YEC 04 YZF-R1 Specifications

TL n°1
TECHNICAL
LETTER N°1
Subject:
Kit ECU
Electronic Control Unit
TL n°1
Generality
Kit ECU are developed around the same hardware as
production bike.
Meanwhile, ECU pin out is different as production version and
Kit ECU combine exclusively with kit wire harness.
TL n°1
Functions
ECU controls and manages the main following parameters:
Injection
Ignition
Throttle
Shifter
Pit road limiter
Engine brake
Those parameters called mapping are developed to give the best
performance to the engine. A long and fastidious battery of tests
are achieved to develop the kit ECU. The final ECU mapping is
defined after several engine dyno tests, chassis dyno and track
tests condition.
TL n°1
Internal ECU parameters are fixed but users may adjust few parameters
through the Yamaha Matching system. This software communicates
with ECU. This possibility is given to adjust parameters in order to
match and combine with the specificities of team bike.
Basically, internal ECU data match in any conditions with a wide
variety of specifications
TL n°1
Inside ECU, there is two mapping
One concerns the Stocksport (STK) condition (basically standard
engine or very near).
The second one concerns Supersport (SS) condition for R6 and
Superbike (SBK) condition for R1.
Supersport and Superbike condition means FIM engine regulation (such as
camshafts, air funnels, pistons, compression ratio, …)
STK
SBK
ST K
SS
TL n°1
Racing teams can select the mapping that match with their
engine specifications. It is possible with a small electric loop
on the racing kit wire harness.
This coupler is located on the left side of the bike near the
front fork leg.
Loop condition
Plug
Unplug
R1
R6
Superbike
Supersport
Stocksport
Wire harness is delivered with the loop connected.
When the loop is plugged, it is Supersport or Superbike
mapping. Unplugged, it is Stocksport regulation.
TL n°1
The ECU reference numbers
Year / Model
R1
Year / Model
R6
2010
14B-8591A-71
2010
2C0-8591A-91
2009
14B-8591A-70
2009
2C0-8591A-90
2008
4C8-8591A-80
2008
2C0-8591A-80
2007
4C8-8591A-70
2007
2C0-8591A-71
2004-2006
5VY-8591A-72
2003-2005
5SL-8591A-80
TL n°1
Next month,
the Technical letter will tackle about
Yamaha Matching System software
°
°
Subject:
Squish & Compression
ratio measurement
°8
Introduction
This Technical Letter is dedicated to squish and compression ratio
measurement.
Those measures are used to determined cylinder head gasket
thickness.
Through the following pages, I described a method to measure both
engine features.
°8
Summary for Squish and Compression ratio

Introduction

Basic Tools

Spanner Equipment

Squish measurement method

Compression ratio measurement
°8
1 . Measurement of squish hight
1.1 - Introduction
The squish height is the distance between piston and cylinder head. Through this
paragraph, you will find the stages to measure and fix squish height.
The squish height must be controlled and adjusted in the following cases:
When you change cylinder head gasket or cylinder base gasket thickness
When you grind cylinder body height
When you proceed engine maintenance
Camshaft duration at 1 mm
Camshaft duration at 0.3 mm
°8
1.2 - Basic tools
From kit parts catalogue you can get a basic kit for the measurement of squish height. It is
recommended to use this tool in addition to the basic camshaft adjustment kit which
includes the crankshaft tool.
 Dial gage bridge
°8
1.3 - Spanner equipment
In order to work effectively and precisely, you need to use appropriate tools and spanner. To drive
crankshaft, we recommend you to use a long ratchet wrench with 22mm socket. A long wrench
will help you to drive smoothly and precisely the engine crankshaft. By this way, you will ensure
to reach perfectly piston TDC.
°8
1.4 - Practical Method
1.4.1 – Reaching TDC
To achieve this process, it is not necessary to adjust precisely the disc. The dial gage bridge is
placed on the piston centre. Then, by rotation of the crankshaft, the dial gage needle indicates the
TDC when it reached the highest position.
When the piston reached the TDC position, we usually rebalanced horizontally the piston in order
to provide an accurate piston depth measurement.
°8
Dial gage indicate TDC when the needle reached its maximum value.
1.4.2 – Measurement of the piston depth
Once the piston reached TDC, the measurement of the piston depth may
started.
To provide an accurate piston depth measurement, we usually measure 4 points
outer the piston. This measurement is conduced for each piston.
°8
A
The 4 points of each piston are measured as
below and transfer to the table below. Before
presenting the bridge on piston top, it is
necessary to adjust dial gage scale to 0 mm on a
marble.
B
C
D
Piston Number
A
B
C
C
D
C
A
°8
Once all 4 pistons and 4 points are measured, calculate piston depth average. The
average of those 4 points defines the piston depth.
The value that will be used for the calculation of squish is the minimum value of
average. That means the highest piston position.
Piston Number
1
2
3
4
Piston depth
Average of 4
measurement points
Note: piston depth may be influenced by the cylinder base gasket thickness on R1
engines.
°8
1.4.3 Calculation of squish height
Squish height is the distance from piston to cylinder head. You may define the squish height by
the following formula:
Squish height = minimum piston depth + Cylinder Head gasket thickness
Usually, we are following recommended squish height (from Kit Manual) and calculate cylinder
head gasket thickness
Cylinder Head gasket thickness = Squish height - minimum piston depth
°8
1.4.4 Recommended squish height
The minimum squish heights are mentioned in the kit manual. It is imperative to follow
those data to avoid any engine failure.
1.4.5 Resume of squish measurement stages
Reach piston TDC
Measurement of 4 points of 4 pistons
Calculation of piston depth average
Calculation of squish height according to cylinder head gasket thickness
°8
2 . Measurement of compression ratio
2.1 - Introduction
Compression ratio is the ratio from the volume imprisoned on the top of the piston at
TDC and the complete volume when piston is at BDC.
There are several ways to measure a compression ratio. The method described in
the next pages require to measure three volumes : volume of piston; volume of
cylinder head gasket and volume of combustion camber.
Then, the compression ratio is calculated with those data.
°8
2.2 – Basic Tools
In order to measure engine volumes, it is necessary to use accurate tools. In that
way, I use a laboratory tool call burette which allow a really precise measurement.
Squish measurement tool
burette
plexiglas
°8
2.3 - Practical Method
2.3.1 – Measurement of piston volume
The method of measurement of piston volume should be adapted to piston top
shape. The simpler case is flat piston (YZF-R1 OEM parts). In that case, the piston
never protrude cylinder upper face.
Racing pistons or standard R6 piston have top shape which rise upper cylinder face.
The pictures below are shot on an R6 engine (with roof piston).
The first stage consist to reach TDC following the
method described during squish measurement.
Once the piston is at TDC, it is necessary to move
down the piston in order to put piston top under
cylinder face. With squish measurement tool, the
piston moved down of 3 mm precisely.
Then Plexiglas plate is “sealed” on cylinder body by
grease.
°8
Once the Plexiglas is sealed, with a burette, fill the
volume under this plate.
All the bubble will be removed by balancing engine
body in order to drive out air and fill with oil.
When the cylinder is filled, note the volume on the
burette.
Then, it may be possible to calculate piston volume.
°8
The piston volume is calculated with the following
formula:
“Piston Volume” = “Measured volume on the burette” “Cylinder volume generated when the piston was moving down
(3mm)”
“Piston Volume (PV)” = “Measured volume
on the burette” (π * Cylinder diameter ^2 * 3 mm / 4)
Caution: in some case, piston volume calculation
may be negative, that means that piston top fill the
combustion camber.
In order to remove oil from body cylinder, I suggest
to use a syringe
°8
2.3.2 – Measurement of cylinder head volume
The measurement of cylinder head volume is achieved in a similar way. Meanwhile,
it may happen that valves edge rise up cylinder head surface. In that case, is it
necessary to used grind Plexiglas with valve space.
Plexiglas plate is sealed on cylinder head with
grease, then with burette fill combustion camber
with the burette. This one was initially fill to “0”
value.
When the camber is full of oil, the burette indicated
the cylinder head combustion camber volume.
°8
The burette deliver in that case the cylinder head
camber volume.
“Cylinder Head camber volume (CC)” =
“Measured volume on the burette”
Note: Combustion camber volume may vary with
tuning (cylinder head grinding, camber grinding,
modification of valves shape or valve deph).
°8
2.3.3 – Measurement of cylinder head gasket volume
The measurement of cylinder head gasket volume is the final and the easiest of
those measures. To determine the head gasket, you need two information : gasket
thickness and inner diameter (as it may vary from standard to kit gasket, it is
necessary to measure this diameter.
“Gasket Volume (GV)” = (π * Inner diameter
^2 * Gasket thickness / 4)
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2.3.4 – Calculation of compression ratio
“CR” = (“Unitary Cylinder volume” + “CC + PV + GV”) /
“CC + PV + GV”
Another way to define compression ratio:
b: cylinder bore
s: piston stroke
Vc : Volume of combustion camber (including gasket volume)
°8
Next month,
Technical letter n°9 will tackle about
Piston installation and conrod fitting.
°
°
Subject:
Camshaft
Practical
°7
Introduction
This Technical Letter is the second edition concerning camshaft.
Through the following pages, I described one method to reach camshaft
recommended event angle.
The previous Technical Letter described the vocabulary and the
recommended camshaft settings, this new edition is the practical
application.
°7
Summary for Camshaft setting

Introduction

Basic Tools

Spanner Equipment

Camshaft Setting Practical Method
°7
Camshaft Setting
1.1 - Introduction
You may meet different case when it is necessary to adjust camshaft timing.
Basically, you must control and or adjust camshafts timing in the following cases:





When you replace standard camshaft by YEC Supersport or Superbike cams
When you are tuning an engine in Stock condition
When you change cylinder head gasket or cylinder base gasket thickness
When you grind the cylinder head or cylinder body
When you fit Superbike pistons
Camshaft duration at 1 mm
Camshaft duration at 0.3 mm
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1.2 - Basic tools
We propose in our kit parts catalogue a “Basic kit
of Adjustment tool”. This kit includes:
 Two gages to measure valve position
 One lever to lift up the valve
 One angle disc with axle to fit every
engines
 One TDC detecting tools
Beside this basic kit, you must obtain the “Attachment tool” for your engine. An “Attachment Tool” is available for
each engine.
Note : The “Attachement tool” set are delivered without dial gages.
°7
1.3 - Spanner equipment
In order to work effectively and precisely, you need to use appropriate tools and spanner. To drive
the disc, we recommend you to use a long ratchet wrench with 22mm socket. A long wrench will
help you to drive smoothly and precisely the engine crankshaft. By this way, you will ensure to
reach perfectly piston TDC.
°7
1.4 - Practical Method
1.4.1 - Locating angle disc to TDC
The first stage of camshaft setting consists to locate crankshaft position. Crankshaft position is
displayed by an angle disc. To fit the disc to the engine, unscrew the bolt situated on the right side
of the engine crankshaft. Then, with a 22mm socket on a ratchet, you can drive the engine
crankshaft.
Then, fit a needle to indicate the crankshaft position.
Finally, screw the TDC detecting tool in the spark plug hole.
TDC detecting tool
Disc lock side bolt
Needle indicator
°7
Once the tools are installed on the engine, you can start to locate TDC:
 Reach quickly the TDC (TDC dial gage detecting piston position. When dial gage
indicate top position, turn the scaling in order to set 0 mm on the gage)
 Unscrew the lock side bolt of the disc and put the “0°” angle in front of the needle
Gage scale
°7
Once you set up roughly the disc position, you must control and re-adjust precisely the “0°”
of the disc. Then, you will turn the crankshaft in order to move down the piston 2 mm on
each side of the TDC (Before and After Top Dead Center). Meanwhile, each time, be aware
the crankshaft should be driven clockwise (usual crankshaft direction) to clear out all
back clearance from a counter-clockwise rotation. This remark is particularly important more
specially during camshaft setting. In this case, we suggest driving backward (counterclockwise) so that the piston goes down a minimum of 3mm (Direction A on the picture
next page). Then, you may run again the crankshaft clockwise to clear out back clearance
(direction B and C on the picture next page).
B
A
C
C
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Piston position
2mm BTDC
B position
Angle in
Degree on the
disc
TDC
2mm ATDC
C position
" 0° "
Stage 1
Set disc position roughly
Stage 2
Measurement at 2mm before and
after Top Dead Center
22°
24°
Stage 3
1st adjustement of the disc
22,5°
23,5°
Stage 4
2nd adjustment of the disc
23°
0°
23°
The angle indicated above are an example. You may measure different values
Symmetrical degree on each side of the disc =>
the disc correctly indicate TDC at “ 0° ”
You must go through this steps has there is a wide angle (about 2 to 3 degrees)
when the piston does not move. You will repeat the stages in order to get the same
angle on the disc when the piston is 2mm symmetrically before and after the Top
Dead Center.
On the sample, in stage 4, the disc is in a correct position. This is the starting point
for the measurement of the camshaft event angle.
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1.4.2 Setting the exhaust camshaft
As the exhaust camshaft is the first one driven by the chain, we recommend starting camshaft
setting on exhaust side. To measure cam position, fit the “Adjustement Tool” on the left side of
the cylinder head.
Be aware of the gage should measure a complete valve stroke (Drive 360° the camshaft to
control the gage stroke). You may adjust the gage altitude with the clamp screw. Once you have
been through this point, you may start camshaft position measurement.
 Measurement of event angle
By definition, event angle means the crankshaft position at maximum valve lift.
First of all, you have to reach quickly the maximum valve lift. Then, adjust the valve gage
scaling to “0 mm” position. In a similar way as the method we used to reach the piston TDC, we
are going to measure crankshaft angle on each side of the maximum valve lift. Moreover, to
clear out clearance between chain and cam sprocket, it is imperative to drive the crankshaft
clockwise.
Symmetrically around the maximum valve lift, we are reading the crankshaft position on the
disc. With these two values, we are calculating the exhaust camshaft event angle.
°7
To get disc angle, follow the steps below:
C
B
A
X
Y
a) turning the crankshaft counter-clockwise with minimum 3mm down on the valve (A)
b) turning the crankshaft clockwise in order to clear out the clearance from chain and camshaft
sprocket and reach the position of the valve 2 mm down before maximum lift (the value on the
disc is “X” from outside angle scale on the disc) (B)
c) then drive again the crankshaft clockwise to reach 2mm down after maximum lift and note the
crankshaft angle (value on the disc is “Y” from outside angle scale on the disc) (C)
d) Then calculate camshaft event angle:
Exhaust event angle = (X+Y) / 2 (From outside disc angle scale)
°7
The graph below describe the valve opening curve.
Once you have measure the position of the
camshaft, you may need to change it. In any case,
you have to follow recommended data from the
Kit Manual.
To change the position of the camshaft, unscrew
the sprocket bolts and drive the crankshaft to make
the sprocket turning a tiny angle around the
camshaft. Then, tight the bolts and measure again
the position of the camshaft.
°7
You must repeat this operation till you reach the recommended camshaft
position. This is a method by iteration.
Valve position
2mm dow n
Before
maximum lift
Angle in
Degree on the
disc
Maximum
lift
2mm dow n
After
maximum lift
Stage 1
Measurement of the original
camshaft position
115°
Stage 2
Second measurement after
modifying camshaft position
108°
Stage 3
Third measurement after modifying
camshaft position
169°
111°
53°
Stage 4
Fourth measurement after
modifying camshaft position
168°
110°
54°
The angle indicated above are an example. You may measure different values
Following several camshaft positions
the recommended target is reached
 Measurement of valve to piston clearance
Once the camshaft has reached the event angle target, you must control the
clearance from the valve to piston. On exhaust side, the minimum distance from
valve to piston is situated at 10 degrees before TDC.
°7
To measure this clearance, the Kit Adjustment tool includes a lever. This lever as you may
see on the following picture is pushing the tappet valve. The distance from valve to piston is
displayed on the gage.
Stage of the valve to piston measurement:
 Place the crankshaft 10° BTDC
 Turn the gage scaling so that the needle
display “0mm”
 Apply a force on the lever in order to lift the
valve till the valve hit the piston
 Read the position of the needle on the gage
The minimum distance between valve and piston is mentioned on the Kit manual. To avoid any
engine failure, you can not go lower than the recommended values. Moreover, in case of a
distance between valve and piston measured under the minimum value (due to the use of
special parts), it is recommended to move out the camshaft in order to secure the valve to
piston distance.
Valve to piston distance has the priority on the event angle.
Once the exhaust camshaft event angle has reached Kit Manual recommended value and
valve to piston clearance over the minimum secure distance, you can start to set up intake
camshaft.
°7
1.4.3 - Setting intake camshaft
The method that consists to set up intake camshaft is similar to exhaust setting.
 Measurement of event angle
 Reach maximum lift of intake valve by driving crankshaft
 Adjust intake gage scaling in “0 mm” position
 Lift down intake valve about 3mm by turning crankshaft counter-clockwise
 Lift up the valve to reach 2mm before maximum lift by turning the crankshaft clockwise
(position of the disc = X from inside angle on the disc)
 Symmetrically after maximum lift, lift down the intake valve to 2mm by turning the
crankshaft clockwise (position of the disc =Y from inside angle on the disc)
 Calculate camshaft event angle by using the following formula:
Intake event angle = (X+Y)/2 (From inside disc angle scale)
°7
The graph below describe the movement of the intake valve through crankshaft position
In case of re-adjustment of camshaft event angle, you may proceed in a similar
way as the method presented on paragraph concerning the exhaust camshaft.
°7
 Measurement of the valve to piston clearance
The final intake camshaft setting require to control the distance from valve to piston.
This parameter got the priority to the event angle.
The minimum distance from valve to piston is mentioned on the kit manual. This
value may change according to the engine specification.
The method of the measurement is similar to the exhaust case. Meanwhile, the
minimum distance from intake valve to pistons occur at 10 degrees After TDC.
Stage of the valve to piston measurement:
 Place the crankshaft 10° ATDC
 Turn the gage scaling so that the needle display “0mm”
 Apply a force on the lever in order to lift the intake valve till the valve hit the piston
 Read the position of the needle on the gage
1.4.4 - Recommended camshaft setting
The recommended camshafts setting (event angle and clearance from valve to piston)
are mentioned in the Kit manual.
The parameter can change year by year and model by model. Then it is necessary to
refer your engine model to the matching kit manual.
°7
1.4.5 - Resume of camshaft setting stages
 Fitting the angle disc so that 0° of the scale indicate piston Top Dead Centre
• Reach roughly TDC and set 0mm on the TDC dial gage
• Check disc angle symmetrically when piston is 2mm down Before and After TDC
• Re-adjust disc position if necessary
 Setting exhaust camshaft
•
•
•
•
•
•
Reach maximum exhaust valve lift and set 0 mm on the dial gage
Measure crankshaft angle position when valve is symmetrically 2mm down from maximum lift
Calculate camshaft event angle
Adjust camshaft event angle if necessary
Measure valve to piston clearance
Re-adjust camshaft event angle if necessary
 Setting intake camshaft
•
•
•
•
•
•
Reach maximum intake valve lift and set 0 mm on the dial gage
Measure crankshaft angle position when valve is symmetrically 2mm down from maximum lift
Calculate camshaft event angle
Adjust camshaft event angle if necessary
Measure valve to piston clearance
Re-adjust camshaft event angle if necessary
°7
Next month,
Technical letter n°8 will tackle about
Squish measurement & compression ratio.
°
°
Subject:
Camshaft
Theory
°6
Introduction
This new edition of Technical Letter presents the first approach of
camshaft.
This document, is a reminder of camshaft vocabulary and basic
knowledge in order to prepare practical camshaft setting which will be
presented on the next Technical Letter.
°6
Summary

Vocabulary and Camshaft Theory

Camshaft setting

Kit camshaft specification

Camshaft reference table
°6
Vocabulary and Camshaft Theory
Lobe Center
CAMSHAFT DEFINITIONS
When discussing camshafts,
enthusiasts often get confused with
the terminology used to describe the
various parts of the camshaft. We
hope the diagram on the left and the
definitions below will help enthusiasts
better understand camshafts and the
related terminology.
°6
• RAMP: The textbook definition of ramp is the section of the cam from the base circle to
where the valve physically begins to open, or finishes closing. It is also commonly referred
to as a clearance ramp; or in other words the part of the cam lobe where the camshaft will
close up the initial tappet clearance (lash) and the tappet/follower will make initial contact
(on the opening side) or end its contact with the camshaft (on the closing side)
• FLANK: is defined as the end of the ramp section to the point where the valve reaches
maximum velocity.
• NOSE: is defined as the section between the maximum velocity on the opening side and
maximum velocity on the closed side, or rather the section of the cam where the valve
spring forces are keeping the valve train from separating from the cam surface.
• LOBE CENTER: is described as the maximum valve lift or nose center.
• TDC: Top Dead Center : This term is used when the piston is located on higher position
(Top)
• BDC: Bottom Dead Center : This term is used to define piston in Bottom position
• ATDC: After Top Dead Center => define piston position After TDC
• BTDC: Before Top Dead Center => define piston position Before TDC
°6
• Valve lift and duration: the lift is defined as the linear movement of the valve. The
maximum lift is reached at lobe center. Valve opening duration is a parameter which
is used to defined the duration (in angle) of opening valve. This parameter is given at
0.3mm of valve lift sometimes at 1mm. On kit manual book, this parameter is given
at 0.3mm.
CAMSHAFT PROFILE & VALVE LIFT
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
Camshaft duration at 1 mm
1
Camshaft duration at 0.3 mm
0
-150
-100
-50
0
50
100
150
°6
Adjusting tappet clearance
Tappet
Clearance
(intake)
Tappet
Valves
°6
• TAPPET Clearance: The tappet clearance is the distance from the camshaft base
circle to the lifter valve. This clearance is maximum when the cam lobe is in opposit
position to valve steam. This clearance is closed up when the camshaft ramp come
in contact with lifter valve.
This clearance is defined on Kit Manual Book and established to compensate valve
steam elongation with engine heat.
Valve (tappet) Clearance
Intake
0,17 to 0,23 mm
Exhaust
0,27 to 0,33 mm
°6
Camshaft setting
First stage : Adjusting camshaft event angle
Exhaust
camshaft
Intake
camshaft
Crankshaft
position
°6
• Event angle: is defined as the crankshaft angle position when camshaft intake or
exhaust is located at maximum valve lift.
The Event angle of both camshaft intake and exhaust should follow the
recommended values in kit manual book.
°6
Second stage : Checking Valve to Piston clearance
BTDC
ATDC
°6
• Valve To piston clearance: camshaft event angle define the position of camshaft
regarding crankshaft angle. Meanwhile, due to engine tuning specifications,
camshaft position measurement should be combine to the clearance from valve to
piston.
This clearance got priority to camshaft position. This clearance is mentioned on kit
manual book.
Clearance from valve to piston on exhaust side is controlled Before TDC.
Clearance from valve to piston on intake side is controlled After TDC.
The angle of control at BTDC and ATDC is mentioned in kit manual book with
camshaft recommended event angle.
°6
Camshaft recommended setting
R1
Year / Model
2010
2009
2008
2007
2006
2005
2004
Event
angle
Intake
Exhaust
(Event angle / clearance)
(Event angle / clearance)
110° (1mm / 10°)
105° (2mm va/pis)
110° (1mm / 10°)
110° (1,28mm / 10°)
110° (1,28mm / 10°)
105° (1,3mm / 10°)
105° (1,3mm / 10°)
105° (1,3mm / 10°)
110° (2mm /10°)
110° (2,58mm / 10°)
110° (2,58mm / 10°)
105° (2,5mm / 10°)
105° (2,5mm / 10°)
105° (2,5mm / 10°)
Clearance
Angle of
control
°6
R6
Year / Model
2010
2009
2008
2007
2006
2005
Intake
Exhaust
(Event angle / clearance)
(Event angle / clearance)
110° (1,05mm / 12°)
115° (1,62mm / 12°)
110° (1,1mm / 12°)
110° (1,1mm / 12°)
110° (1,1mm / 12°)
105° (1,1mm / 12°)
105° (0,75mm / 10°)
110° (1,62mm à 12°)
110° (1,62mm à 12°)
110° (1,62mm à 12°)
109° (1,62mm à 12°)
105° (1,75mm à 11°)
°6
R6 Camshafts Reference Table
R6
Year / Model
Intake
Exhaust
2010
2C0-12171-71
2C0-12181-71
2009
2C0-12171-71
2C0-12181-71
2008
2C0-12171-71
2C0-12181-71
2007
2C0-12171-71
2C0-12181-71
2006
(coupler)
2C0-12171-70
2C0-12181-70
2005
5SL-12171-80
5SL-12181-80
°6
R1 Camshafts Reference Table
R1
Year / Model
Intake
Exhaust
2010
14B-12170-70
14B-12180-70
2009
14B-12170-70
14B-12180-70
2008
4C8-12171-80
4C8-12181-80
2007
4C8-12171-70
4C8-12181-70
2006
5VY-12171-71
5VY-12181-71
2005
5VY-12171-71
5VY-12181-71
2005
5VY-12171-81
5VY-12181-81
(Standard lift)
°6
Next month,
Technical letter n°7 will tackle about
camshafts practice
°
°
Subject:
Racing Kit Wire Harness
For YZF – R1
°
Introduction
Following the presentation (TL n°4) of YAMAHA YZF-R6 wire harness,
TL n°5 presents YEC racing kit wire harness for YAMAHA YZF – R1.
Several pictures will help users to understand functions, to recognise
sensors and associated couplers.
°
Summary

General other view of Racing Kit Wire Harness

Detail of each couplers and sensors

Wire Harness reference table
°
General over view of YZF – R1 Racing Wire Harness
°
Detail of each parts of Wire Harness
Alternator (ACM)
Electric regulator
°
Main switch
Main switch :
Wire Harness power
supply switch
°
Pit Road Limiter, select Base MAP,
select MAP switch & Quick shifter
Pit Road Limiter
MAP 1 & 2
Pit Road limiter, shifter
& MAP1/2 on standard
handle bar switch
°
Air temperature sensor
°
Electric Steering damper
(plugged on kit harness)
°
Select MAP Switch
Select Base MAP :
Plugged = Superbike
Unplugged = Superstock
°
Quick shifter coupler
°
Oil level gauge
°
Variable Intake Motor
°
Starter relay
°
Power supply
Relay Assy
Resistor assy avoid quick shifter
problem in wet conditions
Resistor Assy
This coupler is powered when
engine stop switch is “ON”
°
Lean Angle sensor
Lean angle sensor is a security
tools = switch off engine when
bike falls down
°
Electronic Control Unit
°
Engine / Electric mass
Fuel tank coupler
(Pump and Gauge)
°
Neutral switch / Gear
position sensor
Speed sensor
(Gearbox / Engine
crankcase back side)
°
Water temperature sensor
(cylinder head)
°
Top injectors coupler
(Top injectors located on top of Air box)
°
(coupler)
Crankshaft sensor
(pick up)
°
TPS (Throttle Position
Throttle body
Sensor)
Electric throttle
actuator
(coupler)
Rider request a throttle position
(APS) => ECU define real
Throttle position (TPS) in
function of several parameters
APS sensor
(Rider position)
°
Air Temperature
sensor
(coupler)
°
(coupler)
Engine kill switch & starter
button
°
To adjust Shift Light :
Push the button “select” few
seconds, then select needle
position for shift light ON
(coupler)
Dashboard
°
(coupler)
2 pins coupler = power supply
(Black = GND ; Red/White = Power)
4 pins coupler = signals
(Green/White = Water temperature ; White/Yellow = Bike Speed ;
Yellow = Throttle Position Sensor ; Yellow/Black = Engine revolution)
Data acquisition couplers
°
(coupler)
Communication coupler
°
Wire Harness Reference Table
Year / Model
R1 ECU
R1 Wire Harness
2010
14B-8591A-71
14B-F2590-70
2009
14B-8591A-70
14B-F2590-70
2008
4C8-8591A-80
4C8-F2590-80
2007
4C8-8591A-70
4C8-F2590-70
2006
5VY-8591A-72
5VY-F2590-71
2005
5VY-8591A-71
5VY-F2590-70
2004
5VY-8591A-70
5VY-82590-70
°
Next month,
Technical letter n°6 will tackle about camshafts.
°
°
Subject:
Racing Kit Wire Harness
For YZF - R6
°
Introduction
To complete previous Technical Letters, I present in two Technical
Letters racing kit wire harness. TL n°4 is presenting YEC racing kit wire
harness for YAMAHA YZF – R6. The TL n°5 will be dedicated to YZF –
R1.
Several pictures will help users to understand functions, to recognise
sensors and associated couplers.
°
Summary

General other view of Racing Kit Wire Harness

Detail of each couplers and sensors

Wire Harness reference table
°
General over view of YZF – R6 Racing Wire Harness
°
Detail of each parts of Wire Harness
Electric regulator
°
Main switch
Main switch :
Wire Harness power
supply switch
°
Pit Road Limiter, select Base MAP,
select MAP switch & Quick shifter
Electric regulator
Pit Road Limiter
MAP 1 & 2
Select Base MAP :
Plugged = Supersport
Unplugged = Superstock
°
ACM Generator
Kit ACM alternator (stator on the
picture) is plugged in place of the
standard ACM
°
Fuel Tank coupler
(pump and gage)
°
Lean Angle sensor
Lean angle sensor is a security
tools = switch off engine when
bike falls down
°
Electronic Control Unit
°
Resistor assy avoid quick shifter
problem in wet conditions
Resistor Assy
Power supply (rear)
This coupler is powered when
engine stop switch is “ON”
°
Starter relay
Relay Assy
Fuses
°
Water temperature sensor
(cylinder head)
°
(coupler)
Crankshaft sensor
(pick up)
Gear speed sensor
(engine crankcase
back side)
°
Engine / Electric
mass
Top injectors coupler
°
Ignition coil and camshaft
sensor wire harness coupler
Air Funnels actuator coupler
°
Throttle body wire harness
(bottom injectors)
°
Engine kill switch & starter
button
°
To adjust Shift Light :
Push the button “select” few
seconds, then select needle
position for shift light ON
Dashboard
°
Ignition coils
Camshaft sensor
°
2 pins coupler = power supply
(Black = GND ; Red/White = Power)
4 pins coupler = signals
(Green/White = Water temperature ; White/Yellow = Bike Speed ;
Yellow = Throttle Position Sensor ; Yellow/Black = Engine revolution)
Data acquisition couplers
°
Air pressure sensor
Air temperature sensor
°
Communication coupler
°
Wire Harness Reference Table
Year / Model
R6 ECU
R6 Wire Harness
2010
2C0-8591A-91
13S-F2590-71
2009
2C0-8591A-90
13S-F2590-71
2008
2C0-8591A-80
13S-F2590-70
2007
2C0-8591A-71
2CO-F2590-80
2006
2CO-F533A-70
2CO-F2590-70
2005
5SL-8591A-80
5SL-F2590-71
2003-2004
5SL-8591A-70
5SL-F2590-70
°
Next month,
Technical letter n°5 will tackle about YZF- R1
Racing Wire Harness.
TL n°3
TECHNICAL
LETTER N°3
Subject:
YMS
Yamaha Matching System
“Second approach : using YMS on track”
TL n°3
Introduction
This new edition of the Technical Letter brings methods in order to make
a correct use of this software. TL n°3 gives a practical use in real
condition, on track with a data acquisition or on a dynamometer
machines.
TL n°3
Summary
Compensate fuel Map
Offset Ignition
ETV Control (Engine brake control)
Pit road limiter
TL n°3
Compensate Fuel MAP
As mentioned in the previous Technical letter, “Compensate Fuel MAP” table
should be adjusted in combination with a data acquisition. It is not possible to
adjust correctly this parameter without this device. There is two important
points or areas where technicians have to focus on. The first one is the opening
throttle area and the second one is the full opening throttle area. This first one
determine the rider feeling on opening gaz. The second one fix the power
delivery and engine life time. Middle area is less important as throttle cross
quickly this area.
Opening Throttle
Middle area
Full gaz area
TL n°3
Compensate Fuel MAP : Identification area
The area mentioned on previous page are located on a data acquisition as
mentioned here after.
Time
Gap with
lambda
sensor
100%
Opening TH
0%
7%
TL n°3
Compensate Fuel MAP : Opening Throttle
Opening throttle is on every machines (R1 or R6) located around 10% (+ or –
4%). The most useful area is located on the dark rectangle on 4th page.
As described on data logging picture above, there is a time gap, or reaction
time between throttle opening and lambda start measurement. This time
depends of distance from cylinder head to lambda and also from sensor
reaction itself. It may also depends of data acquisition system measurement
frequency.
On Yamaha machine, we can evaluate this time gap around 0,2 seconds.
When technician wants to adjust 0 to 2% of throttle, he should keep in mind this
criteria.
On R6 machine, lambda value on opening area is not so critical as R1
motorbike. Usually, lambda target is :
Lambda value on
opening gaz
R6
12.5 to 12.7
R1
12 to 12.5
TL n°3
Compensate Fuel MAP : Opening Throttle
Opening throttle is an important parameter which determines when rider can
open throttle in the corner. When engine reaction is brutal on opening throttle,
rider as to wait a safe position on corner exit before opening gaz.
Moreover, this is a key point for the “throttle connection “ with tyre.
Practically, engine becomes aggressive when lambda going lean (over 12.8).
Generally, on R1 bike, the engine should run reach (from 12 to 12,5). If engine
coming aggressive, fuel mapping should be more reach.
R6 bike is less sensible to this parameter, meanwhile, keeping lambda value
around 12.5 is a good compromise.
TL n°3
Compensate Fuel MAP : Full gas
Here below a sample of a lambda measurement on full gas area. Before any
adjustment on YMS data, lambda measurement curve may be unstable as the
sample below. In that case, lambda should be adjust leaner on 100% throttle
and should be corrected when throttle reach 100%.
Should be
adjusted with
YMS
Lambda 12.5 =>
Too reach on full
gas
TL n°3
Compensate Fuel MAP : Full gas
Lambda value on Full gas area is an important criteria for engine power
delivery.
• Excessively lean, there is a risk for engine life, engine knocking, engine
overheat and engine power decreasing.
• Too reach, no particular risk for engine, meanwhile engine power can not
express itself.
• Best engine power delivery around 13 / 13.3
Fuel consumption
It depends of track layout, meanwhile, fuel consumption is drastically influenced
by lambda value on Full gas area. In case of fuel tank capacity too short for a
race, fuel mapping should be adjusted in order to reach lambda leaner on full
gaz area (13.3 with a maximum of 13.5).
Lambda value on Full gaz
R6 & R1
13 to 13.3
TL n°3
Compensate Fuel MAP : Full mapping adjustment
To adjust fuel mapping, there is a basic rule that works in 99% case:
YMS Fuel Offset
Lambda
2%
0,2
4%
0,4
5%
0,5
10%
1
+ 4 % fuel =>
lambda will
reach + 0,4
TL n°3
Offset Ignition : Generality
Offset Ignition is a parameter which allow to adjust ignition timing function of
engine specifications.
Ignition base mapping is developed with YEC racing engineers. This mapping is
fixed in order to give best power delivery to the engine. YMS offer the possibility
a apply a correction “offset” of base mapping.
Ignition offset => affect directly engine power delivery.
Opening Throttle adjustment
on track possible
Middle area
Full gaz area adjustment on engine
dyno ONLY !
TL n°3
Offset Ignition : Opening throttle and middle range
Engine character can be adjusted by ignition offset. As this parameter influence
directly engine power delivery, this is a simple way to control engine power
delivery on opening throttle (after correct adjustment of Fuel mapping).
When engine is too much aggressive on opening throttle, a reduction of 5 to 15
degrees of ignition advance will help rider. Engine character become smoother
as offset increasing on negative side. In opposition, engine character will be
aggressive with positive offset on opening throttle area.
Middle range area may be corrected on track if necessary. It may reduce power
or brings an additional torque.
TL n°3
Offset Ignition : Full gas, power delivery
As mentioned before, Ignition base MAP is achieved to brings best engine
power delivery in any conditions (R6STK / R6 SS / R1 STK / R1SBK).
This important parameter may influence significatively engine life. Function of
an important number of parameters such as : air temperature, atmospheric
pressure, engine temperature, engine compression ratio, fuel quality (octane), a
phenomenon which is hazardous to control may occurs : knocking or
detonation.
It is the reason why we recommend to work on this area with the higher
precaution. The best way is to test ignition timing on an engine dynamometer
with appropriate tools.
TL n°3
Offset Ignition : Full gas, power delivery
The graph below shows four typical evolutions of power delivery with a variation
of ignition advance (or ignition offset). Ignition offset = 0 coincide with maximum
power delivery. While ignition offset increasing, power delivery does not
increase or decrease before a limit area called detonation.
C r i t i c a l poi nt :
Maximum power deliver y
K noc k i ng / de t ona t i on
at 0 of ignit ion of f set
area
Yamaha M at ching
Syst em
Ignit ion Area
-15
-10
-5
0
5
O f f set I g ni t i o n ad vance
10
15
TL n°3
ETV / Engine Brake Control : Generality
The most useful function of ETV is the Engine Brake control. Through engine
revolution and the gears, rider can adapt the engine brake to his riding style.
This function is easy and simple to adjust through Comp. ETV table. Kit ECU is
delivered with an offset of 0 (same as production machine). To reduce engine
brake, the value in this table should be increased.
In order to adjust “safely” this parameter, it is necessary to reduce progressively the
engine brake. Moreover, the “compensate ETV” curve should be smooth and
progressive through engine revolution and the gears. A serrated curve may disturb
the rider and cause riding mistake.
Gearbox position
Adjust progressively the values
in this area to reduce engine
brake
TL n°3
ETV / Engine Brake Control : Setting
Engine brake may disturb rider specially from 4 to 2nd and 1st gears. Usually, from
6 to 5th, engine revolution is still too high and does affect riding. The pick of engine
brake occurs and is gradually increasing from 4th to 3rd and 2nd.
In consequence, it is necessary to focus on this area as describe here after.
Moreover, to avoid high engine idle when the bike is static, it is recommended to
keep Zero in the first column.
Keep “0” in order to have a
standard idle revolution in
static condition
Most important area for
Engine Brake
TL n°3
Constant Parameters table : Pit Road Limiter
The most important parameter on “Edit Const Table” is Pit Road Limiter. For safety
reason, every tracks and championships fix a speed limit speed on pit lane.
Before fitting Pit Road limiter, it is necessary to complete Gear Ratio parameters.
This is really important to get the correct speed limit after calculation.
Once gear parameter is complete, it is necessary to calculate the Speed Limit.
Gear box parameters
Pit Road Limiter
TL n°3
Pit Road Limiter : Calculation
To calculate bike speed and more specially the engine revolution for the “Pit Road
Limiter” parameter, a calculation table is proposed. The picture below is showing a
presentation of this tool.
This tool is attached to this TLn°3.
Pit road limiter is only effective on 1st and 2nd gears. Depending of your secondary
reduction ratio, the bike should be run on 1st or 2nd to adapt engine revolution to
the situation.
Calculation
Target Speed (km/h)
70
Primary reduction ratio
1,512
Secondary reduction ratio
Front Sproket Rear Sproket
15
40
Tyre Perimeter (mm)
2350
First or Second gear ratio
2,53
Pit Road limiter (rpm)
5064
Data Base
Primary Ratio
R1 (2009) R6 (2009)
1,512
2,073
R1 (2009)
1st
2nd
Std
2,53
2,06
A
2,43
2,13
B
2,36
2
C
2,31
1,94
R6 (2010)
1st
2nd
Std
2,583
2
A
2,313
1,857
B
2,471
1,95
C
2,583
2
TL n°3
Next month,
Technical letter n°4 will tackle about Racing Wire Harness.
TL n°2
TECHNICAL
LETTER N°2
Subject:
YMS
Yamaha Matching System
“First approach : functions presentation”
TL n°2
Introduction
YEC Kit ECU presented on the Technical Letter n°1 i s developed to
communicate with a computer software called YMS : Yamaha Matching
System.
This software offer the possibility to adjust several parameters. This is
particularly interesting to set up ECU to the engine specifications and to
optimise engine performances with track conditions.
TL n°2
YMS Functions
Communication to ECU with USB interface
Injection MAP
Ignition MAP
ETV Control (Engine brake control)
Shifter timing
Pit road limiter
Gear box ratio parameters
Those functions allow to correct the internal ECU data. The internal ECU
mapping is fixed by YEC, meanwhile Yamaha Matching System offer the
possibility to apply an offset to the base data. By this way, it become easy
and possible to combine perfectly ECU with bike specifications.
TL n°2
First step : select the base MAP
As indicated in the previous Technical letter, ECU proposes two base
mapping. Basically SBK/STK or SSP/STK
(The choice is given by the engine
specification and achieved by the position of a loop on a coupler => TL n°1) .
Additionally, Yamaha Matching System controls two complementary
MAP switchable from the handle bar (left side).
The switch to select MAP 1 or MAP
2 is delivered with the kit wire harness set. MAP 1 et MAP 2 are usable on Fuel and Ignition MAP.
STK
MAP 1
SBK
MAP 2 1
ST K
2
1
2
SS
1
2
TL n°2
Select MAP coupler
With
loop
STK MAP
MAP 1
SS or SBK MAP
MAP 2
MAP 1
MAP 2
TL n°2
Second step : connection and communication with ECU
Computer is connected to the ECU through the Cable Interface (USB).
The
cable is connected to the kit wire harness on a coupler situated behind the dashboard.
Start YMS software and adjust communication port if necessary
Toll \ Com… : Auto Select or Manual Select from Windows com port information)
(YMS Menu :
TL n°2
Summary
Shifter / Cut time
Fuel MAP 1&2
Ignition MAP 1&2
ETV Control
Constant parameters
Write and read ECU
TL n°2
Shifter / Cut time
The value placed by default in the ECU fit a basic kit bike. Basically, it is
not necessary to change this parameter. Meanwhile, depending of rider
experience, it may become necessary to change the value.
CAUTION : If you need to change, modify the value by small steps (5ms
maximum) to avoid any damage on gears.
Gear position
Shifter cut time (ms)
TL n°2
Fuel Map 1 & 2
Kit wire harness offers the possibility to use either standard Dimmer switch
or dedicated switch to select the MAP.
With standard left switch, the selection MAP is
assigned on the Dimmer switch
Low position = MAP 1
High position = MAP 2
Two injection MAP:
Map 1 : switch open
Map 2 : switch close
TL n°2
Setting Fuel Map 1 & 2
To adjust correctly the Fuel MAP, we recommend to combine kit wire
harness with a data acquisition system. By this way it become possible to
adjust correctly the Air / Fuel ratio.
For both bike R1 and R6, A/F target should be around :
•
A/F target on opening throttle between 12 & 12.5
•
A/F target on full gas between 12.8 AND 13.3
If you don’t use MAP1 & MAP2 function, you should set both MAP with same values in order to
avoid any malfunction in switching error.
Throttle position
(possible to change axis value)
Engine rev.
(possible to change axis value)
TL n°2
To set up A/F ratio in the best conditions, It is necessary to add
a data logging system on the bike
A coupler (4 pins) is available on the kit Wire
Harness to get information from the bike :
- Throttle position
- Engine revolution
- Water temperature
- Gearbox speed sensor
Two pins : data logger power supply
TL n°2
Ignition Map 1 & 2
YMS file deliver in 2009 two Ignition MAP for R1 and one for R6.
The standard data « 0 » in YMS file is provided for a basic kit bike STK, SS or
SBK. The parameter in the Ignition MAP is an offset from internal base MAP
(from -10 to +5 degrees)
CAUTION : excessive advance may damage the engine
Ignition value is an offset
Positive side (+5) = more advance
Negative side (-10) = less advance (retard)
TL n°2
ETV (Electric Throttle Valve ) Control
Both models R1and R6 present a different ETV control. R6 (2009) kit propose
Comp ETV / Acceleration and Comp ETV / Engine Brake. While R1 (2009)
using compensate ETV / Engine Brake (the most useful).
Two dedicated MAP for ETV (only R6)
- Torque adjustment on Acceleration area
- Engine brake control & adjustment
TL n°2
ETV / Acceleration control
This function manages acceleration area. With negative values as mentioned
below, the engine character can be soften. This table can be used when the
engine is “aggressive” on opening throttle and on acceleration area.
Acceleration control
Torque adjustment on Acceleration area with
negative values in this area
TL n°2
ETV / Engine Brake Control
The most useful function of ETV is the Engine Brake control. Through the
revolution and the gears, rider can adapt the bike to his riding style.
Adjust progressively the values
in this area to reduce
engine brake
Gearbox position
TL n°2
Constant Parameters table
Register Assembly
A table of Constant Parameters “Edit Const” is used in YMS to set up several
parameters such as pit road limiter; shifter type, gear box ratio, Variable
Intake, … Those parameters should be fill in properly in order to have a kit
system working in the best conditions.
Fuel offset on all area
Set the shifter type and adjust
voltage level
For a SW, set 2.5volts
Nota: when using left handle switch
shifter, the Register Assembly cable
should be plugged in.
In case of load cell sensor, it should
be disconnected.
TL n°2
Constant Parameters table
In case of incorrect gear ratio, it may be possible that the quick shifter will not
work properly as the system can not recognise the gear position. The gear
ratios are available in kit manual book.
Gearbox Ratio:
CAUTION : shifter may not work properly
If the values are not set up correctly
TL n°2
Constant Parameters table
Pit road Limiter is available in Edit constant table. This function work with a
dedicated switch and operate on first and second gears. To determine
properly the pit road limiter, we suggest you to refer to FI Matching system
Manual.
VI (Variable Intake):
YCC-I : Yamaha Chip Control Intake
Adjustment of VI
Pit Road Limiter
Idling adjustment
TL n°2
Write and Read in the Kit ECU
Write data from the computer to the ECU
(connect computer to the bike and
switch on)
Read data from ECU (connect computer
to the bike and switch on)
TL n°2
YMS file and ECU reference
YMS data file work with same generation of ECU. Don’t mix them to avoid any
dysfunction.
Year /
Model
R1
ECU ref.
number
Year /
Model
R6
ECU ref.
number
2009
R1-09_BaseData_00
14B-8591A-70
2009
R6-09_BaseData_00
2C0-8591A-90
2008
R1-08_BaseData_00
4C8-8591A-80
2008
R6-08_BaseData_00
2C0-8591A-80
2007
R1-07_BaseData_00
4C8-8591A-70
2007
R6-07_BaseData_00
2C0-8591A-71
2006
R6-06_BaseData_00
2C0-8591A-70
TL n°2
Next month,
the Technical letter n°3 will tackle about some met hods to
set up ECU MAP and parameters with
Yamaha Matching System software.