Well Traveled Living 60255 Installation manual

Relion® 650 series
Generator protection REG650 ANSI
Commissioning Manual
Document ID: 1MRK 502 049-UUS
Issued: March 2013
Revision: Product version: 1.3
© Copyright 2013 ABB. All rights reserved
Copyright
This document and parts thereof must not be reproduced or copied without written
permission from ABB, and the contents thereof must not be imparted to a third party,
nor used for any unauthorized purpose.
The software and hardware described in this document is furnished under a license and
may be used or disclosed only in accordance with the terms of such license.
This product includes software developed by the OpenSSL Project for use in the
OpenSSL Toolkit. (http://www.openssl.org/)
This product includes cryptographic software written/developed by: Eric Young
(eay@cryptsoft.com) and Tim Hudson (tjh@cryptsoft.com).
Trademarks
ABB and Relion are registered trademarks of the ABB Group. All other brand or
product names mentioned in this document may be trademarks or registered
trademarks of their respective holders.
Warranty
Please inquire about the terms of warranty from your nearest ABB representative.
ABB Inc.
1021 Main Campus Drive
Raleigh, NC 27606, USA
Toll Free: 1-800-HELP-365, menu option #8
ABB Inc.
3450 Harvester Road
Burlington, ON L7N 3W5, Canada
Toll Free: 1-800-HELP-365, menu option #8
ABB Mexico S.A. de C.V.
Paseo de las Americas No. 31 Lomas Verdes 3a secc.
53125, Naucalpan, Estado De Mexico, MEXICO
Phone: (+1) 440-585-7804, menu option #8
Conformity
This product complies with the directive of the Council of the European Communities
on the approximation of the laws of the Member States relating to electromagnetic
compatibility (EMC Directive 2004/108/EC) and concerning electrical equipment for
use within specified voltage limits (Low-voltage directive 2006/95/EC). This
conformity is the result of tests conducted by ABB in accordance with the product
standards EN 50263 and EN 60255-26 for the EMC directive, and with the product
standards EN 60255-1 and EN 60255-27 for the low voltage directive. The product is
designed in accordance with the international standards of the IEC 60255 series and
ANSI C37.90.
Disclaimer
The data, examples and diagrams in this manual are included solely for the concept or
product description and are not to be deemed as a statement of guaranteed properties.
All persons responsible for applying the equipment addressed in this manual must
satisfy themselves that each intended application is suitable and acceptable, including
that any applicable safety or other operational requirements are complied with. In
particular, any risks in applications where a system failure and/or product failure would
create a risk for harm to property or persons (including but not limited to personal
injuries or death) shall be the sole responsibility of the person or entity applying the
equipment, and those so responsible are hereby requested to ensure that all measures
are taken to exclude or mitigate such risks.
This document has been carefully checked by ABB but deviations cannot be
completely ruled out. In case any errors are detected, the reader is kindly requested to
notify the manufacturer. Other than under explicit contractual commitments, in no
event shall ABB be responsible or liable for any loss or damage resulting from the use
of this manual or the application of the equipment.
Safety information
Dangerous voltages can occur on the connectors, even though the
auxiliary voltage has been disconnected.
Non-observance can result in death, personal injury or substantial
property damage.
Only a competent electrician is allowed to carry out the electrical
installation.
National and local electrical safety regulations must always be followed.
The frame of the IED has to be carefully grounded.
Whenever changes are made in the IED, measures should be taken to
avoid inadvertent tripping.
The IED contains components which are sensitive to electrostatic
discharge. ESD precautions shall always be observed prior to touching
components.
Table of contents
Table of contents
Section 1
Introduction............................................................................7
This manual..............................................................................................7
Intended audience....................................................................................7
Product documentation.............................................................................8
Product documentation set..................................................................8
Document revision history...................................................................9
Related documents..............................................................................9
Symbols and conventions.......................................................................10
Symbols.............................................................................................10
Document conventions......................................................................11
Section 2
Available functions..............................................................13
Main protection functions........................................................................13
Back-up protection functions..................................................................14
Control and monitoring functions............................................................15
Station communication...........................................................................18
Basic IED functions.................................................................................20
Section 3
Starting up...........................................................................21
Factory and site acceptance testing.......................................................21
Commissioning checklist........................................................................21
Checking the power supply.....................................................................22
Energizing the IED..................................................................................22
Checking the IED operation...............................................................22
IED start-up sequence.......................................................................22
Setting up communication between PCM600 and the IED.....................23
Writing an application configuration to the IED.......................................28
Checking CT circuits...............................................................................28
Checking VT circuits...............................................................................29
Using the RTXP test switch....................................................................30
Checking binary input and output circuits...............................................31
Binary input circuits............................................................................31
Binary output circuits.........................................................................31
Checking optical connections.................................................................31
Section 4
Establishing connection and verifying the IEC 61850
station communication.........................................................33
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Commissioning Manual
Table of contents
Setting the station communication..........................................................33
Verifying the station communication.......................................................33
Section 5
Testing IED operation..........................................................35
Preparing the IED to verify settings........................................................35
Activating the test mode.........................................................................37
Preparing the connection to the test equipment.....................................37
Connecting the test equipment to the IED..............................................38
Releasing the function to be tested........................................................39
Verifying analog primary and secondary measurement.........................40
Testing the protection functionality.........................................................41
Section 6
Testing functionality.............................................................43
Testing disturbance report......................................................................43
Introduction........................................................................................43
Disturbance report settings................................................................43
Identifying the function to test in the technical reference manual ..........43
Testing differential protection functions..................................................44
Transformer differential protection T3WPDIF (87T)(87T)..................44
Verifying the settings....................................................................44
Completing the test.......................................................................45
Restricted earth-fault protection, low impedance REFPDIF
(87N)..................................................................................................45
Verifying the settings....................................................................45
Completing the test.......................................................................46
High impedance differential protection HZPDIF (87).........................46
Verifying the settings....................................................................46
Completing the test.......................................................................47
Generator differential protection GENPDIF (87G).............................47
Verifying the settings....................................................................48
Completing the test.......................................................................48
Testing impedance protection functions.................................................49
Power swing detection ZMRPSB (68)...............................................49
Verifying the settings....................................................................50
Testing the power swing detection function ZMRPSB (68)..........51
Testing the tR1 timer....................................................................51
Testing the block input, interaction between FDPSPDIS (21)
and ZMRPSB (78)........................................................................52
Completing the test.......................................................................52
Underimpedance protection for generators and transformers
ZGCPDIS (21G).................................................................................52
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Commissioning Manual
Table of contents
Distance protection zones ZGCPDIS (21G).................................53
Phase-to-phase faults...................................................................54
Loss of excitation LEXPDIS (40).......................................................55
Verifying the settings....................................................................55
Completing the test.......................................................................56
Out-of-step OOSPPAM (78)..............................................................57
Verifying the settings....................................................................57
Load encroachment LEPDIS ............................................................60
Measuring the operate limit of set values.....................................61
Completing the test.......................................................................61
Testing current protection functions........................................................61
Four step phase overcurrent protection 3-phase output
OC4PTOC (51_67)............................................................................61
Verifying the settings....................................................................62
Completing the test.......................................................................63
Four step residual overcurrent protection, zero or negative
sequence direction EF4PTOC (51N/67N).........................................63
Four step directional residual overcurrent protection ..................63
Four step non-directional residual overcurrent protection............64
Completing the test.......................................................................64
Sensitive directional residual overcurrent and power protection
SDEPSDE (67N)................................................................................64
Measuring the operate and time limit for set values.....................64
Completing the test.......................................................................70
Thermal overload protection, two time constants TRPTTR (49).......70
Checking operate and reset values..............................................70
Completing the test.......................................................................71
Breaker failure protection, phase segregated activation and
output CCRBRF (50BF).....................................................................71
Checking the phase current operate value, Pickup_PH...............72
Checking the residual (ground fault) current operate value
Pickup_N set below Pickup_PH....................................................72
Checking the re-trip and back-up times........................................73
Verifying the re-trip mode.............................................................73
Verifying the back-up trip mode....................................................74
Verifying the case RetripMode = Contact.....................................75
Verifying the function mode Current&Contact..............................75
Completing the test.......................................................................76
Pole discrepancy protection CCRPLD (52PD)..................................76
Verifying the settings....................................................................76
Completing the test.......................................................................77
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Commissioning Manual
Table of contents
Directional underpower protection GUPPDUP (37)...........................77
Verifying the settings....................................................................77
Completing the test.......................................................................79
Directional overpower protection GOPPDOP (32)............................79
Verifying the settings....................................................................80
Completing the test.......................................................................80
Accidental energizing protection for synchronous generator
AEGGAPC (50AE).............................................................................81
Verifying the settings....................................................................81
Negative-sequence time overcurrent protection for machines
NS2PTOC (46I2)...............................................................................81
Verifying settings by secondary injection......................................82
Voltage-restrained time overcurrent protection VRPVOC(51V)........83
Verifying the settings....................................................................84
Completing the test.......................................................................85
Testing voltage protection functions.......................................................85
Two step undervoltage protection UV2PTUV (27)............................85
Verifying the setting......................................................................85
Completing the test.......................................................................86
Two step overvoltage protection OV2PTOV (59)..............................87
Verification of single-phase voltage and time delay to
operate for Step 1.........................................................................87
Completing the test.......................................................................88
Two step residual overvoltage protection ROV2PTOV (59N)...........88
Verifying the settings....................................................................89
Completing the test.......................................................................89
Overexcitation protection OEXPVPH (24).........................................90
Verifying the settings....................................................................90
Completing the test.......................................................................90
100% Stator ground fault protection, 3rd harmonic based
STEFPHIZ (59THD)...........................................................................91
Testing..........................................................................................91
Verifying settings..........................................................................92
Completing the test.......................................................................93
Testing frequency protection functions...................................................94
Underfrequency protection SAPTUF (81)..........................................94
Verifying the settings....................................................................94
Completing the test.......................................................................95
Overfrequency protection SAPTOF (81)...........................................95
Verifying the settings....................................................................95
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Commissioning Manual
Table of contents
Completing the test.......................................................................96
Rate-of-change frequency protection SAPFRC (81).........................96
Verifying the settings....................................................................97
Completing the test.......................................................................97
Testing secondary system supervision functions...................................97
Fuse failure supervision SDDRFUF...................................................97
Checking that the binary inputs and outputs operate as
expected ......................................................................................98
Measuring the operate value for the negative sequence
function ........................................................................................99
Measuring the operate value for the zero-sequence
function ........................................................................................99
Checking the operation of the dv/dt and di/dt based
function ......................................................................................100
Completing the test.....................................................................101
Testing control functions.......................................................................101
Synchrocheck, energizing check, and synchronizing SESRSYN
(25)..................................................................................................102
Testing the synchronizing function.............................................104
Testing the synchrocheck check................................................105
Testing the energizing check......................................................109
Testing the voltage selection......................................................110
Completing the test.....................................................................111
Interlocking......................................................................................111
Apparatus control APC....................................................................111
Testing logic functions..........................................................................112
Tripping logic, common 3-phase output SMPPTRC (94)................112
Three-phase operating mode.....................................................112
Circuit breaker lockout................................................................112
Completing the test.....................................................................113
Testing monitoring functions.................................................................113
Event counter CNTGGIO.................................................................113
Limit counter L4UFCNT...................................................................113
Completing the test.....................................................................114
Testing metering functions....................................................................114
Pulse counter PCGGIO...................................................................114
Testing station communication.............................................................114
Establishing connection and verifying the IEC 61850
communication................................................................................114
Overview.....................................................................................114
Setting the station communication..............................................115
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Commissioning Manual
Table of contents
Verifying the station communication...........................................116
Exit test mode.......................................................................................116
Section 7
Commissioning and maintenance of the fault
clearing system.................................................................117
Commissioning and maintenance of the fault clearing system.............117
Commissioning tests........................................................................117
Periodic maintenance tests.............................................................117
Visual inspection.........................................................................118
Maintenance tests......................................................................118
Section 8
Troubleshooting ................................................................123
Fault tracing..........................................................................................123
Identifying hardware errors..............................................................123
Identifying runtime errors.................................................................123
Identifying communication errors.....................................................123
Checking the communication link operation...............................124
Checking the time synchronization.............................................124
Running the display test..................................................................124
Indication messages.............................................................................125
Internal faults...................................................................................125
Warnings..........................................................................................126
Additional indications.......................................................................126
Correction procedures..........................................................................127
Changing and setting the password................................................127
Identifying IED application problems...............................................127
Inspecting the wiring...................................................................127
Section 9
Glossary............................................................................133
6
Commissioning Manual
Section 1
Introduction
1MRK 502 049-UUS -
Section 1
Introduction
1.1
This manual
The commissioning manual contains instructions on how to commission the IED. The
manual can also be used by system engineers and maintenance personnel for assistance
during the testing phase. The manual provides procedures for the checking of external
circuitry and energizing the IED, parameter setting and configuration as well as
verifying settings by secondary injection. The manual describes the process of testing
an IED in a substation which is not in service. The chapters are organized in the
chronological order in which the IED should be commissioned. The relevant
procedures may be followed also during the service and maintenance activities.
1.2
Intended audience
This manual addresses the personnel responsible for commissioning, maintenance and
taking the IED in and out of normal service.
The commissioning personnel must have a basic knowledge of handling electronic
equipment. The commissioning and maintenance personnel must be well experienced
in using protection equipment, test equipment, protection functions and the configured
functional logics in the IED.
7
Commissioning Manual
Section 1
Introduction
Decommissioning
Deinstalling & disposal
Maintenance
Operation
Product documentation set
Commissioning
1.3.1
Engineering
Product documentation
Planning & purchase
1.3
Installing
1MRK 502 049-UUS -
Engineering manual
Installation manual
Commissioning manual
Operation manual
Application manual
Technical manual
Communication
protocol manual
IEC07000220-3-en.vsd
IEC07000220 V3 EN
Figure 1:
The intended use of manuals throughout the product lifecycle
The engineering manual contains instructions on how to engineer the IEDs using the
various tools available within the PCM600 software. The manual provides instructions
on how to set up a PCM600 project and insert IEDs to the project structure. The
manual also recommends a sequence for the engineering of protection and control
functions, LHMI functions as well as communication engineering for IEC
60870-5-103, IEC 61850 and DNP 3.0.
The installation manual contains instructions on how to install the IED. The manual
provides procedures for mechanical and electrical installation. The chapters are
organized in the chronological order in which the IED should be installed.
The commissioning manual contains instructions on how to commission the IED. The
manual can also be used by system engineers and maintenance personnel for assistance
8
Commissioning Manual
Section 1
Introduction
1MRK 502 049-UUS -
during the testing phase. The manual provides procedures for the checking of external
circuitry and energizing the IED, parameter setting and configuration as well as
verifying settings by secondary injection. The manual describes the process of testing
an IED in a substation which is not in service. The chapters are organized in the
chronological order in which the IED should be commissioned. The relevant
procedures may be followed also during the service and maintenance activities.
The operation manual contains instructions on how to operate the IED once it has been
commissioned. The manual provides instructions for the monitoring, controlling and
setting of the IED. The manual also describes how to identify disturbances and how to
view calculated and measured power grid data to determine the cause of a fault.
The application manual contains application descriptions and setting guidelines sorted
per function. The manual can be used to find out when and for what purpose a typical
protection function can be used. The manual can also provides assistance for
calculating settings.
The technical manual contains application and functionality descriptions and lists
function blocks, logic diagrams, input and output signals, setting parameters and
technical data, sorted per function. The manual can be used as a technical reference
during the engineering phase, installation and commissioning phase, and during normal
service.
The communication protocol manual describes the communication protocols supported
by the IED. The manual concentrates on the vendor-specific implementations.
The point list manual describes the outlook and properties of the data points specific to
the IED. The manual should be used in conjunction with the corresponding
communication protocol manual.
1.3.2
Document revision history
Document revision/date
-/March 2013
1.3.3
History
First release
Related documents
Documents related to REG650
Identity number
Application manual
1MRK 502 047-UUS
Technical manual
1MRK 502 048-UUS
Commissioning manual
1MRK 502 049-UUS
Product Guide
1MRK 502 050-BUS
Table continues on next page
9
Commissioning Manual
Section 1
Introduction
1MRK 502 049-UUS -
Documents related to REG650
Identity number
Type test certificate
1MRK 502 050-TUS
Rotor Ground Fault Protection with Injection Unit RXTTE4 and REG670
1MRG001910
Application notes for Circuit Breaker Control
1MRG006806
650 series manuals
Identity number
Communication protocol manual, DNP 3.0
1MRK 511 280-UUS
Communication protocol manual, IEC 61850–8–1
1MRK 511 281-UUS
Communication protocol manual, IEC 60870-5-103
1MRK 511 282-UUS
Cyber Security deployment guidelines
1MRK 511 285-UUS
Point list manual, DNP 3.0
1MRK 511 283-UUS
Engineering manual
1MRK 511 284-UUS
Operation manual
1MRK 500 096-UUS
Installation manual
1MRK 514 016-UUS
Accessories, 650 series
MICS
1MRG 010 656
PICS
1MRG 010 660
PIXIT
1MRG 010 658
1.4
Symbols and conventions
1.4.1
Symbols
The electrical warning icon indicates the presence of a hazard which
could result in electrical shock.
The warning icon indicates the presence of a hazard which could result
in personal injury.
The caution icon indicates important information or warning related to
the concept discussed in the text. It might indicate the presence of a
hazard which could result in corruption of software or damage to
equipment or property.
10
Commissioning Manual
Section 1
Introduction
1MRK 502 049-UUS -
The information icon alerts the reader of important facts and conditions.
The tip icon indicates advice on, for example, how to design your
project or how to use a certain function.
Although warning hazards are related to personal injury, it is necessary to understand
that under certain operational conditions, operation of damaged equipment may result
in degraded process performance leading to personal injury or death. It is important
that the user fully complies with all warning and cautionary notices.
1.4.2
Document conventions
•
•
•
•
•
•
Abbreviations and acronyms in this manual are spelled out in the glossary. The
glossary also contains definitions of important terms.
Push button navigation in the LHMI menu structure is presented by using the push
button icons.
For example, to navigate between the options, use
and
.
HMI menu paths are presented in bold.
For example, select Main menu/Settings.
LHMI messages are shown in Courier font.
For example, to save the changes in non-volatile memory, select Yes and press
.
Parameter names are shown in italics.
For example, the function can be enabled and disabled with the Operation setting.
Each function block symbol shows the available input/output signal.
•
•
•
the character ^ in front of an input/output signal name indicates that the
signal name may be customized using the PCM600 software.
the character * after an input/output signal name indicates that the signal
must be connected to another function block in the application configuration
to achieve a valid application configuration.
Dimensions are provided both in inches and mm. If it is not specifically mentioned
then the dimension is in mm.
11
Commissioning Manual
12
Section 2
Available functions
1MRK 502 049-UUS -
Section 2
Available functions
Note that not all functions included in the tables below have
commissioning information available.
Function description
Generator
REG650 (B05A)
Gen+Trafo diff
ANSI
REG650
IEC 61850 or
Function name
Main protection functions
REG650 (B01A)
Gen diff
2.1
Differential protection
T3WPDIF
87T
Transformer differential protection, three winding
0–1
REFPDIF
87N
Restricted earth fault protection, low impedance
0–1
1
HZPDIF
87
1Ph High impedance differential protection
0–1
1
GENPDIF
87G
Generator differential protection
0–1
1
1
Impedance protection
ZMRPSB
68
Power swing detection
0–1
ZGCPDIS
21G
Underimpedance protection for generators and transformers
0–1
1
1
LEXPDIS
40
Loss of excitation
0–1
1
1
OOSPPAM
78
Out-of-step protection
0–1
1
1
Load encroachment
0–1
1
1
LEPDIS
13
Commissioning Manual
Section 2
Available functions
Function description
Generator
REG650 (B05A)
Gen+Trafo diff
ANSI
REG650
IEC 61850 or
Function name
Back-up protection functions
REG650 (B01A)
Gen diff
2.2
1MRK 502 049-UUS -
Current protection
EF4PTOC
51N/67N
Four step residual overcurrent protection, zero/negative
sequence direction
0–2
2
2
SDEPSDE
67N
Sensitive directional residual overcurrent and power protection
0–1
1
1
TRPTTR
49
Thermal overload protection, two time constants
0–2
2
2
CCRBRF
50BF
Breaker failure protection, 3–phase activation and output
0–1
1
1
CCRPLD
52PD
Pole discordance protection
0–1
1
1
GUPPDUP
37
Directional underpower protection
0–1
1
1
GOPPDOP
32
Directional overpower protection
0–2
2
2
AEGGAPC
50AE
Accidental energizing protection for synchronous generator
1
1
1
NS2PTOC
46I2
Negative-sequence time overcurrent protection for machines
1
1
1
VRPVOC
51V
Voltage-restrained time overcurrent protection
1
1
1
Voltage protection
UV2PTUV
27
Two step undervoltage protection
0–1
1
1
OV2PTOV
59
Two step overvoltage protection
0–1
1
1
ROV2PTOV
59N
Two step residual overvoltage protection
0–2
2
2
OEXPVPH
24
Overexcitation protection
0–1
1
1
STEFPHIZ
59THD
100% Stator earth fault protection, 3rd harmonic based
0–1
1
1
Frequency protection
SAPTUF
81
Underfrequency function
0–4
4
4
SAPTOF
81
Overfrequency function
0–4
4
4
SAPFRC
81
Rate-of-change frequency protection
0–2
2
2
14
Commissioning Manual
Section 2
Available functions
1MRK 502 049-UUS -
Control and monitoring functions
Generator
REG650 (B05A)
Gen+Trafo diff
Function description
REG650
IEC 61850 or Function ANSI
name
REG650 (B01A)
Gen diff
2.3
Control
SESRSYN
25
Synchrocheck, energizing check, and synchronizing
0–1
1
1
SLGGIO
Logic Rotating Switch for function selection and LHMI
presentation
15
15
15
VSGGIO
Selector mini switch
20
20
20
DPGGIO
IEC 61850 generic communication I/O functions double
point
16
16
16
SPC8GGIO
Single point generic control 8 signals
5
5
5
AUTOBITS
AutomationBits, command function for DNP3.0
3
3
3
I103CMD
Function commands for IEC60870-5-103
1
1
1
I103IEDCMD
IED commands for IEC60870-5-103
1
1
1
I103USRCMD
Function commands user defined for IEC60870-5-103
4
4
4
I103GENCMD
Function commands generic for IEC60870-5-103
50
50
50
I103POSCMD
IED commands with position and select for IEC60870-5-103
50
50
50
Apparatus control and Interlocking
APC8
Apparatus control for single bay, max 8 app. (1CB) incl.
interlocking
SCILO
3
Logical node for interlocking
BB_ES
3
Interlocking for busbar earthing switch
A1A2_BS
3
Interlocking for bus-section breaker
A1A2_DC
3
Interlocking for bus-section disconnector
ABC_BC
3
Interlocking for bus-coupler bay
BH_CONN
3
Interlocking for 1 1/2 breaker diameter
BH_LINE_A
3
Interlocking for 1 1/2 breaker diameter
BH_LINE_B
3
Interlocking for 1 1/2 breaker diameter
DB_BUS_A
3
Interlocking for double CB bay
DB_BUS_B
3
Interlocking for double CB bay
DB_LINE
3
Interlocking for double CB bay
ABC_LINE
3
Interlocking for line bay
AB_TRAFO
3
Interlocking for transformer bay
0–1
Table continues on next page
15
Commissioning Manual
Section 2
Available functions
REG650 (B05A)
Gen+Trafo diff
Generator
REG650 (B01A)
Gen diff
Function description
REG650
IEC 61850 or Function ANSI
name
1MRK 502 049-UUS -
SCSWI
Switch controller
QCBAY
Bay control
1
1
1
LOCREM
Handling of LR-switch positions
1
1
1
LOCREMCTRL
LHMI control of Permitted Source To Operate (PSTO)
1
1
1
CBC1
Circuit breaker control for 1CB
0–1
1
CBC2
Circuit breaker control for 2CB
0–1
SDDRFUF
Fuse failure supervision
0–1
1
1
TCSSCBR
Breaker close/trip circuit monitoring
3
3
3
Tripping logic, common 3–phase output
1–6
6
6
TMAGGIO
Trip matrix logic
12
12
12
OR
Configurable logic blocks
283
283
283
INVERTER
Configurable logic blocks
140
140
140
PULSETIMER
Configurable logic blocks
40
40
40
GATE
Configurable logic blocks
40
40
40
XOR
Configurable logic blocks
40
40
40
LOOPDELAY
Configurable logic blocks
40
40
40
TIMERSET
Configurable logic blocks
40
40
40
AND
Configurable logic blocks
280
280
280
SRMEMORY
Configurable logic blocks
40
40
40
RSMEMORY
Configurable logic blocks
40
40
40
Q/T
Configurable logic blocks Q/T
0–1
ANDQT
Configurable logic blocks Q/T
120
ORQT
Configurable logic blocks Q/T
120
INVERTERQT
Configurable logic blocks Q/T
120
XORQT
Configurable logic blocks Q/T
40
SRMEMORYQT
Configurable logic blocks Q/T
40
RSMEMORYQT
Configurable logic blocks Q/T
40
TIMERSETQT
Configurable logic blocks Q/T
40
PULSETIMERQT
Configurable logic blocks Q/T
40
INVALIDQT
Configurable logic blocks Q/T
12
1
Secondary system supervision
Logic
SMPPTRC
94
Table continues on next page
16
Commissioning Manual
Section 2
Available functions
1MRK 502 049-UUS -
REG650 (B05A)
Gen+Trafo diff
Generator
REG650 (B01A)
Gen diff
Function description
REG650
IEC 61850 or Function ANSI
name
INDCOMBSPQT
Configurable logic blocks Q/T
20
INDEXTSPQT
Configurable logic blocks Q/T
20
FXDSIGN
Fixed signal function block
1
1
1
B16I
Boolean 16 to Integer conversion
16
16
16
B16IFCVI
Boolean 16 to Integer conversion with logic node
representation
16
16
16
IB16A
Integer to Boolean 16 conversion
16
16
16
IB16FCVB
Integer to Boolean 16 conversion with logic node
representation
16
16
16
TEIGGIO
Elapsed time integrator with limit transgression and
overflow supervision
12
12
12
CVMMXN
Measurements
6
6
6
CMMXU
Phase current measurement
10
10
10
VMMXU
Phase-phase voltage measurement
6
6
6
CMSQI
Current sequence component measurement
6
6
6
VMSQI
Voltage sequence measurement
6
6
6
VNMMXU
Phase-neutral voltage measurement
6
6
6
AISVBAS
Function block for service values presentation of the
analog inputs
1
1
1
TM_P_P2
Function block for service values presentation of primary
analog inputs 600TRM
1
1
1
AM_P_P4
Function block for service values presentation of primary
analog inputs 600AIM
1
1
1
TM_S_P2
Function block for service values presentation of
secondary analog inputs 600TRM
1
1
1
AM_S_P4
Function block for service values presentation of
secondary analog inputs 600AIM
1
1
1
CNTGGIO
Event counter
5
5
5
L4UFCNT
Event counter with limit supervision
12
12
12
DRPRDRE
Disturbance report
1
1
1
AnRADR
Analog input signals
4
4
4
BnRBDR
Binary input signals
6
6
6
SPGGIO
IEC 61850 generic communication I/O functions
64
64
64
SP16GGIO
IEC 61850 generic communication I/O functions 16 inputs
16
16
16
Monitoring
Table continues on next page
17
Commissioning Manual
Section 2
Available functions
REG650 (B05A)
Gen+Trafo diff
Generator
REG650 (B01A)
Gen diff
Function description
REG650
IEC 61850 or Function ANSI
name
1MRK 502 049-UUS -
MVGGIO
IEC 61850 generic communication I/O functions
16
16
16
MVEXP
Measured value expander block
66
66
66
SPVNZBAT
Station battery supervision
0–1
1
1
SSIMG
63
Insulation gas monitoring function
0–2
2
2
SSIML
71
Insulation liquid monitoring function
0–2
2
2
SSCBR
Circuit breaker condition monitoring
0–1
1
1
I103MEAS
Measurands for IEC60870-5-103
1
1
1
I103MEASUSR
Measurands user defined signals for IEC60870-5-103
3
3
3
I103AR
Function status auto-recloser for IEC60870-5-103
1
1
1
I103EF
Function status ground-fault for IEC60870-5-103
1
1
1
I103FLTPROT
Function status fault protection for IEC60870-5-103
1
1
1
I103IED
IED status for IEC60870-5-103
1
1
1
I103SUPERV
Supervison status for IEC60870-5-103
1
1
1
I103USRDEF
Status for user defined signals for IEC60870-5-103
20
20
20
PCGGIO
Pulse counter
16
16
16
ETPMMTR
Function for energy calculation and demand handling
3
3
3
Metering
2.4
Generator
REG650 (B05A)
Gen+Trafo diff
Function description
REG650 (B01A)
Gen diff
ANSI
REG650
IEC 61850 or Function
name
Station communication
IEC61850-8-1
IEC 61850 communication protocol
1
1
1
DNPGEN
DNP3.0 communication general protocol
1
1
1
RS485DNP
DNP3.0 for RS-485 communication protocol
1
1
1
CH1TCP
DNP3.0 for TCP/IP communication protocol
1
1
1
Station communication
Table continues on next page
18
Commissioning Manual
Section 2
Available functions
1MRK 502 049-UUS -
Generator
REG650 (B05A)
Gen+Trafo diff
Function description
REG650 (B01A)
Gen diff
ANSI
REG650
IEC 61850 or Function
name
CH2TCP
DNP3.0 for TCP/IP communication protocol
1
1
1
CH3TCP
DNP3.0 for TCP/IP communication protocol
1
1
1
CH4TCP
DNP3.0 for TCP/IP communication protocol
1
1
1
OPTICALDNP
DNP3.0 for optical RS-232 communication protocol
1
1
1
MSTSERIAL
DNP3.0 for serial communication protocol
1
1
1
MST1TCP
DNP3.0 for TCP/IP communication protocol
1
1
1
MST2TCP
DNP3.0 for TCP/IP communication protocol
1
1
1
MST3TCP
DNP3.0 for TCP/IP communication protocol
1
1
1
MST4TCP
DNP3.0 for TCP/IP communication protocol
1
1
1
RS485GEN
RS485
1
1
1
OPTICALPROT
Operation selection for optical serial
1
1
1
RS485PROT
Operation selection for RS485
1
1
1
DNPFREC
DNP3.0 fault records for TCP/IP communication protocol
1
1
1
OPTICAL103
IEC60870-5-103 Optical serial communication
1
1
1
RS485103
IEC60870-5-103 serial communication for RS485
1
1
1
GOOSEINTLKRCV
Horizontal communication via GOOSE for interlocking
59
59
59
GOOSEBINRCV
GOOSE binary receive
4
4
4
ETHFRNT
ETHLAN1
GATEWAY
Ethernet configuration of front port, LAN1 port and
gateway
1
1
1
ETHLAN1_AB
Ethernet configuration of LAN1 port
1
PRPSTATUS
System component for parallell redundancy protocol
1
CONFPROT
IED Configuration Protocol
1
1
1
ACTIVLOG
Activity logging parameters
1
1
1
SECALARM
Component for mapping security events on protocols
such as DNP3 and IEC103
1
1
1
AGSAL
Generic security application component
1
1
1
GOOSEDPRCV
GOOSE function block to receive a double point value
32
32
32
GOOSEINTRCV
GOOSE function block to receive an integer value
32
32
32
GOOSEMVRCV
GOOSE function block to receive a measurand value
16
16
16
GOOSESPRCV
GOOSE function block to receive a single point value
64
64
64
19
Commissioning Manual
Section 2
Available functions
2.5
IEC 61850/Function
block name
1MRK 502 049-UUS -
Basic IED functions
Function description
Basic functions included in all products
INTERRSIG
Self supervision with internal event list
1
SELFSUPEVLST
Self supervision with internal event list
1
TIMESYNCHGEN
Time synchronization
1
SNTP
Time synchronization
1
DTSBEGIN, DTSEND,
TIMEZONE
Time synchronization, daylight saving
1
IRIG-B
Time synchronization
1
SETGRPS
Setting group handling
1
ACTVGRP
Parameter setting groups
1
TESTMODE
Test mode functionality
1
CHNGLCK
Change lock function
1
TERMINALID
IED identifiers
1
PRODINF
Product information
1
SYSTEMTIME
System time
1
RUNTIME
IED Runtime comp
1
PRIMVAL
Primary system values
1
SMAI_20_1 SMAI_20_12
Signal matrix for analog inputs
2
3PHSUM
Summation block 3 phase
12
GBASVAL
Global base values for settings
6
ATHSTAT
Authority status
1
ATHCHCK
Authority check
1
AUTHMAN
Authority management
1
FTPACCS
FTPS access with password
1
DOSFRNT
Denial of service, frame rate control for front port
1
DOSLAN1
Denial of service, frame rate control for LAN1A and LAN1B ports
1
DOSSCKT
Denial of service, socket flow control
1
SAFEFILECOPY
Safe file copy function
1
BCSCONF
Basic communication system
1
SECALARM
Component for mapping security events on protocols such as DNP3 and IEC103
1
20
Commissioning Manual
Section 3
Starting up
1MRK 502 049-UUS -
Section 3
Starting up
3.1
Factory and site acceptance testing
Testing the proper IED operation is carried out at different occasions, for example:
•
•
•
Acceptance testing
Commissioning testing
Maintenance testing
This manual describes the workflow and the steps to carry out the commissioning testing.
Factory acceptance testing (FAT) is typically done to verify that the IED and its
corresponding configuration meet the requirements of the utility or industry. This test
is the most complex and in depth, as it is done to familiarize the user with a new
product or to verify a new configuration. The complexity of this testing depends on
several factors, such as:
•
•
•
New IED type
New configuration
Modified configuration
Site acceptance testing (SAT or commissioning testing) is typically done to verify that
the installed IED is correctly set and connected to the power system. SAT requires that
the acceptance testing has been performed and that the application configuration is
verified.
Maintenance testing is a periodic verification that the IED is healthy and has correct
settings, depending on changes in the power system. There are also other types of
maintenance testing.
3.2
Commissioning checklist
Before starting up commissioning at site, check that the following items are available.
•
•
•
•
Single line diagram
Protection block diagram
Circuit diagram
Setting list and configuration
21
Commissioning Manual
Section 3
Starting up
1MRK 502 049-UUS -
•
•
•
•
•
3.3
RJ-45 Ethernet cable (CAT 5)
Three-phase test kit or other test equipment depending on the complexity of the
configuration and functions to be tested.
PC with PCM600 installed along with the connectivity packages corresponding to
the IEDs to be tested.
Administration rights on the PC, to set up IP addresses
Product documentation (engineering manual, installation manual, commissioning
manual, operation manual, technical manual and communication protocol manual)
Checking the power supply
Check that the auxiliary supply voltage remains within the permissible input voltage
range under all operating conditions. Check that the polarity is correct before powering
the IED.
3.4
Energizing the IED
3.4.1
Checking the IED operation
Check all connections to external circuitry to ensure correct installation, before
energizing the IED and carrying out the commissioning procedures.
Energize the power supply of the IED to pickup. This could be done in a number of
ways, from energizing a whole cubicle to energizing a single IED. Set the IED time if
no time synchronization source is configured. Check the self-supervision function in
Main menu/Diagnostics/Internal events or Main menu/Diagnostics/IED status/
General menu in local HMI to verify that the IED is functioning properly.
3.4.2
IED start-up sequence
The following sequence is expected when the IED is energized.
•
•
•
The green Ready LED picks up flashing instantly and the ABB logo is shown on
the LCD.
After approximately 30 seconds, "Starting" is shown on the LCD.
Within 90 seconds, the main menu is shown on the LCD and the green Ready
LED shows a steady light, which indicates a successful pick up.
22
Commissioning Manual
Section 3
Starting up
1MRK 502 049-UUS -
The pickup time depends on the size of the application configuration.
Application configurations with less functionality have shorter pickup
times.
If the green Ready LED continues to flash after pickup, the IED has detected an
internal error. Navigate via Main menu/Diagnostics/IED status/General to
investigate the error description.
3.5
Setting up communication between PCM600 and the
IED
The communication between the IED and PCM600 is independent of the
communication protocol used within the substation or to the NCC.
The communication media is always Ethernet and the used protocol is TCP/IP.
Each IED has an RJ-45 Ethernet interface connector on the front. The front Ethernet
connector shall be used for communication with PCM600..
When an Ethernet-based station protocol is used, PCM600 communication can use the
same Ethernet port and IP address.
To connect PCM600 to the IED, two basic variants must be considered.
•
•
Direct point-to-point link between PCM600 and the IED front port.
Indirect link via a station LAN or from remote via a network.
The physical connection and the IP address must be configured in both cases to enable
communication.
The communication procedures are the same in both cases.
1.
2.
3.
4.
If needed, set the IP address for the IEDs.
Set up the PC or workstation for a direct link (point-to-point), or
Connect the PC or workstation to the LAN/WAN network.
Configure the IED IP addresses in the PCM600 project for each IED to match the
IP addresses of the physical IEDs.
Setting up IP addresses
The IP address and the corresponding mask must be set via the LHMI for each
available Ethernet interface in the IED. Each Ethernet interface has a default factory IP
23
Commissioning Manual
Section 3
Starting up
1MRK 502 049-UUS -
address when the IED is delivered. This is not given when an additional Ethernet
interface is installed or an interface is replaced.
•
The default IP address for the IED front port is 10.1.150.3 and the corresponding
subnetwork mask is 255.255.255.0, which can be set via the local HMI path Main
menu/Configuration/Communication/TCP-IP configuration/ETHFRNT:1.
Setting up the PC or workstation for point-to-point access to IEDs front
port
A special cable is needed to connect two physical Ethernet interfaces together without
a hub, router, bridge or switch in between. The Tx and Rx signal wires must be crossed
in the cable to connect Tx with Rx on the other side and vice versa. These cables are
known as cross over cables. The maximum length is 2 m. The connector type is RJ-45.
IED
RJ-45
PCM600
Tx
Tx
Rx
Rx
IEC09000096-2-en.vsd
IEC09000096 V2 EN
Figure 2:
Point-to-point link between IED and PCM600 using a null-modem cable
The following description is an example valid for standard PCs using Microsoft
Windows operating system. The example is taken from a Laptop with one Ethernet
interface.
Administrator rights are required to change the PC communication
setup. Some PCs have the feature to automatically detect that Tx
signals from the IED are received on the Tx pin on the PC. Thus, a
straight (standard) Ethernet cable can be used.
When a PC is connected to the IED and the setting DHCPServer is set to Enabled via
the local HMI path Main menu/Configuration/Communication/TCP-IP
configuration/ETHFRNT:1/DHCPServer, the IEDs DHCP server for the front port
assigns an IP address for the PC. The PC must be configured to obtain its IP address
automatically as described in the following procedure.
1.
Select Search programs and files in the Start menu in Windows.
24
Commissioning Manual
Section 3
Starting up
1MRK 502 049-UUS -
IEC13000057-1-en.vsd
IEC13000057 V1 EN
Figure 3:
2.
Select: Search programs and files
Type View network connections and click on the View network connections icon.
IEC13000058-1-en.vsd
IEC13000058 V1 EN
Figure 4:
3.
Click View network connections
Right-click and select Properties.
25
Commissioning Manual
Section 3
Starting up
1MRK 502 049-UUS -
IEC13000059-1-en.vsd
IEC13000059 V1 EN
Figure 5:
4.
Right-click Local Area Connection and select Properties
Select the TCP/IPv4 protocol from the list of configured components using this
connection and click Properties.
IEC13000060-1-en.vsd
IEC13000060 V1 EN
Figure 6:
5.
Select the TCP/IPv4 protocol and open Properties
Select Obtain an IP address automatically if the parameter DHCPServer is set
to Enabled in the IED.
26
Commissioning Manual
Section 3
Starting up
1MRK 502 049-UUS -
IEC13000061-1-en.vsd
IEC13000061 V1 EN
Figure 7:
6.
Select: Obtain an IP address automatically
Select Use the following IP address and define IP address and Subnet mask if the
front port is used and if the IP address is not set to be obtained automatically by
the IED, see Figure 8. The IP address must be different from the IP address chosen
for the IED.
IEC13000062-1-en.vsd
IEC13000062 V1 EN
Figure 8:
7.
Select: Use the following IP address
Close all open windows and start PCM600.
Setting up the PC to access the IED via a network
This task depends on the used LAN/WAN network.
27
Commissioning Manual
Section 3
Starting up
1MRK 502 049-UUS -
The PC and IED must belong to the same subnetwork for this set-up to
work.
3.6
Writing an application configuration to the IED
Ensure that the IED includes the correct application configuration
according to project specifications.
The application configuration is created using PCM600 and then written to the IED.
Establish a connection between PCM600 and the IED when an application
configuration must be written to the IED.
After writing an application configuration to the IED, the IED makes an application
restart or a complete IED restart, when necessary.
The IED does not restart after reconfiguring IEC61850 (regardless of
whether the protocol is enabled or disabled).
Be sure to set the correct technical key in both the IED and PCM600 to
prevent writing an application configuration to a wrong IED.
See the engineering manual for information on how to create or modify
an application configuration and how to write to the IED.
3.7
Checking CT circuits
Check that the wiring is in strict accordance with the supplied
connection diagram.
28
Commissioning Manual
Section 3
Starting up
1MRK 502 049-UUS -
•
•
•
•
Primary injection test to verify the current ratio of the CT, the correct wiring up to
the protection IED and correct phase sequence connection (that is A, B, C.)
CT secondary loop resistance measurement to confirm that the current transformer
secondary loop DC resistance is within specification and that there are no high
resistance joints in the CT winding or wiring.
Grounding check of the individual CT secondary circuits to verify that each threephase set of main CTs is properly connected to the station ground and only at one
electrical point.
Insulation resistance check.
CT and VT connectors are pre-coded, and the CT and VT connector
markings are different. For more information, see the installation manual.
Both the primary and the secondary sides must be disconnected from
the line and the IED when plotting the excitation characteristics.
3.8
Checking VT circuits
Check that the wiring is in strict accordance with the supplied connection diagram.
Correct possible errors before continuing to test the circuitry.
Test the circuitry.
•
•
•
•
•
Polarity check
VT circuit voltage measurement (primary injection test)
Grounding check
Phase relationship
Insulation resistance check
The polarity check verifies the integrity of circuits and the phase relationships. The
check must be performed as close to the IED as possible.
The primary injection test verifies the VT ratio and the wiring all the way from the
primary system to the IED. Injection must be performed for each phase-to-neutral
circuit and each phase-to-phase pair. In each case, voltages in all phases and neutral are
measured.
29
Commissioning Manual
Section 3
Starting up
3.9
1MRK 502 049-UUS -
Using the RTXP test switch
The RTXP test switch is designed to provide the means of safe testing of the IED. This
is achieved by the electromechanical design of the test switch and test plug handle.
When the test plug handle is inserted, it first blocks the trip and alarm circuits then it
short circuits the CT secondary circuit and opens the VT secondary circuits making the
IED available for secondary injection.
When pulled out, the test handle is mechanically stopped in half withdrawn position. In
this position, the current and voltage enter the protection, but the alarm and trip circuits
are still isolated. Before removing the test handle, check that no trip or alarms are
present in the IED.
Not until the test handle is completely removed, the trip and alarm circuits are restored
for operation.
Verify that the contact sockets have been crimped correctly and that
they are fully inserted by tugging on the wires. Never do this with
current circuits in service.
Current circuit
1.
2.
Verify that the contacts are of current circuit type.
Verify that the short circuit jumpers are located in the correct slots.
Voltage circuit
1.
2.
Verify that the contacts are of voltage circuit type.
Check that no short circuit jumpers are located in the slots dedicated for voltage.
Trip and alarm circuits
1.
Check that the correct types of contacts are used.
30
Commissioning Manual
Section 3
Starting up
1MRK 502 049-UUS -
3.10
Checking binary input and output circuits
3.10.1
Binary input circuits
Preferably, disconnect the binary input connector from the binary input cards. Check
all connected signals so that both input level and polarity are in accordance with the
IED specifications.
3.10.2
Binary output circuits
Preferably, disconnect the binary output connector from the binary output cards. Check
all connected signals so that both load and polarity are in accordance with IED
specifications.
3.11
Checking optical connections
Check that the Tx and Rx optical connections are correct.
An IED equipped with optical connections requires a minimum depth
of 180 mm (7.2 inches) for plastic fiber cables and 275 mm (10.9
inches) for glass fiber cables. Check the allowed minimum bending
radius from the optical cable manufacturer.
31
Commissioning Manual
32
Section 4
Establishing connection and verifying the IEC 61850 station communication
1MRK 502 049-UUS -
Section 4
Establishing connection and verifying the
IEC 61850 station communication
4.1
Setting the station communication
To enable IEC 61850 station communication:
•
•
•
•
4.2
The IEC 61850-8-1 station communication functionality must be on in the local
HMI. Navigate to Main menu/Configuration/Communication/Station
communication/IEC61850-8-1:1 and set the Operation parameter to Enabled.
To enable GOOSE communication the Operation parameter for the corresponding
GOOSE function blocks (GOOSEBINRCV and GOOSEINTLKRCV) must be set
to Enabled in the application configuration.
To enable GOOSE communication via the front port the parameter
PortSelGOOSE in Main menu/Configuration/Communication/Station
communication/IEC61850-8-1:1 must be set to Front. To enable GOOSE
communication via rear port the parameter PortSelGOOSE must be set to LAN1.
To enable MMS communication via the rear port the parameter PortSelMMS in
Main menu/Configuration/Communication/Station communication/
IEC61850-8-1:1 must be set to LAN1.
Verifying the station communication
Connect your PC to the substation network and ping the connected IED and the
Substation Master PC, to verify that the communication is working (up to the transport
layer).
The best way to verify the communication up to the application layer is to use protocol
analyzer connected to the substation bus, and monitor the communication.
33
Commissioning Manual
34
Section 5
Testing IED operation
1MRK 502 049-UUS -
Section 5
Testing IED operation
5.1
Preparing the IED to verify settings
If a test switch is included, start preparation by making the necessary connections to
the test switch. This means connecting the test equipment according to a specific and
designated IED terminal diagram.
Put the IED into the test mode to facilitate the test of individual functions and prevent
unwanted operation caused by other functions. The busbar differential protection is not
included in the test mode and is not prevented to operate during the test operations. The
test switch should then be connected to the IED.
Verify that analog input signals from the analog input module are measured and
recorded correctly by injecting currents and voltages required by the specific IED.
To make testing even more effective, use PCM600. PCM600 includes the Signal
monitoring tool, which is useful in reading the individual currents and voltages, their
amplitudes and phase angles. In addition, PCM600 contains the Disturbance handling
tool. The content of reports generated by the Disturbance handling tool can be
configured which makes the work more efficient. For example, the tool may be
configured to only show time tagged events and to exclude analog information and so on.
Check the disturbance report settings to ensure that the indications are correct.
For test functions and test and signal parameter names, see the technical manual. The
correct initiation of the disturbance recorder is made on pickup and/or release or trip
from a function. Also check that the wanted recordings of analog (real and calculated)
and binary signals are achieved.
The IEDs in the 650 series can have between 1 and 4 individual parameter setting
groups prepared with full sets of different parameters for all functions. The purpose of
these groups is to be able to handle different power system load conditions to optimize
the parameters settings of the different functions for these different power systems
conditions (for example summer/winter and day/night).
Parameters can be entered into different setting groups. Make sure to
test functions for the same parameter setting group. If needed, repeat
the tests for all different setting groups used. The difference between
35
Commissioning Manual
Section 5
Testing IED operation
1MRK 502 049-UUS -
testing the first parameter setting group and the remaining is that there
is no need for testing the connections.
During testing, observe that the right testing method, that corresponds to the actual
parameters set in the activated parameter setting group, is used.
In the local HMI the sensitive directional earth fault protection SDEPSDE parameter
group 4 is active indicated by the * next to #4 and the test of the SDEPSDE must be
performed according to the instructions given for the setting OpModeSel and setting
value 3I03V0Cosfi.
Set and configure the function(s) before testing. Most functions are highly flexible and
permit a choice of functional and tripping modes. The various modes are checked at
the factory as part of the design verification. In certain cases, only modes with a high
probability of coming into operation need to be checked when commissioned to verify
the configuration and settings.
Requirements for testing the function.
•
•
•
•
•
Calculated settings
Valid configuration diagram for the IED
Valid terminal diagram for the IED
Technical manual
Three-phase test equipment
Content of the technical manual.
•
•
•
•
•
•
Application and functionality summaries
Function blocks
Logic diagrams
Input and output signals
A list of setting parameters
Technical data for the function
The test equipment should be able to provide a three-phase supply of currents and threephase voltage. The magnitude and angle of currents (and voltages) should be possible
to vary. Check that the IED is prepared for test before starting the test session.
Consider the logic diagram of the function when performing the test.
The response from a test can be viewed in different ways.
•
•
•
Binary output signals
Service values in the local HMI (logical signal or phasors)
Using the online mode in the PCM600 configuration software
36
Commissioning Manual
Section 5
Testing IED operation
1MRK 502 049-UUS -
Do not switch off the auxiliary power supply to the IED before
changes, for example, setting parameter or local/remote control state
changes are saved.
A mechanism for limiting the number of writings per time period is included in the
IED to prevent the flash memory to be worn out due to too many writings. As a
consequence it may take up to an hour to save changes. If the auxiliary power is
interrupted before a change is saved, that change is lost.
5.2
Activating the test mode
Put the IED into the test mode before testing. The test mode blocks all protection
functions and some of the control functions in the IED, and the individual functions to
be tested can be unblocked to prevent unwanted operation caused by other functions. In
this way, it is possible to test slower back-up measuring functions without the
interference from faster measuring functions. The busbar differential protection is not
included in the test mode and is not prevented to operate during the test operations. The
test switch should then be connected to the IED.Test mode is indicated when the
yellow PickupLED flashes.
1.
2.
3.
5.3
Select Main menu/Tests/IED test mode/TESTMODE:1
Set parameter TestMode to Enabled.
Save the changes.
As a consequence, the yellow pickupLED starts flashing as a reminder and
remains flashing until the test mode is switched off.
Preparing the connection to the test equipment
The IED can be equipped with a test switch of type RTXP8, RTXP18 or RTXP24 or
FT. The test switch and its associated test plug handles are a part of the COMBITEST
or FT system of ABB, which provides secure and convenient testing of the IED.
When using the COMBITEST, preparations for testing are automatically carried out in
the proper sequence, that is, for example, blocking of tripping circuits, short circuiting
of CT’s, opening of voltage circuits, making IED terminals available for secondary
injection. Terminals 1 and 8, 1 and 18 as well as 1 and 12 of the test switches RTXP8,
RTXP18 and RTXP24 respectively are not disconnected as they supply DC power to
the protection IED. When FT switch is used for testing, care shall be exercised to open
the tripping circuit, ahead of manipulating the CT fingers.
37
Commissioning Manual
Section 5
Testing IED operation
1MRK 502 049-UUS -
The RTXH test-plug handle leads may be connected to any type of test equipment or
instrument. When a number of protection IEDs of the same type are tested, the testplug handle only needs to be moved from the test switch of one protection IED to the
test switch of the other, without altering the previous connections.
Use COMBITEST test system to prevent unwanted tripping when the handle is
withdrawn, since latches on the handle secure it in the half withdrawn position. In this
position, all voltages and currents are restored and any re-energizing transients are
given a chance to decay before the trip circuits are restored. When the latches are
released, the handle can be completely withdrawn from the test switch, restoring the
trip circuits to the protection IED.
If a test switch is not used, perform measurement according to the provided circuit
diagrams.
Never disconnect the secondary connection of a current transformer
circuit without first short-circuiting the transformer's secondary
winding. Operating a current transformer with the secondary winding
open will cause a massive potential build up that may damage the
transformer and cause personal injury.
5.4
Connecting the test equipment to the IED
Connect the test equipment according to the IED specific connection diagram and the
needed input and output signals for the function under test. An example of a
connection is shown in figure 14.
Connect the current and voltage terminals. Pay attention to the current polarity. Make
sure that the connection of input and output current terminals and the connection of the
residual current conductor is correct. Check that the input and output logical signals in
the logic diagram for the function under test are connected to the corresponding binary
inputs and outputs of the IED under test.
To ensure correct results, make sure that the IED as well as the test
equipment are properly grounded before testing.
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Commissioning Manual
Section 5
Testing IED operation
1MRK 502 049-UUS -
Test equipment
IB
IB
IC
IC
IN
IN
VA
VA
VB
VB
VC
VC
N
IED
IA
IA
N
VN
TRIP
IEC 61850
ANSI09000643-1-en.vsd
ANSI09000643 V1 EN
Figure 14:
5.5
Connection example of the test equipment to the IED when test
equipment is connected to the transformer input module
Releasing the function to be tested
Release or unblock the function to be tested. This is done to ensure that only the
function or the chain of functions to be tested are in operation and that other functions
are prevented from operating. Release the tested function(s) by setting the
corresponding Blocked parameter under Function test modes to No in the local HMI.
When testing a function in this blocking feature, remember that not only the actual
function must be activated, but the whole sequence of interconnected functions (from
measuring inputs to binary output contacts), including logic must be activated. Before
starting a new test mode session, scroll through every function to ensure that only the
function to be tested (and the interconnected ones) have the parameters Blocked and
eventually EvDisable set to No and Yes respectively. Remember that a function is also
blocked if the BLOCK input signal on the corresponding function block is active,
which depends on the configuration. Ensure that the logical status of the BLOCK input
signal is equal to 0 for the function to be tested. Event function blocks can also be
individually blocked to ensure that no events are reported to a remote station during the
test. This is done by setting the parameter EvDisable to Yes.
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Commissioning Manual
Section 5
Testing IED operation
1MRK 502 049-UUS -
Any function is blocked if the corresponding setting in the local HMI
under Main menu/Tests/Function test modes menu remains Enabled,
that is, the parameter Blocked is set to Yes and the parameter TestMode
under Main menu/Tests/IED test mode remains active. All functions
that were blocked or released in a previous test mode session, that is,
the parameter Test mode is set to Enabled, are reset when a new test
mode session is started.
Procedure
1.
2.
3.
5.6
Click the Function test modes menu.
The Function test modes menu is located in the local HMI under Main menu/
Tests/Function test modes.
Browse to the function instance that needs to be released.
Set parameter Blocked for the selected function to No.
Verifying analog primary and secondary measurement
Verify that the connections are correct and that measuring and scaling is done
correctly. This is done by injecting current and voltage to the IED.
Apply input signals as needed according to the actual hardware and the
application configuration.
1.
2.
3.
Inject a symmetrical three-phase voltage and current at rated value.
Compare the injected value with the measured values.
The voltage and current phasor menu in the local HMI is located under Main
menu/Measurements/Analog primary values and Main menu/Measurements/
Analog secondary values.
Compare the frequency reading with the set frequency and the direction of the
power.
The frequency and active power are located under Main menu/Tests/Function
status/Monitoring/CVMMXN/CVMMXN:1/Outputs. Then navigate to the
bottom of the list to find the frequency.
Check both analog primary and secondary values, because then
the CT and VT ratios entered into the IED are also checked.
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Commissioning Manual
Section 5
Testing IED operation
1MRK 502 049-UUS -
4.
These checks shall be repeated for Analog primary values.
Inject an unsymmetrical three-phase voltage and current, to verify that phases are
correctly connected.
If some setting deviates, check the analog input settings under
Main menu/Configuration/Analog modules
Measured values such as current and voltages as well as active, reactive and apparent
power, power factor phase angles as well as positive and negative and zero sequence
currents and voltages are available in the local HMI under Main menu/Tests/Function
status/Monitoring.
Navigate to the measurement function that contains the quantity to be checked.
Table 1:
Measurement functions
Function
Quantity
CMMXU
IA to IC
Description
amplitude, range and angle
CMSQI
3I0; I1 and I2
amplitude, range and angle
CVMMXN
S; P; Q; PF; Ilag; Ilead; U; I and f
amplitude, range and angle
VMMXU
VA_C to VC_A i.e. phase-tophase
amplitude, range and angle
VMSQI
3U0; U1 and U2
amplitude, range and angle
VNMMXU
VA to VC i.e. phase-to-neutral
amplitude, range and angle
Also the Signal Monitoring tool in PCM600 can be used to read the measured values.
In many cases it is more convenient to use PCM600 since, among many things, reports
on measured values can be exported from the Signal Monitoring tool to other tools (for
example, MS Excel) for further analysis.
5.7
Testing the protection functionality
Each protection function must be tested individually by secondary injection.
•
•
•
•
Verify operating levels (trip) and timers.
Verify alarm and blocking signals.
Use the disturbance handling tool in PCM600 to evaluate that the protection
function has received the correct data and responded correctly (signaling and timing).
Use the event viewer tool in PCM600 to check that only expected events have
occurred.
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Commissioning Manual
42
Section 6
Testing functionality
1MRK 502 049-UUS -
Section 6
Testing functionality
6.1
Testing disturbance report
6.1.1
Introduction
The following sub-functions are included in the disturbance report function:
•
•
•
•
•
Disturbance recorder
Event list
Event recorder
Trip value recorder
Indications
If the disturbance report is enabled, then its sub-functions are also set up and so it is
not possible to only disable these sub-functions. The disturbance report function is
disabled (parameter Operation = Disabled) in PCM600 or the local HMI under Main
menu/Settings/IED Settings/Monitoring/Disturbance report/DRPRDRE:1.
6.1.2
Disturbance report settings
When the IED is in test mode, the disturbance report can be made active or inactive. If
the disturbance recorder is turned on during test mode, recordings will be made. When
test mode is switched off all recordings made during the test session are cleared.
Setting OpModeTest for the control of the disturbance recorder during test mode are
located on the local HMI under Main menu/Settings/IED Settings/Monitoring/
Disturbance report/DRPRDRE:1.
6.2
Identifying the function to test in the technical
reference manual
Use the technical manual to identify function blocks, logic diagrams, input and output
signals, setting parameters and technical data.
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Commissioning Manual
Section 6
Testing functionality
1MRK 502 049-UUS -
6.3
Testing differential protection functions
6.3.1
Transformer differential protection T3WPDIF (87T)(87T)
Prepare the IED for verification of settings as outlined in 5.1 "Preparing the IED to
verify settings".
Values of the logical signals for T3WPDIF (87T) are available on the local HMI under
Main menu/Tests/Function status/Differential/T3WPDIF(87T,Id)/T3WPDIF:1.
The Signal Monitoring in PCM600 shows the same signals that are available on the
local HMI.
6.3.1.1
Verifying the settings
1.
Go to Main menu/Test/Function test modes/Differential protection and make
sure that the restricted earth fault protection, low impedance function REFPDIF
(87N) is set to Disabled and that the four step residual overcurrent function
EF4PTOC (51N/67N) under Main menu/Test/Function test modes/Current
protection is set to Disabled, since they are configured to the same current
transformer inputs as the transformer differential protection. Make sure that the
transformer differential functions T2WPDIF (87T) or T3WPDIF (87T) are
unblocked.
2. Connect the test set for injection of three-phase currents to the current terminals
of the IED, which are connected to the CTs on the HV side of the power transformer.
3. Increase the current in phase A until the protection function operates and note the
operating current.
4. Check that the trip and alarm contacts operate according to the configuration logic.
5. Decrease the current slowly from operate value and note the reset value.
Depending on the power transformer vector group (Yd and so on), the singlephase injection current will be different by a factor k from the three-phase pickup,
see step 7. This factor k can have one of the following three values: 1.0, or 1.5, or
2.0.
6. Check in the same way the function by injecting current in phases B and C
respectively. Phase B and C pickup shall be the same as for phase A.
7. Inject a symmetrical three-phase current and note the operate value.
8. Connect the timer and set the current to twice the operate value.
9. Switch on the current and note the operate time.
10. Check in the same way the measuring circuits connected to the CTs on the LV
side and other current inputs to the transformer differential protection.
11. Finally check that trip information is stored in the event menu.
12. If available on the test set, a second harmonic current of about 20% (assumes
15% setting on I1/I2 ratio parameter) can be added to the fundamental frequency
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Commissioning Manual
Section 6
Testing functionality
1MRK 502 049-UUS -
in phase A. Increase the current in phase A above the pickup value measured in
step 6. Repeat test with current injection in phases B and C respectively.
Note that during this test setting SOTFMode must be set to
Disabled.
The balancing of currents flowing into and out of the differential zone is typically
checked by primary testing when suitable supply facilities exist on site.
Fifth harmonic blocking can be tested in a similar way. Note, the blocking level
for the fifth harmonic is 10% higher than the I5/I1 Ratio setting.
6.3.1.2
Completing the test
Continue to test another function or end the testing by setting the parameter TestMode
to Disabled under Main menu/Tests/IED test mode/TESTMODE:1. If another
function is tested, then set the parameter Blocked to No under Main menu/Tests/
Function test modes/Differential/T3WPDIF(87T,Id)/T3WPDIF:1 for the function,
or for each individual function in a chain, to be tested next. Remember to set the
parameter Blocked to Yes, for each individual function that has been tested.
6.3.2
Restricted earth-fault protection, low impedance REFPDIF
(87N)
Prepare the IED for verification of settings as outlined in 5.1 "Preparing the IED to
verify settings".
Values of the logical signals for REFPDIF (87) are available on the local HMI under
Main menu/Tests/Function status/Differential/REFPDIF(87,INd)/REFPDIF:X.
The Signal Monitoring in PCM600 shows the same signals that are available on the
local HMI.
6.3.2.1
Verifying the settings
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Connect the test set for single-phase current injection to the protection terminals
connected to the CT in the power transformer neutral-to-ground circuit.
Increase the injection current and note the operating value of the protection
function.
Check that all trip and pickup contacts operate according to the configuration logic.
Decrease the current slowly from operate value and note the reset value.
Connect the timer and set the current to ten times the value of the IDMin setting.
Switch on the current and note the operate time.
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Testing functionality
1MRK 502 049-UUS -
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
6.3.2.2
Connect the test set to terminal A and neutral of the three-phase current input
configured to REFPDIF (87N). Also inject a current higher than half the Idmin
setting in the neutral-to-ground circuit with the same phase angle and with
polarity corresponding to an internal fault.
Increase the current injected in A, and note the operate value. Decrease the
current slowly and note the reset value.
Inject current into terminals B and C in the same way as in step 7 above and note
the operate and reset values.
Inject a current equal to 10% of rated current into terminal A.
Inject a current in the neutral-to-ground circuit with the same phase angle and
with polarity corresponding to an external fault.
Increase the current to five times the operating value and check that the protection
does not operate.
Finally check that trip information is stored in the event and disturbance recorder.
Completing the test
Continue to test another function or end the testing by setting the parameter TestMode
to Disabled under Main menu/Tests/IED test mode/TESTMODE:1. If another
function is tested, then set the parameter Blocked to No under Main menu/Tests/
Function test modes/Differential/REFPDIF(87,INd)/REFPDIF:X for the function,
or for each individual function in a chain, to be tested next. Remember to set the
parameter Blocked to Yes, for each individual function that has been tested.
6.3.3
High impedance differential protection HZPDIF (87)
Prepare the IED for verification of settings as outlined in 5.1 "Preparing the IED to
verify settings".
Values of the logical signals for HZPDIF (87) are available on the local HMI under
Main menu/Tests/Function status/Differential/HZPDIF(87,IdN)/HZPDIF:X. The
Signal Monitoring in PCM600 shows the same signals that are available on the local HMI.
6.3.3.1
Verifying the settings
1.
Connect single-phase or three-phase test set to inject the operating voltage. The
injection shall be on the primary side of the stabilizing resistor.
The operating voltage is adjusted on the stabilizing resistor and
the setting of the resistor value must be done in the function. This
is essential for the measurement of the expected value. Normally a
46
Commissioning Manual
Section 6
Testing functionality
1MRK 502 049-UUS -
slightly higher operating value is no problem as the sensitivity is
not influenced much.
2.
Increase the voltage and make note of the operate value Pickup. This is done by
manual testing and without trip of the test set.
3. Connect the trip contact to the test set to stop the test set for measurement of trip
times below.
4. Reduce the voltage slowly and make note of the reset value. The reset value must
be high for this function.
5. Check the operating time by injecting a voltage corresponding to 1.2 · Pickup
level. Make note of the measured trip time.
6. If required, verify the trip time at another voltage. Normally 2 · Pickup is selected.
7. If used, measure the alarm level operating value. Increase the voltage and make
note of the operate value AlarmPickup. This is done with manual test and without
trip of the test set.
8. Measure the operating time on the alarm output by connecting the stop of the test
set to an output from tAlarm. Inject a voltage 1.2 · AlarmPickup and measure the
alarm time.
9. Check that trip and alarm outputs operate according to the configuration logic.
10. Finally check that pickup and alarm information is stored in the event menu and
if a serial connection to the SA is available verify that the correct and only the
required signals are presented on the local HMI and on the SCADA system.
Information on how to use the event menu is found in the operator's
manual.
6.3.3.2
Completing the test
Continue to test another function or end the testing by setting the parameter TestMode
to Disabled under Main menu/Tests/IED test mode/TESTMODE:1. If another
function is tested, then set the parameter Blocked to No under Main menu/Tests/
Function test modes/Differential/HZPDIF(87,IdN)/HZPDIF:Xfor the function, or
for each individual function in a chain, to be tested next. Remember to set the
parameter Blocked to Yes, for each individual function that has been tested.
6.3.4
Generator differential protection GENPDIF (87G)
Prepare the IED for verification of settings as outlined in 5.1 "Preparing the IED to
verify settings".
Values of the logical signals for GENPDIF (87G) are available on the local HMI under
Main menu/Tests/Function status/Differential/GENPDIF(87G,IdG)/GENPDIF:1.
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Commissioning Manual
Section 6
Testing functionality
1MRK 502 049-UUS -
The Signal Monitoring in PCM600 shows the same signals that are available on the
local HMI.
6.3.4.1
Verifying the settings
1.
Go to Main menu/Test/Function test modes/Differential protection and make
sure all other functions, configured to the same current transformer inputs as the
generator differential protection, are set off. Make sure that the generator
differential function is unblocked.
2. Connect the test set for injection of three-phase current to the current IEDs, which
are connected to the CTs on the HV side of the generator.
3. Increase the current in phase A until the protection function operates and note the
operating current.
4. Check that trip and alarm contacts operate according to the configuration logic.
5. Decrease the current slowly from operate value and note the reset value.
6. Check in the same way the function by injecting current in phases B and C.
7. Inject a symmetrical three-phase current and note the operate value.
8. Connect the timer and set the current to twice the operate value.
9. Switch on the current and note the operate time.
10. Check in the same way the functioning of the measuring circuits connected to the
CTs on the neutral point side of the generator.
11. Finally check that trip information is stored in the event menu.
Information on how to use the event menu is found in the
operator’s manual.
12. If available on the test set a second-harmonic current of about 20% (assumes 15%
setting on I1/I2 ratio parameter) can be added to the fundamental tone in phase A.
Increase the current in phase A above the pickup value measured in step 3.
Repeat test with current injection in phases B and C respectively.
Fifth-harmonic blocking can be tested in a similar way.
The balancing of currents flowing into and out of the differential zone is typically
checked by primary testing.
6.3.4.2
Completing the test
Continue to test another function or end the testing by setting the parameter TestMode
to Disabled under Main menu/Tests/IED test mode/TESTMODE:1. If another
function is tested, then set the parameter Blocked to No under Main menu/Tests/
Function test modes/Differential/GENPDIF(87G,IdG)/GENPDIF:1 for the
function, or for each individual function in a chain, to be tested next. Remember to set
the parameter Blocked to Yes, for each individual function that has been tested.
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Commissioning Manual
Section 6
Testing functionality
1MRK 502 049-UUS -
6.4
Testing impedance protection functions
6.4.1
Power swing detection ZMRPSB (68)
The aim is to verify that the settings of the Power swing detection function ZMRPSB
(68) is according to the setting table and to verify that ZMRPSB (68) operates as expected.
Prepare the IED for verification of settings as outlined in 5.1 "Preparing the IED to
verify settings".
Values of the logical signals for ZMRPSB (68) are available on the local HMI under
Main menu/Tests/Function status/Impedance/ZMRPSB(68)/ZMRPSB:1. The
Signal Monitoring in PCM600 shows the same signals that are available on the local HMI.
Before starting this process, all impedance measuring zones shall be set and in
operation. Test the outer resistive boarder in forward and reverse direction, RLdOutFw
and RLdOutRv and the inner reactive boarder in forward and reverse direction X1InFw
and X1InRv. See figure 15.
The corresponding resistive boarder for the inner resistive boundary and outer resistive
boundary is calculated automatically from the setting of kLdRFw and kLdRRv.
The inner zone of ZMRPSB (68) must cover all zones by at least 10% margin.
The test is mainly divided into two parts, one which aim is to verify that the settings
are in accordance to the selective plane and a second part to verify the operation of
ZMRPSB (68). The proposed test points for validation of the settings are numbered
according to figure 15
Test of the interactions or combinations that are not configured are not considered in
this instruction.
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Commissioning Manual
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Testing functionality
1MRK 502 049-UUS -
X1OutFw
X1InFw
ZL
X
3
RLdOutRv
j
2
j
R
1
RLdOutFw
RLdInRv
RLdInFw
X1InRv
X1OutRv
4
IEC09000226_1_en.vsd
IEC09000226 V1 EN
Figure 15:
Operating principle and characteristic of the power swing detection
function (settings parameters in italic)
Where:
RLdInFw = RLdOutFw · kLdRFw
RLdInRv = RLdOutRv · kLdRRv
X1OutFw = X1InFw + (RLdOutFw - RLdInFw)
X1OutRv = X1InRv + (RLdOutFw - RLdInFw)
6.4.1.1
Verifying the settings
Preconditions
The following output signal shall be configured to binary output available: ZOUT,
measured impedance within outer impedance boundary.
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Commissioning Manual
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Testing functionality
1MRK 502 049-UUS -
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
6.4.1.2
Keep the measured current as close as possible to its rated value or lower. Keep it
constant during the test, but ensure that it is higher than the set minimum
operating current.
Ensure that the maximum continuous current to the IED does not exceed four
times its rated value, if the measurement of the operating characteristics runs
under constant voltage conditions.
Make the necessary connections and settings of the test equipment for test of
point 1 according to figure 15.
Decrease the measured three-phase impedance slowly and observe the operation
value for the signal ZOUT.
Compare the operation value with the set value.
Do the necessary change of the setting of the test equipment and repeat step 4 and
step 5 for point 2, 3 and 4 according to figure 15.
Testing the power swing detection function ZMRPSB (68)
Preconditions
The following output signals shall be configured to binary outputs: ZOUT, measured
impedance within outer impedance boundary, ZIN, measured impedance within inner
impedance boundary and PICKUP, power swing detection.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.4.1.3
Slowly decrease the measured impedance in all three phases until the PICKUP
signal gets activated.
Increase the measured voltages to their rated values.
Decrease instantaneously voltages in all three phases to the values, which are
approximately 20% lower than the voltage that gives the set value R1LIn at the
predefined test current.
The PICKUP signal must not appear.
Increase the measured voltages to their rated values.
Testing the tR1 timer
Preconditions
•
•
The input I0CHECK, residual current (3I0) detection used to inhibit the pickup
output must be configured to the output signal STPE on the FDPSPDIS (21) function.
The input BLK_SS, block inhibit of the pickup output for subsequent residual
current detection is connected to FALSE.
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Testing functionality
1MRK 502 049-UUS -
1.
2.
3.
6.4.1.4
Program the test equipment for a single-phase to ground fault and energize
FDPSPDIS (21) and check that the input BLOCK on the power swing detection
function ZMRPSB (68) is activated.
Make a test sequence so that a single-phase to ground fault occurs after that the
trajectory of the impedance has passed the outer and inner boundary of ZMRPSB
(68) during power swing. Use the result from test of ZMRPSB (68) above to
determine when the fault shall be applied. The ground-fault must be activated
before tR1 has elapsed.
Start the sequence and observe that the PICKUP signal will not be activated.
Testing the block input, interaction between FDPSPDIS (21) and
ZMRPSB (78)
Precondition
The BLOCK input is configured and connected to STPE output on the FDPSPDIS (21)
function.
1.
2.
6.4.1.5
Make a test sequence so that a single phase-to-ground-fault occurs after that the
trajectory of the impedance has passed the outer boundary but not the inner
boundary of the power swing detection function ZMRPSB (68). Use the result
from test of ZMRPSB (68) above to instance when the fault shall be applied.
Start the test sequence by continuously reducing the voltage and observe that the
output signal ZOUT may come, but not PICKUP.
If the input I0CHECK is configured (connected to output signal STPE on
FDPSPDIS (21), the test of inhibit of ZMRPSB (68) at ground-fault during power
swing can be done in the same way as for test of tR1.
Completing the test
Continue to test another function or end the testing by setting the parameter TestMode
to Disabled under Main menu/Tests/IED test mode/TESTMODE:1. If another
function is tested, then set the parameter Blocked to No under Main menu/Tests/
Function test modes/Impedance/ZMRPSB(68)/ZMRPSB:1 for the function, or for
each individual function in a chain, to be tested next. Remember to set the parameter
Blocked to Yes, for each individual function that has been tested.
6.4.2
Underimpedance protection for generators and transformers
ZGCPDIS (21G)
Values of the logical signals for ZGCPDIS (21G) are available on the local HMI under
Main menu/Tests/Function status/Impedance/ZGCPDIS(21G,Z<)/ZGCPDIS:1.
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Testing functionality
1MRK 502 049-UUS -
The Signal Monitoring in PCM600 shows the same signals that are available on the
local HMI.
6.4.2.1
Distance protection zones ZGCPDIS (21G)
Keep the current constant when measuring operating characteristics. Keep the current
as close as possible to its rated value or lower. But make sure it is higher than 30% of
the rated current.
Ensure that the maximum continuous current in an IED does not exceed four times its
rated value, if the measurement of the operating characteristics runs under constant
voltage conditions.
To verify the mho characteristic, at least two points must be tested.
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6.4.2.2
1MRK 502 049-UUS -
Phase-to-phase faults
jX
P1
ZxFwd
Midpoint of circle
ImpedanceAng
P3
P2
Ohm/phase
R
ZxRev
P4
IEC09000173_2_en.vsd
IEC09000173 V2 EN
Figure 16:
Proposed four test points for phase-to-phase fault
Label
Description
ZxFwd
Forward positive sequence impedance setting for zone x (where x is 1- 3 depending on
the zone selected).
ZxRev
Reverse positive sequence impedance setting for zone x (where x is 1- 3 depending on
the zone selected).
ImpedanceAng The Impedance angle for phase-to-phase fault in degrees.
Table 2:
Test
points
Test points for phase-to-phase
X
R
P1
ZxFwd · sin(ImpedanceAng)
ZxFwd · cos(ImpedanceAng)
P2
(ZxFwd-ZxRev)/2 · sin(ImpedanceAng)
ZxFwd/2 · (1+cos(ImpedanceAng)+ ZxRev/2 · (1cos(ImpedanceAng)
P3
(ZxFwd-ZxRev)/2 · sin(ImpedanceAng)
-ZxFwd/2 · (1-cos(ImpedanceAng) -ZxRev/2 ·
(1+cos(ImpedanceAng)
P4
-ZxRev · sin(ImpedanceAng)
-ZxRev · cos(ImpedanceAng)
54
Commissioning Manual
Section 6
Testing functionality
1MRK 502 049-UUS -
Change the magnitude and angle of phase-to-phase voltage to achieve impedances at
test points p1, p2 and p3. For each test point, observe that the output signals, PICKUP
and PU_Zx are activated where x refers to the actual phase to be tested. After the timer
tZx (where x is 1-3 depending on selected zone) for the actual zone has elapsed, also
the signals TRIP and TRZx (where x is 1-3 depending on selected zone) shall be activated.
6.4.3
Loss of excitation LEXPDIS (40)
Prepare the IED for verification of settings as outlined in 5.1 "Preparing the IED to
verify settings".
Values of the logical signals for LEXPDIS (40) are available on the local HMI under
Main menu/Tests/Function status/Impedance/LEXPDIS(40)/LEXPDIS:1. The
Signal Monitoring in PCM600 shows the same signals that are available on the local HMI.
6.4.3.1
Verifying the settings
The test is done by means of injection of three phase current and three phase voltage
from a modern test device. This test device shall be able to give voltage and current
corresponding to the set apparent impedance.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Feed the IED with current and voltage corresponding to the apparent impedance:
Test #1, as shown in figure 17. Read the analog outputs for R and X and check
that this reading corresponds to the injected impedance. No pickup or trip signals
shall be activated.
Feed the IED with current and voltage corresponding to the apparent impedance:
Test #2, as shown in figure 17. Read the analog outputs for R and X and check
that this reading corresponds to the injected impedance. No pickup or trip signals
shall be activated.
Feed the IED with current and voltage corresponding to the apparent impedance:
Test #3, as shown in figure 17. Read the analog outputs for R and X and check
that this reading corresponds to the injected impedance. The signals PICKUP and
PU_Z2 shall be activated instantaneously and the signals TRIP and TRZ2 shall be
activated after the set delay tZ2.
Switch the current infeed injection off. The function shall reset. Turn the current
on with the values corresponding to Test #3 and measure the time to activation of
signal TRZ2. This time shall be compared to tZ2.
Feed the IED with current and voltage corresponding to the apparent impedance:
Test #4, as shown in figure 17. Read the analog outputs for R and X and check
that this reading corresponds to the injected impedance. The signals PICkUP,
55
Commissioning Manual
Section 6
Testing functionality
1MRK 502 049-UUS -
6.
PU_Z2 and PU_Z1 shall be activated instantaneously and the signals TRIP,
TRZ2 and TRZ1 shall be activated after the different set time delays.
Switch the current infeed injection off. The function shall reset. Turn the current
on with the values corresponding to Test #4 and measure the time to activation of
signal TRZ1. This time shall be compared to tZ1.
X
Test #2
Underexcitation Protection
Restrain area
Test #1
R
Test #3
Test #4
Z1, Fast zone
Z2, Slow zone
IEC06000513-2-en.vsd
IEC06000513 V2 EN
Figure 17:
6.4.3.2
Testing current and voltage corresponding to the apparent
impedance
Completing the test
Continue to test another function or end the testing by setting the parameter TestMode
to Disabled under Main menu/Tests/IED test mode/TESTMODE:1. If another
function is tested, then set the parameter Blocked to No under Main menu/Tests/
Function test modes/Impedance/LEXPDIS(40)/LEXPDIS:1 for the function, or for
each individual function in a chain, to be tested next. Remember to set the parameter
Blocked to Yes, for each individual function that has been tested.
56
Commissioning Manual
Section 6
Testing functionality
1MRK 502 049-UUS -
6.4.4
Out-of-step OOSPPAM (78)
Prepare the IED for verification of settings as outlined in 5.1 "Preparing the IED to
verify settings".
Values of the logical signals for OOSPPAM (78) are available on the local HMI under
Main menu/Tests/Function status/Impedance/OOSPPAM(78)/OOSPPAM:1. The
Signal Monitoring in PCM600 shows the same signals that are available on the local HMI.
6.4.4.1
Verifying the settings
The commissioning procedure requires only one calculation and it must be done when
all the settings have already been determined. Suppose that the voltages, the currents
and the impedances ForwardR, ForwardX, ReverseR and ReverseX are equal to those
in the example as described in the "Setting guidelines" section for the Out-of-step
protection function in the REG650 Application manual.
1.
Calculate the magnitude of a fundamental frequency current I that results in the
measured reactance ForwardX, as shown in point A in Figure 18.
I [ A] = Vgen / 3 / ForwardX
I [ A] = 13.8kV / 3 / 0.565Ohm
I [ A] = 14107
GUID-67FE4FC5-2FBB-4D9E-8EBF-2D7E5E4835C7 V1 EN
2.
(Equation 1)
Three symmetrical fundamental frequency phase voltages must be fed to IED,
with magnitudes proportional to Vgen / √(3), that is, taking into the account the
actual PT ratio in the IED. If three symmetrical fundamental frequency currents,
proportional to I = 14107 A, that is, taking into the account the CT ratio, are fed to
the IED, and they all lag their phase voltages by 90 electrical degrees, OOSPPAM
(78) function must measure a reactance equal to ForwardX, that is, 58.38 percent
of Zbase, corresponding to 0.565 Ohm. This reactance is constant and stationary,
as shown in point A in Figure 18. The voltages and the currents must be calculated
to perform the injection by a test set.
Voltages (instantaneous values) of the fundamental frequency, that is, 50 Hz or 60
Hz, must be as follows. Example for fundamental frequency 50 Hz:
v A = 2 ⋅ V phase ⋅ sin(2 ⋅ π ⋅ 50 ⋅ t )
GUID-B96BAFFE-D105-4A5A-A699-BB6BC9BAC332 V1 EN
(Equation 2)
vB = 2 ⋅ V phase ⋅ sin(2 ⋅ π ⋅ 50 ⋅ t − 2 ⋅ π / 3)
GUID-343C850F-793F-4EB5-A781-98566EB48EC6 V1 EN
(Equation 3)
vC = 2 ⋅ V phase ⋅ sin(2 ⋅ π ⋅ 50 ⋅ t − 4 ⋅ π / 3)
GUID-5302D035-57B1-4826-8C25-FBD92AFCA5D7 V1 EN
(Equation 4)
57
Commissioning Manual
Section 6
Testing functionality
1MRK 502 049-UUS -
Where Vphase = Vgen / √(3) = 13800 V / √(3) = 7967.4 Volts. The actual PT ratio
must be applied to this primary value of the phase voltage, so that the actual value
of the secondary input voltage applied to IED can be calculated.
The three symmetrical currents of the fundamental frequency, 50 Hz (or 60 Hz),
must be as follows:
i A = 2 ⋅ I ⋅ Sin( 2 ⋅ π ⋅ 50.0 ⋅ t − π / 2)
GUID-654F67DA-B7CA-4437-8EC7-E044E19F0C18 V1 EN
(Equation 5)
iB = 2 ⋅ I ⋅ Sin( 2 ⋅ π ⋅ 50.0 ⋅ t − π / 2 − 2 ⋅ π / 3)
GUID-A9B3A4AB-E020-4ABB-B15D-9280CD588342 V1 EN
(Equation 6)
iC = 2 ⋅ I ⋅ Sin(2 ⋅ π ⋅ 50.0 ⋅ t − π / 2 − 4 ⋅ π / 3)
GUID-80DD2D40-B646-40F4-A8BE-F3B9434B355E V1 EN
3.
(Equation 7)
Where I = Vgen / √(3) / ForwardX = 14107 A. The actual CT ratio must be applied
to this primary current so that correct value of the secondary injected current can
be calculated.
Expected result: The function must measure a reactance X = ForwardX = 59.33
percent of Zbase, which corresponds to 0.565 Ohm. The TRIP signal must remain
FALSE (0).
In the last step of the commissioning procedure, apart from the fundamental
frequency current described above, another current component must be injected,
with a frequency equal to the nominal frequency ± 1.000 Hz. For nominal
frequency 50 Hz, first 49.000 Hz and then 51.000 Hz. The magnitude of this
additional current component must be 0.9 times current I. If the symmetrical
additional current component in all three phases has 49.000 Hz, the trajectory of
the complex impedance has to be exactly as illustrated in Figure 18. The complex
impedance Z(R, X) travels from the right side towards the left side, as shown in
Figure 18. The Boolean output signal GENMODE must be set to TRUE (1) as
shown in Figure 6. If the X-line is set in a way, so that the zone 2 begins on the
power transformer HV-side terminals, as described in Figure 18, then all the pole
slips occur in zone 2, and this can be observed as the Boolean output TRIPZ2,
which must be periodically (with 1 Hz) set to TRUE (1), and then reset to FALSE
(0). The output trip must be set to TRUE (1) and persist at that value under this
test. If the additional component of the current is 51.000 Hz, the complex
impedance Z(R, X) travels from the left side towards the right side and the
Boolean output signal MOTMODE has to be set to TRUE (1). The rest of the
signals must be as under the 49 Hz test.
If a test set (for example, Omicron) is to be programmed for the above
commissioning test, then the currents must be as follows (while the voltages
remain as in step 2):
Currents (instantaneous values) with two components, of which one has the
fundamental frequency, that is, 50 Hz or 60 Hz, must be as follows. Example for
fundamental frequency 50 Hz:
58
Commissioning Manual
Section 6
Testing functionality
1MRK 502 049-UUS -
i A = 2 ⋅ I ⋅ Sin( 2 ⋅ π ⋅ 50.0 ⋅ t − π / 2 ) + 2 ⋅ 0.9 ⋅ I ⋅ Sin(2π ⋅ 49.0 ⋅ t − π / 2 )
(Equation 8)
GUID-FFA7A725-6249-4CC1-945A-544A213114E4 V1 EN
iB = 2 ⋅ I ⋅ Sin( 2 ⋅ π ⋅ 50.0 ⋅ t − π / 2 − 4 ⋅ π / 3) + 2 ⋅ 0.9 ⋅ I ⋅ Sin( 2π ⋅ 49.0 ⋅ t − π / 2 − 2 ⋅ π / 3)
(Equation 9)
GUID-216A8CBE-78B0-45B1-BC84-2417C6A34C7A V1 EN
iC = 2 ⋅ I ⋅ Sin(2 ⋅ π ⋅ 50.0 ⋅ t − π / 2 − 4 ⋅ π / 3) + 2 ⋅ 0.9 ⋅ I ⋅ Sin( 2π ⋅ 49.0 ⋅ t − π / 2 − 4 ⋅ π / 3)
(Equation 10)
GUID-61B450A0-4682-4309-A8C0-652339927625 V1 EN
Where I = Vgen / √(3) / ForwardX = 14107 A. The actual CT ratio must be applied
to this primary current so that correct value of the secondary injected current can
be calculated.
Expected results: As shown in Figure 6 for the test with 49 Hz. Periodical trip
commands in zone 2 (TRIPZ2) with 1 Hz.
0.8
Imaginary part (X) of Z in Ohms
0.6
0.4
0.2
0
-0.2
-0.4
-0.6
X
trajectory
RE
Z(R, X)
- - - → -- -A = ForwardX
------Zone 2 ----------X-line → ^ -^ ^ ^ ^ ---^
^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^
^
determined ^ ^ -^
----Ztr
by the
----setting
-- OOS relay
--R
ReachZ1
-lens → ---Zone
Zone
- 11
120° ----------Trajectory
of the Z(R, X) for:
Trajectory of the Z(R, X) for
--- ----- -I=
I(50Hz)
+ I(49Hz).
I = I(50Hz) + I(51Hz)
- - SE - - - I(50Hz) determines point A;
is identical, but the direction
of the rotation is the opposite
-0.8
-0.6
-0.4
I(49Hz) makes Z(R, X) rotate
-0.2
0
0.2
0.4
Real part (R) of Z in Ohms
0.6
0.8
1
IEC10000141-1-en.vsd
IEC10000141 V1 EN
Figure 18:
Trajectory of the impedance Z(R, X) for the injected current with
two components: a 50 Hz component and a minor component with
49 Hz
59
Commissioning Manual
Section 6
Testing functionality
1MRK 502 049-UUS -
COMMON TRIP COMMAND (trip)
2
1
0
TRIPZ1 (tripZone1)
1
0
-1
TRIPZ2 (tripZone2)
2
1
0
RI (initiate)
2
1
0
GENMODE (generatorMode)
2
1
0
1
0
-1
0
MOTMODE (motorMode)
0.5
1
1.5
2
2.5
3
time in seconds
3.5
4
4.5
5
ANSI10000142-1-en.vsd
ANSI10000142 V1 EN
Figure 19:
6.4.5
Boolean output signals for the injected current with two
components: a 50 Hz current component and a component with
49 Hz
Load encroachment LEPDIS
Prepare the IED for verification of settings as outlined in 5.1 "Preparing the IED to
verify settings".
Values of the logical signals for LEPDIS are available on the local HMI under Main
menu/Tests/Function status/Impedance/LEPDIS/LEPDIS:1. The Signal Monitoring
in PCM600 shows the same signals that are available on the local HMI.
Load encroachment operates on the same measuring principles as the impedance
measuring zones. Thus, it is necessary to follow the same principles as for distance
protection when performing the secondary injection tests.
60
Commissioning Manual
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Testing functionality
1MRK 502 049-UUS -
Measure operating characteristics during constant current conditions. Keep the
measured current as close as possible to the rated value of its associated input
transformer or lower. Ensure, however, that it is higher than 30% of the rated current.
Ensure that the maximum continuous current of an IED does not exceed four times its
rated value, if the measurement of the operating characteristics runs under constant
voltage conditions.
6.4.5.1
Measuring the operate limit of set values
The load encroachment function has no outputs of its own. It can only
be checked together with the impedance function.
1.
2.
6.4.5.2
Supply the IED with healthy conditions for at least two seconds.
Apply the fault condition and slowly decrease the measured impedance to find
the operate value for of the phase-to-ground and phase-to-phase loops.
Completing the test
Continue to test another function or end the testing by setting the parameter TestMode
to Disabled under Main menu/Tests/IED test mode/TESTMODE:1. If another
function is tested, then set the parameter Blocked to No under Main menu/Tests/
Function test modes/Impedance/LEPDIS/LEPDIS:1 for the function, or for each
individual function in a chain, to be tested next. Remember to set the parameter
Blocked to Yes, for each individual function that has been tested.
6.5
Testing current protection functions
6.5.1
Four step phase overcurrent protection 3-phase output
OC4PTOC (51_67)
Prepare the IED for verification of settings as outlined in 5.1 "Preparing the IED to
verify settings".
Values of the logical signals for OC4PTOC (51_67) are available on the local HMI
under Main menu/Tests/Function status/Current/OC4PTOC(51_67,4I>)/
OC4PTOC:1. The Signal Monitoring in PCM600 shows the same signals that are
available on the local HMI.
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Commissioning Manual
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Testing functionality
6.5.1.1
1MRK 502 049-UUS -
Verifying the settings
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
Connect the test set for current injection to the appropriate IED phases.
If there is any configuration logic that is used to enable or block any of the four
available overcurrent steps, make sure that the step under test is enabled (for
example, end fault protection).
Connect the symmetrical three-phase injection current into phases A, B and C.
Connect the test set for the appropriate three-phase voltage injection to the IED
phases A, B and C. The protection shall be fed with a symmetrical three-phase
voltage.
Set the injected polarizing voltage slightly larger than the set minimum polarizing
voltage (default is 5% of VBase) and set the injection current to lag the
appropriate voltage by an angle of 55° if forward directional function is selected.
If 1 out of 3 currents for operation is chosen: The voltage angle of phase A is the
reference.
If reverse directional function is selected, set the injection current to lag the
polarizing voltage by an angle equal to 235° (equal to 55° + 180°).
Increase the injected current and note the operate value of the tested step of the
function.
Decrease the current slowly and note the reset value.
If the test has been performed by injection of current in phase A, repeat the test,
injecting current into phases B and C with polarizing voltage connected to phases
B, respectively C (1 out of 3 currents for operation).
If the test has been performed by injection of current in phases AB, repeat the
test, injecting current into phases BC and CA with the appropriate phase angle of
injected currents.
Block higher set stages when testing lower set stages by following the procedure
described below.
Connect a trip output contact to a timer.
Set the injected current to 200% of the operate level of the tested stage, switch on
the current and check the time delay.
For inverse time curves, check the operate time at a current equal to 110% of the
operate current for txMin.
Check that all trip and pickup contacts operate according to the configuration
(signal matrixes)
Reverse the direction of the injected current and check that the protection does
not operate.
Repeat the above described tests for the higher set stages.
Finally check that pickup and trip information is stored in the event menu.
Verification of the non-directional phase overcurrent function is
done as instructed above, without applying any polarizing voltage.
62
Commissioning Manual
Section 6
Testing functionality
1MRK 502 049-UUS -
6.5.1.2
Completing the test
Continue to test another function or end the testing by setting the parameter TestMode
to Disabled under Main menu/Tests/IED test mode/TESTMODE:1. If another
function is tested, then set the parameter Blocked to No under Main menu/Tests/
Function test modes/Current/OC4PTOC(51_67,4I>)/OC4PTOC:1 for the function,
or for each individual function in a chain, to be tested next. Remember to set the
parameter Blocked to Yes, for each individual function that has been tested.
6.5.2
Four step residual overcurrent protection, zero or negative
sequence direction EF4PTOC (51N/67N)
Prepare the IED for verification of settings as outlined in 5.1 "Preparing the IED to
verify settings".
Values of the logical signals for EF4PTOC (51N67N) are available on the local HMI
under Main menu/Tests/Function status/Current/EF4PTOC(51N67N,4IN>)/
EF4PTOC:X. The Signal Monitoring in PCM600 shows the same signals that are
available on the local HMI.
6.5.2.1
Four step directional residual overcurrent protection
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
Connect the test set for single current injection to the appropriate IED terminals.
Connect the injection current and voltage to terminals A and neutral.
Set the injected polarizing voltage slightly larger than the set minimum polarizing
voltage (default 1% of Vn) and set the injection current to lag the voltage by an
angle equal to the set reference characteristic angle (AngleRCA), if the forward
directional function is selected.
If reverse directional function is selected, set the injection current to lag the
polarizing voltage by an angle equal to RCA+ 180°.
Increase the injected current and note the value at which the studied step of the
function operates.
Decrease the current slowly and note the reset value.
If the test has been performed by injection of current in phase A, repeat the test,
injecting current into terminals B and C with a polarizing voltage connected to
terminals B, respectively C.
Block lower set steps when testing higher set steps according to the instructions
that follow.
Connect a trip output contact to a timer.
Set the injected current to 200% of the operate level of the tested step, switch on
the current and check the time delay.
63
Commissioning Manual
Section 6
Testing functionality
1MRK 502 049-UUS -
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
6.5.2.2
Four step non-directional residual overcurrent protection
1.
6.5.2.3
For inverse time curves, check the operate time at a current equal to 110% of the
operate current for txMin.
Check that all trip and trip contacts operate according to the configuration (signal
matrixes)
Reverse the direction of the injected current and check that the step does not operate.
Check that the protection does not operate when the polarizing voltage is zero.
Repeat the above described tests for the higher set steps.
Finally, check that pickup and trip information is stored in the event menu.
Do as described in "Four step directional residual overcurrent protection", but
without applying any polarizing voltage.
Completing the test
Continue to test another function or end the testing by setting the parameter TestMode
to Disabled under Main menu/Tests/IED test mode/TESTMODE:1. If another
function is tested, then set the parameter Blocked to No under Main menu/Tests/
Function test modes/Current/EF4PTOC(51N67N,4IN>)/EF4PTOC:X for the
function, or for each individual function in a chain, to be tested next. Remember to set
the parameter Blocked to Yes, for each individual function that has been tested.
6.5.3
Sensitive directional residual overcurrent and power
protection SDEPSDE (67N)
Prepare the IED for verification of settings as outlined in 5.1 "Preparing the IED to
verify settings".
Values of the logical signals for SDEPSDE (67N) are available on the local HMI under
Main menu/Tests/Function status/Current/SDEPSDE(67N,IN<->)/SDEPSDE:1.
The Signal Monitoring in PCM600 shows the same signals that are available on the
local HMI.
6.5.3.1
Measuring the operate and time limit for set values
Operation mode 3I0 · cosφ
Procedure
1.
Set the polarizing voltage to 1.2 · VNRelPU and the phase angle between voltage
and current to the set characteristic angle (RCADir), the current lagging the voltage.
64
Commissioning Manual
Section 6
Testing functionality
1MRK 502 049-UUS -
2.
3.
4.
5.
Take setting RCAComp into consideration if not equal to 0.
Measure that the operate current of the set directional element is equal to the
INcosPhiPU setting.
The I Dir (I0 cos(Angle)) function activates the BFI_3P and STDIRIN output.
Measure with angles j = RCADir +/- 45° that the measuring element operates
when I0 cos (RCADir - j) = I0cos(+/-45) = INcosPhiPU.
Compare the result with the set value.
Take the set characteristic into consideration, see figure 20 and figure 21.
Measure the operate time of the timer by injecting a current two times the set
INcosPhiPU value and the polarizing voltage 1.2 · VNRelPU.
Tinv = kSN × Sref / 3 I 0 test × cos (j )
IECEQUATION2402 V1 EN
6.
7.
8.
(Equation 11)
Compare the result with the expected value.
The expected value depends on whether definite or inverse time was selected.
Set the polarizing voltage to zero and increase until the boolean output signal
VNREL is activated, which is visible in the Application Configuration in
PCM600 when the IED is in online mode. Compare the voltage with the set value
VNRelPU.
Continue to test another function or complete the test by setting the test mode to
Disabled.
65
Commissioning Manual
Section 6
Testing functionality
1MRK 502 049-UUS -
3I0
3I0 cos
Operate area
-3V
=V3V
Vref0=ref o
RCA = 0°
ROA
ANSI06000650-2vsd
en06000650_ansi.vsd
ANSI06000650 V2 EN
Figure 20:
Characteristic with ROADir restriction
66
Commissioning Manual
Section 6
Testing functionality
1MRK 502 049-UUS -
Operate area
-3V0=Vref
Instrument
transformer
angle error
a
RCA = 0°
RCAcomp
Characteristic after
angle compensation
3I0 (prim)
3I0 (to prot)
en06000651_ansi.vsd
ANSI06000651 V1 EN
Figure 21:
Explanation of RCAcomp
Operation mode 3I0 · 3V0 · cosφ
1.
2.
3.
4.
Set the polarizing voltage to 1.2 · VNRelPU and the phase angle between voltage
and current to the set characteristic angle (RCADir), the current lagging the voltage.
Measure that the operate power is equal to the SN_PU setting for the set
directional element.
Note that for pick-up, both the injected current and voltage must be greater than
the set values INRelPU and VNRelPU respectively.
The function activates the BFI_3P and STDIRIN outputs.
Measure with angles j = RCADir +/- 45° that the measuring element operates
when 3I0 · 3V0 · cos (RCADir - j) = 3I0 · 3V0 · cos(+/-45) = SN_PU.
Compare the result with the set value. Take the set characteristic into
consideration, see figure 20 and figure 21.
67
Commissioning Manual
Section 6
Testing functionality
1MRK 502 049-UUS -
5.
Measure the operate time of the timer by injecting 1.2 · VNRelPU and a current to
get two times the set SN_PU operate value.
Tinv = kSN × Sref / 3 I 0 test × 3V 0 test × cos (j )
(Equation 12)
ANSIEQUATION2403 V1 EN
6.
7.
Compare the result with the expected value.
The expected value depends on whether definite or inverse time was selected.
Continue to test another function or complete the test by setting the test mode to
Disabled.
Operation mode 3I0 and φ
1.
2.
Set the polarizing voltage to 1.2 · VNRelPU and the phase angle between voltage
and current to the set characteristic angle (RCADir), the current lagging the voltage.
Measure that the operate power is equal to the INRelPU setting for the set
directional element.
Note that for pickup, both the injected current and voltage must be
greater than the set values INRelPU and VNRelPU respectively.
3.
4.
5.
The function activates the BFI_3P and STDIRIN output.
Measure with angles j around RCADir +/- ROADir.
Compare the result with the set values, refer to figure 22 for example characteristic.
Measure the operate time of the timer by injecting a current to get two times the
set SN_PU operate value.
Tinv = kSN × Sref / 3 I 0 test × 3V 0 test × cos (j )
ANSIEQUATION2403 V1 EN
6.
7.
(Equation 13)
Compare the result with the expected value.
The expected value depends on whether definite or inverse time was selected.
Continue to test another function or complete the test by setting the test mode to
Disabled.
68
Commissioning Manual
Section 6
Testing functionality
1MRK 502 049-UUS -
RCA = 0º
ROA = 80º
Operate area
3I0
Vref=-3V0
ANSI06000652-2-en.vsd
ANSI06000652 V2 EN
Figure 22:
Example characteristic
Non-directional ground fault current protection
Procedure
1.
2.
3.
4.
Measure that the operate current is equal to the INNonDirPU setting.
The function activates the BFI_3P and STDIRIN output.
Measure the operate time of the timer by injecting a current of 200% of the
operate value.
Compare the result with the expected value.
The expected value depends on whether definite time tINNonDir or inverse time
was selected.
Continue to test another function or complete the test by setting the test mode to
Disabled.
Residual overvoltage release and protection
Procedure
1.
2.
3.
Measure that the operate voltage is equal to the VN_PU setting.
The function activates the BFI_3P and STUN signals.
Measure the operate time by injecting a voltage 1.2 timers set VN_PU operate value.
Compare the result with the set tVN operate value.
69
Commissioning Manual
Section 6
Testing functionality
1MRK 502 049-UUS -
4.
5.
6.
6.5.3.2
Inject a voltage 0.8 · VNRelPU and a current high enough to operate the
directional function at the chosen angle.
Increase the voltage until the directional function is released.
Compare the measured value with the set VNRelPU operate value.
Completing the test
Continue to test another function or end the testing by setting the parameter TestMode
to Disabled under Main menu/Tests/IED test mode/TESTMODE:1. If another
function is tested, then set the parameter Blocked to No under Main menu/Tests/
Function test modes/Current/SDEPSDE(67N,IN<->)/SDEPSDE:1 for the function,
or for each individual function in a chain, to be tested next. Remember to set the
parameter Blocked to Yes, for each individual function that has been tested.
6.5.4
Thermal overload protection, two time constants TRPTTR (49)
Prepare the IED for verification of settings as outlined in 5.1 "Preparing the IED to
verify settings".
Values of the logical signals for TRPTTR (49) are available on the local HMI under
Main menu/Tests/Function status/Current/TRPTTR(49,T>)/TRPTTR:X. The
Signal Monitoring in PCM600 shows the same signals that are available on the local HMI.
6.5.4.1
Checking operate and reset values
1.
2.
3.
Connect symmetrical three-phase currents to the appropriate current terminals of
the IED.
Set the Time constant 1 (Tau1) and Time Constant 2 (Tau2) temporarily to 1 minute.
Set the three-phase injection currents slightly lower than the set operate value of
stage IBase1, increase the current in phase A until stage IBase1 operates and note
the operate value.
Observe the maximum permitted overloading of the current
circuits in the IED.
4.
5.
6.
Decrease the current slowly and note the reset value.
Check, in the same way, the operate and reset values of IBase1 for phases B and
C.
Activate the cooling input signal, thus switching to base current IBase2.
Check the operate and reset values (for all three phases) for IBase2 in the same
way as described above for stage IBase1.
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1MRK 502 049-UUS -
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
6.5.4.2
Deactivate the input signal for stage IBase2.
Set the time constant for IBase1 in accordance with the setting plan.
Set the injection current for phase A to 1.50 · IBase1.
Connect a trip output contact to the timer and monitor the output of contacts
ALARM1 and ALARM2 to digital inputs in test equipment.
Read the heat content in the thermal protection from the local HMI and wait until
the content is zero.
Switch on the injection current and check that ALARM1 and ALARM2 contacts
operate at the set percentage level and that the operate time for tripping is in
accordance with the set Time Constant 1 (Tau1).
With setting Itr = 101%IBase1 and injection current 1.50 · IBase1, the trip time
from zero content in the memory shall be 0.60 · Time Constant 1 (Tau1).
Check that all trip and alarm contacts operate according to the configuration logic.
Switch off the injection current and check from the service menu readings of
thermal status and LOCKOUT that the lockout resets at the set percentage of heat
content.
Activate the cooling input signal to switch over to base current IBase2.
Wait 5 minutes to empty the thermal memory and set Time Constant 2 (Tau2) in
accordance with the setting plan.
Test with injection current 1.50 · IBase2 the thermal alarm level, the operate time
for tripping and the lockout reset in the same way as described for stage IBase1.
Finally check that pickup and trip information is stored in the event menu.
Completing the test
Continue to test another function or end the testing by setting the parameter TestMode
to Disabled under Main menu/Tests/IED test mode/TESTMODE:1. If another
function is tested, then set the parameter Blocked to No under Main menu/Tests/
Function test modes/Current/TRPTTR(49,T>)/TRPTTR:X for the function, or for
each individual function in a chain, to be tested next. Remember to set the parameter
Blocked to Yes, for each individual function that has been tested.
6.5.5
Breaker failure protection, phase segregated activation and
output CCRBRF (50BF)
Prepare the IED for verification of settings as outlined in 5.1 "Preparing the IED to
verify settings".
Values of the logical signals for CCRBRF (50BF) are available on the local HMI under
Main menu/Tests/Function status/Current/CCRBRF(50BF)/CCRBRF:1. The
Signal Monitoring in PCM600 shows the same signals that are available on the local HMI.
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1MRK 502 049-UUS -
The Breaker failure protection, 3-phase activation and output function CCRBRF
(50BF) should normally be tested in conjunction with some other function that
provides an initiate signal. An external INITIATE signal can also be used.
To verify the settings in the most common back-up trip mode 1 out of 3, it is sufficient
to test phase-to-ground faults.
At mode 2 out of 4 the phase current setting, Pickup_PH can be checked by singlephase injection where the return current is connected to the summated current input.
The value of residual (ground fault) current IN set lower than Pickup_PH is easiest
checked in back-up trip mode 1 out of 4.
6.5.5.1
Checking the phase current operate value, Pickup_PH
Check the current level IP> where setting FunctionMode=Current and setting
BuTripMode=1 out of 3 or 2 out of 4 as set under Main menu/Settings/IED Settings/
Current/CCRBRF(50BF)/CCRBRF:1.
1.
2.
3.
4.
Apply the fault condition, including INITIATION of CCRBRF (50BF), with a
current below set Pickup_PH.
Repeat the fault condition and increase the current in steps until a trip occurs.
Compare the result with the set Pickup_PH.
Disconnect AC and INITIATE input signals.
Note! If NoIPickupcheck or Retrip off is set, only back-up trip can
be used to check set Pickup_PH.
6.5.5.2
Checking the residual (ground fault) current operate value Pickup_N set
below Pickup_PH
Check the low set Pickup_N current where setting FunctionMode = Current and setting
BuTripMode = 1 out of 4 as set under Main menu/Settings/IED Settings/Current/
CCRBRF(50BF)/CCRBRF:1.
1.
2.
3.
4.
Apply the fault condition, including INITIATION of CCRBRF (50BF), with a
current just below set IN>Pickup_N.
Repeat the fault condition and increase the current in steps until trip appears.
Compare the result with the set Pickup_N.
Disconnect AC and INITIATION input signals.
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1MRK 502 049-UUS -
6.5.5.3
Checking the re-trip and back-up times
The check of the set times can be made in connection with the check of operate values
above.
Choose the applicable function and trip mode, such as FunctionMode = Current and
setting RetripMode = No CBPos. Check as set under Main menu/Settings/IED
Settings/Current/CCRBRF(50BF)/CCRBRF:1.
1.
2.
3.
6.5.5.4
Apply the fault condition, including initiation of CCRBRF (50BF), well above
the set current value. Measure time from INITIATION of CCRBRF (50BF).
Check the re-trip t1 and back-up trip times t2.
Disconnect AC and INITIATE input signals.
Verifying the re-trip mode
Choose the mode below, which corresponds to the actual case.
In the cases below it is assumed that FunctionMode = Current as set under Main menu/
Settings/IED Settings/Current/CCRBRF(50BF)/CCRBRF:1.
Checking the case without re-trip, RetripMode = Retrip Off
1.
2.
3.
4.
Set RetripMode = Retrip Off.
Apply the fault condition, including initiation of CCRBRF (50BF), well above
the set current value.
Verify that no re-trip, but back-up trip is achieved after set time.
Disconnect AC and INITIATE input signals.
Checking the re-trip with current check, RetripMode = CB Pos Check
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Set RetripMode = CB Pos Check.
Apply the fault condition, including initiation of CCRBRF (50BF), well above
the set current value.
Verify that re-trip is achieved after set time t1 and back-up trip after time t2
Apply the fault condition, including initiation of CCRBRF (50BF), with current
below set current value.
Verify that no re-trip, and no back-up trip is obtained.
Disconnect AC and INITIATE input signals.
Checking re-trip without current check, RetripMode = No CBPos Check
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1MRK 502 049-UUS -
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
6.5.5.5
Set RetripMode = No CBPos Check.
Apply the fault condition, including initiation of CCRBRF (50BF), without any
current.
Verify that re-trip is achieved after set time t1, and back-up trip after time t2.
Apply the fault condition, including initiation of CCRBRF (50BF), with current
below set current value.
Verify that re-trip is achieved after set time t1, but no back-up trip is obtained.
Disconnect AC and INITIATE input signals.
Verifying the back-up trip mode
In the cases below it is assumed that FunctionMode = Current is selected.
Checking that back-up tripping is not achieved at normal CB tripping
Use the actual tripping modes. The case below applies to re-trip with current check.
1.
2.
3.
4.
Apply the fault condition, including initiation of CCRBRF (50BF), with phase
current well above set value IP.
Interrupt the current, with a margin before back-up trip time, t2. It may be made
at issue of re-trip command.
Check that re-trip is achieved, if selected, but no back-up trip is obtained.
Disconnect AC and INITIATE input signals.
The normal mode BuTripMode = 1 out of 3 should have been verified in the tests
above. In applicable cases the modes 1 out of 4 and 2 out of 4 can be checked. Choose
the mode below, which corresponds to the actual case.
Checking the case BuTripMode = 1 out of 4
It is assumed that the ground-fault current setting Pickup_N is below phase current
setting Pickup_PH.
1.
2.
3.
4.
Set BuTripMode = 1 out of 4.
Apply the fault condition, including initiation of CCRBRF (50BF), with onephase current below set Pickup_PH but above Pickup_N. The residual groundfault should then be above set Pickup_N.
Verify that back-up trip is achieved after set time. If selected, re-trip should also
appear.
Disconnect AC and INITIATE input signals.
Checking the case BuTripMode = 2 out of 4
The ground-fault current setting Pickup_N may be equal to or below phase-current
setting Pickup_PH.
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1MRK 502 049-UUS -
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
6.5.5.6
Set BuTripMode = 2 out of 4.
Apply the fault condition, including initiation of CCRBRF (50BF), with onephase current above set Pickup_PH and residual (ground fault) above set
Pickup_N.
Verify that back-up trip is achieved after set time. If selected, re-trip should also
appear.
Apply the fault condition, including initiation of CCRBRF (50BF), with at least
one-phase current below set Pickup_PH and residual (ground fault) above set
Pickup_N. The current may be arranged by feeding three- (or two-) phase
currents with equal phase angle (I0-component) below Pickup_PH, but of such
value that the residual (ground fault) current (3I0) will be above set value
Pickup_N.
Verify that back-up trip is not achieved.
Disconnect AC and INITIATE input signals.
Verifying the case RetripMode = Contact
It is assumed that re-trip without current check is selected, RetripMode = Contact.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
6.5.5.7
Set FunctionMode = Contact
Apply input signal for CB closed to input 52a_A (B or C).
Apply input signal, for initiation of CCRBRF (50BF).
Verify that phase selection re-trip and back-up trip are achieved after set times.
Disconnect the trip signal. Keep the CB closed signal.
Apply input signal, for initiation of CCRBRF (50BF).
Arrange disconnection of CB closed signal well before set back-up trip time t2.
Verify that back-up trip is not achieved.
Disconnect injected AC and INITIATE input signals.
Verifying the function mode Current&Contact
To be made only when FunctionMode = Current&Contact is selected.
Checking the case with fault current above set value Pickup_PH
The operation shall be as in FunctionMode = Current.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Set FunctionMode = Current&Contact.
Leave the inputs for CB close inactivated. These signals should not influence.
Apply the fault condition, including initiation of CCRBRF (50BF), with current
above the set Pickup_PH value.
Check that the re-trip, if selected, and back-up trip commands are achieved.
Disconnect injected AC and INITIATE input signals.
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1MRK 502 049-UUS -
Checking the case with fault current below set value Pickup_BlkCont
The case shall simulate a case where the fault current is very low and operation will
depend on CB position signal from CB auxiliary contact. It is suggested that re-trip
without current check is used, setting RetripMode = No CBPos Check.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
6.5.5.8
Set FunctionMode = Current&Contact.
Apply input signal for CB closed to relevant input or inputs 52a_A (B or C)
Apply the fault condition with input signal(s) for initiation of CCRBRF (50BF).
The value of current should be below the set value Pickup_BlkCont
Verify that phase selection re-trip (if selected) and back-up trip are achieved after
set times. Failure to trip is simulated by keeping the signal(s) CB closed activated.
Disconnect the AC and the INITIATE signal(s). Keep the CB closed signal(s).
Apply the fault and the initiation again. The value of current should be below the
set value Pickup_BlkCont.
Arrange disconnection of BC closed signal(s) well before set back-up trip time t2.
It simulates a correct CB tripping.
Verify that back-up trip is not achieved. Re-trip can appear for example, due to
selection “Re-trip without current check”.
Disconnect injected AC and INITIATE input signals.
Completing the test
Continue to test another function or end the testing by setting the parameter TestMode
to Disabled under Main menu/Tests/IED test mode/TESTMODE:1. If another
function is tested, then set the parameter Blocked to No under Main menu/Tests/
Function test modes/Current/CCRBRF(50BF)/CCRBRF:X for the function, or for
each individual function in a chain, to be tested next. Remember to set the parameter
Blocked to Yes, for each individual function that has been tested.
6.5.6
Pole discrepancy protection CCRPLD (52PD)
Prepare the IED for verification of settings as outlined in 5.1 "Preparing the IED to
verify settings".
Values of the logical signals for CCRPLD (52PD) are available on the local HMI
under Main menu/Tests/Function status/Current/CCRPLD(52PD)/CCRPLD:X.
The Signal Monitoring in PCM600 shows the same signals that are available on the
local HMI.
6.5.6.1
Verifying the settings
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1MRK 502 049-UUS -
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
6.5.6.2
When CCRPLD (52PD) is set for external, set setting ContSel to Enable under
Main menu/Settings/IED Settings/Current/CCRPLD/CCRPLD:1 to activate
the logic that detects pole discordance when external pole discordance signaling
is used (input EXTPDIND) in the application configuration.
Activate the input EXTPDIND on CCRPLD (52PD) function block, and measure
the operating time of CCRPLD (52PD).
Compare the measured time with the set value tTrip.
Reset the EXTPDIND input.
When CCRPLD (52PD) is set for unsymmetrical current detection with CB
monitoring, set setting CurrSel under Main menu/Settings/IED Settings/
Current/CCRPLD/CCRPLD:1 to Enable.
Use the TRIP signal from the configured binary output to stop the timer.
Repeat point 4 and 5 using OPENCMD instead of CLOSECMD. Set all three
currents to 110% of CurrRelLevel. Activate CLOSECMD.
NO TRIP signal should appear due to symmetrical condition.
Completing the test
Continue to test another function or end the testing by setting the parameter TestMode
to Disabled under Main menu/Tests/IED test mode/TESTMODE:1. If another
function is tested, then set the parameter Blocked to No under Main menu/Tests/
Function test modes/Current/CCRPLD(52PD)/CCRPLD:X for the function, or for
each individual function in a chain, to be tested next. Remember to set the parameter
Blocked to Yes, for each individual function that has been tested.
6.5.7
Directional underpower protection GUPPDUP (37)
Prepare the IED for verification of settings as outlined in 5.1 "Preparing the IED to
verify settings".
Values of the logical signals for GUPPDUP (37) are available on the local HMI under
Main menu/Tests/Function status/Current/GUPPDUP(37,P<)/GUPPDUP:1. The
Signal Monitoring in PCM600 shows the same signals that are available on the local HMI.
6.5.7.1
Verifying the settings
The underpower protection shall be set to values according to the real set values to be
used.
The test is made by means of injection of voltage and current where the amplitude of
both current and voltage and the phase angle between the voltage and current can be
controlled. During the test, the analog outputs of active and reactive power shall be
monitored.
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1MRK 502 049-UUS -
1.
Connect the test set for injection of voltage and current corresponding to the
mode to be used in the application. If a three-phase test set is available this could
be used for all the modes. If a single-phase current/voltage test set is available the
test set should be connected to a selected input for one-phase current and voltage.
Use the formulas stated in Table 3 for the different calculation modes used. The
set mode Mode can be found on the local HMI under Main menu/Settings/IED
Settings/Current/GUPPDUP(37,P<)/GUPPDUP:1/General.
Table 3:
Calculation modes
Set value: Mode
A, B, C
Formula used for complex power calculation
S = V A × I A* + VB × I B* + VC × I C *
EQUATION2055 V1 EN
Arone
S = V AB × I A* - VBC × IC *
EQUATION2056-ANSI V1 EN
PosSeq
(Equation 17)
S = VBC × ( I B* - IC * )
EQUATION2059-ANSI V1 EN
CA
(Equation 16)
S = VAB × ( I A* - I B* )
EQUATION2058-ANSI V1 EN
BC
(Equation 15)
S = 3 × VPosSeq × I PosSeq*
EQUATION2057-ANSI V1 EN
AB
(Equation 14)
(Equation 18)
S = VCA × ( I C * - I A* )
EQUATION2060-ANSI V1 EN
(Equation 19)
Table continues on next page
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Testing functionality
1MRK 502 049-UUS -
Set value: Mode
A
Formula used for complex power calculation
S = 3 × VA × I A*
EQUATION2061-ANSI V1 EN
B
S = 3 × VB × I B*
EQUATION2062-ANSI V1 EN
C
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
6.5.7.2
(Equation 21)
S = 3 × VC × I C *
EQUATION2063-ANSI V1 EN
2.
(Equation 20)
(Equation 22)
Adjust the injected current and voltage to the set values in % of IBase and VBase
(converted to secondary current and voltage). The angle between the injected
current and voltage shall be set equal to the set direction Angle1, angle for stage 1
(equal to 0° for low forward power protection and equal to 180° for reverse
power protection). Check that the monitored active power is equal to 100% of
rated power and that the reactive power is equal to 0% of rated power.
Change the angle between the injected current and voltage to Angle1 + 90°.
Check that the monitored active power is equal to 0% of rated power and that the
reactive power is equal to 100% of rated power.
Change the angle between the injected current and voltage back to 0°. Decrease
the current slowly until the PICKUP1 signal, pickup of stage 1, is activated.
Increase the current to 100% of IBase.
Switch the current off and measure the time for activation of TRIP1, trip of stage
1.
If a second stage is used, repeat steps 2 to 6 for the second stage.
Completing the test
Continue to test another function or end the testing by setting the parameter TestMode
to Disabled under Main menu/Tests/IED test mode/TESTMODE:1. If another
function is tested, then set the parameter Blocked to No under Main menu/Tests/
Function test modes/Current/GUPPDUP(37,P<)/GUPPDUP:1 for the function, or
for each individual function in a chain, to be tested next. Remember to set the
parameter Blocked to Yes, for each individual function that has been tested.
6.5.8
Directional overpower protection GOPPDOP (32)
Prepare the IED for verification of settings as outlined in 5.1 "Preparing the IED to
verify settings".
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Values of the logical signals for GOPPDOP (32) are available on the local HMI under
Main menu/Tests/Function status/Current/GOPPDOP(32,P>)/GOPPDOP:X. The
Signal Monitoring in PCM600 shows the same signals that are available on the local HMI.
6.5.8.1
Verifying the settings
The overpower protection shall be set to values according to the real set values to be
used. The test is made by means of injection of voltage and current where the
amplitude of both current and voltage and the phase angle between the voltage and
current can be controlled. During the test the analog outputs of active and reactive
power shall be monitored.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
6.5.8.2
Connect the test set for injection of voltage and current corresponding to the
mode to be used in the application. If a three phase test set is available this could
be used for all the modes. If a single phase current/voltage test set is available the
test set should be connected to a selected input for one phase current and voltage.
Use the formulas stated in Table 3 for the different calculation modes used. The
set mode Mode can be found under Main menu/Settings/IED Settings/Current/
GOPPDOP(32,P>)/GOPPDOP:1/General.
Adjust the injected current and voltage to the set rated values in % of IBase and
VBase (converted to secondary current and voltage). The angle between the
injected current and voltage shall be set equal to the set direction Angle1, angle
for stage 1 (equal to 0° for low forward power protection and equal to 180° for
reverse power protection). Check that the monitored active power is equal to
100% of rated power and that the reactive power is equal to 0% of rated power.
Change the angle between the injected current and voltage to Angle1 + 90°.
Check that the monitored active power is equal to 0% of rated power and that the
reactive power is equal to 100% of rated power.
Change the angle between the injected current and voltage back to Angle1 value.
Increase the current slowly from 0 until the PICKUP1 signal, pickup of stage 1, is
activated. Check the injected power and compare it to the set value Power1,
power setting for stage 1 in % of Sbase.
Increase the current to 100% of IBase and switch the current off.
Switch the current on and measure the time for activation of TRIP1, trip of stage 1.
If a second stage is used, repeat steps 2 to 6 for the second stage.
Completing the test
Continue to test another function or end the testing by setting the parameter TestMode
to Disabled under Main menu/Tests/IED test mode/TESTMODE:1. If another
function is tested, then set the parameter Blocked to No under Main menu/Tests/
Function test modes/Current/GOPPDOP(32,P>)/GOPPDOP:X for the function, or
for each individual function in a chain, to be tested next. Remember to set the
parameter Blocked to Yes, for each individual function that has been tested.
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6.5.9
Accidental energizing protection for synchronous generator
AEGGAPC (50AE)
Prepare the IED for verification of settings as outlined in 5.1 "Preparing the IED to
verify settings".
Values of the logical signals for AEGGAPC (50AE) are available on the local HMI
under Main menu/Tests/Function status/Current/AEGGAPC(50AE,U<&I>)/
AEGGAPC:1. The Signal Monitoring in PCM600 shows the same signals that are
available on the local HMI.
6.5.9.1
Verifying the settings
1.
Connect the test set for three-phase current injection and for three phase voltage
injection to the appropriate IED terminals.
2. Inject zero voltage to the IED.
3. Increase the injected symmetric three phase current slowly and note the operated
value (pickup value).
4. Decrease the current slowly and note the reset value.
5. Connect a trip output contact to a timer.
6. Set the injected current to 200% of the operate level, switch on the current and
check the time delay.
7. Check that all trip and pickup contacts operate according to the configuration
(signal matrises).
8. Finally check that pickup and trip information is stored in the event menu.
9. Inject rated symmetric three phase voltage to the IED.
10. Set the injected current to 200% of the operate level, switch on the current. The
function shall not pickup and trip.
11. Inject 95% of the set 27_pick_up value symmetric three-phase voltage to the IED.
12. Set the injected current to 200% of the operate level, switch on the current. The
function shall pickup and trip.
6.5.10
Negative-sequence time overcurrent protection for machines
NS2PTOC (46I2)
Prepare the IED for verification of settings as outlined in 5.1 "Preparing the IED to
verify settings".
Values of the logical signals for NS2PTOC (46I2) are available on the local HMI under
Main menu/Tests/Function status/Current/NS2PTOC(46I2,2I2>)/NS2PTOC:1.
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1MRK 502 049-UUS -
The Signal Monitoring in PCM600 shows the same signals that are available on the
local HMI.
6.5.10.1
Verifying settings by secondary injection
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
Connect the test set for injection of three-phase currents to the appropriate current
terminals of the IED.
Go to Main menu/Settings/IED Settings/Current/NS2PTOC(46I2,2I2>)/
NS2PTOC:1/General and make sure that the function is enabled, that is
Operation is set to Enabled.
Inject current into IEDs in such a way that negative sequence component is
created and then verify that negative sequence component of the injected currents
is calculated correctly by the function. See example below for 1 A rated current
transformer.
Inject pure negative sequence current, that is, phase currents with exactly same
magnitude, reversed sequence and exactly 120° phase displaced into the IED with
an initial value below negative sequence current pickup level. No output signals
should be activated.
Note: If it is difficult to obtain pure negative sequence current for the secondary
injection test, a current corresponding to the two phase short-circuit condition can
be used. A two phase short-circuit gives a negative sequence current of a
magnitude: magnitude = (1/√3) · fault current.
Increase the injected current and note the value at which the step 1 of the function
operates. Pickup signal PU_ST1 must be activated when amplitude of the
negative sequence current lies slightly above the pickup level I2-1>.
Corresponding trip signals TRST1 and TRIP is activated after the pre-set time
delay has expired.
Note: Block or disable operation of step 2 when testing step 1 if the injected
current activates the step 2.
Decrease the current slowly and note the reset value.
Connect a trip output contact to a timer.
Set the current to 200 % of the pickup level of the step 1, switch on the current
and check the definite time delay for trip signals TRST1 and TRIP. Once the
measured negative sequence current exceeds the set pickup level I2-1>, the
settable definite timer t1 starts to count and trip signals is released after the set
time delay has elapsed. The same test must be carried out to check the accuracy
of definite time delay for ALARM signal.
Note: The output ALARM is operated by PICKUP signal.
If inverse time is selected the trip signals TRST1 and TRIP operates after a time
corresponding to the formula:
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1MRK 502 049-UUS -
1


2


I
2
−
1
>






 100 
⋅K
t [s] = 
 ( Multiple of Pickup )2 






This means that if current jumps from 0 to 2 times pickup and negative sequence
capability value of generator K1 is set to 10 sec and current pickup level I2-1> is
set to 10% of rated generator current, then TRST1 and TRIP signals operates at
time equal to 250 sec ± tolerance.
10. Repeat the above-described tests for the step 2 of the function excluding the
inverse time testing.
11. Finally check that pickup and trip information is stored in the event menu.
Example
If CT ratios CTprim/CTsec for all three phases are 1000 and IBase is set to 1000 A,
than the following secondary currents shall be applied.
IA
Ampl = 1.1 A
Angl = 15 deg
IB
Ampl = 0.6 A
Angl = 97 deg
IC
Ampl = 1.3 A
Angl = -135 deg
The service value output NSCURR indicating amplitude of negative sequence current
in primary amperes should be 962A approximative.
6.5.11
Voltage-restrained time overcurrent protection VRPVOC(51V)
Prepare the IED for verification of settings as outlined in 5.1 "Preparing the IED to
verify settings".
Values of the logical signals for VRPVOC (51V) are available on the local HMI under
Main menu/Tests/Function status/Current/VRPVOC(51V,I>U<)/VRPVOC:1. The
Signal Monitoring in PCM600 shows the same signals that are available on the local HMI.
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6.5.11.1
1MRK 502 049-UUS -
Verifying the settings
Built-in overcurrent feature (non-directional)
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
Go to Main menu/Test/Function test modes/Current protection and make sure
that VRPVOC (51V) to be tested is unblocked and other functions that might
disturb the evaluation of the test are blocked.
Connect the test set for injection of three-phase currents to the appropriate current
terminals of the IED.
Inject three-phase current(s). Increase the current(s) until the function operates
and check against the set operate value, for example when voltage is reduced to
50% of rated the overcurrent pickup shall be 50% of the current pickup value for
rated voltage.
Decrease the current slowly and check the reset value.
Connect a TRIP output contact to the timer.
Set the current to 200% of the operate value, switch on the current and check the
time delay.
For inverse time curves, check the operate time at a current equal to 110% of the
operate current at tMin.
Check that TRIP and PICKUP contacts operate according to the configuration logic.
Finally check that PICKUP and TRIP information is stored in the event menu.
Information on how to use the event menu is found in the
operators manual.
Overcurrent feature with voltage restraint
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Connect the test set for injection of three-phase currents and three-phase voltages
to the appropriate current and voltage terminals of the IED.
Inject the rated voltage during the next steps in order for function to operate properly.
Inject three-phase current(s) and voltage(s).
Overall check in principle as non-directional overcurrent feature.
Operate value measurement
The relevant voltage restraining value must also be injected from the test set and
the influence on the operate value has to be calculated when testing the operate
value is completed.
Operate time measurement
Definite times may be tested as above. For inverse time characteristics the
PICKUP value, to which the overcurrent ratio has to be calculated, is the actual
pickup value as got with actual restraining from the voltage restraining quantity.
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1MRK 502 049-UUS -
6.5.11.2
Completing the test
Continue to test another function or end the testing by setting the parameter TestMode
to Disabled under Main menu/Tests/IED test mode/TESTMODE:1. If another
function is tested, then set the parameter Blocked to No under Main menu/Tests/
Function test modes/Current/VRPVOC(51V,I>U<)/VRPVOC:1 for the function, or
for each individual function in a chain, to be tested next. Remember to set the
parameter Blocked to Yes, for each individual function that has been tested.
6.6
Testing voltage protection functions
6.6.1
Two step undervoltage protection UV2PTUV (27)
Prepare the IED for verification of settings as outlined in 5.1 "Preparing the IED to
verify settings".
Values of the logical signals for UV2PTUV (27) are available on the local HMI under
Main menu/Tests/Function status/Voltage/UV2PTUV(27,2U<)/UV2PTUV:1. The
Signal Monitoring in PCM600 shows the same signals that are available on the local HMI.
6.6.1.1
Verifying the setting
Verification of PICKUP value and time delay to operate for Step 1
1.
2.
3.
4.
Check that the IED settings are appropriate, especially the PICKUP value, the
definite time delay and the 1 out of 3 operation mode.
Supply the IED with three-phase voltages at their rated values.
Slowly decrease the voltage in one of the phases, until the PICKUP signal appears.
Note the operate value and compare it with the set value.
The operate value in secondary volts is calculated according to the
following equations:
For phase-to-ground measurement:
Vpickup < VBase VT sec
´
´
100
VTprim
3
ANSIEQUATION2430 V1 EN
(Equation 23)
For phase-to-phase measurement:
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Testing functionality
1MRK 502 049-UUS -
Vpickup <
VT sec
´ VBase ´
100
VTprim
(Equation 24)
ANSIEQUATION2431 V1 EN
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
Increase the measured voltage to rated load conditions.
Check that the PICKUP signal resets.
Instantaneously decrease the voltage in one phase to a value about 20% lower
than the measured operate value.
Measure the time delay for the TRIP signal, and compare it with the set value.
Check the inverse time delay by injecting a voltage corresponding to 0.8 ×
Vpickup<.
For example, if the inverse time curve A is selected, the trip
signals TRST1 and TRIP operate after a time corresponding to the
equation:
t (s) =
TD1
æ
ö
V
ç1 ÷
Vpickup
<
è
ø
ANSIEQUATION2428 V1 EN
(Equation 25)
where:
t(s)
Operate time in seconds
TD1
Settable time multiplier of the function for step 1
V
Measured voltage
Vpickup< Set pickup voltage for step 1
For example, if the measured voltage jumps from the rated value to 0.8 times the
set pickup voltage level and time multiplier TD1 is set to 0.05 s (default value),
then the TRST1 and TRIP signals operate at a time equal to 0.250 s ± tolerance.
10. The test above can be repeated to check the inverse time characteristic at different
voltage levels.
11. Repeat the above-described steps for step 2.
Extended testing
1.
6.6.1.2
The tests above can be repeated for 2 out of 3 and for 3 out of 3 operation mode.
Completing the test
Continue to test another function or end the testing by setting the parameter TestMode
to Disabled under Main menu/Tests/IED test mode/TESTMODE:1. If another
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Testing functionality
1MRK 502 049-UUS -
function is tested, then set the parameter Blocked to No under Main menu/Tests/
Function test modes/Voltage/UV2PTUV(27,2U<)/UV2PTUV:1 for the function, or
for each individual function in a chain, to be tested next. Remember to set the
parameter Blocked to Yes, for each individual function that has been tested.
6.6.2
Two step overvoltage protection OV2PTOV (59)
Prepare the IED for verification of settings as outlined in 5.1 "Preparing the IED to
verify settings".
Values of the logical signals for OV2PTOV (59) are available on the local HMI under
Main menu/Tests/Function status/Voltage/OV2PTOV(59,2U>)/OV2PTOV:1. The
Signal Monitoring in PCM600 shows the same signals that are available on the local HMI.
6.6.2.1
Verification of single-phase voltage and time delay to operate for Step 1
1.
2.
3.
Apply single-phase voltage below the set value Pickup1.
Slowly increase the voltage until the PU_ST1 signal appears.
Note the operate value and compare it with the set value.
The operate value in secondary volts is calculated according to the
following equations:
For phase-to-ground measurement:
Vpickup > VBase VT sec
´
´
100
VTprim
3
ANSIEQUATION2426 V1 EN
(Equation 26)
For phase-to-phase measurement:
Vpickup >
VT sec
´ VBase ´
100
VTprim
ANSIEQUATION2427 V1 EN
4.
5.
6.
7.
(Equation 27)
Decrease the voltage slowly and note the reset value.
Set and apply about 20% higher voltage than the measured operate value for one
phase.
Measure the time delay for the TRST1 signal and compare it with the set value.
Check the inverse time delay by injecting a voltage corresponding to 1.2 ×
Vpickup>.
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1MRK 502 049-UUS -
For example, if the inverse time curve A is selected, the trip
signals TRST1 and TRIP operate after a time corresponding to the
equation:
t (s) =
TD1
æ
ö
V
- 1÷
ç
è Vpickup > ø
ANSIEQUATION2429 V1 EN
(Equation 28)
where:
t(s)
Operate time in seconds
TD1
Settable time multiplier of the function for step 1
V
Measured voltage
Vpickup> Set pickup voltage for step 1
8.
9.
6.6.2.2
For example, if the measured voltage jumps from 0 to 1.2 times the set start
voltage level and time multiplier TD1 is set to 0.05 s (default value), then the
TRST1 and TRIP signals operate at a time equal to 0.250 s ± tolerance.
The test above can be repeated to check the inverse time characteristic at different
voltage levels.
Repeat the above-described steps for step 2.
Completing the test
Continue to test another function or end the testing by setting the parameter TestMode
to Disabled under Main menu/Tests/IED test mode/TESTMODE:1. If another
function is tested, then set the parameter Blocked to No under Main menu/Tests/
Function test modes/Voltage/OV2PTOV(59,2U>)/OV2PTOV:1 for the function, or
for each individual function in a chain, to be tested next. Remember to set the
parameter Blocked to Yes, for each individual function that has been tested.
6.6.3
Two step residual overvoltage protection ROV2PTOV (59N)
Prepare the IED for verification of settings as outlined in 5.1 "Preparing the IED to
verify settings".
Values of the logical signals for ROV2PTOV (59N) are available on the local HMI
under Main menu/Tests/Function status/Voltage/ROV2PTOV(59N,2UN>)/
ROV2PTOV:1. The Signal Monitoring in PCM600 shows the same signals that are
available on the local HMI.
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Testing functionality
1MRK 502 049-UUS -
6.6.3.1
Verifying the settings
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
Apply the single-phase voltage either to a single-phase voltage input or to a
residual voltage input with the pickup value below the set value Pickup1.
Slowly increase the value until PU_ST1 appears.
Note the operate value and compare it with the set value.
Decrease the voltage slowly and note the reset value.
Set and apply about 20% higher voltage than the measured operate value for one
phase.
Measure the time delay for the TRST1 signal and compare it with the set value.
Check the inverse time delay by injecting a voltage corresponding to 1.2 ×
Vpickup>.
For example, if the inverse time curve A is selected, the trip
signals TRST1 and TRIP operate after a time corresponding to the
equation:
t (s) =
TD1
æ
ö
V
- 1÷
ç
Vpickup
>
è
ø
ANSIEQUATION2429 V1 EN
(Equation 29)
where:
t(s)
Operate time in seconds
TD1
Settable time multiplier of the function for step 1
V
Measured voltage
Vpickup> Set pickup voltage for step 1
8.
6.6.3.2
For example, if the measured voltage jumps from 0 to 1.2 times the set pickup
voltage level and time multiplier TD1 is set to 0.05 s (default value), then the
TRST1 and TRIP signals operate at a time equal to 0.250 s ± tolerance.
Repeat the test for step 2.
Completing the test
Continue to test another function or end the testing by setting the parameter TestMode
to Disabled under Main menu/Tests/IED test mode/TESTMODE:1. If another
function is tested, then set the parameter Blocked to No under Main menu/Tests/
Function test modes/Voltage/ROV2PTOV(59N,2UN>)/ROV2PTOV:1 for the
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1MRK 502 049-UUS -
function, or for each individual function in a chain, to be tested next. Remember to set
the parameter Blocked to Yes, for each individual function that has been tested.
6.6.4
Overexcitation protection OEXPVPH (24)
Prepare the IED for verification of settings as outlined in 5.1 "Preparing the IED to
verify settings".
Values of the logical signals for OEXPVPH (24) are available on the local HMI under
Main menu/Tests/Function status/Voltage/OEXPVPH(24,U/f>)/OEXPVPH:1. The
Signal Monitoring in PCM600 shows the same signals that are available on the local HMI.
6.6.4.1
Verifying the settings
1.
2.
Enable function.
Connect a symmetrical three-phase voltage input from the test set to the
appropriate connection terminals of the overexcitation protection OEXPVPH
(24).
OEXPVPH (24) is conveniently tested using rated frequency for the injection
voltage and increasing the injection voltage to get the desired overexcitation level.
3. Connect the alarm contact to the timer and set the time delay tAlarm temporarily
to zero.
4. Increase the voltage and note the operate value Pickup1.
5. Reduce the voltage slowly and note the reset value.
6. Set the alarm time delay to the correct value according to the setting plan and
check the time delay, injecting a voltage corresponding to 1.2 · Pickup1.
7. Connect a trip output contact to the timer and temporarily set the time delay
t_MinTripDelay to 0.5s.
8. Increase the voltage and note the Pickup2 operate value
9. Reduce the voltage slowly and note the reset value.
10. Set the time delay to the correct value according to the setting plan and check the
time delay t_MinTripDelay, injecting a voltage corresponding to 1.2 · Pickup2.
11. Check that trip and alarm contacts operate according to the configuration logic.
12. Finally check that PICKUP and TRIP information is stored in the event menu.
6.6.4.2
Completing the test
Continue to test another function or end the testing by setting the parameter TestMode
to Disabled under Main menu/Tests/IED test mode/TESTMODE:1. If another
function is tested, then set the parameter Blocked to No under Main menu/Tests/
Function test modes/Voltage/OEXPVPH(24,U/f>)/OEXPVPH:1 for the function, or
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1MRK 502 049-UUS -
for each individual function in a chain, to be tested next. Remember to set the
parameter Blocked to Yes, for each individual function that has been tested.
6.6.5
100% Stator ground fault protection, 3rd harmonic based
STEFPHIZ (59THD)
Prepare the IED for verification of settings as outlined in 5.1 "Preparing the IED to
verify settings".
Values of the logical signals for STEFPHIZ (59THD) are available on the local HMI
under Main menu/Tests/Function status/Voltage/STEFPHIZ(59THD)/STEFPHIZ:
1. The Signal Monitoring in PCM600 shows the same signals that are available on the
local HMI.
6.6.5.1
Testing
The protection function uses measurement of the third-harmonic voltages in the neutral
point of the generator and on the generator terminal (broken delta voltage transformer
connection to the IED).
The test set shall be capable to generate third-harmonic voltages. One voltage (VN3) is
connected to the residual voltage input related to the terminal side of the generator. The
second voltage (VN3) is connected to the voltage input related to the neutral of the
generator. The angle between the injected third-harmonic voltages shall be adjustable.
V3T
V3N
en07000127_ansi.vsd
ANSI07000127 V1 EN
Figure 23:
1.
Typical phasor diagram for third harmonic voltages for healthy machine
Inject the following voltages: V3T = 15 V, V3N = 5 V and the angle between the
voltages = 180°. Check the monitored values of the following analogue signals:
E3 (the magnitude of the third-harmonic induced voltage in the stator), V3N: 5 V
(the magnitude of the third-harmonic voltage measured at the neutral side of the
generator), V3T: 15 V (the magnitude of the third-harmonic voltage measured at
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1MRK 502 049-UUS -
the terminal side of the generator) and ANGLE: 180° (the angle between the thirdharmonic voltage phasors V3N and V3T). The value of E3 should be close to the
following value:
E3 =
( V3 N - V3T × cos(ANGLE) )
2
+ ( V3T × sin(ANGLE) )
2
(Equation 30)
EQUATION2073-ANSI V1 EN
2.
Read the value of DV (differential voltage). The value of DV should be close to
the following value:
DU =
( V3 N + V3T × cos(ANGLE) )
EQUATION2074-ANSI V1 EN
3.
V3 N
2
(Equation 31)
= Beta
EQUATION2331-ANSI V1 EN
6.6.5.2
+ ( V3T × sin(ANGLE) )
Decrease the value of the injected voltage V3N until the signal PICKUP3H is
activated. Check that
DV
4.
2
(Equation 32)
considering stated accuracy (beta is a setting parameter)
Increase the voltage V3N so that the pickup signal falls. After that, switch the
voltage V3N to zero and measure the time delay for the activation of the signals
TRIP and TRIP3H.
The 100% stator ground fault protection also has a fundamental frequency neutral
point overvoltage function (95% stator ground fault protection). This part of the
protection can be tested separately by means of fundamental frequency voltage
injection from a test equipment.
Verifying settings
1.
With the generator rotating at rated speed but not connected: check the value of
the following analogue signals: E3 (the magnitude of the 3rd harmonic induced
voltage in the stator), V3N (the magnitude of the third-harmonic voltage measured
at the neutral side of the generator), V3T (the magnitude of the third-harmonic
voltage measured at the terminal side of the generator) and ANGLE (the angle
between the third-harmonic voltage phasors V3N and V3T). The value of E3
should be close to the following value:
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1MRK 502 049-UUS -
E3 =
( V3 N - V3T × cos(ANGLE) )
2
+ ( V3T × sin(ANGLE) )
2
(Equation 33)
EQUATION2077-ANSI V1 EN
2.
Make sure that ANGLE has a value bigger than 125°
Read the value of DV (differential voltage). The value of DV should be close to
the following value:
DV =
( V3 N + V3T × cos(ANGLE) )
2
+ ( V3T × sin(ANGLE) )
2
EQUATION2079-ANSI V1 EN
3.
4.
6.6.5.3
(Equation 34)
Read the value of BV (bias voltage: Beta ·V3N). The ratio DV/BV should be well
below 1 for a non-faulted generator.
After synchronization of the generator the ratio DV/BV is checked for different
load levels of the generator. These different monitoring of load levels should be
the base for the setting of beta.
If the function is used with the option of neutral point measurement only the test
is performed by check of this voltage. The operate value should be above the
measured residual third-harmonic voltage in the neutral point at normal operation
(non-faulted generator).
Completing the test
Continue to test another function or end the testing by setting the parameter TestMode
to Disabled under Main menu/Tests/IED test mode/TESTMODE:1. If another
function is tested, then set the parameter Blocked to No under Main menu/Tests/
Function test modes/Voltage/STEFPHIZ(59THD)/STEFPHIZ:1 for the function, or
for each individual function in a chain, to be tested next. Remember to set the
parameter Blocked to Yes, for each individual function that has been tested.
Generator rotor winding and its associated dc supply electric circuit is typically fully
insulated from the ground. Therefore single connection of this circuit to ground will
not cause flow of any substantial current. However, if second ground-fault appears in
this circuit circumstances can be quit serious. Depending on the location of these two
faults such operating condition may cause:
•
•
•
•
Partial or total generator loss of field
Large dc current flow through rotor magnetic circuit
Rotor vibration
Rotor displacement sufficient to cause stator mechanical damage
Therefore practically all bigger generators have some dedicated protection which is
capable to detect the first ground-fault in the rotor circuit and then, depending on the
93
Commissioning Manual
Section 6
Testing functionality
1MRK 502 049-UUS -
fault resistance, either just to give an alarm to the operating personnel or actually to
give stop command to the machine.
Rotor ground fault protection can be integrated in the IED among all
other protection functions typically required for generator protection.
Instruction 1MRG001910 gives an example of a testing procedure by
using COMBIFLEX injection unit RXTTE4.
6.7
Testing frequency protection functions
6.7.1
Underfrequency protection SAPTUF (81)
Prepare the IED for verification of settings as outlined in 5.1 "Preparing the IED to
verify settings".
Values of the logical signals for SAPTUF (81) are available on the local HMI under
Main menu/Tests/Function status/Frequency/SAPTUF(81,f<)/SAPTUF:X. The
Signal Monitoring in PCM600 shows the same signals that are available on the local HMI.
6.7.1.1
Verifying the settings
Verification of PICKUP value and time delay to operate
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
Check that the IED settings are appropriate, especially the PICKUP value and the
definite time delay.
Supply the IED with three-phase voltages at their rated values.
Slowly decrease the frequency of the applied voltage, until the PICKUP signal
appears.
Note the operate value and compare it with the set value.
Increase the frequency until rated operating levels are reached.
Check that the PICKUP signal resets.
Instantaneously decrease the frequency of the applied voltage to a value about
20% lower than the operate value.
Measure the time delay of the TRIP signal, and compare it with the set value.
Extended testing
1.
2.
The test above can be repeated to check the time to reset.
The tests above can be repeated to test the frequency dependent inverse time
characteristic.
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Verification of the low voltage magnitude blocking
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
6.7.1.2
Check that the IED settings are appropriate, especially the PUFrequency and the
tDelay and the MinValFreqMeas in the SMAI preprocessing function.
Supply the IED with three-phase voltages at rated values.
Slowly decrease the magnitude of the applied voltage, until the BLKDMAGN
signal appears.
Note the voltage magnitude value and compare it with the SMAI set value
MinValFreqMeas.
Slowly decrease the frequency of the applied voltage, to a value below
PUFrequency.
Check that the PICKUP signal does not appear.
Wait for a time corresponding to tDelay, and check that the TRIP signal does not
appear.
Completing the test
Continue to test another function or end the testing by setting the parameter TestMode
to Disabled under Main menu/Tests/IED test mode/TESTMODE:1. If another
function is tested, then set the parameter Blocked to No under Main menu/Tests/
Function test modes/Frequency/SAPTUF(81,f<)/SAPTUF:X for the function, or for
each individual function in a chain, to be tested next. Remember to set the parameter
Blocked to Yes, for each individual function that has been tested.
6.7.2
Overfrequency protection SAPTOF (81)
Prepare the IED for verification of settings as outlined in 5.1 "Preparing the IED to
verify settings".
Values of the logical signals for SAPTOF (81) are available on the local HMI under
Main menu/Tests/Function status/Frequency/SAPTOF(81,f>)/SAPTOF:X. The
Signal Monitoring in PCM600 shows the same signals that are available on the local HMI.
6.7.2.1
Verifying the settings
Verification of PICKUP value and time delay to operate
1.
2.
3.
4.
Check that the settings in the IED are appropriate, especially the PICKUP value
and the definite time delay.
Supply the IED with three-phase voltages at their rated values.
Slowly increase the frequency of the applied voltage, until the PICKUP signal
appears.
Note the operate value and compare it with the set value.
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1MRK 502 049-UUS -
5.
6.
7.
8.
Decrease the frequency to rated operating conditions.
Check that the PICKUP signal resets.
Instantaneously increase the frequency of the applied voltage to a value about
20% higher than the operate value.
Measure the time delay for the TRIP signal, and compare it with the set value.
Extended testing
1.
The test above can be repeated to check the time to reset.
Verification of the low voltage magnitude blocking
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
6.7.2.2
Check that you have appropriate settings in the IED, especially the PUFrequency,
TtDelay and the MinValFreqMeas in the SMAI preprocessing function
Supply the IED with three-phase voltages at their rated values.
Slowly decrease the magnitude of the applied voltage, until the BLKDMAGN
signal appears.
Note the voltage magnitude value and compare it with the set value,
MinValFreqMeas.
Slowly increase the frequency of the applied voltage, to a value above
PUFrequency.
Check that the PICKUP signal does not appear.
Wait for a time corresponding to tDelay, and make sure that the TRIP signal does
not appear.
Completing the test
Continue to test another function or end the testing by setting the parameter TestMode
to Disabled under Main menu/Tests/IED test mode/TESTMODE:1. If another
function is tested, then set the parameter Blocked to No under Main menu/Tests/
Function test modes/Frequency/SAPTOF(81,f>)/SAPTOF:X for the function, or for
each individual function in a chain, to be tested next. Remember to set the parameter
Blocked to Yes, for each individual function that has been tested.
6.7.3
Rate-of-change frequency protection SAPFRC (81)
Prepare the IED for verification of settings as outlined in 5.1 "Preparing the IED to
verify settings".
Values of the logical signals for SAPFRC (81) are available on the local HMI under
Main menu/Tests/Function status/Frequency/SAPFRC(81,df/dt)/SAPFRC:X. The
Signal Monitoring in PCM600 shows the same signals that are available on the local HMI.
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6.7.3.1
Verifying the settings
PICKUP value and time delay to operate
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
Check that the appropriate settings are available in the IED, especially the
PICKUP value and the definite time delay. Set PickupFreqgrad, to a rather small
negative value.
Supply the IED with three-phase voltages at their rated values.
Slowly decrease the frequency of the applied voltage, with an increasing rate-ofchange that finally exceeds the setting of PickupFreqgrad, and check that the
PICKUP signal appears.
Note the operate value and compare it with the set value.
Increase the frequency to rated operating conditions, and zero rate-of-change.
Check that the PICKUP signal resets.
Instantaneously decrease the frequency of the applied voltage to a value about
20% lower than the nominal value.
Measure the time delay for the TRIP signal, and compare it with the set value.
Extended testing
1.
2.
6.7.3.2
The test above can be repeated to check a positive setting of PickupFreqGrad.
The tests above can be repeated to test the RESTORE signal, when the frequency
recovers from a low value.
Completing the test
Continue to test another function or end the testing by setting the parameter TestMode
to Disabled under Main menu/Tests/IED test mode/TESTMODE:1. If another
function is tested, then set the parameter Blocked to No under Main menu/Tests/
Function test modes/Frequency/SAPFRC(81,df/dt)/SAPFRC:X for the function, or
for each individual function in a chain, to be tested next. Remember to set the
parameter Blocked to Yes, for each individual function that has been tested.
6.8
Testing secondary system supervision functions
6.8.1
Fuse failure supervision SDDRFUF
Prepare the IED for verification of settings as outlined in 5.1 "Preparing the IED to
verify settings".
Values of the logical signals for SDDRFUF are available on the local HMI under Main
menu/Tests/Function status/Secondary system supervision/SDDRFUF/SDDRFUF:
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1MRK 502 049-UUS -
1. The Signal Monitoring in PCM600 shows the same signals that are available on the
local HMI.
The verification is divided in two main parts. The first part is common to all fuse
failure supervision options, and checks that binary inputs and outputs operate as
expected according to actual configuration. In the second part the relevant set operate
values are measured.
6.8.1.1
Checking that the binary inputs and outputs operate as expected
1.
2.
Simulate normal operating conditions with the three-phase currents in phase with
their corresponding phase voltages and with all of them equal to their rated values.
Connect the nominal dc voltage to the 89bS binary input.
•
•
•
•
3.
4.
Disconnect the dc voltage from the 89b binary input terminal.
Connect the nominal dc voltage to the MCBOP binary input.
•
•
5.
6.
7.
The BLKV and BLKZ signals should appear without any time delay.
All undervoltage-dependent functions must be blocked.
Disconnect the dc voltage from the MCBOP binary input terminal.
Disconnect one of the phase voltages and observe the logical output signals on
the binary outputs of the IED.
BLKV and BLKZ signals should appear simultaneously wether the BLKV and
BLKZ reset depends on the setting SealIn “on” or “off”. If “on” no reset, if “off”
reset.
After more than 5 seconds disconnect the remaining two-phase voltages and all
three currents.
•
•
8.
The signal BLKV should appear with almost no time delay.
No signals BLKZ and 3PH should appear on the IED.
Only the distance protection function can operate.
Undervoltage-dependent functions must not operate.
There should be no change in the high status of the output signals BLKV
and BLKZ.
The signal 3PH will appear.
Establish normal voltage and current operating conditions simultaneously and
observe the corresponding output signals.
They should change to logical 0 as follows:
•
•
•
Signal 3PH after about 25ms
Signal BLKV after about 50ms
Signal BLKZ after about 200ms
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1MRK 502 049-UUS -
6.8.1.2
Measuring the operate value for the negative sequence function
1.
2.
3.
Simulate normal operating conditions with the three-phase currents in phase with
their corresponding phase voltages and with all of them equal to their rated values.
Slowly decrease the measured voltage in one phase until the BLKV signal appears.
Record the measured voltage and calculate the corresponding negative-sequence
voltage according to the equation.
Observe that the voltages in the equation are phasors.
2
3 × V2 = VA + a × VB + a × VC
(Equation 35)
EQUATION1818-ANSI V1 EN
Where:
V A VB and VC
= the measured phase voltages
EQUATION1820-ANSI V1 EN
a = 1× e
j
2 ×p
3
= -0, 5 + j
3
2
IECEQUATION00022 V1 EN
4.
5.
6.
Compare the result with the set value (consider that the set value 3V2PU is in
percentage of the base voltage VBase) of the negative-sequence operating voltage.
Repeat steps 1 and 2 . Then slowly increase the measured current in one phase
until the BLKV signal disappears.
Record the measured current and calculate the corresponding negative-sequence
current according to the equation.
Observe that the currents in the equation are phasors.
3 × I 2 = I A + a × I B + a × IC
2
(Equation 38)
ANSIEQUATION00021 V1 EN
Where:
= the measured phase currents
I A , I B and I C
ANSIEQUATION00020 V1 EN
a = 1× e
j
2 ×p
3
= -0, 5 + j
3
2
IECEQUATION00022 V1 EN
7.
6.8.1.3
Compare the result with the set value of the negative-sequence operating current.
Consider that the set value 3I2< is in percentage of the base current IBase.
Measuring the operate value for the zero-sequence function
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1MRK 502 049-UUS -
1.
2.
3.
Simulate normal operating conditions with the three-phase currents in phase with
their corresponding phase voltages and with all of them equal to their rated values.
Slowly decrease the measured voltage in one phase until the BLKV signal appears.
Record the measured voltage and calculate the corresponding zero-sequence
voltage according to the equation.
Observe that the voltages in the equation are phasors.
3 × V0 = V A + VB + VC
(Equation 41)
EQUATION1819-ANSI V1 EN
Where:
V A VB and VC
= the measured phase voltages
EQUATION1820-ANSI V1 EN
4.
5.
6.
Compare the result with the set value (consider that the set value 3V0Pickup is in
percentage of the base voltage of the zero-sequence operating voltage.
Repeat steps 1 and 2 . Then slowly increase the measured current in one phase
until the BLKV signal disappears.
Record the measured current and calculate the corresponding zero-sequence
current according to the equation.
Observe that the currents in the equation are phasors.
3 × I0 = IA + IB + IC
(Equation 43)
ANSIEQUATION00019 V1 EN
Where:
I A , I B and I C
= the measured phase currents
ANSIEQUATION00020 V1 EN
7.
6.8.1.4
Compare the result with the set value of the zero-sequence operating current.
Consider that the set value 3I0< is in percentage of the base current IBase.
Checking the operation of the dv/dt and di/dt based function
1.
2.
Simulate normal operating conditions with the three-phase currents in phase with
their corresponding phase voltages and with all of them equal to their rated values.
Change the voltages and currents in all three phases simultaneously.
The voltage change must be greater than the set value for DVPU and the current
change must be less than the set value for DIPU.
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Testing functionality
1MRK 502 049-UUS -
•
•
The BLKV and BLKZ signals appear without any time delay. The BLKZ
signal will be activated only if the internal deadline detection is not
activated at the same time.
3PH should appear after 5 seconds, if the remaining voltage levels are lower
than the set VDLDPU of the DLD function.
Apply normal conditions as in step 1.
The BLKV, BLKZ and 3PH signals should reset, if activated, see step 1 and 2.
4. Change the voltages and currents in all three phases simultaneously.
The voltage change must be greater than the set value for DVPU and the current
change must be more than the set value for DIPU.
The BLKV, BLKZ and 3PH signals should not appear.
5. Repeat step 2.
6. Connect the nominal voltages in all three phases and feed a current below the
operate level in all three phases.
7. Keep the current constant. Disconnect the voltage in all three phases simultaneously.
8. Change the magnitude of the voltage and current for phase 1 to a value greater
than the set value for DVPU and DIPU.
9. Check that the pickup output signals STDVA and STDIA and the general pickup
signals STDV or STDI are activated.
10. Check that the pickup output signals for the current and voltage phases 2 and 3
are activated by changing the magnitude of the voltage and current for phases 2
and 3.
3.
6.8.1.5
Completing the test
Continue to test another function or end the testing by setting the parameter TestMode
to Disabled under Main menu/Tests/IED test mode/TESTMODE:1. If another
function is tested, then set the parameter Blocked to No under Main menu/Tests/
Function test modes/Secondary system supervision/SDDRFUF/SDDRFUF:1 for
the function, or for each individual function in a chain, to be tested next. Remember to
set the parameter Blocked to Yes, for each individual function that has been tested.
6.9
Testing control functions
During periods of frequent counter state/value changes, if the auxiliary
power to the IED is interrupted, it is possible that this information will
be lost.
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Testing functionality
6.9.1
1MRK 502 049-UUS -
Synchrocheck, energizing check, and synchronizing
SESRSYN (25)
This section contains instructions on how to test the synchrochecksynchronism check,
energizing check, and synchronizing function SESRSYN (25) for single, double and
breaker-and-a-half arrangements.
This section contains instructions on how to test the synchrochecksynchronism check
and energizing check for single CB with or without the synchronizing function.
Prepare the IED for verification of settings as outlined in 5.1 "Preparing the IED to
verify settings".
Values of the logical signals for SESRSYN (25) are available on the local HMI under
Main menu/Tests/Function status/Control/SESRSYN(25,SYNC)/SESRSYN:X.
The Signal Monitoring in PCM600 shows the same signals that are available on the
local HMI.
At commissioning and periodical checks, the functions shall be tested with the used
settings. To test a specific function, it might be necessary to change some setting
parameters, for example:
•
•
•
•
AutoEnerg = Disabled/DLLB/DBLL/Both
ManEnerg = Disabled
Operation = Disabled/Enabled
Activation of the voltage selection function if applicable
The tests explained in the test procedures below describe the settings, which can be
used as references during testing before the final settings are specified. After testing,
restore the equipment to the normal or desired settings.
A secondary injection test set with the possibility to alter the phase angle and
amplitude of the voltage is needed. The test set must also be able to generate different
frequencies on different outputs.
The description below applies for a system with a nominal frequency of
50 Hz but can be directly applicable to 60 Hz. SESRSYN (25) can be
set to use different phases, phase to ground or phase to phase. Use the
set voltages instead of what is indicated below.
Figure 24 shows the general test connection principle, which can be used during
testing. This description describes the test of the version intended for one bay.
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Testing functionality
1MRK 502 049-UUS -
Figure 25 shows the general test connection for a breaker-and-a-half diameter with onephase voltage connected to the line side.
IED
Test
equipment
V-Bus
V-Bus
N
V-Line
N
VA
VB
VC
VN
VMeasure
Ph/N
Ph/Ph
Input Phase
A,B,C
AB,BC,CA
ANSI08000027-1-en.vsd
ANSI08000027 V1 EN
Figure 24:
General test connection with three-phase voltage connected to the line
side
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Testing functionality
1MRK 502 049-UUS -
IED
Test
equipment
V-Bus1
V-Bus1
V-Bus2
V-Bus2
V-Line2
V-Line2
N
V-Line1
N
V-Line1
VMeasure
Ph/N
Ph/Ph
N
ANSI11000273-2-en.vsd
ANSI11000273 V2 EN
Figure 25:
6.9.1.1
General test connection for a breaker-and-a-half diameter with onephase voltage connected to the line side
Testing the synchronizing function
This section is applicable only if the synchronizing function is included.
The voltage inputs used are:
V-Line
VA, VB or VC line 1 voltage inputs on the IED
V-Bus
Bus voltage input on the IED
Testing the frequency difference
The frequency difference is in the example set at 0.20 Hz on the local HMI, and the
test should verify that operation is achieved when the FreqDiffMax frequency
difference is lower than 0.20 Hz. The test procedure below will depend on the settings
used. Input STARTSYN must be activated during the test.
1.
Apply voltages
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Testing functionality
1MRK 502 049-UUS -
1.1. V-Line = 100% GblBaseSelLine and f-Line = 50.0 Hz
1.2. V-Bus = 100% GblBaseSelBus and f-Bus = 50.2Hz
2.
3.
Check that a closing pulse is submitted at a closing angle less than 2 degrees from
phase equality. Modern test sets will evaluate this automatically.
Repeat with
3.1. V-Bus = 80% GblBaseSelBus and f-Bus = 50.25 Hz, to verify that the
function does not operate when frequency difference is above limit.
4.
5.
6.9.1.2
Repeat with different frequency differences for example, 100 mHz with f-Bus
nominal and line leading and for example 20 mHz (or just above FreqDiffMin) to
verify that independent of frequency difference the closing pulse occurs within 2
degrees.
Verify that the closing command is not issued when the frequency difference is
less than the set value FreqDiffMin.
Testing the synchrocheck check
During the test of SESRSYN (25) for a single bay arrangement, these voltage inputs
are used:
V-Line
VA, VB or VC line 1 voltage inputs on the IED
V-Bus
Bus voltage input on the IED
Testing the voltage selection for single 1 1/2 CB arrangements
At test of the SESRSYN (25) function for a breaker-and-a-half diameter the following
alternative voltage inputs can be used for the three SESRSYN (SESRSYN 1,
SESRSYN 2, SESRSYN 3) functions. These three SESRSYN functions can either be
in one, two or three different IEDs. Table 4 describes the scenario when SESRSYN 1,
SESRSYN 2 and SESRSYN 3 all are in the same IED. If SESRSYN 3 is in another
IED, Bus1 will be considered as Bus2 and Line2 as Line1. The voltage is selected by
activation of different inputs in the voltage selection logic as shown in table 4 and
figure 26.
Table 4:
SESRSYN
SESRSYN 1
(Operates on
CB1 52)
Voltage selection logic
CBConfig
setting
breakerand-a-half
bus CB
Section to
be
synchroniz
ed
Activated
B1QCLD
input on
IED from
Activated
B2QCLD
input on
IED from
Bus1 –
Line1
Activated
LN1QCLD
input on
IED from
Activated
LN2QCLD
input on
IED from
LN1 989
Bus1 –
Line2
CB2 252
Bus1 –
Bus2
CB2 252
B1SEL,
LN1SEL
LN2 989
CB3 352
Indication
from
SESRSYN
on IED
B1SEL,
LN2SEL
B1SEL,
B2SEL
Table continues on next page
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Section 6
Testing functionality
1MRK 502 049-UUS -
SESRSYN
CBConfig
setting
SESRSYN 2
(Operates on
CB2 252)
Section to
be
synchroniz
ed
Tie CB
Activated
B1QCLD
input on
IED from
Activated
B2QCLD
input on
IED from
Line1 –
Line2
Bus1 –
Line2
SESRSYN 3
(Operates on
CB3 352)
breakerand-a-half
bus alt.
CB
(mirrored)
Activated
LN2QCLD
input on
IED from
Indication
from
SESRSYN
on IED
LN1 989
LN2 989
LN1SEL,
LN2SEL
LN2 989
B1SEL,
LN2SEL
CB1 52
Bus2 –
Line1
Bus1 –
Bus2
Activated
LN1QCLD
input on
IED from
CB3 352
CB1 52
LN1 989
B2SEL,
LN1SEL
CB3 352
B1SEL,
B2SEL
Bus2 –
Line2
LN2 989
Bus2 –
Line1
CB2 252
Bus2 –
Bus1
CB2 252
LN1 989
CB1 52
B2SEL,
LN2SEL
B2SEL,
LN1SEL
B1SEL,
B2SEL
Bus 1
Bus 2
CB1 52
(SESRSYN 1)
CB3 352
(SESRSYN 3)
CB2 252
(SESRSYN 2)
LN1 989
LN2 989
Line 1
Line 2
ANSI11000274.en.v1
ANSI11000274 V1 EN
Figure 26:
Objects used in the voltage selection logic
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1MRK 502 049-UUS -
Testing the voltage difference
Set the voltage difference to 0.15 p.u. on the local HMI, and the test should check that
operation is achieved when the voltage difference VDiffSC is lower than 0.15 p.u.
The settings used in the test shall be final settings. The test shall be adapted to site
setting values instead of values in the example below.
Test with no voltage difference between the inputs.
Test with a voltage difference higher than the set VDiffSC.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Apply voltages V-Line (for example) = 80% GblBaseSelLine and V-Bus = 80%
GblBaseSelBus
Check that the AUTOSYOK and MANSYOK outputs are activated.
The test can be repeated with different voltage values to verify that the function
operates within the set VDiffSC. Check with both V-Line and V-Bus respectively
lower than the other.
Increase the V-Bus to 110% GblBaseSelBus, and the V-Line = 90%
GblBaseSelLine and also the opposite condition.
Check that the two outputs for manual and auto synchronism are not activated.
Testing the phase angle difference
The phase angle differences PhaseDiffM and PhaseDiffA respectively are set to their
final settings and the test should verify that operation is achieved when the phase angle
difference is lower than this value both leading and lagging.
Test with no voltage difference.
1.
2.
Apply voltages V-Line (for example) = 100% GblBaseSelLine and V-Bus =
100% GblBaseSelBus, with a phase difference equal to 0 degrees and a frequency
difference lower than FreqDiffA and FreqDiffM.
Check that the AUTOSYOK and MANSYOK outputs are activated.
The test can be repeated with other phase difference values to verify that the
function operates for values lower than the set ones, PhaseDiffM and PhaseDiffA.
By changing the phase angle on the voltage connected to V-Bus, between ± dφ
degrees, the user can check that the two outputs are activated for a phase
difference lower than the set value. It should not operate for other values. See
figure 27.
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Testing functionality
1MRK 502 049-UUS -
V-Bus
No operation
+dj
V-Line operation
-dj
V-Bus
en05000551_ansi.vsd
ANSI05000551 V1 EN
Figure 27:
3.
Test of phase difference
Change the phase angle between +dφ and -dφ and verify that the two outputs are
activated for phase differences between these values but not for phase differences
outside, see figure 27.
Testing the frequency difference
The frequency difference test should verify that operation is achieved when the
FreqDiffA and FreqDiffM frequency difference is lower than the set value for manual
and auto synchronizing check, FreqDiffA and FreqDiffM respectively and that
operation is blocked when the frequency difference is greater.
Test with frequency difference = 0 mHz
Test with a frequency difference outside the set limits for manual and auto
synchronizing check respectively.
1.
2.
3.
4.
Apply voltages V-Line equal to 100% GblBaseSelLine and V-Bus equal to 100%
GblBaseSelBus, with a frequency difference equal to 0 mHz and a phase
difference lower than the set value.
Check that the AUTOSYOK and MANSYOK outputs are activated.
Apply voltage to the V-Line equal to 100% GblBaseSelLine with a frequency
equal to 50 Hz and voltage V-Bus equal to 100% GblBaseSelBus, with a
frequency outside the set limit.
Check that the two outputs are not activated. The test can be repeated with
different frequency values to verify that the function operates for values lower
than the set ones. If a modern test set is used, the frequency can be changed
continuously.
Testing the reference voltage
1.
Use the same basic test connection as in figure 24.
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1MRK 502 049-UUS -
2.
6.9.1.3
The voltage difference between the voltage connected to V-Bus and V-Line
should be 0%, so that the AUTOSYOK and MANSYOK outputs are activated first.
Change the V-Line voltage connection to V-Line2 without changing the setting
on the local HMI. Check that the two outputs are not activated.
Testing the energizing check
During the test of the energizing check function for a single bay arrangement, these
voltage inputs are used:
V-Line
VA, VB or VC line1 voltage inputs on the IED
V-Bus
Bus voltage input on the IED
General
When testing the energizing check function for the applicable bus, arrangement shall
be done for the energizing check functions. The voltage is selected by activation of
different inputs in the voltage selection logic.
Live voltage level is fixed to 80% UBase and dead voltage level to fixed 40% UBase.
The test shall be performed according to the settings for the station. Test the
alternatives below that are applicable.
Testing the dead line live bus (DLLB)
The test should verify that the energizing check function operates for a low voltage on
the V-Line and for a high voltage on the V-Bus. This corresponds to the energizing of
a dead line to a live bus.
1.
2.
3.
4.
Apply a single-phase voltage 100% GblBaseSelBus to the V-Bus, and a singlephase voltage 30% GblBaseSelLine to the V-Line.
Check that the AUTOENOK and MANENOK outputs are activated after set
tAutoEnerg respectively tManEnerg.
Increase the V-Line to 60% GblBaseSelLine and V-Bus to be equal to 100%
GblBaseSelBus. The outputs should not be activated.
The test can be repeated with different values on the V-Bus and the V-Line.
Testing the dead bus live line (DBLL)
The test should verify that the energizing check function operates for a low voltage on
the V-Bus and for a high voltage on the V-Line. This corresponds to an energizing of a
dead bus to a live line.
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Testing functionality
1MRK 502 049-UUS -
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Verify the settings AutoEnerg or ManEnerg to be DBLL.
Apply a single-phase voltage of 30% GblBaseSelBus to the V-Bus and a singlephase voltage of 100% GblBaseSelLine to the V-Line.
Check that the AUTOENOK and MANENOK outputs are activated after set
tAutoEnerg respectively tManEnerg.
Decrease the V-Line to 60% GblBaseSelLine and keep the V-Bus equal to 30%
GblBaseSelBus. The outputs should not be activated.
The test can be repeated with different values on the V-Bus and the V-Line.
Testing both directions (DLLB or DBLL)
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Verify the local HMI settings AutoEnerg or ManEnerg to be Both.
Apply a single-phase voltage of 30% GblBaseSelLine to the V-Line and a singlephase voltage of 100% GblBaseSelBus to the V-Bus.
Check that the AUTOENOK and MANENOK outputs are activated after set
tAutoEnerg respectively tManEnerg.
Change the connection so that the V-Line is equal to100% GblBaseSelLine and
the V-Bus is equal to 30% GblBaseSelBus. The outputs should still be activated.
The test can be repeated with different values on the V-Bus and the V-Line.
Testing the dead bus dead line (DBDL)
The test should verify that the energizing check function operates for a low voltage on
both the V-Bus and the V-Line, that is, closing of the breaker in a non-energized
system. Test is valid only when this function is used.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
6.9.1.4
Verify the local HMI setting AutoEnerg to be Disabled and ManEnerg to be
DBLL.
Set the parameter ManEnergDBDL to Enabled.
Apply a single-phase voltage of 30% GblBaseSelBus to the V-Bus and a singlephase voltage of 30% GblBaseSelLine to the V-Line.
Check that the MANENOK output is activated after set tManEnerg.
Increase the V-Bus to 80% GblBaseSelBus and keep the V-Line equal to 30%
GblBaseSelLine. The outputs should not be activated.
Repeat the test with ManEnerg set to DLLB with different values on the V-Bus
and the V-Line voltage.
Testing the voltage selection
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1MRK 502 049-UUS -
Testing the voltage selection for single CB arrangements
This test should verify that the correct voltage is selected for the measurement in the
SESRSYN function used in a double-bus arrangement. Apply a single-phase voltage of
30% GblBaseSelLine to the V-Line and a single-phase voltage of 100%
GblBaseSelBus to the V-Bus.
If the VB1OK or VB2OK inputs for the fuse failure are used, they must be activated,
during tests below. Also verify that deactivation prevents operation and gives an alarm.
1.
2.
6.9.1.5
Connect the signals above to binary inputs and binary outputs.
Connect the voltage inputs to the analog inputs used for each bus or line
depending of the type of busbar arrangement and verify that correct output
signals are generated.
Completing the test
Continue to test another function or end the testing by setting the parameter TestMode
to Disabled under Main menu/Tests/IED test mode/TESTMODE:1. If another
function is tested, then set the parameter Blocked to No under Main menu/Tests/
Function test modes/Control/SESRSYN(25,SYNC)/SESRSYN:X for the function,
or for each individual function in a chain, to be tested next. Remember to set the
parameter Blocked to Yes, for each individual function that has been tested.
6.9.2
Interlocking
Prepare the IED for verification of settings as outlined in 5.1 "Preparing the IED to
verify settings".
Values of the logical signals are available on the local HMI under Main menu/Tests/
Function status/Control/<Function>/<Function:1>. The Signal Monitoring in
PCM600 shows the same signals that are available on the local HMI.
The interlocking function consists of a bay-level part and a station-level part. The
interlocking is delivery specific and is realized by bay-to-bay communication over the
station bus. For that reason, test the function in a system, that is, either in a complete
delivery system as an acceptance test (FAT/SAT) or as parts of that system.
6.9.3
Apparatus control APC
The apparatus control function consists of four types of function blocks, which are
connected in a delivery-specific way between bays and to the station level. For that
reason, test the total function in a system, that is, either in a complete delivery system
as an acceptance test (FAT/SAT) or as parts of that system.
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1MRK 502 049-UUS -
If a block/unblock command is sent from remote to function, while the
IED is shut down, this command will not be recognized after the start
up, thus the command that was sent prior to the shut down is used. In
such cases, where there is a mismatch, the user is advised to make a
complete cycle of block/unblock operations to align the statuses.
6.10
Testing logic functions
6.10.1
Tripping logic, common 3-phase output SMPPTRC (94)
Prepare the IED for verification of settings as outlined in 5.1 "Preparing the IED to
verify settings".
Values of the logical signals for SMPPTRC (94) are available on the local HMI under
Main menu/Tests/Function status/Logic/SMPPTRC(94,1->0)/SMPPTRC:X. The
Signal Monitoring in PCM600 shows the same signals that are available on the local HMI.
This function is functionality tested together with other protection functions (groundfault overcurrent protection, and so on) within the IED. It is recommended that the
function is tested together with the autorecloser function, regardless of whether the
autorecloser function is integrated or external.
6.10.1.1
Three-phase operating mode
1.
2.
6.10.1.2
Check that AutoLock and TripLockout are both set to Disabled.
Initiate a three-phase fault.
An adequate time interval between the faults should be considered, to overcome a
reset time caused by the possible activation of the Autorecloser function,
SMBRREC (79). The function must issue a three-pole trip in all cases, when a
trip is initiated by any protection function, either integrated or external. The
functional TRIP output signal must always appear.
Circuit breaker lockout
The following tests should be carried out when the built-in lockout function is used in
addition to possible other tests, which depends on the complete configuration of an
IED.
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Testing functionality
1MRK 502 049-UUS -
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
6.10.1.3
Check that AutoLock and TripLockout are both set to Disabled.
Initiate a three-phase fault.
The functional output TRIP should be active at each fault. The output CLLKOUT
must not be activated.
Activate the automatic lockout function, set AutoLock = Enabled and repeat.
Besides the TRIP outputs, CLLKOUT should be set.
Reset the lockout signal by activating the reset lockout (RSTLKOUT) signal.
Activate the TRIP signal lockout function, set TripLockout = Enable and repeat.
The output TRIP must be active and stay active after each fault. CLLKOUT must
be activated.
Reset the lockout.
All functional outputs should reset.
Deactivate the TRIP signal lockout function, set TripLockout = Disabled and the
automatic lockout function, set AutoLock = Disabled if not used.
Completing the test
Continue to test another function or end the testing by setting the parameter TestMode
to Disabled under Main menu/Tests/IED test mode/TESTMODE:1. If another
function is tested, then set the parameter Blocked to No under Main menu/Tests/
Function test modes/Logic/SMPPTRC(94,1->0)/SMPPTRC:X for the function, or
for each individual function in a chain, to be tested next. Remember to set the
parameter Blocked to Yes, for each individual function that has been tested.
6.11
Testing monitoring functions
6.11.1
Event counter CNTGGIO
The event counter function CNTGGIO can be tested by connecting a binary input to
the counter under test and applying pulses to the counter. The speed of pulses must not
exceed 10 per second. Normally the counter will be tested in connection with tests on
the function that the counter is connected to, such as trip logic. When configured, test it
together with the function that operates it. Trig the function and check that the counter
result corresponds with the number of operations.
6.11.2
Limit counter L4UFCNT
The Limit counter function L4UFCNT can be tested by connecting a binary input to
the counter and applying pulses to the counter. The speed of the pulses must not exceed
the cycle time of the function. Normally the counter will be tested when testing the
function that the counter is connected to, such as the trip function. When the function is
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configured, test it together with the function that operates it. Trig the function and
check that the counter result corresponds to the number of operations.
6.11.2.1
Completing the test
Continue to test another function or end the test by changing the Test mode setting to
Off. Restore connections and settings to their original values, if they were changed for
testing purposes.
6.12
Testing metering functions
6.12.1
Pulse counter PCGGIO
The test of the Pulse counter function PCGGIO requires the Parameter Setting tool in
PCM600 or an appropriate connection to the local HMI with the necessary
functionality. A known number of pulses with different frequencies are connected to
the pulse counter input. The test should be performed with settings Operation = Enable
or Operation = Disable and the function blocked or unblocked. The pulse counter
value is then checked in PCM600 or on the local HMI.
6.13
Testing station communication
6.13.1
Establishing connection and verifying the IEC 61850
communication
About this chapter
This chapter contains instructions on how to establish connection and verify that the
IEC 61850 communication operates as intended, when the IED is connected to an
Ethernet network via the optical ports of the COM module.
6.13.1.1
Overview
The COM03 ports are used for substation bus (IEC 61850-8-1) communication as well
as redundant communication.
The COM05 ports are also used for communication but not redundant communication.
For IEC 61850-8-1 redundant communication according to IEC62439–3 Edition 2, port
LAN_1A and LAN_1B is utilized.
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Redundant communication according to IEC62439–3 Edition 1 and
IEC 61850–9–2LE process bus communication are not supported in the
650 Ver 1.3 series IEDs.
6.13.1.2
Setting the station communication
To enable the IEC 61850 communication, the corresponding COM03 ports must be
activated. Port LAN1 A and LAN1 B are used for redundancy.
If COM03 is used; the following below apply. If COM05 is used; there is no
redundancy and the port is named LAN1 or (FRONT)
To enable IEC 61850 station communication:
•
•
•
The IEC 61850-8-1 station communication functionality must be configured in the
local HMI. Navigate to Main Menu/Configuration/Communication/TCP-IP
configuation/ETHLAN1_AB and set the OperationMode parameter to
NonRedundant(A) or, for redundant communication, to PRP(A+B).
To enable GOOSE communication, the Operation parameter for the corresponding
GOOSE function blocks (GOOSEBINRCV and GOOSEINTLKRCV) must be set
to Enabled in the application configuration.
To enable GOOSE communication via the front port the parameter GOOSE in
Main menu/Configuration/Communication/Station communication/
IEC61850-8-1/PortSelGOOSE must be set to Front. To enable GOOSE
communication via rear port the parameter PortSelGOOSE must be set to LAN1.
To enable IEC 61850 station communication:
1.
Enable IEC 61850-8-1 (substation bus) communication for port A and B.
1.1. Set values for ETHLAN1_AB.
Navigate to Main Menu/Configuration/TCP-IP configuation/
ETHLAN1_AB.
Set values for OperationMode, IPAddress and IPMask. OperationMode
must be set to NonRedundantA.
Check that the correct IP address is assigned to the port.
1.2. Enable IEC 61850-8-1 communication.
Navigate to Main menu/Settings/General settings/Communication/
Station communication/IEC 61850-8-1.
Set Operation to Enabled and PortSelGOOSE to the port used.
2.
Enable redundant IEC 61850-8-1 communication for port A and B.
2.1. Enable redundant communication.
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Navigate to Main Menu/Configuration/TCP-IP configuation/
ETHLAN1_AB.
Set values for OperationMode, IPAddress and IPMask. OperationMode
must be set to .
Make sure that the optical fibres are connected correctly.
6.13.1.3
Verifying the station communication
Connect a PC to the substation network and ping the connected IED and the Substation
Master PC to verify that the communication is working up to the transport layer.
The best way to verify the communication up to the application layer is to use a
protocol analyzer connected to the substation or process bus and monitor the
communication.
Verifying redundant IEC 61850-8-1 communication
Ensure that the IED receives IEC 61850-8-1 data on both ports A and B. In the local
HMI navigate to Main menu/Tests/Function status/Communication/PRP Status/
LAN1–A / LAN1–B and check that both signals LAN1-A and LAN1-B are shown as
Ok. Remove the optical connection to one of the ports A or B. Verify that either signal
LAN1-A or LAN1-B (depending on which connection that was removed) are shown as
Error and that the other signal is shown as Ok. Be sure to re-connect the removed
connection after completed verification.
6.14
Exit test mode
The following procedure is used to return to normal operation.
1.
2.
3.
Navigate to the test mode folder.
Change the Enable setting to Disable. Press the 'E' key and the left arrow key.
Answer YES, press the 'E' key and exit the menus.
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Section 7
Commissioning and maintenance of the fault clearing system
Section 7
Commissioning and maintenance of the
fault clearing system
7.1
Commissioning and maintenance of the fault clearing
system
About this chapter
This chapter discusses maintenance tests and other periodic maintenance measures.
7.1.1
Commissioning tests
During commissioning all protection functions shall be verified with the setting values
used at each plant. The commissioning tests must include verification of all circuits by
highlighting the circuit diagrams and the configuration diagrams for the used functions.
Further, the settings for protection functions are tested and recorded carefully as
outlined for the future periodic maintenance tests.
The final testing includes primary verification of all directional functions where load
currents is checked on the local HMI and in PCM600. The magnitudes and angles of
all currents and voltages should be checked and the symmetry verified.
Directional functions have information about the measured direction and, for example,
measured impedance. These values must be checked and verified as correct with the
export or import of power available.
Finally, final trip tests must be performed. This involves activation of protection
functions or tripping outputs with the circuit breaker closed and the tripping of the
breaker verified. When several breakers are involved, each breaker must be checked
individually and it must be verified that the other involved breakers are not tripped at
the same time.
7.1.2
Periodic maintenance tests
The periodicity of all tests depends on several factors, for example the importance of
the installation, environmental conditions, simple or complex equipment, static or
electromechanical IEDs, and so on.
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The normal maintenance practices of the user should be followed. However, ABB's
recommendation is as follows:
Every second to third year
•
•
•
Visual inspection of all equipment.
Removal of dust on ventilation louvres and IEDs if necessary.
Periodic maintenance test for protection IEDs of object where no redundant
protections are provided.
Every four to six years
•
Periodic maintenance test for protection IEDs of objects with redundant protection
system.
First maintenance test should always be carried out after the first half
year of service.
When protection IEDs are combined with built-in control, the test
interval can be increased drastically, up to for instance 15 years,
because the IED continuously reads service values, operates the
breakers, and so on.
7.1.2.1
Visual inspection
Prior to testing, the protection IEDs should be inspected to detect any visible damage
that may have occurred (for example, dirt or moisture deposits, overheating). Should
burned contacts be observed when inspecting the IEDs, a diamond file or an extremely
fine file can be used to polish the contacts. Emery cloth or similar products must not be
used as insulating grains of abrasive may be deposited on the contact surfaces and
cause failure.
Make sure that all IEDs are equipped with covers.
7.1.2.2
Maintenance tests
To be made after the first half year of service, then with the cycle as proposed above
and after any suspected maloperation or change of the IED setting.
Testing of protection IEDs shall preferably be made with the primary circuit deenergized. The IED cannot protect the circuit during testing. Trained personnel may
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test one IED at a time on live circuits where redundant protection is installed and deenergization of the primary circuit is not allowed.
ABB protection IEDs are preferably tested by aid of components from the
COMBITEST testing system or FT test systems described in information B03-9510 E.
Main components are RTXP 8/18/24 test switch located to the left in each protection
IED and RTXH 8/18/24 test handle, which is inserted in test switch at secondary
testing. All necessary operations such as opening of trip circuits, short-circuiting of
current circuits and opening of voltage circuits are automatically performed in the right
order to allow for simple and safe secondary testing even with the object in service.
Important components of FT test system are FT1, FTx, FT19, FT19RS, FR19RX
switches and assemblies as well as FT-1 test plug.
Preparation
Before starting maintenance testing, the test engineers should scrutinize applicable
circuit diagrams and have the following documentation available:
•
•
•
•
Test instructions for protection IEDs to be tested
Test records from previous commissioning and maintenance tests
List of valid settings
Blank test records to fill in measured values
Recording
It is of utmost importance to carefully record the test results. Special test sheets
covering the frequency of test, date of test and achieved test values should be used.
IED setting list and protocols from previous tests should be available and all results
should be compared for differences. At component failures, spare equipment is used
and set to the requested value. A note of the exchange is made and the new measured
values are recorded. Test records for several years of testing should be stored in a
common file for a station, or a part of a station, to give a simple overview of the period
of testing and achieved test values. These test records are valuable when analysis of
service disturbances shall be done.
Secondary injection
The periodic maintenance test is done by secondary injection from a portable test set.
Each protection shall be tested according to the secondary injection test information for
the specific protection IED. Only the setting values adopted shall be checked for each
protection function. If the discrepancy between obtained value and requested set value
is too big the setting should be adjusted, the new value recorded and a note should be
made in the test record.
Alarm test
When inserting the test handle of RTXP or using FT plugs, the alarm and event
signalling is normally blocked. This is done in the IED by setting the event reporting to
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Disabled during the test. This can be done when the test handle is inserted or the IED
is set to test mode from the local HMI. At the end of the secondary injection test it
should be checked that the event and alarm signalling is correct by activating the
events and performing some selected tests.
Self supervision check
Once secondary testing has been completed, it should be checked that no selfsupervision signals are activated continuously or sporadically. Especially check the
time synchronization system, GPS or other, and communication signals, both station
communication and remote communication.
Trip circuit check
When the protection IED undergoes an operational check, a tripping pulse is normally
obtained on one or more of the output contacts and preferably on the test switch. The
healthy circuit is of utmost importance for the protection operation. If the circuit is not
provided with a continuous trip-circuit supervision, it is possible to check that circuit is
really closed when the test-plug handle has been removed by using a high-ohmic
voltmeter and measuring between the plus and the trip output on the panel. The
measurement is then done through the tripping magnet of the circuit breaker and
therefore the complete tripping circuit is checked.
Note that the breaker must be closed.
Please observe that the test system does not provide built-in security
during this test. If the instrument should be set on Amp instead of
Volts, the circuit breaker naturally is tripped, therefore, great care is
necessary.
Trip circuit from trip IEDs to circuit breaker is often supervised by trip-circuit
supervision. It can then be checked that a circuit is healthy by opening tripping output
terminals in the cubicle. When the terminal is opened, an alarm shall be achieved on
the signal system after a delay of some seconds.
Remember to close the circuit directly after the test and tighten the
terminal carefully.
Measurement of service currents
After a maintenance test it is recommended to measure the service currents and service
voltages recorded by the protection IED. The service values are checked on the local
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Section 7
Commissioning and maintenance of the fault clearing system
HMI or in PCM600. Ensure that the correct values and angles between voltages and
currents are recorded. Also check the direction of directional functions such as
Distance and directional overcurrent functions.
For transformer differential protection, the achieved differential current value is
dependent on the tap changer position and can vary between less than 1% up to
perhaps 10% of rated current. For line differential functions, the capacitive charging
currents can normally be recorded as a differential current.
The zero-sequence current to ground-fault protection IEDs should be measured. The
current amounts normally very small but normally it is possible to see if the current
circuit is "alive".
The neutral-point voltage to an ground-fault protection IED is checked. The voltage is
normally 0.1 to 1V secondary. However, voltage can be considerably higher due to
harmonics. Normally a CVT secondary can have around 2.5 - 3% third-harmonic voltage.
Restoring
Maintenance is very important to improve the availability of the protection system by
detecting failures before the protection is required to operate. There is however little
point in testing healthy equipment and then putting it back into service with an open
terminal, with a removed fuse or open miniature circuit breaker with an open
connection, wrong setting, and so on.
Thus a list should be prepared of all items disturbed during test so that all can be put
back into service quickly and without overlooking something. It should be put back
into service item by item and signed by the responsible engineer.
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Troubleshooting
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Section 8
Troubleshooting
8.1
Fault tracing
8.1.1
Identifying hardware errors
1.
Check the module with an error.
•
•
2.
Inspect the IED visually.
•
•
3.
•
Check that the error is not caused by external origins.
Remove the wiring from the IED and test the input and output operation
with an external test device.
If the problem remains, contact ABB for repair or replacement actions.
Identifying runtime errors
1.
2.
3.
8.1.3
Inspect the IED visually to find any physical error causes.
If you can find some obvious physical damage, contact ABB for repair or
replacement actions.
Check whether the error is external or internal.
•
•
8.1.2
Check the general IED status in Main menu/Diagnostics/IED status/
General for a faulty hardware module.
Check the history of changes in internal event list in Main menu/
Diagnostics/Internal Events.
Check the error origin from IED's internal event list Main menu/Diagnostics/
IED status/General.
Reboot the IED and recheck the supervision events to see if the fault has cleared.
In case of persistent faults, contact ABB for corrective actions.
Identifying communication errors
Communication errors are normally communication interruptions or synchronization
message errors due to communication link breakdown.
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•
•
8.1.3.1
Check the IEC61850 and DNP3 communication status in internal event list in
Main menu/Diagnostics/IED Status/General.
In case of persistent faults originating from IED's internal faults such as
component breakdown, contact ABB for repair or replacement actions.
Checking the communication link operation
There are several different communication links on the product. First check that all
communication ports that are used for communication are turned on.
1.
Check the front communication port RJ-45.
1.1. Check that the uplink LED is lit with a steady green light.
The uplink LED is located on the LHMI above the RJ-45 communication
port on the left. The port is used for direct electrical communication to a PC
connected via a crossed-over Ethernet cable.
1.2. Check the communication status of the front port via the LHMI in Main
menu/Test/Function status/Communication/DOSFRNT:1/Outputs.
Check that the LINKUP value is 1, that is, the communication is working.
When the value is 0, there is no communication link.
2.
Check the communication status of the rear port X1 via the LHMI in Main menu/
Tests/Function status/Communication/DOSLAN1:1/Outputs.
The X1 communication port on the rear side of the IED is for optical Ethernet via
LC connector.
•
8.1.3.2
Check that the LINKUP value is 1, that is, the communication is working.
When the value is 0, there is no communication link.
Checking the time synchronization
•
Select Main menu/Diagnostics/IED status/General and check the status of the
time synchronization on Time Synch.
The Time synch value is Normal when the synchronization is in order.
Note that the time synchronization source has to be activated.
Otherwise the value is always Normal.
8.1.4
Running the display test
To run the display test, either use the push buttons or start the test via the menu.
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•
•
Select Main menu/Tests/LED test.
and
.
Press simultaneously
All the LEDs are tested by turning them on simultaneously. The display shows a
set of patterns so that all the pixels are activated. After the test, the display returns
to normal state.
8.2
Indication messages
8.2.1
Internal faults
When the Ready LED indicates an internal fault by flashing, the message associated
with the fault is found in the internal event list in the LHMI menu Main menu/
Diagnostics/Internal events. The message includes the date, time, description and
signal state for the fault. The internal event list is not updated dynamically. The list is
updated by leaving the Internal events menu and then selecting it again. The current
status of the internal fault signals can also be checked via the LHMI in Main menu/
Diagnostics/IED status.
Different actions are taken depending on the severity of the fault. If the fault is found
to be permanent, the IED stays in internal fault mode. The IED continues to perform
internal tests during the fault situation.
When a fault appears, the fault indication message is to be recorded and stated when
requesting support or service.
Table 5:
Internal fault indications
Fault indication
Additional information
Internal Fault
Real Time Clock Error
Hardware error with the real time clock.
Internal Fault
Runtime Exec. Error
One or more of the application threads
are not working properly.
Internal Fault
SW Watchdog Error
This signal will be activated when the
terminal has been under too heavy
load for at least 5 minutes.
Internal Fault
Runtime App Error
One or more of the application threads
are not in an expected state.
Internal Fault
File System Error
A file system error has occurred.
Table continues on next page
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Fault indication
8.2.2
Additional information
Internal Fault
TRM-Error
A TRM card error has occurred. The
instance number is displayed at the
end of the fault indication.
Internal Fault
COM-Error
A COM card error has occurred. The
instance number is displayed at the
end of the fault indication.
Internal Fault
PSM-Error
A PSM card error has occurred. The
instance number is displayed at the
end of the fault indication.
Warnings
The warning message associated with the fault is found in the internal event list in the
LHMI menu Main menu/Diagnostics/Internal events. The message includes the date,
time, description and signal state for the fault. The current status of the internal fault
signals can also be checked via the LHMI in Main menu/Diagnostics/IED status/
General.
When a fault appears, record the fault indication message and state it when ordering
service.
Table 6:
Warning indications
Warning indication
8.2.3
Additional information
Warning
IEC 61850 Error
IEC 61850 has not succeeded
in some actions such as
reading the configuration file,
startup etc.
Warning
DNP3 Error
Error in DNP3 communication.
Additional indications
The additional indication messages do not activate internal fault or warning.
The messages are listed in the LHMI menu under the event list. The signal status data
is found under the IED status and in the internal event list.
Table 7:
Additional indications
Warning indication
Additional information
Time Synch Error
Source of the time synchronization is lost or time
system has made a time reset.
BATTERY1 Error
Auxiliary power is disconnected.
Settings Changed
Settings have been changed.
Setting Groups Changed
Setting group has been changed.
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8.3
Correction procedures
8.3.1
Changing and setting the password
The password can only be set with PCM600.
For more information, see PCM600 documentation.
8.3.2
Identifying IED application problems
Navigate to the appropriate menu in the LHMI to identify possible problems.
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
8.3.2.1
Check that the function is on.
Check that the correct setting group (1 to 4) is activated.
Check the blocking.
Check the mode.
Check the measurement value.
Check the connection to trip and DFR functions.
Check the channel settings.
Inspecting the wiring
The physical inspection of wiring connections often reveals the wrong connection for
phase currents or voltages. However, even though the phase current or voltage
connections to IED terminals might be correct, wrong polarity of one or more
measurement transformers can cause problems.
•
•
•
Check the current or voltage measurements and their phase information from
Main menu/Measurements/Analog primary values or Analog secondary
values.
Check that the phase information and phase shift between phases is correct.
Correct the wiring if needed.
•
Change the parameter Negation in Configuration/Analog modules/
3PhaseAnalogGroup/SMAI_20_n:1 (n= the number of the SMAI used).
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Changing the Negation parameter is not recommended
without special skills.
•
•
Check the actual state of the connected binary inputs.
•
•
•
In PCM600, change the parameter CTStarPointn (n= the number on the
current input) under the parameter settings for each current input.
In LHMI, select Main menu/Tests/I/O modules. Then navigate to the board
with the actual binary input to be checked.
With PCM600, right-click the product and select Signal Monitoring. Then
navigate to the actual I/O board and to the binary input in question. The
activated input signal is indicated with a yellow-lit diode.
Measure output contacts using the voltage drop method of applying at least the
minimum contact load given for the output relays in the technical data, for
example 100 mA at 24 V AC/DC.
Output relays, especially power output relays, are designed for
breaking high currents. Due to this, layers of high resistance may
appear on the surface of the contacts. Do not determine proper
functionality of connectivity or contact resistance by measuring
with a regular hand-held ohm meter.
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V
A
2
3
1
4
GUID-BBAEAF55-8D01-4711-A71D-BBC76B60BA3D V1 EN
Figure 28:
Testing output contacts using the voltage drop method
1 Contact current
2 Contact voltage drop
3 Load
4 Supply voltage
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2
A
V
1
GUID-31DF5495-91F1-4A4B-8FD5-50625038961E V1 EN
Figure 29:
Testing a trip contact
1 Trip contact under test
2 Current limiting resistor
•
•
To check the status of the output circuits driving the output relay via the LHMI,
select Main menu/Tests/I/O modules and then navigate to the board with the
actual binary output to be checked.
Test and change the relay state manually.
1.
2.
3.
To set the IED to test mode, select Main menu/Tests/IED test mode/
TESTMODE:1 and set the parameter to enable.
To operate or force the output relay to operate, select and then navigate to
the board with the actual binary output relay to be operated/forced.
Select the BOn_PO to be operated/forced and use
and
or
to
operate the actual output relay.
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Section 8
Troubleshooting
In PCM600, only the result of these operations can be checked by rightclicking the product and selecting Signal Monitoring tool and then
navigating to the actual I/O-board and the binary input in question. The
activated output signal is indicated with a yellow-lit diode. Each BOn_PO is
represented by two signals. The first signal in LHMI is the actual value 1 or
0 of the output, and in PCM600 a lit or dimmed diode. The second signal is
the status Normal or Forced. Forced status is only achieved when the BO is
set to Forced or operated on the LHMI.
Set the parameter TestMode to disable after completing these
tests. The Pickup LED stops flashing when the relay is no
longer in test mode.
An initially high contact resistance does not cause problems as it is reduced quickly by
the electrical cleaning effect of fritting and thermal destruction of layers, bringing the
contact resistance back to the mOhm range. As a result, practically the full voltage is
available at the load.
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132
Section 9
Glossary
1MRK 502 049-UUS -
Section 9
Glossary
AC
Alternating current
ACT
Application configuration tool within PCM600
A/D converter
Analog-to-digital converter
ADBS
Amplitude deadband supervision
AI
Analog input
ANSI
American National Standards Institute
AR
Autoreclosing
ASCT
Auxiliary summation current transformer
ASD
Adaptive signal detection
AWG
American Wire Gauge standard
BI
Binary input
BOS
Binary outputs status
BR
External bistable relay
BS
British Standards
CAN
Controller Area Network. ISO standard (ISO 11898) for serial
communication
CB
Circuit breaker
CCITT
Consultative Committee for International Telegraph and
Telephony. A United Nations-sponsored standards body within
the International Telecommunications Union.
CCVT
Capacitive Coupled Voltage Transformer
Class C
Protection Current Transformer class as per IEEE/ ANSI
CMPPS
Combined megapulses per second
CMT
Communication Management tool in PCM600
CO cycle
Close-open cycle
Codirectional
Way of transmitting G.703 over a balanced line. Involves two
twisted pairs making it possible to transmit information in both
directions
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Glossary
1MRK 502 049-UUS -
COMTRADE
Standard Common Format for Transient Data Exchange format
for Disturbance recorder according to IEEE/ANSI C37.111,
1999 / IEC60255-24
Contra-directional
Way of transmitting G.703 over a balanced line. Involves four
twisted pairs, two of which are used for transmitting data in
both directions and two for transmitting clock signals
CPU
Central processing unit
CR
Carrier receive
CRC
Cyclic redundancy check
CROB
Control relay output block
CS
Carrier send
CT
Current transformer
CVT or CCVT
Capacitive voltage transformer
DAR
Delayed autoreclosing
DARPA
Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (The US
developer of the TCP/IP protocol etc.)
DBDL
Dead bus dead line
DBLL
Dead bus live line
DC
Direct current
DFC
Data flow control
DFT
Discrete Fourier transform
DHCP
Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol
DIP-switch
Small switch mounted on a printed circuit board
DI
Digital input
DLLB
Dead line live bus
DNP
Distributed Network Protocol as per IEEE Std 1815-2012
DR
Disturbance recorder
DRAM
Dynamic random access memory
DRH
Disturbance report handler
DSP
Digital signal processor
DTT
Direct transfer trip scheme
EHV network
Extra high voltage network
EIA
Electronic Industries Association
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EMC
Electromagnetic compatibility
EMF
Electromotive force
EMI
Electromagnetic interference
EnFP
End fault protection
EPA
Enhanced performance architecture
ESD
Electrostatic discharge
FCB
Flow control bit; Frame count bit
FOX 20
Modular 20 channel telecommunication system for speech, data
and protection signals
FOX 512/515
Access multiplexer
FOX 6Plus
Compact time-division multiplexer for the transmission of up to
seven duplex channels of digital data over optical fibers
G.703
Electrical and functional description for digital lines used by
local telephone companies. Can be transported over balanced
and unbalanced lines
GCM
Communication interface module with carrier of GPS receiver
module
GDE
Graphical display editor within PCM600
GI
General interrogation command
GIS
Gas-insulated switchgear
GOOSE
Generic object-oriented substation event
GPS
Global positioning system
GSAL
Generic security application
HDLC protocol
High-level data link control, protocol based on the HDLC
standard
HFBR connector
type
Plastic fiber connector
HMI
Human-machine interface
HSAR
High speed autoreclosing
HV
High-voltage
HVDC
High-voltage direct current
IDBS
Integrating deadband supervision
IEC
International Electrical Committee
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IEC 60044-6
IEC Standard, Instrument transformers – Part 6: Requirements
for protective current transformers for transient performance
IEC 61850
Substation automation communication standard
IEC 61850–8–1
Communication protocol standard
IEEE
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers
IEEE 802.12
A network technology standard that provides 100 Mbits/s on
twisted-pair or optical fiber cable
IEEE P1386.1
PCI Mezzanine Card (PMC) standard for local bus modules.
References the CMC (IEEE P1386, also known as Common
Mezzanine Card) standard for the mechanics and the PCI
specifications from the PCI SIG (Special Interest Group) for the
electrical EMF (Electromotive force).
IEEE 1686
Standard for Substation Intelligent Electronic Devices (IEDs)
Cyber Security Capabilities
IED
Intelligent electronic device
I-GIS
Intelligent gas-insulated switchgear
Instance
When several occurrences of the same function are available in
the IED, they are referred to as instances of that function. One
instance of a function is identical to another of the same kind
but has a different number in the IED user interfaces. The word
"instance" is sometimes defined as an item of information that is
representative of a type. In the same way an instance of a
function in the IED is representative of a type of function.
IP
1. Internet protocol. The network layer for the TCP/IP protocol
suite widely used on Ethernet networks. IP is a connectionless,
best-effort packet-switching protocol. It provides packet
routing, fragmentation and reassembly through the data link layer.
2. Ingression protection, according to IEC standard
IP 20
Ingression protection, according to IEC standard, level
IP20- Protected against solid foreign objects of12.5mm
diameter and greater.
IP 40
Ingression protection, according to IEC standard, level IP40Protected against solid foreign objects of 1mm diameter and
greater.
IP 54
Ingression protection, according to IEC standard, level
IP54-Dust-protected,protected against splashing water.
IRF
Internal failure signal
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IRIG-B:
InterRange Instrumentation Group Time code format B,
standard 200
ITU
International Telecommunications Union
LAN
Local area network
LIB 520
High-voltage software module
LCD
Liquid crystal display
LDD
Local detection device
LED
Light-emitting diode
MCB
Miniature circuit breaker
MCM
Mezzanine carrier module
MVB
Multifunction vehicle bus. Standardized serial bus originally
developed for use in trains.
NCC
National Control Centre
OCO cycle
Open-close-open cycle
OCP
Overcurrent protection
OLTC
On-load tap changer
OV
Over-voltage
Overreach
A term used to describe how the relay behaves during a fault
condition. For example, a distance relay is overreaching when
the impedance presented to it is smaller than the apparent
impedance to the fault applied to the balance point, that is, the
set reach. The relay “sees” the fault but perhaps it should not
have seen it.
PCI
Peripheral component interconnect, a local data bus
PCM
Pulse code modulation
PCM600
Protection and control IED manager
PC-MIP
Mezzanine card standard
PMC
PCI Mezzanine card
POR
Permissive overreach
POTT
Permissive overreach transfer trip
Process bus
Bus or LAN used at the process level, that is, in near proximity
to the measured and/or controlled components
PSM
Power supply module
PST
Parameter setting tool within PCM600
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PT ratio
Potential transformer or voltage transformer ratio
PUTT
Permissive underreach transfer trip
RASC
Synchrocheck relay, COMBIFLEX
RCA
Relay characteristic angle
RFPP
Resistance for phase-to-phase faults
Resistance for phase-to-ground faults
RISC
Reduced instruction set computer
RMS value
Root mean square value
RS422
A balanced serial interface for the transmission of digital data in
point-to-point connections
RS485
Serial link according to EIA standard RS485
RTC
Real-time clock
RTU
Remote terminal unit
SA
Substation Automation
SBO
Select-before-operate
SC
Switch or push button to close
SCS
Station control system
SCADA
Supervision, control and data acquisition
SCT
System configuration tool according to standard IEC 61850
SDU
Service data unit
SMA connector
Subminiature version A, A threaded connector with constant
impedance.
SMT
Signal matrix tool within PCM600
SMS
Station monitoring system
SNTP
Simple network time protocol – is used to synchronize computer
clocks on local area networks. This reduces the requirement to
have accurate hardware clocks in every embedded system in a
network. Each embedded node can instead synchronize with a
remote clock, providing the required accuracy.
SRY
Switch for CB ready condition
ST
Switch or push button to trip
Starpoint
Neutral/Wye point of transformer or generator
SVC
Static VAr compensation
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TC
Trip coil
TCS
Trip circuit supervision
TCP
Transmission control protocol. The most common transport
layer protocol used on Ethernet and the Internet.
TCP/IP
Transmission control protocol over Internet Protocol. The de
facto standard Ethernet protocols incorporated into 4.2BSD
Unix. TCP/IP was developed by DARPA for Internet working
and encompasses both network layer and transport layer
protocols. While TCP and IP specify two protocols at specific
protocol layers, TCP/IP is often used to refer to the entire US
Department of Defense protocol suite based upon these,
including Telnet, FTP, UDP and RDP.
TNC connector
Threaded Neill-Concelman, a threaded constant impedance
version of a BNC connector
TPZ, TPY, TPX,
TPS
Current transformer class according to IEC
UMT
User management tool
Underreach
A term used to describe how the relay behaves during a fault
condition. For example, a distance relay is underreaching when
the impedance presented to it is greater than the apparent
impedance to the fault applied to the balance point, that is, the
set reach. The relay does not “see” the fault but perhaps it
should have seen it. See also Overreach.
UTC
Coordinated Universal Time. A coordinated time scale,
maintained by the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures
(BIPM), which forms the basis of a coordinated dissemination
of standard frequencies and time signals. UTC is derived from
International Atomic Time (TAI) by the addition of a whole
number of "leap seconds" to synchronize it with Universal Time
1 (UT1), thus allowing for the eccentricity of the Earth's orbit,
the rotational axis tilt (23.5 degrees), but still showing the
Earth's irregular rotation, on which UT1 is based. The
Coordinated Universal Time is expressed using a 24-hour clock,
and uses the Gregorian calendar. It is used for aeroplane and
ship navigation, where it is also sometimes known by the
military name, "Zulu time." "Zulu" in the phonetic alphabet
stands for "Z", which stands for longitude zero.
UV
Undervoltage
WEI
Weak end infeed logic
VT
Voltage transformer
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X.21
A digital signalling interface primarily used for telecom
equipment
3IO
Three times zero-sequence current. Often referred to as the
residual or the ground-fault current
3VO
Three times the zero sequence voltage. Often referred to as the
residual voltage or the neutral point voltage
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141
ABB Inc.
1021 Main Campus Drive
Raleigh, NC 27606, USA
Phone
Toll Free: 1-800-HELP-365,
menu option #8
ABB Inc.
3450 Harvester Road
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Phone
Toll Free: 1-800-HELP-365,
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ABB Mexico S.A. de C.V.
Paseo de las Americas No. 31 Lomas
Verdes 3a secc.
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MEXICO
Phone
(+1) 440-585-7804, menu
option #8
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