Asus GigaX2024X - GigaX 2024X Switch User guide

GigaX Series
Layer 2 Managed Switch
User Guide
GigaX Series L2 Managed Switch User Guide
E2211
First Edition V1 July 2005
Copyright © 2005 ASUSTeK COMPUTER INC. All Rights Reserved.
No part of this manual, including the products and software described in it, may be reproduced,
transmitted, transcribed, stored in a retrieval system, or translated into any language in any form or
by any means, except documentation kept by the purchaser for backup purposes, without the
express written permission of ASUSTeK COMPUTER INC. (ASUS).
Product warranty or service will not be extended if: (1) the product is repaired, modified or altered,
unless such repair, modification of alteration is authorized in writing by ASUS; or (2) the serial
number of the product is defaced or missing.
ASUS provides this manual "as is" without warranty of any kind, either express or implied, including
but not limited to the implied warranties or conditions of merchantability or fitness for a particular
purpose. In no event shall ASUS, its directors, officers, employees, or agents be liable for any
indirect, special, incidental, or consequential damages (including damages for loss of profits, loss of
business, loss of use or data, interruption of business and the like), even if ASUS has been advised
of the possibility of such damages arising from any defect or error in this manual or product.
Specifications and information contained in this manual are furnished for informational use only,
and are subject to change at any time without notice, and should not be construed as a commitment
by ASUS. ASUS assumes no responsibility or liability for any errors or inaccuracies that may
appear in this manual, including the products and software described in it.
Products and corporate names appearing in this manual may or may not be registered trademarks
or copyrights of their respective companies, and are used only for identification or explanation and
to the owners' benefit, without intent to infringe.
2
GigaX Series L2 Managed Switch User’s Guide
Federal Communications Commission Statement
This device complies with Part 15 of the FCC Rules. Operation is subject to the
following two conditions:
•
This device may not cause harmful interference, and
•
This device must accept any interference received including interference
that may cause undesired operation.
This equipment has been tested and found to comply with the limits for a Class
B digital device, pursuant to Part 15 of the FCC Rules. These limits are
designed to provide reasonable protection against harmful interference in a
residential installation. This equipment generates, uses and can radiate radio
frequency energy and, if not installed and used in accordance with
manufacturer's instructions, may cause harmful interference to radio
communications. However, there is no guarantee that interference will not
occur in a particular installation. If this equipment does cause harmful
interference to radio or television reception, which can be determined by
turning the equipment off and on, the user is encouraged to try to correct the
interference by one or more of the following measures:
•
Reorient or relocate the receiving antenna.
•
Increase the separation between the equipment and receiver.
•
Connect the equipment to an outlet on a circuit different from that to which
the receiver is connected.
•
Consult the dealer or an experienced radio/TV technician for help.
WARNING! The use of shielded cables for connection of the monitor to the
graphics card is required to assure compliance with FCC regulations. Changes
or modifications to this unit not expressly approved by the party responsible for
compliance could void the user's authority to operate this equipment.
Canadian Department of Communications Statement
This digital apparatus does not exceed the Class B limits for radio noise
emissions from digital apparatus set out in the Radio Interference Regulations
of the Canadian Department of Communications.
This class B digital apparatus complies with Canadian ICES-003.
3
GigaX Series L2 Managed Switch User Guide
ASUS contact information
ASUSTeK COMPUTER INC. (Asia-Pacific)
Address:
General Tel:
General Fax:
Web Site:
Technical Support
MB/Others (Tel):
Notebook (Tel):
Desktop/Server (Tel):
Support Fax:
150 Li-Te Road, Peitou, Taipei, Taiwan 112
+886-2-2894-3447
+886-2-2894-7798
www.asus.com.tw
+886-2-2890-7121 (English)
+886-2-2890-7122 (English)
+886-2-2890-7123 (English)
+886-2-2890-7698
ASUS COMPUTER INTERNATIONAL (America)
Address:
General Fax:
General Email:
Web Site:
Technical Support
Support Fax:
General Support:
Notebook Support:
Support Email:
44370 Nobel Drive, Fremont, CA 94538, USA
+1-502-933-8713
tmd1@asus.com
usa.asus.com
+1-502-933-8713
+1-502-995-0883
+1-510-739-3777 x5110
tsd@asus.com
ASUS COMPUTER GmbH (Germany and Austria)
Address:
General Fax:
General Email:
Technical Support
Support Hotlines:
Support Fax:
Support Email:
Web Site:
4
Harkort Str. 25, D-40880 Ratingen, BRD, Germany
+49-2102-9599-31
sales@asuscom.de (for marketing requests only)
(Components) +49-2102-95990
(Notebook PC) +49-2102-959910
+49-2102-959911
www.asuscom.de/de/support (for online support)
www.asuscom.de
GigaX Series L2 Managed Switch User Guide
Table of Contents
1
2
3
4
Introduction............................................................................... 11
1.1
L2 managed features ..................................................... 11
1.2
Conventions used in this document ............................... 12
1.2.1
Notations......................................................... 12
1.2.2
Typography..................................................... 12
1.2.3
Symbols .......................................................... 12
Getting to know the GigaX 2024X........................................... 13
2.1
Package contents........................................................... 13
2.2
Front Panel..................................................................... 14
2.3
Rear Panel ..................................................................... 16
2.4
Technical specifications ................................................. 16
Quick start guide ...................................................................... 17
3.1
Part 1 — Installing the hardware.................................... 17
3.1.1
Installing the switch on a flat surface.............. 17
3.1.2
Mounting the switch on a rack ........................ 17
3.2
Part 2 — Setting up the switch....................................... 18
3.2.1
Connect the console port................................ 18
3.2.2
Connect to the computers or a LAN ............... 18
3.2.3
Attach the RPS module .................................. 18
3.2.4
Attach the power adapter................................ 18
3.3
Part 3 — Basic switch setting for management ............. 20
3.3.1
Setting up through the console port................ 20
3.3.2
Setting up through the Web interface ............. 22
Management with the Web Interface ....................................... 25
4.1
Log into Web user interface ........................................... 25
4.2
Functional layout ............................................................ 27
4.2.1
Menu navigation tips....................................... 29
4.2.2
Commonly used buttons and icons ................ 29
5
GigaX Series L2 Managed Switch User Guide
6
4.3
System Pages ................................................................30
4.3.1
Management ...................................................30
4.3.2
IP Setup ..........................................................32
4.3.3
Administration .................................................34
4.3.4
Reboot.............................................................35
4.3.5
Firmware Upgrade ..........................................35
4.4
Physical Interface ..........................................................37
4.5
Bridge .............................................................................39
4.5.1
Spanning Tree ................................................39
4.5.2
Link Aggregation .............................................40
4.5.3
Mirroring ..........................................................42
Static Multicast ...............................................................44
4.5.4
IGMP Snooping...............................................45
4.5.5
Traffic Control .................................................45
4.5.6
Dynamic Addresses ........................................46
4.5.7
Static Addresses .............................................48
4.5.8
Tagged VLAN .................................................49
4.5.9
Default Port VLAN and CoS............................52
4.5.10 CoS Queue Mapping ......................................53
4.6
SNMP .............................................................................55
4.6.1
Community Table............................................55
4.6.2
Host Table.......................................................56
4.6.3
Trap Setting ....................................................57
4.6.4
VACM Group...................................................57
4.6.5
VACM View .....................................................59
4.6.6
USM User........................................................60
4.7
Security...........................................................................63
4.7.1
Port Access Control ........................................63
4.7.2
Dial-In User .....................................................65
4.7.3
RADIUS...........................................................66
4.8
Statistics Chart ...............................................................67
4.8.1
Traffic Comparison..........................................67
GigaX Series L2 Managed Switch User Guide
4.8.2
4.8.3
4.9
5
6
7
8
Error Group..................................................... 68
Historical Status.............................................. 69
Save Configuration......................................................... 71
Console Interface ..................................................................... 72
5.1
Power On Self Test ........................................................ 73
5.1.1
Boot ROM Command Mode ........................... 74
5.1.2
Boot ROM Commands.................................... 75
5.2
Login and Logout ........................................................... 76
5.3
CLI Commands .............................................................. 76
5.3.1
System Commands ........................................ 76
5.3.2
Physical Interface Commands........................ 80
5.3.3
Bridge Commands .......................................... 80
5.3.4
SNMP.............................................................. 88
5.3.5
Security Commands ....................................... 95
IP Addresses, Network Masks, and Subnets ......................... 101
6.1
IP Addresses................................................................ 101
6.1.1
Structure of an IP address ............................ 101
6.1.2
Network classes............................................ 103
6.2
Subnet masks .............................................................. 104
Troubleshooting...................................................................... 106
7.1
Diagnosing problems using IP utilities ......................... 106
7.1.1
ping ............................................................... 106
7.1.2
nslookup ....................................................... 108
7.2
Replacing defective fans .............................................. 109
7.3
Simple fixes.................................................................. 111
Glossary ................................................................................. 113
7
GigaX Series L2 Managed Switch User Guide
List of Figures
Figure 1.
GigaX L2 managed switch package contents ................13
Figure 2.
Front panel .....................................................................14
Figure 3.
Rear panel ......................................................................16
Figure 4.
Overview of Hardware Connections...............................19
Figure 5.
Login and IP setup Screen .............................................21
Figure 6.
Login Screen ..................................................................22
Figure 7.
IP Setup..........................................................................24
Figure 8.
Configuration manager login screen ..............................25
Figure 9.
Home page .....................................................................26
Figure 10.
Top frame .......................................................................27
Figure 11.
Expanded Menu List.......................................................28
Figure 12.
Management ..................................................................31
Figure 13.
IP Setup..........................................................................33
Figure 14.
Administration.................................................................34
Figure 15.
Reboot ............................................................................35
Figure 16.
Firmware Upgrade..........................................................36
Figure 17.
Physical Interface ...........................................................38
Figure 18.
Spanning Tree................................................................40
Figure 19.
Link aggregation.............................................................42
Figure 20.
Mirroring page ................................................................43
Figure 21.
Static Multicast ...............................................................44
Figure 22.
IGMP Snooping ..............................................................45
Figure 23.
Traffic Control .................................................................46
Figure 24.
Dynamic Address ...........................................................47
Figure 25.
Static Address ................................................................49
8
GigaX Series L2 Managed Switch User Guide
Figure 26.
Tagged VLAN................................................................. 51
Figure 27.
Default Port VLAN and CoS........................................... 52
Figure 28.
Cos Queue Mapping ...................................................... 54
Figure 29.
Community Table ........................................................... 55
Figure 30.
Host Table...................................................................... 56
Figure 31.
Trap Setting.................................................................... 57
Figure 32.
VACM Group.................................................................. 59
Figure 33.
VACM View .................................................................... 60
Figure 34.
USM User....................................................................... 62
Figure 35.
Port Access Control ....................................................... 64
Figure 36.
Dial-In user..................................................................... 65
Figure 37.
RADIUS.......................................................................... 66
Figure 38.
Traffic comparison.......................................................... 68
Figure 39.
Error group ..................................................................... 69
Figure 40.
Historical Status ............................................................. 70
Figure 41.
Save Configuration......................................................... 71
Figure 42.
CLI interface................................................................... 73
Figure 43.
Boot ROM Command Mode........................................... 74
Figure 44.
SYS commands ............................................................. 78
Figure 45.
Using the ping utility ..................................................... 107
Figure 46.
Using the nslookup utility ............................................. 108
Figure 47.
Loosening the thumbscrew .......................................... 109
Figure 48.
Removing the fan module ............................................ 109
Figure 49.
Detaching the fan from the module.............................. 110
9
GigaX Series L2 Managed Switch User Guide
List of Tables
Table 1.
Front panel labels and LEDs ..........................................15
Table 2.
Technical specifications .................................................16
Table 3.
LED Indicators................................................................20
Table 4.
Port color description......................................................27
Table 5.
Commonly used buttons and icons ................................29
Table 6.
Boot ROM commands ....................................................75
Table 7.
IP address structure .....................................................102
Table 8.
Troubleshooting............................................................111
10
GigaX Series L2 Managed Switch User Guide
1
Introduction
Congratulations on becoming the owner of the ASUS GigaX L2 managed
switch! You may now manage your LAN (local area network) through a
friendly and powerful user interface.
This user guide tells you how to set up the GigaX L2 managed switch, and
how to customize its configuration to get the most out of this product.
1.1
•
L2 managed features
24 10/100 BASE-TX auto-sensing Fast Ethernet ports
•
2 small form factor (SFP) Gigabit interface converter (GBIC) slots
•
802.1D/802.1w transparent bridge/spanning tree protocol/rapid spanning
tree protocol
•
8K MAC address cache with hardware-assisted aging
•
802.3x flow control
•
802.1Q-based tagged VLAN, up to 256 VLANs
•
802.1p class of service, 4 queues per port
•
IGMP snooping support
•
802.3ad link aggregation (manual and LACP), up to 15 trunk groups
•
Port Mirroring
•
802.1X port-based network access control
•
RADIUS remote authentication dial-in user service
•
RMON: support 4 groups (1, 2, 3, 9)
•
SNMP v1, v2, v3
•
MIB-II
•
Enterprise MIB for PSU, fan, and system temperature, voltage
•
Telnet or SSH remote login
•
FTP for firmware update and configuration backup
•
Syslog.
•
Command Line Interpreter through console , telnet and SSH
•
Web GUI
11
GigaX Series L2 Managed Switch User Guide
•
LEDs for port link status
•
LEDs system, redundant power supply (RPS), and fan status
1.2
Conventions used in this document
1.2.1
Notations
•
Acronyms are defined the first time they appear in text and in the glossary.
•
For brevity, the GigaX switch is referred to as “the switch.”
•
The terms LAN and network are used interchangeably to refer to a group
of Ethernet-connected computers at one site.
1.2.2
Typography
•
Italics are used to present the parameters for the command line
interpreter.
•
Boldface type text is used for items you select from menus and drop-down
lists, and text strings you type when prompted by the program.
1.2.3
Symbols
This document uses the following icons to call your attention to specific
instructions or explanations.
Note
Definition
WARNING
12
Provides clarification or additional information on the current
topic.
Explains terms or acronyms that may be unfamiliar to many
readers. These terms are also included in the Glossary.
Provides messages of high importance, including messages
relating to personal safety or system integrity.
GigaX Series L2 Managed Switch User Guide
2
Getting to know the GigaX 2024X
2.1
Package contents
The GigaX 2024X switch package comes with the following items:
•
GigaX 2024X ( 26-port) L2 managed switch
•
AC Power cord
•
Null modem cable for console interface (DB9)
•
Rack installation kit (two brackets with six #6-32 screws)
•
USB cable for console interface
•
Installation CD-ROM
•
User Manual
•
Quick installation guide
Figure 1.
GigaX L2 managed switch package contents
13
GigaX Series L2 Managed Switch User Guide
2.2
Front Panel
The front panel includes LED indicators that show the system, RPS, fan,
and port status.
Figure 2.
14
Front panel
GigaX Series L2 Managed Switch User Guide
Table 1.
Front panel labels and LEDs
Label
SYSTEM
Color
Green
Amber
Status
On
Unit is powered on
Flashing
Self-test, INIT, or downloading
On
Abnormal temperature or voltage
Off
RPS
No power
Green
On
The PSU is working properly and the switch
has a good redundant power supply
Amber
On
The PSU is abnormal and the switch is
powered by RPS
Off
FAN
10/100/1000
port status
No power at all (system LED is also off), RPS
does not work properly or not installed
(system LED is on)
Green
On
Both fans are working properly
Amber
On
Both or either one of the fans stopped
Green
On
Link (RJ-45 or SFP) is present; port is
enabled
Flashing
Data is being transmitted/received
off
No Ethernet link
On
Link is present, but port is disabled either
manually or by spanning tree
Flashing
Port is in one of the STP blocking, listening
and learning state
Green
On
1000Mbps on Giga port, or 100Mbps on
10/100 ports
Amber
On
100Mbps on Giga port
Amber
10/100/1000
port speed
Description
Off
10Mbps or link is not present
15
GigaX Series L2 Managed Switch User Guide
2.3
Rear Panel
The switch rear panel contains the ports for the data and power
connections.
Figure 3.
Rear panel
No.
Label
Description
1
Power Connector
Connects to the supplied power cord
2
RPS
Redundant Power Supply connector
3
FAN1 – FAN2
Replaceable system fans
2.4
Table 2.
Technical specifications
Technical specifications
Physical Dimensions
43.5mm(H) X 444 mm(W) X 265mm(D)
Power
Input
Consumption
100-240V AC/2.5A 50-60Hz
< 90 watts
Input
Output
100-240V AC/1.8A 50-60Hz
12V DC/12.5A
Redundant Power
Supply (RPS)
Environmental Ranges
Replaceable Fans
16
Operating
Storage
Temperature
-10 to 50℃ (14 to
122℉)
-40 - 70℃
(-40 to 158℉)
Humidity
15 to 90%
0 to 95%
Altitude
up to 10,000 ft
(3,000m)
40,000 ft
(12,000m)
Dimensions
Voltage and Current
Speed:
40 x 40 x 20 mm
12VDC, 0.13A
8200RPM
GigaX Series L2 Managed Switch User Guide
3
Quick start guide
This section provides the basic instructions to set up the GigaX environment.
Refer also to the GigaX Series Installation Guide.
Part 1 shows you how to install the GigaX on a flat surface or on a rack.
Part 2 provides instructions to set up the hardware.
Part 3 shows you how to configure basic settings on the GigaX.
Obtain the following information from your network administrator before
proceeding:
IP address for the switch
Default gateway for the network
Network mask for this network
3.1
Part 1 — Installing the hardware
Connect the device to the power outlet, and your computer or network.
Figure 4 illustrates the hardware connections.
3.1.1
Installing the switch on a flat surface
The switch should be installed on a level surface that can support the weight of
the switches and their accessories. Attach four rubber pads on the marked
location on the bottom of the switch.
3.1.2
Mounting the switch on a rack
1. Attach brackets to each side of the switch and make the posts insert to
the switch.
2. Insert and tighten two screws to securely attach the bracket to the rack
on each side.
17
GigaX Series L2 Managed Switch User’s Guide
3.2
Part 2 — Setting up the switch
Connect the device to the power outlet, and your computer or network. See
Figure 4.
3.2.1
Connect the console port
For console management, use an RS232 (DB9) or a USB cable to connect
the switch. If you want to use WEB interface, connect your PC to the switch
using the Ethernet cable.
3.2.2
Connect to the computers or a LAN
You can use Ethernet cable to connect computers directly to the switch ports.
You can also connect hubs/switches to the switch ports by Ethernet cables.
You can use either the crossover or straight-through Ethernet cable to connect
computers, hubs, or switches.
Use a twisted-pair Category 5 Ethernet cable to connect the
1000BASE-T port. Otherwise, the link speed can not reach
1Gbps.
3.2.3
Attach the RPS module
Connect your RPS module to the RPS jack and make sure the other end of the
RPS is connected to the power cord. Connect to the power cord to a grounded
power outlet.
3.2.4
Attach the power adapter
1. Connect the AC power cord to the POWER receptacle on the back of
the switch and plug the other end of the power cord into a wall outlet or
a power strip.
2. Check the front LED indicators with the description in Table 4. If the
LEDs light up as described, the switch hardware is working properly.
18
GigaX Series L2 Managed Switch User Guide
RS-232
Console
Management
RPS
USB
Cat 5 Ethernet cables
Expansion
hub/switch
LAN computers
Figure 4.
Overview of Hardware Connections
19
GigaX Series L2 Managed Switch User’s Guide
Table 3.
LED Indicators
No.
LED
Description
1
System
Solid green indicates that the device is turned
on. If this light is off, check if the power
adapter if attached to the switch and plugged
into a power source.
2
Switch ports
Solid green indicates that the device can
communicate with the LAN, or flashing when
the device is sending or receiving data from
your LAN computer.
[1] to [26]
3
RPS
Solid green indicates that the device has
successfully installed an RPS module.
4
Fan
Solid green indicates that all fans work
properly
3.3
Part 3 — Basic switch setting for
management
After completing the hardware connections, configure the basic settings for
your switch. You can manage the switch using the following methods:
•
Web interface: the switch has a set of pages to allow to you manage it
using Java®-enabled IE5.0 or higher version.
•
Command Line Interface: use console port to manage the switch.
3.3.1
Setting up through the console port
1. Use the supplied crossover RS-232 cable to connect to the console
port on the back of the switch. This port is a male DB-9 connector,
implemented as data terminal equipment (DTE) connection. Tighten
the retaining screws on the cable to secure it on the connector.
Connect the other end of the cable to a PC running terminal emulation
software. e.g. Hyper Terminal.
2. Use the supplied USB cable to connect to a PC. You have to install the
USB driver from the switch CD-ROM before the USB can work properly.
The USB drivers will simulate an additional COM port under Windows
ME/2K/XP OS.
20
GigaX Series L2 Managed Switch User Guide
3. Make sure the settings of your terminal emulation software as follows:
a) Choose the appropriate serial port number
b) Set the data baud rate to 9600
c) Set the data format to no parity, 8 data bits and 1 stop bit
d) No flow control
e) Set VT1000 for emulation mode
4. After setting up the terminal, you can see the prompt “(ASUS)%” on the
terminal.
5. Type “login” to access the command line interface. The default user
name is “admin”. Skip the password by pressing <Enter>.
You can change the password at any time through CLI (see
section 5.3.1). To protect your switch from unauthorized
access, you must change the default password as soon as
possible.
6. Follow these steps to assign an IP address to the switch:
a)
Type “net interface ip sw0 <your ip address> <your network
mask>”. For example, if your switch IP is 192.168.10.1 and the
network mask is 255.255.255.0. Then you should type “net
interface ip sw0 192.168.10.1 255.255.255.0”.
b)
If the switch has to be managed across networks, then a default
gateway or a static route entry is required. Type “net route static
add 0.0.0.0 <your network gateway IP> 0.0.0.0 1” as your default
route entry, as shown in Figure 5.
Figure 5.
Login and IP setup Screen
21
GigaX Series L2 Managed Switch User’s Guide
3.3.2
Setting up through the Web interface
To successfully connect your PC to the switch, your PC must a valid IP in your
network. Contact your network administrator to obtain a valid IP for the switch.
If you wish to change the default IP address of the switch, follow section 3.3.1
to change the IP address. Since the switch supports DHCP client function, a
valid static IP for the switch can be configured or get a dynamic IP by DHCP
client through Web interface.
1. It is not necessary to login Web interface at the first time to use Web
interface because the default configuration for Web access
authentication is disabled. To secure the system configuration, please
enable the authentication function at the “Administration” page under
“System” category. Skip step 2 if the authentication is disabled.
2. At any PC connected to the network that the switch can access , open
your Web browser (Internet Explorer), and type the following URL in the
address/location box, and press <Enter>:
http://192.168.1.1
This is the factory default IP address of the switch.
A login screen appears, as shown in Figure 6.
Figure 6.
Login Screen
Enter your user name and password, and then click
to enter the
Configuration Manager. Use the following defaults the first time you log into
this interface:
22
GigaX Series L2 Managed Switch User Guide
Default User Name:
Default Password:
admin
(no password)
You can change the password at any time (see section
5.3.1 System Commands).
3. To setup a new IP address, click “System”, then “IP Setup” (see Figure
8). Fill in the IP address, network mask and default gateway, then click
.
4. If your new address is different from the default, the browser can not
update the switch status window or retrieve any page. This is normal.
You have to retype the new IP address in the address/location box, and
press <Enter>. The WEB link returns.
5. To enable authentication for Web access, click “Administration” on
the menu list, then select “Enabled” to start the protection.
A login window appears immediately after you click
figures on the next page.
. See the
23
GigaX Series L2 Managed Switch User’s Guide
Figure 7.
24
IP Setup
GigaX Series L2 Managed Switch User Guide
4
Management with the Web Interface
The switch provides Web pages that allow switch management through the
Internet. The program is designed to work best with Microsoft Internet
Explorer® 5.5, or later versions. NOTE: Netscape is not supported.
4.1
Log into Web user interface
1. From a PC, open your web browser, type the following in the web
address (or location) box, and press <Enter>:
http://192.168.1.1
This is the factory default IP address for the switch. A login screen
displays, as shown in Figure 8.
Figure 8.
Configuration manager login screen
Login is not required if you do not enable Web authentication
access (see 3.3.2)"
2. Enter your user name and password, then click
.
25
GigaX Series L2 Managed Switch User’s Guide
Use the following defaults the first time you log into the program. You can
change the password at any time through CLI interface (see section
5.3.1 )
Default User Name:
admin
Default Password:
<no password>
The home page appears each time you log into the program.(See Figures 9).
Figure 9.
26
Home page
GigaX Series L2 Managed Switch User Guide
4.2
Functional layout
Typical web page consists of three separate frames. The top frame has a
switch logo and front panel as shown in Figures 10. This frame remains on the
top of the browser window all the times and updates the LED status
periodically. See Table 4 for the LED definitions. See Table 5 for the color
status description.
Figure 10. Top frame
Table 4.
Port color description
Port Color
Description
Green port
Ethernet link is established
Black
No Ethernet link
Amber port
Link is present but port is disabled manually or by spanning tree
Clicking on the port icon of the switch displays the port configuration in the
lower right frame.
The left frame, a menu frame as shown in Figure 11, contains all the features
available for switch configuration. These features are grouped into categories,
e.g. System, Bridge, etc. You can click on any of these to display a specific
configuration page.
27
GigaX Series L2 Managed Switch User’s Guide
Figure 11. Expanded Menu List
The right frame displays configuration pages or graphics for the statistics.
See section 4.3 for details.
28
GigaX Series L2 Managed Switch User Guide
4.2.1
Menu navigation tips
•
To expand a group of related menus, click on the corresponding group
name. The sign will change to after expansion.
•
To contract a group of related menus: click on the corresponding group
name. The sign will appear next to the group name.
•
To open a specific configuration page, click on the desired menu item.
•
4.2.2
Commonly used buttons and icons
The following table describes the function for each button and icon used in the
application.
Table 5.
Commonly used buttons and icons
Button/Icon
Function
Stores any changes you have made on the current page.
Adds the existing configuration to the system, e.g. a static MAC
address or a firewall ACL rule and etc.
Modifies an existing entry
Modifies the existing configuration in the system, e.g. a static route
or a filter ACL rule and etc.
Deletes the selected item, e.g. a static route or a filter ACL rule and
etc.
Re-displays the current page with updated statistics or settings.
29
GigaX Series L2 Managed Switch User’s Guide
4.3
System Pages
System pages include management, IP setup, administration, reboot, and
firmware update function.
4.3.1
Management
The Management page contains the following information:
Model Name: product name
MAC Address: switch MAC address
System Name: user assigned name to identify the system (editable)
System Contact (editable)
System Location (editable)
To save any changes and make it effective immediately, click
to refresh the setting, as shown in Figure 12.
30
. Use
GigaX Series L2 Managed Switch User Guide
Figure 12. Management
31
GigaX Series L2 Managed Switch User’s Guide
4.3.2
IP Setup
The switch supports dynamic IP and static IP assignment. The dynamic IP is
get from a DHCP server within the same VLAN. The IP Setup page contains
the following editable information:
VLAN ID: Specify a VLAN ID to system management interface. It is
necessary to be within the same VLAN for management usages.
DHCP Client: Enable DHCP to get a dynamic IP address, or disable
DHCP to specify a static IP address. The DHCP server must be reachable
within the management VLAN.
IP Address: assign a static IP address to the switch management
interface.
Network Mask
Default Gateway
To save any changes and make it effective immediately, click
to refresh the setting, as shown in Figure 13.
32
. Use
GigaX Series L2 Managed Switch User Guide
Figure 13. IP Setup
33
GigaX Series L2 Managed Switch User’s Guide
4.3.3
Administration
The Administration page allows you enable or disable the authentication for
web user by password protection. The default setting for web access does not
require any authentication.
To save any changes and make it effective immediately, click
. Use
to refresh the setting, as shown in Figure 14. When you enable the
password protection, you have to login again immediately.
You can change the password at any time through the CLI
interface.
Figure 14. Administration
34
GigaX Series L2 Managed Switch User Guide
4.3.4
Reboot
The Reboot page contains a
system.
button. Clicking the button reboots the
Rebooting the system stops the network traffic and
terminates the Web interface connection.
Figure 15. Reboot
4.3.5
Firmware Upgrade
The Firmware page contains the following information:
Hardware Version: shows the hardware revision number.
Boot ROM Version: shows the version of the boot code
Firmware Version: shows the current running firmware version. This
number will be updated after the firmware update.
35
GigaX Series L2 Managed Switch User’s Guide
Enter the firmware location into the firmware space directly, or click
to choose the file name of the firmware from prompt window. Click
to update the switch firmware. See Figure 16 for reference.
Clicking the upload button loads the assigned firmware to the
switch, then reboot system after a successful firmware
update. You have to re-login to Web interface again
Figure 16. Firmware Upgrade
36
GigaX Series L2 Managed Switch User Guide
4.4
Physical Interface
The Physical Interface displays the Ethernet port status in real time. You can
configure the port in following fields:
Port: select the port to configure
Admin: disable/enable the port
Mode: set the speed and duplex mode
Flow Control: enable/disable 802.3x flow control mechanism
Port Status Window: displays the following information for each port
a)
Link status: the link speed and duplex for an existing link,
otherwise link is down
b)
State: the STP state
c)
Admin: the setting value to disable or enable the port
d)
Mode: the setting value for link speed and duplex mode
e)
Flow Control: the setting value to enable or disable 802.3x flow
control mechanism
Select the corresponding port number and configure the port setting, then click
on the
button. The field you change will update the content of the
display window. However, the new settings do not take effect until the “Save
Configuration” is executed.
37
GigaX Series L2 Managed Switch User’s Guide
Figure 17. Physical Interface
38
GigaX Series L2 Managed Switch User Guide
4.5
Bridge
The Bridge page group contains most layer 2 configurations, like link
aggregation, STP etc..
4.5.1
Spanning Tree
The configuration page for Spanning Tree Protocol can disable and enable the
feature in runtime. This page consists of three parts.
The first part shows the root information. It tells user the STP setting about the
root switch.
The second part is the STP setting. The following options are available:
Disable/STP Enable/RSTP Enabled: Turn the STP/RSTP off/on. When
you turn the STP/RSTP on, STP/RSTP will use the following settings if the
switch is the root switch.
Hello Time: the interval between the generation of configuration BPDU
Max Age: a timeout value to be used by all Bridges in the LAN
Forward Delay: a timeout value to be used by all bridges in the LAN
Bridge Priority: the switch priority in the LAN
The third part is the port setting. It contains a display window to show the
current configuration for each port. You click
to change the port
setting for STP/RSTP. The following fields are available:
Port: select the corresponding port to configure
Priority: the port priority in the switch. Low numeric value indicates a high
priority. The port with lower priority is more likely to be blocked by STP if a
network loop is detected. The valid value is from 0 to 240.
Cost: the valid value is from 1 to 200000000. The higher cost is more
likely to be blocked by STP if a network loop is detected.
FastLink: make the port in forwarding state when a link comes up, then
the port will participate STP resolutions.
39
GigaX Series L2 Managed Switch User’s Guide
Edge Port: All ports are set to be edge ports by default. Edge port
becomes STP port when BPDU is received. Also, it takes very short time
for an edge port to be in forwarding state.
Point to Point: Auto/Yes/No. A full duplex link is considered as a point to
point link. Otherwise, it is a shared link. Point to point link may have less
convergence time. Auto is recommended in most cases.
Click
to make the settings effective. Click
settings to current value.
to refresh the
Figure 18. Spanning Tree
4.5.2
Link Aggregation
The page configures the link aggregation group (port trunking). The switch
can have 15 link aggregation groups.
Show Trunk: Select “Add a new Trunk” for a new created group. Or select
an existed group to display on the following fields and port icons.
40
GigaX Series L2 Managed Switch User Guide
Name: the group name.
Trunk ID: a number to identify the trunk group besides the group name.
LACP: Enable/Disable LCAP on selected trunk. LACP mode is fixed to be
Active.
Remove Trunk: Remove the selected trunk.
Port Icons: these port icons are listed in a way like the front panel. You
have to click on the icon the select the group members. The port can be
removed from the group by clicking the selected port again.
Click
to make the setting send to the switch (HTTP server). Click
to refresh the settings to current value. To make the configuration
effective, go to “Save Configuration” page, then click
.
You have to check the runtime link speed and duplex mode to make sure the
trunk is physically active. Go to Physical Interface and check the link mode in
the runtime status window for the trunk ports. If all the trunk members are in the
same speed and full duplex mode, then the trunk group is set up successfully.
If one of the members is not in the same speed or full duplex mode, the trunk is
not set correctly. Check the link partner and change the settings to have the
same speed and full duplex mode for all the members of your trunk group.
•
•
All the ports in the link aggregation group MUST operate
in full-duplex mode at the same speed.
•
All the ports in the link aggregation group MUST be
configured in auto-negotiation mode or full duplex mode.
This configuration will make the full duplex link possible. If
you set the ports in full duplex force mode, then the link
partner MUST have the same setting. Otherwise the link
aggregation could operate abnormally.
•
All the ports in the link aggregation group MUST have the
same VLAN setting.
•
All the ports in the link aggregation group are treated as a
single logical link. That is, if any member changes an
attribute, the others will change too. For example, a trunk
41
GigaX Series L2 Managed Switch User’s Guide
group consists of port 1 and 2. If the VLAN of port 1
changes, the VLAN of port 2 also changes with port 1.
Figure 19. Link aggregation
4.5.3
Mirroring
Mirroring, together with a network traffic analyzer, helps you monitor
network traffics. You can monitor the selected ports for egress or ingress
packets.
Mirror Mode: Enables or disables the mirror function for the selected
group.
42
GigaX Series L2 Managed Switch User Guide
Monitor Port: Receives the copies of all the traffics in the selected
mirrored ports.
The monitor port can not belong to any link aggregation group.
The monitor port can not operate as a normal switch port. It does
not switch packets or do address learning.
Click
to make the setting send to the switch (HTTP server). Click
to refresh the settings to current value.
Figure 20. Mirroring page
43
GigaX Series L2 Managed Switch User’s Guide
Static Multicast
This page can add multicast addresses into the multicast table. The switch can
hold up to 256 multicast entries. All the ports in the group will forward the
specified multicast packets to other ports in the group.
Show Group: selects “Add a new Group” to enter a new entry. Or select
an existing group address to display
MAC Address: selects the multicast address
VLAN: selects the vlan group
Click
to make the setting effective. Click
settings to current value.
Figure 21. Static Multicast
44
to refresh the
GigaX Series L2 Managed Switch User Guide
4.5.4
IGMP Snooping
IGMP snooping helps to reduce the multicast traffics on the network by
allowing the IGMP snooping function to be turned on or off. When turned on,
the switch snoops the IGMP packets and puts the new group into the multicast
table. However, if the static entries occupy all 256 spaces, the IGMP snoop
does not work normally. The switch only allows 256-layer 2 multicast group.
Figure 22. IGMP Snooping
4.5.5
Traffic Control
Traffic control prevents the switch bandwidth from flooding packets including
broadcast packets, multicast packets. The limit number is a threshold to limit
the total number of the checked type packets. For example, if broadcast /
multicast is enabled, the traffic amount of each type will not exceed the limit
value. Click
to save the new configuration. To make the
configuration effective, go to “Save Configuration” page, then click
.
45
GigaX Series L2 Managed Switch User’s Guide
Figure 23. Traffic Control
4.5.6
Dynamic Addresses
This page displays the result of dynamic MAC address lookup by port, VLAN
ID, or specified MAC address. The dynamic address is the MAC address
learned by switch, it will age out from the address table if the address is not
learned again during the age time. User can set the age time by entering a
to save the
valid number from 15 to 3825 in seconds. Then click on
new age value. To make the configuration effective, please go to “Save
Configuration” page, then click on
.
You can look up MAC addresses by checking the port, VLAN ID, or/and MAC
address, then click on
of the query.
46
. The address window will display the result
GigaX Series L2 Managed Switch User Guide
Figure 24. Dynamic Address
47
GigaX Series L2 Managed Switch User’s Guide
4.5.7
Static Addresses
You can add a MAC address into the switch address table. The MAC address
added by this way will not age out from the address table. We call it static
address.
MAC Address: enter the MAC address
VLAN ID: enter the VLAN ID that the MAC belongs
Port Selection: select the port which the MAC belongs
Click on
when you create a new static MAC address by the above
information. Then you will see the new added entry shows in the address
window. In one page, 15 entries can be displayed in the address window.
When you create more than 15 entries, the new added entries will display in
the next page. You can click on First, Previous, Next, or Last to go through the
pages of static MAC address, or input the page number and then click on Go.
You can remove the existed address by selecting the entry with the mouse,
. The
button updates the existed MAC
then clicking on
address entries. You can look up a static MAC addresses by input the MAC
. The address window will mark
address and VLAN ID, then click on
to save effective. Click
to refresh
the result of the query. Click
the settings to current value. To make the configuration effective, please go to
“save configuration” page, then click
48
.
GigaX Series L2 Managed Switch User Guide
Figure 25. Static Address
4.5.8
Tagged VLAN
You can set up to 256 VLAN groups and show VLAN group in this page. There
is a default VLAN created by the switch. It cannot be removed at all. This
feature prevents the switch from malfunctions. You can remove any existed
VLAN except the default VLAN.
You can assign the port to be a tagged port or an untagged port by toggling the
port button. There are three types of button displays:
“U” type: untagged port that will remove VLAN tags from the transmitted
packets.
“T” type: All packets transmitted from this port will be tagged.
“Blank” type: This port is not a member of the VLAN group.
49
GigaX Series L2 Managed Switch User’s Guide
If one untagged port belongs to two or more VLAN groups at the same time, it
will confuse the switch and cause flooding traffics. To prevent it, the switch only
allows one untagged port belongs to one VLAN at the same time. That is, the
untagged port belongs to the VLAN group which is called “PVID” and
configured in the “Default Port VLAN & CoS” page. If you want to assign an
untagged port from one VLAN to another, you have to remove it from the
original VLAN, or change it to be tagged in the original VLAN first.
Show VLAN: select the existed VLAN to display or select “Add a new
VLAN” to create a new VLAN group
Name: the VLAN name
VLAN ID: this field requires user to enter the VLAN ID when a new VLAN
is created
Remove VLAN: Remove a existed VLAN. This field disappears in VLAN
creation page.
Click on
to save the configuration. To make the configuration
effective, go to “Save Configuration” page, then click on
50
.
GigaX Series L2 Managed Switch User Guide
Figure 26. Tagged VLAN
51
GigaX Series L2 Managed Switch User’s Guide
4.5.9
Default Port VLAN and CoS
Some VLAN tag related field settings for each port are included in this page. It
includes:
Port: select the port to configure
PVID: port-based VLAN ID. Every untagged packet received from this
port will be tagged with this VLAN group ID
CoS (Class of Service) value: every untagged packet received from this
port will be assigned to this CoS in the VLAN tagged.
Click on
to change the content in the port list window. Click on
to save the configuration. To make the configuration effective, go to
“Save Configuration” page, then click
.
Figure 27. Default Port VLAN and CoS
52
GigaX Series L2 Managed Switch User Guide
4.5.10
CoS Queue Mapping
The switch supports 4 egress queues for each port. For each queue, you
can specify the scheduling types as follows:
•
Strict priority scheduling: each CoS value can map into one of the four
queues. The queue 4 has the highest priority to transmit the packets. And
packets in the low-priority queue do not transmit until all the high-priority
queues become empty. In Strict priority scheduling, weight settings always
zero.
•
Weighted round-robin (WRR) scheduling: WRR scheduling requires you
to specify a number the indicates the importance (weight) of the queue
relative to other CoS queues. WRR scheduling prevents the low-priority
queues from being completely neglected during periods of high-priority
traffic. The WRR scheduling transmits some packets from each queue in
turn. The number of packets it sends corresponds to the relative
importance of the queue. For example, if Queue1 has a weight of 1 and
Queue2 has a weight of 2, one packet is sent from the Queue1 for every
two that are sent from the Queue2. By using this scheduling, low-priority
queues have the opportunity to send packets even through the
high-priority queues are not empty. The fixed weights are 1,2,4,8.
Click
to save the configuration. Click on
to refresh the
settings to current value. To make the configuration effective, go to “Save
Configuration” page, then click
53
GigaX Series L2 Managed Switch User’s Guide
Figure 28. Cos Queue Mapping
54
GigaX Series L2 Managed Switch User Guide
4.6
SNMP
This group offers the SNMP configuration including Community Table, Host
Table, and Trap Setting. To provide more secure management and
access control, SNMPv3 is supported.
4.6.1
Community Table
You can type different community names and specify whether the community
has the privilege to make a setting (write access) by checking the box. Click
to save the configuration permanently or
to refresh the
page.
Figure 29. Community Table
55
GigaX Series L2 Managed Switch User’s Guide
4.6.2
Host Table
This page links host IP address to the community name that is entered in
Community Table page. Type an IP address and select the community name
from the drop-down list. Click
permanently or
to save the configuration
to refresh the page.
Figure 30. Host Table
56
GigaX Series L2 Managed Switch User Guide
4.6.3
Trap Setting
By setting trap destination IP addresses and community names, you can
enable SNMP trap function to send trap packets in different versions(v1 or v2c).
to save the configuration permanently or
Click
refresh the page.
to
Figure 31. Trap Setting
4.6.4
VACM Group
VACM(View-based Access Control Model) Group is used to configure the
information of SNMPV3 VACM Group.
Group Name: enter the security group name.
Read View Name: enter the Read View Name that the Group belongs.
The related SNMP messages are Get,GetNext,GetBulk.
57
GigaX Series L2 Managed Switch User’s Guide
Write View Name: enter the Write View Name that the Group belongs.
The related SNMP message is Set.
Notify View Name: enter the Notify View Name that the Group belongs.
The related SNMP messages are Trap,Report..
Security Model: enter the Security Model Name that the Group belongs.
Any is suitable for v1,v2,v3. USM is SNMPv3 related.
Security level: enter the Security level Name that the Group belongs. Only
NoAuth, AuthNopriv, AuthPriv can be chosen.
Click on the
when you create a new VACM group entry by the
above information. Then you will see the new added entry shows in the group
window. You can remove the existed group by selecting the entry with the
. The
button updates the existed
mouse, then clicking on
to save effectively. Click
VACM Group entries. Click
refresh the settings to current value. To make the configuration effective,
please go to "Save Configuration" page, then click on
58
.
to
GigaX Series L2 Managed Switch User Guide
Figure 32. VACM Group
4.6.5
VACM View
VACM (View-based Access Control Model) View is used to view the
information of SNMPV3 VACM Group.
View Name: enter the security group name.
View Type: select the View Type that the View belongs. Included or
Excluded when View Subtree matches the Oid in the SNMPv3 message.
View Subtree: enter the View Subtree that the View belongs. The Subtree
is the Oid to match the Oid in the SNMPv3 message. The match is good
when the subtree is shorter than the Oid in the SNMPv3 message.
View Mask: enter the View Mask that the View belongs. Each bit in the
mask represents the digit between the dots of View Subtree from left side.
Bit ‘0’ means ‘don’t care’.
59
GigaX Series L2 Managed Switch User’s Guide
Click on the
when you create a new VACM View entry by the above
information. Then you will see the new added entry shows in the view window.
You can remove the existed views by selecting the entry with the mouse, then
. The
button updates the existed VACM View
clicking on
to save effectively. Click
to refresh the
entries. Click
settings to current value. To make the configuration effective, please go to
"Save Configuration" page, then click on
.
Figure 33. VACM View
4.6.6
USM User
USM (User-based Security Model) User is used to configure the information of
SNMPV3 USM User.
Engine Id: enter the Engine Id that matches the ID in the Manager..
60
GigaX Series L2 Managed Switch User Guide
Name: enter Name combined with Engine ID that should match the Name
and Engine ID in the Manager.
Auth Protocol: enter the Auth Protocol that Engine ID and Name belong.
Only NoAuth ,MD5, SHA1 can be chosen. If the NoAuth is chosen, there
is no need to enter password.
Auth Password: enter the password that the Auth Protocol belongs. The
password needs at least 8 characters or digits.
Priv Protocol: enter the Priv Protocol that Engine ID and Name belong.
Only NoPriv ,DES can be chosen. If the NoPriv is chosen, there is no
need to enter password.
Priv Password: enter the password that the Priv Protocol belongs. The
password needs at least 8 characters or digits.
Click on the
when you create a new USM User entry by the above
information. Then you will see the new added entry shows in the User window.
You can remove the existed User by selecting the entry with the mouse, then
. The
button updates the existed USM User
clicking on
to save effective. Click
to refresh the
entries. Click
settings to current value. To make the configuration effective, please go to
"Save Configuration" page, then click on
.
61
GigaX Series L2 Managed Switch User’s Guide
Figure 34. USM User
62
GigaX Series L2 Managed Switch User Guide
4.7
Security
The switch has the 802.1x port-based security feature. Only authorized hosts
are allowed to access the switch port. Traffic is blocked for hosts failed to
authenticate themselves. The authentication service is provided by a RADIUS
server or the local database in the switch.
The switch also supports dynamic VALN assignment through 802.1x
authentication process. The VLAN information for the users/ports should be
configured in the authentication server properly before enabling this feature.
4.7.1
Port Access Control
Port Access Control is used to configure various 802.1x parameters.
802.1x uses either RADIUS server or local database to authenticate port
users.
The first part is the Bridge (Global) settings:
•
Reauthentication: Once enabled, the switch will try to authenticate the port
user again when the re-authentication time is up.
•
Reauthentication Time: If 'Reauthentication' is enabled, this is the interval
for the switch to re-send authentication request to the port user.(see
above)
•
Authentication Method: RADIUS or Local database can be used to
authenticate the port user.
•
Quiet Period: If authentication failed either from RADIUS or local database,
the switch waits upon this time period before sending another
authentication request to the port user.
•
Retransmission Time: If the port user failed to respond to authentication
request from the switch, the switch waits upon this time period before
sending another authentication request to the port user.
•
Max Reauthentication Attempts: Retry count if the port user failed to
respond to authentication requests from the switch.
The second part is the port settings. Please click
finished the modifications.
•
when you have
Port: Specify which port to be configured.
63
GigaX Series L2 Managed Switch User’s Guide
•
Multi-host: If enabled, all hosts connected to the selected port are allowed
to use the port if one of the hosts passed the authentication. If disabled,
only one host among other hosts passed the authentication is allowed to
use the port.
•
Authentication Control: If 'force authorized' is selected, the selected port is
forced to be authorized. Thus, traffic from all hosts is allowed to pass.
Otherwise, if 'force unauthorized' is selected, the selected port is blocked
and no traffic can go through. If 'Auto' is selected, the behavior of the
selected port is controlled by 802.1x protocol. All ports should be set to
'Auto' under normal conditions.
•
Guest VLAN: Specify a guest VLAN to clients that are not 802.1x-capable.
to make the settings effective permanently. Click
Click
to refresh the settings to current value.
Figure 35. Port Access Control
64
GigaX Series L2 Managed Switch User Guide
4.7.2
Dial-In User
Dial-in User is used to define users in the local database of the switch.
•
User Name: New user name.
•
Password: Password for the new user.
•
Confirm Password: Enter the password again.
•
Dynamic VLAN: Specify
802.1x-authenticated clients.
VLAN
ID
to add the new user. Click
Please click
finished the modifications. Click
selected user. Click
Click
the
assigned
to
the
when you have
when you want to remove the
to make the settings effective permanently.
to refresh the settings to current value.
Figure 36. Dial-In user
65
GigaX Series L2 Managed Switch User’s Guide
4.7.3
RADIUS
In order to use external RADIUS server, the following parameters are
required to be setup:
•
Authentication Server IP: The IP address of the RADIUS server.
•
Authentication Server Port: The port number for the RADIUS server is
listening to.
•
Authentication Server Key: The key is used for communications between
GigaX and the RADIUS server.
•
Confirm Authentication Key: Re-type the key entered above.
•
The VLAN of the RADIUS server connected to the switch must be
the same as the VLAN of the system management interface.
•
to make the settings permanent. Click
Please click
refresh the settings to current value.
Figure 37. RADIUS
66
to
GigaX Series L2 Managed Switch User Guide
4.8
Statistics Chart
The Statistics Chart pages provide network flow in different charts. You can
specify the period time to refresh the chart. You can monitor the network traffic
amount in different graphic chart by these pages. Most MIB-II counters are
displayed in these charts.
Click Refresh Rate to set the period for retrieving new data from the switch.
You can differentiate the statistics or ports by selecting Color. Finally, click on
Draw to let the browser to draw the graphic chart. Each new Draw will reset
the statistics display.
4.8.1
Traffic Comparison
This page shows the one statistics item for all the ports in one graphic chart.
Specify the statistics item to display and click the Draw, the browser will show
you the update data and refresh the graphic periodically.
67
GigaX Series L2 Managed Switch User’s Guide
Figure 38. Traffic comparison
4.8.2
Error Group
Select the Port and display Color, then click the Draw, the statistics window
shows you all the discards or error counts for the specified port. The data is
updated periodically.
68
GigaX Series L2 Managed Switch User Guide
Figure 39. Error group
4.8.3
Historical Status
You can display information for different ports and statistics items in this chart.
Since this shows the history of the statistics information, the chart can keep the
old data even it is refreshed.
69
GigaX Series L2 Managed Switch User’s Guide
Figure 40. Historical Status
70
GigaX Series L2 Managed Switch User Guide
4.9
Save Configuration
To save configuration permanently, you should click
also takes effective after a successful save.
. The setting
Sometimes you may want to reset the switch configuration, you can click on
to reset the configuration file to factory default. Of course, a system
reboot will follow this restoration process.
You will lose all the configurations when you choose to
restore the factory default configurations.
Figure 41. Save Configuration
71
GigaX Series L2 Managed Switch User’s Guide
5
Console Interface
This chapter describes how to use console interface to configure the switch.
The switch provides RS232 and USB connectors to connect your PC. Use a
terminal emulator on your PC such as HyperTerminal and command line
interpreter to configure the switch. You have to set up the terminal emulator
with baud rate 9600, 8 bit data, no parity, and 1 stop bit, and no flow control.
Once you enter CLI mode, type “?” will display all available command help
messages. This is very useful when you are not familiar with the CLI
commands. The CLI mode times out when idle for 10 minutes. You have to
login again to enter CLI mode after the timeout.
All the CLI commands are case sensitive. In order to make them easier to use,
you can enter into different category by typing the full command, then this
category becomes your working category. Thereafter, you don’t have to type
“sys” before any sub-commands. For example, “sys” is a command category
including a lot of sub-commands. You don’t have to type “sys” for the
sub-commands once you change your working category to “sys” by typing
“sys”. The prompt will become “(system name) sys%” when your working
category is “sys”.
72
GigaX Series L2 Managed Switch User Guide
5.1
Power On Self Test
POST is executing during the system booting time. It tests system memory,
LED and hardware chips on the switchboard. It displays system information as
the result of system test and initialization. You can ignore the information until
the prompt, “(ASUS) %”, appears (see Figure 43).
Figure 42. CLI interface
73
GigaX Series L2 Managed Switch User’s Guide
5.1.1
Boot ROM Command Mode
During the POST process, you can enter a “Boot ROM Command” mode by
pressing <ENTER> key as shown in Figure 43.
Figure 43 shows dual images in the switch.
Enter the “?” key to show the help messages for all available commands.
Although the commands are helpful in some situation, we
STRONGLY suggest users not to use them if you don’t
know the command function.
Figure 43. Boot ROM Command Mode
74
GigaX Series L2 Managed Switch User Guide
5.1.2
Boot ROM Commands
Type “?” in the boot mode to display the valid commands list.
Table 6.
Boot ROM commands
Command
Parameters
Usage
c
IP address
Configure TFTP client IP
address
g
NONE
Load and execute firmware
h
NONE
Display online help
m
mask
Configure network mask
p
NONE
Display current
configuration
r
NONE
System reboot
s
IP address
Configure TFTP server IP
address
t
NONE
Toggle safe mode
u
File name
Upload boot
module/firmware via
network using TFTP
protocol
v
NONE
Display boot rom version
w
NONE
Toggle administrator
password reset
Notes
75
GigaX Series L2 Managed Switch User’s Guide
5.2
Login and Logout
By typing “login” to enter the CLI mode, you have to give a valid user name
and password. As the first time login, you can enter “admin” as the user name
and bypass the password. For security reason, please change the user name
and password after login. Once you forget the use name and password, you
may contact ASUS support team or erase the whole configuration file in the
Boot ROM Command mode. If you take the second choice, the whole system
configuration is lost at the same time. That is, you have to configure the switch
again.
You type “logout” to leave the CLI mode safely. This action allows you to
secure the CLI mode. The next user has to do login again with authorized user
name and password.
5.3
CLI Commands
The switch provides CLI commands for all managed functions. The command
uses are listed in the categories as the WEB management interface. This way,
you can follow the instructions and set up the switch correctly as easily as
using WEB interface to configure the switch. “save” command is used to save
the configuration to flash. Some CLI command is only effective after “save”
command is executed.
Always use “?” to get the available commands list and help.
Always use “/” to get back to the root directory.
Always use “..” to get back to parent directory.
Type the command only to get help for the command
5.3.1
System Commands
[System Name]
Displays the given name of the switch. This is an RFC-1213 defined MIB
object in System Group, and provides administrative information on the
managed node.
CLI command : sys info name <system name description>
76
GigaX Series L2 Managed Switch User Guide
If you put a name in the name description field, the switch system name will be
changed into the new one.
[System Contact]
Displays the detail information of contact about the switch. This is an
RFC-1213 defined MIB object in System Group, and provides contact
information on the managed node.
CLI command : sys info contact <system contact description>
If you put the contact description in the contact description field, the switch
contact information will be changed to the new one.
[System Location]
Displays the physical location of the switch. This is an RFC-1213 defined MIB
object in System Group, and provides the location information on the managed
node.
CLI command : sys info location <system location description>
Type the location description in the location description field to change the
location.
77
GigaX Series L2 Managed Switch User’s Guide
Figure 44. SYS commands
[VLAN ID]
Display the VLAN ID for the switch. It is necessary to be within the same VLAN
for management .
CLI command: net interface vlan sw0 <VLAN ID>
[DHCP Client]
Enable DHCP to get a dynamic IP address, or disable DHCP to specify a
static IP address. If you enable DHCP, you can renew or release the IP
address for the switch, and use show command to display the dynamic IP
address.
CLI command: net interface dhcp sw0 <enable/ disable/ renew/ release/
show>[IP Address]
Displays the static IP address for the switch. This IP address is used for
manageable purpose, i.e.; network applications such as, http server, SNMP
server, ftp server, telnet server and SSH server of the switch are all using this
IP address.
CLI command: net interface ip sw0 < IP address> <netmask>
78
GigaX Series L2 Managed Switch User Guide
[Network Mask]
Displays the subnet mask for the switch.
CLI command: net interface ip sw0 < IP address> <netmask>
[Default Gateway]
Displays the IP address of the default gateway. This field is necessary if the
switch network contains one or more routers.
CLI command: net route static add <destination subnet/IP> <gateway>
<netmask> <metric>
[Password Protection is] [Enabled/Disabled]
When the password protection is enabled, the web interface will request a user
name and password authentication while user accesses the switch through the
browser.
CLI command : sys web set <enable/disable>
[New Password]
[Verify Password]
The default user name is admin. By default, a password is not required. You
may set a password by configuring these fields.
CLI command : sys users modify <user name, ‘admin’ by default>
user name (old user name, ‘admin’ by default): <new user name>
password (old password,): <new password>
[Reboot]
User can reboot the switch by issuing the reboot command.
CLI command: sys reboot
[Upload]
No CLI command for this function. Refer to Boot ROM commands for this
function.
79
GigaX Series L2 Managed Switch User’s Guide
5.3.2
Physical Interface Commands
[Admin] [Enable/Disable]
Displays the port admin status and allows user to turn the port on or off.
CLI command : l2 port admin <port number> <enable/disable>
[Mode] [Auto/10M-Half/10M-Full/100M-Half/100M-Full/1G-Full]
Displays the current speed and duplex mode of the port. The speed and
duplex mode can be automatically detected when auto-negotiation is enabled
on a port.
CLI command : l2 port autoneg <port number> <enable/disable>
CLI command : l2 port speed <port number> <10/100/1000>
CLI command : l2 port duplex <port number> <full/half>
[Flow Control] [Enable/Disable]
Displays the IEEE802.3x flow control setting of a port. Note that this flow
control is operating only in full duplex mode.
CLI command : l2 port flow <port number> <enable/disable>
[Reload]
Restores the previous port settings from the configuration file.
CLI command : l2 port retrieve
5.3.3
Bridge Commands
[Spanning Tree is] [STP Enabled/ RSTP Enabled/ Disabled]
Allows user to specify whether the switch participates the Spanning Tree
Protocol (STP/ RSTP).
CLI command : l2 stp start <stp / rstp>
CLI command : l2 stp stop
80
GigaX Series L2 Managed Switch User Guide
[Hello Time]
[Forward Delay]
[Max Age]
[Bridge Priority]
Displays the current STP/RSTP bridge parameters setting.
CLI command : l2 stp bridge set
Hello Time (1..10 seconds):[old Hello Time] <new Hello Time>
Max Age (6..40 seconds):[ old Max Age] <new Max Age>
Forward Delay (4..30 seconds):[ old Forward Delay] <new Forward
Delay>
Bridge Priority (0.. 61440):[ old Bridge Priority] <new Bridge Priority>
[Priority]
[Path Cost]
[Edge Port]
[Point-to-point]
Displays the current STP/RSTP ports parameters setting.
CLI command : l2 stp port set
Port Settings (all,…):[all] <select a port number, or just type ‘all’ to
iteratively config>
Port <port number> Priority (0.. 240):[old port Priority] <new port Priority>
Port <port number> Path Cost (1.. 200000000):[old port Path Cost] <new
port Path Cost>
Port <port number> EdgePort (yes/no):[old port EdgePort] <new port
EdgePort >
Port <port number> Point-to-Point (yes/no/auto):[old port Point-to-Point]
<new port Point-to-Point >
[Reload]
Restores the previous saved settings from configuration file.
CLI command : l2 stp retrieve
CLI command : l2 stp bridge retrieve
81
GigaX Series L2 Managed Switch User’s Guide
CLI command : l2 stp port retrieve
[Show Trunk]
Displays a specific trunk group settings. User can create a new trunk group by
specify a unique trunk ID, a trunk name description, the port selection criterion
(rtag), LACP mode (enabled or disable), and its trunk group member ports.
CLI command : l2 trunk show <trunk id>
[Create Trunk]
Creates a new trunk group by giving trunk ID, rtag, name, LACP mode and
port numbers.
CLI command : l2 trunk create <trunk id> <trunk name> <lacp
(enable/disable)> <port list>
[Add/Remove Trunk]
Trunk group port members can be added to or removed from an existing trunk
group.
CLI command : l2 trunk add <trunk id> <port list>
CLI command : l2 trunk remove <trunk id> <port list>
[LACP Action]
User can enable or disable LACP on a specific trunk group.
CLI command : l2 trunk lacp action <trunk id> <enable/disable>
[LACP System Priority]
User can assign the system priority for running LACP.
CLI command : l2 trunk lacp syspri <priority (1-65535)>
[LACP Port Priority]
User can assign the port priority for running LACP.
82
GigaX Series L2 Managed Switch User Guide
CLI command : l2 port lacppri <priority> <port list / * for all ports>
[Reload]
Restores the previous saved settings of trunk from configuration file.
CLI command : l2 trunk retrieve
[Mirror Mode] [Enable/Disable]
[Monitor Port] [port number]
Displays the mirroring settings of the switch.
CLI command : l2 mirror create <monitor port no> <enable/disable>
CLI command : l2 mirror ingress <port list>
CLI command : l2 mirror egress <port list>
CLI command : l2 mirror remove <ingress/egress> <port list>
[Reload]
Restores the previous saved settings from configuration file.
CLI command : l2 mirror retrieve
[Show Multicast Group]
Displays the static multicast groups that are presented in the multicast
group table.
CLI command: l2 mcast show
[Set Multicast Group]
Allows user to add or modify a static multicast group by specifying the MAC
address, VLAN ID, , VLAN port members, and its untagged port members.
Note that MAC address and VLAN ID combination is formed as an unique
entry in multicast group table
CLI command: l2 mcast set
mac address [format: xx:xx:xx:xx:xx:xx]: <multicast mac address>
83
GigaX Series L2 Managed Switch User’s Guide
vlan id [1 by default]: <vlan id>
port list [format: 1 2 3 4- 26/* for all ports]: <port list>
[Remove Multicast Group]
Allows user to delete a static multicast group entry from multicast group table
by given a MAC address and VLAN ID.
CLI command : l2 mcast delete
mac address [format: xx:xx:xx:xx:xx:xx]: <multicast mac address>
vlan id: <vlan id>
[Reload]
Restores the previous saved settings from configuration file.
CLI command : l2 mcast retrieve
[IGMP is] [Enabled/Disabled]
Layer 2 IGMP snooping can be started or terminated by user if necessary.
CLI command : l2 igmp <start/stop>
[Reload]
Restores the previous saved settings from configuration file.
CLI command : l2 igmp retrieve
[Action] [Enable/Disable]
[Mode] [Broadcast] or [Broadcast/Multicast] or
[Broadcast/Multicast/Unknown unicast]
[Limit Rate]
User can limit the broadcast, multicast, and flooding (due to destination lookup
failed) traffic rate by turning the traffic control on.
84
GigaX Series L2 Managed Switch User Guide
CLI command : l2 rate set <enable/disable> [<mode (1:broadcast only,
2:broadcast and multicast, 3:broadcast, multicast and unknown unicast )>
<limit rate (70~250000 Kbps/sec)>]
[Reload]
Restores the previous saved settings from configuration file.
CLI command : l2 rate retrieve
[Aging Time]
User can set the ARL (Address Resolution Logic) entries aging time by setting
the aging time value.
CLI command : l2 arl age [aging time value]
[Query by Port]
ARL entries existed in ARL table can be queried according to port number.
CLI command : l2 arl port <port number>
[Query by VLAN ID]
ARL entries existed in ARL table can be queried according to VLAN ID.
CLI command : l2 arl vlan <vlan id>
[Query by MAC Address]
ARL entries existed in ARL table can be queried according to MAC address.
CLI command : l2 arl mac <mac address> [vlan id]
85
GigaX Series L2 Managed Switch User’s Guide
[MAC Address]
[VLAN ID]
[Port Selection]
User can add or modify a static ARL entry by specifying a MAC address, VLAN
ID, port number, and trunk ID.
CLI command : l2 arl static <mac> <vlan id> <port no> <trunk id>
[Remove]
Static ARL entries can be deleted by indicating the MAC address and its VLAN
ID. These two-field combination is formed as unique entry in ARL table.
CLI command : l2 arl delete <mac address> <vlan id>
[Reload]
Restores the previous saved settings from configuration file.
CLI command : l2 arl retrieve
[Show VLAN]
Displays the existing VLAN information of the switch.
CLI command : l2 vlan show <vlan id>
[Name]
[VLAN ID]
Allows user to config the VLAN settings. User may create a new VLAN by
giving a unique VLAN ID, a VLAN description name, and its port member list,
note that the port member here is indicated as tagged port member. To specify
a VLAN port member as untagged port, CLI command utportadd can achieve
this purpose. User may use CLI command add or remove to further add some
port members to a VLAN or exclude some existing port members from a
VLAN.
86
GigaX Series L2 Managed Switch User Guide
CLI command : l2 vlan create <vlan id> <vlan name> <port list>
CLI command : l2 vlan add <vlan id> <port list>
CLI command : l2 vlan remove <vlan id> <port list>
CLI command : l2 vlan utportadd <vlan id> <untagged port list>
[Remove VLAN]
Allows user to completely destroy an existing VLAN.
CLI command : l2 vlan delete <vlan id>
[Reload]
Restores the previous saved settings from configuration file.
CLI command : l2 vlan retrieve
[Show Port]
Displays the port configuration
CLI command : l2 port show <port id or * for all ports>
[PVID]
Sets the default VLAN for a port by giving a VLAN ID and its associated port
member list.
CLI command : l2 port vlan <vlan id, 4095 to disable the port-based
vlan> <port list>
[CoS Value]
Sets the Class of Service for a port by assigning it a priority (with range of 0-7)
criteria value for untagged packets..
CLI command : l2 port priority <CoS> <port list>
[Reload]
Restores the previous saved settings from configuration file.
87
GigaX Series L2 Managed Switch User’s Guide
CLI command : l2 port retrieve
[CoS] [Map]
Allows user to map the CoS priority (with range of 0-7) for a buffer queue (total
of 4, with queue ID of 1-4).
CLI command : l2 cos map <queue id (1-4)> <cos (0-7)>
[Scheduling Algorithm] [Strict/WRR]
Allows user to set scheduling with strict priority based or weight priority based.
CLI command : l2 cos sched <mode (1: strict 2: weighted round robin)>
[Reload]
Restores the previous saved settings from configuration file.
CLI command : l2 cos retrieve
5.3.4
SNMP
[Community Name] [Set]
A community entry contains a community description string and a set of
privileges. Get privilege are turned on by default, and user can specify whether
to give it the Set Privilege while create a new entry.
CLI command : snmp community add
New community string: <new community string>
Get privileges: [y, always turn on by default]
Set privileges? (y/n):[n] <set privilege, y for ‘yes’; n for ‘no’>
User can modify a community entry in the table by reassigning its community
string and privileges.
CLI command : snmp community set
Community entry (table index): <entry id to config>
Community string (old community string): <new community string>
88
GigaX Series L2 Managed Switch User Guide
This action will modify all hosts with community string from 'old community'
to 'new community'.
Are you sure? (y/n):[y] <y for ‘yes’; n for ‘no’>
Get privileges: [y, always turn on by default]
Set privileges? (y/n):[n] <set privilege, y for ‘yes’; n for ‘no’>
Allows user to delete a community entry from community table.
CLI command : snmp community delete
Community entry (table index): <entry id to delete>
This action will delete all hosts in community string with 'delete
community'.
Are you sure? (y/n):[y] <y for ‘yes’; n for ‘no’>
[Reload]
Restores the previous saved settings from configuration file.
CLI command : snmp community retrieve
[Host IP Address] [Community]
A host entry contains a host IP address, network mask and its dedicated
community string.
CLI command : snmp host add
Host IP/Subnet: <IP address>
Netmask: <netmask>
Community: <community string>
User can modify a host entry in the table by reassigning its allowed IP address,
network mask and community string.
CLI command : snmp host set
Host table entry (table index): <entry id to config>
89
GigaX Series L2 Managed Switch User’s Guide
Host IP/Subnet (old IP address): <new IP address>
Netmask (old netmask): <new netmask>
Community (old community string): <new community string>
Allows user to delete a host entry from host table.
CLI command : snmp host delete
Entry id (table index): <entry id to delete>
[Reload]
Restores the previous saved settings from configuration file.
CLI command : snmp host retrieve
[Trap Version] [v1/v2c]
[Destination]
[Community for Trap]
A trap entry contains SNMP version (currently support version 1 and version
2c), a destination IP address and the remote community string.
CLI command : snmp trap add
SNMP version? (1/2c):[1, by default] <snmp version>
Destination IP: <IP address>
Community: <community string>
User can modify a trap entry in the table by reassigning its SNMP version,
destination IP address and community string.
CLI command : snmp trap set
Trap table entry (table index): <entry id to config>
SNMP version? (1/2c):[old snmp version] <new snmp version>
Destination IP (old IP address): <new IP address>
90
GigaX Series L2 Managed Switch User Guide
Community (old community string): <new community string>
Allows user to delete a trap entry from trap table.
CLI command : snmp trap delete
Trap table entry (table index): <entry id to delete>
[Reload]
Restores the previous saved settings from configuration file.
CLI command : snmp trap retrieve
[Group Name]
[Read View Name]
[Write View Name]
[Notify View Name]
[Security Model]
[Security level]
A VACM(View-based Access Control Model) Group entry contains a group
name, read view name, write view name, notify view name, security model,
security level and context match.
CLI command : snmp snmpv3 access add
Gruop Name: <group name string>
Security Model [0/1/2/3](any/v1/v2c/usm): <security model>
Security Level [1/2/3](noauth/authnopriv/authpriv): <security level>
Context Match [0/1](inexact/exact): <context match>
Read View Name: <read view name string>
Write View Name: <write view name string>
91
GigaX Series L2 Managed Switch User’s Guide
Notify View Name: <notify view name string>
User can modify a VACM entry in the Group by reassigning its allowed group
name, read view name, write view name, notify view name, security model,
security level and context match.
CLI command : snmp snmpv3 access set
Gruop Name: (old group name string) <new group name string>
Security Model [0/1/2/3](any/v1/v2c/usm): (old security model) <new
security model>
Security Level [1/2/3](noauth/authnopriv/authpriv): (old security level)
<new security level>
Context Match [0/1](inexact/exact): (old context match) <new context
match>
Read View Name: (old read view name string) <new read view name
string>
Write View Name: (old write view name string) <new write view name
string>
Notify View Name: (old notify view name string) <new notify view name
string>
Allows user to delete a VACM entry from VACM group.
CLI command : snmp snmpv3 access delete
Access entry: <entry id to delete>
[Reload]
Restores the previous saved settings from configuration file.
CLI command : snmp snmpv3 access retrieve
92
GigaX Series L2 Managed Switch User Guide
[View Name]
[View Type]
[View Subtree]
[View Mask]
VACM (View-based Access Control Model) View is used to view the
information of SNMPV3 VACM Group. A VACM View entry contains a view
name, view type, view subtree and view mask.
CLI command : snmp snmpv3 view add
View Name: <view name string>
View Subtree [oid]: <view subtree>
View Mask: <view mask>
View Type[1/2](included/excluded): <view type>
User can modify a VACM View entry in the table by reassigning its allowed
view name, view type, view subtree and view mask.
CLI command : snmp snmpv3 view set
View Name: (old view name string) <new view name string >
View Subtree [oid]: (old view subtree) <new view subtree>
View Mask: (old view mask) <new view mask >
View Type[1/2](included/excluded): (old view type) <new view type >
Allows user to delete a VACM View entry.
CLI command : snmp snmpv3 view delete
View entry: <entry id to delete>
[Reload]
Restores the previous saved settings from configuration file.
CLI command : snmp snmpv3 view retrieve
93
GigaX Series L2 Managed Switch User’s Guide
[Engine Id]
[Name]
[Auth Protocol]
[Auth Password]
[Priv Protocol]
[Priv Password]
USM(User-based Security Model) User is used to configure the information of
SNMPV3 USM User. A USM User entry contains a engine Id, name, auth
protocol, auth password, priv protocol and priv password.
CLI command : snmp snmpv3 usmuser add
EngineId: <engine id string >
Name: <user name string >
AuthProtocol [oid]: <auth protocol oid string >
AuthPassword: <auth password string>
Priv Protocol [oid]: <priv protocol oid string >
Priv Password: <priv password string >
User can modify a USM User entry in the table by reassigning its allowed
engine Id, name, auth protocol, auth password, priv protocol and priv
password.
CLI command : snmp snmpv3 usmuser set
EngineId: (old engine id string ) <new engine id string >
Name: (old user name string ) < new user name string >
AuthProtocol [oid]: (old auth protocol oid string) < new auth protocol oid
string >
94
GigaX Series L2 Managed Switch User Guide
AuthPassword: (old auth password string) < new auth password string>
Priv Protocol [oid]: (old priv protocol oid string) < new priv protocol oid
string >
Priv Password: (old priv password string) < new priv password string >
Allows user to delete a USM User entry.
CLI command : snmp snmpv3 usmuser delete
USM user entry: <entry id to delete>
[Reload]
Restores the previous saved settings from configuration file.
CLI command : snmp snmpv3 usmuser retrieve
5.3.5
Security Commands
[Reauthentication]
Allows user to open or close periodic reauthentication.
CLI command : security dot1x bridge reauth <enable / disable>
[Reauthentication Time]
Allows user to set up the reauthentication time.
CLI command : security dot1x bridge reauthtime <reauthentication time
(1-4294967295 sec)>
[Authentication Method]
Allows user to set up the authentication method (RADIUS or Local database).
CLI command : security dot1x bridge authmeth <type (1:local 2:radius)>
[Quiet Period]
Allows user to set up the quiet period.
95
GigaX Series L2 Managed Switch User’s Guide
CLI command : security dot1x bridge quietperiod <quiet period (1-65535
sec)>
[Retransmission Time]
Allows user to set up the retransmission time.
CLI command : security dot1x bridge retxtime <retransmission time
(1-65535 sec)>
[Max Reauthentication Attempts]
Allows user to set up the max number of the reauthentication attemps.
CLI command : security dot1x bridge reauthmax <max reauthentication
attemps (1-10)>
[Multi-host]
Allows user to enable or disable Multi-host on some specific ports.
CLI command : security dot1x port multihost <enable/disable><port
list/*>
[Authentication Control]
Allows user to set up the authentication control of some specific ports.
CLI command : security dot1x port authctrl <type (1: force_authorized
2:force_unauthorized 3: auto)><port list/*>
[Guest VLAN]
Allows user to set up the guest VLAN ID of some specific ports.
CLI command : security dot1x bridge port guestvlan <vlan id (0:no guest
vlan)> <port list/*>
[Reload]
Restores the previous saved settings from configuration file.
CLI command : security dot1x retrieve
96
GigaX Series L2 Managed Switch User Guide
[User Name]
[Password]
[Confirm Password]
[Dynamic VLAN]
Create users in the local database of the switch for 802.1x authentication. A
user entry contains a user name, password and dynamic VLAN.
CLI command : security dialinuser create
User Name: <user name string>
Password: <password string>
Confirm Password: <confirm password string>
Dynamic VLAN: <dynamic VLAN>
CLI command : security dialinuser remove <user name/*>
Allows user to delete a user entry from the local database.
CLI command : security dialinuser modify <user name/*>
Allows user to modify a user entry from the local database. It contains a user
name, password and dynamic VLAN.
User Name: <new user name string>
Password: <new password string>
Confirm Password: <new confirm password string>
Dynamic VLAN: <new dynamic VLAN>
[Reload]
Restores the previous saved settings from configuration file.
CLI command : security dialinuser retrieve
[Authentication Server IP]
97
GigaX Series L2 Managed Switch User’s Guide
[Authentication Server Port]
[Authentication Server Key]
[Confirm Authentication Key]
Allows user to config the RADIUS server IP, server port and server key .
CLI command : security radius set
authentication server ip <ip/none>: (old server ip)<new server ip >
authentication server port <port/default>: (old server port)<new
server port>
authentication server key <key/none>: <server key>
confirm authentication key <key/none>: <confirm server key>
[Reload]
Restores the previous saved settings from configuration file.
CLI command : security radius retrieve
[Generate SSH key]
Allows user to generate SSH keys. SSH (Secure SHell) is a protocol for
remotely logging into a machine via a shell. It is very similar in functionality to
telnet, however unlike telnet, all data between the client and server is
encrypted. The encryption provides protection against various network
security risks. Currently, our switch supports SSH protocol version 2 and
allows one login at a time. Two pairs of SSH keys will be created in system
flash storage. The pairs of keys are RSA and DSA public/private keys
respectively.
CLI command : security sshkey start
[Reset SSH key]
Reset SSH keys to default value.
CLI command : security radius default
98
GigaX Series L2 Managed Switch User Guide
[Show Generating Status]
Show the SSH key generating status. It will display “success” or “SSH keys
generated fail” or “system is generating keys ...”.
CLI command : security sshkey show
99
GigaX Series L2 Managed Switch User’s Guide
5.4 Miscellaneous Commands
sys time uptime: shows the time since the system boot up.
sys time date: shows the current date and time
sys time settime: sets the current time
sys files config backup: backup configuration files
sys files config default: restore factory default configuration files
sys monitor auto: enable or disable fan auto detection
sys monitor set: Set fan speed command (1~255)
sys monitor show: Show the status of system environment
net ping: ping remote host
net route show: displays the entries in the routing table
100
GigaX Series L2 Managed Switch User Guide
6
IP Addresses, Network Masks, and
Subnets
6.1
IP Addresses
This section pertains only to IP addresses for IPv4 (version 4 of
the Internet Protocol). IPv6 addresses are not covered.
This section assumes basic knowledge of binary numbers, bits,
and bytes. For details on this subject, see Appendix 6.
IP addresses, the Internet's version of telephone numbers, are used to identify
individual nodes (computers or devices) on the Internet. Every IP address
contains four numbers, each from 0 to 255 and separated by dots (periods),
e.g. 20.56.0.211. These numbers are called, from left to right, field1, field2,
field3, and field4.
This style of writing IP addresses as decimal numbers separated by dots is
called dotted decimal notation. The IP address 20.56.0.211 is read "twenty dot
fifty-six dot zero dot two-eleven."
6.1.1
Structure of an IP address
IP addresses have a hierarchical design similar to that of telephone numbers.
For example, a 7-digit telephone number starts with a 3-digit prefix that
identifies a group of thousands of telephone lines, and ends with four digits that
identify one specific line in that group.
Similarly, IP addresses contain two kinds of information.
Network ID
Identifies a particular network within the Internet or intranet
Host ID
Identifies a particular computer or device on the network
The first part of every IP address contains the network ID, and the rest of the
address contains the host ID. The length of the network ID depends on the
network's class (see following section). Table 7 shows the structure of an IP
address.
101
GigaX Series L2 Managed Switch User’s Guide
Table 7.
IP address structure
Field1
Field2
Class A
Network ID
Host ID
Class B
Network ID
Class C
Network ID
Field3
Field4
Host ID
Host ID
Following are examples of valid IP addresses:
Class A: 10.30.6.125 (network = 10, host = 30.6.125)
Class B: 129.88.16.49 (network = 129.88, host = 16.49)
Class C: 192.60.201.11 (network = 192.60.201, host = 11)
102
GigaX Series L2 Managed Switch User Guide
6.1.2
Network classes
The three commonly used network classes are A, B, and C. (There is also a
class D but it has a special use beyond the scope of this discussion.) These
classes have different uses and characteristics.
Class A networks are the Internet's largest networks, each with room for over
16 million hosts. Up to 126 of these huge networks can exist, for a total of over
2 billion hosts. Because of their huge size, these networks are used for WANs
and by organizations at the infrastructure level of the Internet, e.g. your ISP.
Class B networks are smaller but still quite large, each being able to hold over
65,000 hosts. There can be up to 16,384 class B networks in existence. A
class B network might be appropriate for a large organization such as a
business or government agency.
Class C networks are the smallest, only able to hold 254 hosts at most, but the
total possible number of class C networks exceeds 2 million (2,097,152 to be
exact). LANs connected to the Internet are usually class C networks.
Some important notes regarding IP addresses:
The class can be determined easily from field1:
field1 = 1-126: Class A
field1 = 128-191: Class B
field1 = 192-223: Class C
(field1 values not shown are reserved for special uses)
A host ID can have any value except all fields set to 0 or all fields set to 255, as
those values are reserved for special uses.
103
GigaX Series L2 Managed Switch User’s Guide
6.2
Subnet masks
A mask looks like a regular IP address, but contains a
pattern of bits that tells what parts of an IP address are the
network ID and what parts are the host ID: bits set to 1
mean "this bit is part of the network ID" and bits set to 0
mean "this bit is part of the host ID."
Subnet masks are used to define subnets (what you get after dividing a
network into smaller pieces). A subnet's network ID is created by "borrowing"
one or more bits from the host ID portion of the address. The subnet mask
identifies these host ID bits.
For example, consider a class C network 192.168.1. To split this into two
subnets, you would use the subnet mask:
255.255.255.128
It's easier to see what's happening if we write this in binary:
11111111. 11111111. 11111111.10000000
As with any class C address, all of the bits in field1 through field 3 are part of
the network ID, but note how the mask specifies that the first bit in field 4 is also
included. Since this extra bit has only two values (0 and 1), this means there
are two subnets. Each subnet uses the remaining 7 bits in field4 for its host IDs,
which range from 0 to 127 (instead of the usual 0 to 255 for a class C address).
Similarly, to split a class C network into four subnets, the mask is:
255.255.255.192
104
or
11111111. 11111111. 11111111.11000000
GigaX Series L2 Managed Switch User Guide
The two extra bits in Field 4 can have four values (00, 01, 10, 11), so there are
four subnets. Each subnet uses the remaining six bits in field4 for its host IDs,
ranging from 0 to 63.
Sometimes a subnet mask does not specify any additional
network ID bits, and thus no subnets. Such a mask is
called a default subnet mask. These masks are:
Class A:
Class B:
Class C:
255.0.0.0
255.255.0.0
255.255.255.0
These are called default because they are used when a
network is initially configured, at which time it has no
subnets.
105
GigaX Series L2 Managed Switch User’s Guide
7
Troubleshooting
This section gives instructions for using several IP utilities to diagnose
problems. A list of possible problems with suggestion actions is also
provided.
All the known bugs are listed in the release note. Read the release note
before you set up the switch. Contact Customer Support if these
suggestions do not resolve the problem.
7.1
Diagnosing problems using IP utilities
7.1.1
ping
Ping is a command you can use to check whether your PC can recognize
other computers on your network and the Internet. A ping command sends a
message to the computer you specify. If the computer receives the message, it
sends messages in reply. To use it, you must know the IP address of the
computer with which you are trying to communicate.
On Windows-based computers, you can execute a ping command from the
Start menu. Click the Start button, and then click Run. In the Open text box,
type a statement such as the following:
ping 192.168.1.1
Click
. You can substitute any private IP address you know on your
LAN or a public IP address for an Internet site.
If the target computer receives the message, a Command Prompt window
appears as shown in Figure 45.
106
GigaX Series L2 Managed Switch User Guide
Figure 45. Using the ping utility
If the target computer cannot be located, you will receive the message
“Request timed out.”
Using the ping command, you can test whether the path to the switch is
working (using the pre-configured default LAN IP address 192.168.1.1) or
another address you assigned.
You can also test whether access to the Internet is working by typing an
external address, such as that for www.yahoo.com (216.115.108.243). If you
do not know the IP address of a particular Internet location, you can use the
nslookup command, as explained in the following section.
From most other IP-enabled operating systems, you can execute the same
command at a command prompt or through a system administration utility.
107
GigaX Series L2 Managed Switch User’s Guide
7.1.2
nslookup
You can use the nslookup command to determine the IP address associated
with an Internet site name. You specify the common name, and the nslookup
command looks up the name on your DNS server (usually located with your
ISP). If that name is not an entry in your ISP’s DNS table, the request is then
referred to another higher-level server, and so on, until the entry is found. The
server then returns the associated IP address.
On Windows-based computers, you can execute the nslookup command from
the Start menu. Click the Start button, then click Run. In the Open text box,
type the following:
nslookup
Clicks
. A Command Prompt window displays with a bracket prompt
(>). At the prompt, type the name of the Internet address you are interested in,
such as www.absnews.com.
The window displays the associate IP address you know. See Figure 46.
Figure 46. Using the nslookup utility
There may be several addresses associated with an Internet name. This is
common for web sites that receive heavy traffic; they use multiple, redundant
servers to carry the same information.
To exit from the nslookup utility, type exit and press <Enter> at the command
prompt.
108
GigaX Series L2 Managed Switch User Guide
7.2
Replacing defective fans
Turn off the power of the switch when you remove the fan
module on the rear side of the switch.
When any one of the switch fans (located on the rear panel) becomes
defective, you can easily replace it following these steps.
1. Unlock the fan module by loosening the thumbscrew that secures it to
the rear panel.
Figure 47. Loosening the thumbscrew
2. Carefully pull the module out as shown.
Figure 48. Removing the fan module
109
GigaX Series L2 Managed Switch User’s Guide
3.
Carefully pull the two power cables from the fan connectors.
4. Loosens the screws that secure the fan to the module. Remove the
defective fan.
Figure 49. Detaching the fan from the module
5. Fastens the new fan with the screws that you removed earlier. Make
sure that the fan cable is near the bottom of the module.
Follow the same steps to replace the other fan.
6. Connects the fan cables to the PCB. Make sure that the fan cables are
connected to the correct fan connector. FAN 1 is on the left side when
you are facing the rear panel.
7. Inserts the fan module to the switch chassis until it fits in place. Make
sure that the fan power cables are not caught between the fan module
and chassis.
8. Secure the fan module to the chassis with the thumbscrew. Check
around the fan module to make sure no cable is caught between the
chassis and the fan module.
Fan specifications
Dimensions: 40 x 40 x 20 mm
Voltage and Current: 12VDC, 0.13A
Speed: 8200RPM
110
GigaX Series L2 Managed Switch User Guide
7.3
Simple fixes
The following table lists some common problems that you may encounter
when installing or using the switch, and the suggested actions to solve the
problems.
Table 8.
Troubleshooting
Problem
Suggested Action
LEDs
SYSTEM LED does
not light up after the
switch is turned on.
Verify if the power cord is securely connected to the switch and a
wall socket/power strip.
RPS LED does not
light up after a
redundant power
supply is attached.
1. Verify if the RPS cable is securely connected to the RPS
connector and a wall socket/power strip.
FAN LED is amber
blinking
Check the fans on the back of the switch. If any of the fans is
defective, refer to section 7.2 to replace the fan.
Gigabit Ethernet
Link LED does not
illuminate after an
Ethernet cable is
attached.
1. Verify if the Ethernet cable is securely connected to your LAN
switch/hub/PC and to the switch. Make sure the PC and/or
hub/switch is turned on.
2. Make sure that the RPS meets with the standards provided in
the RPS section.
2. Verify if your cable is sufficient for your network requirements. A
1000 Mbps network (1000BaseTx) should use cables labeled
Cat 5. 10Mbit/sec cables may tolerate lower quality cables.
Network Access
PC cannot access
another host in the
same network
1. Check the Ethernet cabling is good and the LED is green.
PCs cannot display
web configuration
pages.
1. The switch is powered up and the connecting port is enabled.
The factory default IP for the switch is 192.168.1.1.
2. If the port LED is amber, check if this port is disabled. You may
experience a disconnected network in a short period (around 1
minute) if you just turned on the STP.
2. Verify your network setup in your PC for this information. If your
PC does not have a valid route to access the switch, change the
switch IP to an appropriate IP that your PC can access.
3. Ping “switch IP” from the PC, if it still fails, repeat step 2.
4. If ping is successful but the web configuration still fails,
connecting PC through the console port by a RS232 or USB,
check if any filter rule or static MAC address is set to block the
WEB traffics.
111
GigaX Series L2 Managed Switch User’s Guide
Problem
Suggested Action
Web Configuration Interface
You forgot/lost your
WEB Configuration
Interface user ID or
password.
1. If you have not changed the password from the default, try using
“admin” as the user ID and bypassing password.
Some pages do not
display completely
1. Verify that you are using Internet Explorer v5.5 or later.
Netscape is not supported. Support for Javascript® must be
enabled in your browser. Support for Java® may also be
required.
2. Login to console mode through RS232 or USB, use “sys user
show” to display the lost information
2. Ping the switch IP address to see if the link is stable. If some
ping packets fail, check your network setup to make sure a valid
setting.
Changes to
Configuration are
not being retained.
Be sure to click on
page to save any changes.
button in the Save Configuration
Console Interface
Cannot show the
texts on the terminal
emulator.
1. The factory default baud rate is 9600, no flow control, 8 bit data,
no parity check and stop bit is one.
2. Change your terminal emulator setup to this number. If you are
using USB to connect the switch, install the USB driver first.
3. Check if the cable is good.
112
GigaX Series L2 Managed Switch User Guide
8
Glossary
10BASE-T
A designation for the type of wiring used by Ethernet networks
with a data rate of 10 Mbps. Also known as Category 3 (CAT 3)
wiring. See also data rate, Ethernet.
100BASE-T
A designation for the type of wiring used by Ethernet networks
with a data rate of 100 Mbps. Also known as Category 5 (CAT 5)
wiring. See also data rate, Ethernet.
1000BASE-T
A designation for the type of wiring used by Ethernet networks
with a data rate of 1000 Mbps.
binary
The "base two" system of numbers, that uses only two digits, 0
and 1, to represent all numbers. In binary, the number 1 is written
as 1, 2 as 10, 3 as 11, 4 as 100, etc. Although expressed as
decimal numbers for convenience, IP addresses in actual use
are binary numbers; e.g., the IP address 209.191.4.240 is
11010001.10111111.00000100.11110000 in binary. See also bit,
IP address, network mask.
bit
Short for "binary digit," a bit is a number that can have two values,
0 or 1. See also binary.
bps
bits per second
CoS
Class of Service. Defined in 802.1Q, the value range is from 0 to
7.
113
GigaX Series L2 Managed Switch User’s Guide
broadcast
To send data to all computers on a network.
Ethernet
The most commonly installed computer network technology,
usually using twisted pair wiring. Ethernet data rates are 10 Mbps
and 100 Mbps. See also 10BASE-T, 100BASE-T, twisted pair.
FTP
File Transfer Protocol
A program used to transfer files between computers connected
to the Internet. Common uses include uploading new or updated
files to a web server, and downloading files from a web server.
host
A device (usually a computer) connected to a network.
ICMP
Internet Control Message Protocol
An Internet protocol used to report errors and other
network-related information. The ping command makes use of
ICMP.
IGMP
Internet Group Management Protocol
An Internet protocol that enables a computer to share information
about its membership in multicast groups with adjacent routers.
A multicast group of computers is one whose members have
designated as interested in receiving specific content from the
others. Multicasting to an IGMP group can be used to
simultaneously update the address books of a group of mobile
computer users or to send company newsletters to a distribution
list.
IGMP Snooping
Snoop the IGMP packets on each port and associate the port
with a layer 2 muticast group.
114
GigaX Series L2 Managed Switch User Guide
mask
See network mask.
Multicast
To send data to a group of network devices.
Mbps
Abbreviation for Megabits per second, or one million bits per
second. Network data rates are often expressed in Mbps.
Monitor
Also called “Roving Analysis”, allow you to attach a network
analyzer to one port and use it to monitor the traffics of other
ports on the switch.
network mask
A network mask is a sequence of bits applied to an IP address to
select the network ID while ignoring the host ID. Bits set to 1
mean "select this bit" while bits set to 0 mean "ignore this bit." For
example, if the network mask 255.255.255.0 is applied to the IP
address 100.10.50.1, the network ID is 100.10.50, and the host
ID is 1. See also binary, IP address, subnet, "IP Addresses
Explained" section.
NIC
Network Interface Card
An adapter card that plugs into your computer and provides the
physical interface to your network cabling, which for Ethernet
NICs is typically an RJ-45 connector. See Ethernet, RJ-45.
packet
Data transmitted on a network consists of units called packets.
Each packet contains a payload (the data), plus overhead
information such as where it came from (source address) and
where it should go (destination address).
115
GigaX Series L2 Managed Switch User’s Guide
ping
Packet Internet (or Inter-Network) Groper
A program used to verify whether the host associated with an IP
address is online. It can also be used to reveal the IP address for
a given domain name.
port
A physical access point to a device such as a computer or router,
through which data flows into and out of the device.
protocol
A set of rules governing the transmission of data. In order for a
data transmission to work, both ends of the connection have to
follow the rules of the protocol.
remote
In a physically separate location. For example, an employee
away on travel who logs in to the company’s intranet is a remote
user.
RJ-45
Registered Jack Standard-45
The 8-pin plug used in transmitting data over phone lines.
Ethernet cabling usually uses this type of connector.
RMON
Remote Monitoring
Extensions to SNMP, provide comprehensive network
monitoring capabilities.
routing
Forwarding data between your network and the Internet on the
most efficient route, based on the data’s destination IP address
and current network conditions. A device that performs routing is
called a router.
116
GigaX Series L2 Managed Switch User Guide
SNMP
Simple Network Management Protocol
The TCP/IP protocol used for network management.
STP
Spanning Tree Protocol
The bridge protocol to avoid packet looping in a complicate
network.
subnet
A subnet is a portion of a network. The subnet is distinguished
from the larger network by a subnet mask which selects some of
the computers of the network and excludes all others. The
subnet's computers remain physically connected to the rest of
the parent network, but they are treated as though they were on a
separate network. See also network mask.
subnet mask
A mask that defines a subnet. See also network mask.
TCP
See TCP/IP.
TCP/IP
Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol
The basic protocols used on the Internet. TCP is responsible for
dividing data up into packets for delivery and reassembling them
at the destination, while IP is responsible for delivering the
packets from source to destination. When TCP and IP are
bundled with higher-level applications such as HTTP, FTP,
Telnet, etc., TCP/IP refers to this whole suite of protocols.
117
GigaX Series L2 Managed Switch User’s Guide
Telnet/SSH
An interactive, character-based program used to access a
remote computer. While HTTP (the web protocol) and FTP only
allow you to download files from a remote computer, Telnet /
SSH allows you to log into and use a computer from a remote
location.
TFTP
Trivial File Transfer Protocol
A protocol for file transfers, TFTP is easier to use than File
Transfer Protocol (FTP) but not as capable or secure.
Trunk
Two or more ports are combined as one virtual port, also called
as Link Aggregation.
TTL
Time To Live
A field in an IP packet that limits the life span of that packet.
Originally meant as a time duration, the TTL is usually
represented instead as a maximum hop count; each router that
receives a packet decrements this field by one. When the TTL
reaches zero, the packet is discarded.
twisted pair
The ordinary copper telephone wiring long used by telephone
companies. It contains one or more wire pairs twisted together to
reduce inductance and noise. Each telephone line uses one pair.
In homes, it is most often installed with two pairs. For Ethernet
LANs, a higher grade called Category 3 (CAT 3) is used for
10BASE-T networks, and an even higher grade called Category
5 (CAT 5) is used for 100BASE-T networks. See also 10BASE-T,
100BASE-T, Ethernet.
118
GigaX Series L2 Managed Switch User Guide
upstream
The direction of data transmission from the user to the Internet.
VLAN
Virtual Local Area Network
WAN
Wide Area Network
Any network spread over a large geographical area, such as a
country or continent. With respect to the SL-1000, WAN refers to
the Internet.
Web browser
A software program that uses Hyper-Text Transfer Protocol
(HTTP) to download information from (and upload to) web sites,
and displays the information, which may consist of text, graphic
images, audio, or video, to the user. Web browsers use
Hyper-Text Transfer Protocol (HTTP). Popular web browsers
include Netscape Navigator and Microsoft Internet Explorer. See
also HTTP, web site, WWW.
Web page
A web site file typically containing text, graphics and hyperlinks
(cross-references) to the other pages on that web site, as well as
to pages on other web sites. When a user accesses a web site,
the first page that is displayed is called the home page. See also
hyperlink, web site.
Web site
A computer on the Internet that distributes information to (and
gets information from) remote users through web browsers. A
web site typically consists of web pages that contain text,
graphics, and hyperlinks. See also hyperlink, web page.
119