (not supplied), to connect the shield of the coax to earth termination.
The recommended Andrew grounding kit (not supplied) definition is:
Type 223158 or equivalent.
Installation instructions are included in the grounding kit.
GPS Antenna - Installation Restriction
Case 1
In case that the GPS antenna is installed on location that can expose it
to direct lightning hit.
The installer should use a special accessories set (see Andrew
grounding kit) to ground the coax shield to the "Grounding Plate"
which should be located near the Cables Entrance of the shelter (this
instruction is additional to the regular protection that is recommended
to be used)
GPS Timing Receiver Installation and Operation Manual
2-5
Chapter 2 - Installation
Case 2
In case that the GPS antenna is not exposed to direct lightning hit it is
recommended to use the regular protection set on the antenna side and
at the indoor side.
Minimize the exposure of the antenna cable to electrically induced
fields. This is easily achieved by feeding the cable down the center
of the pole used to mount the bracket.
Ensure all conduits exposed to induced fields are of heavy gauge,
welded seam construction, and are properly grounded.
NEVER work on any part of the installation or cabling when there
are weather conditions that may result in lightning strikes or corona
discharge.
Protection against Lightning
During installation, it is essential to include a method of affording
protection from the effects of a lightning strike. The example described
in the following text enables a reasonable amount of predictability to the
outcome of a strike. Without such provision, the discharge current will
flow directly through the GPS Receiver installation, usually
destructively.
CAUTION
This provision of a low impedance path is mandatory.
In addition, it is imperative that the building is fitted with a suitable lightning conductor &
lightning rod.
At the Antenna
A proprietary Lightning Arrestor should be installed, of a type which
does not reduce GPS signal transfer. Install the lightning arrestor near
to the antenna (e.g. on the mounting pole), ensuring all connections
maintain electrical and environmental protection.
The GPS Receiver and other equipment in the receiver rack should be
protected from lightning using two co-axial gas discharge tube protectors
which should be connected close to the top of the antenna tower and at
the input bulkhead respectively.
It is also desirable to route the coaxial cable inside the pole if possible,
or alternatively, secure the coaxial cable securely to the pole. Avoid
sharp bends or angles in the routing of both the cable and the main
grounding connection.
GPS Timing Receiver Installation and Operation Manual
2-6
Installation
Having thereby passed a large proportion of the lightning discharge
current to earth, it is then necessary to make provision to deal with the
lesser current flows.
Figure 2-3: Typical Antenna Lightning Arrestor
GPS Timing Receiver Installation and Operation Manual
2-7
Chapter 2 - Installation
At the GPS Receiver Unit
After taking the precautions described previously in the antenna
installation, it should be understood that a destructive residual current
may still be present in the cable coming down from the antenna to the
GPS Receiver unit. A second lightning arrestor must be installed near
to the GPS Receiver to further dissipate any remaining lightning energy.
Where there is no access to the metal framework of the building, it is
absolutely imperative to erect a suitable lightning conductor. Failure
to do so is almost certain to result in destruction of the GPS Receiver in
the event of the antenna receiving a near lightning strike.
There are additional benefits when the GPS Receiver is mounted in a
telecommunications equipment cabinet. Such cabinets provide an
environment which affords additional protection when correctly
connected to the central earthing system of the building (main bus).
This earthing system may thereby prevent current flow between
equipment and cabinets.
When making the connection of the cabinet to the central earthing
system, ordinary round cable (of any diameter) is not an acceptable
choice and should be avoided. The preferred choice is a flat metallic
tape or ribbon of substantial width, but with a small thickness. A width
of 8cm (3 inch) is suggested, with a thickness of 1.5mm (1/16 inch).
Any compromise upon these recommended dimensions may
diminish the lightning protection.
Avoid sharp changes in direction when placing the conductor. At the
earth end use multiple connection points if at all possible. All
connections should incorporate as large an area of contact as possible.
This may be achieved by using large bolts, and washers of substantial
diameter.
A single earth stake of only about 0.7meters (2 feet) length is
insufficient, offering no real protection at all. The rod should penetrate
deep enough to reach permanently dampened earth or rock. Even then,
two such rods would offer significantly greater protection. All
connections should incorporate as large an area of contact as possible,
which is made more probable by the use of large bolts, and substantial
washers.
GPS Timing Receiver Installation and Operation Manual
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Installation
Figure 2-4: Example of Connections
GPS Timing Receiver Installation and Operation Manual
2-9
Chapter 2 - Installation
The Lightning Arrestor
The lightening arrestor kit contains 5 parts:
1. The Lightning Arrestor quantity 2.
2. Grounding cable.
3. 1 meter coax cable.
4. Bracket for mounting the lightning arrestor on the mast - see Figure
2-3.
5. N type to TNC Adaptor. – optional depending on lightning arrestor
connector type.
The lightning arrestor will be delivered in one of the following options
with TNC connectors or with N-Type connectors (as given in the picture
below).
Figure 2-5: Lightening Arrestor
CAUTION
DO NOT USE THE GPS RECEIVER WITHOUT LIGHTNING PROTECTION
INSTALLED
GPS Timing Receiver Installation and Operation Manual
2-10
Installation
Detailed Installation procedure
Installing the Surge Protection
Install the lightning arrestor on the mast as shown in Figure 2-3. Install
the Surge Protector device and the grounding cable on the backside of
the rack – as shown below. Tighten well using M8 screw.
Figure 2-6: Installation of Lightening Arrestor on Mast
Connecting the N-type to TNC adaptor
Connect the TNC to N-type adaptor (part of the kit) on the “surge” side –
if the lightning arrestor has N-type connectors. If not the cable should
be connected directly without any adaptor.
GPS Timing Receiver Installation and Operation Manual
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Chapter 2 - Installation
Figure 2-7: Connecting the TNC to N-type Adaptor
Connecting the Grounding Cable
Connect the other side of the grounding cable to a grounding source of
the rack.
NOTE
A good ground system is required for proper installation and operation. The lightning
arrestor is only as good at suppressing impulses as the electrical ground system that is
connected to the unit.
Connecting the “Equipment” side
Connect the 1 meter RF TNC-type side (cable from the kit) to the
Protector device – to the “Equipment” side (if the lightning arrestor has
N-type connectors use the N-type to TNC adaptor).
GPS Timing Receiver Installation and Operation Manual
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Installation
Figure 2-8: Connecting the RF TNC-type side to the “Equipment” side
GPS Timing Receiver Installation and Operation Manual
2-13
Chapter 2 - Installation
Connecting the Surge side
Connect the 50m coax cable from antenna to the Lightning Arrestor
device – to the Surge side (if the lightning arrestor has N-type
connectors use the TNC to N-type adaptor as described in Figure 2-9).
Figure 2-9: Connecting the Coax Cable to the Surge Side
GPS Timing Receiver Installation and Operation Manual
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Installation
Connection Diagram
19 inch Rack
RF cable
L=1m
To TNC RF connector
(rear)
GPS Receiver
Ring lug
Mounting screw
PROTECTOR
DGXZ+15TFTF-A
RF cable
To GPS antenna
Ground cable AWG8
L=3m
Ground Bus
Figure 2-10: Lightening Protector Connection Diagram
GPS Timing Receiver Installation and Operation Manual
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Chapter 2 - Installation
Mounting the GPS Receiver
The GPS Timing Receiver is designed for integral mounting within a
standard 19 inch telecommunications equipment cabinet.
Mounting in Equipment Cabinets
Two integral mounting flanges are provided on the ends of the front
panel of the unit. All cable connections are made at the rear of the
Timing Receiver. Refer to Figure 2-11.
Figure 2-11: Typical Mounting in Cabinet
It will not normally be necessary to install any cooling fans into the
cabinet containing the GPS Receiver. However, refer to the Technical
Specifications where installations are to be subjected to high ambient
temperatures.
GPS Timing Receiver Installation and Operation Manual
2-16
Installation
Cable and Power Connections
Electrical installation must only be carried out by suitably qualified
personnel. Particular attention should be given to protecting the site
from the damaging effects of lightning strikes (refer to the section on
Protection against Lightning on page 2-6).
The GPS Receiver requires a minimum of four connections to be made:
Chassis Earth
Antenna
Output (Timing/Frequency)
Power
Power supply voltage is to be a nominal 48Volts DC. Before commencing
electrical connection, reference should also be made to the technical
data (see Appendix 1). Power supplies and returns cables should be
secured to avoid accidental damage, and isolated from the chassis at all
times.
Ensure compatibility of power supply with the GPS Receiver being
installed. The integrity of the GPS Receiver cannot be guaranteed if
operated outside specified design limits.
Command Unit: rear panel
POWER
ANTENNA
GPS TIME & FREQUENCY
RECEIVER
1PPS
2.048MHz
COMMAND
CHANNEL
TIME OF DAY
CHANNEL
FUSE
2A
-48V
POWER LED
Figure 2-12: Cable Connections
Casing Ground Connection
The GPS Receiver is grounded (earthed) through a threaded stud which
is provided on the rear of the casing. Alternatively, this may be
repositioned to utilize one of the unused threaded insets (on the side of
the GPS Receiver casing), intended for the fitting of alternative
mounting flanges.
GPS Timing Receiver Installation and Operation Manual
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2A
Chapter 2 - Installation
CAUTION
Ensure the casing ground connection is the FIRST connection made to the unit, and
the LAST to be disconnected.
Interference problems will be minimized by effective and direct ground
connections. A screened data cable should be used and grounded at the
GPS Receiver connector end. When fitting the host connector, it is
desirable to connect both the screen and drain wires to a connector
having 360° connectivity (no tails). Any other solution degrades the
EMC performance. For details of power supply grounding, see Power
Connection, page 2-20.
Antenna Connection
After mounting the antenna (page 2-2), route the cable to the
connection on the GPS Receiver marked ‘ANTENNA’. Use the cable as
supplied by Alvarion , do not lengthen the antenna cable as this may
have an adverse effect on signal attenuation and overall system
performance. The cable as supplied also provides correct RF screening,
and protection from pulses inducted on the antenna cable by lightning
strikes.
Output (Timing/Frequency) Connection
The GPS Receiver makes a number of different outputs available for
user selection. Referring to Figure 2-12, these connectors are as
follows:J3 1PPS = 1 pulse per second 488ns wide pulse – active low
J4 2.048MHz = square wave
Command Channel to Alvarion eMGW/MGW System
The Command Channel Port is of a bi-directional RS232D type for
control and data interchange. Use the cable provided with the Alvarion
eMGW/MGW System to connect this port. The cable has one 9-pin
male connector to mate with the Command port of the GPS Receiver,
the other end has a 9-pin male connectors to mate with the CMD port of
the Alvarion eMGW/MGW System.
GPS Timing Receiver Installation and Operation Manual
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Installation
Table 2-1: J7 Pin Connection
J 7 Connector
PIN Connection, Function = Command Channel
(as viewed at the GPS Receiver connector)
Pin 1
not connected
Pin 2
TX - CMD
Pin 3
RX - CMD
Pin 4
DTR - CMD
Pin 5
Ground
Pin 6
DSR - CMD
Pin 7
TX - CDU
Pin 8
RX - CDU
Pin 9
Ground
CDU-PC Connection
These messages are of binary format. Users are unable to use a
terminal emulator program to control the GPS Receiver unit through the
CDU port. Special software supporting the TSIP protocol must be used
for this purpose.
When operating the GPS Receiver from a PC based Control-Display-Unit
using TSIP software, the cable link should be made with the RS232
ports, i.e. PC COM port to the GPS Receiver Command Channel port. A
special ’Y’ cable is required (NOT SUPPLIED) to connect both the
Command Channel and CDU ports simultaneously.
GPS Timing Receiver Installation and Operation Manual
2-19
Chapter 2 - Installation
Time of Day Connection
The Time of Day port outputs a message once every second. This output
is NOT user configurable.
Table 2-2: J8 Pin Connections
J 8 Connector
PIN Connection, Function = Time of Day
(as viewed at the GPS connector)
Pin 1
Not used
Pin 2
TX data
Pin 3
RX data
Pin 4
DTR
Pin 5
Ground
Pin 6
DSR
Pin 7
not used
Pin 8
not used
Pin 9
not used
Use the cable provided with the Alvarion eMGW/MGW System for
connection to the ‘TOD’ port. The port configuration is described in the
Input / Output Message Format section, page 1-7.
Ground Topography
The power supply input is floating.
Voltage inputs should be left floating with reference to ground
Earth ground MUST be connected to the external case with a screw
fitting (refer to Casing Ground Connection, page 2-17).
Power Connection
The appropriate power cable for the 3.4.8 Power Connection unit is
supplied with the system. During manufacture, this cable is fitted with
a Binder connector (4-pin female) matching the ‘POWER’ connection of
the GPS Receiver.
Details of the input voltage and relevant connections are given below:
48Volt nominal (36 to 72V) DC = 4-pin Binder input connector
GPS Timing Receiver Installation and Operation Manual
2-20
Installation
Table 2-3: J21 Pin Connections
J 21 Connector
4-PIN Connector, Function = Power
Cable Core color
(viewed at the GPS Receiver connector)
Pin 1
Not Connected
N/A
Pin 2
GND
White
Pin 3
Supply +
Red
Pin 4
Supply -
Black
For use on a negative supply connect ‘supply +’ to ground.
For use on a positive supply connect ‘supply -‘ to ground.
Figure 2-13: Female Power Connector (cable end view)
The maximum power dissipated, at warm-up, does not exceed 20Watts.
Power connection wiring should be as short as is practicable, and
not shared with heavy current or intermittent devices such as
motors, starters, etc.
GPS Timing Receiver Installation and Operation Manual
2-21
Chapter 2 - Installation
Position Location
When extracting data from the Global Positioning System, there are four
unknown variables which the GPS receiver must resolve: X position, Y
position, Z position, and time. Each of these variables has an effect on
the other. Therefore, before the GPS Receiver can produce an accurate
time output, it must first obtain valid data for the other three values.
Automatic Position Location
When the system is installed and powered for the first time, the GPS
Receiver will automatically proceed to obtain an accurate position fix
(unless it receives instructions to the contrary).
The position fix is performed with the knowledge that there is no user
motion. When the position is established, the solution is frozen in
positional terms and all measurements are diverted to time and
frequency states.
Automatic sequence:Search the sky to lock-on to satellites, and download almanac data
for all other remaining satellites.
Calculate a position, and perform checks to ensure the solution is
accurate.
Change the frequency of the oscillator so that it matches the timing
information received from the GPS satellites.
If position matches, enter time transfer mode with stored position. If
position does not match, enter averaging mode.
When the timing and frequency outputs are within specification,
enable the outputs, illuminate the Green LED.
Average the position data when an accurate position is determined,
Store this surveyed position in memory for future use.
This automatically derived position will be of sufficient accuracy to
enable output of a timing solution. Calculated position being within the
specifications of the GPS Receiver system, and of an accuracy superior
to most maps.
NOTE
Should the installation subsequently suffer an interruption to the power supply, the
Alvarion-GPS Receiver re-initializes itself utilizing the Surveyed Position
.
GPS Timing Receiver Installation and Operation Manual
2-22
Position Location
User Entered Position
In an attempt to expedite the surveying process, the GPS Receiver may
be given a position (e.g. entered manually). This user entered position
is used to determine which satellites are currently in view.
This can only occur when the GPS Receiver has acquired its first
satellite, the date and time can then be determined. Utilizing a user
entered position (and stored almanacs of the satellites), the satellites in
view can be calculated.
CAUTION
The accuracy of this user entered position must be to within 50m (or better) otherwise,
the GPS Receiver will reject the value and use its Computed Average Position value.
When in doubt, use the Survey Average.
GPS Timing Receiver Installation and Operation Manual
2-23
3
Chapter 3 - Operations
In this Chapter
Operation, page 3-2
Indicators, page 3-2
Command Channel Operation, page 3-3
Appendix A - Technical Data Symmetricom(PPGPS Receiver
Operation
The installation of the system is described in detail in Chapter 2 - of
this manual. A minimum requirement for operation of the GPS Receiver
being the connection of the antenna, the lightning arrestors plus the
grounding and power cables. Once powered, the GPS Receiver will
automatically start to work and commence the Position Location
sequence described on page 2-22.
Due to the need to warm up the oscillator, the equipment will need a
warm-up period of approximately 6 minutes (Red flashing). When the
oscillator has warmed up, the green LED starts to flash. Once frequency
is within specification, the Green LED will be permanently illuminated.
LED Indication
Mode
Red (flashing)
Warm-up
Green (flashing)
GPS but no-sync
Green (steady)
Normal Operation
The GPS Receiver will retain its configuration and last position fix in
memory when powered down, so that when switched on again, it will
recommence working without further intervention.
Indicators
A set of three function (or mode) indicators is located on the front panel.
These consist of colored LEDs configured to illuminate as follows:
RED
(flashing)
RED
Warm-up mode.
Alarm
indicates failed self-test, or timing out of
specification.
YELLOW
No GPS - Holdover Mode
indicates that the oscillator is not
synchronized to the GPS satellites.
GREEN
(flashing)
GPS - no sync.
frequency outputs NOT synchronized.
GREEN
Oscillator lock indicates that the oscillator is
locked to the GPS satellites frequency.
GPS Timing Receiver Installation and Operation Manual
3-2
Operation
Table 3-1: LED Display
Conditions
Yellow
(no GPS)
Green
(Osc. On)
Red
Alarm
Warm-up mode (~ 6
minutes from switch-on)
Off
Off
Flash
After warm up – outputs
but not valid
(Stabilization)
Off
Flash
Off
Normal operating mode
Off
On
Off
On
Off
Off
Recovery from
Flywheeling (stabilization)
Off
Flash
Off
GPS Receiver failed self
test
Off
Off
On
Firmware Update
Download Process
Flash
Flash
Off
No power
Off
Off
Off
Flywheeling (in spec. or
timed out)
NOTE
On switch-on, the front panel LEDs will flash in order, (i.e. RED followed by YELLOW
followed by GREEN).
Command Channel Operation
Control of the GPS Receiver is accomplished through the Command
Channel port, J7, on the rear panel. The Command Channel port
should be connected to the serial port of a PC running terminal
software.
GPS Timing Receiver Installation and Operation Manual
3-3
A
Appendix A - Technical Data
Symmetricom™ GPS Receiver
GPS Timing Receiver:
12 channel C/A code, L1 frequency.
Dimensions:
308mm W (12.14 inches) x 44.5 mm H
(1.75 inches) x 213mm D (8.4 inches).
Weight:
3 lb (1.4kg) approx.
Power Requirements:
Single power input.
Voltage: 48V nominal (36 to 72V).
Power Consumption:
12W @25°C (20W @ warm-up/cold
environments).
Antenna:
12VDC, Active type. (complies with ETS 300
019, Class 4.1 - non-weather protected
locations).
Performance Characteristics
Frequency Accuracy:
Stratum 1 / Level 1
-12
<1 x 10
when locked to GPS.
Appendix A - Technical Data Symmetricom(PPGPS Receiver
1PPS Output:
Locked
Time error < 100ns when locked to GPS signals.
Unlocked
Accumulated time error: <100µs accumulated in 24
hours of unlocked operation.
(Max 10°C / hour rate of change, between 0-60°C)
Pulse Width
488ns negative Amplitude TTL compatible into a 50Ω
load.
Holdover Stability 3µs/3 hours from loss of satellites.
10µs/5 hours from loss of satellites.
15µs/8 hours from loss of satellites.
100µs/24 hours from loss of satellites.
Holdover Return
<10µs error = no jump in 1pps.
>10µs error = jump in 1pps
The unit must be powered up for 3 days at least and locked to GPS for
12 hours prior to the holdover period.
2.048 MHz Output:
Output
2.048 MHz
Wave Shape
Square Wave.
Amplitude
TTL compatible into a 50Ω load.
Timing Receiver Connectors:
1PPS
GPS Antenna
Power Input
Time of Day
CMD/CDU
2.048 MHz Output
BNC - female, 50Ω nominal.
TNC - female.
4-way Binder - male.
RS-232 DB9S - female (DCE)
RS-232 DB9S - female (DCE)
BNC - female 50Ω
GPS Timing Receiver Installation and Operation Manual
A-2
Operation
Indicators:
LEDs
3 system status LEDs.
Environmental Conditions:
GPS Receiver
Complies with ETSI 300 019-2-3, Class 3.1
(partly temperature-controlled locations).
Operating temperature: 0°C to +60°C
Storage temperature: -25°C to +85°C
Humidity: 95% (Non-condensing)
Antenna
Complies with ETS 300 019-1-4, Class 4.1
(non-weather protected locations).
Operating temperature: -40°C to +70°C
Storage temperature: -55°C to +85°C
Humidity: 100% (Non-condensing)
Electromagnetic Compatibility
For maximum protection and flexibility of use, GPS Receiver complies
with the severest requirements of both ETS 300 386-1 (table 5) and ETS
300 386-2-2 (section 6.2).
This includes:
Emissions standard EN 55022 (Class B limits)
Immunity standard EN 61000-6-1.
CE marked to these standards.
FCC Part 15, sub-part B (Class B limits)
GPS Timing Receiver Installation and Operation Manual
A-3
Appendix A - Technical Data Symmetricom(PPGPS Receiver
Safety
GPS Receiver complies with the following specifications when powered
from a supply meeting SELV limits:
EN 60950
UL 60950
GPS Timing Receiver Installation and Operation Manual
A-4
B
Appendix B - EMC Emissions and
Immunity
The GPS Receiver system has been tested to the following standards
and specifications:
EN 61000-6-3
- CE marked to this standard
EN 55022 Class B
- CE marked to this standard
EN 61000-6-1
- CE marked to this standard
IEC 61000-4-2
IEC 61000-4-3
IEC 61000-4-4
The receiver is designed to have sufficiently low conducted interference
that the frame into which it is fitted will meet FCC Part 15, Sub-part B,
Class B (conducted emissions).
FCC Class B Notice.
This equipment has been tested and found to comply with the limits for
Class B digital device, pursuant to Part 15 of the FCC Rules. These
limits are designed to provide reasonable protection against harmful
interference when the equipment is operated in a residential
environment. This equipment generates, uses, and can radiate radio
frequency energy, and if not installed and used in accordance with the
instruction manual, may cause harmful interference to radio
communications.
Appendix B - EMC Emissions and Immunity
However, there is no guarantee that interference will not occur in a
particular installation. If this equipment does cause harmful
interference to radio or television reception, which can be determined by
turning the equipment off and on, the user is encouraged to try to
correct the interference by one or more of the following measures:
Reorient or relocate the receiving antenna.
Increase the separation between the equipment and receiver.
Connect equipment into an outlet on a different circuit from that to
which the receiver is connected.
Consult the dealer or an experienced radio/TV technician for help.
GPS Timing Receiver Installation and Operation Manual
B-2
C
Appendix C - Maintenance
Clean the instrument, use only mild soap solution.
Do not use high-pressure washing equipment
D
Appendix D - The Global Positioning
System (GPS)
The Global Positioning System (GPS) is a military satellite based system
developed by the U.S. Department of Defence (DoD) to provide global,
all-weather, precise navigation and timing capability to users 24 hours
a day.
Civilian use of GPS is made freely available at the users own risk, but is
subject to the prevailing DoD policy or limitations, and to an individuals
understanding of how to use the GPS.
However, current practice of the U.S. Department of Defence (DoD) is to
deliberately degrade signals from the constellation of GPS satellites. In
practice, this is achieved by applying errors in the form of Selective
Availability (SA). This intervention reduces the accuracy obtainable by
civilian users of the Standard Positioning Service (SPS).
1.5. DoD policy is to set the level of SA degradation to give a horizontal
accuracy of 100 meters (95% of the time). The DoD has discontinued
the application of SA.
In today’s satellite constellation there are a minimum of 24 operational
satellites (plus several operational spares) in 6 orbital planes, at an
altitude of about 22,000 km. Each satellite has an orbital period of
approximately 12 hours, with the position of the constellation repeating
every 24 hours. This geometry is such that it furnishes direct line-ofsight timing signals from at least four satellites (usually more).
Accordingly, the GPS system can deliver to a receiver station, accurate
3-D position, velocity, and time, anywhere on or near the earth’s
surface.
Tables
It is a combination of the Universal Co-ordinated Time (UTC) traceable
signal transmitted by the GPS satellites, used in conjunction with the
Symmetricom™ GPS Timing Receiver, which has enabled an extremely
accurate timing system to be developed.
GPS satellites transmit a code for timing purposes, in addition to a
‘Navigation message’ which includes their exact orbital location and
system integrity data. Receivers use this information, together with data
from their internal almanacs, to precisely establish the satellite location.
A receiver determines position by measuring the time taken for these
signals to arrive.
Signals from at least four satellites are required to resolve the
calculations for latitude, longitude, altitude, and time (GPS-3D).
Subsequent operation of the GPS Receiver in Time Transfer Mode (GPSTT) requires only the continued reception of signals from one satellite.
Precise Timing
In precise timing applications, the Symmetricom™ GPS timing receiver
system mediates the multiple GPS satellites available by using its own
GPS Timing Receiver, together with an ovenized oscillator. GPS Receiver
manages the received signal from each satellite in view and qualifies
their performance using the Receiver Autonomous Integrity Monitoring
(RAIM) algorithm. Accurate timing information is thereby provided, and
also UTC information for output via the Time Port.
The individual performance of each satellite being tracked is observed
and compared to all the others. Unacceptable performance data is
discarded and replaced by the ‘next best’, if one exists. Up to twelve
satellites can be tracked at any one time.
GPS Receiver Positioning and Navigation
The Symmetricom™ GPS Receiver needs to be able to see at least 4
satellite vehicles (SV’s) to obtain an accurate 3-D position fix.
The receivers antenna must have a clear view of the sky to acquire
satellite lock. Remember always, it is the location of the antenna which
will be given as the position fix. If the antenna is mounted on the roof of
a building, pole, or other structure, allowance for this must be made for
the antenna height above ground when using the solution.
GPS Timing Receiver Installation and Operation Manual
D-2
Tables
To measure the range from the satellite to the receiver, two criteria are
required: signal transmission time, and signal reception time. All GPS
satellites have several atomic clocks which keep precise time and these
are used to time-tag the message (i.e. code the transmission time onto
the signal) and to control the transmission sequence of the coded
signal. The receiver has an internal clock to precisely identify the arrival
time of the signal. Transit speed of the signal is a known constant (the
speed of light), therefore: time x speed of light = distance.
Once the receiver calculates the range to a satellite, it knows that it lies
somewhere on an imaginary sphere whose radius is equal to this range.
If a second satellite is then found, a second sphere can again be
calculated from this range information. The receiver will now know that
it lies somewhere on the circle of points produced where these two
spheres intersect.
When a third satellite is detected and a range determined, a third
sphere would intersect the area formed by the other two. This
intersection occurs at just two points. The correct point is apparent to
the user, who will at least have a very rough idea of position. A fourth
satellite is then used to synchronise the receiver clock to the satellite
clocks.
When the Symmetricom™ GPS Receiver has calculated a position
solution, the timing element (of this solution) is used to control the
ovenized crystal oscillator. The oscillator’s frequency is automatically
controlled to ensure synchronisation with GPS time. When this
synchronisation has been achieved, time and frequency outputs from
GPS Receiver are enabled.
Utilizing its considerable processing power, the Symmetricom™ GPS
Receiver rapidly updates these calculations from satellite data to
provide Timing and Frequency outputs.
Standard Positioning Service (SPS)
Civil users world-wide are able to use the SPS without restriction or
charge. Accuracy of the system is intentionally degraded by the DoD
through the application of Selective Availability (SA). This degradation
is achieved by the system deliberately broadcasting extra errors into the
satellite orbit information, and by ‘dithering’ the satellite clocks.
A predicted accuracy for the SPS has been published in the 1994
Federal Radionavigation Plan as:100 meter horizontal accuracy
156 meter vertical accuracy
340 nanosecond time accuracy
GPS Timing Receiver Installation and Operation Manual
D-3
Tables
The figures refer to 95% position fix accuracies, expressing the value of
two standard deviations of radial error from the actual antenna
position, this position being an estimate made under specified satellite
elevation angle and PDOP conditions.
Dilution Of Precision (DOP) is a measure of the satellite geometry, and
is an indicator of the potential quality of the solutions. The lower the
numerical value, the better the potential accuracy (for example, a PDOP
below 3 indicates good satellite geometry). For 3-D positioning,
fluctuations in DOP can be harmful to the solution, especially in
Kinematic/Dynamic modes.
The following DOP terms are computed by GPS receivers:
HDOP
Horizontal Dilution of Precision
(Latitude, Longitude)
VDOP
Vertical Dilution of Precision
(Height)
TDOP
Time Dilution of Precision
(Timing errors)
PDOP
Position Dilution of Precision
(3-D positioning)
GDOP
Geometric Dilution of Precision (3-D position & Time)
Estimated accuracy = DOP x measurement accuracy
While each of these terms can be individually computed, they are
formed from co-variances, and are not independent of each other. For
example, a Horizontal accuracy figure of 95% is the equivalent to 2RMS
(twice root-mean-square), or twice the standard deviation radial error.
Similarly, for vertical and time errors, a figure of 95% is the value of 2
standard-deviations of vertical or time error.
Root-mean-square (RMS) error is the value of one standard
deviation (67%) of error.
Circular Error Probability (CEP) is the value of the radius of a circle,
centred at a position containing 50% of the position estimates.
Spherical Error Probability (SEP) is the spherical equivalent of CEP,
which is centred at a position containing 50% of the position
estimates.
CEP and SEP are not affected by large errors which could make the
values an overly optimistic measurement. These probability statistics
are not suitable for use in a high accuracy positioning system. The GPS
Receiver reports all accuracies in the form of a standard deviation (RMS)
value
GPS Timing Receiver Installation and Operation Manual
D-4
Tables
Precise Positioning Service (PPS)
This service is only available to authorised users with cryptographic
equipment and special receivers. Access is limited to the U.S. and Allied
military, U.S. Government agencies, and selected civil users specifically
approved by the U.S. Government
Geodetic Datums
Geodetic datums, and the co-ordinate reference systems based upon
them, were developed to describe exact geographic positions for
surveying, mapping, and navigation.
Over a period of time, the "shape of the earth" was refined from flatearth models, to spherical models of sufficient accuracy to allow global
exploration, navigation, and mapping. True geodetic datums were
employed only after the late 1700s, when accurate measurement then
determined that the Earth was in reality, ellipsoidal in shape.
The default geodetic datum of the Global Positioning System is WGS 84
(World Geodetic System 1984).
Many countries have developed their own geodetic datums, which may
not match directly with other datums.
NOTE
It is vitally important to understand the danger of discrepancies between geodetic
datums. There may be differences of several hundreds of meters between different
datums. This is probably the largest cause of error and problems to users of precise
GPS equipment.
GPS Timing Receiver Installation and Operation Manual
D-5
E
Appendix E - Glossary
2D
Two-dimensional
3D
Three dimensional (i.e. including altitude)
AGC
Automatic Gain Control
Almanac
Data transmitted by each satellite, and which provides the
approximate orbital information of all the GPS satellites
constellation (i.e. a ‘timetable’).
Antenna
Also called ‘Aerial’, the device for receiving the radio signals.
ASCII
A standard digital format for alpha-numeric characters
(American Standard Code for Information Interchange).
Baud
Serial digital communication speed units (bits per second).
BIT
Built in Test
CDU
Control-Display Unit
CEP
Circular Error Probability
Channel
The satellite tracking unit of a GPS receiver. One may track
more than one satellite, by multiplexing, but for best
performance each satellite should be continuously tracked by
a dedicated channel so more than one channel is often
integrated into a receiver.
Tables
CMD
The Alvarion GPS unit’s Command Port.
CMOS
A type of semiconductor fabrication process (Complementary
Metal Oxide Semiconductor), resulting in low power. CMOS
devices require static protection during handling.
CNO
Carrier to Noise ratio (dBHz), a measure of signal quality.
COM Port
Communication port, e.g. PC serial communication ports
COM1 etc.
CONUS
Continental United States
CPU
Central Processing Unit (usually the microprocessor)
CTS
Clear to Send (serial communication handshaking)
Datum
The reference shape of the Earth’s surface used in the
construction of a map or chart. Usually chosen for a ‘best fit’
over the area of interest and thus the Datum for various parts
of the world may differ. Alvarion GPS supports WGS84.
Delta Range
Small changes in range between a satellite and the receiving
antenna.
DoD
American Department of Defence.
DOS
Disk Operating System.
DOP
A DOP (Dilution of Position) is a figure which represents the
purely geometrical contribution of the satellites’ positions to
the total position error budget. Low values of a DOP (1 - 5)
mean that the calculated position should be good whilst
higher DOP values indicate a greater uncertainty in the
determined position. Good DOP values are obtained when
satellites are well spaced geometrically, whilst poor values
result from available satellites all being visible in similar
directions. When the DOP value is excessive (e.g. > 100) then
neither standalone nor differential positions should be used.
DR
Dead Reckoning - a means of estimating present position
based on a known starting position updated by applying
distance and direction of the user’s movements.
GPS Timing Receiver Installation and Operation Manual
E-2
Tables
DSR
Data Set Ready (serial communication handshaking)
DTR
Data Terminal Ready (serial communication handshaking)
ECEF
Earth Centred Earth Fixed.
Ellipsoidal
Height
Height as defined from the Earth’s centre by a reference
ellipsoid model (see Datum)
EMI/EMS/EMC
Electromagnetic Interference (emitted from equipment),
Susceptibility (to interference from other equipment), and
Compatibility (EMI + EMS)
EPS
Emergency Power Supply, only for maintaining the RTC data
in the RAM when the equipment is powered down
ENU
East North Up (the order of listing co-ordinates)
Ephemeris
Similar to Almanac, but providing very accurate orbital data of
each individual satellite and transmitted by the satellite
concerned
Firmware
Term used for embedded software not easily upgraded by the
user (e.g. in EPROM not on disk)
GDOP
Geometrical Dilution of Precision
Geoid
The Mean Sea Level surface of the Earth
Geoid/
Difference between the Mean Sea Level and the mathematical
model used to define a datum, at the point of interest
Ellipsoid
separation
GMT
Greenwich Mean Time (similar to UTC)
GPS
Global Positioning System
GPS time
Time standard for the GPS system (seconds are synchronous
with UTC)
Hex
Denotes a number in hexadecimal format.
GPS Timing Receiver Installation and Operation Manual
E-3
Tables
HDOP
Horizontal Dilution of Precision.
IC
Integrated Circuit.
ICD
Interface Control Document
I/O
Input - Output
IODE
Issue of Data Ephemeris
IRQ
Interrupt Request
Kalman Filter
Mathematical process used to smooth out measurement
errors of pseudo-ranges and carrier phases of tracked
satellites. For example ‘8 states’ refers to filtering of position
and time (i.e. x,y,z and t) and the rate of change of each.
knot
Nautical mile per hour
L1
The 1575.42 MHz frequency radiated by GPS satellites.
L-band
The band of radio frequencies between 1 and 2 GHz
Lithium
A metallic element (used in batteries)
LMT
Local Mean Time
mA
Milliamp (of current)
Macro
Text containing frequently used operations which can be
executed as a single command (DM only)
MHz
Megahertz, i.e. one million cycles per second
mph
Miles per Hour.
MSL
Mean Sea Level = geoidal height = 0
MIL-STD
Military Standard
Multiplexing
A receiver channel can track multiple satellites by
switching rapidly between them so as to gather all data
transmissions
GPS Timing Receiver Installation and Operation Manual
E-4
Tables
NMEA
National Marine Electronics Association.
NMEA 0183
A serial communication standard defining hardware
compatibility, message formats, and a range of standard
messages.
OTF
ability to resolve integer carrier phase ambiguities in real-time
while moving.
n.mile
International Nautical Mile (1852 meters; 6076.1 feet, 1.15
statute miles).
ns, nSec
Nanosecond, one thousandth of a microsecond (i.e. 10second)
9
PC
Personal Computer (IBM compatible)
PCB
Printed circuit Board
P-code
The Precise (or Protected) GPS code - not available to civil
users.
PDOP
Position Dilution of Precision, including horizontal and vertical
components.
pps, PPS
Pulse per Second, and Precise Positioning Service
PRN
Pseudo-Random Noise code unique to each satellite’s message
and therefore used to identify each satellite.
Pseudo Range
The apparent measured ‘straight line’ distance from a satellite
to the receiving antenna at any instant in time, including any
errors caused by satellite clocks, receiver clocks, refraction of
the radio waves, etc.
PSU
Power Supply Unit
RAM
Random Access Memory
Real Numbers
Numbers which may have decimal point and fractional
component
Resolution
Smallest separation of two display elements
GPS Timing Receiver Installation and Operation Manual
E-5
Tables
RF
Radio frequency
RFI
Radio Frequency Interference
RMS
Root Mean Square
RS232
Serial communication hardware standard (+/- 12v nom.)
RS422
A serial communication hardware standard (differential)
RTCM
Radio Technical Committee for Maritime Services
RTC
Real-time Clock (maintaining approximate time when unit is
off)
RTS
Request to Send (serial communication handshaking)
RXD
Receive Data (serial communication to Data Terminal or ‘DTE’
from Data Communication Equipment or DCE’)
S/A
Selective Availability -imposed by the DoD to limit the GPS
performance available to civil users.
SEP
Spherical Error Probability
SMA
Miniature threaded coaxial connector.
SPS
Standard precision Service
SSR
Solid State Recorder
SV
Satellite Vehicle
TNC
A standard threaded coaxial connector
TSPI
Time Space Position Information
TTL
Transistor-transistor Logic (family of digital electronic
components)
TTFF
Time to First Fix
GPS Timing Receiver Installation and Operation Manual
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Tables
TXD
Transmit Data (serial communication from Data Terminal or
‘DTE’ to Data Communication Equipment or ‘DCE’)
us, uSec
Microsecond (u is frequently used for the Greek µ
symbol denoting ‘micro’, one millionth part, 10-6)
UTC
Coordinated Universal Time
UTM
Universal Transverse Mercator
UART
Universal Asynchronous Receiver-transmitter (used in serial
communications)
VDOP
Vertical Dilution of Precision
WGS
World Geodetic System (a world-wide Datum, GPS works in
WGS84 which has superseded WGS72)
GPS Timing Receiver Installation and Operation Manual
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