Yamaha CRW4416E - CRW - CD-RW Drive User`s manual

C h a r i s M a c
E n g i n e e r i n g
C harisM ac E ngineering, I nc.
66D P&S Lane, Newcastle, CA 95658
©1989-96 CharisMac Engineering, Inc. All rights reserved worldwide. Made in the United States of America. CharisMac™,
Discribe™, Anubis™, and CD AllCache™ are trademarks of CharisMac Engineering, Inc. All other brands and product names
are trademarks or registered trademarks of their respective companies.
User’s Manual
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Technical Support
This software is licensed to companies for distribution with their products and is
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Contents
Introduction
4
Getting Started
System Requirements
Installing Discribe
5
5
5
Getting Technical Support
8
Overview
A Word About CD-R and CD-RW
9
9
Discribe’s Quick Start Menu
Making an Audio CD
Creating A Data CD
Copying a CD
10
11
18
22
Discribe Pull-Down Menus 24
File Pull-Down Menu
Utilities Pull-Down Menu
Web Pull-Down Menu
24
27
27
Discribe’s Other Functions
29
Macintosh HFS
Multi-Session Macintosh HFS CD-ROMs
30
33
ISO-9660
35
ISO-9660 XA
A Word About Multi-Session ISO-9660 XA CD-ROM Discs
39
42
Audio CD
Sequencing Audio Tracks
Setting Audio Tracks Pre-Gaps
43
44
45
Build-A-Mac HFS
48
Mac/ISO Hybrid
Setup of Data
ISO and Shared Portion of Hybrid
51
51
53
Disc Copy Image
56
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Creating an Image
Writing the Saved Image to CD
56
56
CD to CD-RW Copy
Select Your Read Device
57
57
CD Extra
59
Video CD
61
DVD Video/Audio
64
Universal Disk Format (UDF)
68
Troubleshooting
71
Glossary of CD and DVD Terms
75
Supported Drives
99
ii
Introduction
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DISC, PLEASE BE SURE YOU ARE NOT VIOLATING COPYRIGHT LAWS. MOST SOFTWARE
COMPANIES ALLOW YOU TO MAKE A BACK-UP
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FOR SPECIFIC DETAILS. CONTACT YOUR LEGAL ADVISOR IF YOU ARE UNSURE OF YOUR
RIGHTS.
Version 5.0 © 2002 CharisMac Engineering, Inc. All
rights reserved Reproduction in whole or part without
prior written approval from CharisMac Engineering,
Inc. is expressly prohibited. The Discribe software is
protected by copyright law and international treaties.
Unauthorized reproduction or distribution of this program, or any portion of it, may result in severe civil and
criminal penalties.
Apple Macintosh is a trademark of Apple Computer,
Incorporated. Other trademarks are the property of
their respective owners.
Questions or comments? Please let us know!
CharisMac Engineering, Inc.
10000 Hill View Rd.
Newcastle, CA 95658
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Introduction
Thank You for purchasing CharisMac Discribe, the Ultimate CD Recording software! Discribe was designed
to allow you to easily take advantage of all the features
of your CD recorder. You can do some amazing things
with Discribe. Like to make music? You can record a
music CD from any combination of MP3/AIFF/SDII/
WAV files, or even live audio from the included AudioScribe application. Discribe supports the full range of
CD-R/RW drives that have been in the market over the
past few years, including ATAPI/EIDE, SCSI, USB,
and Firewire (IEEE1394) interface drives.
Novice and experienced users alike will find Discribe
easy and intuitive to use. For users new to CD recording, the Discribe Quick Start provides a unique “AntiWizard” interface that can create a CD in as few as 2
mouse clicks. The Quick Start performs the common
CD recording tasks: CD-to-CD copies, Audio CD creation from any combination of MP3/AIFF/SDII/WAV
files or CD tracks, and Data CD-ROM creation.
By clicking the “close window” button on the Quick
Start screen, you enter the Discribe Main Application.
Here you will find an advanced CD creation environment that will give you flexibility in creating your CD
projects. For example, when you create an audio CD in
the full application, you can rearrange or rename
tracks, change the name of your CD, record in DiscAt-Once mode, and more. In the full application you
can also create advanced format CDs such as Mac/
ISO9660 Hybrid discs. Be sure to visit the Charismac
website often for updates to the Discribe software.
www.Charismac.com
4
Getting Started
Getting Started
System Requirements
Before installing Discribe, check that you have these
minimum system requirements:
• Power PC or greater Macintosh
• 32Mb RAM
• Quicktime 2.0 or better (Quicktime 4.0 or higher
recommended)
• Supported CD recorder (for the most current list,
please visit www.charismac.com)
• Mac OS 8.0 (Mac OS 8.6 or newer recommended,
depending on CD recorder)
Internet access is recommended to take advantage of
all Discribe’s features.
Installing Discribe
Before installing Discribe please take the following
precautions:
• Remove any non-Apple and third party CD-ROM
Drivers. We recommend you remove any CDROM driver extensions from other manufacturers.
The included CD-ROM Extension is capable of
supporting virtually all SCSI, ATAPI and USB CDROM and CD-R/RW drives on the market allowing
you to use one CD driver for all of your CD-ROM
and CD-R/RW devices, including the original CDROM drive provided by Apple.
• If installing software for USB or Firewire based
CD recorders, you may want to remove any third
party USB or Firewire drivers, or extensions. These
drivers may lead to conflicts, which can cause your
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recorder to not be seen by the Discribe software.
Discribe must be installed on a hard disk. Once you
have installed the software, store the original program
CD-ROM in a safe place.
1. Disable any unnecessary extensions and restart
your Macintosh prior to installing Discribe. In
some cases, extensions may interfere with the software installation process, causing the Macintosh to
generate errors and forcing a restart.
2. Insert the Discribe Installation CD-ROM in your
system’s CD-ROM drive.
3. If the Discribe CD-ROM window does not open
automatically, double click the CD-ROM icon to
open the window.
4. Double-click on the Discribe Installer file icon.
Follow the on-screen instructions, read and agree
to the end user license agreement.
5. Select the type of installation according to the
hardware type you have. For example, if you own
only a Firewire CD-RW drive, just select the “Discribe for Firewire Drives” installation option.
6. Once you’ve selected the proper software installation type, click Install.
7. Select a location for the Discribe folder to be installed and click the Install button. All components
will be installed to their proper locations.
8. Once the installation has completed, click Quit.
9. Restart your Macintosh to complete the installation.
Discribe is now installed!
6
Getting Started
NOTE
Note: Please Take A Moment To Complete Your Registration Card
And Drop It In The Mail, or register online at www.charismac.com/Register. Registration Entitles You To Technical Support
and Product Upgrades.
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Getting Technical Support
CharisMac is serious about customer satisfaction. If you
encounter difficulty installing or using Discribe, please
do the following:
1. Check the troubleshooting section in this manual.
The common problems and their solutions can be
found there.
2. Check the Charismac website for updated problems
and solutions, and for newer versions of the software
that corrects specific problems. www.charismac.com/Support/Discribe/. Or email support@charismac.com.
3. For telephone technical support, please call 530-8854420. Before calling, please have your Macintosh
configuration (CPU, recorder make & Model, version
of Macintosh operating system) and a description of
the problem you are encountering.
NOTE
Note: When calling for support please be in front of the Macintosh
computer where the software is installed so the technical support
technician can easily assist you in resolving the problem.
8
Overview
Overview
A Word About CD-R and CD-RW
CD-R is the term used to denote CD-Recordable media, or discs. CD-R discs are recorded permanently.
Once information is written, it cannot be erased. Data
can be added until the disc is full (see “Multi-Session
recording). CD-R media is good for creating archived
information that does not need to be changed, or for
distribution thanks to the rapidly declining price of
CD-R media over the past few years.
CD-RW is the term used to denote CD-Rewritable media. CD-RW media allows your CD-RW drive to erase
the disc, and then write to the media again as your
backup scheme requires. CD-RW media is rated for
approximately one thousand complete writes to the
media (the actual number of writes may vary depending upon type and brand of media). CD-R and CD-RW
drives differ only in the fact that CD-RW drives can
write to both CD-R and CD-RW discs.
CD-RW drives are also capable of erasing CD-RW
discs (through the Discribe interface) and allowing
you to write to them again. Discribe handles the writing process to either CD-R or CD-RW media in the exact same fashion. The steps of writing to a CD are
exactly the same with the exception of which type of
media is inserted prior to the write process (CD-R or
CD-RW). With this in mind, the term CD-RW will be
used throughout this manual to denote a CD-Recordable device, disc or format.
Launching Discribe
Double click on the Discribe icon and you’ll be greet-
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ed by the Discribe splash screen. After a few seconds
the splash screen will give way to Discribe’s Quick
Start menu.
Discribe’s Quick Start Menu
While unlike a traditional “wizard” this menu allows
for quick and easy selection of the most commonly
used functions:
burning Data CDs (HFS), Audio CDs and Disc Copy.
10
Quick Start
You’ll also find buttons that provide you with additional information about your recorder and disc information for the disc in the recorder. Additionally, you can
extract audio tracks from CDs or launch AudioScribe;
the direct-to-disk recording application included with
Discribe.
To get started, you can make your selection from one
of the three main choices presented, drag files you
wish to write to CD to auto-select the disc format, or
you can click the Close Window box to reveal Discribe’s other more powerful functions in Discribe’s
main window.
Making an Audio CD
For a brief overview of the software, let’s start by
clicking the Audio CD button. Notice Discribe’s interface changes.
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Adding Audio Tracks
Drag AIFF, MP3, WAV, Sound Designer II (SDII) files
or tracks from mounted Audio CDs to the window. You
can drag one or multiple files to the window in any
combination.
Files that are in MP3, WAV and SDII file format will
need to be converted into a file format that Discribe can
use to write to CD. Discribe will prompt you for a save
location for these files when they are dragged to the interface. Select the desired location and click the Select
“Your Location” button for the conversion to take
place. Once the conversion has completed, the newly
converted file will be added to your project.
NOTE
Note: AIFF Files will need to be in a specific format in order for
Discribe to accept them. Please be sure that your hard disk has
enough space for the converted files and that the files adhere to
the following guidelines:
12
Quick Start
• Stereo
• 16 Bit
• 44.1 KHz
Tip: SDII, MP3 and WAV files will be converted into
this format, files added from a mounted audio CD do
not have to be converted, but can be converted by holding down the Command key when dragging tracks from
a mounted audio CD to the interface. Discribe will
prompt you to find out where you would like the extracted tracks saved to.
Click the Audio... button and you will be presented
with an Audio Picker window.
This window will show all the tracks that have been
added to your current audio project. You can add tracks
by clicking the Add... button and navigating to the desired track, or you can remove tracks by selecting them
in the Audio Picker window and clicking the Remove
button.
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Sequencing Audio Tracks
Click the Audio... button and you will be presented
with an Audio Picker window.
Click and drag the audio track to the desired location
within the Audio Picker window. You can select multiple files in the same way that the Finder’s ‘List’ view
works (click and drag or by Shift clicking on multiple
files).
Setting Audio Tracks Pre-Gaps
Click the Audio... button and you will be presented
with the Audio Picker window.
Discribe allows you to customize the pre-gap, or, the
space at the beginning of a track, from 0 to 9 seconds.
To set the pre-gap on a track or tracks, select the desired track(s) in the Discribe Audio Picker window and
click the pre-gap pop-up menu and select the desired
14
Quick Start
length of time.
NOTE
Note: The first audio track must have a pre-gap of two and is not
user definable. By default, Discribe will set the pre-gaps of tracks
2 and higher to 2 seconds.
Previewing Audio Tracks
You can preview the audio within the track by selecting the desired track and clicking the Play button.
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This also allows you to listen to the tracks and make
sure that the tracks are sequenced the way you want
them. Previewing also lets you listen to extracted
tracks for any audio artifacts that may have been introduced during the extraction process if the tracks were
saved to the hard disk. A speaker icon displays next to
the track you are previewing.
Writing the Disc
Once you have sequenced your tracks and set the desired pre-gaps, you are ready to write the CD. If you
are still in the Discribe Audio Picker window then
click the OK button to return to the main interface.
Verify that the correct CD-RW writer is selected, if it’s
not, select it from the Recorder pop-up menu, then
click the Write Disc... button. You will be presented
with a Write Options window.
The Write Options window contains choices for the
following:
Test Write / Write - Option allows for either an actual
write or a simulated write to your media.
Write Speed - Allows for a selection of the current selected recorders write speeds. Defaults to the fastest
16
Quick Start
write speed that the current selected writer supports.
Open Next Session - Writes to the disc leaving the
disc open for another session to be written later.
Verify After Writing - Allows freshly written data
discs to be verified against the original to ensure that
the copy and the original are the same.
Using BURN-Proof/JustLink - Allows Discribe to
take advantage of drives using BURN-Proof/JustLink
type technologies. If your CD-RW drive does not support BURN-Proof/JustLink writing this option will be
grayed out.
In Background - Options allows Discribe to write
CDs in the background, leaving your Macintosh free
for other tasks. This option is available only with
BURN-Proof/JustLink drives by default. See Preferences for more information.
Once you’ve set your options in the Write Options
window, click the Start button to begin the write process. When the write completes you’ll hear Discribe’s
completion tone and your recorder will eject the finished CD.
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Creating A Data CD
From Discribe’s Quick Start menu click the Data CD
button.
Notice the change in Discribe’s interface. You can proceed by doing one of the following:
Drag and Drop Directly to the Discribe Window
Drag the data you wish to write to CD from your hard
disk to the Discribe window. Notice the Size of the
data and the Time reflect the data that’s been dragged
18
Quick Start
into the window.
Click the Data... Button
Click the Data... button to reveal the Macintosh HFS
Picker window. Here you can drag files from the desktop to the picker window. The Macintosh HFS Picker
window acts much like the list view in a Finder window, allowing you to rename and move files and folders around to suit your needs.
Take note that the CD name is listed as, “Untitled,” be
sure to change the name as this will be the name of
your finished CD when it mounts on the desktop. To
edit a filename or the CD’s title you can single click an
item to highlight the name, or double click it and a
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name editing window will appear.
Macintosh HFS Picker Options
Resolve Aliases - When this option is checked alias
files will be resolved to the original when they’ve been
added into the Macintosh HFS Picker window.
New Folder - Creates a new, “Untitled Folder,” within
the Macintosh HFS Picker window.
Add... - You can add a single file to the Macintosh HFS
Picker window by clicking the Add... button.
Remove - Removes the selected file or files from the
Macintosh HFS Picker window
Cancel - Returns you to the main Discribe software
window without saving any changes
OK - Saves changes to the current project.
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Quick Start
Writing the CD
Once the data has been added and arranged to your satisfaction just click OK to return to the Discribe main
window. Verify that the correct CD-RW writer is selected then click the Write Disc... button.
Set up your options for Write/Test Write, Open Next
Session, Write Speed, Verify After Writing, Using
BURN-Proof/JustLink and In Background, then click
the Start button to begin the write process.
A Word About Multi-Session Macintosh
HFS CD-ROMs
There is nothing special that needs to be done to write
multiple Macintosh HFS sessions to a CD other than
selecting the Open Next Session option in the Write
Options Screen.
NOTE
Note: Macintosh HFS multi-session CD-ROMs can really be
called multi-volume. When a multi-session Macintosh HFS CDROM is mounted an icon for each Macintosh HFS session written
to the CD will mount on the desktop. To eject the CD you will need
to drag all of the CD icons to the trash.
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Copying a CD
From the Discribe Quick Start menu click the Copy a
CD button. Notice the change in Discribe’s interface.
Select the Source Drive
Under Source will be listed a pop-up menu that states,
“No reader selected.” Select the drive (other than your
CD-RW drive) to be used as the read source for your
original CD. If no CD is within the drive it will prompt
you to insert a disc to read, or you can use Command. (period) to cancel. Once a disc is inserted into the
source drive Discribe will display the size of the disk
and/or the total time of the disc.
Click the Disc Info... button to view information about
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Quick Start
the current CD in the Source drive.
Writing the CD
Verify that the correct CD-RW writer is selected then
click the Write Disc... button. The Write Options dialog will show up.
Set up your options for Test Write, Ignore Read Errors,
Using BURN-Proof/JustLink, Write In Background,
Write Speed, Cache Disc to File Before Writing, and
Verify After Writing, then click the Start button to begin the write process.
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Discribe Pull-Down Menus
A quick overview of all of Discribe’s pull-down menus
reveals many useful functions:
File Pull-Down Menu
Open Project - Open a previously saved Discribe
project file
Save Project - Saves the current Discribe project into
a file
Save Project As... - Saves the current project with a
new name that you specify
Begin Again - Returns you to the Discribe Quick Start
menu
Preferences - Allows you to define certain parameters
24
Pull-Down Menus
with Discribe according to your specific needs:
Preferences: Application Startup
Show Disable Inits Warning - When this box is
checked a warning will appear each time Discribe
is launched reminding you to disable any unnecessary extensions prior to burning a CD.
Show Quick Start - When this box is checked the
Quick Start screen will appear after the Discribe
application is launched. Disabling this preference
will take you directly to the Main Application window upon the launch of the Discribe software.
Preferences: Default Project Settings
Show times in Min:Sec:Frames - When this box
is checked audio track information will be displayed in the format minutes first, followed by seconds and frames.
Delete cached audio files when done - Checking
this box will cause Discribe to delete any extracted
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audio tracks, whether AIFF, MP3, WAV or SDII
created during the audio extraction process.
Default to Disc-at-once audio - When this box is
checked audiodiscs will be burned in Disc-at-once
audio format. Unchecking thebox will result in
Track-at-once burns.
Default Pregap - Sets the amount of time to set between audio tracks for default operation. Times can
still be customized in Discribe’s Audio Picker window.
Preferences: Advanced Writing Settings
Enable Background Writing on all Drives (Not
Recommended) - Generally not recommended,
use this option with extreme caution. Extended
lengths of time holding down the mouse button or
launching processor intensive applications can
cause writes to fail. We only recommend background writing on BURN-Proof/JustLink enabled
CD recorders.
Save Folder Location for Disc to Disc Caching
File Quit - Quits Discribe and returns you back to the Finder
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Main Functions
Utilities Pull-Down Menu
Recorder Information - Shows information on the
currently selected recorder
Disc Information - Shows information of the disc
within the currently selected recorder
Extract Audio... - Allows you to Extract a single track
from a mounted Audio CD
Write Physical Image... - Writes a physical image to
hard disk of the data in your current project.
Erase Disc... - Allows you to erase CD-RW media so
it can be written to again
Eject Disc - Ejects the tray of the currently selected
CD-RW drive
Enable BURN-Proof /JustLink - Enables BURNProof and JustLink Recording on CD-RW drives that
support this ability. Check with the manufacturer of
your drive to see if your drive supports this function
Web Pull-Down Menu
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Support - Selecting this item takes you to the Discribe
support section of our website
Product - Selecting this item takes you to the Discribe
product section of our website
Home - Selecting this item launches your default web
browser and takes you to the Charismac homepage
Store -Takes you to our online store so you can order
a full version or a Discribe upgrade. Also, check out
CharisMac’s other exciting products.
28
Main Functions
Discribe’s Other Functions
If the disc format
you wish to write to
CD is not a part of
the Quick Start
menu, don’t fret.
Discribe has a host
of other powerful
features that can be
accessed through the
main interface. Upon
launch of Discribe
just click the close
window box in the upper left corner of the interface.
This will reveal the main interface. You can select any
format from the pop-up menu to create just about any
type of CD-ROM.
By default, the main interface will default to the Mac-
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intosh HFS option.
Macintosh HFS
The Macintosh HFS function copies data from a
mounted volume to a CD. The volume can be a hard
disk, hard disk partition, CD-ROM, removable media,
mounted disk image, etc. of any size, but must contain
less than 650 MB of data. This option allows you to set
up a disc exactly the way that you want it to look (icon
placement, arrangement of windows, window views,
whether or not the CD-ROM’s window should be open
by default, etc.) and write it to a CD for an exact duplicate.
30
Main Functions
NOTE
Note: It is not recommended that you write CDs from mounted
server volumes. Server traffic can be unpredictable in nature and
can cause a write failure due to lack of throughput.
Setting Up Your Volume
Set your volume up any way you like it. Keep in mind
that the name of the volume will become the name of
the CD, and the volume’s icon will become the CD’s
icon. Name and paste the icon you want the CD to have
onto the volume, you can do this by doing a Get Info
on the volume’s mounted disk icon.
Once you have your volume set up simply drag the
icon of the volume from the desktop of your Macintosh to the Discribe window.
An options dialog box will appear for the volume
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you’ve dragged over.
Create a Mac / ISO Hybrid - Checking this option allows you to create a Hybrid CD-ROM (covered later in this manual).
Bootable - If checked, Discribe will prompt for a
bootable CD to be inserted into the CD writer so
that driver information can be read from a known
good bootable CD. For best results, use your most
current Apple system CD available. Remember
that this volume has to meet certain requirements:
• Cannot be your Macintosh’s startup volume
• All files must be closed and must appear just as
you want them on the CD
• Total volume size must be small enough to fit on
the CD
• Ensure you have emptied the trash
• Don’t write from a volume used by Discribe
For more information on the creation of bootable CDs
see the section of Creating a Bootable CD-ROM later
in this manual.
Select the desired options and click OK. Discribe’s interface will update to show the new volume has been
added.
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Main Functions
Adding Audio
Discribe will allow you to add audio to the end of your
data track, if you wish to add audio you can simply
drag-n-drop an audio file on the window. Or you can
click the Audio... button for the Audio Picker window.
If you’ve added audio tracks into the Audio Picker
window, click OK to proceed to the write process.
Writing the CD
Once the data has been added and arranged to your satisfaction just click OK to return to the Discribe main
window. Verify that the correct CD-RW writer is selected then click the Write Disc... button. Set up your
options for Test Write, In Background, Open Next Session, Write Speed and Verify After Writing, then click
the Start button to begin the write process.
Multi-Session Macintosh HFS CD-ROMs
There is nothing special that needs to be done to write
multiple Macintosh HFS sessions to a CD other than
selecting the Open Next Session option in the Write
Options Screen.
NOTE
Note: Macintosh HFS multi-session CD-ROMs can really be
called multi-volume. When a multi-session Macintosh HFS CDROM is mounted an icon for each Macintosh HFS session written
to the CD will mount on the desk-top. To eject the CD you will
need to drag all the CD’s icons to the trash.
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DISCRIBE CD Mastering Software
ISO-9660
Discribe has the ability to create ISO-9660 CD-ROM
discs for use with Windows based personal computers.
This format is ideal for sharing files like web pages,
JPG, GIF, text documents and for PC specific data, but
won’t work well for backups for most Macintosh software.
Select the Format
Select the ISO-9660 format from the pop-up menu in
the Discribe main interface screen.
Main Screen Options:
Data... - Clicking this button will pop up the ISO9660 Picker window. This is where you can edit,
move and rename the data you wish to write to CDROM.
Disc Info... - Clicking this button show a window
with specific, user definable, attributes that you can
34
Main Functions
give to your written CD-ROM. Like:
• Publisher ID
• Data Preparer ID
• Application ID
• Copyright File ID
• Abstract File ID
• Bibliography File
Edit Your Data
The next step is to edit the file list for your ISO-9660
CD. Click the Data... button to open the ISO-9660
Picker window.
You can add your data to the ISO-9660 Picker window
by dragging and dropping the files on the window. The
ISO-9660 Picker window acts much the same as a
Finder window, click the file names to rename files if
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DISCRIBE CD Mastering Software
desired, turning the arrows down on a folder reveals
the data inside. You can drag and drop files in new folders to change their hierarchy.
ISO-9660 Picker Options
At the bottom of the ISO 9660 Picker are options that
are useful in the creation of your ISO-9660 CD-ROM.
Resolve Aliases - When this option is checked alias
files will be resolved to the original when they’ve been
added into the Macintosh HFS Picker window.
New Folder - Creates a new, “Untitled Folder,” within
the ISO 9660 Picker window.
Import Session - Imports data from the previous session into the session about to be written.
Naming - Allows choosing between Macintosh naming, which allows for 31 characters of any type, and
ISO Level 1, which allows for the standard ISO-9660.
Choosing ISO Level 1 will truncate file names to adhere to the 8.3 file naming convention, removing any
foreign characters, spaces and changing all letters to
uppercase. For example, a file called, “CD Artwork
For Ad,” will be changed to, “CD_ARTWO.RK_.”
Add... - You can add a single file to the Macintosh HFS
Picker window by clicking the Add... button.
Remove - Removes the selected file from the Macintosh HFS Picker window
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Main Functions
Cancel - Returns you to the main Discribe software
window without saving any changes
OK - Saves changes to the current project.
Select the options that suit your needs and click, OK.
Writing the CD
Once the data has been added and arranged to your satisfaction just click OK to return to the Discribe main
window. Verify that the correct CD-RW writer is selected then click the Write Disc... button.
Set up your options for Test Write, In Background,
Open Next Session, Write Speed and Verify After
Writing, then click the Start button to begin the write
process.
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DISCRIBE CD Mastering Software
ISO-9660 XA
Discribe has the ability to create ISO-9660 XA CDROM disk for use with Windows based personal computers. The XA signifies “Extended Architecture” of
the Standard ISO-9660 format, and is ideal for multimedia-related files, like Quicktime movies, etc.
Select the Format
Select the ISO-9660 XA format from the pop-up menu
in the Discribe main interface screen.
Main Screen Options:
Data... - Clicking this button will pop up the ISO-9660
Picker window. This is where you can edit, move and
rename the data you wish to write to CD-ROM.
Disc Info... - Clicking this button show a window with
specific, user definable attributes that you can give to
your written CD-ROM. Like:
• Publisher ID
• Data Preparer ID
38
Main Functions
• Application ID
• Copyright File ID
• Abstract File ID
• Bibliography File
Edit Your Data
The next step is to edit the file list for your ISO-9660
XA CD. Click the Data... button to open the ISO-9660
Picker window.
You can add your data to the ISO-9660 Picker window
by dragging and dropping the files on the window. The
ISO-9660 Picker window acts much the same as a
Finder window, click the file names to rename files if
desired, turning the arrows down on a folder reveals
the data inside. You can drag and drop files in new folders to change their hierarchy.
ISO-9660 Picker Options
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DISCRIBE CD Mastering Software
At the bottom of the ISO 9660 Picker are options that
are useful in the creation of your ISO-9660 CD-ROM.
Resolve Aliases - When this option is checked alias
files will be resolved to the original when they’ve been
added into the ISO-9660 Picker window.
New Folder - Creates a new, “Untitled Folder,” within
the ISO 9660 Picker window.
Import Session - Imports data from the previous session into the session about to be written.
Naming - Allows choosing between Macintosh naming, which allows for 31 characters of any type, and
ISO Level 1, which allows for the standard ISO-9660.
Choosing ISO Level 1 will truncate file names to adhere to the 8.3 file naming convention, removing any
foreign characters, spaces and changing all letters to
uppercase. For example, a file called, “CD Artwork
For Ad,” will be changed to, “CD_ARTWO.RK_.”
Add... - You can add a single file to the Macintosh HFS
Picker window by clicking the Add... button.
Remove - Removes the selected file from the ISO
9660 Picker window
Cancel - Returns you to the main Discribe software
window without saving any changes
OK - Saves changes to the current project.
Select the options that suit your needs and click, OK.
Writing the CD
Once the data has been added and arranged to your satisfaction just click OK to return to the Discribe main
window. Verify that the correct CD-RW writer is selected then click the Write Disc... button.
Set up your options for Test Write, In Background,
40
Main Functions
Open Next Session, Write Speed and Verify After
Writing, then click the Start button to begin the write
process.
A Word About Multi-Session ISO-9660 XA CDROM Discs
One of the great things about the ISO-9660 XA format
is it’s ability to write single volume multi-session CDROM. Using the above instructions, write a session using the ISO-9660 XA format. When you wish to write
the second session to the CD you set your data up the
same way you always do using the instructions above.
While in the ISO-9660 Picker window, be sure click
the Import Session button, when Discribe prompts
you to, insert the previously written CD into the recorder. Discribe will read the existing data into the
ISO-9660 Picker, click OK and proceed with the write
as usual. You can write another session or finalize the
disc at your discretion.
NOTE
Note: If you write an ISO 9660-XA session to a disc that already
has an ISO-9660 XA session without using the Import Session
button the first session of the CD will be lost and unrecoverable.
Only the new data written to the CD will be recognized.
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DISCRIBE CD Mastering Software
Audio CD
Adding Audio Tracks
Drag AIFF, MP3, WAV, Sound Designer II (SDII) files
or tracks from mounted Audio CDs to the window. You
can drag one or multiple files to the window in any
combination.
Files that are in MP3, WAV and SDII file format will
need to be converted into a file format that Discribe can
use to write to CD. Discribe will prompt you for a save
location for the newly converted files when they are
dragged to the interface.
Select the desired location and click the Select “Your
Location” button for the conversion to take place.
Once the conversion has completed, the newly converted file will be added to your project.
NOTE
Note: AIFF Files will need to be in a specific format in order for
Discribe to accept them. Please be sure that your hard disk has
enough space for the converted files and that the files adhere to
the following guidelines:
• Stereo
• 16 Bit
• 44.1 KHz
Tip: SDII, MP3 and WAV files will be converted into
this format, files added from a mounted audio CD do
not have to be converted, but can be converted by holding down the Command key when dragging tracks from
a mounted audio CD to the interface. Discribe will
42
Main functions
prompt you where you would like the files saved to.
Click the Audio... button and you will be presented
with an Audio Picker window.
This window will show all the tracks that have been
added to your current audio project. You can add tracks
by clicking the Add... button and navigating to the desired track, or you can remove tracks by selecting them
in the Audio Picker window and clicking the Remove
button.
Sequencing Audio Tracks
Click the Audio... button and you will be presented
with an Audio Picker window.
Click and drag the audio track to the desired location
within the Audio Picker window. You can select multiple files in the same way that the Finder’s ‘List’ view
works (click and drag or by Shift clicking on multiple
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DISCRIBE CD Mastering Software
files).
Setting Audio Tracks Pre-Gaps
Click the Audio... button and you will be presented
with an Audio Picker window.
Discribe allows you to customize the pre-gap, or, the
space at the beginning of a track, from 0 to 9 seconds.
To set the pre-gap on a track or tracks, select the desired track(s) in the Discribe Audio Picker window and
click the pre-gap pop-up menu and select the desired
time.
44
Main Functions
NOTE
Note: The first audio track must have a pre-gap of two and is not
user definable. By default, Discribe will set the pre-gaps of tracks
2 and higher to 0.
Previewing Audio Tracks
You can preview the audio within the track by selecting the desired track and clicking the Play button. This
also allows you to listen to the tracks and make sure
that the tracks are sequenced the way you want them.
Previewing also lets you listen to extracted tracks for
any audio artifacts that may have been introduced during the extraction process if the tracks were saved to
the hard disk. A speaker icon displays next to the track
you are previewing.
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DISCRIBE CD Mastering Software
Writing the CD
Once the data has been added and arranged to your satisfaction just click OK to return to the Discribe main
window. Verify that the correct CD-RW writer is selected then click the Write Disc... button. Set up your
options for Test Write, In Background, Open Next Session, Write Speed and Verify After Writing, then click
the Start button to begin the write process.
NOTE
Note: Discribe allows you to write multiple Audio sessions to the
same CD-ROM.While the written CD, with two or more audio
sessions, will work fine when played on a computer’s CD-ROM
drive, consumer CD players will only recognize the first session
of the disc.
NOTE
Note: The ability to read a piece of media depends on the CDROM drive or the CD player. Audio written to CD-RW media may
have trouble being read on some consumer CD players.
46
Main Functions
Build-A-Mac HFS
Discribe has the ability to write a Macintosh HFS CDROM without the use of another volume for your data
to reside on.
You can proceed by doing one of the following:
Drag and Drop Directly to the Discribe Window
Drag the data you wish to write to CD from your hard
disk to the Discribe window. Notice the Size of the
data and the Time reflect the data that’s been dragged
into the window.
Click the Data... Button
Click the Data... button to reveal the Macintosh HFS
Picker window. Here you can drag files from the desktop to the picker window. The Macintosh HFS Picker
window acts much like the list view in a Finder window, allowing you to rename and move files and folders around to suit your needs. Take note that the CD
name is listed as, “Untitled,” be sure to change the
name as this will be the name of your finished CD
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DISCRIBE CD Mastering Software
when it mounts on the desktop.
Macintosh HFS Picker Options
Resolve Aliases - When this option is checked
alias files will be resolved to the original when
they’ve been added into the Macintosh HFS Picker
window.
New Folder - Creates a new, “Untitled Folder,”
within the Macintosh HFS Picker window.
Add... - You can add a single file to the Macintosh
HFS Picker window by clicking the Add... button.
Remove - Removes the selected file from the Macintosh HFS Picker window
Cancel - Returns you to the main Discribe soft-
48
Main Functions
ware window without saving any changes
OK - Saves changes to the current project.
Writing the CD
Once the data has been added and arranged to your satisfaction just click OK to return to the Discribe main
window. Verify that the correct CD-RW writer is selected then click the Write Disc... button.
Set up your options for Test Write, In Background,
Open Next Session, Write Speed and Verify After
Writing, then click the Start button to begin the write
process.
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DISCRIBE CD Mastering Software
Mac/ISO Hybrid
Discribe has the ability to write a Macintosh HFS CDROM along with ISO-9660 data on the same CDROM. The beauty of this type of CD is that it contains
a self contained Mac HFS volume, and a self-contained ISO-9660 volume and both volumes have the
ability to share data between each other.
For example, you can create a CD-ROM that contains
Mac specific web pages on the Mac portion of the CDROM, and PC specific web pages on the ISO side of
the CD-ROM, neither platform can see each others data. With that in mind, you can share common image
files between both platforms so that all the images that
are common for both sites are only written to the CD
once, yet both platforms can still display the images.
Setup of Data
In setup of a Hybrid CD-ROM, it is required that the
Mac only data, and data that is intended to be shared
across to the ISO side of the CD, reside on it’s own volume. The PC only data can reside anywhere on your
hard disk other than the volume set aside for Mac and
shared data.
Begin Mac/ISO Hybrid Project Creation
From Discribe’s format pop-up menu select Mac/ISO
Hybrid.
50
Main Functions
You will be presented with the following dialog box:
Within the dialog box, select the mounted volume you
wish to use for your Mac / shared data.
For more information on the creation of bootable CDs
see the section of Creating a Bootable CD-ROM elsewhere in this manual.
This officially sets up your Mac and shared data for the
Hybrid CD-ROM. Take note of the changes in the Discribe interface.
ISO and Shared Portion of Hybrid
Once the Mac portion of the Hybrid disc has been set
up it’s time to tell Discribe what data you would like in
your ISO portion of the disc.
Click the Data... button in the Discribe interface, the
ISO-9660 Picker will appear. Drag all data you wish to
be on the ISO side of the disk to the ISO 9660 Picker
window. Now is when you want to also set up your
shared data. Drag the desired shared data from the Mac
volume into the ISO-9660 Picker window, notice the
file names turn blue when they are listed in the ISO-
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DISCRIBE CD Mastering Software
9660 Picker window. This means that they are shared.
Good job.
Set up the options in the ISO-9660 picker window as
desired.
Resolve Aliases - When this option is checked
alias files will be resolved to the original when
they’ve been added into the Macintosh HFS Picker
window.
New Folder - Creates a new, “Untitled Folder,”
within the Macintosh HFS Picker window.
Import Session - Imports data from the previous
session into the session about to be written.
Naming - Allows choosing between Macintosh
naming, which allows for 31 characters of any
type, and ISO Level 1, which allows for the standard ISO-9660. Choosing ISO Level 1 will truncate file names to adhere to the 8.3 file naming
convention, removing any foreign characters, re-
52
Main Functions
placing spaces with underscores and changing all
letters to uppercase. For example, a file called, “CD
Artwork For Ad,” will be changed to,
“CD_ARTWO.RK_.” In general it is best to leave
the naming convention on the Macintosh setting.
Add... - You can add a single file to the Macintosh
HFS Picker window by clicking the Add... button.
Remove - Removes the selected file from the Macintosh HFS Picker window
Cancel - Returns you to the main Discribe software window without saving any changes
OK - Saves changes to the current project.
Once you are finished setting up your ISO-9660 portion of the CD-ROM, click OK to proceed.
Finish Up with Disc Info...
If you want, you can set up the ISO-9660 Volume Descriptor by clicking the Disc Info... button in the main
interface. Editing the ISO-9660 Volume Descriptor is
not an essential part of creating an ISO or Hybrid CDROM. When finished, click, OK.
Writing the CD
Verify that the correct CD-RW writer is selected then
click the Write Disc... button. Set up your options for
Test Write, In Background, Open Next Session, Write
Speed and Verify After Writing, then click the Start
button to begin the write process.
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DISCRIBE CD Mastering Software
Disc Copy Image
Copies a disc image previously saved to your hard disk
by Discribe using the Copy Disc... function under the
Utilities pull-down menu.
Creating an Image
First you need to create an image from a desired CDROM. Select Copy Disc... under the Utilities pulldown menu. Discribe will prompt you to put in the disc
you wish to copy into your CD recorder. Place a disc
in the drive and when Discribe senses that the disc is in
the drive then you will be prompted to select a save location on your hard disk for the extracted data.
After you’ve selected a save location, click the Start
button to begin the data extraction process. Once the
extraction process is complete, click Cancel to return
to the main interface.
Writing the Saved Image to CD
In the main Discribe window select Disc Copy Image
from the format pop-up menu. You will be presented
with an Open File dialog box.
Navigate the dialog box to the previously saved image
file and click Open. Note the interface change to reflect
the image that you’ve selected.
Writing the CD
Verify that the correct CD-RW writer is selected then
click the Write Disc... button. Set up your options for
Test Write, In Background, Open Next Session, Write
Speed and Verify After Writing, then click the Start
button to begin the write process.
54
Main Functions
CD to CD-RW Copy
A very useful function is Discribe’s direct CD to CD
copy function.
This function allows you to use another CD-ROM or
CD-RW drive to be selected as your read device and
then write the data directly from that drive to the CDRW drive of your choice.
From Discribe’s main interface select CD to CD-RW
Copy from the format pop-up menu.
Select Your Read Device
From the Source pop-up menu, select the CD-ROM or
CD-RW drive you wish to use as your read source. If a
disc is not present in the drive Discribe will prompt
you to insert a disc for reading.
Writing the CD
Verify that the correct CD-RW writer is selected then
click the Write Disc... button. Set up your options for
Test Write, In Background, Open Next Session, Write
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DISCRIBE CD Mastering Software
Speed and Verify After Writing, then click the Start
button to begin the write process.
NOTE
Note: Take care in selecting a write speed with the CD to CD-RW
Copy function. Slower Macs, slower CD-ROM and CD-RW
drives may not be able to supply data fast enough to the target
CD-RW drive. This can result in a coaster. If a CD to CD-RW
Copy fails try lowering the write speed.
56
Main Functions
CD Extra
CD Extra CD-ROMs are CDs which contain Audio
and Data on the same CD. It is essentially a two session CD-ROM, on which Discribe writes the Audio
first, then the data second.
From Discribe’s main interface select CD Extra from
the format pop-up menu.
Set Up the Data
You can Drag Data directly to the Discribe interface, or
you can click the Data... button to open up the ISO9660 picker window. With the picker window open
you can drag data to the window, name the CD and arrange your data at will.
Set up the options in the ISO-9660 picker window as
desired and when finished click OK.
Set Up the Audio
You can drag Audio tracks directly to Discribe’s main
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DISCRIBE CD Mastering Software
interface window, or you can click the Audio... button
to open up the Audio Picker window. Using the audio
picker you can drag in audio tracks and arrange the audio at will.
Set up the options in the audio picker window as desired and when finished click OK.
Writing the CD
Verify that the correct CD-RW writer is selected then
click the Write Disc... button. Set up your options for
Test Write, In Background, Open Next Session, Write
Speed and Verify After Writing, then click the Start
button to begin the write process.
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Main Functions
Video CD
A Video CD is a CD that contains MPEG 1 data that
can be watched on your computer and/or many commercial DVD players). Discribe can create a Video CD
using properly formatted MPEG 1 streams.
The MPEG-1 streams that Discribe can handle must
meet the following criteria:
Resolution: 352x288 (PAL), 352x240 ("FILM"), or
320x240 (NTSC)
Frame Rate: 25fps (PAL), 30 or 29.97fps (NTSC) and
24 or 23.976fps ("FILM")
Video Data Rate: 1152Kbit/sec (some software
rounds it to 1150Kbit/sec) or 1.125Mbit/sec
NOTE
"FILM" is NTSC encoded video in 24fps or 23.976fps, not frequently used by amateurs unless they convert to Video-CD from a
DVD movie encoded at 24fps (progressive).
Set Up the Data
To write a Video CD select Video CD in Discribe’s format pop-up menu.
Drag in the compatible MPEG files that you want to
add to your Video CD into the Discribe window directly, or you can click the Video... button to open Discribe’s MPEG Picker window and drag the selected
files there. While in the MPEG Picker window you can
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DISCRIBE CD Mastering Software
rearrange your MPEG streams to suit your needs.
NOTE
Discribe will reject incompatible files by not allowing them to be
added to the project.
If you have the MPEG Picker window open click OK
to return to Discribe’s main window. Also note that
you can add Audio files to your Video CD project. You
can do so by dragging them into the main Discribe
window or by clicking the Audio... button to open the,
now familiar, Audio picker window. Again, arrange
songs at will via drag and drop and click OK when
done to proceed to the write process.
60
Main Functions
Writing the CD
Verify that the correct CD-RW writer is selected then
click the Write Disc... button. Set up your options for
Test Write, Using BURN-Proof/JustLink, In Background, Open Next Session, and Write Speed, then
click the Start button to begin the write process.
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DISCRIBE CD Mastering Software
DVD Video/Audio
Discribe’s DVD (Digital Versatile Disc) Video/Audio
function allows you to write DVD video and audio as
well as data to CD-R, CD-RW, DVD-R, DVD-RW,
DVD+R and DVD+RW media. Please note that in order to write to DVD-R, DVD-RW, DVD+R and
DVD+RW you will need a DVD drive capable of handling each type of media.
The data is written in the UDF Format (Universal Disc
Format) and is cross-platform compatible working on
any platform that supports reading UDF discs.
In theory, any disc written in this format with video
data will be readable in a DVD set-top reader for playback. Limitations will include the set-top reader’s
ability to work with the individual disc itself. The settop reader’s ability to handle different media types
(CD-R, CD-RW, DVD-R, DVD-RW, DVD+R and
DVD+RW) is dependant upon several factors. Please
check with the manufacturer of your DVD player to
see if it is compatible with newer media types.
DVD Audio/Video discs can be written by any CDRW and DVD-R/RW drive and on any of the following
media types: CD-R, CD-RW, DVD-R, DVD-RW,
DVD+R and DVD+RW.
Set Up the Data
To write a DVD Audio/Video disc select DVD Audio/
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Troubleshooting
Video in Discribe’s format pop-up menu.
Notice the option in the main window called Include
Desktop Database, in general when writing a DVD
disk used for video or audio playback you would not
want these Mac specific files written to to the disk.
We’ve disabled this option by default.
Drag in any data (including DVD video) that you
would like written to the media into the main Discribe
window or click the Data... button to open Discribe’s
DVD Picker window and drag the selected files there.
NOTE
Please not that the sizes of the media differ from one format to the
next. For instance, CD-R and CD-RW media typicall range in size
from 650 to 800 MB. Where DVD-R, DVD-RW and DVD+RW
media will typically hold 4.7 Gigabyte. Discribe’s DVD Picker
notes the amount of data added into the picker. You can use this
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DISCRIBE CD Mastering Software
for your guidelines.
DVD Picker Options
Resolve Aliases - When this option is checked
alias files will be resolved to the original when
they’ve been added into the DVD Picker window.
New Folder - Creates a new, “Untitled Folder,”
within the DVD Picker window.
Add... - You can add a single file to the DVD Picker
window by clicking the Add... button.
Remove - Removes the selected file from the DVD
Picker window
Cancel - Returns you to the main Discribe soft-
64
Glossary
ware window without saving any changes
OK - Saves changes to the current project.
If you have the DVD Picker window open click OK to
return to Discribe’s main window.
Writing the Disc
Verify that the correct CD-RW writer is selected then
click the Write Disc... button. Set up your options for
Test Write, Using BURN-Proof/JustLink, In Background, Open Next Session, Verify After Writing and
Write Speed, then click the Start button to begin the
write process.
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DISCRIBE CD Mastering Software
Universal Disk Format (UDF)
This format allows data to be written in the UDF Format (Universal Disc Format) and is cross-platform
compatible working on any platform that supports
reading UDF discs.
In theory, any disc written in this format with video
data will be readable in a DVD set-top reader for playback. Limitations will include the set-top reader’s
ability to work with the individual disc itself. The settop reader’s ability to handle different media types
(CD-R, CD-RW, DVD-R, DVD-RW, DVD+R and
DVD+RW) is dependant upon several factors. Please
check with the manufacturer of your DVD player to
see if it is compatible with newer media types. UDF
discs can be written by any CD-RW and DVD-R/RW
drive and on any of the following media types: CD-R,
CD-RW, DVD-R, DVD-RW, DVD+R and DVD+RW.
Set Up the Data
To write a DVD disc utilizing UDF select DVD Audio/
Video in Discribe’s format pop-up menu.
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Glossary
Drag in any data (including DVD video) that you
would like written to the media into the main Discribe
window or click the Data... button to open Discribe’s
DVD Picker window and drag the selected files there.
NOTE
Please not that the sizes of the media differ from one format to the
next. For instance, CD-R and CD-RW media typicall range in size
from 650 to 800 MB. Where DVD-R, DVD-RW and DVD+RW
media will typically hold 4.7 Gigabyte. Discribe’s DVD Picker
notes the amount of data added into the picker. You can use this
for your guidelines.
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DISCRIBE CD Mastering Software
DVD Picker Options
Resolve Aliases - When this option is checked
alias files will be resolved to the original when
they’ve been added into the DVD Picker window.
New Folder - Creates a new, “Untitled Folder,”
within the DVD Picker window.
Add... - You can add a single file to the DVD Picker
window by clicking the Add... button.
Remove - Removes the selected file from the DVD
Picker window
Cancel - Returns you to the main Discribe software window without saving any changes
OK - Saves changes to the current project.
If you have the DVD Picker window open click OK to
return to Discribe’s main window.
Writing the Disc
Verify that the correct CD-RW writer is selected then
click the Write Disc... button. Set up your options for
Test Write, Using BURN-Proof/JustLink, In Background, Open Next Session, Verify After Writing and
Write Speed, then click the Start button to begin the
write process.
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Glossary
Troubleshooting
The following list includes some common problems
that might be encountered while working to create
your CD.
Q: Does Discribe work with iTunes?
A: Discribe 4.5 includes a Firewire driver that allows
iTunes to write to a supported CD-RW drive. Be sure
to disable the Firewire Authoring Support and Authoring Support files which get installed with the iTunes
installer.
Q: Why do audio CDs work in my computer but not in
my audio CD player or DVD player?
A: The most common reason that an audio CD player
or a DVD player will have an issue with a particular
disc is due to the media’s reflectivity. Some players are
very sensitive to the reflectivity of the disc itself and
have trouble reading CD-RW media. CD-RW media,
in general, will be far less compatible than CD-R media will. Try using different brands of CD-R media until you find one that works well with your player.
Q: I get a message before I attempt to write a CD that
says “A valid CD-R drive must be selected...”
A: If you encounter a message that says, “a valid CDR drive must be selected...” then your Mac and Discribe are not detecting your CD-RW drive and they are
unable to communicate with it. There are a series of
simple steps that you can go through to troubleshoot
this problem:
1. Check to see if the correct extensions are loading.
Many USB and Firewire drives require special extensions that must load in order for Discribe to identify
the drive.
If you have the correct extensions loading and still can-
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not see the drive, here are a few more suggestions:
1. Quit Discribe and then cycle the power on your CDRW drive (turn it off for 20 seconds and then turn it
back on). Now reopen Discribe and see if the drive is
detected.
2. Turn off your Mac. Now turn off the CD-RW drive.
With everything off, unplug both ends of the USB cable, from the Mac and from the Spressa drive. Plug
both cables back in and then turn the CD-RW drive
back on.
Now boot the computer back up and reopen Discribe
and see if the CD-RW drive appears by clicking the
Recorder Information.
3. Try turning your CD-RW drive off, then Unplug the
CD-RW drive from the power outlet. Reboot your
Mac. After the Mac has completed its boot cycle, then
turn the CD-RW drive back on. After the CD-RW
drive’s yellow access light goes out, launch Discribe.
Click Discribe’s Recorder Information button, the
CD-RW drive should show up.
4. Try connecting the CD-RW drive directly to you
Mac rather than through a hub or your keyboard. If you
are going directly into your Mac try switching the
ports between the keyboard and the CD-RW drive.
Write Test Failure
The write test simulates writing data to the CD by exactly duplicating the write process while holding the
recorder’s write laser in the off state. If this test is
failed, check the following:
Fragmentation
If the files to be recorded are fragmented (not written
cleanly and contiguously) on the hard drive, the time
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Glossary
consumed in accessing them may cause the recorder’s
buffers to “run out” of information temporarily. During the actual write process, this would make the disc
being written to useless. Use Norton TM Speed Disk
or another drive utility to test the hard drive for fragmentation. If fragmentation is greater than moderate,
you will need to reinitialize to optimize the hard drive.
Hard Drive Too Slow
If you have an older hard drive, it may be too slow in
transferring data to the recorder. Try using a slower recorder speed (1X or 2X). If you are still not successful,
you need a faster hard drive.
Recorder Won’t Play CD-ROM
Most recorders can be used to play back CD-ROMs,
some older recorders cannot.
Check your manufacturer’s documentation and make
sure the CD-ROM Extension is loaded. Ensure also
that the device is connected and turned on before you
start up your Macintosh, otherwise the CD-ROM Extension will be unable to see the device to load a device
driver.
CD Recorder Not Accessible
SCSI - Like other SCSI devices, CD recorders must
have a correctly set SCSI ID, a properly terminated
SCSI connection, currently supported by Discribe and
must be started before the Macintosh in order to show
up on the SCSI bus. Refer to the recorder manufacturer
and Apple documentation for information. Refer to the
user manual
List of Supported CD Recorders or the Discribe read
me for the latest up to date information regarding support for your recorder.
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Note that SCSI IDs 0, 3 (internal CD player), and 7 are
generally re-served for the Macintosh itself.
ATAPI - It is possible that the drive was unable to register it’s ‘bios’ information with the Macintosh at boot
time. This would hinder any software’s ability to see
the drive connected to the Mac. Check your CD-RW
drives IDE and power cabling to ensure a firm fit.
USB / Firewire - Make sure that the proper software is
loading in the System Folder. Items to double check
are the USB (USB manager V1.2 or higher) or
Firewire (Firewire V2.1 or higher) drivers (available
from Apple) and the USB or Firewire SIM that would
have come with the hardware, all of which should be
loaded in the Extensions folder. Also check to ensure a
tight fit for all USB or Firewire cabling. Faster Recorder Speeds not Available Only those speeds (1X, 2X,
etc.) which your recorder is capable of will appear in
the Discribe Screen.
Note that CD-RW write speeds are often slower than
standard CD-RW write speeds. Many CD-RW drives
are distinguished in the following way: 8x4x24. In this
ex-ample, the recorder would record to CD-RW media
at speeds up to 8x, CD-RW media at speeds up to 4x
and read CDs at speeds up to 24x.
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Glossary
Glossary of CD and DVD Terms
AC-3 Dolby® digital surround sound for DVD-Video
capable of playing 5.1 discrete channels of audio for
the ultimate in surround sound (example, front set of
left & right speakers, center channel, rear set of left &
right surround speakers + subwoofer). Playing back
AC-3 encoded audio requires a Dolby® AC-3 compatible receiver & the appropriate speakers to be connected to the DVD-Video player or DVD-ROM drive.
DVD-Video players & DVD-ROM drives can also
play the audio as regular stereo for non AC-3 systems
A-Time An abbreviated form of Absolute Time. In
CD-DA, the time elapsed since the beginning of the
disc. Can be used in determining the start and stop
times of sound segments for programming an application on a Mixed Mode disc, measuring from the very
beginning of the data area (including the computer
data in Track 1).
Absolute Time In Pre-Groove (ATIP) Absolute time
on the disc from the very first addressable block in the
PCA (Power Calibration Area) on a CD-R or CD-RW
disc Access To find a piece of information on a memory medium.
Access Time The time it takes to retrieve a piece of information. With disks or discs, maximum access time
is measured as the time it takes to move from one end
of the disc to the other, find a piece of information, and
transfer that information to RAM.
Archive A term referring to the long term storage data.
Normally, archiving involves removing a file from online storage because it doesn’t need to occupy valuable
hard drive space, yet it is too valuable to be deleted or
will be used again later. Long-life optical media such
as CD-R, CD-RW, MO, or DVD+RW are highly desirable for archiving.
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ASMO (Previously called MO7) a high capacity Magneto-Optical drive capable of storing up to 7Gb of
computer data, on a removable rewritable optical cartridge. ASMO drives may also be able to read CDROM & potentially DVD-ROM discs
ATAPI AT Attachment Peripheral Interface. Also
known as Enhanced IDE (EIDE), this interface is used
to attach storage devices such as hard disk drives, CDROM drives, CD recorders, and DVD-ROM drives to
PC systems. ATAPI is capable of addressing up to 4
drives, and capable of transfer rates up to 16.5Mb per
second.
ATIP See Absolute Time In Pre-Groove
Authoring Software A set of software that allows
non-programmers to design and create programs (e.g.,
multi-media presentations) by entering commands or
menu choices, without having to know a programming
language.
Backup Backups are usually data that has been copied
from one medium to another, so an additional copy of
the data will exist should something happen to the
original version. Nowadays, as strategically important
corporate data becomes scattered across literally thousands of PC’s, good backup strategies- and high-capacity storage -are essential to a company’s continuous
function.
Binary This is how computers store digital information-in a series of ones and zeroes, or “ons” and “offs”.
Bit The smallest piece of data in a computer, it represents a single one or zero.
Block The user data portion of a logical sector in CDROM formats Block Error Correction The addition of
272 bytes of error correction code (ECC) at the of each
block of data during pre-mastering, to allow correction
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Glossary
of errors detected in the user data block.
Bridge Disc A technique for storing data on a CDROM/XA disc that allows it to be played back on a
CD-I and Photo-CD player, and a CD-ROM drive.
Buffer A piece of memory that temporarily stores data, usually a small amount. This can help to compensate for differences in the rate of data from one device
to another, or can be used to store small pieces of information that are likely to be used repeatedly (such as
a digitized beep or other sound). Most CD-ROM
drives have their own 64-kilobyte buffers, so that if
you ask for, say 24 Kilobytes of data, they will be there
for instant retrieval. Otherwise they are simply wiped
out of the buffer when the next set of data is loaded.
CD recorders use data buffers to ensure a steady
stream of data from the host computer to the CD recorder. If a CD recorder’s buffer becomes empty during recording, a “buffer underrun” error occurs. this
can mean that the disc is no longer usable (for CD-R
discs). With CD-ReWritable (CD-RW), the disc can be
re-recorded.
Byte A sequence of bits (usually eight on the computer
or fourteen on a compact disc) representing an alphanumeric symbol. Used to measure the capacity of
memory media.
Cache A performance booster for drives, caching
works by storing information read from the drive in
high-speed random access memory. When the computer requests information from the drive, the drive
checks it relatively speedy cache for the information
before looking on the disks itself. If the information is
on the cache, it sent to the computer without a relatively slow disk access.
CAV See Constant Angular Velocity
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CD-DA Compact Disc-Digital Audio. Jointly developed by Philips and Sony and launched in 1983, CDDA is the first and most popular incarnation of the
compact disc, used to digitally record and play back
music at unprecedented quality. It has gained worldwide acceptance as a standard to which all digital audio CD discs and CD drives adhere. Philips/Sony’s
CD-DA standard is known as the Red book.
CD-Erasable (CD-E) Predecessor to CD-ReWritable.
The products are exactly the same, but the name was
officially changed in 1994 to CD-ReWritable.
CD-Extra See Enhanced CD
CD-I Compact Disc-Interactive, Philips’ entry into
the consumer Compact Disc market. It is a compact
disc format designed to allow interactive multimedia
application to be played through a small computer/disc
player on a home television screen. Especially good
real-time animation, video, and sound. The CD-I standard is also known as the Green Book.
CD-I Ready A set of specifications which define a
way of recording
CD-I information on a CD-DA disc.
CD-Plus See Enhanced CD
CD-MO Compact Disc-Magneto Optical systems are
used as high-density storage media. They have an access speed slower than a magnetic hard disk but faster
than CD-ROM. The discs are written by a powerful laser heating a spot on the disc surface; the spot is then
polarized by an electromagnet from the other side of
the disc. When read, the change in polarity changes the
reflection of the (weaker) reading laser at that spot, and
difference is interpreted as a data times, much like a
magnetic hard disk, and are more durable and cheaper
(per byte of storage capacity) than their magnetic cous-
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Glossary
ins. The CD-MO standard is defined in Part I of the Orange Book, but the technology never took off and has
been replaced with CD-ReWritable (CD-RW).
CD-R This is a relatively new outgrowth of CD-ROM
technology, whereby data can be easily recorded to a
writable CD by a laser instead of being manufactured.
This technology has found many uses with those who
need to create limited numbers of discs for distribution. The technology is “Write Once”, Once the data is
recorded it’s permanent. CD-R discs, once recorded,
are compatible with all CD players and CD-ROM
drives. CD-R discs can hold up to 650Mb of user data,
or up to 74 minutes of digital audio, just like regular
stamped discs. See Gold Disc.
CD-ROM Acronym for Compact Disc Read-Only
Memory. CD-ROM drives can only read the information contained on a CD - they cannot write information
to it. The discs are created by pressing them from a
stamper containing a mirror image of the disc. Their
cost per a unit is low, and they are commonly used for
the mass distribution of software and publishing of information. CD-ROM Drive A peripheral device attached to a computer that allows it to read/play a CD
disc. All CD-ROM players can also play back audio
CD’s but require external head-phones or speakers to
hear them. Some can be attached to amplifiers to function like normal audio CD players.
CD-ROM/XA “XA” stands for Extended Architecture. CD-ROM/XA is an extension of the Yellow Book
standard, generally consistent with the ISO 9660 logical format but designed to add better audio and video
capabilities (taken from the CD-I standard) so that CDROM can more easily be used for multimedia applications.
CD-RW Compact Disc ReWritable, a relatively new
addition to the recordable CD arena. CD-RW discs are
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the same formats and capacities of CD-R discs, but are
fully erasable and rewritable. The CD-RW discs can be
rewritten up to 1,000 times, but are not compatible
with older (say, 12X or slower) CD-ROM drives, or
consumer type CD players. Newer “Multi-Read” compatible CD-ROM drives and DVD-ROM drives can
read CD-RW discs.
CD-V Compact Disc Video. A disc containing CD-DA
music as well as analog video. These discs can be 12
cm, 20 cm EP (extended play), or 30 cm LP (long play)
CD’s. CIRC Cross-Interleaved Reed-Solomon Codethe first level of error correction used in every compact
disc, and the only one used for audio CD’s. It consists
of two Reed-Solomon codes interleaved crosswise.
Compact Disc See CD
Compact Disc Digital Audio See CD-DA
Compact Disc Drive or Player See CD-ROM drive or
player
Compact Disc Interactive See CD-I
Compact Disc-Magneto Optical See CD-MO
Compact Disc-Read Only Memory See CD-ROM
Compact Disc - Recordable See CD-R
Compact Disc - ReWritable See CD-RW
Compact Disc-Video See CD-V
Compatibility In compact discs, the extent to which
different types of discs can be read by different types
of drives or players. For example, all CD-DA discs are
fully compatible with all CD-DA players, so any player can interpret and reproduce music from any disc regardless of the manufacturer.
Constant Angular Velocity A rotation mode in which
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Glossary
a disc spins a constant speed, with the result that the
tracks nearest the center pass under the reading head at
a lower speed that the tracks nearer to the outer edge of
the disk. This is the approach normally taken in magnetic disks, so the sectors on the disk are physically
shorter near the center and longer near the edge of the
disc. CAV is also used for Magneto-Optical discs and
CD-R/RW discs (reading only)
Constant Linear Velocity A rotation mode in which
the speed of rotation is variable, so that all data sectors
pass under the reading head at exactly the same speed;
the rotation rate of the disc is faster when the reading
head is near the center of the disc, and slower as the
reading head moves further from the center of the disc;
sector size is constant. Used with Compact Discs for
recording and slower speed reading/playing.
Cost-Per-Megabyte A measure of the expense incurred per megabyte of usable storage received. The
common formula is to divide the cost of the drive-and
the case of the removable media, the cost of the mediaby the number of megabytes. This measure alone ignores performance issues, which has a significant impact on the selection of storage method.
Cyclability A measure of how many times a CD-RW
disc can be re-written. Currently, cyclabilty for CDRW is set at 1,000 cycles (rewrites to any one sector)
Direct Overwrite (DOW) A method of recording new
data onto a CD-RW disc directly over the existing data.
This saves time since the disc does not need to be preerased prior to recording new data. Some MagnetoOptical systems are capable of DOW.
Directory In the logical format of a disc, a “branch” of
the information tree containing other directories (subdirectories) and/or files.
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Disc or Optical Disc Throughout this glossary, disc
with a “c” is used for optical media, since that is the
spelling used in the standards defining compact discs.
Contrast with “disk”.
Disc-At-Once A method of recording a CD-R disc that
is best suited for mastering a Compact Disc for replication. With Disc-At-Once recording, the Lead-In is
written first, followed by the data or audio tracks, and
then the Lead-Out is recorded. In this way, the recording laser is never turned off and no “link” blocks are
written to link the tracks, Lead-In, and Lead-Out areas,
as occurs when a disc is recorded in Track-At-Once.
See also Track-At-Once
Disc Image See ISO Image.
Disk Hard disk or floppy disk or diskette. Refers to
magnetic storage media, as opposed to disc, which refers to an optical storage medium.
DVD Stands for Digital Versatile Disc, a high capacity
disc that looks like a CD, but is capable of storing up
to 4.7GB worth of data (or up to 130 minutes of
MPEG-2 video with up to 8 channels of audio and 32
tracks of subtitles/menus). Higher capacity DVD discs
are possible with double sided discs, and even discs
with two information layers per side. DVD discs can
only be read by players displaying a “DVD” logo (example: DVD-ROM drives & DVD-Video players).
DVD will be available in several “formats”, including
DVD-Video for distribution of consumer movies,
DVD-ROM for computer data applications (including
games & other multimedia content), and DVD-Audio
for the ultimate music playback (specification not yet
defined). DVD-RAM ReWritable DVD disc with a capacity of 2.6GB or 4.7G, and using the Micro UDF
logical file system. Similar to DVD+RW, this re-recordable DVD format is backed by the DVD consortium. Drives should also be capable of reading/playing
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Glossary
standard CD-ROM, DVD-ROM, DVD-R, and DVDVideo discs. DVD-RAM discs are housed in a cartridge similar to an MO cartridge, and cannot be read
by standard DVD-ROM drives.
DVD-R Write once recordable version of DVD having
a capacity of 3.9GB or 4.7GB and using the Micro
UDF logical file system. DVD-R discs are playable in
DVD players and DVD-ROM drives, and DVD-R
drives should be capable of reading standard CDROM, DVD-ROM, and DVD-Video discs.
DVD+RW ReWritable DVD disc & drive system proposed by Sony, Philips, HP, Yamaha, & Ricoh as an alternative to DVD-RAM. This format provides 3.0GB
or 4.7GB of data storage and affords a cleaner forward
compatibility path with future DVD-ROM drives. The
DVD+RW disc is a bare disc, similar to a CD-RW disc,
and is compatible with standard DVD-ROM drives and
DVD players. DVD+RW uses Constant Angular Velocity (CAV) for better performance than DVD-RAM.
DVD+RW drives are also capable of reading CDROM, DVD-R, DVD-ROM, and DVD-Video discs.
ECC Acronym for Error Correction Code. In CDROM, a system of scrambling data and recording redundant data onto a disc as it is pre-mastered. On playback, this redundant information helps to detect and
correct errors that may arise during data transmission.
See also Block Error Correction.
EDC Error Detection Code. On a CD-ROM, 32 bits
of information per sector which are used to detect errors in the data of that sector.
EIDE Enhanced IDE See IDE, ATAPI offers greater
performance, and up to 2 devices per port Enhanced
CD A relatively new addition to the CD family. An Enhanced CD, sometimes also referred to as CD Extra or
CD Plus, is essentially a Multi-session CD-ROM con-
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taining up to 98 audio tracks in the first session, and
usually 1 data track in the second session. Enhanced
CD came about as better solution for putting audio and
data tracks on a single CD-ROM than mixed mode
discs. With Mixed mode, the data and audio tracks reside in a single session, and some CD players would
try to play the data track, which comes out as static.
With Enhanced CD, a regular CD player only “sees”
the audio tracks in the first session, while a CD-ROM
drive would be able to play the audio tracks and access
the data in the second session.
Error Correction Code See ECC
Error Detection Code See EDC
FireWire A high speed serial interface that can link
different types of devices on one logical bus. Apple
Computer is credited with the first implementation of
FireWire on its G3 Macintosh computers. FireWire
can be used to connect digital video cameras, hard
drives, CD-RW drives, and personal computers together. Up to 63 devices can be daisy chained, and bandwidths of up to 400 Megabits per second are possible
today, and over 1 Gigibit per second is possible by the
end of 2000. See also IEEE1394, & i.LINK
Floppy Disk (floppies) These are the low-capacity
(typically 1.44Mb) removable disks which most personal computers have.While they offer excellent interchangeability, they also have little capacity and even
less speed.
Gigabyte (Gb) 1,000 Megabytes See also Byte, Kilobyte, & Megabyte
Gold Disc The recordable disc used in CD-R systems.
The blank disc is made, like all other Compact Discs,
of bottom layer of polycarbonate, but instead of having
a series of pits and lands stamped into it, it contains a
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Glossary
pre-formed track spiral, which the recording laser
beam will follow when inscribing information onto the
disc. This type of disc is therefore called pre-grooved.
A translucent green or gold layer of recording material
(organic dye) is laid on top of the polycarbonate, then
a reflective layer of gold (hence the name “Gold
Disc”). The usual layers of lacquer and label are applied.
Green Book The Philips/Sony specification for CDInteractive (CD-I)
Hard Disk A magnetic storage medium for digital data. Also called a fixed disk or Winchester disk (“Drive”
may be appended to any of these names).
Header Field Four bytes recorded at the beginning of
each CD-ROM sector which tell the address of the sector (expressed as a Logical Block Number) and the
mode in which the sector is recorded.
High Sierra Format The original logical file format
for CD-ROM proposed by the High Sierra; still being
used by some CD-ROM publishers, although the
ISO9660 logical file format is the industry standard today.
High Sierra Group The original group of twelve
companies which met in 1985 to define a standard logical file format for CD-ROM. The group met at the
High Sierra Hotel near Tahoe, hence the name “High
Sierra”.
Hybrid Disc A disc as defined in the Orange Book developed by Philips and Sony; such a disc may contain
information written over more than one recording session. Used with Kodak’s Photo CD. Hybrid is also a
generic term used to describe a disc with both
ISO9660 and Macintosh HFS or UNIX data structures.
IDE Intelligent Drive Electronics. IDE has been the
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standard interface for hard disk drives since the early
90s. Since IDE had some limitations (only 2 devices
could be supported by a controller, and only supported
devices with less than 500Mb capacity), Enhanced
IDE (EIDE, also called ATAPI) was born. Today EIDE
is the standard storage peripheral interface used on PC
computers to attach hard drives, CD-ROM drives, CD
recorders, and DVD-ROM drives
IEEE1394 International standard for the high speed
serial interface also known as “FireWire” or “i.LINK”.
It provides for easy hot plug connection of digital devices such as digital video cameras, mass storage, and
networking products. IEEE1394 is seen by many as
the home network standard for the future, when all appliances and computers will be linked in the home. See
also FireWire, & i.LINK
i.LINK Sony’s name for the IEEE1394 serial interface
standard. Sony offers digital video cameras, CD-RW
recorders, personal computers, and other devices capable of being connected together. Devices are easily
added or removed while the computer and peripherals
are turned on. Up to 63 devices can be connected to an
i.LINK chain. See also IEEE1394, and FireWire Image see ISO Image
Interactive An overused term describing a software
program in which the user has some control over how
he or she interacts with the program.
ISO International Organization of Standards. An
organization involved in the development and definition of world-wide standards.
ISO9660 An international standard specifying the logical file format for files and directories on a CD-ROM
disc. It is directly derived from the High Sierra Group
Proposal.
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Glossary
ISO Image Or CD-ROM Image, image, or disc image. An exact representation of the entire set of data
and programs, as it will appear on CD, in terms of content and logical format, simulated on some other medium. This is sent to the disc manufacturer (or a CD
recorder) for creating the pre-master/master for mass
replication.
Jewel Case The plastic box in which discs are often
shipped and sold. Noted for being fragile and difficult
to open.
Kilobyte Or Kilobytes. 1,024 bytes
Kilohertz (kHz) 1,000 Hertz
Kodak PhotoCD A Compact Disc format based on the
Hybrid Disc specification, used to store and distribute
photographic images for display on PhotoCD players
attached to television sets, or on compatible CD-ROM
drives attached to personal
computers. A PhotoCD is a Mode 2 CD-ROM XA format disc.
Land The space between two pits along the data spiral
of a Compact Disc. From the pressing side the land is
raised above the pits; from the reading side it is lowered.
Laser “Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation” A laser beam is a focused beam of
a single wave-length of light, so when it passes over an
uneven surface (like the data spiral of a Compact
Disc), changes in its reflection can be accurately detected, measured, and converted into a stream of electronic bits.
Layer On a DVD disc (DVD-ROM or DVD-Video),
up to 2 separate layer can exist, each having a maximum capacity of 4.7Gb. It is possible to have a DVD
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disc with 2 sides, with up to 2 layers per side, giving a
total disc capacity of up to 17GB!
Layered EDC/ECC See EDC and ECC
Lead-In Area On a CD-R, CD-RW, DVD-R, DVDRAM, or DVD+RW disc, a data area at the beginning
of the disc that is left blank for the disc’s (or session’s)
Table of Contents (TOC). The TOC will be recorded
when the disc (or session) is finalized and closed.
Lead-Out Area On a CD-R, CD-RW, DVD-R, DVDRAM, or DVD+RW disc, a data area at the end of the
disc (or session) that indicates the end of the disc/layer
(or session) has been reached.
Logical File Format Translates the sector-and-mode
view of a Compact Disc into a virtual “tree” of directories and files, which makes it easier for both humans
and computers to use the information on the disc. In
this CD, for brevity, we often call it simply the logical
format or logical file system.
Magnetic Hard Disk Sometimes called a Winchester
disk, the generic term for this storage medium is “hard
disk”, and it refers to the fixed magnetic storage devices supplied with almost all personal computers and
workstations. Capacities range from 20 Megabytes to
over 9 Gigabytes.
Magneto Optical (MO) The technology used by most
rewritable optical drives. It uses a laser to heat magnetic recording media until its resistance to reversing its
magnetic polarity falls at which time a small magnet
reverses the field.
Mastering The process of creating a glass master from
which Compact Discs or DVD discs will be reproduced. Data is read from a tape (or CD-R/DVD-R disc)
to a powerful modulated laser beam that “engraves”
the corresponding pits into a photo-resistant surface.
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Glossary
This glass master is then used to create the stamper that
will be used to replicate mass quantities of discs.
Megabyte (MB) A measure of data storage; one
Megabyte equals 1,024,000 bytes of data. See also
Byte.
Micro UDF (M-UDF) A file system similar to
ISO9660, but designed for DVD-ROM, DVD-R,
DVD-RAM, & DVD+RW. Micro UDF can also be
bridged to ISO9660 for backward compatibility.
See also UDF.
Mixed Mode Disc A Compact Disc including both
computer data and CD-DA tracks. Usually, the computer data is all contained in Track 1, and up to 98
tracks of music are recorded on the following tracks.
Mode There are two recording modes for Compact
Disc Read Only Memory (CD-ROM). In Mode 1, 288
bytes of each
sector are used for storing error correction code, and
the remaining 2048 bytes per sector are available for
user data. Mode 2, used in CD-I, CD-I ready, Video
CD, PhotoCD, Enhanced CD, and other CD-ROM/XA
applications, have 2 forms: Form 1 is similar to Mode
1, as it is also used to record data that requires error
correction; Form 2 is used for recording information
such as sound, images, or video which do not require
such extreme precision. Since less error correction
code is needed, more bytes in the sector can be devoted
to information storage, resulting in a data area of 2336
bytes per sector.
MPEG Motion Picture Experts Group, whose name
has been applied to the standard promulgated by the
group for compression of full-motion video. MPEG-1
is a lower level of quality (352 x 240 pixels @ 30 fields
per second) and compression, and is used for CD-I and
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Video CD. MPEG-2 is a much higher level of quality
(720 x 480 @ 60 fields per second), and is used for full
length motion pictures and video distributed on DVD
discs. The MPEG standard has been adopted by ISO.
Multi-Function Recorder A CD recorder capable of
recording more than 1 type of writable media. For example, a CD-RW recorder can record CD-Recordable
(CD-R) and CD-ReWritable (CD-RW) discs, as well
as reading/playing CD-R, CD-RW, and regular
stamped discs. Multimedia This term covers a vast and
vague area concerned with the integration of sound,
video, images, and animation. Multimedia presentations can be interactive, where the user makes decisions on how to proceed with the program, or it can be
a linear presentation designed to run without user involvement.
Multi Read (MR) A certification that a CD-ROM
drive or DVD-ROM drive can read the phase change
CD-ReWritable (CD-RW) disc, as well as a CD-R or
CD-RW disc that has been recorded using packet writing. Multi Read also covers the playback of CD-R/CDRW discs on DVD-ROM drives.
Multi-Session Originally developed by Philips and
Kodak to facilitate distributing photographic images
on CD-R discs. The concept is that new photographs
could be added by recording a new data area (a session) on the disc. When played back, all the images in
each session would be accessible as one logical volume, the user would not realize the data was in separate recording sessions. This was later applied to
general data storage on CD-R and CD-RW discs. A
session occupies at least 15Mb of disc space, and
therefore it’s not very efficient to record small amounts
of data at a time.
OPC A procedure done by a CD recorder before recording on a CD-R or CD-RW disc to calibrate the la-
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Glossary
ser to the disc using the Power Calibration Area (PCA)
area on the recordable disc. See also PCA, Running
OPC
Orange Book The Philips/Sony specification for
Compact Disc Magneto Optical (CD-MO), Compact
Disc Write-Once (CD-WO, but commonly called CDRecordable or CD-R), and Compact Disc ReWritable
(CD-RW). The Orange Book is divided into three
parts, Part I is devoted to CD-MO, which never got off
the ground, Part II is the CD-R portion, and Part III is
the CD-RW portion. The Orange Book specified how
the recordable/re-writable discs and constructed and
used by the recording/playback systems. All other CD
formats can be applied to the recordable/re-writable
discs through the Orange Book.
Packet Writing A method of recording on a CD-R,
CD-RW, DVD-R, DVD-RAM, or DVD+RW disc
where “packets” of data are recorded at a time as opposed to “tracks” or “discs” at a time. The chief benefit
of packet writing is that the CD recorder can start and
stop recording at will, and so there is no more buffer
underrun problems. However, packet writing can only
be used to record data discs, all other formats must still
use track-at-once or disc-at-once. See Track-at-Once
and Disc-at-once.
PCA See Power Calibration Area
Phase Change Optical recording technology that involves changing the physical phase of the optical media using a laser. The two states are Crystalline and
Amorphous. Heating the media to a certain temperature causes the phase to change to Amorphous (dark
mark). Re-heating the same spot to a lower temperature causes the spot to re-crystallize back to the Crystalline state (clear). The Amorphous marks have lower
reflectivity than the surrounding Crystalline lands, and
have the same light scattering effects as pits and lands
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DISCRIBE CD Mastering Software
on a conventional stamped CD. CD-ReWritable (CDRW) and DVD-RAM is based on Phase Change technology.
PhotoCD See Kodak PhotoCD
Physical Standards For Compact Discs, these are usually referred to as the Color Books. These standards
define the mechanical and electrical specifications for
the construction of the disc. The color books include
the Red Book for digital audio (music discs), Yellow
Book for CD-ROM, Green Book for CD-Interactive
(CD-I), White Book for Video CD, and the Orange
Book for the CD-Recordable (CD-R) and CD-ReWritable discs. See also Red Book, Yellow Book, Green
Book, White Book, and Orange Book.
Physical Sector Described by the Yellow Book, each
Compact Disc is divided into 270,000 physical sectors
of 2,336 bytes each.
Pit The space between two lands along the data spiral
of a Compact Disc or DVD disc. The “pits” on a CDR, CD-RW, DVD-R, DVD-RAM, or DVD+RW disc
are different from those on standard Compact Discs
because they are not actual indentations but “mounds”
(CD-R or DVD-R) or “marks” (CD-RW, DVD-RAM
& DVD+RW) created in the recording layer by the laser beam.
Platform Describes a specific hardware and operating
system, such as the DOS platform or Macintosh platform.
PMA See Program Memory Area
Polycarbonate A tough plastic used in molding Compact Discs.
Pre-Groove CD-R, CD-RW, DVD-R, DVD-RAM, &
DVD+RW discs have a spiral track that is molded in
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Supported Recorders
List of Supported CD Recorders
the polycarbonate substrate for the recording laser
beam to follow when writing data onto the disc.
Pre-Master The may be a tape, hard disk drive, CD-R
or CD-RW disc that contains data in the Compact Disc
format. The data on a pre-master is recorded onto a
master from which Compact Discs are then mass replicated.
Power Calibration Area (PCA) An area of a CD-R or
CD-RW disc that is reserved for the CD recorder to
calibrate the laser power for recording the disc.
Program Memory Area (PMA) An area on a CD-R
or CD-RW disc where the information about the tracks
and sessions on the disc as stored as a temporary Table
of Contents (TOC). When the disc (or session) is finalized and closed, the information stored in the PMA becomes the TOC.
Random Access When data on a storage medium can
be accessed randomly instead of sequentially. A close
analogy would be in music - a cassette tape offers sequential access because you have to wind through the
tape to reach a certain part, yet a phonograph record
would be random access because you could place the
needle anywhere on its surface. CD-R and CD-RW,
like hard disk drives and optical drives are random access devices.
Random Mode UDF Ability for CD-RW, DVDRAM, or DVD+RW to randomly write, erase, and rewrite any random sector on the disc. In earlier “sequential” recording modes, sectors could only be recorded in a track in ascending order, so that any one
file or folder could not be deleted. The user could “virtually” delete the file/folder, but it would physically remain on the disc until the whole disc was erased.
Random mode allow a file/folder to be deleted and the
free space it creates can be used immediately
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DISCRIBE CD Mastering Software
Real-Time In Compact Discs, refers to the playing or
recording time as these processes are actually taking
place. Also refers to single speed (1X) recording or
playback.
Red Book The original Philips/Sony color book specification that describes the layout and physical format
of audio Compact Discs. All other color books are
based on the Red Book. Red Book provides for two
layers of error correction code to detect and correct errors while the disc is being played. Up to 99 tracks are
possible on a Red Book disc, with a total playing time
of up to 75 minutes on 1 disc.
Region Code DVD titles, especially movies, are encrypted with a region code. DVD players/drives are
also assigned a region code, and only discs encrypted
with the same region code as the player or DVD-ROM
drive will play on that player/drive. How it works is the
world is broken down into 6 regions (for example,
North America is part of region 1). Only discs intended
for distribution in region 1 (encrypted with region 1
code) will play on a DVD player intended for distribution (and configured) for region 1. This helps movie
companies control the release of titles in different markets around the world.
ReWritable Optical Storage A high capacity optical
storage technology that operates much like a highspeed, very high capacity floppy drive - it allows users
to write and erase data on a disc. CD-ReWritable (CDRW), along with Magneto Optical (MO), DVD-RAM,
and DVD+RW are all examples of rewritable optical
storage.
Rotational Speed The speed at which the disc spins
inside a drive. It’s usually measured in RPM (revolutions per minute).
Running OPC A method of calibrating the recording
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Supported Recorders
laser power to a CD-R or CD-RW disc. Running OPC
continuously monitors the laser power, and can adjust
the laser power “on the fly” to compensate for dust, fingerprints, or other contamination on the disc. This ensures a very consistent, robust recording.
SCSI An acronym for Small Computer System Interface, usually pronounced (“scuzzy”), which is a standard computer peripheral interface which is used on
Macintosh
computers, IBM-compatible computers, and workstations to communicate with storage devices and other
peripherals Up to 7 devices can be connected to a SCSI
chain, and SCSI generally offers improved performance over EIDE (ATAPI) and USB. SCSI performance is par with i.LINK/IEEE1394
Seek Time This is a performance statistic which refers
to the amount of time it takes the drive’s read head (or
pick-up, in the case of a CD recorder) to find a piece of
data on a disc. Seek time claims can be misleading
though, as manufacturers can locate all the data to be
found in one narrow band of the disc - reducing the distance the pick-up must travel and shrinking seek
times.•Session A complete logical volume on a CD-R
or CD-RW disc having a Lead-In area with table of
contents, one or more tracks (data or audio), and a
Lead-Out area. A session occupies approximately 15
Megabytes of space on the disc as overhead. See also
Multi-Session.
TOC (Table Of Contents) Information on the number
of tracks, their starting and stopping locations, and the
total length of the data (or music) on a disc. If a disc
has only one session, then there will be only one TOC.
Multi-session CD-R, CD-RW, or DVD-R discs will
have a TOC for each session on the disc, with references back to the previous sessions.
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DISCRIBE CD Mastering Software
Track Adjacent bands of the data spiral on a Compact
Disc. A Compact Disc (of any format) may have up to
99 tracks.
Track-At-Once (TAO) The most common method of
recording a CD-R disc currently. Track-at-once simply
means that one track at a time is recorded on the disc.
Track-at-once is mostly used when recording Multisession CD-ROM discs, each new session will contain
at least 1 track. Track-at-once is mostly used for general data storage, and is not the best way to master a
disc for replication. Disc-At-Once is the preferred way
to master a disc for replication. Track-at-once writes
the data (or audio) tracks first, then records the LeadIn area with the TOC, and then jumps to the end of the
session to write the Lead-Out. See Disc-At-Once.
Track-At-Once can also be used to record a CD-RW
disc.
Track Relative Time A technique to determine the
start and stop times of sound segments on a Mixed
mode disc.
Transfer Rate The rate at which digital information is
transferred from a storage medium. For Compact
Discs, Real time (1X) transfer rate is 150 Kilobytes
(Kb) per second. 2X transfer rate is 300Kb per second,
4X transfer rate is 600Kb per second, and so on.
UDF (Universal Disc Format) A recently added logical format that is closely associated with ISO9660,
but offers expanded flexibility for recording CD-R or
CD-RW discs using packet writing. Like ISO9660,
UDF is cross platform and discs created with UDF can
be interchanged with PC, Macintosh, and UNIX computers. UDF can accommodate long file names, something ISO9660 was very inflexible with.
Universal Serial Bus (USB) Easy to connect serial interface used on personal computers to attach lower
94
Contact Info
performance devices such as keyboards, mice, and
some storage products such as lower performance CDRW and floppy drives. Bandwidth is only about 1.2Mb
per second (maximum), and around 600Kb per second
sustained. Fast enough to record a CD at 4X. USB is
attractive for attaching peripherals as ports are standard on both PC and Macintosh computers, and is easily “plug & play” installed as external devices.
White Book Specification for the Video CD developed
by Philips, Sony, JVC, and Matsushita. This specification uses the MPEG-1 video technology to store motion pictures efficiently on a standard capacity
Compact Disc. A Video CD is a Mode 2 CD-ROM XA
format disc.
Winchester Disk When originally developed, the
magnetic hard disk was named because the development project was called “Winchester”, and the first
drive model was 3030. Later the generic term for this
device came to be “hard disk”.
WORM An acronym for Write Once, Read Many;
which is another type of optical storage that is similar
to CD-R. Like CD-R, WORM is a write once technology where the data is permanently recorded onto the
disc with a laser. Unlike CD-R, how-ever, WORM
drives and cartridges are of a proprietary format and
not suited for interchange.
Writable Optical Media This is kind of the umbrella
term for all optical media that can be written or recorded. It includes write-once technologies such as CD-R
and WORM, as well as rewritable optical technologies
such as CD-RW, MO, etc.
Yellow Book The Philips/Sony specification for CDROM discs based upon the Red Book standard. This
book defines two sub-modes: Mode 1 & Mode 2; and
provides for a third layer of error correction code over
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DISCRIBE CD Mastering Software
the Red Book digital audio standard.
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List of Supported Recorders
SCSI Drives
Acer CR-1420C
DynaTek CDM-4000
HP CD-Writer 6020
HP SureStore 4020
Imation CDR 8x20
Imation CDRW 8x2x20 External
Imation CDRW 8x2x20 Internal
JVC Writeable CD-ROM
JVC XR-W1001
JVC XR-W2010
JVC XR-W2012 (OEM)
JVC XR-W2020
JVC XR-W2022 (OEM)
Kodak PCD 200
Kodak PCD 225
Kodak PCD 600(6x)
LACIE CDBP-121032S RW 12x10x32
LACIE CDBP-161040S RW 16x10x40
Melco CDRW-S4224
Melco CDRW-S4432
Melco CDRW-S8432
Melco CRWS-SB1610 16x10x32
Mitsubishi CDRW 226
Mitsubishi CDVR 2x4
Mitsubishi CDVR 2x6
Mitsubishi CDVR 4x4
Olympus CD-R2
Olympus CDS620
Optima DisKovery 1300CDR
Optima DisKovery 650CDR
Panasonic CW-7502
Panasonic CW-7503 (8x20)
Philips CDD2000
Philips CDD2600
Philips CDD2600 (OEM)
Philips CDD3600
Philips CDD521
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DISCRIBE CD Mastering Software
Philips CDD522
Philips OMNIWRITER 2x6
Philips OMNIWRITER 2x6 (OEM)
Philips SCSI Rewriteable 2x2x6
Pinnacle Micro RCD 4x4
Pinnacle Micro RCD-1000
Pinnacle Micro RCD-202
Pinnacle Micro RCD5020
Pinnacle Micro RCD5040
Pioneer DR-504X
Pioneer DW-S114X
Plasmon RF4100
Plasmon RF4102
Plextor PX-R24CS
Plextor PlexWriter 4x12
Plextor PlexWriter 8x20
Plextor PlexWriter RW 12x10x32
Plextor PlexWriter RW 12x4x20
Plextor PlexWriter RW 16x10x40
Plextor PlexWriter RW 4x2x20
Plextor PlexWriter RW 8x2x20
QPS CD-R PX-W1210S
QPS CD-R PX-W1610S 16x10x40
QPS CD-R PX-W4220T
QPS CD-R/RW RW7060 6x4x24
QPS CDRW 12432SE
QPS CD-W512SB 12x10x32
QPS CRD-BP4 16x10x40
QPS CRW2100S 16x10x40
Ricoh CDRW 4x2x20-SCSI (MP)
Ricoh CDRW 4x2x20-SCSI (RW)
Ricoh CDRW 6x4x24-SCSI (MP)
Ricoh CDRW 6x4x24-SCSI (RW)
Ricoh RO-1420C
Ricoh RO1060C
Ricoh RS9200CD
Ricoh Rewriteable CRW620
Ricoh Rewriteable MP-6200S
Ricoh Rewriteable MP-6201S
Ricoh Rewriteable MP6211S
SANYO BurnProof CRD-BP2 12x4x32
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SANYO BurnProof CRD-BP2 12x4x32
SANYO CRD-R800S 8x20
SANYO CRD-R800S 8x20 (GENERIC)
SANYO CRD-RW1 8x2x20
SANYO CRD-RW1 8x2x20 (GENERIC)
SANYO CRD-RW2 12x4x32
SANYO CRD-RW2 12x4x32 (GENERIC)
SONY Rewriteable CRX140S
SONY Rewriteable CRX145S
SONY Rewriteable CRX160S 12x8x32
Smart & Friendly 2x6
Sony CDU920S/921S
Sony CDU924S
Sony CDU926S
Sony CDU948S
Sony CDW-900E
Sony CDW-E1/W1
Teac CD-R50
Teac CD-R55
Teac CD-R56
Teac CD-R58 (8x24)
Teac CD-RW512SB 12x10x32
TraxData CDRW2260
TraxData CDRW4260
WAITEC WT2082 RW 8x2x20
WAITEC WT824 8x24
Yamaha CDE100
Yamaha CDR100
Yamaha CDR102
Yamaha CDR200
Yamaha CDR400c
Yamaha CDR400t
Yamaha Rewriteable CRW2100S
Yamaha Rewriteable CRW2216S
Yamaha Rewriteable CRW2260
Yamaha Rewriteable CRW4260
Yamaha Rewriteable CRW4416S
Yamaha Rewriteable CRW6416S
Yamaha Rewriteable CRW8424S
Yamaha Rewriteable CRW8824S
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DISCRIBE CD Mastering Software
ATAPI/Firewire/USB Drives
DVD-RAM/R/-RW/+RW:
Apple SuperDrive
Pioneer DVD-RW DVR-103
Matsushita DVD-RAM/R LF-D310
Matsushita DVD-RAM/R LF-D311
Matsushita DVD-RAM/R LF-D233
Ricoh DVD+RW MP5120
Ricoh DVD+RW RW5120
CD-R/RW:
Acer CD-R/RW 16X10 16x10x40
Acer CD-R/RW 24X10 24x10x40
AOPEN Rewriteable 4x4x20
ARCHOS MiniCDRW XS4x4x24
ARCHOS MiniCDRW XS8432
CyQ've CQ-1232 DVD/CDRW 12x10x32
CyQve CRW-C446plus
HP CD-Writer+ 7100
HP CD-Writer+ 7200
HP CD-Writer+ 7500
HP CD-Writer+ 8100
HP CD-Writer+ 8200
HP CD-Writer+ 9110 8x4x32
Hercules 2 CDRW 4x4x24 (OEM)
Hercules 2b CDRW 4x4x32 (OEM)
Iomega Zip CD
Iomega Zip CD 650
IOMEGA ZIPCD1024INT-A
JVC Rewriteable RW2224
JVC Rewriteable XR-W2080
JVC Rewriteable XR-W2082
LACIE CDBP-161040A RW 16x10x40
LG CD-RW CED-8042
LG Rewriteable CED-8041B
LITE-ON CD-RW 12x10x32
LITE-ON CD-RW 16X10X40
LITE-ON CD-RW 24x10x40
Matsushita CW-7121 CDRW 8x4x32
Mitsumi 2x6 CR-2600T
Mitsumi 2x8 CR-2801T
100
Mitsumi 4x8 CR-4801T
Mitsumi Rewriteable 4x2x8
Mitsumi Rewriteable 4x4x8
Mitsumi CR-48X8TE 16x10x40
Mitsumi CR-48X9TE 24x12x40
Mitsumi CR-48XATE 32x12x40
NEC NR-7700A 12x10x32
NEC NR-7800A 16x10x40
Panansonic PowerBook CDRW 4x4x16
Panasonic CW-7585 CDRW 8x4x32
Panasonic CW-7586 CDRW 8x4x32
Panasonic UJDA710 8x4x24
Philips ATAPI CD-R/RW 8X4X32
Philips Hercules 2 CDRW 4x4x24
Philips Hercules 2b CDRW 4x4x32
Philips IDE ReWritable 2x2x24
Philips IDE Rewritable 2x2x6
Philips IDE-CD R/RW 8x4x32
Philips Rewriteable CDD3610
Philips Rewriteable CDD3801
Philips Rewriteable PCA382
Plextor PlexWriter RW 12x10x32
Plextor PlexWriter RW 16x10x40
Plextor PlexWriter RW 24x10x40
Plextor PlexWriter RW 8x4x32
Plextor PlexWriter RW 8x8x24
Q-lity Rewriteable 4x4x20
QPS CD-R/RW 16X10 16x10x40
QPS CD-R/RW 24X10 24x10x40
QPS CD-R PX-W1210A 12x10x32
QPS CD-R PX-W1610A 16x10x40
QPS CD-R PX-W2410A 24x10x40
QPS CD-R PX-W8432T
QPS CD-R/RW RW7083A 8x8x32
QPS CD-RW GCE8160B 16x10x40
QPS CD-W512EB 12x8x32
QPS CD-W516EB 16x10x40
QPS CD-W54E 4x4x8
QPS CD-W58E 8x8x32
QPS CD-W524E 24x10x40
QPS CDR/RW SW-408B 8x8x32
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DISCRIBE CD Mastering Software
QPS CDRW/RW SM-208B 8x4x32
QPS CDRW/RW SW-212B 12x8x32
QPS CR-4802TE 4x2x8
QPS CR-48X8TE 16x10x40
QPS CR-48X9TE 24x12x40
QPS CR-48XATE 32x12x40
QPS CD-RW CR-4804TE
QPS CRD-BP1400P 16x10x40
QPS CRD-BP1500P 24x10x40
QPSCRD-BP1500U 24x10x40
QPS CRD-BP1600 32x10x40
QPS CRW2100E 16x10x40
QPS CRW2200E 20x10x40
QPS DVD-RW DVR-103
QPS DVD/CDRW RW9120
QPS LTR-12101B 12x10x32
QPS LTR-16101B 16x10x40
QPS LTR-16102B 16x10x40
QPS LTR-16101B 16x10x40
QPS LTR-24102B 24x10x40
QPS NR-7700A 12x10x32
QPS NR-7800A 16x10x40
QPS RW-241040 24x10x40
Ricoh CDRW 4x4x20-ATAPI (MP)
Ricoh CDRW 4x4x20-ATAPI (RW)
Ricoh CDRW 6x4x24-ATAPI (MP)
Ricoh CDRW 6x4x24-ATAPI (RW)
Ricoh CDRW 6x4x32-ATAPI (MP)
Ricoh CDRW 8x4x24-ATAPI (MP)
Ricoh CDRW 8x4x24-ATAPI (RW)
Ricoh CDRW 8x8x32-ATAPI (MP)
Ricoh CDRW 8x8x32-ATAPI (RW)
Ricoh CDRW 12x10x32-ATAPI (MP)
Ricoh CDRW 12x10x32-ATAPI (RW)
Ricoh CDRW 12x10x32-ATAPI (MP)
Ricoh CDRW 12x10x32-ATAPI (RW)
Ricoh DVD/CDRW 12x10x32 (RW)
Ricoh DVD/CDRW 20x10x40 (MP)
Ricoh DVD/CDRW 20x10x40 (RW)
Ricoh DVD/CDRW MP9060 6x4x24
Ricoh DVD/CDRW RW9060 6x4x24
102
Ricoh MiniCDRW 4x4x20-ATAPI (MP)
Ricoh MiniCDRW 4x4x20-ATAPI (RW)
Ricoh Rewriteable MP6200A
Samsung CDRW/DVD SM-308B 8x4x32
Samsung CDRW/RW SM-208B 8x4x32
Samsung CDRW/RW SM-408B 8x8x32
Samsung CDRW/RW SW-212B 12x8x32
SANYO CRD-BP1400P 16x10x40
SANYO CRD-BP1400P 16x10x40 (Generic)
SANYO CRD-BP1500P 24x10x40
SANYO CRD-BP1500P 24x10x40 (Generic)
SANYO CRD-BP1500U 24x10x40
SANYO CRD-BP1500U 24x10x40 (Generic)
SANYO CRD-BP1600 32x10x40
SANYO CRD-BP1600 32x10x40 (Generic)
SONY CD-RW CRX0811 8x4x32
SONY CD-RW CRX1611 16x10x40
SONY CDU928E
SONY CRX2000E DD/CDRW 12x8x32
SONY Rewriteable CRX100E
SONY Rewriteable CRX120E
SONY Rewriteable CRX140E 8x4x32
SONY Rewriteable CRX145E 10x4x32
SONY CRX1600XL CDRW 12x8x32
SONY Rewriteable CRX500E 4x4x20
SONY Rewriteable CRX510E 4x4x20
SONY Rewriteable CRX75L 8x4x24
SONY Rewriteable CRX76L 8x4x24
SONY Digital Relay CDRW CRX10U
Smart & Friendly CD-RW 2x2x24
TEAC CD-W24E 4x4x24
TEAC CD Rewriteable 4x4x32
TEAC CD-W58E 8x8x32
TEAC CD-W512E 12x8x32
TEAC CD-W516E 16x10x40
TEAC CD-W524E 24x10x40
Toshiba SD-R1002 DVD/CDRW 4x4x24
Toshiba SD-R1102 DVD/CDRW 8x8x32
Toshiba SD-R2002 DVD/CDRW 4x4x24
Traxdata CDRW2224+
Traxdata CDRW2260+
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DISCRIBE CD Mastering Software
WAITEC Rewriteable WT2422EI
Wearns CDRW 4x4x24
Yamaha CDR401
Yamaha CRW2100E 16x10x40
Yamaha CRW2200E 20x10x40
Yamaha Rewriteable CRW2216E
Yamaha Rewriteable CRW4001
Yamaha Rewriteable CRW4261
Yamaha Rewriteable CRW4416E
Yamaha Rewriteable CRW8424E
Yamaha Rewriteable CRW8824E
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If your drive is not on this list it may still be supported. CharisMac Engineering™ continues to qualify and add support for additional drives.
Contact CharisMac regarding support for any CD recorder not on this
list.
Mail Address:
CharisMac Engineering, Inc.
10000 Hill View Rd.
Newcastle, CA 95658
Internet:
http://www.CharisMac.com
Email Address:
Support@CharisMac.com
Sales@CharisMac.com
Phone:
(530) 885-4420
Fax:
(530) 885-1410
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DISCRIBE CD Mastering Software
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