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•
-
1
Personal Computer
IIIZ - b'illHID
DISK BASIC MANUAL
SHARP
DISK BASIC
Manual
Introductory Note
This manual is based upon the DISK BASIC Interpreter MZ-2Z009, the system
software of the MZ-700 personal computer.
(1) The DISK BASIC interpreter MZ-2Z009 includes all commands of the
MZ-700 BASIC 1Z-013B. In other words, the DISK BASIC is an expansion of
the BASIC 1Z-013B.
(2) For the multi-purpose MZ-700 personal computer, the system software is
completely supported by a software pack (cassette tape, floppy disk, etc.) in
the file form.
This system software and the contents of this manual are subject to upgrading
changes for improvement, and for that reason the user is urged to particularly
note the file version number. Please understand that we cannot be responsible
for damage incurred during, or as a result of operation.
(3) All system software for the MZ-700 series personal computer is original
software of SHARP Corporation, and is covered by applicable copyrights. The
copying or reproduction of this software and/or this manual and its contents, in
whole or in part, and by whatever means and for whatever reason, is expressly
forbidden without the written permission by SHARP Corporation.
Introduction
We want to take this opportunity to thank you for purchasing the Sharp DISK BASIC
system software.
The manual provides a general explanation of the use and programming of the DISK
BASIC system software for the personal computer.
This system software is provided in the floppy disk format, and careful attention
should be given to the proper use and handling of the disk drive and the disks
themselves. Please refer to page 108 of this manual for information regarding the
proper handling of the floppy disks.
When the floppy disk is to be used, it is recommended that the disk, a copy which is
packed together with the original master disk (DISK BASIC), be used instead of the
master disk. This is for protection of the master disk in the event of some unexpected
trouble which might make the master disk useless. Please store the master disk in a
safe place.
Before using the DISK BASIC please carefully and completely read this manual in
order to assure its correct use.
• Difference between the CASSETTE TAPE BASIC and
DISK BASIC.
The following commands are extended and supplemented in the difference between
the CASSETIE TAPE BASIC and DISK BASIC.
Extension
Page
Supplement
Page
Supplement
Page
RUN ....................... 36
DIR ........................ 35
XOR ....................... 65
LOAD ..................... 37
LOCK ..................... 40
N()T ....................... 65
SAVE ...................... 38
UNLOCK ................ 41
OR ......................... 65
DELETE ................. 39
RENAME ................ 42
AND ....................... 65
MERGE .................. 43
CHAIN ................... 44
SWAP ..................... 45
ROPEN # ................ 46
INPUT # ................. 47
WOPEN # ............... 48
XOPEN # ................ 50
KILL # .................... 54
PRINT# ................. 49
DEFAULT ............... 55
INPUT # ( ) ........... 51
EOF# .................... 56
PRINT # ( ) ........... 52
LABEL ................... 57
CLOSE # ................ 53
WAIT ...................... 58
USR ....................... 62
SEARCH ................. 59
INP@ ..................... 63
OUT@ ................... 64
INIT ........................ 60
In addition to the above, there are the following differences:
CASSETIE TAPE BASIC
DISK BASIC
If the space key is pressed, the LIST
display stops, and if it is not pressed,
the LIST display continues.
Once the space key is pressed, the LIST
display stops, and, if it is pressed for a
second time, the LIST display continues.
Relative to the data file, the CASSETTE TAPE BASIC takes the format
INPUTrr, etc.
Relative to the data file, the DISK
BASIC takes the format INPUT #n,
etc ....
If, for any reason, the program execu-
If CONT is possible, Ready is dis-
tion is interrupted, Ready is always
displayed.
played.
CAS·SETTE TAPE BASIC
DISK BASIC
CONT is possible after execution of
END statement.
CONT is not possible after execution of
END statement.
IcrRLI + I]] has not effect.
IcrRLI + I]] initialize the color and console,
Neglects space between reserved words;
considers GO~TO~lO as GOTO~ 10.
aaQ il!iIlIilW~iI
PbS:;r
8~.
Does not neglect space between reserved words.
Does not consider GO~TO~lO as
GOTO~lO.
Compared to the CASSETI'E TAPE BASIC, the user area of DISK BASIC is
slightly reduced so there are some instances in which a program made in
CASSETTE TAPE BASIC cannot be read in (LOAD) and executed (RUN,
GOTO).
Because of extension, there are some instances that programs using BASIC
MONITOR with the USR function do not operate normally. The introduction of
file descriptor changes the error display partially .
• Notes concerning the control of the floppy disk
drive in MZ-700
•
System composition
t:JDisplay
CPU MZ-700
• Can be controlled also by MZ-700 by setting up the ROM explained on the next
page.
• Increase of floppy 'disk interface- ROM
• Floppy disk drive control ROM
If the DISK BASIC controls the floppy disk drive (MZ-1F02), connect the ROM chip
(see below) which is packed together with the DISK BASIC to the socket of the
floppy disk interface (MZ-IEOS: optional). If this ROM is not connected to the floppy
disk interface, the floppy disk drive cannot be controlled.
Note the following points when connecting the ROM to the interface:
• Take care not to drop, scratch or otherwise damage the ROM. Do not expose it to
a strong magnetic field.
• Take special care not to break or bend the pins of the ROM.
• Before pressing the ROM into the socket, be sure that its pins are correctly aligned
with the socket holes.
Be sure that the notches in the ROM and socket match each other before pressing
the ROM in.
Do not remove the seal attached to the ROM.
• Do not touch the pin of the ROM, because static electricity may destroy the ROM
contents.
Seal
N_-ctn
Contents
What the DISK BASIC is .................................................................... : ....... 10
Section 1: DISK BASIC Outline ................................................................. 13
1.1
Starting the DISK BASIC ................................................................. 14
1.2
How to Copy the DISK BASIC ......................................................... 15
1.3
File Control ................................................................................... 17
1.4
Sequential Access File Control .......................................................... 18
1.5
Random Access File Control ............................................................. 23
1.6
PROGRAM CHAIN (CHAIN) ......................................................... 26
1.7
PROGRAM SWAP (SWAP) ............................................................ 27
1.8
Reserved Words ............................................................................. 28
1.9
List of File Input/Output Devices ..................................................... 31
1.10
Initial Settings ................................................................................ 31
Section 2: DISK BASIC Expansion, New Commands and Statements ........... 33
DIR ........................................................................................................ 35
RUN ....................................................................................................... 36
LOAD .................................................................................................... 37
SAVE ..................................................................................................... 38
DELETE ................................................................................................. 39
LOCK ..................................................................................................... 40
UNLOCK ................................................................................................ 41
RENAME ............................................................................................... 42
MERGE .................................................................................................. 43
CHAIN ................................................................................................... 44
SWAP ..................................................................................................... 45
ROPEN # ............................................................................................... 46
INPUT # ................................................................................................. 47
WOPEN # ............................................................................................... 48
PRINT # ................................................................................................. 49
XOPEN # ............................................................................................... 50
INPUT # ( ) ........................................................................................ 51
PRINT # ( ) ........................................................................................... 52
CLOSE # ................................................................................................ 53
KILL # ................................................... :............................................... 54
DEFAULT .............................................................................................. 55
EOF(#) .................................................................................................. 56
LABEL ................................................................................................... 57
WAIT ..................................................................................................... 58
SEARCH ................................................................................................ 59
INIT ........................................................................................................ 60
USR ...................................................................................................... 62
INP@ ..................................................................................................... 63
OUT@ ................................................................................................ 64
Logical Operation ...................................................................................... 65
Section 3: BASIC Monitor Functions ......................................................... 67
3.1
Editing Format ............................................................................. 68
3.2
Printer Switch (P Command) ........................................................... 68
3.3
DUMP (D Command) ................................................................... 69
3.4
MEMORY SET (M Command) ....................................................... 69
3.5
FIND (F Command) ........................................................................ 70
3.6
3.7
GOSUB (G Command) ................................................................... 70
TRANSFER (T Command) .............................................................. 70
3.8
SAVE (S Command) ....................................................................... 70
3.9
LOAD (L Command) ...................................................................... 71
3.10
VERIFY (V Command) ................................................................... 71
3.11
RETURN (R Command) ................................................................. 71
Section 4: Application Programs ............................................................. 73
Use of the File Converter .......................................................................... 74
Section 5: DISK BASIC Summary .............................................................. 81
5.1
Summary of DISK BASIC Commands, Statements, Functions and
Operations .................................................................................... 82
5.1.1
Commands .................................................................................... 82
5.1.2
File control statements ..................................................................... 84
5.1.3
BSD control statements .................................................................... 86
5.1.4
BRD control statements ................................................................... 87
5.1.5
5.1.6
5.1.7
5.1.8
5.1.9
5.1.10
5.1.11
Error processing statements ..............................................................
Substitution statements ....................................................................
Input/output and color control statements ............................................
Loop statements .......................................................................... : ..
Branch statements ...........................................................................
Definition statements .......................................................................
Comment statements and control statements .......................................
88
89
89
91
92
93
94
5.1.12 Music control statements .................................................................. 95
5.1.13
5.1.14
5.1.15
5.1.16
5.1.17
5.1.18
5.1.19
5.2
5.3
5.4
•
Machine language program control statements ...................................... 96
Printer control statements ................................................................. 97
String control function ................................................................... 100
Tab function ................................................................................ 101
Arithmetic operators ..................................................................... 101
Comparison logic operators ............................................................. 101
Other symbols .............................................................................. 102
Error Message List (DISK BASIC) ................................................. 104
Memory Map........................................................ ..................... 107
Use of the Floppy Disk .................................................................. 108
10
What the DISK BASIC is
The DISK BASIC has a strong file control function relative to the cassette base
. BASIC. For example, it makes the most of the features of a disk base which has
high-speed read-outlwrite-in capabilities, and, more than simply serving for data
storage, the file makes it possible to use the data area directly connected to the
computer system.
Moreover, because this DISK BASIC also includes the control functions related to the
RS-232C interface, it makes it possible to control various devices, by using the
MZ-SBI03 serial interface (optional).
Thus, it can be said that the DISK BASIC is a new system software which permits the
expansion of the software range of the personal computer.
By understanding this DISK BASIC and making full use of its many functions, the
user can create a higher level system.
• File
The computer can exchange data and programs between peripheral devices (floppy
disk, cassette recorder, printer, etc.). The units of these data and programs are called
files.
•
File cl.ssificatlon
There are two types of files: data files and program files.
Data files ..... These files store numbers, characters, etc. as data.
Files
1
BASIC sequential access data files ..... BSD)
( BASIC random access data files ..... BRD
Program files ..... These files store programs just as they are.
)
BASIC text programs ..... BTX
( Machine language programs ..... OBJ
Computer systems can be thought of as either of two fundamental types of systems:
logical internal systems composed of data-processing equipment and main memories,
and external filing systems composed of processed data and program banks.
11
• Data file control
There are two types of data files, depending upon the format of file access (the method
of data read-out and write-in). One is called the sequential access file and the other is
called the random access file.
With the sequential access file, the file data access is treated as one sequential block.
The file name is specified for one group of data, and such data are accessed in order
from the heading at the time of registration or read-out of the file.
For the random access file on the other hand, the filed data are accessed at random.
One random access file is composed of one data group designated by its own file
name. Each group of data is registered in the file in a parallel arrangement, and
write-in and read-out of each data group is possible by using the number (expression)
assigned to that data.
If, for example, a collection of certain data can be handled as a connected group (such
as, for example, data consisting of a series of decimal expressions used when producing
machine language programs by BASIC POKE command and elements of tables that
can be presented in order from the heading, etc.), collection of such data in a
sequential access file can be useful and effective. The registration of data in a random
access file, on the other hand, can be useful when it is necessary to not only consider
the group of overall data but to read-out and/or write-in each element (when it is
necessary, for example, to rewrite data or to search, arrange, delete, etc.).
12
• Program file control
The BASIC program file control commands CHAIN (page 44) and SWAP (page 45)
are for read-out of another program in the memory during the execution of one
program and moving the control to that program.
As shown in the figure below, CHAIN has the same function as the <goto
"filename">. (For detailed information, please refer to page 26.)
file "DEF"
file "ABC"
PRINT "MZ-700"
10
20
,.-
10
20
PRINT "DISK BASIC"
100
END
,
,,
,
100
CHAIN "DEF"
CHAIN
SWAP has the same function as the <gosub "filename">. After execution of
movement from the currently executing program to a separate program, it is then
possible to return to the first program. (For detailed information, refer to page 27.)
file "JKL"
file "GHI"
10
PRINT "MZ-700"
20
,---
10
20
!
50
SWAP "JKL"
,
200
END
INPUT A, B
FOR A=B TO A*B
f---
IL-
i
150 END
SWAP
In addition it is also possible to control the various files as utility programs files and
commands of the machine language program files.
Section 1
DISK BASIC OUTLINE
This section explains the features of the DISK BASIC and outlines the file
controls. First of all is an explanation of the DISK BASIC starting method.
Section 2 includes a syntax explanation of the new commands and statements
which the DISK BASIC has, and Section 5 includes a summary of all commands,
statements, functions and operations which it has.
14
1.1
•
Starting the DISK BASIC
To make the DISK BASIC run, first perform initial loading by the IPL (Initial
Program Loader). The initial loading is easily executed. With the floppy disk drive
connected to the computer, switch the power supply ON and then set the disk in which
the DISK BASIC is included to drive number 1 (FDl).
After making the setting, the DISK BASIC will start when the power supply of the
computer is switched ON and F is input.
The figure below shows that DISK BASIC is started, and the BASIC command level
condition is indicated by the flashing of the cursor.
Disk
Basic
Co p y rig ht
XXXXX
bytes
nt er pr et er MZ- XXXXX
(C)
1984
by
SHARP
VX. XX
Corp.
free
Ready
•
Note:
Please specify the default device as a cassette during write-in or read-in of a program
from a cassette tape, thus starting the DISK BASIC.
DEFAULT
"CMT:"
(Refer to page 55.)
• Automatic execution of BASIC text AUTO RUN
The execution of AUTO RUN is included in the functions noted above. When the
DISK BASIC is loadeQ and the byte size which indicates the size of the text area is
displayed, the master disk is accessed once again. When the initial loading finished,
the DISK BASIC automatically executes the RUN" AUTO RUN n command, Le., the
program text with the "AUTO RUN" file name is read out from the same master disk,
and execution is from that heading. The program which defines the definable function
,
15
key is registered by this file name on the supported master disk.
In addition, because the NEW command is at the end of this program, "READY" is
displayed after execution, and the text is erased before the cursor begins flashing.
(Here, try the execution of LOAD "AUTO RUN" and check the list.)
If you want to start a certain program after the start of the DISK BASIC, the file
name of that program should be saved on the master disk as "AUTO RUN."
1.2 How to Copy the Disk Basic
Start the DISK BASIC and prepare a new floppy disk for copying.
Execute the directory of DISK BASIC (DIR: refer to page 35) and "FDCOPY".
01 R
"F 0 1 : " ICRI ......... Perform the directory of floppy disk drive number
1. The screen becomes as follows when this com-
mand is executed:
OIR
"F01:"
01 RECTORY
OF
OBJ*"OISK
F01:
BASIS
-IIIOBJ *
"F OCOPY"
I
"AUTO
iOBJ*
r--J BTX*
XXKB
Ul
FREE.
XXX)H(
i:)e.\'\.;'t>~.
"TRANS"
RUN"
I1
Ready
L_III
• Using the ill key, move the cursor to the position of the key.
(RUN "FOCOPY")
When "FDCOPY" is executed, the screen becomes as follows.
sign and press the ~
16
FD
For mat I Copy Ut i l i t Y
[ Funct i on I
di s k
For mat
F
Copy d i s k
C
Bo ot
I
[ Co mma n d
*-
are a
VX.
xx
I
Insert the floppy disk prepared into drive number 2. When "F" is pressed, the screen
becomes as follows and the drive number is asked, so specify number 2.
*F .............................. ..
Drive
No.?2
OKI
Input the drive number. In this instance, the drive
number is 2. When the drive number is input, the
*_. . . . . . . . .. . . . .. .. .
floppy disk in this drive is initialized.
Indicates the end of floppy disk initialization and
the waiting condition for the next command.
If there is SYSTEM software in the floppy disk inserted into the floppy disk drive, the
display is as follows and confirmation is asked.
This
is
For ma t
Master-Disk
[Y I NI? N
The meaning of display is as follows:
The floppy disk inserted into the 1>pecified drive
contains the SYSTEM software; is initialization
and erasure OK?
If it's OK, input Y; if it's not OK, input N.
17
*111.................................... If N is input, changes to the condition of awaiting
the next command, and, if Y is input, the floppy
disk is initialized and changes to the condition of
awaiting the next command.
If C is input, the screen becomes as follows:
*
C ............................. Copies the entire floppy disk.
Source
Drive
NO.?1
............ Specifies the drive of the inserted source disk (original
disk) (drive number 1, in this instance).
De s t
n a t ion
D r i ve
No.? 2
........... " Specifies the drive of the inserted destination disk
*
(new disk) (drive number 2, in this instance).
III .............................. Indicates the end of the entire floppy disk copying and
awaiting the next command.
Then the copying of the DISK BASIC is finished. The DISK BASIC is started when
" ! " is input.
Note:
If the source drive and the destination drive are the same, refer to REFERENCE
(page 78).
1.3
File Control
There are, as mentioned in the "File" section, 3 types of files produced by the DISK
BASIC: the 2 types of data files, sequential access files (BSD) and random access files
(BRD), and the BASIC text (BTX) program files. The other type of file: the machine
language program files (OBJ), is a file which registers programs prepared in the
MONITOR mode, etc. on the floppy disk. This can be a program by itself or it can be
linked to a BASIC text as a BASIC machine language area. Thus, even though it can
be used with the DISK BASIC, it is not a file to prepare and to change its contents
with the DISK BASIC.
18
Sequential Access File }
data file
DISK BASIC
BASIC Text Files
--:---r-------.
L .. _ _
_
}
program file.
Machine Language
Program Files
As the various file control commands are explained, first the preparation method, the
use, and the features of the 2 types of data files will be explained, followed by an
explanation of the use of the CHAIN and SWAP commands of the program files.
1.4 Sequential Access File Control
Sequential access files are data files in which the registration or read-out of data is in
the sequential access format. The sequential access format is, as mentioned previously,
a format in which access to the data is in sequential order from the heading.
The method of making a data file on a cassette file has already been explained in the
BASIC manual for the MZ-IZ013B. Sequential access for the DISK BASIC is exactly
the same except that the file is made on the disk rather than a cassette. Naturally, the
access speed is much faster, and, because several new file control commands can be
used for disk access, the breadth of useful functions for file management is also
enlarged.
First, we will compare the composition of sequential access commands for DISK
BASIC and for CASSETTE BASE BASIC.
File registration (data write-in)
DISK BASIC
File open command
Data write-in command
File close command
Cancel command
WOPEN #n, "fjJename"
PRINT #n, data
CLOSE #n
KILL #n
CASSETTE BASE BASIC
WOPEN "filename"
PRINTIT data
CLOSE
--
19
i
File call (data read-out)
DISK BASIC
CASSETIE BASE BASIC
ROPEN #n, "fjJename"
INPUT #n, variable
CLOSE #n
IF EOF (#n) THEN
File open command
Data read-out command
File close command
File end detection
ROPEN "fjJename"
INPUTfT variable
CLOSE
--
As you can see, comparison of the various commands shows an almost I-to-l
relationship. Note, however, that DISK BASIC commands always include elements
#n. These numbers are called logical numbers, and must always be designated for
DISK BASIC file access.
For
CASS~TIE
BASE BASIC, file access for data write-in or read-out is limited to
one file. For DISK BASIC, however, contains several files in order to make the best
use of its random access feature at will, so that it is possible to simultaneously control
several (maximum 10) files. And, if a file is opened, optionally selected logical
numbers can be defined and thereafter used for designation of the pertinent file,
thereby eliminating the necessity of using the file name each time.
Example:
As a simple example, let's consider the registration of a person's name and address in
the sequential access file. Thus, all available addresses can be stored one after the
other in the file.
Take, for example, the following file:
filename =
If
ADDRESS LIST"
Name
Address
Name
Address
Name
Address
I
I
I
I
I
I
,
20
The reason that the space used for each name and each address is of various lengths is
because the data registered by sequential access are not usually of a fixed length; the
length varies according to the data. For the random access files, to be explained later,
all data are stored in boxes of a fixed length of 32 bytes. If, as in this example, data are
to be handled as one group, and, as for the addresses above, 32 bytes is not sufficient,
and the lengths are different, then the use of the sequential access file is convenient.
A program can be made as described below, by INPUT command, to substitute names
and addresses alternately in string variables, register each person's file individually,
prepare an ADDRESS LIST of a total of 50 people, and then read out the prepared
file and display on the screen the names and addresses of 10 persons at a time.
Write-in
100
WO PEN
#3
I =1
"F D 1 : ADD RES S
110
FOR
120
INPUT
130
INPUT
"address"
140
PRI NT
#3,
150
NEXT
160
CLOSE
TO
LIS T"
........
50
"name="
NA$,
;NA$
=
AD$
;AD$
...........................
I
#3
Read-out
200
ROPE N
210
FOR
#4,
220
INPUT
#4,
230
PRI NT
NA$ :
240
NEXT
250
PRI NT
260
GET
270
GO
I =1
"FD1: ADDRESS
TO
5
FOR
NA$,
AD$
PRI NT
J =1
LIST"
TO
10
AD$
J
" PUSH
X$
TO
Designation of drive
number and file name
F
260
280
NEXT
290
PRI NT
I
"END"
300
CLOSE
#4
SPACE KEY"
X$
"
THEN
280
Write-intofloppydisk
•
21
• To find the data end
What would happen if the data being read-out in order from the file surpass the
number of data registered? In this case, an error does not occur. And a zero or blank
is set in the read-out variable, but there is a special function EOF (#n) (page 56)
which can detect the data end. When there is a data read-out by an INPUT command,
EOF (#n) becomes a true condition when there is no data.
As a result, if the
IF EOF (#n) THEN
command is placed after the INPUT # command, then if EOF (#n) becomes "true",
i.e. if the end of the data is found, the command after THEN will be executed.
Here use the practice problems to become sufficiently accustomed to the use of the
BSD file.
Practice problems
Problem 1
Using the program example on the previous page, change the program assuming that
the number of people registered is unknown, read-out the file 10 persons at a time
until the end of the file is reached and display them.
Example solution
The following program might, for example, be considered.
300
310
320
330
350
360
370
380
400
410
ROPEN #5, " F D1
ADDRESS LI ST"
FOR I =1 TO 1 0
INPUT #5, NA$, AD$
I F E OF ( #5) THEN 400
NEXT
PRI NT " PUSH SPACE KEY"
THEN 310
GET X$: I F X$
GOTO 370
CLOSE #5
PRI NT " F I LE END" : END
22
Problem 2
Divide, and re-register, the BSD file "ADDRESS LIST" into two: a BSD file which
registers names only and a BSD file which registers addresses only.
Example solution
ROPEN
#6,
" F D1 :
ADDRESS
510
WOPEN
#7,
" F D1 :
na me"
520
WOPEN
#8,
"F D1 :
INPUT
#6,
NA$,
500
530
540
I F
550
PRI NT
E OF
560
PRI NT
570
GOTO
600
CLOSE
610
END
( #6)
address"
AD$
THEN
#7,
NA$
#8,
AD$
LIST"
600
530
#6,
#7,
#8
Problem 3
Register the string input by INPUT command in a BSD file. But to close the file, key
input "CLOSE" and to cancel it, key input "KILL".
Example solution
100
WOPEN
#30,
"DATA
"FD1:
110
I NPUT
120
IF
A$="CLOSE"
=
130
IF
A$="KI LL"
140
PRINT
DATA"
";A$
THEN
THEN
#30,A$:GOTO
CLOSE
KI LL
110
#30: END
#30: END
23
i
1.5 Random Access File Control
Random access files are data files in which the registration or read-out of data is in the
random access format. The randoll\ access format is the format in which the access is
done by specifying the array format.
In other words, compared to the sequential access format in which access must be
from the heading of the data, the random access format can be used for access to any
data in the file at random.
In order to access data in the random access file in a specified array, PRINT # (page
49) and INPUT # (page 47) are used, as described below, as expressions following
logical numbers.
PRINT #n (expression), data
INPUT #n (expression), variable
Designation of tay element
The expression is assigned by numbers or variables.
For example, the statement
INPUT #7 (21), A$
means a command to read-out, to string variable AS, the data registered as the 21st
element of the data collected as the random access file opened by logical number #7.
Note that random access files in which data such as this can be accessed have the
condition that all data must be
register~d
at a fixed length, Le., when numbers or
string variables are registered in the file, they must each be set within a "box" with a
limited length of 32 bytes.
expression ~
32-byte fixed length
~
Random access
3
file
4
- { 5
6
+. 12345678+ElO
+-
Variable A=O. 12345678+ElO
+- String "ABCDEFGHI"
ABCDEFGHI
I-Ac::B-=C_ _ _ _ _--t :.- String "ABC"
:
For numerical variables, even exponential expressions are always stored within the
32-byte length, but, because string variables can be as long as 249 bytes, a string which
exceeds 32 bytes cannot be registered in one data element of a random access file.
One other point which is different from sequential access files is that even though a file
24
11
may be once closed and in the registered.condition, that same file can be made larger.
The random access file "RND 1", for example, in which up to 20 expressions have
been registered, can be enlarged to a file with 30 "boxes" by registering data as 30 new
expressions.
"RND I"
1
2
3
a In addition, .
data are registered by -----1~
expression = 30.
•
Enlargement
possible
•
"RND I"
1
2
3
20
30
Example:
Let's take an example in which, by using a random access file, a simple stock list file is
to be made. Each product is assigned a fixed number from 1 to 50, and the file will
have four items: product name, unit price, number in stock, total price (unit price x
number in stock) and comments.
In order to register the stock data for each product, first the product number is input,
and then the information to be registered for each item is input.
The program execution is ended, however, when "0" is input.
Registration of stock data
100
XOPEN
#5,
110
INPUT
"product
120
IF
130
I NPUT
"product
name="; N$
140
INPUT
"uni t
ce="; P
150
INPUT
"i nventory
160
I N PUT
" c 0 mme n t ="; C $
170
180
T =P* S
PRINT
190
GOTO
K=O
300
CLOSE
310
END
"STORELIST"
THEN
no.";K
300
pr
count
"
S
#5(K*5-4),N$,P,S,T,C$
110
#5
25
The random access file prepared in that way would be as follows. If product no.
K=12, 5 data are registered in elements corresponding to array expressions 56 - 60.
Data position
a expression
KJl:5-4} _ _ _
K=12
d ata
~
55
56
57
N$ ..... product name
p ..... unit price
S ..... inventory count
T ..... total amount
C$ ..... comment
58
59
60
BRD file
"STORE LIST"
61
In this way, then, data can be set in any specified array in the file. As a result, unlike
the sequential access file, in which data is overlaid in order from the heading, it is also
possible for there to be vacant addresses in the filed data.
And, because data can be accessed at will, it is also possible to easily rewrite data.
Use the practice problem to become accustomed to the use of the BRD file.
Problem
Let's read-out the random access file "STORE LIST" made here and read-out the
inventory data for a certain product.
The program execution is ended, however, when "0" is input.
Read out of inventory data
500
XOPEN
#7,
"STORE LI ST"
no. ="; J : I F
J =0
5 10
INPUT
" pro d u c t
520
INPUT
#7( J*5-4), N$, P, S, T, C$
530
PRI NT
" NO. "; J : PR I NT
540
PR I NT
"u n i
550
PRI NT
"i nventory
560
PR I NT
"t
0
t aI
"c
0
mme n t
570
P R I NT
580
GOTO
700
CLOSE
710
E NO
price
"p rod u c t
THE N
n a me
700
"; N$
";P
count"
a mo u n t
S
"; T
"; C $
510
#7
In this way then, even for many products, the inventory data can be quickly read-out
by inputting the product number.
26
1.6 Program Chain (CHAIN)
Next, following the data file control commands, will be an explanation of program file
controls. The commands explained here are CHAIN (page 44) and SWAP (page 45).
When these commands are used, the program is registered on the floppy disk in job
units and, while the program is being run, a separate program can be read-out and
control moved to it, i.e., a program can be connected (CHAIN) to a program
registered on the floppy disk, and can be read-out (SWAP) in the form of a sub
routine. The CHAIN command, which connects and links the programs, will be
explained first.
The form of a CHAIN command can be, for example, as follows:
700 CHAI N "F01: TeXT 2"
This statement means that the program currently within the text area is made NEW
(although the variable will be retained), the "TEXT 2" file registered on the floppy
disk in drive number 1 is to be overlaid (that is, to overlay text areas and be read out),
and control is moved to the heading of that text.
When this statement is executed, control will move away from the BASIC text now
running, newly read out the "TEXT 2" text, and control will move to that heading.
When the program CHAIN is executed, the variable, and the function defined by
DEF FN, will be transferred to the CHAIN destination program.
The CHAIN command function can be taken as <goto "filename"> .
. file "ABC"
10 PRINT "SUNDAY"
,
~
file "DEF"
10 INPUT A,S
2i PRINT A, B
-
:
100 CHAIN "DEF"
r-
300 CHAIN "GHI"
When the CHAIN command is used, a large program (even a huge program which
exceeds the BASIC text area) can be divided and, as shown in the figure above, can be
connected. When one program is finished, the data are left as is, and the following
programs are chained one after another.
The CHAIN command can be considered indispensable if complicated and diversified
data must be processed.
27
1.7 Program Swap (SWAP)
Program files on the floppy disk are read-in to the memory, and control is moved to
this program, by SWAP command but, when this program is finished, the original
program (the program which did the SWAP command) can be reset. This movement is
exactly in the same way as the sub-routine in the program, and the reset to the original
program becomes a return to the next command, which did the SWAP command. As a
result, the SWAP command can be taken as <gosub "filename">.
In order for this operation to be made, the program which has the SWAP command is
temporarily shunted to the floppy disk during SWAP execution. Then the program
area is made NEW, and another program is read in. After the end of the other
program, the original program is read in. The usual form of the SWAP command is:
SWAP" FDn : filename"
This is a command to SWAP the sub-program designated by the "filename" registered
on the floppy disk in drive number n (n = 1 - 4), and the shunting of the program
prior to the read-in of the other program is done on the floppy disk in the drive set by
the default condition. Therefore, a floppy disk on which it is possible to temporarily
write-in the program text must be set in that drive. The SWAP level must not exceed
the 1 level.
In order to understand the SWAP command, let's take a simple example and follow
the movement of the program file.
Program now in text area
10
REM
20
M1 $
COMPOSER
~.
" A 7 B 6 + C3 A 7 A 3 "
30
M2$="B+C+D+E 6A3"
40
M3 $ = " + F 6 A 3 +E 7
50
PR I NT
60
SWAP
70
PRINT
80
END
"P L AY
H
T HE
CELL 0"
"FD2: PLAYER"
"VERY
GOOD"
28
Program file "PLAYER"
10
REM
20
MUSI C
CELLO
30
PRI NT"OK7"
40
E NO
PLAYER
M1$, M2$, M3$
On slave disk in drive number 2
First, "COMPOSER" is within text area and is executed.
Dr:ve
~
Text area
2
File
Corn oser
"PL:'{'y THE CELLO"
"PLAYER"
The text is first shunted to the disk in FDl taking DIR by the SWAP command of line
number 60, and the area is made NEW.
r----------,~r-l~lr(C~O-M-P-O~SE~R~)1
I I2
1--_NEW
_ _- - '
. "PLAYER"
.
Next, BTX "PLAYER" is overlaid and executed. The melody is played.
Text
"PLAYER"
At the end, the shunted COMPOSER is reset and says "VERY GOOD."
Reset
I
r-1-!-·C-~-M-PO--SE-R-..-'r1r--r-I,,-p-LA-Y-E-R-.....,: ~~~~e~OOD..
1.8
Reserved Words
The DISK BASIC text is composed of reserved words, also called key-words, the
operand, separator and data. The DISK BASIC the reserved words, which are special
words to execute certain determined functions, and commands, statements and
functions are appropriate to these words.
Because the reserved words are certain words used in order to execute special
commands, the programmer cannot use them as names of variables, arrays, etc. Next
page shows a listing in alphabetical order of all of the DISK BASIC reserved words.
(The numbers to the right of the reserved words indicate the reference page.)
When there is a (MZ) notation, refer to the Personal Computer OWNER'S
MANUAL or to the DISK BASIC SUMMARY of this manual.
29
161
ABS ............................... MZ
K]
GET ............................... MZ
AND ................................ 65
GOSUB .......................... MZ
ASC ............................... MZ
GOTO ............................ MZ
ATN ............................... MZ
GPRINT ......................... MZ
AUTO ............................ MZ
!HI
HSET ............................ MZ
AXIS .............................. MZ
rn
IF .................................. MZ
!HI
ByE· ............................... MZ
INIT ................................. 60
~
CHAIN ............................. 44
INP@ .............................. 63
CHR$ ............................. MZ
INPUT ............................ MZ
CIRCLE ......................... MZ
INPUT # .......................... 47
CLOSE # ........................ MZ
INPUT # (
CLR .............................. MZ
INPUTrr ......................... MZ
CLS ................................ MZ
COLOR .......................... MZ
INT ................................ MZ
!KI
~
~
[1J
LABEL ............................. 57
COS ............................... MZ
LEFT$ ............................ MZ
CURSOR ........................ MZ
LEN .............................. MZ
DATA ............................ MZ
LET ............................... MZ
DEFAULT ........................ 55
LIMIT ........................... MZ
DEFFN .......................... MZ
LINE .............................. MZ
DEFKEY ....................... MZ
LIST ......................... ~ ..... MZ
DELETE .......................... 39
LIST/P ............................ MZ
DIM .............................. MZ
LN ................................ MZ
DIR ................................. 35
LOAD .............................. 37
END ............................. MZ
LOCK .............................. 40
EOF (#) ........................... 56
LOG ............................. MZ
ERL .............................. MZ
!El
KEY LIST ....................... MZ
KILL # ............................. 54
CONSOLE ...................... MZ
CONT ............................ MZ
) .................... 51
M
MERGE ........................... 43
ERN ............................... MZ
MID$ ............................. MZ
ERROR .......................... MZ
MODEGR ...................... MZ
EXP ............................... MZ
MODE TL ...................... MZ
FOR ............................... MZ
MODETN ...................... MZ
MODE TS ....................... MZ
30
MOVE ............................ MZ
1Nl
RLINE ........................... MZ
MUSIC ........................... MZ
RMOVE ......................... MZ
NEW .............................. MZ
RND .............................. MZ
NEXT ............................. MZ
ROPEN # ......................... 46
NOT ................................. 65
IQ]
~
ON ................................. MZ
SAVE ............................... 38
OR ................................... 65
SEARCH .......................... 59
OUT@ ............................ 64
SET ................................ MZ
PAGE ............................ MZ
SGN .............................. MZ
PAl ................................ MZ
SIN ............................... MZ
PCOLOR ........................ MZ
SIZE .............................. MZ
PEEK ............................. MZ
SKIP ............................. MZ
PHOME ......................... MZ
SPC ............................... MZ
PLOT OFF ..................... MZ
SQR .............................. MZ
PLOT ON ....................... MZ
STOP ............................. MZ
POKE ............................. MZ
STR$ .............................. MZ
PRINT ........................... MZ
SWAP .............................. 45
PRINT # ........................... 49
TAB ............................... MZ
PRINT # ( ) .................... 52
TAN ............................... MZ
PRINT USING ................ MZ
TEMPO .......................... MZ
PRINT/P ........................ MZ
TEST ............................. MZ
PRINTIT ......................... MZ
THEN ............................ MZ
PRINT [€x,
!RI
RUN ................................ 36
[S]
~]
TI$ ................................. MZ
................... MZ
RAD .............................. MZ
I1JJ
USR ................................ 62
READ ............................ MZ
REM .............................. MZ
IYI
~
RESUME ....................... MZ
RETURN ....................... MZ
RIGHT$ ......................... MZ
WOPEN # ........................ 48
WAIT ............................... 58
RESET ........................... MZ
RESTORE ...................... MZ
VAL ............................... MZ
VERIFY ......................... MZ
RENAME ......................... 42
RENUM ......................... MZ
UNLOCK .......................... 41
IXI
XOPEN # ......................... 50
XOR ................................ 65
31
~----------------------~--------------------------~--~~
1.9 Table of File Input/Output Devices
Indicates the DISK BASIC descriptors
.'
Floppy disk
Cassette tape
RS232C
FDl: - FD4:
CMT:
RS1: - RS2:
CHAIN
CLOSE #
DEFAULT
DELETFlRENAME
DIR
INIT
INPUT #
KILL #
LOAD/SAVE
LOCKlUNLOCK
MERGE
PRINT #
ROPEN #
RUN
SWAP
WOPEN#
XOPEN #
0
0
O·
0
0
x
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
O.
0
0
x
0
0
x
x
0
0
OPEN limit
OPEN is possible for as many as 10 devices.
-
device name
x
x
x
0
~
x
0
0
0
0
x
0
x
•
x
x
x
0
0
x
x
0
x
Including RIW. 1 file only
• Format of rde descriptor
Composed of "<Device Name> <Filename>", <Option>
1.10 Initial Settings
The default values of system variables, etc. are set as follows when the DISK BASIC is
started by the IPL:
• File descriptor
Initialization is set for the device which started the DISK BASIC.
• Keyboard related
1) Operation mode: normal
2) Lower case character input is at the normal mode shift position.
3) The defineable function key is set as follows by BTX "AUTO RUN."
32
DEF
KE Y( 1 ) =" RUN
DEF
KE Y( 2) =" II ST"
DEF
KE Y( 3) =" AUTO"
+CHR$(13)
DEF
KEY(4) ="RENUM"
DEF
KE Y( 5) =" 01 R"
DEF
KE Y( 6) ="CHR$( "
DEF
KE Y( 7) ="DEFKEY("
DEF
KE Y( 8) ="CONT"
DEF
KE Y( 9) =" SAVE
DEF
KEY( 10) ="lOAD
• eRT display related
1) Character display mode: normal (background: black)
2) Character display digit count: 40 characters/line
3) Character display scrolling area: maximum (from line 0 to line 24)
• Internal clock
Starts at TI$="OOOOOO" initialization
• Music functions
1) Tempo default value: (moderate tempo, moderato)
2) Default value: (quarter note,
J
• Other
1) Array variables: All undefined
2) BASIC text area upper limit: number $FFFF (i.e., LIMIT MAX condition)
•
Section 2
DISK BASIC EXPANSION,
NEW COMMANDS AND STATEMENTS
34
In this section each statement, function and system variable is explained. How to
describe is explained in FORMAT. This symbols have the following meanings:
< > : Indicates the general description, such as, variables and data. Describes the
most generic meaning.
Notes:
<variable> includes <array element>.
<variable> includes <numerical variables> and <character variable>.
<data> includes <variable> and <constant>.
[1 : Indicates that tlie part enclosed by [ 1can be omitted.
[ 1 ... : Indicates that the part enclosed by [ 1... can be omitted or more than one
repetition is possible.
{AB}
: Choose one, A or B.
35
DIR (directory)
Displays directory contents.
i
Format:
i,
DIR [/P] [<device name>]
II
Note: Only FDn device name.
11
Abbreviated form:
!II
DI.
i
I'
Explanation:
• Displays information, i.e., directory contents, relative to files registered in each
device.
• When the <device name> is abbreviated, the device is considered to be designated
by DEFAULT statement.
• When JP is described, the contents of the directory are output to the printer.
• The devices designated by DIR are the same ones that have been explained in the
DEFAULT statement.
Examples:
DI R
" F D 1 . " or DIR FD1
..... Outputs on the screen the directory of the file registered in the floppy disk (drive
number 1).
DIR/P
"FD1:"orDIR/PFD1
..... Outputs to the printer the directory of the file registered in the floppy disk (drive
number 1).
I
Reference:
DEFAULT (page 55)
36
I
RUN (run)
Executes the I!rogrilm.
Format:
RU N " [<device name> :] <file name> " [{
~:~~f
]
Note: Only FDn or CMT device name.
Abbreviated form:
R.
Explanation:
• When a description of the <filename> follows the RUN command, BASIC is
initialized (same as NEW command), the BASIC program memorized as a file is
read out, and then the program from the heading is executed, continuing to the
floppy disk, etc.
• For RUN only, the program within the text area is executed.
• The specifying file is limited to the BTX or OBJ files.
•
If option "A" is applied, BSD file is considered as ASCII format and is executed.
And if option "R" is applied, read-in is executed putting the memory in the same
condition as read-in from OBJ file IPL. This "R" option is necessary when using
the 9BJ program of MZ-80K series.
Example:
RUN
"FD1:PROG"
..... Reads out and executes file named "PROG" on floppy disk.
37
LOAD (load)
Reads out the program file.
Format:
LOAD" [<device name> :] <filename> " [<,A>]
Note: Only FDn or CMT device name
Abbreviatied form:
LO.
Explanation:
• Reads out program from external memory device.
• Specifies the file to be read out depending upon the <device name> and
<filename> description.
•
If the device specified by the DEFAULT statement is designated, the <device
•
If option "A" is applied, BSD file is considered as ASCII format and is read in.
name> can be omitted.
After read-in, time is required for conversion.
• The filename must not be omitted, but from cassette tape a call out is possible
even when the file name is omitted.
Examples:
LOAD
"FD1
MZ - 700"
..... The file named "MZ-700" is read out from the floppy disk (drive number 1).
LOAD
"c MT :
MZ - 700 "
..... The file named "MZ-700" is read out from the cassette tape.
•
38
SAVE (save)
Registers the program as a file.
Format:
SAVE" [<device name> :] <filename> " [<,A>]
Note: Only FDn or CMT device name.
Abbreviated form:
SA.
Explanation:
• Registers the program as a file on the floppy disk, etc.
• If the device designated by the DEFAULT statement is specified, the <device
name> can be omitted.
• If option "A" is applied, the SAVE is as ASCiI format.
The file is saved as a BSD file, so take care not to assign a filename which would be
confused with the data file made by WOPEN # and PRINT # statements.
• The file type created by the SAVE command is a BTX or BSD file.
• The <file name> cannot be omitted.
Example:
SAVE
"FD1:PROG"
..... Puts the file name "PROG" in the program on the floppy disk (drive number 1)
and registers it. The type of registered file becomes BTX.
39
DELETE (delete)
Deletes desianated file.
Format:
DELETE" [<device name> :] <filename>
n
Note: Only FDn device name.
Abbreviated form:
D.
Explanation:
• When the device name is omitted, processing proceeds relative to device designated
by DEFAULT statement.
Example:
DELETE "FD1: SAMPLE"
..... Deletes "SAMPLE" file of floppy disk (drive number 1).
40
LOCK (lock)
Perform the protection (lock) of the file.
Format:
LOCK " [<device name> : ] <filename> "
Note: Only FDn device name.
Abbreviated form:
LOC.
Explanation:
• If the file is locked, this file is fixed on the floppy disk and it will not accept any
change commands. For instance, DELETE and RENAME commands and data
write-in are prohibited. Put a lock on any file which you don't want to destroy or
change.
• The"
*"
mark is displayed before the file specs in the directory display on locked
files.
For example:
LOCK
"SAMPLE"
If the command above is executed, the file is. locked and the directory display is as
follows:
*
L
"SAMPLE"
sign to indicate file locking.
• Locking can be cancelled by the UNLOCK statement.
Example:
LOCK
"FD1:SAMPLE"
..... Locks the file named SAMPLE on file set in drive number 1.
41
UNLOCK (unlock)
Unlocks the specified locked file.
Format:
UNLOCK" [<device name> :] <filename>"
Note: Only FDn device name.
Explanation
• Unlocks the specified locked file.
Example:
UNLOCK
"SAMPLE"
..... releases the lock of file named SAMPLE
42
I
RENAME \rename)
Changes the filename.
-
Format:
RENAME • [
<dev i ce
,
Rue>:] • " <old filename> " , "<new filename> "
Note: Only FDn device name.
Abbreviated form:
RENA.
Explanation:
• The file name change specifies the current filename and the new filename, in that
order.
• The new file name becomes an error if a file of the same name exists in that device.
Example:
RENAME
"F01: OLOPROG", "NEWPROG"
..... The filename "OLDPROG" in the floppy disk file is changed to "NEWPROG".
43
MERGE (merge)
A-,»rogram in the file is added to a program in the memory..
Format:
MERGE [" [<device name> :] < filename > "] [<,A>]
Note: Only FDn or CMT device name.
Abbreviated form:
ME.
Explanation:
• Reads in the program in the file designated by the <device name>, adding it after
the
progra~
currently in the memory.
• If the <device name> is omitted, the file of the device designated by the
DEFAULT statement will be read in.
• If line number of the program within the computer is the same as the line number
of the program read in from the file, the program from the file has priority, and the
former program will be deleted.
• If option "A" is applied, the BSD file is considered as ASCII format and is merged.
Examples:
Program in the memory
"PROG" program on floppy disk
10
B =2
10
A=1
30
PRI
20
PRI
50
END
40
END
NT
B
NT
A
..... when these are merged by MERGE "FDl: PROG", the result is as follows.
10
A=1
20
PR I
30
PR I
40 END
50 END
NT A
NT B
44
CHAIN (chain)
Movement of execution from active program to program in file
Format:
CHAIN" [<device name> :] <filename> "
Note: Only FDn or CMT device name.
Abbreviated form:
CH.
Explanation:
• The execution of the program is moved from the currently active program to a
different program in the file.
• The CHAIN statement is also considered to be a file opening.
• Although the CHAIN statement has a function similar to the execution of the RUN
command in a program, the variables, arrays, etc. of the original program are
transferred to the new program without change when there is a chain.
Example:
10
A=l
20
8 =2
30
CHAI N
40
END
"F D 1
PROG"
..... The program of the file named "PROG" on the floppy disk in the floppy disk
drive (drive number 1) is executed.
In this instance, the value of variables A and B don't change; A=1, B=2.
45
SWAP (swap)
Calls out a program in the file during execution of the program.
Format:
SWAP
11
[<device name> :] <filename>
11
Note: Only FDn device name.
Abbreviated form:
SW.
Explanation:
• Subroutine calls separate program in file from program being executed. Program in
program area is temporarily evacuated to vacant area in floppy disk, and called
program is read into text area. The original variable in the text area at this time is
transferred to the called program. (See page 27.)
• An error occurs if a write-protect seal is put on the default drive floppy disk.
Example:
10
20
30
,--.40
A=1: B =2
PR I NT
SWAP
PR I NT
11
11
A = "; A,
11
~!';~cf}·i:.,·.
F D 2 : PRO G'" . j
11
A=
11 •
,A,
11
50
END
10
20
A=A*10:B=B*10
END
.. ""
.,
•
./i~~
"
"
B.:=,. 1'~'~ii.~,,~'
(SWAP
FD2
PROG)
..... When this program is executed, A = 1 and B = 1 are displayed on CRT screen
when line 20 is executed. At line 30, the SWAP command is executed and the
program file "PROG" in floppy disk drive 2 is executed. At end, automatically
returns to original program, A = 10 and B = 20 are displayed when line 40 is
executed, and program execution finishes.
46
ROPEN # (read open)
Opens the BSO file for read-out.
Format:
ROPEN # <logical number>, "[<device name>:] < filename> "
Note: Only FDn, CMT, or RSn device name.
Abbreviated form:
RO.#
Explanation:
• Opens the file so that filed data can be read out.
• The ROPEN # statement has an order for data read-out; it specifies the file to be
read out, specifying by <device name> and <filename>.
•
When the <device name> is omitted, the device designated by the DEFAULT
statement is specified.
•
When" RS J 1 \ :" is specified, input is specified to RS-232C.
\21
Examples:
10
ROPEN
#1,
"FD1:DATA"
..... The floppy disk's (drive number 1) BSD file "DATA" is read out.
10
ROPEN
#1,
• ftSl: •
I
..... The input by INPUT commane is set to RS-232C.
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
"DATA"
ROPEN #2,
FOR I =1 TO 99
I NP UT #2, A
PR I NT A
NEXT I
CLOSE #2
END
..... The file made by WOPEN # command is read out and data are displayed.
References:
INPUT #
WOPEN #
CLOSE #
EOF(#)
(page
(page
(page
(page
47)
48)
53)
56)
47
INPUT # (Input)
Reads out data from BSO file.
Format:
INPUT # <logical number>,<variable>,<variable>, .....
Abbreviated form:
1.#
Explanation:
• Reads out data in sequence from heading of file opened for read-out by ROPEN #
statement and is set to <variable>.
• <variable> may be array element.
• The file which reads out the data becomes the file set to <logical number> by
ROPEN # statement.
• In the same way as for READ - DATA statements, error is generated if data and
<variable> data type do not coincide.
• The end of the file data can be determined by the EOF function.
However, for FD device only.
Example:
#2, "DATA"
10
ROPEN
20
I NP UT
#2,A,B,C
30
PRI NT
A,B,C
40
CLOSE
#2
50
END
..... Reads out numerical data from BSD file opened for read-out by logical number 2,
and substitutes to numerical variables A, Band C.
References:
ROPEN # (page 46)
CLOSE # (page 53)
EOF (#)
(page 56)
48
WOPEN # (write open)
Opens the files for write-in.
Format:
WOPEN # <logical number>, " [<device name> :] <filename> "
Note: Only FDn, CMT, or RSn device name.
Abbreviated form:
WO. #
Explanation:
• This is a statement to prepare for file write-in; it specifies the file's logical number
and name.
• If the <device name> is omitted, processing occurs relative to the device specified
by the DEFAULT statement.
• When RS is specified for the device' name, the filename can be omitted.
Examples:
1 0 WOP EN #1," F 01 : OAT A"
..... Opens the "DATA" file defined to logical number 1 for write-in.
1 0 WOP EN # 1, "R S 1 : "
..... Output by the PRINT # command is set in RS-232C.
10
20
30
40
50
60
WOPEN #2, "DATA"
FOR I =1 TO 99
PRI NT #2,
NEXT
CLOSE #2
END
..... 1 - 99 count is written into the file.
References:
PRINT # (page
ROPEN # (page
CLOSE # (page
INPUT # (page
49)
46)
53)
47)
49
PRINT # (print)
Writes data in BSD files.
Format:
PRINT # <logical number>, <data> [, <data> ] ...
Abbreviated form:
R.#
Explanation:
• Writes data in order into files opened by the WOPEN # statement for write-in.
• Files into which data are to be written are to be correctly specified by the logical
number when opened.
• (Data) are numerical value data or character data.
Example:
10
WOPEN
# 1 , " DATA"
20
PRI NT
# 1 , 1 , 2, 3
30
CLOS
40
END
#1
..... Numerical data 1, 2 and 3 are written in the file that has been opened to write in
logical number 1.
References:
WOPEN # (page 48)
CLOSE # (page 53)
50
XOPEN # (cross open)
Opens BRD file for read-out and
Format:
XOPEN # <logical number>," [<device name> :] <filename> "
Note: Only FDn device name.
Abbreviated form:
X.#
Explanation:
Opens the random access data file (BRD), and opens (cross opens) theread-out/writein of the random access data. Newly registers BRD files, prepares for data read-out
from, and new data write-in to, the BRD file, and defines the logical number for file
access.
Examples:
10
XOPEN
#1," FD1: DATA"
20
NPUT" pr oduct
30
F
40
NPUT
"product
50
NPUT
"unit
60
INPUT
"st ock
70
I NPUT
"comment ="; CS
80
T
K=O
THEN
= P*S
PR I NT # 1
90
100
GOTO
110
CL OS E
120
END
(K
no. ="; K
110
name=";NS
price=";P
*
amount ="S
5 -4) , N$, P, S, T, C $
20
#1
..... Cross opens (read-out, write-in) BRD files. The 5 items of input (product name,
unit price, amount in stock, total amount (T = total amount (P
comment are registered in the BRD file "DATA".
*
S», and
51
INPUT # (
)(input)
Reads out data from BRD file.
Format:
INPUT # <logical number>, «data element number», <variable> [,<variable>, ... ]
Abbreviated form:
1.#(
)
Explanation:
• The data of the position designated by the data element number are read from the
file cross-opened by the XOPEN # statement into the designated variable. It
makes no difference if the variable is an array variable.
• The file which reads out the data becomes the file set to <logical number> by the
XOPEN # statement.
• In the same way as for the READ - DATA statements, an error will be generated
if the data and the <variable> data type do not coincide.
• The end of the file data can be detemined by EOF function.
• The data element position is from 1 - n.
Example:
1 0 XOPEN #2, 11 F D 1 : DATA 11
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
Z =3
#2 ( Z) , 1 0
THEN
E OF ( #2)
INPUT
I F
PRI NT
80
S
Z =Z +5
30
CLOSE #2
GOTO
Data ele~::: :::::i::-=: 11121~ 41516171~191101111121~llt~~
..... When this program is executed, the data at positions
CD, @ and @ data positions
indicated by Z in the figure are read in and displayed in order. When the data
end, the EOF # function becomes truth at line 40, and jumps to line 80.
Reference:
PRINT # (
) (page 52)
52
PRINT # (
) (print)
Writes in data to BRD files.
Format:
PRINT # <logical number>, «data element number», <data> [, <data>, ... ]
Abbreviated form:
P.#(
)
Explanation:
Writes in contents specified by variable or numerical value to data position specified
by data element number from file cross opened by XOPEN # statement. Variable may
be array variable.
The file which writes in the data becomes the file specified to (logical number) by the
XOPEN # statement.
The data are numerical data or character data.
The possible write-in data length is 32 bytes and the data element position is from 1 -
n.
Example:
10
XOPEN
20
FOR
30
PRINT
Z=3
40
NEXT
50
CLOSE
Data
#4,
#4
"FD1:DATA"
TO
13
STEP
5
(Z),O
Z
#4
ele~:~: ::!:~:= 11121~ 41516171~191101111121~1141 ~~~
..... When this program is executed, data "0" are written in at the G), @ and
position indicated by Z, as shown in the figure.
Reference:
INPUT # ( ) (page 51)
<ID data
53
CLOSE # (close)
Closes the file.
Format:
CLOSE [# <logical number>]
Abbreviated form:
CLO.#
Explanation:
• Closes the data file opened by the logical number; returns this number to the
non-define a condition.
• CLOSE relative to XOPEN #
Closes the BRD file opened for read-outlwrite-in and returns all logical numbers
used to the non-defined condition.
• CLOSE relative to WOPEN #
Registers formally the BSD file opened for write-in; and returns the logical number
used to the non-defined condition.
• CLOSE relative to ROPEN #
Closes the BSD file opened for data read-out; and returns the logical number used
to the non-defined condition.
• When logical number not specified, closes all currently open files, and returns all
logical numbers to non-defined condition.
• When do not specify logical number, closes all currently open files; logical numbers
are returned to non-defined condition.
Examples:
10 CLOSE#1
..... Closes logical number #1 file.
20 CLOSE
..... Closes all files.
References:
XOPEN # (page 50)
WOPEN # (page 48)
ROPEN # (page 46)
54
I
KILL # (kill)
Stops file registration.
Format:
KILL [# <logical number>]
Abbreviated form:
KI.#
Explanation:
• Stops registration of the file opened to <logical number>. In other words, the file
making is prepared by the XOPEN # or WOPEN # statement, or stops, during
registration, the formal registration of the file thereafter executing the PRINT #
( ) or PRINT #.
• If the <logical number> is not designated, the formal registration of the file
currently being made is stopped and, in addition;all files already opened are closed
and all <logical numbers> are returned to the non-defined condition.
• Because the KILL command can be used as a direct execution command, this
command can be executed directly prior to exchange of the cassette tape, floppy
disk. In order to thereby protect the contents of all files by closing them.
Examples:
200
KI LL
#3
..... Kills the file opened by the logical number 3.
300
KI LL
..... Kills all files opened.
Reference:
XOPEN # (page 50)
WOPEN # (page 48)
55
DEFAULT (default)
Sets device names.
Format:
DEFAULT" <device name>: "
Note: Only FDn, CMT, or RSn device name.
Abbreviated form:
OEF.
Explanation:
• Defines available device name if <device name> is omitted by command
statement.
• The device name reading DISK BASIC is defined in FDl.
• Device names are as follows.
F On :
floppy disk (n = 1 - 4)
C MT :
cassette tape
RS{; \:
RS-232C interface (n = 1 - 2)
Examples:
DEFAULT
"CMT:"
..... Considered to be cassette tape if <device name> is omitted in each command.
DE F AUL T
"F 02: "
..... Considered to be floppy disk (drive 2) if (device name) is omitted in each
command.
56
EOF (#) (end of file)
Function to locate end of data file data.
Format:
EOF (# <logical number»
Abbreviated form:
EO.(#
Explanation:
• The function used to determine the end of the data for file read-out.
• When read-out continues after the end of data in the data file, there is no error
generation, and 0 or null ("
") is provided as the data value.
• Error is generated, however, when data are read out from CMT.
• This function is used in combination with the IF statement and placed after each
INPUT statement.
Example
10
ROPEN
20
I NPUT#3,A
#3," DATA"
30
IF
40
PR I NT
50
GOTO
EOF( #3) THEN
END
A
20
..... With this program data are read-out in sequence from the "DATA" file and are
displayed on the screen. And, if the read-out data are out of file, this process
should be end.
57
LABEL (label)
Sets the label.
Format:
LABEL" <label name> "
<label name> : character line to 249 characters
Abbreviated form:
LA.
Explanation:
•
It is possible to set a label which expresses the branch destination of the GOTO
statement, GOSUB, etc. In this way, the program can be made easier to see and
easier to understand.
Example:
10
20
30
40
100
110
120
PRI NT "SAMPLE"
GOSUB "ABC"
PRI NT "END"
END
LABEL "ABC"
PRI NT "LABEL SAMPLE"
RE'TURN
..... The line number 20 GOSUB statement branch destination is set to the "ABC"
label on line number 100. As a result, the subroutine after the line number 100 is
called out by the GOSUB statement.
58
WAIT (wait)
Interrupts the program execution for a definite time.
Format:
WAIT <numerical data>
Abbreviated form:
W.
Explanation:
• Interrupts the program execution for the time period specified by (numerical data).
The unit is 111000 second.
Example:
10
WAI T
100
..... Interrupts the program execution for 0.1 (100/1000) second.
59
SEARCH (search)
Searches the character data through the text.
Format:
SEARCH [IP) <character data>
Abbreviated form:
SE.
Explanation:
• Searches for and finds the character data specified in the <character data> through
the program text and displays it on the screen.
• When the space key is pressed during execution, the display stops temporarily;
when the key is pressed once again, the execution is started again.
• The execution is stopped by ISHIFTI + IBREAKI .
• Uflfler ease aRa lewsr esse llilulilfs eaRRet be disclimindled withIn <character
~-T-tnts,
"see" aRe" c).BC" anI
~gRsiQ@F@a
te 88 the sl'lft'le ehalaetel el'lta.
• If double quotation marks are used, CHRS (34) is used as the <character data>.
• When IP is specified, data are printed by the printer, not displayed on the screen.
Example:
SEARCH
"ABC"
..... Searches for and finds, in the program text, the line including the character data
"ABC", and displays it on the screen.
SEARCH
"PRI NT"+CHR$( 34) +"A"+CHR$( 34)
..... Searches for and finds the line including the character data PRINT" A".
60
INIT (Initialize)
Sets the RS mode.
Format:
INIT"RS{~
}
<monitoring code>, <initialization setting code>(,<end code>] "
Explanation:
• Sets the mode of RS-232C
<Monitoring code>
7
6
5
lID
DCD reception monitoring
DCD transmission monitoring
CTS transmission monitoring
Not used. Usually O.
RTS OFF transmission enable.
All character transmission out monitoring.
<Initialization setting code>
5
4
3
2
o
1..-_ _ _ p .
anty
L
_______
.
Stop bIt
00
01
10
11
1
-
non parity
odd parity
non parity
even parity
00 - not used
01 - 1 stop bit
10 _ 1 + 112 stop bit
1
11 - 2 stop bits
Not used. Usually 0
' - - Transmission/reception character length
0 -,~ bitslCHR
{ 1 ~'bitslCHR
<ending code>
Values from 0 - 255 ($00 - $FF)
61
<breference>
To exchange information between two MZ-700s, prepare a cable provided with the
following connections:
Signal name
Pin number
TXD
2
RXD
3
RTS
4
ers
5
DTR
6
DCD
7
Ground
1,8
--~--
Pin number
Signal name
2
TXD
3
RXD
4
RTS
~--
7~
5
crs
6
DTR
7
DCD
1,8
Ground
• Both are used in the terminal mode. (Refer to RS-232C user's manual.)
• The following are programs to transmit/receive numbers from 0 to 9, the contents
of A$, when exchanging information between two MZ-700s.
<transmission side>
<Reception side>
10
I NI T
"RS1 :$00,$8C"
10
I NI T
"RS1:$00, $8C"
"0123456789"
20
ROPEN
#1 , " R S 1 : DATA"
20
A$
30
INPUT
#1 , A$
30
\l\K)PEN
#1 , "RS 1 : "
40
PRI NT
A$
40
PRI NT
#1, A$
50
CLOSE
#1
50
CLOSE
#2
60
END
60
END
..
\
62
USR (user)
Calls out and executes in BASIC the machine language program.
Format:
USR «address> , <input character variable> , <output character variable)
<address> : numerical data or 4-digit hexadecimal number
Abbreviated form:
U.
Explanation:
• Calls out and executes the machine language program during BASIC program
execution. This is the same as the branch command and CALL <address> to the
machine language subroutine. Consequently, when there is a return command in a
machine language program, control moves to the next statement following the
executed statement.
• At the point in time when the machine language program is called out, the value
following the <input character variable> is set in the register.
DE register: heading address of memory area of <input character variable>
B register: length of <input character variable>
IX register: address if error-processing routine is announced
• At the point in time of return from the machine language program, the value of the
data indicated by the subsequent register becomes the <output character
variable>.
DE register: heading address of memory area of <output character variable>
B register: length of <output character variable>
• If error-processing is necessary in a machine language program, the following
process occurs.
(1) An error-processing routine is established by the ON ERROR GOTO
statement in the BASIC program.
(2) An error code is substituted in the A register, and is jumped to the address
indicated by the IX register.
63
INP@ (input)
Inputs data at 110ports to variables.
Format:
INP@ <port number>, <variable>
Abbreviated form:
I.@
Explanation:
• Inputs 8-bit data from <port number> input port and sets to <variable> the value
(0 - 255) converted to a decimal number .
• From 0 to 127 ($00 - $7F in hexadecimal), the <port number> can be determined
freely. From 128 to 255 ($FO - $80 in hexadecimal), the use is exclusively as ports
for external devices.
Example:
10
FOR
I =0
20
C =1 +32
30
GOSUB
40
NEXT
50
END
TO
20
"SUB"
60
LABEL
70
I NP@ $FE, A
"SUB"
NOT
(A
80
I F
90
OUT@ $FF,C
AND
100
OUT@ $FE, $80
110
I NP@ $FE, A
120
I F
130
OUT@ FE, 0
140
RETURN
NOT
Reference:
OUT@ (page 64)
(A
AND
$OD) =0
$ 0 D) =1
THEN
THE N
70
110
64
IOUT@(OUT)
Outputs data to 1/0 ports.
Format:
OUT @ <port number>, <numerical data>
Abbreviated form:
OU.@
Explanation:
• Converts <numerical data> values (0 - 255) to binary numbers and outputs to the
<port number> output port.
• From 0 to 127 ($00 - $7F in hexadecimal), the <port number> can be determined
freely. From 128 to 255 ($FO - $80 in hexadecimal), tne use is exclusively as ports
for external devices.
• For control of peripheral devices, etc., data are output to 110 ports. Thus, if there
is a mistake of the <port number>, etc. by this OUT@ command, there is the
possibility that such a mistake will cause abnormal operation of the peripheral
equipment, etc., so care must be taken in that regard.
Example:
1 0 FOR 1 =0 TO 20
20 C =1 +32
30 GOSUB "SUB"
40 NEXT 1
50 END
60 LABEL "SUB"
70 1 NP@ $FE, A
80 1 F NOT (A AND $ 0 D) =0 THE N 70
90 OUT@ $FF,C
100 OUT@ $FE, $80
1 1 0 1 NP@ $FE, A
120 1 F NOT (A AND $ 0 D) =1 THEN 110
1 30 OUT@ $ F,E, 0
140 RE T UR N
Reference:
INP@ (page 63)
65
• Logical operation
Logical operation
The task of giving YES or ON results, by judgment, are not few in computers. Here
let us consider some logical expressions used to judge some conditions. The logical
operators NOT, AND, OR and XOR are used in logical expressions.
CD
X AND Y (logical product = and)
AND means X moreover Y
®
X OR Y (logical addition = inclusive or)
OR means either X or Y
X and Y
XY
XORY
1 1
1
1 1
1
1 0
0
1 0
1
0 1
0
0 1
1
0 0
0
0 0
0
XY
® NOT X (negation
= not)
Means that it is not X
@ X XOR Y (Exclusive logical addition =
exclusive or)
Means X and Y are not equal
NOT X
o
XY
XXORY
1 1
0
1 0
1
0 1
1
0 0
0
The logical operation is usually used in IF - THEN - ELSE command, explained
before. For instance, it is used as follows:
• IF -30<X AND Y>20 THEN 120 ELSE 100
(The meaning above is: if the X value is -30<X moreover Y>29 go to line number
120, if not jump to line 100)
• IF -30<X OR Y>20 THEN 10 ELSE 100
(The meaning above is: if the X value is -30<X or Y>20 to to line number 120, if
not jump to line 100).
Section 3
BASIC MONITOR FUNCTIONS
68
In order to make the input of machine language programs easier, the DISK BASIC
has a monitor section following the IOCS section. As the stack work area, $FFOO -
$FFFF (hexadecimal) are used.
This monitor, in the same way as the BASIC, has a built-in screen editor, and, by
using the editing format described below, any address of the main memory 64K bytes
can be rewritten.
3.1
EDITING FORMAT
: Address
= dataL-JdataL-Jdata
: (Colon)
..... a symbol which indicates an editable line
Address
..... designated by a four digit hexadecimal; main memory address, including
heading data (0000 - FFFF)
= (equal mark)
..... a separator used to distinguish address and data
Data
..... designated by two digit hexadecimal or semi-colon + character; 8-bit data or
specified character ASCII code is written into specified memory address; as a
rule, a space is used for data intervals.
3.2
PRINTER SWITCH (P Command)
Directs D and F commands to printer or screen. When in monitor, becomes screen
mode. The mode reverses each time this command is executed. If a printer is not
connected, ERR? appears and a command is awaited, so check the printer or execute
the P command to return to the screen mode.
69
3.3
DUMP CD Command}
*
D <heading address[ <
final address> J>
Displays the memory contents. When the final address is omitted, 128 bytes from the
heading address are displayed. When the heading address is omitted, 128 bytes from
the subsequent address are displayed. Dumping is by the following format.
: HHHH=HH'-JHH'-JHH HH HH HH HH HH
t
~--------------~v---------------~
Heading address
8-byte hexadecimal data
I ABCDE. G.
~
8-byte character data
If the memory content is changed, move the cursor to the data to be changed, make
the correction, and then input ICRI.
Note:
The final 8-byte characters are displayed by data ASCII code, and the control
code is indicated by a " ... (period). The display is stopped only by the IBREAKI key
by I SHIFT I + IBREAKI there is a return to a~aiting a command.
3.4 MEMORY SET CM Command}
*
IM [heading addressJ
Rewrites the memory content. When the heading address is omitted, rewrite is from
the current pointer. To get out of this mode, press ISHIFTI + IBREAKI.
Because the address and data are displayed and the cursor superimposes over the
data, designate the data by the editing format and press ICRI. The designated data
and address will be added and continue to the next line.
70
3.5 FIND (F Command)
*F <heading address>L.J<final address>L.J<data>L.J[<data
... >]
Searches from the heading address to the final address for continuous data of the
number specified by the data, and, if found, outputs that address and data at the dump
mode. Stopped by ISHIFrI
+ IBREAKI.
3.6 GOSUB (G Command)
*G <call address>
Sub-routine calls the designated call address. Stack pointer is at FFFE (hexadecimal).
3.7 TRANSFER (T Command)
*T <heading address>L.J<final
address>~transfer
heading address>
Transfers data between designated addresses from the transfer heading address.
3.8
SAVE (S Command)
*5 <heading address>L.J<final address>L.J<execution heading address>:
[<devica name> : filename]
Records data between designated addresses to the designated device name. The
"execution heading address" is the execution heading address when loaded from IPL.
Specify the file name in the same way as for DISK BASIC (after a colon" : ").
71
3.9
LOAD (L Command)
*
L <load heading address> [<device name> : fllaname)
Loads the designated file from the designated device name. When the heading address
is specified, loading is from that address; if not specified, loading of information is
done exactly as it was saved. If filename is not specified, the first file found is loaded.
When there is BREAK or if check sum error appears, ERR? is displayed, and returns
to awaiting command; if no error appears, returns to awaiting command.
3.10
*
VERIFY (V Command)
V <fllename>
Reads designated file from cassette and compares with main memory. Used to check
whether correctly saved; if not correct, ERR? is displayed.
3.11
RETURN (R Command)
Returns monitor to called system. If from BYE command of DISK BASIC, returns to
DISK BASIC by this command. SP (stack pointer) and HL register are stored, so next
command after BYE is executed.
If SP is called from a system such as $FFOO - $FFFF, or if there is no return address in
the stack, return is not possible by this command; call that system's hot start by the G
command.
Section 4
APPLICATION PROGRAMS
74
Use of the File Converter
• The file converter is registered on the DISK BASIC floppy disk by the "TRANS"
file name. To execute this, press the following keys (RUN: refer to page 36)
RUN "TRANS" ICRI
The specification items which appear on the initial screen are specified in order from
the top. Choose the right item number from the menu area specification contents and
make the key input. The specification item and the initial screen become as follows.
F i le
Convert
[Source)
Specification
items
'.,
Syst em
:
De v ice
:
Fi I e
Mode
:
F i le
Na me
:
.
[ De s t i net i on)
Syst em
:
De v ice
:
Fi le
Mo de
:
Fi le
Na me
:
*System
1 . MZ - 7 0 0
Specification contents
(menu display area)
Ut i l i t Y VX. XX
MZ- 700
Me n u
.a.Mi I-e' BCHic
Ba...s; c
2. MZ- 80 K ~
3. MZ- 80 K
~C
4. MZ- 80 K
F DOS
"",. f" «. C
BASI C
75
•
Explanation of contents and specification method of menu area display
* System menu
• Specify the source system (the destination system is fixed in the MZ-7(0). The
source program specification inputs: Which MZ series machine was the program
made for? For instance, if the program file converter is for the MZ-SOK, and
moreover if it is made by double precision the DISK BASIC (W-PREC), key
input "3".
• Moreover, the objects are the following systems
MZ-700 Basic
MZ-SOKBasic
CASSETE TAPE BASIC
{=
\ DISK BASIC
~p.60\s
MZ-SOK
FDOS
MZ-80K FODS {
S~~foI Pft8@JftAm
Display contents
Menu display area
*fSyst em Menu)
1 . MZ - 7 0 0
B a sic
2. MZ - 8 0 K
Ba sic
3. MZ - 80 K
W- Pr e c
4. MZ- 80K
FDOS
76
* Device menu
• Specifies the device name (source device, destination device) to perform
conversion.
Display contents
Menu display area
{Devi ce
menu]
5. CMT ~
1 . F D1:
2. F D2:
3. F D3!
4. F D4:
* File mode
• Displays the file mode conversion possibilities specified in the system menu and
device. However, the destination file mode is made automatically possible file
mode from the specification of source file mode.
Display contents
Menu display area
{F i I e
MOde]
1. OBJ
·... ,t·,
2. BTX
3. BSD
4. BRD
.~'
:r
* File name
• Inputs the file name of file to be conterted (maximum 16 characters). To display
the disk directory from this condition, key input ICTRLI + ~.
77
Display contents
Menu display area
*
Fi I e
Co~~rol -A
J£:):r.cz.c..~or1
i n put ?
n a me
==>
Display mode
Example of display when I CTRL I +
refe, ~o
File
01 RECTORY
OBJ
f
"t
key input and device ''1'' (FD) is specified.
Convert
OF
Ut
lity
Any
key.
FD:
"DATAl"
Funct i on
Next
and,
1
~age"
..I. Anv, .k.;8)1'
Error •• ssale
COlYert
* Related
IIii is
pc;..'11L J '-i
alain,
[Y/N]
?
to the message
Funct i on
and,
1
Any
Returns to the file name input waiting
key.
condition when key input (any key) is
performed.
Ne
xt
1 An y
p age,
key.
. .........
Display when one screen is not enough to
display the directory. The display of the
Err
0
r
-,
f"\ Q..>). ~ Q..
eO,..\I cz.r~
remaining directory is performed when
once again a key is input.
1
All Y
. .....
V/N.
~
"v·
" 2
Indicate;;hat
of
so~~
error ,directory display is not ~
~n
possible
When key
~
,beca~se
IH"
i npu t
IS
made
once
I a,ain ,a.aitin, source syste.
input ;.hen -H- key i.put ,DISK
•. BASIC is started.
---------------
~,.,. '.'.:
78
Reference:
If, for file conversion, the source drive and destination drive are the same, the
following display is added.
Display:
SeJ
I
1.
1~1"""t
source,
I<.~t
dest i nat ion,
Any
key
a:!Il
or
~Q•.\'
[
1. An y
key
a:!Il
J
Explanation:
The above display occurs if the input of the destination file has ended. First, there will
be a display meaning "insert the source disk", and then, after the source disk is
inserted into the disk drive, press a key (any key). When the key input occurs, the
content of the source disk file is read into the memory of the MZ-700. When this
read-in is finished, there will be a display meaning "insert the destination disk". Take
out the source disk and insert the destination disk into the floppy disk drive in its
place. After insertion is completed, press a key (any key). When the key input occurs,
the data in the memory of the MZ-700 will be written into the destination disk.
Display when conversion finishes
:1:".
i/
;:
•
Thf following display will be shown after the conversion finishes.
,..-,---: I
**E.d of
..
'iJ:
,:--j..
'~., .. ~
o b
**
. B're a ,
,
Convert
".in
[Y/N]
Explanation:
The "END OF JOB" message means that the conversion has finished. "BREAK"
means that there was an interruption ISHIFT I
+ IBREAKI during the job.
"ERROR xx" means that there was an error during the job.
79
After the end of either message display, there will be a display meaning "will
conversion be made again? or will conversion be ended?". If conversion will be made
again, input "Y", if the end, input "N". When "Y" is input, there will be a return to
the initial screen used for convert execution, and, when "N" is input, there will be a
return to the monitor condition.
,
. ....
••
4
Section 5
DISK BASIC SUMMARY
82
5.1
Summary of DISK BASIC Commands, Statements,
Functions and Operations
5.1.1
Commands
DIR
DIR
Displays floppy disk directory.
Information indicated at directory display is as follows:
Registered filemode, registration condition (locked or
not) and filename
Note:
For the directory display on the CRT screen, there is a
stop when one screen amount is displayed, and the cursor
appears. To continue the directory display the ~ key
can be pushed, or it is possible to move to another
command.
DIR FD1
Displays the directory of the floppy disk in floppy disk
drive number 1. When the DIR command is executed, the
system memorizes that drive number, and thereafter the
drive number can be omitted to designate direct execution
commands and file access commands for that same floppy
disk drive.
DIR
Displays the directory of the floppy disk in the floppy disk
drive that was executed by the most recent DIR command.
DIRIP
DIR/P" FD1"
Prints floppy directory on line printer.
LOAD
LOAD" FD1 : DAY"
Reads out BASIC texqaofX) with "DAY" fife name in
floppy disk.
LOAD "FD2:SUN".
Consider BSD file "SUN" file name in floppy disk drive
A
number 2 as ASCII format and read it out.
LIMIT $DOOO: LOAD For read-out of machine language program file (OBJ)
"B"
linked to a BASIC text, it is necessary to separate the
machine language area and the BASIC area by the LIMIT
command. Refer to the command used for linking with
the machine language program.
83
SAVE
SAVE" FDl : DAY"
Names the BASIC text currently in the text area "DAY"
and writes in to floppy disk. One file with filename
"DAY" and file mode BTX is registered.
SAVE "CMT:E"
Names the BASIC text currently in the text area "E" and
writes in to the cassette tape.
RUN
RUN
Executes the program from the heading of the BASIC
text currently in the text area.
Note:
At the RUN command, all variables become 0 or null
immediately prior to program execution.
RUN 1000
RUN "FD1:F"
Executes program from statement number 1000.
Reads out BASIC program file "F" from floppy disk, and
executes program from the program heading.
RUN "FD3:G"
Reads out program text "G" from volume number 7 of
the floppy disk in drive number 3, and then executes
program from the designated execution address. In this
instance, the system is not controlled by BASIC.
MERGE
MERGE
Adds the program in the file to the program.
MERGE "FDl :PR
Merges program currently in the memory and "PROG"
OG
file in the floppy disk.
11
VERIFY
VERIFY"H"
AUTO
AUTO
Compares program text currently in BASIC text area and
content of cassette tape file specified by file name "H".
Automatically generates line numbers 10, 20, 30 '" during
text making.
AUTO 200.20
Automatically generates 200, 220, 240 ... in steps of 20,
from statement number 200.
AUTO command is released by pressing ISHIFT I + hREAKI
keys.
LIST
LISTIP
LIST
Displays all lists of BASIC text currently in text area.
LlST-50D
Displays list up to statement number 500.
LlST/P
Display list goes to printer. (TEXT MODE)
84
RENUM
RENUM
Changes statement number of the program.
RENUM 100
Renumbers all statements beginning with first statement
number 100, and in steps of 10.
SEARCH
SEARCH
NEW
NEW
n ABC
11
Searches for and finds lines including "ABC" character
data in program text, and displays on screen.
Erases BASIC text currently in text area and clears
variable area. Machine language area specified by LIMIT
command is not cleared.
CONT
CONT
Continues program execution. In other words, restarts
execution from point of interruption by
I SHIFf I + I BREAK I
keys or STOP statement during program. CONT command becomes invalid when, during a program break, the
BASIC text is edited.
BYE
Moves system control from DISK BASIC to monitor.
BYE
(The return from monitor to DISK BASIC can be made
by monitor <;ommand "R".)
KEY LIST
KEY LIST
, Lists, on the CRT display, the definition condition of the
definable function keys.
5.1.2 File Control Statements
LOCK
LOCK n FD2:ABC n
Locks file "ABC".in floppy disk drive number 2.
Locked files cannot be changed or deleted. In the
directory display, locked files are denoted by the
*
symbol.
UNLOCK
UNLOCK n ABC"
Unlocks "ABC" file in active drive.
100 UNLOCK "FD1: Executes the program unlocking of "A" file in floppy disk
A"
drive number 1.
85
RENAME
RENAME· FD1 :A.B • Changes file name of file "A" in floppy disk drive number
1 to filename "B".
DELETE
DELETE HA"
Deletes file "A" from disk in default drive.
CHAIN
CHAIN "FD1 :TEXT
Chains program execution to BASIC text "TEXT B" in
BH
floppy disk. In other words, "TEXT B" is read out to
BASIC text area, and program execution contin'ues from
that heading.
The original program in the text area at this time is made
NEW, and the content of the variable and user function is
transferred to the chained text. It can be understood that
the function of the CHAIN statement is as a GOTO
"filename".
SWAP
SWAP" FD2:TEXT
Swaps program execution to BASIC text "TEXT S-R" in
S-R "
floppy disk drive number 2.
In other words, the text in execution is once shunted to the
floppy disk in the default drive, then "TEXT S-R" is read
out to the BASIC text area, and program execution
continues from that heading.
When the swapped program is finished, the original text is
then read out, and the program execution continues from
the next statement after the SWAP statement. When each
program execution is linked, the content of the variable and
user function is transferred. The SWAP level must not
exceed 1. In other words, SWAP instructions cannot be
made within a swapped text.
In can be understood that the function of the SWAP
statement is as the GOSUB "filename".
86
5.1.3
BSD (BASIC Sequential Access, Data File) Control Statements
Note: For file descriptors FD and CMT
WOPEN #
WOPEN #3 "FD2:S Opens the file for write-in so that one BASIC sequential
EO DATA 1"
access file (BSD) can be made. In other words, it defines
the filename of the BSD being made as "SEQ DATAl",
and opens, as logical number 3, a file in floppy disk drive
number 2.
PRINT #
PRINT #3. A. AS
Writes in, in order, the content of variable A and string
variable AS on BSD; a file opened in logical number 3 by
the WOPEN # statement.
File close is executed by the CLOSE # statement, and
BSD is formally registered as one BSD.
CLOSE #
CLOSE #3
Closes the BSD, the file opened in logical number 3 by
(Corresponding to
the WOPEN # statement.
WOPEN#)
By closing the file, one BSD with the file name specified
by the WOPEN # statement is made on the specified
floppy disk, and the logical number (3 in this instance)
becomes undefined once more.
KILL #
KILL #3
Kills the BSD, the file opened in logical number 3 by the
WOPEN # statement. In other words, it cancels or erases
the BSD, and the logical number (3 in this instance)
becomes undefined once more.
ROPEN #
ROPEN #4. n FD2: SE Opens the file for read-out of the data in the BASIC
o DATA2·
sequential access data file (BSD). In other words, it
opens, as logical number 4, the BSD file "SEQ DATA2"
in volume number 7 of the floppy disk in floppy disk drive
number 2.
INPUT #
INPUT #4. A(1). BS
Reads out sequential data from the BSD, a file opened in
logical number 4 by the ROPEN # statement, and
substitutes numerical data in array variable A( 1) and
string in string variable B$.
Read-in data are sequentia,lIy accessed from the BSD
heading data.
87
CLOSE #
CLOSE #4
Closes the BSD; the file opened in logical number 4 by
(Corresponding to
the ROPEN # statement.
ROPEN #)
Logical number 4 becomes undefined once more.
5.1.4 BRD (BASIC Random Access, Data File) Control Statements
Note: For file descriptor FD only.
XOPEN #
XOPEN #5 "FD3:D
Opens (cross opens) for data write-inlread-out to the
ATA R1
BASIC random access file (BRD).
n
In other words, cross opens BRD file "DATA RI" on the
floppy disk in drive number 3 to logical number 5, or, if
the file does not yet exist, cross opens so that the BRD
file "DATA RI" can be newly made on that floppy disk.
PRINT #( )
PRINT #5(11). R(11) Writes in the content of a one-dimensional numerical
array variable R(l1) to element 11 of the BRD file
opened in logical number 5 by the XOPEN # statement.
PRINT #5(20). AR$. Writes in string variables AR$ and AS$ to, respectively,
AS$
elements 20 and 21 of the same BRD as above. Because
all elements in the BRD are a fixed length of 32 bytes,
any part of the string length which exceeds 32 bytes will
be invalid.
INPUT #( )
INPUT #5(21). R$
Reads out (substitutes), to string variable R$, the data in
element 21 of the BRD file opened to logical number 5 by
the XOPEN # statement.
INPUT #5(11). A(11). Reads out the data in elements 11 and 12 of the BRD, as
A$(12)
described above, to the one-dimensional numerical array
variable A(11) and one-dimensional string array variable
A$(12) respectively.
CLOSE #
CLOSE #5
Closes the BRD file opened to logical number 5 by the
XOPEN # statement.
CLOSE
Closes all files opened by WOPEN, ROPEN or XOPEN.
88
KILL #
Kills the BRD opened in logical number 5 by the XOPEN
KILL #5
# statement.
IFEOF (#)
KILL
Kills all files opened by WOPEN, ROPEN or XOPEN.
IF EOF (#5) THEN
If the file end occurs during execution of the INPUT #
700
statement relative to BSD, or during execution of the
INPUT # ( ) statement relative to BRD, this is a branch
statement that commands to jump to the processing
routine in statement number 700.
5.1.5 Error Processing Statements
ON ERROR GO ON ERROR GOTO
If an error occurs during program execution, this is a
TO
1000
sentence saying to jump to statement number 1000.
IF ERN
IF ERN = 44 THEN If the error number is 44, this is a command to jump to
1050
statement number 1050.
IF ERL = 350 THEN A command to jump to statement number 1090 if the
IF ERL
1090
IF (ERN = 53)
*
error statement number is 350.
(ER A command to finish the program if the error number is
L = 700) THEN END 53 and the error statement number is 700.
For the DISK BASIC, if an error occurs during the
program, the error number and error statement number
will be set, respectively, to variables ERN and ERL.
650 RESUME
RESUME
Transfers control once again to the command generating
the error.
700 RESUME
~
NEXT
Transfers control to the command following the command
generating the error.
750 RESUME 400
Transfers control to statement number 400.
800 RESUME 0
Transfers control to the program heading.
89
5.1.1 Substitution Statements
LET
LET A=X+3
Substitutes sum results of numerical variable X and
numerical data 3 to numerical variable A. LET can be
omitted.
5.1.7 Input/Output and Color Control Statements
COLOR
10 CaLOR .•. 2
Changes all screen background color to red.
20 CaLOR 3.2.7
Changes the color of characters at coordinates (3,2) to
white.
30 CaLOR 4.204.2
Makes the color of characters at coordinates (4,2) green,
and the background color red.
PRINT
10 PRINT A
Displays the content of numerical variable A on the CRT
display.
Displays the content of string variable A$ on the CRT
?A$
display.
100 PRINT [6.5] " AB Writes the "ABC" string in yellow on a light blue
C"
110 PRINT [A] "DE
F"
120 PRINT [704] "G
background.
Writes the "DEF" string in yellow on a green background.
Writes the "OHI" string in white on a green background.
HI"
200 PRINT
PRINT USING
INl'UT
New line if PRINT only.
PRINT USING" ##
A designation which lines up decimal point positions by a
#.##";A
fixed decimal point display.
10 INPUT A
Inputs values relative to variable A from the keyboard.
20 INPUT A$
Inputs strings relative to string variable A$ from the
keyboard.
30 INPUT "VALUE?" Before input from the keyboard, the question string data
;D
VALUE? is displayed. The semi-colon is used to separate
the string from the variable.
90
40 INPUT X, XS, y,
YS
Numerical variables and string variables can be combined
by using the comma ( , ) to separate them, but it is
necessary to match the type of variable at the time of
input.
SET
RESET
GET
SET 30,15
Illuminates the position of coordinates (30,15).
RESET 30,15
Er!Ules the position of coordinates (30,15).
10 GET N
Inputs one numerical character from the keyboard relative
to numerical variable N. If the key is not pressed at that
time, 0 is input.
20 GET KS
Inputs one string from the keyboard relative to string
variable KS. If the key is not pressed at that time, AS
becomes vacant.
READ - DATA 10 READ A,B,C
1010 DATA 25,
-0.5,500
Numerical data 25, -0.5 and 500 are substituted to,
respectively, numerical variables A, B and C by execution
of the READ-DATA statements at the left.
10 READ HS, H, SS, The first data of the DATA statement, i.e., string data
S
"HEART", is substituted for the first variable of the
30 DATA "HEART", 3READ statement, i.e., for the string variable HS. Next,
35 DATA" SPADE ", numerical data 3 is substituted for the second variable H,
11
RESTORE
and read-in continues one after the other.
10 READ A,B,C
In the example at the left, 3, 6 and 9 are respectively
20 RESTORE
substituted for variables A, Band C by the READ
30 READ D,E
statement in statement number 10, but, because the
100 DATA 3,6,9,
12, 15
RESTORE statement occurs next, the values next substituted for variables D and E by statement number 30's
READ are, respectively, 3 and 6, not 12 and 15.
700 RESTORE 200
Moves the data read-out pointer in the READ-DATA
statement to the heading of the DATA statement in
statement number 200.
91
5.1.8 Loop statements
FOR- TO
NEXT
10 FOR A == 1 TO
The statement number 10 is a command to change
variable A and substitute for values from 1 to 10; the
10
20 PRINT A
value of the first A becomes 1. Because the value of A is
30 NEXT A
displayed on the eRT screen by statement number 20, the
numeral 1 is displayed. Next, the value of A becomes 2 by
statement number 30, and this loop is repeated. The loop
is repeated in this way until the value of A becomes 10.
(At the point when the loop ends, the value 11 is entered
to A.)
10 FOR B == 2 TO
8 STEP 3
A command to change variable B and substitute for values
from 2 to 8 in steps of 3 (statement number 10). It is also
20 PRINT B
~ble
30 NEXT
variable smaller each time.
to make the STEP value negative and make the
An example of an overlay of the FOR - NEXT loops
10 FOR A=1 TO 3
20 FOR 8 S 1. 0 TO 30
30 PRINT A, 8
(variables A and B). Note that B loop is placed inside A
Jf'"I>f loop. Nesting of loops (doubling' tripling ... ) is possible,
40 NEXT 8
but the inner loop must be enclosed within the outer loop.
60 NEXT B, A
70 NEXT A, B
FOR - NEXT nesting must not
50 NEXT A
t
e~ed
15 levels.
It is possible, by the previous double loop, to group
Becomes error.
statement numbers 40 and 50, as in statement number 60
at the left, into one NEXT statement. For an operand
such as shown in statement number 70, however, an error
occurs.
92
5.1.9 Branch Statements
GOTO
100 GOTO 200
Jumps to statement number 200 (= movement of program
execution).
GOSUB -
100 GOSUB 700
Branches to statement number 700 subroutine (calling of
subroutine). Ends subroutine execution by RETURN
RETURN
statement, and returns to statement following GOSUB
800 RETURN
command in the main program.
IF - THEN
10 IF A>20 THEN
Jumps to statement number 200 if variable A is larger
than 20. Executes next statement if A is 20 or less.
200
50 IF B<3 THEN B Substitutes B + 3 for variable B if variable B is less than
3. Executes next statement if B is 3 or greater.
=B+3
IF - GOTO
100 IF A>=B GO
IF - GOSUB
30 IF A=B
Jumps to statement number 10 if variable A is equal to or
greater than variable B. Executes next statement if A is
TO 10
*
less than B.
2 GO Branches to statement number 90 subroutine if value of
SUB 90
variable A is equal to twice the value of B. If not,
executes next statement.
(If there is a multi-statement following a conditional
statement, the ON statement is executed when the
condition is not reached, but the IF statement moves the
execution to the next statement number if the condition is
not reached, and the multi-statement is ignored.)
ON- GOTO
50 ON A GOTO 70, Jumps to statement number 70 if variable A is 1, to
80. 90
statement number 80 if it is 2, and to statement number 90
if it is 3. The next statement is executed if A is 0 or 4 or
more. The INT function is included in ON, so jumps to
statement number 80 if A is 2.7, in the same way as 2.
ONGOSUB
90 ON A GOSUB
700. 800
Branches to statement number 700 subroutine if variable
A is 1, and to statement number 800 if it is 2. The next
statement is executed if A is 0 or 3 or more.
93
5.1.10 Definition Statements
DIM
10 DIM A(20)
For one-dimensional numerical array variable A( ), 21
array variables become available, from A(O) to A(20).
20 DIM B(79,79)
For two-dimensional numerical array variable 8( ),6400
array variables become available, from 8(0, 0) to 8(79,
79).
30 DIM C1$(10)
For one-dimensional string array variable C1$( ), 11
array variables become available, from C1$(0) to C1$(10).
40 DIM K$(7,5)
For two-dimensional string array variable K$( ), 48
array variables become available, from K$(O, 0) to K$(7,
5).
DEFAULT
DEFAULT" FD1 "
Considered to be floppy disk drive number 1 if device
names are omitted by commands.
DEFFN
100 DEF FNA(X) =
xt
2 - X
110 DEF FNB(X) =
Statement number 100 defines X2
= LN(Y)
to FNA(X),
statement number 110 defines 10gJOX + 1 to FN8(X), and
statement number 120 defines 108e Y to FNZ(Y).
LOG(X) + 1
120 DEF FNZ(Y)
-x
Each function is limited to 1 variable.
94
DEF KEY
15 DEF KEY(1) = "L The DEF KEY statement of statement number 15 defines
1ST" -+- CHRS(13)
the function LIST
IQY
to
25 DEF KEY(2) =" L function key number 1, and statement number 25 defines
OAD:RUN" +
the function LOAD:RUN IQY.
CHRS (13)
INIT
INIT" RS1:"
Sets the RS-232C mode.
LABEL
210 LABEL "SUB"
Defines subroutine name beginning from statement number 210 as "SUB".
220
5.1.11
REM
Comment Statements and Control Statements
200 REM JOB-1
REM is a comment statement; ignored when program is
executed.
STOP
850 STOP
Stops program execution and awaits command. If CONT
command given here, program continues.
END
2000 END
Indicates end of program. Executes program end.
CLR
300 CLR
All numerical variables and character variables become 0
or vacant (null); all array variables return to undetermined condition. All DEF FN statements also become
invalid.
CLS
10 CLS
CURSOR
50 CURSOR 25. 15 Specifies the position by numerals or variables: from 0 60 PRINT" ABC"
Erases the secreen in the scroll range.
39 from the left end in the X axis direction, and 0 - 24
from the top end in the Y axis direction. For the example
at the left, string "ABC" is displayed from the 26th cursor
position from the left end of the screen and the 16th
cursor position from the top end.
95
CONSOLE
10 CONSOLE 0, 25, The scroll range covers the whole screen.
0, 40
20 CONSOLE 5, 15 Specifies the scroll range from the 5th line to the lOth
line.
30 CONSOLE 0, 25, Specifies the scroll range from the 5th line to the 30th
5,30
line.
40 CONSOLE 0, 10, Specifies the scroll range to a 10x 10 range.
0, 10
50 CONSOLE 2, 20, Specifies the scroll range to the scroll range shown in the
2, 35
figure below.
(0,0)
2
7
--'lfT-r-J"7-ri~
(39,0)
(39,24)
SIZE
? SIZE
TI$
100 TI$ = "222030" Sets the internal clock to 10:20:30 PM. Time data are
Displays the unused size (in bytes) of the BASIC text
area.
expressed as a 6-digit figure within quotation marks.
5.1.12 Music Control Statements
MUSIC
300 TEMPO 7
TEMPO
310 MUSIC" DE#
FGA"
Tempo 7 (fastest speed) is specified by statement number
300. By statement number 310, re mi iJ:I~1 la (mid-
range) are played at tempo 7. U there is no TEMPO
statement, the music is played at the tempo of the default
value.
300 M1$ = "C3EG In this example, the melody is substituted to the 3 string
+ C"
310 M2$ = "BGD
- G"
variables and the MUSIC command is executed. When
the staff notation is used, the notes below are played.
Note that, because there is no TEMPO statement, the
320 M3$ = "C8R5" playing is at the default value tempo.
330 MUSIC M1$,M
2$,M3$
96
5.1.13
Machine Language Program Control Statements
Substitutes data at port number $E8 for variable A.
INP@
INP@ $E8,A
OUT@
OUT@ $E8,A
Outputs variable A to port number $E8.
LIMIT
100 LIMIT 49151
Limits the area used by the BASIC program to the 49151
address (BFFF with hexadecimal notation).
100 LIMIT A
Limits the area used by the BASIC program to the
address of variable A.
100 LIMIT $BFFF
Limits the area used by the BASIC program to the
address BFFF in hexadecimal notation. A hexadecimal
notation is indicated by an "$" mark before the notation.
300 LI M IT MAX
Returns the area used by the BASIC program to the
maximum memory.
POKE
120 POKE 49450, 175 Sets data 175 (decimal notation) to the decimal notation
address 49450.
130 POKE AD, DA
Sets the value (0 - 255) indicated by variable DA to the
address specified by variable AD.
PEEK
150 A = PEEK (494 Changes the data at decimal notation address 49450 to a
50)
160 B = PEEK(C)
decimal number, and substitutes for variable A.
Changes data entered at the decimal notation address
specified by variable C to a decimal notation, and
substitutes for variable B.
USR
500 USR(49152)
Moves program control to decimal address 49152. This
control movement has the same function as the machine
language CALL command. As a result, when the RET
command (201 at decimal notation) is in the machine
language program, returns to the BASIC program.
550 USR (AD)
Calls the decimal address specified by variable AD.
570 USR($COOO)
Calls the hexadecimal address COOO.
97
5.1.14 Printer Control Statements
Valid in GRAPH mode.
AXIS
30 AXIS O. -10. 48
Adds a scale of 48 graduations in increments of 10 to the
Y-coordinate axis from the current pen position.
50 AXIS 1. 10. 48
Adds a scale of 48 graduations in increments of 10 to the
X-coordinate axis from the current pen position.
Valid in GRAPH mode
CIRCLE
50 CIRCLE O. O. 240. Draws a circle (radius 240) from coordinates (0,0).
0.360. O. 2
Valid in GRAPH mode.
GPRINT
30 GPRINT (2.2). " A • Prints the character A upside down at the size of the 26
digit mode of the TEXT mode.
Specifies the current pen position' to a new starting point.
HSET
(Valid in GRAPH mode.)
Valid in GRAPH mode.
LINE
10 LlNE% 1.240. O. Coordinates (240,0), (240,-240), (0,-240) and (0,0) are
240. -240. O.
connected by a solid line from the current pen position.
-240.0.0
MODE
MODE TN
Returns from the graphic mode to the text mode (4O
characters per line).
MODE TL
Returns from the graphic mode to the text mode (26
characters per line).
MODE TS
Returns from the graphic mode to the text mode (80
characters per line).
MODE GR
Switches from the text mode to the graph mode (in order
to draw graphs and figures).
Valid in GRAPH mode.
MOVE
10 MOVE 150. 100
Moves the pen upward from the current pen position to
coordinates (150, 100).
98
RMOVE
Valid in GRAPH mode.
20 RMOVE -240.
240
Moves the pen upward relatively from the current pen
position by -240 (X direction) and 240 (Y direction).
PAGE
Valid in TEXT mode.
Specifies 30 lines per page.
10 PAGE 30
Valid in both TEXT and GRAPH mode
PCOLOR
Prints "ABC" to the plotter printer in blue.
10 PCOlOR 1
20 PR INT/P "ABC"
Moves the pen upward from the current pen position and
PHOME
returns to the starting point. (Valid in GRAPH mode)
PLOT
Enables use of color plotter printer as substitution for the
PLOT ON
display. (Valid in TEXT mode.)
Cancels above function.
PLOT OFF
Valid in TEXT mode
PRINTIP
Outputs string variable A$ content after the numerical
10 PRINT/P A.AS
variable A content to printer.
20 PRINT/P ~I
•
For form feed of printer.
PRINTIP
Outputs format specified data to screen. Format specifica-
USING
tion is written after the word USING. ( )
PRINT/P USING "# Numerical variable A contents are output to printer
### ";A
within 4 digits, justified right.
Valid in GRAPH mode.
KLINE
70 RLlNE% 1. 240. Connects specified positions, relatively from current pen
O. -120. -SO.
position (240,0), (-120, -SO) and (-120080) by solid line.
-12. SO
Valid in TEXT mode.
SKIP
10 SKIP 10
20 SKIP -10
TEST
Advances the paper 10 lines.
Rewinds 10 lines.
Checks color specification and ink amount and dryness.
(Valid in TEXT mode)
99
LN
100 A = LN (X)
Regarding the value of '9ariable X, gets natural logarithm
IO!!e X and substitutes for variable A. X must be a positive
value.
110 A = LOG (X)/L
OG(Y)
120 A = LN (X)/LN
In order to obtain logy X when the logarithm base is Y, it
can be obtained by statement number 110 or statement
number 120.
(Y)
RND
100 A=RND (1)
When there is a positive integral number in parentheses,
110 B=RND (10)
such as in statement number 100 or 110, generates a
random number using values from 0.00000001
to
0.99999999 sequentially each time the RND function is
used. (This has no relationship to the positive integral
number in parentheses.)
200 A=RND (0)
When there is a 0 or negative integral number in
210 B=RND (-3)
parentheses, such as in statement number 200 or 210,
initialization of random number generation occurs, a
specific number is always generated, and the same value is
substituted for A and for B.
100
5.1.15 String Control Functions
LEFfS
10 A$ = LEFT$ (X$, Substitutes string variable XS (from beginning to Nth
character) for string variable AS. It doesn't matter
N)
whether N is a constant, variable or numerical formula.
= MID$ (X$,
Substitutes string variable XS (from Mth character to N
N)
character) for string variable SS.
= RIGHT$ (X
Substitutes string variable X$ (from end to N character)
MIDS
20 B$
RIGHTS
30 C$
SPC
= SPC (N)
60 F$ = CHR$ (A)
M.
$, N)
CHRS
for string variable CS.
40 D$
Substitutes N number of spaces for string variable D$.
Converse to the ASC function, substitutes ASCII code
characters which are equivalent to the value of real
number A for string variable F$. It doesn't matter
whether A is a constant, variable or numerical formula.
ASC
70 A
= ASC (X$)
Substitutes the value of the ASCII code of the first
character of st~ng variable X$ for variable A.
STRS
80 N$
= STR$ (I)
Converse to the VAL variable, substitutes the numerical
variable I as if it were a string for string variable N$.
VAL
90 I
= VAL (N$)
Substitutes the numerical string of string variable N$ as if
it were a number for variable I.
LEN
100 LX
= LEN
(X$)
Substitutes the character length (character number) of
string variable X$ for variable LX.
110 LS
= LEN
+ Y$)
(X$
Substitutes the sum of the character length of string
variables X$ and Y$ for variable LS.
101
5.1.16 Tab Function
TAB
10 PRINT TAB (X);A Displays the value of variable A at the X + 1 character
position counting from the left edge of the screen.
5.1.17 Arithmetic Operations
The calculation priority is of white figures on dark background at left side, but the calculation of
figures in parentheses ( ) has even higher priority.
t
10 A = X
t
Y
Substitutes the X t Y calculation result for variable A.
(power)
(Note, however, that an error occurs if Y is not an
10 A = -B
0- 8 is a subtraction; note that the "-" of -8 is a minus
(minus sign)
sign.
10A=X*Y
Substitutes the multiplication result of X and Y for
integral number when X is a negative number at X t Y.)
*
(multiplication)
variable A.
10A = XIY
Substitutes the division result of X and Y for variable A.
(division)
+
10 A = X
+
Y
Substitutes the addition result of X and Y for variable A.
(addition)
10 A = X - Y
Substitutes the subtraction result of X and Y for variable
(subtraction)
A.
5.1.18 Comparison Logic Operators
10 IF A = X THEN
If variables A and X are equal, executes commands from
THEN onward.
20 IF A$ = "XYZ"
THEN ...............
>
If string variable AS content is string XYZ, executes
commands from THEN onward.
10 IF A>X THEN ... If variable A is greater than X, executes commands from
THEN onward.
102
<
10 IF A<X THEN." If variable A is smaller than X, executes commands from
THEN onward.
<> or
><
10 IF A<>F THEN ... If variable A and X are not equal, executes commands
from THEN onward.
>=or=<
10 IF A>=X THEN
<=or=<
10 IF A<=X THEN
If variable A is greater than or equal to X, executes
commands from THEN onward.
*
If variable A is smaller than or equal to X, executes
commands from THEN onward.
*
40 IF (A>X)
(8)
+
50 IF (A>X) + (8)
Y) THEN ..........
Y) THEN ..........
If variable A is greater than X and variable B is greater
than Y, executes commands from THEN onward.
If variable A is greater than X or variable B is greater
than Y, executes commands from THEN onward.
5.1.19 Other Symbols
200 ? "A+B= "; A
?
+B
Can be used instead of PRINT. Consequently, statement
number 200 and 210 are the same.
210 PRINT "A+B
="; A+B
220 A=X:B=X
lA.B
t 2:
A symbol to express punctuation of the command statement; used in multiple commands. There are 3 command
statements used in the statement number 220 multiple
command.
230 PRINT "AB"; "C Executes PRINT continuously. As a result line number
0"; "EF"
230, "ABCDEF" is displayed on the screen continuously,
with no space.
240 INPUT "X="; X Displays "X =" on screen; awaits data key input of string
$
variable XS.
250 PRINT" AB n,"C Executes PRINT with tabulation. For statement number
•
0", "E"
250, first AB is displayed on the screen, then CD is
displayed in the position 10 characters to the right of A,
and then E is displayed in the position 10 characters to the
right of C.
103
300 DIM A(20),
as
J.n,exal1pleUsedin punctU!ltionof,avariable,:.
(3,6)
" "
320 AS
= "DISK BA
" "indicates a string content
SIC"
330 BS = "MZ-7oo·
$
340 CS = • ABC·
+ Indicates a string variable.
CHRS(3)
500 LIMIT SBFFF
Indicates hexadecimal number.
550 S '" SIN
The approximate value of pi (3.1415927) is expressed by
(X*nl180)
l't.
104
5.2
Error Message List (DISK BASIC)
Error display number
Statement
Content
1
Syntax error
Error in syntax
2
Overflow error
Numerical data outside the range, operation
result overflows.
3
Illegal data error
Illegal number or variable used.
4
Type mismatch error
The data type and variable type do not match.
5
String length error
String length exceeds 255
6
Memory capacity error
Insufficient memory capacity
7
Array def. error
Attempt to define same array variables larger
than before using the undefined array variables.
8
LINE length error
Length of one line exceeds the limit.
10
GOSUB nesting error
GOSUB statement nesting over
11
FOR - NEXT nesting error
FOR-NEXT statement nesting over 15
12
DEF FN nesting error
Function definition (by DEF FN statement)
nesting over 6
13
NEXT error
NEXT statement without FOR statement
14
RETURN error
RETURN statement without GOSUB statement
15
Un def. function error
Use of undefined function
16
Un
17
Can't~
18
Memory
protection
,
19
•Instruction error
Use of direct command and statement mixed
20
Can't resume error
RESUME can't be executed
def.~.
error
c.o ... ~ e-rrOr
.
•
ruror
Attempt to refer to an undefined statement
number
Continuation of program impossible by CONT
statement
Request for write-in in BASIC interpreter
control area
105
Error display number
Content
Statement
21
Resume error
Attempt to use RESUME although no error
24
Read error
Use of READ statement withOl(t corresponding
DATA statement
25
SWAP JMoeI error
Swap level exceeds 1
28
System id error
Trying to access file other than DISK BASIC.
29
Framing error
Framing error
30
Overrum error
Overrum error
31
Parity error
Pari ty error
40
File not found (Lrt'or
Reference non-existent file
Floppy disk drive hardware error
42
Disk drive hardware error
Q.)(. i:.. ~
s--file error
43
Already open error
Opening of file already open
41
Rlr«-",-c:L..
Attempt to register already existing file name
Referencing (or CLOSE or KILL) unopen file
44
~
46
Write protect.file o-rr 0 r
Write-in prohibited file
50
DMk not ready
Floppy disk off as system
not open error
Q,fr()
r
51
Too many files
Sl
D, l. \.c. W\: ..._ ....\.-, \..
53
No file space O/rof"
54
-55
.
58
11 ,Iiitl;
unformat
~('r()r
fhrl) f"
e.rror
aSB !lIds 11 ~!tll 0'1
;roD l0nDt :
errOr
Dev, name error
e
Attempt to register beyond maximum number 63
of files
Insufficient space on floppy disk
Non-initialized floppy disk
Data size to 1 BSD file exceeds 64K bytes
Error in device name description
59
Can't execute error
Trying to execute device that cannot be executed.
60
Illegal file name error
Filename error
106
Error display number
Statement
Content
61
Illegal file mode error
File mode error
63
Out of file error
Out of file (file data read-in)
64
Logical number error
Non-regulation logical number
65
LPT: not ready
Printer not connected
68
Dev. mode error
Error in device mode
69
Unprintable error
Non-defined error message
70
Check sum error
Check sum error (tape read-in error)
107
5.3
Memory Map
Monitor
+ 10CS
BASIC
interpreter
.
Start address when NEW
command is executed
Text
~
Text end code "00 00"
I/O work area
I/O work end code "00"
~
Variable area
..
Variable end code "00"
String data buffer
Temporary String Area
t
•
Free area
Stack
Calculation work area
Free area for user
FFOO
FFFF
Work area for IPL
..
..
LIMIT -'&HlOO
Address specified by LIMIT
...
108
5.4 Use of the Floppy Disk
For information regarding the method used for setting the floppy disk and the method
of floppy disk drive operation, please refer to the Operation Manual for model
MZ-IF02.
It should be remembered that a master disk should be handled and used very carefully.
Moreover, because Sharp optional floppy disks are not initialized, please initialize them
by a utility program before use.
Notes regarding the use of floppy disks are not initialized; please initialize them by a
utility program before use.
Notes regarding the use of floppy disks
•
If fingerprints get on the floppy disk through the head window, read-out and
write-in will become impossible. Take the utmost care not to allow the surface of
the floppy disk to become marked, stained, dirtied or defaced in any way!
• Storage temperature conditions (around the floppy disk): 4°C - 53°C (39°F
127°F)
The jacket will become deformed if the temperature exceeds 53°C (127°F). Please
take care not to expose the floppy disk to direct sunlight for a long time and not to
place it in an environment where the temperature is apt to exceed 53°C (127°F).
When the floppy disk is used, please use it within the temperature range prescribed
on the protection sleeve. Moreover, because the environmental conditions of the
place of use differ from those of the place of storage, it is suggested that, before
use, the floppy disk be placed for a short time in conditions corresponding to those
of the place of use.
J
• When inserting the floppy disk into the floppy disk drive, insert it straight, gently,
and all the way until it
stop~.
Then move the front door lever to the horizontal
position. Rough handling will damage the floppy disk.
• Do not bend or fold the floppy disk, If the jacket becomes deformed, read-out and
write-in will become impossible.
109
• Write information on the index label before attaching it to the jacket. If something
must be written on a label which is already attached, use a felt marking pen or
similar soft-tip instrument; do not use a pencil or ball-point pen.
• Smoking, eating or drinking in the vicinaty of the floppy disk drive or floppy disks
should be discouraged, or should be done only if great care is taken that ashes,
food particles or liquids do not get into the floppy disk drive or on the floppy disks.
Notes regarding the storage of noppy disks
• Absolutely avoid placement or storage near sources of magnetism. Data on disks
can be erased by magnetized rings, necklaces, etc., so the wearing of any item
which might possibly be magnetized should be carefully avoided when floppy disks
are handled. Note also that it is also dangerous to bring floppy disks near other
equipment or devices which generate or emit magnetism. Note, for example, that
computer CRT displays, cassette recorders and household television sets all
generate magnetism, so floppy disks should always be kept away from these and
similar equipment.
• Be sure to store the floppy disk in its protective sleeve when it is not being used.
The habit should be formed to immediately insert the floppy disk in the sleeve
when it is removed from the floppy disk drive. By following this practice, the
majority of handling errors and accidents can be prevented. Special care should be
taken regarding the master disk: place it in the floppy disk drive only when it is to
be used, and when it is not being used it should be immediately and carefully stored
in a safe place.
The protective sleeve is made of a special material in order to prevent damage by
static electricity and moisture, so be sure to always store the floppy disk only in this
sleeve.
• For storage, insert the floppy disk in its protective sleeve and then place it in the
storage box. The box should be placed so that the disks inside stand vertically.
Avoid any storage conditions in which the disk is not standing vertically straight or
in which it is bent or apt to become bent.
110
A storage box for the master disk is not included. To store it, use a box which is
applicable, keeping in mind the conditions stated above .
• Avoid holding floppy disks with pager clips, spring clips or any other similar
instrument.
• Never place any heavy item on top of a floppy disk. Also do not carelessly place
them on a desk top, etc. Be sure to always return all floppy disks to their prescribed
place for storage immediately after use.
Printed In Japan
Gedruckt In Japan
Imprlme' au Japon
Stampato In Glapporf"
SHARP CORPORATION
OSAKA, JAPAN
4C