Behringer Super-X Pro CX3400 User manual

User Manual
SUPER-X PRO CX3400
High-Precision Stereo 2-Way/3-Way/Mono 4-Way Crossover with Limiters,
Adjustable Time Delays and CD Horn Correction
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SUPER-X PRO CX3400 User Manual
Table of Contents
Thank you........................................................................ 2
Important Safety Instructions....................................... 3
Legal Disclaimer.............................................................. 3
Limited warranty............................................................. 3
1. Introduction................................................................ 4
1.1 Multi-way speaker systems.............................................. 4
1.2 SUPER-X PRO: the high-end
frequency crossover................................................................... 4
2. The Design Concept................................................... 4
2.1 Before you begin.................................................................. 4
2.2 Online registration.............................................................. 4
2.3 Control elements................................................................. 5
3. Application.................................................................. 9
3.1 Tools.......................................................................................... 9
3.2 Setting the input levels..................................................... 9
3.3 Setting the output levels.................................................. 9
3.4 Setting the crossover frequencies............................... 10
3.5 Runtime correction........................................................... 10
3.6 The limiters of the SUPER-X PRO.................................. 11
3.7 LOW SUM function............................................................ 11
3.8 CD HORN function............................................................ 11
4. Installation................................................................ 12
4.1 Rack mounting.................................................................... 12
4.2 Mains connection.............................................................. 12
4.3 Audio connections............................................................ 12
5. Specifications............................................................ 14
Thank you
Thank you very much for expressing your confidence in BEHRINGER products
by purchasing the SUPER-X PRO CX3400.
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SUPER-X PRO CX3400 User Manual
Important Safety
Instructions
Terminals marked with this symbol carry
electrical current of sufficient magnitude
to constitute risk of electric shock.
Use only high-quality professional speaker cables with
¼" TS or twist-locking plugs pre-installed. All other
installation or modification should be performed only
by qualified personnel.
This symbol, wherever it appears,
alerts you to the presence of uninsulated
dangerous voltage inside the
enclosure - voltage that may be sufficient to constitute a
risk of shock.
This symbol, wherever it appears,
alerts you to important operating and
maintenance instructions in the
accompanying literature. Please read the manual.
Caution
To reduce the risk of electric shock, do not
remove the top cover (or the rear section).
No user serviceable parts inside. Refer servicing to
qualified personnel.
Caution
To reduce the risk of fire or electric shock,
do not expose this appliance to rain and
moisture. The apparatus shall not be exposed to dripping
or splashing liquids and no objects filled with liquids,
such as vases, shall be placed on the apparatus.
9. Do not defeat the safety purpose of the polarized
or grounding-type plug. A polarized plug has two blades
with one wider than the other. A grounding-type plug
has two blades and a third grounding prong. The wide
blade or the third prong are provided for your safety. If the
provided plug does not fit into your outlet, consult an
electrician for replacement of the obsolete outlet.
10. Protect the power cord from being walked on or
pinched particularly at plugs, convenience receptacles,
and the point where they exit from the apparatus.
11. Use only attachments/accessories specified by
the manufacturer.
12. Use only with the
cart, stand, tripod, bracket,
or table specified by the
manufacturer, or sold with
the apparatus. When a cart
is used, use caution when
moving the cart/apparatus
combination to avoid
injury from tip-over.
13. Unplug this apparatus during lightning storms or
when unused for long periods of time.
14. Refer all servicing to qualified service personnel.
Servicing is required when the apparatus has been
damaged in any way, such as power supply cord or plug
is damaged, liquid has been spilled or objects have fallen
into the apparatus, the apparatus has been exposed
to rain or moisture, does not operate normally, or has
been dropped.
15. The apparatus shall be connected to a MAINS socket
outlet with a protective earthing connection.
16. Where the MAINS plug or an appliance coupler is
used as the disconnect device, the disconnect device shall
remain readily operable.
Caution
These service instructions are for use
by qualified service personnel only.
To reduce the risk of electric shock do not perform any
servicing other than that contained in the operation
instructions. Repairs have to be performed by qualified
service personnel.
1. Read these instructions.
2. Keep these instructions.
3. Heed all warnings.
4. Follow all instructions.
5. Do not use this apparatus near water.
6. Clean only with dry cloth.
7. Do not block any ventilation openings. Install in
accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions.
8. Do not install near any heat sources such as
radiators, heat registers, stoves, or other apparatus
(including amplifiers) that produce heat.
LEGAL DISCLAIMER
TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS AND APPEARANCES
ARE SUBJECT TO CHANGE WITHOUT NOTICE AND
ACCURACY IS NOT GUARANTEED. BEHRINGER,
KLARK TEKNIK, MIDAS, BUGERA, AND TURBOSOUND
ARE PART OF THE MUSIC GROUP (MUSIC-GROUP.COM).
ALL TRADEMARKS ARE THE PROPERTY OF THEIR
RESPECTIVE OWNERS. MUSIC GROUP ACCEPTS NO
LIABILITY FOR ANY LOSS WHICH MAY BE SUFFERED
BY ANY PERSON WHO RELIES EITHER WHOLLY OR
IN PART UPON ANY DESCRIPTION, PHOTOGRAPH
OR STATEMENT CONTAINED HEREIN. COLORS AND
SPECIFICATIONS MAY VARY FROM ACTUAL PRODUCT.
MUSIC GROUP PRODUCTS ARE SOLD THROUGH
AUTHORIZED FULLFILLERS AND RESELLERS ONLY.
FULLFILLERS AND RESELLERS ARE NOT AGENTS OF
MUSIC GROUP AND HAVE ABSOLUTELY NO AUTHORITY
TO BIND MUSIC GROUP BY ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED
UNDERTAKING OR REPRESENTATION. THIS MANUAL
IS COPYRIGHTED. NO PART OF THIS MANUAL MAY
BE REPRODUCED OR TRANSMITTED IN ANY FORM
OR BY ANY MEANS, ELECTRONIC OR MECHANICAL,
INCLUDING PHOTOCOPYING AND RECORDING OF ANY
KIND, FOR ANY PURPOSE, WITHOUT THE EXPRESS
WRITTEN PERMISSION OF MUSIC GROUP IP LTD.
ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.
© 2013 MUSIC Group IP Ltd.
Trident Chambers, Wickhams Cay, P.O. Box 146,
Road Town, Tortola, British Virgin Islands
LIMITED WARRANTY
For the applicable warranty terms and conditions
and additional information regarding MUSIC Group’s
Limited Warranty, please see complete details online at
www.music-group.com/warranty.
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SUPER-X PRO CX3400 User Manual
1. Introduction
2. The Design Concept
This manual first describes the terminology used, so that you can fully
understand the CX3400 and its functions. Please read the manual carefully
and keep it for future reference.
The philosophy behind BEHRINGER products guarantees a no-compromise circuit
design and employs the best choice of components. The operational amplifiers
NJM4580 which are used in the SUPER-X PRO, are exceptional. They boast
extreme linearity and very low distortion characteristics. To complement this
design the choice of components includes low-tolerance resistors and capacitors,
high-quality potentiometers and several other stringently selected elements.
1.1 Multi-way speaker systems
Multi-way speaker systems can be found almost everywhere today – not only in
stereo systems, cinemas, discotheques and concert halls. As “customers” become
more and more demanding, even such “simple” products as TV sets have them
installed. Why?
With the same sound pressure level, low-frequency sound waves have a much
greater amplitude than high-frequency signals. When a single loudspeaker is to
produce both bass and treble frequencies, so-called intermodulation distortion
will occur.
Don’t worry about unfamiliar terminology! Everybody knows the effect
that the sound of a fire engine’s siren seems to become lower in frequency,
once it has passed you. So, the perceived frequency is affected by the motion
of the sound source or the listener. This phenomenon is called Doppler effect
(thanks to Mr. Doppler who discovered it) and can also be found in loudspeakers:
as the speaker diaphragm is displaced by low frequencies, the treble frequencies
seem to be raised in loudness, or lowered when the diaphragm reverses
its direction. Quite similar in sound to a vibrato, it is precisely this effect
that we call intermodulation distortion.
As a consequence, we cannot expect a single loudspeaker to reproduce signals
with the same quality over the entire audio spectrum. Therefore, 2, 3 or 4-way
systems have become the standard today. Speakers that need to reproduce only
a limited range of the audio spectrum can accomplish this task with much
greater accuracy, i.e. they produce a more regular frequency response and
dispersion pattern.
To operate a speaker system that consists of several loudspeakers for the various
frequency ranges, you have to provide a variety of input signals for the single
speakers. For this purpose, crossover networks split up the input signal into
several frequency bands. You can use passive crossovers wired between amplifier
and speaker, or active systems placed before the amplifier in the signal chain.
Passive crossovers are usually employed in hi-fi speaker boxes.
1.2 SUPER-X PRO: the high-end
frequency crossover
The BEHRINGER SUPER-X PRO CX3400 is a high-quality active crossover network
that can be used for 2, 3 or even 4-way sound reinforcement systems.
Whether you need to set up a system for small clubs or large halls, improve an
on-stage monitoring system or enhance your studio monitors with an additional
subwoofer: your SUPER-X PRO is the ideal choice for all of these applications.
The CX3400 uses SMD technology (Surface Mounted Device). These subminiature
components adapted from aerospace technology allow for an extreme packing
density to further improve the overall reliability. Additionally, the unit is
manufactured in compliance with the ISO9000 certified management system.
2.1 Before you begin
Your BEHRINGER SUPER-X PRO CX3400 was carefully packed in the factory
and the packaging is designed to protect the unit from rough handling.
Nevertheless, we recommend that you carefully examine the packaging
and its contents for any signs of physical damage, which may have occurred
during transit.
◊ If the unit is damaged, please do not return it to BEHRINGER, but notify
your dealer and the shipping company immediately, otherwise claims
for damage or replacement may not be granted. Shipping claims must
be made by the consignee.
Be sure that there is enough space around the unit for cooling and please do
not place the CX3400 on high-temperature devices such as radiators etc.
to avoid overheating.
◊ Before you connect your SUPER-X PRO to the mains, please make sure
that your local voltage matches the voltage required by the unit!
The mains connection of the CX3400 is made by using the enclosed mains
cable and a standard IEC receptacle. It meets all of the international safety
certification requirements.
◊ Please make sure that all units have a proper ground connection.
For your own safety, never remove or disable the ground conductor
of the unit or of the AC power cable.
Further information can be found in chapter 2 “Installation”.
2.2 Online registration
Please register your new BEHRINGER equipment right after your purchase by
visiting http://behringer.com and read the terms and conditions of our
warranty carefully.
Should your BEHRINGER product malfunction, it is our intention to have
it repaired as quickly as possible. To arrange for warranty service,
please contact the BEHRINGER retailer from whom the equipment was
purchased. Should your BEHRINGER dealer not be located in your vicinity,
you may directly contact one of our subsidiaries. Corresponding contact
information is included in the original equipment packaging (Global Contact
Information/European Contact Information). Should your country not be listed,
please contact the distributor nearest you. A list of distributors can be found in
the support area of our website (http://behringer.com).
Registering your purchase and equipment with us helps us process your repair
claims more quickly and efficiently.
Thank you for your cooperation!
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SUPER-X PRO CX3400 User Manual
Fig. 2.1: The front panel of the SUPER-X PRO
2.3 Control elements
Since the SUPER-X PRO boasts a variety of features, we highlighted the active
control elements in the following illustrations. On the unit itself, these active
elements are equipped with light-emitting diodes, helping you to keep track of
your settings even under poor lighting conditions. Additionally, all buttons on the
front panel are backlit when activated. Above the control elements there are two
labels in the form of strips which refers to mono 4-way (upper) or stereo 2/3-way
(lower) configuration. The LEDs below these strips show which controls are active
in the respective operating mode.
◊ On the rear panel, labels above/below the connectors refer to the
various crossover modes available. Please make sure that the two
MODE switches and corresponding connectors are configured properly;
otherwise, you could damage your speakers.
2.3.1 Stereo 2-way operation
First, activate stereo 2-way mode by means of the two MODE buttons on the rear
panel. The STEREO-LED on the front panel, above the LOW CUT button in
channel 2, lights up.
(1) INPUT control. This control adjusts the input gain from +12 to -12 dB
(see control 16).
(2) LOW CUT button. This button activates the 25 Hz highpass filter protecting
the woofers against low-frequency signals.
(3)
LOW/HIGH XOVER FREQ. control. This control governs the
crossover frequency between the Low and High bands. When the
XOVER FREQUENCY button on the rear of the unit is pressed,
the frequency range is multiplied by the factor 10.
(5) DELAY control. This control delays the Low signal by as much as 2 ms, which is useful to align the speaker systems in phase.
(6) LOW OUTPUT control. Controls the output level of the Low band from
+6 to -6 dB.
(7) LOW PHASE INVERT button. This button reverses the polarity of the
Low output.
(8) LOW MUTE button. Mutes the Low band.
(12) HIGH OUTPUT control. Controls the output level of the High band from
+6 to -6 dB.
(13) HIGH PHASE INVERT button. This button reverses the polarity of the
High output.
(14) HIGH MUTE button. Mutes the High band.
(15) CD HORN button. This button provides a special form of frequency correction in the High band for constant-directivity horns.
(30) THRESHOLD control. This control determines the limiter threshold.
(31) LIMITER button. This button activates all limiters. Whenever the signal surpasses the limiter threshold, the LIM-LEDs above the Gain control light up, signaling that the CX3400 cuts back the output level.
Fig. 2.2: Proper selection of the two MODE buttons for stereo 2-way operation
Subsequently, the LEDs above the active controls on the front panel light up,
signaling which controls are active in the operating mode you just selected.
The functions of these controls can be seen from the second strip label.
In stereo mode, both channels perform the same functions.
(7)
(1) (3)
(2)
(5) (6)
(8)
(13)
(12) (15)
(14)
Fig. 2.3: Active control elements on the front panel of the SUPER-X PRO for stereo 2-way operation
(30)
(31)
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SUPER-X PRO CX3400 User Manual
(1) (2)
(3)
(5) (6)
(8)
(9) (10)
(12) (13) (14)
(15)
Fig. 2.4: Active control elements on the rear panel of the SUPER-X PRO for 2-way stereo operation
(1) Use the enclosed power cord to connect the unit to the mains.
(2)
FUSE HOLDER / VOLTAGE SELECTOR. Please make sure that your local voltage matches the voltage indicated on the unit, before you attempt to connect and operate the CX3400. Blown fuses may only be replaced by fuses of the same type and rating. Some models allow for inserting the fuse holder in two different positions, in order to switch over from 230 V to
115 V operation, and vice versa. Please note that for 115 V operation
outside Europe, you need to use a fuse of a higher rating
(see chapter 4 “Installation”).
2.3.2 Stereo 3-way operation
First, activate stereo 3-way mode by means of the two MODE buttons on the
rear panel. The STEREO-LED on the front panel, above the LOW CUT button in
channel 2, lights up.
(3) and (10) HIGH OUTPUT connector. Output for the High band signal.
(5) and (12) LOW (LF SUM) OUTPUT connector. Output for the
Low band signal.
(6) and (13) XOVER FREQ. button. This button serves to switch over the control range of the front-panel LOW/HIGH OVER FREQ. control from 44 to 930 Hz
or 440 Hz to 9.3 kHz.
◊ Always switch off the entire system before you press this button,
as it produces heavy interference noise that could damage your
speakers and/or other equipment.
(8) MODE button. In stereo 2-way mode, the first button must be pressed,
the second released. Please observe the labels on the rear panel of the unit.
◊ Always switch off the entire system before you press this button,
as it produces heavy interference noise that could damage your
speakers and/or other equipment.
(9) LOW SUM button. In stereo mode, the two Low paths can be summed with the LOW SUM button and routed to the Low output of channel 1,
which is particularly useful in systems using additional subwoofers.
(14)INPUT connector. Input signal connector.
(15)
SERIAL NUMBER. Please take the time to have the warranty card filled out completely by your specialized dealer, and return it within 14 days after the date of purchase, so as to be entitled to benefit from our extended warranty. Or use our online registration option available on the Internet
at behringer.com.
Fig. 2.5: Proper selection of the two MODE switches for stereo 3-way operation
Subsequently, the LEDs above the active controls on the front panel light up,
signaling which controls are active in the operating mode you just selected.
The functions of these controls can be seen from the second strip label.
In stereo mode, both channels perform the same functions.
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SUPER-X PRO CX3400 User Manual
(7) (10) (13)
(1)
(4) (5) (6) (9) (12) (15) (16)
(2) (3)
(8) (11) (14)
(30)
(31)
Fig. 2.6: Active control elements on the front panel of the SUPER-X PRO for stereo 3-way operation
(1) and (16) INPUT control. This control adjusts the input gain from
+12 to -12 dB.
(2) LOW CUT button. This button activates the 25 Hz highpass filter protecting the woofers against low-frequency signals.
(3)
LOW/MID XOVER FREQ. control. This control governs the crossover frequency between the Low and Mid bands. When the XOVER FREQUENCY button on the rear of the unit is pressed, the frequency range is multiplied by the factor 10.
(4) MID/HIGH XOVER FREQ. control. This control governs the crossover frequency between the Mid and High bands.
(11) MID MUTE button. Mutes the Mid band.
(12) HIGH OUTPUT control. Controls the output level of the High band from
+6 to -6 dB.
(14) HIGH MUTE button. Mutes the High band.
(15) CD HORN button. This button provides a special form of frequency correction in the High band for constant-directivity horns.
(6) LOW OUTPUT control. Controls the output level of the Low band from
+6 to -6 dB.
(30) THRESHOLD control. This control determines the limiter threshold.
(7) LOW PHASE INVERT button. This button reverses the polarity
of the Low output.
(31) LIMITER button. This button activates all limiters. Whenever the signal surpasses the limiter threshold, the LIM-LEDs above the Gain control
light up, signaling that the CX3400 cuts back the output level.
(8) LOW MUTE button. Mutes the Low band.
(4)
(10) MID PHASE INVERT button. This button reverses the polarity
of the Mid output.
(13) HIGH PHASE INVERT button. This button reverses the polarity
of the High output.
(5) DELAY control. This control delays the Low signal by as much as 2 ms, which is useful to align the speaker systems in phase.
(3)
(9) MID OUTPUT control. Controls the output level of the Mid band from
+6 to -6 dB.
(8)
(9) (10)
(11)
(12) (13) (14)
Fig. 2.7: Active control elements on the rear panel of the SUPER-X PRO for stereo 3-way operation
(4) and (11) MID OUTPUT connector. Output for the Mid band signal.
(12) LOW (LF SUM) OUTPUT connector. Output for the Low band signal.
(3) and (10) HIGH OUTPUT connector. Output for the High band signal.
(13) XOVER FREQ. button. This button serves to switch over the control range of the front-panel LOW/MID XOVER FREQ. control from 44 to 930 Hz or
440 Hz to 9.3 kHz.
(8) MODE button. In stereo 3-way mode, both buttons must be out.
Please observe the labels on the rear panel of the unit.
◊ Always switch off the entire system before you press this button,
as it produces heavy interference noise that could damage your
speakers and/or other equipment.
(9) LOW SUM button. In stereo mode, the two Low paths can be summed with the LOW SUM button and routed to the Low output of channel 1,
which is particularly useful in systems using additional subwoofers.
◊ Always switch off the entire system before you press this button,
as it produces heavy interference noise that could damage your
speakers and/or other equipment.
(14) INPUT connector. Input signal connector.
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SUPER-X PRO CX3400 User Manual
2.3.3 Mono 4-way operation
(6) LOW OUTPUT control. Controls the output level of the Low band from
+6 to -6 dB.
First, activate mono 4-way mode by means of the two MODE buttons on the rear
panel. The MONO-LED on the front panel, above the LOW CUT button in
channel 1, lights up.
(7) LOW PHASE INVERT button. This button reverses the polarity
of the Low output.
(8) LOW MUTE button. Mutes the Low band.
(9) LOW-MID OUTPUT control. Controls the output level of the Low-Mid
band from +6 to -6 dB.
(10) LOW-MID PHASE INVERT button. This button reverses the polarity of the Low-Mid output.
(11) LOW-MID MUTE button. Mutes the Low-Mid band.
(15) CD HORN button. This button provides a special form of frequency correction in the High band for constant-directivity horns.
(19) HIGH-MID/HIGH XOVER FREQ. control. This control governs the crossover frequency between the High-Mid and High bands.
(24) HIGH-MID OUTPUT control. Controls the output level of the High-Mid band from +6 to -6 dB.
Fig. 2.8: Proper selection of the two MODE switches for mono 4-way operation
(25) HIGH-MID PHASE INVERT button. This button reverses the polarity of the High-Mid output.
Subsequently, the LEDs above the active controls on the front panel light up,
signaling which controls are active in the operating mode you just selected.
The functions of these controls can be seen from the first strip label.
(26) HIGH-MID MUTE button. Mutes the High-Mid band.
(1) INPUT control. This control adjusts the input gain from +12 to -12 dB.
(27) HIGH OUTPUT control. Controls the output level of the High band from
+6 to -6 dB.
(2) LOW CUT button. This button activates the 25 Hz highpass filter protecting the woofers against low-frequency signals.
(3)
(28) HIGH PHASE INVERT button. This button reverses the polarity
of the High output.
LOW/LOW-MID XOVER FREQ. control. This control governs the crossover frequency between the Low and Low-Mid bands. When the XOVER FREQUENCY button on the rear of the unit is pressed, the frequency
range is multiplied by the factor 10.
(29) HIGH MUTE button. Mutes the High band.
(30) THRESHOLD control. This control determines the limiter threshold.
(31) LIMITER button. This button activates all limiters. Whenever the signal surpasses the limiter threshold, the LIM-LEDs above the Gain control
light up, signaling that the CX3400 cuts back the output level.
(4) LOW-MID/HIGH-MID XOVER FREQ. control. This control governs the crossover frequency between the Low-Mid and High-Mid bands.
(5) DELAY control. This control delays the Low signal by as much as 2 ms, which is useful to align the speaker systems in phase.
(7) (10)
(1) (3) (4) (5) (6) (9)
(2)
(8) (11)
(25) (28)
(15)
Fig. 2.9: Active control elements on the front panel of the SUPER-X PRO for mono 4-way operation
(19)
(24) (27) (30)
(26) (29) (31)
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SUPER-X PRO CX3400 User Manual
(3)
(4)
(8)
(11)
(12) (13) (14)
Fig. 2.10: Active control elements on the rear panel of the SUPER-X PRO for mono 4-way operation
(3) HIGH OUTPUT connector. Output for the High band signal.
3.1.2 Generator/Analyzer
(4) HIGH-MID OUTPUT connector. Output for the High-Mid band signal.
In combination with a measuring microphone and a generator producing
pink noise that is fed into a channel of your P.A. console, an analyzer gives
you a graph that shows how the acoustic energy is distributed among the
various frequency bands (usually 1/3 of an octave). The equalizer/analyzer
BEHRINGER ULTRA-CURVE PRO DSP8024 is the ideal tool for this application.
(8) MODE button. In mono 4-way mode, the right button must be pressed. Please observe the labels on the rear panel of the unit.
◊ Always switch off the entire system before you press this button,
as it produces heavy interference noise that could damage your
speakers and/or other equipment.
(11) LOW-MID OUTPUT connector. Output for the Low-Mid band signal.
(12) LOW OUTPUT connector. Output for the Low band signal.
(13) XOVER FREQ. button. This button serves to switch over the control range of the front-panel LOW/LOW-MID XOVER FREQ. control from 44 to 930 Hz
or 440 Hz to 9.3 kHz.
◊ Always switch off the entire system before you press this button,
as it produces heavy interference noise that could damage your
speakers and/or other equipment.
(14) INPUT connector. Input signal connector.
3. Application
3.1 Tools
The following tools are indispensable for a perfect system alignment.
You should by all means try to obtain the speaker specifications from the
manufacturer, in order to operate the systems in their proper frequency and
level ranges. Use the manufacturer’s documentation to adjust the operating
mode and crossover frequencies.
◊ BEHRINGER does not assume any responsibility for speaker damage
caused by improper handling of the SUPER-X PRO.
3.1.1 Measuring microphone
For making measurements you need a high-grade microphone with a frequency
response that should be as linear as possible over the entire frequency range
(e.g. BEHRINGER measuring microphone ECM8000), or at least between
90 Hz and 15 kHz. Place the microphone about 5 m in front of the speaker
system to be measured, in a height where it is on axis with the drivers of the two
frequency bands you wish to measure. When setting the levels for the individual
frequency bands, delay times and crossover frequencies by means of
a measuring microphone, you should operate only one speaker stack each.
Usually, the measuring microphone needs to be repositioned between two
specific measurements.
3.1.3 Your ears
When you listen to the overall sound of your system, you should walk around
in the audience area and try to detect resonance frequencies or cancellations.
The sound should be optimized for the position where most of the audience will
be gathered, however, without neglecting other areas. This often means that
the system must be operated in mono. Whenever you use technical aids such
as analyzers, measuring microphones, etc., you should check the results with
your ears.
3.2 Setting the input levels
Both inputs provide a gain boost/cut of up to 12 dB. Normally, the output level
of the mixing console and the input sensitivity of the power amp are the same,
i.e. 0 dB in the console correspond to 0 dB in the amplifier. In this case, the power
amp is fully driven and the SUPER-X PRO should have no influence on the system
level, as all input/output controls are set to 0 dB. However, in a home recording
or discotheque environment using operating levels of -10 dBV, the power amp
would still need +4 dBu, which requires some additional gain of 12 dB. If so,
the SUPER-X PRO’s INPUT control must be set to maximum.
3.3 Setting the output levels
The output levels of the single bands can be raised/lowered by as much as 6 dB.
To achieve a linear frequency response in the system, all output levels should be
adjusted with the help of an analyzer. Then, mute all outputs except for one to
check the crossover frequencies and levels, play back pink noise over the system
at an appropriate volume level. Now, when you switch on the adjacent band, the
level measured around the crossover frequency should go up by 3 dB. Repeat this
process for all crossover frequencies.
3.3.1 Finding “drop-outs” in the frequency response
Check the entire frequency response of the system. Rooms have quite an impact
on the frequency response of speaker systems, due to resonance and various
reflections. So, you cannot expect to achieve a linear frequency response right
from the start. Use an equalizer such as our ULTRA-CURVE PRO DSP8024 or
ULTRA-GRAPH GEQ3102. Look for drop-outs around the crossover frequencies
(there should be none, if the output levels have been set properly, as described in
paragraph 3.3)!
However, if the frequency response shows some irregularities, it can prove useful
to correct it by means of the crossover network, before using an equalizer (EQ).
Subsequently, the crossover frequencies must be corrected with an EQ as far as
this is possible.
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SUPER-X PRO CX3400 User Manual
3.4 Setting the crossover frequencies
The use of extremely high-grade potentiometers made it unnecessary to install
fixed-frequency plug-in modules. Thus, you have a wide range of setting options
available that even more expensive crossover networks hardly give you.
The CX3400 works in two specific frequency ranges: 44 though 930 Hz and 440
Hz through 9.3 kHz. The Linkwitz-Riley filters employed in the SUPER-X PRO
feature a slope of 24 dB/octave. High-grade components such as 1%-tolerance
metal-film resistors ensure a perfect phase and amplitude response at all
crossover frequencies.
Please consult the manufacturer’s specifications of the various speaker
components to set the crossover frequencies. When polar plots of specific
speakers or horns are available, use them too. Don’t set the crossover frequencies
around peaks or drop-outs in the frequency response, but try to find a range that
is largely linear. When folded woofer horns are used, you also need to take the
horn length into account (see chapter 3.5 “Runtime Correction”).
◊ Never operate speaker/horn drivers below the frequency range
specified by the manufacturer!
3.5 Runtime correction
3.5.1 Background
The ideal transducer would be a point source of sound, i.e. a speaker of infinitely
small dimension, which could still reproduce the entire frequency spectrum.
Unfortunately, such a sound source is impossible in reality, so that we have
to accept some compromises.
If the drivers in a multi-way system (i.e. the diaphragm set in motion by the voice
coil, but not e.g. the opening of a horn) are not exactly aligned on a vertical axis,
the varying distances between sound source and listener result in phase errors
and cancellations (also called “comb filter effect”). In particular, in the highfrequency range it is imperative, due to the shorter wavelengths, that the drivers
be positioned one above the other, not side by side. The old-fashioned horizontal
rows of radiators follow this principle: while the speaker power is summed up
in the horizontal plane, the signals cancel each other on a vertical axis. Thus,
unwanted reflections from the ceiling can be reduced.
Consequently, a speaker stack whose systems radiate towards the same area
should have all speakers arranged in a vertical line. And even if the front sides
of all systems are perfectly aligned, runtime differences still occur due to the
different speaker designs (horns, bass reflex cabinet, etc.).
The BEHRINGER SUPER-X PRO allows you to delay the Low bands by up to
2 milliseconds. In this way, you can virtually push back a specific speaker cabinet
by as much as 68.6 cm (which is quite useful, for example, when you place
a constant-directivity horn (CD) on top of a closed speaker cabinet).
Runtime correction is not the same as phase correction. Speaker systems that
have the same run times are also in phase (unless, the polarity of one speaker
is reversed). However, the opposite is not true.
3.5.2 Basics of electronic runtime correction
It is important to know how the dimensions of time and space are connected
with each other, e.g. by using a tape measure and a pocket calculator.
Example: a delay of 2 ms corresponds to a distance of 68.6 cm; when you measure
an offset of 30 cm you can calculate the necessary delay as follows:
2 ms x 30 / 68.6 = 0.87 ms.
If it is impossible to measure the offset with an accuracy of at least 1 cm, you can
perform the runtime correction with the help of a measuring microphone and
tunable sine generator, using the SUPER-X PRO’s feature of variably adjustable
crossover frequencies. More on this below.
The speed of sound is 343 m/s or 34.3 cm/ms approximately (hence, 2 ms of
delay correspond to a virtual speaker offset of 68.6 cm). Frequency is measured in
oscillations per second (1/s); the unit of measurement is Hertz (Hz).
For example, when you adjust a crossover frequency of 3 kHz between the horn
and midrange systems, the wavelength λ is calculated as follows: λ = c / f
(c = speed of sound; f = frequency). So, the wavelength at 3 kHz is:
34, 3 cm/ms
34300 cm/ms
=
= 11, 43 cm
3000 1/s
3000 1/s
With a virtual distance of 68.6 cm, the control range of the potentiometer will
provide at least six positions that ensure phase coincidence. Perhaps none of
these positions will correct the runtime differences completely, for example,
if the offset between the drivers is greater than 68.6 cm.
Is that important? It is, because only a system whose runtime differences have
been corrected will be capable of:
1. reproducing pulse peaks correctly.
2. maintaining phase coincidence when the signal frequency moves away from
the crossover frequency.
3.5.3 Runtime correction in a P.A. system using the
SUPER-X PRO midrange/high midrange/tweeter range
Before you perform the following steps to correct both runtime and phase,
you should measure the offset between the drivers in cm and move the cabinets
(or delay their bands), until you think they are aligned correctly. This will save
you a lot of time later on. Now, do the fine adjustment as follows:
Using an analyzer
• Use pink noise as your sound source and connect the measuring microphone
to the measuring input of the analyzer.
• Adjust the bands below/above the crossover frequency so that each
one alone produces a 0 dB reading at the crossover frequency; mute the
remaining bands. If both bands together produce a +3 dB reading, they can
be considered in phase.
• Now, raise the crossover frequency by a factor of 1.5 and perform the same
steps as above. Here, too, the analyzer should read +3 dB.
• Finally, check your setting by raising the crossover frequency by a factor
of 1.4.
• Here, too, you can temporarily reverse the phase of one of the bands and
check the sound for cancellations. If no runtime correction is achieved
• Check whether the distance between the two drivers is or could be greater
than 68.6 cm. If so, try to correct it by moving the speaker cabinets.
• If this still doesn’t solve the problem, one of the bands could be reversed in
polarity. Experiment with the front-panel PHASE INVERT button.
Subwoofer/Woofer/Midrange
It is often claimed that phase or runtime correction below 150 Hz is unnecessary,
because the sound waves feature a spherical dispersion pattern at such low
frequencies. We disagree with this view.
Modern systems often use bass reflex cabinets for their woofer or subwoofer
systems. Consequently, when stacking the cabinets, the drivers are usually
aligned along the vertical axis of the speaker front, or can at least be aligned
using the available control range of the SUPER-X PRO. Here, runtime correction
follows the same principle as in midrange/high-midrange/tweeter systems.
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SUPER-X PRO CX3400 User Manual
Problems will be encountered only with unconventional setups (e.g. when the
woofers are placed underneath the stage, while the midrange/tweeter systems
are flown above it) or when long woofer horns are used. The latter are the subject
of the following discussion.
First, measure the horn length. In the case of folded woofer horns this is anything
but easy. Use a design drawing or open the cabinet (usually, a flap or cabinet side
wall can be opened easily, for instance, to replace a defective speaker).
We use a horn length of 1 m as an example. It will make no sense to delay the
signal, because the woofer signal arrives with a 3-ms delay at the “mouth”
of the horn. So, you cannot achieve a correct runtime, unless you would
delay the runtime of the remaining systems in the stack. The pulse response
(the main reason for runtime correction), however, is mainly determined by the
mid and tweeter ranges. What you can – and should – achieve though is phase
coincidence at the crossover frequency. Which is exactly what the SUPER-X PRO
gives you: free adjustability of the crossover frequency.
Calculate the frequency whose wavelength corresponds to twice the horn length.
At this frequency the output signal will be reversed by 180° in phase when it
comes out from the horn.
The frequency can be calculated as follows:
c
=f
λ
(see chapter 3.5.2)
Use the known values (speed of sound in m/s; horn length in m) to calculate
the frequency:
343 m/s
2x1m
= 171, 5 1/s = 171, 5 Hz
Now, using a crossover frequency of 171.5 Hz and reversing the polarity
of the woofer output will result in an approximate phase correction,
which can be fine-adjusted by applying some delay or shifting the
crossover frequency a bit.
General remarks on runtime correction
Only one speaker stack each should be measured and corrected. Begin with the
highest crossover frequency and work your way downward.
◊ Once you have completed the runtime correction procedure,
please make a note of the relative positions of the speaker,
the adjusted crossover frequencies, delay times, etc. as well as of all
level settings (limiters included). The next time you set up your system,
you can start from these settings and with a bit of luck you will need
to make just a few fine adjustments, before you can turn to the EQs.
◊ Never drive different speakers from the same output! The distances
which the sound waves travel before they reach the listener will very
likely be different and unavoidably lead to phase shifts. Additionally,
the built-in drivers may have different efficiencies, impedance
characteristics or even reversed polarities.
When the speaker offset is greater than 68.6 cm you can only move the speaker
cabinets. Runtime correction is not the same as the signal delay applied to offset
groups of speakers. Here, the entire signal must be delayed by a much greater
amount (a suitable delay circuit is included, for example, in the BEHRINGER
ULTRA-CURVE DSP8024).
3.6 The limiters of the SUPER-X PRO
Limiting the signal in the crossover network is the last resort to protect the
system against overloading. Otherwise, improper handling by the user could lead
to serious damage in several drivers.
Each frequency requires its own limiter/compressor control times. The higher the
frequency, the shorter the control times. In the SUPER-X PRO, the control times
for the single bands have been determined after long listening tests, in order to
achieve inaudible gain adaptation instead of hard limiting.
The limiter threshold can be set from -6 dB to OFF and acts on all six limiters at
the same time. Still, each limiter band works independently, with the LIM-LEDs
lighting up as soon as the associated limiter is activated.
Please note that the limiters in the SUPER-X PRO are no “hard ratio” limiters, i.e.
signal peaks can surpass the adjusted threshold by as much as 6 dB. Please make
sure that your system provides enough headroom.
3.6.1 Limiter setup
On condition that you are using power amps and speakers that are compatible
in terms of power rating, you should drive your amps under full load (i.e. 0 dB).
Use pink noise from your analyzer as a sound source, turn the limiter THRESHOLD
control to maximum and press the LIMITER button. Then, gradually cut back the
threshold until just a few LIM-LEDs start flashing. Now, the entire system gain is
limited to 0 dB.
3.7 LOW SUM function
To produce a very loud and deep bass response, the lowest band should be
summed in a mono signal, while the remaining bands remain in stereo
(the human ear cannot locate the source of low frequencies). By combining all
woofer cabinets in one single cluster (the closer, the better) you can optimize
their efficiency. Two woofer cabinets positioned next to each other produce an
SPL that is 3 dB higher than that of two cabinets placed at a certain distance.
Four cabinet give you as much as 6 dB, because low-frequency sound waves
feature a spherical dispersion pattern. When the cabinets are positioned
separately, the sound waves they radiate interfere with each other,
while cabinets placed next to each other create one common wave front
(compare two stones that are thrown into the water, either separately
or together).
In stereo mode, the SUPER-X PRO can be switched to mono bass mode using the
LOW SUM button.
When the LOW SUM button is pressed, the low-frequency signal portions
in the left and right channels are summed up. The output signal is routed
to the Low output of channel 1, from where it can be used to drive, for instance,
a subwoofer cabinet.
3.8 CD HORN function
When a driver radiates into open space via a horn, its efficiency increases.
Over the past few years, so-called constant-directivity horns have gained
widespread popularity, as they offer the advantage of producing a very
regular dispersion pattern over their frequency range; however, the higher
the frequency, the lower their efficiency. To make up for this drawback,
the SUPER-X PRO includes a switchable pre-EQ for CD horns that ensures a flat
frequency response even before equalization is applied. This pre-EQ raises the
signal gain by 3 dB at 3.5 kHz, which then increases by 6 dB/oct. up to 22.5 kHz.
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SUPER-X PRO CX3400 User Manual
4. Installation
Your SUPER-X PRO CX3400 was carefully packed in the factory and the packaging
was designed to protect the unit from rough handling. Nevertheless, we
recommend that you carefully examine the packaging and its contents for any
signs of physical damage, which may have occurred in transit.
◊ If the unit is damaged, please do not return it to us, but notify your
dealer and the shipping company immediately, otherwise claims for
damage or replacement may not be granted. Shipping claims must
be made by the consignee.
4.1 Rack mounting
The BEHRINGER SUPER-X PRO fits into one standard 19" rack unit of space.
Please allow at least an additional 4" depth for the connectors on the back panel.
Be sure that there is enough air space around the unit for cooling and please do
not place the CX3400 on high-temperature devices such as power amps, etc. to
avoid overheating.
The mains connection of the CX3400 is made by using the enclosed mains cable
and a standard IEC receptacle. It meets all of the international safety
certification requirements.
◊ Please make sure that all units have a proper ground connection.
For your own safety, never remove or disable the ground conductor
of the unit or of the AC power cable.
4.3 Audio connections
As a standard, the BEHRINGER SUPER-X PRO CX3400 is equipped with
electronically servo-balanced inputs and outputs. The circuit design features
automatic hum and noise reduction for balanced signals and thus allows for
trouble-free operation, even at highest operating levels. Externally induced
mains hum, etc. will be effectively suppressed. The automatic servo-function
recognizes the presence of unbalanced connectors and adjusts the nominal level
internally to avoid level differences between the input and output signals
(6-dB correction).
◊ Please ensure that only qualified persons install and operate the
CX3400. During installation and operation the user must have
sufficient electrical contact to earth. Electrostatic charges might affect
the operation of the SUPER-X PRO.
4.2 Mains connection
Before you connect your SUPER-X PRO to the mains, please make sure that your
local voltage matches the voltage required by the unit! The fuse holder on the
female mains connector has 3 triangular markers, with two of these triangles
opposing each other. Your CX3400 is set to the operating voltage printed next
to these markers, and can be set to another voltage by turning the fuse holder
by 180°. CAUTION: this instruction does not apply to export models exclusively
designed, e.g. for 115 V operation!
output
Pin 1
Pin 2 = (+) Signal
Pin 3 = ( - ) Signal
Cable
Shield
2 1
3
(+) Signal + Hum
( - ) Signal + Hum
input
1
2
3
Ground
Positive
(+) Hum + Signal
Negative
( - ) Hum + Signal
2 x Signal
= Signal + 6 dB
RFI and Hum
Fig. 4.11: Compensation of interference with balanced connections
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SUPER-X PRO CX3400 User Manual
Unbalanced ¼" TS connector
Balanced use with XLR connectors
strain relief clamp
sleeve
tip
2 1
3
input
sleeve
(ground/shield)
1 = ground/shield
2 = hot (+ve)
3 = cold (-ve)
1
tip
(signal)
2
3
output
For unbalanced use, pin 1 and pin 3
have to be bridged
Balanced ¼" TRS connector
strain relief clamp
sleeve
ring
tip
sleeve
ground/shield
ring
cold (-ve)
tip
hot (+ve)
For connection of balanced and unbalanced plugs,
ring and sleeve have to be bridged at the stereo plug.
Fig. 4.12:Different plug types
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SUPER-X PRO CX3400 User Manual
5. Specifications
Input
Function Switches
ConnectorsXLR
Front Panel
Type
Electronically servo-balanced, RF filtered
Impedance
Balanced >50 kOhms, unbalanced >25 kOhms
Max. Input level
+22 dBu typical, balanced or unbalanced
CMRR
>40 dB, typically >55 dB at 1 kHz
Low Cut
Activates 25 Hz Butterworth,
12 dB/Octave high-pass filter
Mute
Mutes the individual output
Phase Invert
Inverts the phase at the individual output
CD Horn
Corrects CD horn frequency response
above 3.5 kHz
Limiter
Activates the limiter function for all outputs
Output
ConnectorsXLR
Type
Electronically servo-balanced, RF filtered
Impedance
Balanced 60 Ohms, unbalanced 30 Ohms
Max. Output Level
+20 dBm balanced/unbalanced
Rear Panel
Xover Frequency
Multiplies crossover frequency range by 10
Mode
Selects stereo/mono and 2/3/4-way operation
LF Sum
Selects normal stereo or mono-summed
low frequency operation
ON=Channel 1 + 6dB louder / Channel 2:
the same as before
Performance
Bandwidth
20 Hz to 20 kHz, +0/-0.5 dB
Frequency Response
<5 Hz to >90 kHz, +0/-3 dB
Signal to Noise
Ref.: +4 dBu, 20 Hz to 20 kHz, unweighted
Low Output
Stereo Mode:
>93 dBu
Low-Mid Output
Mid Output
Mono Mode:
>93 dBu
>94 dBu
>95 dBu
High-Mid Output
>94 dBu
High Output
>90 dBu
>88 dBu
Dynamic Range
>106 dB, unweighted
THD & Noise
Limiter Off:
Limiter On:
<0.04%<0.5
Interchannel Crosstalk
High to Low:
High to Mid:
Mid to Low:
High to High-Mid: High-Mid to Low-Mid: Low-Mid to Low: <93 dB
<94 dBu
<95 dBu
<95 dBu
<95 dBu
<92 dBu
Crossover
Filter Type
Linkwitz-Riley, 24 dB/Octave, state-variable
Stereo Mode Frequencies
x1x10
Low/High
44 to 930 Hz
440 Hz to 9.3 kHz
Low/Mid
44 to 930 Hz 440 Hz to 9.3 kHz
Mid/High
440 Hz to 9.3 kHz
Mono Mode Frequencies
x1x10
Low/Low-Mid
44 to 930 Hz
Low-Mid/High-Mid
440 Hz to 9.3 kHz
High-Mid/High
440 Hz to 9.3 kHz
440 Hz to 9.3 kHz
Controls
Input
Controls the input gain (+/-12 dB)
Xover Frequency
Controls the crossover frequency
Delay
Controls the delay at the low output
(0 to 2 msec.)
Gain
Controls the output gain (+/-6 dB)
Threshold
Controls the threshold of the limiter
(–6 dB to OFF)
Power Supply
Mains Voltages
USA/Canada
120 V~, 60 Hz
U.K./Australia
240 V~, 50 Hz
Europe
230 V~, 50 Hz
General Export Model
100 - 120 V~, 200 - 240 V~, 50 - 60 Hz
Power Consumption
max. 22 W
Fuse
100 - 120 V~: T 630 mA H
200 - 240 V~: T 315 mA H
Mains Connection
Standard IEC receptacle
Physical
Dimensions
44.5 x 482.6 x 217 mm (1.75 x 19 x 8.5")
Net Weight
2.5 kg (5.5 lbs)
Shipping Weight
3.5 kg (7.7 lbs)
BEHRINGER is constantly striving to maintain the highest professional standards. As a result of these efforts,
modifications may be made from time to time to existing products without prior notice. Specifications and
appearance may differ from those listed or illustrated.
We Hear You