BENDIX M-12-M-12R ANTILOCK MODULATOR Specifications

Contents
Safety
1
Emergency
2
Controls
3
Driving
4
Maintenance
5
Information
6
Index
7
Contents
©2012 Paccar Inc - All Rights Reserved
This manual illustrates and describes the operation of features or equipment which may be either standard or optional on
this vehicle. This manual may also include a description of features and equipment which are no longer available or were
not ordered on this vehicle. Please disregard any illustrations or descriptions relating to features or equipment which are
not on this vehicle.
PACCAR reserves the right to discontinue, change specifications, or change the design of its vehicles at any time without
notice and without incurring any obligation.
The information contained in this manual is proprietary to PACCAR. Reproduction, in whole or in part, by any means is strictly
prohibited without prior written authorization from PACCAR Inc.
Truck Model Example
i
SAFETY
1
INTRODUCTION
How to Use This Manual . . . .
How to Find What You Want . .
Safety Alerts . . . . . . . . .
Vehicle Safety . . . . . . . .
A Special Word About Repairs .
Additional Sources of Information
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1-3
1-3
1-4
1-6
1-8
1-9
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1-11
1-12
1-13
1-14
Hood Hold Downs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Hood Tilt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Hood Hold-Open Device . . . . . . . . . . . .
1-16
1-17
1-18
CAB AND FRAME ACCESS
Safety . . . . . . . . . . .
Door Lock and Keys. . . . .
Remote Keyless Entry (RKE) .
Climbing Onto the Deck Plate
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GETTING TO YOUR ENGINE
1-1
SAFETY
SEATS AND RESTRAINTS
1
Introduction . . . . . . . .
Safety Restraint Belts . . . .
Tether Belts . . . . . . . .
Komfort-Lok® Feature . . . .
During Pregnancy. . . . . .
Belt Damage and Repair . . .
Sleeper Bunks and Restraints
Safety Restraint Tips . . . .
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1-20
1-21
1-23
1-24
1-25
1-26
1-26
1-29
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1-31
1-31
1-32
1-34
1-34
START-UP
Introduction . . . . .
Safe Vehicle Operation
Vehicle Loading. . . .
Emergency Equipment
Driver's Check List . .
1-2
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INTRODUCTION
INTRODUCTION
How to Use This Manual
This manual contains useful
information for the safe and efficient
operation of your Peterbilt vehicle.
It also provides information on
maintaining your vehicle in the best
condition, with an outline for performing
safety checks and basic preventive
maintenance inspections.
We have tried to present the
information you’ll need to learn about
your vehicle’s functions, controls, and
operation—and to present it as clearly
as possible. We hope you’ll find this
manual easy to use.
There will be times when you need to
take this manual out of your Peterbilt.
When you do, please be sure to return
it to the cab when you are finished
using it. That way it will be there when
you need it the next time or when you
pass the vehicle on to the next user.
How to Find What You Want
There are several tools built into this
manual to help you find what you need
quickly and easily.
First is the Quick Table of Contents.
Located at the front of the manual, this
lists the main subjects covered and
gives section numbers where you can
find these subjects. Use the Quick
Table of Contents to find information
on a large subject like “Maintenance.”
Cross-referenced citations also help
you get the information you need. If
some other part of the manual contains
further information on the subject you
are reading about, we’ll indicate that
in a cross-reference like this: (See
Driver’s Check List on page 1-34). You
won’t have to go searching for more
information.
Finally you’ll find a helpful Subject
Index. It’s in the back of the manual
1-3
1
INTRODUCTION
1
and alphabetically lists the subjects
covered. So if you want information on
brakes, for example, just look under
Brake in the Subject Index. You’ll find
all the pages listed where brakes or
braking are discussed.
1-4
Safety Alerts
Please read and follow all of the
safety alerts contained in this manual.
They are there for your protection
and information. These alerts can
help you avoid injury to yourself, your
passengers, and help prevent costly
damage to the vehicle. Safety alerts
are highlighted by safety alert symbols
and signal words such as "WARNING",
"CAUTION", or "NOTE". Please do not
ignore any of these alerts.
WARNING
WARNING
The safety message following this
symbol and signal word provides a
warning against operating procedures
which could cause death or personal
injury. They could also cause
equipment or property damage. The
alert will identify the hazard, how to
avoid it, and the probable consequence
of not avoiding the hazard.
INTRODUCTION
CAUTION
Example:
1
CAUTION
NOTE
The safety alert following this symbol
and signal word provides a caution
against operating procedures which
could cause equipment or property
damage. The alert will identify the
hazard, how to avoid it, and the
probable consequence of not avoiding
the hazard.
The alert following this symbol and
signal word provides important
information that is not safety related
but should be followed. The alert
will highlight things that may not be
obvious and is useful to your efficient
operation of the vehicle.
WARNING
Do not carry additional fuel
containers in your vehicle. Fuel
containers, either full or empty,
may leak, explode, and cause or
feed a fire. Do not carry extra fuel
containers. Even empty ones are
dangerous. Failure to comply may
result in death or personal injury.
NOTE
Example:
Example:
NOTE
CAUTION
Continuing to operate your vehicle
with insufficient oil pressure will
cause serious engine damage.
Failure to comply may result in
equipment or property damage.
Pumping the accelerator will not
assist in starting the engine.
1-5
INTRODUCTION
1
Vehicle Safety
WARNING
Do not drink alcohol and drive. Your
reflexes, perceptions, and judgment
can be affected by even a small
amount of alcohol. You could have
a serious or even fatal accident,
if you drive after drinking. Please
do not drink and drive or ride with
a driver who has been drinking.
Failure to comply may result in
death, personal injury, equipment or
property damage.
WARNING
Do not text and drive. Your reaction
time, perceptions and judgment can
be affected while texting or using
any other form of mobile messaging
while driving. Failure to comply
may result in death, personal injury,
equipment or property damage.
1-6
Make sure your vehicle is in top
working condition before heading
out on the road, it is the responsible
driver's duty to do so. Inspect the
vehicle according to the Driver's Check
List beginning on page 1-34.
Every new vehicle is designed to
conform to all Federal Motor Vehicle
Safety Standards applicable at the time
of manufacture. Even with these safety
features, continued safe and reliable
operation depends greatly upon
regular vehicle maintenance. Follow
the maintenance recommendations
found in Preventive Maintenance on
page 5-9. This will help preserve your
investment.
Keep in mind that even a well
maintained vehicle must be operated
within the range of its mechanical
capabilities and the limits of its load
ratings. See the Weight Ratings label
on the driver's door edge.
Safe driving is only possible with the
proper concentration on the driving
task. Keep distraction to a minimum to
improve your concentration. Examples
of distractions may include radio
controls, GPS navigation controls,
cellular telephone calls, cellular text
messages, reading or reaching for
something on the floor. Minimizing
your distractions will improve safe
driving and will help avoid an accident
involving death or personal injury.
Be aware of local regulations that may
prohibit the use of cellular telephones
while driving. In addition to being an
unsafe practice, it may be against local
or federal ordinances to use cellular
devices while operating the vehicle.
This manual is not a training manual.
It cannot tell you everything you need
to know about driving your vehicle. For
that you need a good training program
or truck driving school. If you have not
INTRODUCTION
been trained, get the proper training
before you drive. Only qualified drivers
should drive this vehicle.
California Proposition 65
Warning
•
Diesel engine exhaust and some
of its constituents are known to
the State of California to cause
cancer, birth defects, and other
reproductive harm.
•
Other chemicals in this vehicle
are also known to the State of
California to cause cancer, birth
defects or other reproductive
harm.
•
Battery posts, terminals, and
related accessories contain lead
and lead compounds, chemicals
known to the State of California
to cause cancer and reproductive
harm. Wash hands after handling.
Data Recorder
1
California Vehicle Code - Section
9951- Disclosure of Recording Device
Your vehicle may be equipped with one
or more recording devices commonly
referred to as “event data recorders
(EDR)” or “sensing and diagnostic
modules (SDM)”. If you are involved in
an accident, the device(s) may have
the ability to record vehicle data that
occurred just prior to and/or during the
accident. For additional information on
your rights associated with the use of
this data, contact
•
the California Department of Motor
Vehicles - Licensing Operations
Division
– or –
•
http://www.dmv.ca.gov/
pubs/vctop/d03_6/vc9951.htm
1-7
INTRODUCTION
1
Environmental Protection
WARNING
Diesel engine exhaust and some
of its constituents are known to
the State of California to cause
cancer, birth defects, and other
reproductive harm. Other chemicals
in this vehicle are also known to the
State of California to cause cancer,
birth defects or other reproductive
harm. This warning requirement
is mandated by California law
(Proposition 65) and does not result
from any change in the manner in
which vehicles are manufactured.
Some of the ingredients in engine
oil, hydraulic oil, transmission and
axle oil, engine coolant, diesel fuel,
air conditioning refrigerant (R12,
R134a, and PAG oil), batteries, etc.,
may contaminate the environment if
spilled or not disposed of properly.
Contact your local government agency
1-8
for information concerning proper
disposal.
A Special Word About
Repairs
WARNING
Do not attempt repair work without
sufficient training, service manuals,
and the proper tools. You could be
killed or injured, or you could make
your vehicle unsafe. Do only those
tasks you are fully qualified to do.
Your dealer’s service center is the best
place to have your vehicle repaired.
You can find dealers all over the
country with the equipment and trained
personnel to get you back on the road
quickly—and keep you there.
Your vehicle is a complex machine.
Anyone attempting repairs on it needs
good mechanical training and the
proper tools. If you are sure you
have these requirements, then you
can probably perform some repairs
yourself. However, all warranty repairs
INTRODUCTION
must be performed by an authorized
service facility. If you aren’t an
experienced mechanic, or don’t have
the right equipment, please leave all
repairs to an authorized service facility.
They are the ones equipped to do the
job safely and correctly.
Maintenance Manuals. If you do
decide to do any complex repair work,
you’ll need the maintenance manuals.
Order them from your authorized
dealer. Please provide your Chassis
Serial Number when you order, to be
sure you get the correct manuals for
your vehicle. Allow about four weeks
for delivery. There will be a charge for
these manuals.
WARNING
Modifying your vehicle can make
it unsafe.
Some modifications
can affect your vehicle's electrical
system, stability, or other important
functions. Before modifying your
vehicle, check with your dealer to
make sure it can be done safely.
Improper modifications can cause
death or personal injury.
Additional Sources of
Information
Installed Equipment Operator's Manuals
1
Major component suppliers also supply
operation manuals specific to their
products. Additional manuals and
other pieces of literature are included
in the glove box literature package.
Look for information on products
such as the engine, driver's seat,
transmission, axles, wheels, tires,
ABS/ESP (if applicable), radio, 5th
wheel, lane departure and adaptive
cruise control. If you are missing these
pieces of literature, ask your Dealer
for copies.
Final Chassis Bill of Material. A
complete, non-illustrated computer
printout listing of the parts used to
custom-build your vehicle is available
through the dealer from whom you
purchased your vehicle.
1-9
INTRODUCTION
1
Other Sources
Another place to learn more about
trucking is from local truck driving
schools. Contact one near you to learn
about courses they offer.
Federal and state agencies such
as the department of licensing also
have information. The Interstate
Commerce Commission can give
you information about regulations
governing transportation across state
lines.
1-10
CAB AND FRAME ACCESS
CAB AND FRAME
ACCESS
Safety
WARNING
Always reinstall steps before
entering the cab or accessing the
deck plate. Without steps you could
slip and fall. Failure to comply may
result in death or personal injury.
Be careful whenever you get into or out
of your vehicle’s cab. Always maintain
at least three points of contact with
your hands on the grab handles and
your feet on the steps.
1
WARNING
Jumping out of the cab or getting
into the cab without proper caution
is dangerous. You could slip and
fall, which could lead to death or
personal injury. Keep steps clean.
Clean any fuel, oil, or grease off of
the steps before entering the cab.
Use the steps and grab handles
provided, and always keep at least
three points of contact between
your hands and feet and the truck.
Always face toward the vehicle
when entering or exiting the cab and
look where you are going.
The following picture shows the best
way to enter and exit a Conventional
Cab.
1-11
CAB AND FRAME ACCESS
1
Door Lock and Keys
Door Lock
Doors can be locked from the inside by
using the lock button. Close the door
then push the button down to lock.
Doors automatically unlock when you
open them from inside, and can be
locked from the outside with the key or
the optional remote keyless entry key
fob.
WARNING
To reduce the chance of death or
personal injury, always lock the
doors while driving.
Along with
using the lap shoulder belts properly,
locking the doors helps prevent
doors from inadvertently opening
and occupants from being ejected
from the vehicle.
1-12
Keys
To lock or unlock the doors from
outside the cab, insert the key in the
lock. Turn the key toward the rear to
lock; forward to unlock.
The same key fits your ignition, doors,
and sleeper luggage compartment.
Frame-mounted tool box locks and
locking fuel tank caps each have
individual keys.
CAB AND FRAME ACCESS
Remote Keyless Entry (RKE)
(Optional)
This vehicle may be equipped with a
Remote Keyless Entry (RKE) system
that adds security and convenience
to your vehicle. The system will
lock or unlock the driver’s door and
passenger’s door with the key fob and
alert you with parking lights when the
selected doors are locked or unlocked.
The system includes two key fobs that
provide secure rolling code technology
that prevents someone from recording
the entry signal.
Operation
NOTE
FCC
ID:
L2C0031T
IC:
3432A-0031T FCC ID: L2C0032R
IC: 3432A-0032R This device
complies with Part 15 of the FCC
Rules and with RSS-210 of Industry
Canada.
Operation is subject
to the following two conditions:
(1) This device may not cause
harmful interference, and (2) This
device must accept any interference
received, including interference that
may cause undesired operation.
Changes or modifications not
expressively approved by the party
responsible for compliance could
void the user's authority to operate
the equipment.
The term “IC:”
before the radio certification number
only signifies that Industry Canada
technical specifications were met.
To Unlock The Driver’s Door
Press the UNLOCK button once. The
driver's door will unlock and the parking
lights will come on for 40 seconds.
To Unlock The Passenger’s
Door
Press the UNLOCK button once and
press again within 5 seconds. The
passenger door will unlock.
To Lock All Doors
Press the LOCK button. The doors will
lock and the parking lights will come
on for 2 seconds. If the doors are open
they will not lock. The range of the
RKE system should be approximately
30 ft. This will be reduced if it is
operated close to other RF sources
such as TV/radio transmitters and cell
towers.
1-13
1
CAB AND FRAME ACCESS
1
Batteries
Synchronization
The key fob uses one CR2032,
3V battery. Batteries should last
approximately three years, depending
on use. Consistently reduced range
is an indicator that the battery needs
replacement. Batteries are available
at most discount, hardware and drug
stores.
The key fob may need to be
synchronized to the truck when the
battery is replaced or when the key fob
has not been used for an extended
period of time.
The battery can be accessed by
removing the cover of the key fob.
After a new battery is installed, the
key fob must be synchronized with the
vehicle.
1-14
To Synchronize A Key Fob
1.
Hold the key fob near the receiver
which is located behind the
speedometer and tachometer.
2.
Press and hold both the Lock and
Unlock buttons at the same time
for approximately 7 seconds.
3.
When the key fob is
resynchronized, the doors
will lock then immediately unlock.
4.
If the fob fails to synchronize,
it could be programmed to a
different truck or could have failed.
Contact your dealer to re-program
your key fob.
Climbing Onto the Deck
Plate
WARNING
When you are climbing onto and
off the deck plate, maintain at least
three points of contact with your
hands on the grab handles and
your feet on the steps. Always face
toward the vehicle when entering or
exiting the cab and look where you
are going. Failure to comply may
result in death or personal injury.
WARNING
When stepping onto a surface to
enter the cab or access the deck
plate, only use the steps and grab
handles installed and designed for
that purpose. Failure to use the
proper steps and grabhandles could
cause a fall which may result in
death or personal injury.
CAB AND FRAME ACCESS
WARNING
Keep steps clean. Clean any fuel,
oil, or grease off the steps before
entering the cab or accessing the
deck plate. Stepping on a slippery
surface can cause a fall which may
result in death or personal injury.
1
The following pictures show you the
right way to get on and off the area
behind your cab.
WARNING
Always reinstall steps before
entering the cab or accessing the
deck plate. Without steps you could
slip and fall. Failure to comply may
result in death or personal injury.
NOTE
Any alteration (adding bulkheads,
headache racks, tool boxes, etc.)
behind the cab that affects the
utilization of installed grab handles,
deck plates, or frame access steps
should comply with Federal Motor
Carrier Safety Regulation 399.
Maintain three points of contact.
Hold handles as you step up.
1-15
GETTING TO YOUR ENGINE
1
GETTING TO YOUR
ENGINE
Hood Hold Downs
Hood hold downs keep a hood from
opening unexpectedly.
CAUTION
A hood not latched securely could
open during operation and cause
vehicle damage. Be sure to latch
the hood securely.
1-16
1. Hood Latch in the Closed Position
GETTING TO YOUR ENGINE
Hood Tilt
2. Pull Latch to Open
1
3. Pull Up to Separate
To open your hood, unlock the hood
hold downs by unlatching them. Put
one or both hands on the top of the
hood front. Tilt the hood forward by
pulling at the top of the hood keeping
your feet on the ground for stability.
Keep pulling on the hood until you are
certain that the hood hold open device
is engaged. When closing the hood,
be sure that you maintain the same
point of contact (top of hood) to control
the movement of the hood as it closes.
WARNING
A pivoting hood could hurt someone
or be damaged itself.
Before
opening or closing the hood, be sure
there are no people or objects in the
way. Failure to stand in a position of
safety can cause death or personal
injury.
1-17
GETTING TO YOUR ENGINE
Hood Hold-Open Device
1
The hood is equipped with a hood
hold-open device. In order for the hood
hold-open device to become engaged,
the vehicle hood must be fully open.
Once the vehicle hood is fully open,
the hold-open latch will automatically
engage and will need to be disengaged
by the operator.
The release lever for the hood hold
open device is located near the front
hinge of the hood. Press the lever in to
disengage the hood hold open device.
Pull with hand from here
Press in to disengage
1-18
GETTING TO YOUR ENGINE
1
WARNING
Before opening or closing the
hood, make sure your footing is
secure and stable. Failure to do
so may cause the hood to close
uncontrollably which may result in
death or personal injury.
WARNING
Always ensure the hood hold-open
latch is engaged to keep the hood
fully open any time anyone gets
under the hood for any reason.
Failure to do so may cause the hood
to close uncontrollably which may
result in death or personal injury.
WARNING
Before closing the hood, be sure the
area is clear—no people or objects
are in the way. Failure to do so may
result in death or personal injury.
1-19
SEATS AND RESTRAINTS
1
SEATS AND
RESTRAINTS
Introduction
This section covers the operation
and safe use of your seats. For
further information on features and
adjustment of the seat, see the
manufacturer's Service and Operation
Manual included with the vehicle.
Seat Adjustment
WARNING
Do not adjust the driver's seat
while the vehicle is moving. The
seat could move suddenly and
unexpectedly and can cause the
driver to lose control of the vehicle.
Make all adjustments to the seat
while the vehicle is stopped. After
adjusting the seat and before driving
off, always check to ensure that the
seat is firmly latched in position.
Failure to comply may result in
death, personal injury, equipment or
property damage.
Standard Driver's Seat
The standard driver's seat can be
adjusted forward and rearward as well
as up and down. The seat back angle
can also be adjusted. These three
movements are each controlled by
1-20
SEATS AND RESTRAINTS
levers located either beneath or at the
sides of the seat.
Driver's Seat with Air
Suspension
WARNING
Before driving or riding in vehicle,
ensure that there is adequate head
clearance at maximum upward
travel of seat. Injury may occur if
head clearance is not adequate.
Failure to comply may result in death
or personal injury.
Reclining Seats
Raise the seat all the way up so that
the seat will tilt back and completely
clear objects behind you.
WARNING
Do not drive or ride with your seat
back in the reclined position. You
could be injured by sliding under
the seat belts in a collision. Failure
to comply may result in death or
personal injury.
Safety Restraint Belts
1
Safety belts have proven to be the
single most effective means available
for reducing the potential for either
death or personal injury in motor
vehicle accidents. Unbelted riders
could be thrown into the windshield
or other parts of the cab or could be
thrown out of the cab. They could
strike another person. Injuries can be
much worse when riders are unbelted.
Always fasten your seat belt and be
sure anyone riding with you does the
same. Therefore, read the following
instructions and always observe user
warnings pertaining to safety belts.
WARNING
Do not drive vehicle without your
seat belt and your riders belts
fastened. Riding without a safety
belt properly fastened can lead
to death or personal injury in an
emergency.
1-21
SEATS AND RESTRAINTS
1
Lap/Shoulder Belt
Your vehicle is equipped with a seat belt
indicator in the warning light display
above the speedometer/tachometer
(see “Seat Belt, Fasten” on page 3-42).
The combination lap-shoulder belt is
equipped with a locking mechanism.
The system adjusts automatically to a
person's size and movements as long
as the pull on the belt is slow.
Hard braking or a collision locks the
belt. The belt will also lock when
driving up or down a steep hill or in a
sharp curve.
5.
Pull belt to check for proper
fastening and adjustment, as
follows:
•
Pull shoulder section to make sure
belt fits snugly across the chest
and pelvis.
•
There should be less than 1 inch
(25 mm) gap between the body
and the belt.
•
The shoulder belt must be
positioned over the shoulder, it
must never rest against the neck
or be worn under the arm.
•
Make sure any slack is wound up
on the retractor and that the belt
is not twisted.
To fasten the belt:
1-22
1.
Grasp the belt tongue.
2.
Pull belt in a continuous slow
motion across your chest and lap.
3.
Insert belt tongue into buckle on
inboard side of seat.
4.
Push down until the tongue is
securely locked with an audible
click.
To unfasten the belt:
1.
Push in the release button on the
buckle.
2.
The belt will spring out of the
buckle.
SEATS AND RESTRAINTS
If the belt is locked, lean the body back
to remove any tension in the belt. After
releasing the belt, allow the belt to
retract completely by guiding the belt
tongue until the belt comes to a stop.
1
Safety Restraint Belts
Lap Belt
Correct
Shoulder Belt
Incorrect (too high on hips)
WARNING
Proper seat belt adjustment and use
is important to maximize occupant
safety. Failure to wear or adjust
the safety belt properly may result in
death or personal injury.
Correct (over arm)
Tether Belts
This vehicle may have an external
tether belt installed with a seat, instead
of the internal tethering device. Tether
belts are designed to restrain the seat
Incorrect (under arm)
Incorrect (twisted)
in the event of a sudden stop or an
accident.
Internal tether belts do not require
adjustment.
1-23
SEATS AND RESTRAINTS
1
WARNING
Do not remove, modify, or replace
the tether belt system with a different
tether system. A failed or missing
tether belt could allow the seat base
to fully extend in the event of an
accident. Failure to comply may
result in death or personal injury.
To adjust an external tether
belt
•
Make sure that the tether belt is
attached to the cab floor and seat
frame. It should be routed through
the buckle on each side.
•
Often the attachments are made
using a split-type hook. Make sure
both halves of the hook are around
the anchor bracket.
•
To lengthen the tether, turn the
buckle to a right angle to the
webbing. Then pull the buckle.
To shorten the tether, pull on the
strap.
WARNING
Failure to adjust tether belts properly
can cause excessive movement
of the seat in an accident. Tether
belts should be adjusted so that
they are taut when the seat is in its
most upward and forward position.
Failure to comply may result in death
or personal injury.
1-24
Komfort-Lok® Feature
Your vehicle includes a feature
designed to eliminate cinching and
provide improved safety and comfort.
Cinching is the condition where a belt
becomes continually tighter around
you during a rough, bouncy ride. The
need for this feature increases with
rough road conditions, particularly over
long distances.
To eliminate cinching, simply activate
the Komfort-Lok feature located on the
seat belt webbing at the appropriate
time.
1.
Fasten the seat belt according
to instructions, See Seats and
Restraints on page 1-20.
2.
You are now ready to activate the
Komfort-Lok. Lean forward to pull
a little slack in the belt [maximum
of 1 in. (25 mm), measured from
the belt to your chest]. Be sure to
allow only a small amount of slack.
SEATS AND RESTRAINTS
During Pregnancy
See Safety Restraint Belt Warning
on page 1-23
3.
When the slack is right, push on
the portion labeled ON, which will
cinch it into place. This locks the
Komfort-Lok.
4.
To release the Komfort-Lok, push
down on the portion labeled
OFF, or simply pull down on the
shoulder belt.
5.
When you want to get out of the
cab, release the latch, then just
push the button on the buckle.
1
Pregnant women should always wear
combination lap/shoulder belts. The
lap belt portion must be worn snugly
and as low as possible across the
pelvis. To avoid pressure on the
abdomen, the belt must never pass
over the waist. A properly worn seat
belt may significantly reduce the risks
to woman and baby in the event of a
crash.
Komfort-Lok®
1-25
SEATS AND RESTRAINTS
Belt Damage and Repair
1
Damaged belts in the cab must
be replaced. Belts that have been
stretched, cut, or worn out may not
protect you in an accident.
Sleeper Bunks and
Restraints
If any seat belt is not working properly,
see an Authorized Service Center for
repair or replacement.
Pregnant Woman with Belt Properly
Worn
For further information on seat belts
and seat belt maintenance, see Safety
Restraint System - Inspection on page
5-65.
For cabs equipped with a sleeper, be
sure to use the restraint devices when
1-26
SEATS AND RESTRAINTS
the vehicle is in motion. Your vehicle
may have belts and/or a net restraint
system which are over the bunk or
cover the opening.
If your vehicle has an upper and lower
bunk, the upper bunk can be folded up
out of the way to provide you with more
room in the sleeper. Fold the upper
bunk up and insert the metal end of the
bunk retaining belts into the buckles.
WARNING
Be sure the restraint system is
used when anyone is occupying the
sleeper while the vehicle is moving.
In an accident, an unrestrained
person lying in a sleeper bunk could
be seriously injured. He or she
could be thrown from the bunk.
Failure to comply may result in
death, personal injury, equipment or
property damage.
Lower:
Upper:
1
WARNING
WARNING
Always keep the lower bunk in its
down position while the vehicle is
moving. If left in the up position,
stored items could become loose
during an accident and strike you,
causing death or personal injury.
Be sure the latch that holds the
upper bunk in the folded position
is working properly so the bunk will
not fall down. Pull on the bunk to
be sure it is latched securely. If
the bunk falls, you could be injured.
Failure to comply may result in
death, personal injury, equipment or
property damage.
Before you move the vehicle, check to
be sure the lower bunk is in the down
position.
Per FMCSR 392.60 - Unauthorized
Persons Not to be Transported.
Federal law prohibits the transportation
of persons in commercial vehicles
unless they are specifically authorized
in writing by the motor carrier. See
the cited FMCSR for a complete
description of the regulation and
exemptions.
1-27
SEATS AND RESTRAINTS
1
WARNING
Any loose items on the upper or
lower bunk should be moved to a
secured place before driving the
vehicle. Failure to comply may result
in death, personal injury, equipment
or property damage.
Upper Rear Sleeper Storage
Your vehicle may be equipped with an
upper storage shelf that extends over
the lower bunk and across the rear
of the sleeper. The following warning
applies:
WARNING
Overhead compartments are not
intended for items exceeding their
designed weight limits. Exceeding
the weight limits may cause the shelf
to collapse and or items may fall out
in a sudden stop which may lead to
death or personal injury.
Compartments in the cab and sleeper
are provided for storage of necessary
items used during operation. The
storage areas above the door are
designed to hold a combined total
not exceeding 14 lbs (6 kg) per
compartment and the other overhead
compartments (including those in
1-28
the optional sleeper) should hold a
combined total not exceeding 5 lbs
(2.2 kg) per compartment.
SEATS AND RESTRAINTS
Safety Restraint Tips
•
Do not wear a belt over rigid or
breakable objects in or on your
clothing, such as eye glasses,
pens, keys, etc., as these may
cause injury in an accident.
•
Any authorized person sleeping
in your vehicle while it is moving
should use the bunk restraint.
•
Any authorized person sitting in
the sleeper area on the sofa bed
(if equipped) while it is moving
should wear a seat belt.
•
A responsible operator sees to it
that everyone in the vehicle rides
or sleeps safely. The operator
is responsible to inform any
passengers or co-drivers how to
properly use the seat belts and
bunk restraint in the vehicle.
•
Do not strap in more than one
person with each belt.
•
Keep seat belt and bunk restraint
buckles free of any obstruction
that may prevent secure locking.
•
Damaged or worn belts in the cab
or sleeper, subjected to excessive
stretch forces from normal wear,
must be replaced. They may
not protect you if you have an
accident.
•
Any belts or restraints that have
been subjected to an accident
should be inspected for any loose
(attaching) hardware or damaged
buckles.
•
If belts show damage to any part
of assembly, such as webbing,
bindings, buckles or retractors,
they must be replaced.
•
Do not allow safety belts (seat
or bunk) to become damaged by
getting caught in door, bunk or
seat hardware, or rubbing against
sharp objects.
•
All belts must be kept clean or the
retractors may not work properly.
•
Never bleach or dye seat or bunk
restraint belts: chemicals can
weaken them. Do, however, keep
them clean by following the care
label on the belts. Let them dry
completely before allowing them
to retract or be stowed away.
•
Make sure the seat belts and
bunk restraint of the unoccupied
passenger seat or bunk is fully
wound up on its retractor or
is stowed, so that the belt or
restraint tongue is in its properly
stowed position. This reduces the
possibility of the tongue becoming
a striking object in case of a
sudden stop.
•
Do not modify or disassemble the
seat belts or bunk restraint in your
vehicle. They will not be available
1-29
1
SEATS AND RESTRAINTS
to keep you and your passengers
safe.
1
•
If any seat belt or bunk restraint
is not working properly, see an
authorized dealer for repair or
replacement.
1-30
START-UP
START-UP
Safe Vehicle Operation
Introduction
For your safety, as well as those
around you, be a responsible driver:
The following section covers start-up
procedures for getting your vehicle
ready for the road.
•
If you drink alcohol, do not drive.
•
Do not drive if you are tired, ill, or
under emotional stress.
Safe driving is only possible with the
proper concentration on the driving
task. Keep distraction to a minimum to
improve your concentration. Examples
of distractions may include radio
controls, GPS navigation controls,
cellular telephone calls, cellular text
messages, reading or reaching for
something on the floor. Minimizing
your distractions will improve safe
driving and will help avoid an accident
involving death or personal injury.
Be aware of local regulations that may
prohibit the use of cellular telephones
while driving. In addition to being an
unsafe practice, it may be against local
or federal ordinances to use cellular
devices while operating the vehicle.
Much has gone into the manufacturing
of your vehicle including advanced
engineering techniques, rigid quality
control, and demanding inspections.
These manufacturing processes will
be enhanced by you, the safe driver,
who observes the following:
•
Knows and understands how to
operate the vehicle and all its
controls.
•
Maintains the vehicle properly.
•
Uses driving skills wisely.
For more information, refer to
Department of Transportation
Regulation 392.7, which states that
interstate commercial motor vehicles
are not to be driven unless the driver is
sure that certain parts and accessories
are in working order.
1-31
1
START-UP
1
WARNING
WARNING
The use of alcohol, drugs, and
certain medications will seriously
impair perception, reactions, and
driving ability. These circumstances
can substantially increase the risk
of an accident. Failure to comply
may result in death, personal injury,
equipment or property damage.
Do not text and drive. Your reaction
time, perceptions and judgment can
be affected while texting or using
any other form of mobile messaging
while driving. Failure to comply
may result in death, personal injury,
equipment or property damage.
Do not drink alcohol and drive. Your
reflexes, perceptions, and judgment
can be affected by even a small
amount of alcohol. You could have a
serious or even fatal accident, if you
drive after drinking. Please do not
drink and drive or ride with a driver
who has been drinking.
Vehicle Loading
Compare your vehicle's load capacity
with the total load you are carrying. If
adjustments need to be made, make
them, do not drive an overloaded
vehicle. If you are overloaded or your
load has shifted, your vehicle may be
unsafe to drive.
WARNING
Do not exceed the specified load
rating. Overloading can result in loss
of vehicle control, either by causing
component failures or by affecting
vehicle handling. Exceeding load
ratings can also shorten the service
life of the vehicle. Failure to comply
may result in death or personal
injury.
The gross vehicle weight rating
(GVWR), or the maximum front
and rear gross axle weight ratings
(GAWRs) are determined by the
1-32
START-UP
components installed from the factory
on to the vehicle and their designed
specifications. (Axle weight ratings are
listed on the driver's door edge.)
The following are some definitions of
weight you should know:
GVWR: is the Gross Vehicle Weight
Rating. This is the MAXIMUM
WEIGHT your vehicle is allowed to
carry, including the weight of the empty
vehicle, loading platform, occupants,
fuel, and any load. Never exceed the
GVWR of your vehicle.
Load Distribution: be sure any load
you carry is distributed so that no axle
has to support more than its GAWR.
1
WARNING
An unevenly distributed load or a
load too heavy over one axle can
affect the braking and handling of
your vehicle, which could result in
an accident. Even if your load is
under the legal limits, be sure it is
distributed evenly. Failure to comply
may result in death, personal injury,
equipment or property damage.
GCW: is the actual combined weight,
or Gross Combination Weight (GCW),
of your vehicle and its load: vehicle,
plus trailer(s), plus cargo.
GAWR: is the Gross Axle Weight
Rating. This is the total weight that
one axle is designed to transmit to the
ground. You will find this number listed
on the driver's door edge.
1-33
START-UP
1
Emergency Equipment
Driver's Check List
It is good practice to carry an
emergency equipment kit in your
vehicle. One day, if you have a
roadside emergency, you will be glad
the following items are with you:
To keep your vehicle in top shape and
maintain a high level of safety for you,
your passengers, and your load, make
a thorough inspection every day before
you drive. You will save maintenance
time later, and the safety checks
could help prevent a serious accident.
Please remember, too, that Federal
Motor Carrier Safety Regulation 392.7
requires a pre-trip inspection and so
do commercial trucking companies.
•
window scraper
•
snow brush
•
container or bag of sand or salt
•
emergency light
•
warning triangles
•
small shovel
•
first aid kit
•
fire extinguisher
•
vehicle recovery hitches (see
Vehicle Recovery Guidelines on
page 2-12 for details).
1-34
You are not expected to become a
professional mechanic. The purpose
of your inspections is to find anything
that might interfere with the safe and
efficient transportation of yourself, any
passengers, and your load. If you do
find something wrong and cannot fix it
yourself, have an authorized dealer or
qualified mechanic repair your vehicle
right away.
The following operations are to be
performed by the driver. Performing
these checks and following the
maintenance procedures in this
manual will help keep your vehicle
running properly.
START-UP
Approaching Your Vehicle
•
•
•
•
Check the overall appearance and
condition. Are windows, mirrors,
and lights clean and unobstructed?
Check beneath the vehicle. Are
there signs of fuel, oil, or water
leaks?
Check for damaged, loose, or
missing parts. Are there parts
showing signs of excessive wear
or lack of lubrication? Have a
qualified mechanic examine any
questionable items and repair
them without delay.
Check your load. Is it secured
properly?
Daily Checks
Engine Compartment Checks
- Daily
1.
2.
b.
Replace belts that are cracked
torn or broken.
3.
Fuel Filter/Water Separator
Draining - check and drain.
Depending on the fuel storage
facility, more frequent draining
may be required.
Engine Fluid Levels - add more if
necessary.
a.
Engine oil
b.
Coolant (check while engine
is cold)
4.
Windshield washer reservoir fluid
level - fill if necessary.
c.
Power steering fluid level
5.
Battery Cables - check the
condition of the battery and
alternator cables for signs of
chafing or rubbing. Make sure
that all clamps (straps) holding the
cables are present and in good
working order.
6.
Hood closed before entering cab.
Is it latched properly?
7.
Check brake lines and hoses.
8.
Check the steering components
(pitman arm, draglink, power
steering hoses, etc.).
Engine Belt - check tension and
condition of belts.
a.
See Accessory Drive Belts
on page 5-95 for further
information on checking belt
tension.
NOTE
Deflection should be one belt
thickness for each foot distance
between the pulley centers.
1-35
1
START-UP
1
9.
Check clutch hydraulic fluid.
4.
Chassis and Cab Checks Daily
Before entering the cab and operating
the vehicle, check the following
equipment for proper maintenance:
1.
Lights - are any exterior lights
cracked or damaged?
Perform an exterior light test using
the dash mounted switch next to
the steering wheel. See Exterior
Lighting Self-Test on page 3-63.
2.
Windows and Mirrors - are they
clean and adjusted properly?
3.
Tires and Wheels - are they
inflated properly? Are all wheel
cap nuts in place and torqued
properly - tighten if necessary.
Check front wheel bearing oil
levels. Inspect all tires and wheels
for damage - correct if found.
1-36
Suspension - check for loose or
missing fasteners. Check damage
to springs or other suspension
parts such as cracks, gouges,
distortions, bulges or chafing.
5.
Brake Components - check lines,
linkages, chambers, parking and
service brake operation.
6.
Air System - are there leaks?
Air Tanks - drain water from all air
tanks. Make sure the drain cocks
are closed. This procedure is also
required for air suspension tanks
equipped with automatic drain
valves.
For further details See Using the
Brake System on page 4-21.
7.
Steps and Handholds - check
for worn surfaces and loose or
missing fasteners (which includes
any fuel tank steps).
8.
Fluid Tanks (Fuel, DEF, etc.) check underneath the vehicle for
signs of fluid leaks. If any are
found, correct before operating the
vehicle.
9.
Fuel Tank Hardware - are the
tanks fill caps secure? Are the
tank straps tight? Is the strap
webbing in place?
WARNING
Diesel fuel in the presence of an
ignition source (such as a cigarette)
could cause an explosion.
Do
not remove a fuel tank cap near
an open flame. Use only the fuel
and/or additives recommended
for your engine.
A mixture of
gasoline or alcohol with diesel fuel
increases this risk of explosion.
Failure to comply may result in
death, personal injury, equipment or
property damage. See Refueling on
page 4-64, for more information.
10. Trailer Connections - are they
secure and the lines clear? If
START-UP
they are not being used, are they
stored properly?
a.
Is the trailer spare wheel
secure and inflated?
b.
Is the landing gear up and the
handle secured?
11. Check the fifth wheel. Is the
kingpin locked?
a.
Is the sliding fifth wheel
locked?
Cab Interior - Daily
1.
2.
Seat - adjust the seat for easy
reach of controls and visibility.
Seat Belts - fasten and adjust
safety restraint belts (which may
include restraints in the sleeper).
3.
Steering Column - adjust for easy
reach and visibility.
4.
Mirrors - check and readjust
mirrors if necessary.
5.
Lights - turn ignition key to the ON
position and check for warning
lights and buzzer. Check operation
of turn signals and emergency
lights.
6.
Instruments - check all
instruments.
7.
Windshield - check operation of
windshield wipers and washers.
8.
Horn - check operation of horn.
9.
Fuel - check fuel. Is there enough
fuel?
may shorten the service life of the
sleeper air conditioning air filter.
The above items should be checked
daily, as a minimum. They are in
addition to, not in place of, Federal
Motor Carrier Safety Regulations.
These regulations may be purchased
by writing to:
Superintendent of Documents
U.S. Government Printing Office
Washington, DC 20402
10. Diesel Exhaust Fluid (DEF) check level. Is there enough fluid?
11. Sleeper air conditioning air filter check the condition of the sleeper
air conditioning air filter. Keep
the sleeper floor area behind
the passenger front seat clear of
debris and pet hair. The sleeper
air conditioner draws air from this
area and excessive dirt or pet hair
1-37
1
START-UP
1
Weekly Operations
1.
Battery - check battery and
terminals.
2.
Wheel Cap Nuts - are they all
in place and torqued properly tighten if necessary. See Wheel
Cap Nut Torque on page 5-140.
3.
Other Controls and Wiring - check
for condition and adjustment
4.
Steering Components - check
pitman arm, draglink, and power
steering hoses, etc., for loose,
broken, or missing parts.
5.
HVAC Fresh Air Filter - check for
condition and cleanliness.
6.
Other Engine Compartment
Checks
a.
1-38
Check condition and fastening
of engine belt, hoses, clamps,
and radiator.
b.
Check the air cleaner, muffler,
and exhaust pipes. Are they
tight and secure?
c.
For vocational vehicles
with optional engine air
pre-cleaner, check the purge
valve at the bottom of the hood
mounted engine air precleaner
for any obstructions. Make
sure the purge valve will open
and close as needed to purge
dirt and water from the engine
intake air.
d.
Automatic transmission fluid
(when applicable) - Check
level, after the engine has
warmed up to operating
temperature.
EMERGENCY
WHAT TO DO IF...
You Need Roadside Assistance . . .
Low Air Alarm Turns On . . . . . .
Stop Engine Lamp Turns On . . . .
Engine Oil Pressure Lamp Turns On.
Engine is Overheating . . . . . . .
Fuse or Relay Blows . . . . . . .
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2-3
2-3
2-4
2-4
2-5
2-6
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2-8
2
JUMP STARTING VEHICLES
VEHICLE RECOVERY AND SPRING BRAKES
Vehicle Recovery Guidelines . .
Returning Vehicle to Service . .
Spring Brakes—Manual Release
Sand, Mud, Snow and Ice . . .
Towing the Vehicle . . . . . .
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2-12
2-20
2-20
2-22
2-23
2-1
WHAT TO DO IF...
WHAT TO DO IF...
You Need Roadside
Assistance
Call toll-FREE 1-800-4-PETERBILT
(1-800-473-8372) to talk to someone
at the PACCAR Customer Center.
•
Open 24-7-365 days a year
•
They can help you get roadside
assistance.
•
They have a custom mapping
system which locates Peterbilt
dealers and Independent Service
Providers (ISPs) near you and lists
types of services offered, hours of
operation and contact information.
•
They can assist with jump and
pull starts, tires, trailers, fines and
permits, chains, towing, hazardous
clean-up, out of fuel (roadside),
mechanical repairs and preventive
maintenance services.
•
They have bilingual agents and
access to a translation service
to ensure quality assistance
for customers who speak any
language.
•
They can’t answer your warranty
questions but can get you in
contact with a Peterbilt dealer who
can.
•
The PACCAR Customer Center
service is FREE even if you don’t
drive a Peterbilt.
Low Air Alarm Turns On
2
1.
Slow down carefully.
2.
Move a safe distance off the road
and stop.
3.
Place the transmission in
neutral (park with automatic
transmissions, if equipped) and
set the parking brake. (Refer
to Parking Brake Valve on
page 4-34 and Operating the
Transmission on page 4-18, for
transmission shifting and parking
brake information.)
4.
Turn OFF the engine.
5.
Turn ON the emergency flasher
and use other warning devices to
alert other motorists.
2-3
WHAT TO DO IF...
Stop Engine Lamp Turns On
WARNING
2
If the air pressure falls below 60
psi (414 kPa) the spring brakes
may stop the vehicle abruptly, which
could cause an accident resulting in
death or personal injury. Observe
the red warning lamps on the
gauges. If one comes on, do not
continue to drive the vehicle until
it has been properly repaired or
serviced.
If the light and alarm do not turn off at
startup, do not try to drive the vehicle
until the problem is found and fixed.
(Refer to Using the Brake System on
page 4-21, for more brake information.)
2-4
Stop Engine Lamp - If the
Stop Engine warning lamp
illuminates, it means you
have a serious engine system
problem.
WARNING
This should be considered an
emergency. You should stop the
vehicle as safely as possible and
turn OFF the ignition. The vehicle
must be serviced and the problem
corrected before driving again.
Failure to do so may cause severe
engine or DPF damage, or cause an
accident which may result in death
or personal injury.
Engine Oil Pressure Lamp
Turns On
Engine Oil Pressure Lamp
- If the oil pressure suddenly
drops, or the audible alarm and
engine oil pressure warning
light come on while driving, do
the following:
1.
Slow down carefully.
2.
Move a safe distance off the road
and stop.
3.
Place the transmission in park
and set the parking brake.
(See Parking Brake Valve on
page 4-34 and Operating the
Transmission on page 4-18, for
transmission shifting and parking
brake information.)
4.
Turn OFF the engine.
5.
Turn ON the emergency flasher
and use other warning devices to
alert other motorists.
WHAT TO DO IF...
6.
7.
Wait a few minutes to allow oil to
drain into the engine oil pan, and
then check the oil level. (See Oil
Level Check on page 5-92, for
details on checking oil level.)
Add oil if necessary. If the problem
persists, contact an authorized
dealer as soon as possible.
CAUTION
Continuing to operate your vehicle
with insufficient oil pressure may
cause severe engine damage or
cause an accident which may result
in equipment or property damage.
It is important to maintain oil pressure
within acceptable limits. If oil pressure
drops below the minimum psi (kPa) a
Red Warning Lamp on the oil pressure
gauge will illuminate and the Stop
Engine Lamp will come ON.
Engine is Overheating
The cooling system may overheat if
the coolant level is below normal or if
there is sudden loss of coolant, such
as a split hose. The system may also
temporarily overheat during severe
operating conditions such as:
•
Climbing a long hill on a hot day
•
Stopping after high-speed driving
If either one of the above occurs, DO
NOT TURN OFF THE ENGINE unless:
a) the Low Water warning device
indicates a loss of coolant, b) the Red
Warning lamp (on the gauge) and
Check Engine lamp comes ON, c) the
Buzzer sounds showing an overheat
condition, or d) if you have any other
reason to suspect the engine may be
overheating - follow these steps.
1.
Reduce engine speed and
stop. When stopped, place the
transmission in Neutral and set the
parking brake. (See Parking Brake
Valve on page 4-34 and Putting
the Vehicle in Motion on page
4-15, for transmission shifting and
parking brake information.) Keep
the engine running.
2.
Check to ensure the Oil Pressure
Gauge reads normal. (See Engine
Oil Pressure Gauge on page 3-11,
for further information.)
3.
Make sure the engine fan is
turning by switching the Engine
Fan Switch from AUTO to MAN
(Manual).
4.
Increase the engine speed to
about one-half of full operating
speed, or 1,100 to 1,200 rpm,
maximum.
5.
Return the engine speed to normal
idle after 2 or 3 minutes.
6.
Monitor the engine temperature.
After the temperature returns to
normal, allow the engine to idle
2-5
2
WHAT TO DO IF...
3 to 5 minutes before shutting it
off. This allows the engine to cool
gradually and uniformly.
7.
2
If overheating came from
severe operating conditions, the
temperature should have cooled
by this time. If it has not, stop
the engine and let it cool before
checking to see if the coolant is
low.
For further information on engine
temperature and operating engines
properly, see the Engine Operation
and Maintenance Manual and Starting
& Operating the Vehicle on page 4-5.
Check the coolant level after each
trip when the engine has cooled.
The coolant level should be visible
within the surge tank—add coolant if
necessary. See Topping Off in Engine
Cooling System on page 5-70, for
instructions on checking and filling the
coolant expansion tank.
2-6
WARNING
To reduce the chance of death,
personal injury and/or vehicle
damage from overheated engines,
which can result in a fire, never
leave the engine idling without an
alert driver present. If the engine
should overheat, as indicated by
the engine coolant temperature
light, immediate action is required
to correct the condition. Continued
unattended operation of the engine,
even for a short time, may result in
serious engine damage or a fire.
WARNING
Do not remove the radiator fill cap
while the engine is hot. Scalding
steam and fluid under pressure may
escape. You could be badly burned.
Failure to comply may result in death
or personal injury.
Fuse or Relay Blows
Fuses are located behind the drivers
side kick panel, below the ignition
switch, and accessible by a door panel.
See Power Distribution Box on page
5-82.
The vehicle main power relays are
located in the engine compartment.
See Power Distribution Center (PDC)
on page 5-79.
WARNING
Do not replace a fuse with a fuse of a
higher rating. Doing so may damage
the electrical system and cause a
fire. Failure to comply may result in
death, personal injury, equipment or
property damage.
WHAT TO DO IF...
CAUTION
Before replacing a fuse, turn OFF all
lights and accessories and remove
the ignition key to avoid damaging
the electrical system.
CAUTION
Never patch fuses with tin foil or
wire.
This may cause serious
damage elsewhere in the electrical
circuit, and it may cause a fire.
CAUTION
If a circuit keeps blowing fuses,
have the electrical system inspected
for a short circuit or overload by
an authorized dealer as soon as
possible. Failure to do so could
cause serious damage to the
electrical system and/or vehicle.
Fuse Inspection and
Replacement
All the electrical circuits have fuses
to protect them from a short circuit or
overload. If something electrical on
your chassis stops working, the first
thing you should check for is a blown
fuse.
1.
Turn OFF all lights and accessories
and remove the ignition key to
avoid damaging the electrical
system.
2.
Determine from the chart on the
fuse panel which fuse controls that
component.
3.
Remove that fuse and see if it is
blown.
1
If it is blown, replace it with a fuse of
the same rating.
If a fuse of the same rating is not
available, a fuse of a lower rating may
be temporarily substituted. You can
also use a fuse from a circuit you can
do temporarily without (for example an
accessory circuit or radio).
CAUTION
When replacing a failed circuit
breaker, always use an approved
circuit breaker with a current rating
equal to or less than the circuit
breaker being replaced. Only use
the approved Type II modified reset
circuit breakers.
NEVER use a
Type I (automatic reset) or Type III
(manual reset) circuit breaker. A
fuse with a current rating equal to or
less than the circuit breaker being
replaced can also be used.
Blown
2-7
2
JUMP STARTING VEHICLES
JUMP STARTING
VEHICLES
2
Introduction
Jump starting a vehicle is not a
recommended practice due to the
various battery installations and
electrical options.
However, if your battery is discharged
(dead), you may be able to start it
by using energy from a good battery
in another vehicle. This is termed
jump starting. Be sure to follow the
precautions and instructions below.
WARNING
Batteries contain acid that can
burn and gasses that can explode.
Ignoring safety procedures may
result in death, personal injury,
equipment or property damage.
2-8
WARNING
Never jump start a battery near
fire, flames, or electrical sparks.
Batteries generate explosive gases
that could explode. Keep sparks,
flame, and lighted cigarettes away
from batteries. Failure to comply
may result in death, personal injury,
equipment or property damage.
WARNING
Never remove or tamper with
battery caps. Ignoring this could
allow battery acid to contact eyes,
skin, fabrics, or painted surfaces.
Failure to comply may result in
death, personal injury, equipment or
property damage.
Be careful that metal tools (or any
metal in contact with the positive
terminal) do not contact the positive
battery terminal and any other metal on
the vehicle at the same time. Remove
metal jewelry and avoid leaning over
the battery.
JUMP STARTING VEHICLES
To Jump Start Your Vehicle
WARNING
When jump starting using a battery
booster, it is best to jump start
with an equivalently powered
vehicle.
Verify that the booster
battery has the same volt and
CCA specifications as the dead
battery before attempting to jump
start.
Failure to comply may
cause an explosion resulting in
death, personal injury, equipment or
property damage.
CAUTION
Applying a higher voltage booster
battery may cause expensive
damage to sensitive electronic
components,
such as relays,
Electronic
Control
units
or
electronics in general. Failure to
comply may result in equipment
damage.
CAUTION
Improper hook-up of jumper cables
or not following these procedures
can damage the alternator or cause
serious damage to both vehicles.
Preparing the vehicles:
1.
Remove any personal jewelry
that may come in contact with the
battery terminals.
2.
Select a jumper cable that is long
enough to attach to both vehicles
in a way that ensures neither
vehicle touches each other.
3.
Position the two vehicles together,
but do not allow them to touch.
4.
Turn OFF all lights, heater, radio,
and any other accessory on both
vehicles.
5.
Set the parking brakes: pull out
the Yellow button located on the
dash.
6.
Shift the transmission into park
position or neutral for manual
transmissions. (See Operating
the Transmission on page 4-18
and Parking Brake Valve on page
4-34, for transmission shifting and
parking brake information.)
WARNING
Heed all warnings and instructions
of the jumper cable manufacturer.
Failure to comply may result in
death, personal injury, equipment or
property damage.
2-9
2
JUMP STARTING VEHICLES
7.
If either vehicle is equipped with
battery disconnects ensure they
are in the "OFF" position prior to
connecting the two vehicles.
Connect the batteries:
1.
2
Attach one end of a jumper cable
to the positive (+) terminal of the
discharged (dead) battery. This
will have a large red + or P on the
battery case, post, or clamp.
2.
Attach the other end of the same
cable to the positive (+) terminal
of the good (booster) battery.
3.
Attach the remaining jumper cable
FIRST to the negative (-) terminal
(black or N) of the good battery.
4.
Attach the other end of the
negative cable to a bare metal part
not bolted to the engine block.
NOTE
Always connect positive (+) to
positive (+) and negative (-) to
negative (-).
5.
2-10
If either vehicle is equipped with
battery disconnects, ensure that
they are in the "ON" position.
6.
Start the vehicle that has the
good battery first. Let it run for 5
minutes.
7.
Start the vehicle that has the
discharged (dead) battery.
If the engine fails to start, do not
continue to crank the starter but
contact the nearest authorized dealer.
JUMP STARTING VEHICLES
Remove jumper cables:
WARNING
When disconnecting jumper cables,
make sure they do not get caught
in any moving parts in the engine
compartment. Failure to comply
may result in death, personal injury,
equipment or property damage.
2
Reverse the above procedure exactly
when removing the jumper cables.
With engine running, disconnect
jumper cables from both vehicles in
the exact reverse order, making sure
to first remove the negative cable from
the vehicle with the discharged battery.
2-11
VEHICLE RECOVERY AND SPRING BRAKES
VEHICLE RECOVERY
AND SPRING BRAKES
2
Vehicle Recovery Guidelines
Your vehicle is equipped with
removable Recovery Hitches,
designed for short distance recovery
purposes only. Use only the provided
hitches, according the following
instructions. When using this
connection, do not transport your
vehicle over long distances. (If your
vehicle does not have the proper
hitches, contact your dealer.)
All lubricating and clutch application
oil pressure is provided by an
engine-driven pump, which will not
work when the engine is stopped.
You could seriously damage your
vehicle by towing it with the driveline
connected and the drive wheels on
the ground. Worse, when vehicles are
towed, either by wrecker or piggyback,
2-12
the lubricant in the top front of the
drive axle will drain to the rear. This
will leave the top components dry. The
resulting friction may damage them.
Always remove the main drive axle
shafts before towing your vehicle.
CAUTION
Remove the drive axle shafts or lift
the driving wheels off the ground
before towing the vehicle. Towing
the vehicle with either the wheels on
the ground or the axle shafts in the
axles will cause damage to the axle
gears.
CAUTION
If your vehicle has a Meritor axle with
a driver-controlled main differential
lock, install the caging bolt before
removing the axles for towing, see
Driver Controlled Main Differential
Lock on page 2-16. Installing the
caging bolt prevents damage by
locking internal axle components in
position.
CAUTION
Connect only to the Recovery
Hitches, see Vehicle Recovery
Guidelines
on
page
2-12.
Connections to other structural
parts could damage the vehicle. Do
not attach to bumpers or brackets.
Use only equipment designed for
this purpose. Failure to comply may
result in equipment damage.
VEHICLE RECOVERY AND SPRING BRAKES
Recovery Procedure
1.
1
Review and understand all the
cautions and warnings of this
section, see Vehicle Recovery
Guidelines on page 2-12.
2.
Install the recovery hitches, see
Recovery Hitch Installation on
page 2-15.
3.
Disconnect the drive axle shafts
and cover the open hubs. This
is necessary because if the
transmission is driven by the
driveshaft (rear wheels on the
ground), no lubricant will reach
the gears and bearings, causing
damage to the transmission.
4.
Install the recovery rigging using a
safety chain system, see Recovery
Rigging on page 2-19.
5.
Make sure the recovered vehicle's
parking brakes are released.
6.
If you desire to use the recovered
vehicle’s brakes, ensure that
Recovery Hitch Sockets
the vehicle’s air system is
connected to that of the recovery
vehicle. Ensure that any air line
that has been removed from a
driver-controlled main differential
lock is firmly capped to prevent
loss of air pressure from the
recovery vehicle if it is supplying
air pressure.
If you don’t desire to use the
recovered vehicle’s brakes,
ensure that you cage the spring
brakes before attempting to move
the vehicle, see Driver Controlled
Main Differential Lock on page
2-16.
2-13
2
VEHICLE RECOVERY AND SPRING BRAKES
WARNING
Before towing a vehicle, test your
air brakes to ensure that you have
properly connected and inspected
the recovery vehicle’s brake system.
Failure to do so could lead to a loss
of vehicle control which may result
in an accident involving death or
personal injury.
2
7.
Follow state/provincial and local
laws that apply to vehicles in tow.
8.
Do not tow vehicles at speeds in
excess of 55 mph (90 km/h).
For additional information concerning
heavy duty truck recovery, refer to the
following Technology & Maintenance
Council (TMC) literature.
•
Recommended Practice #602–A
— “Front Towing Devices For
Trucks and Tractors.”
2-14
•
•
Recommended Practice #602–B
— “Recovery Attachment Points
For Trucks, Tractors, and
Combination Vehicles
Recommended Practice #626
— “Heavy Duty Truck Towing
Procedures.”
Copies of these can be obtained from
the following address:
Technology & Maintenance Council
950 N. Glebe Road
(703) 838-1763
Arlington, VA 22203
Email: tmc@trucking.org
http://tmc.truckline.com
Recovery Hitch Connection
Specially designed hitches are
required to recover your vehicle. The
recovery hitches attach to the frame,
see Recovery Hitch Assembly on page
2-15.
Two hitch assemblies, made up of the
following parts, are recommended for
the proper recovery of your vehicle:
see Recovery Hitch Assembly on page
2-15.
WARNING
Do not use parts from other trucks
or materials from other sources
to repair a hitch or to replace a
missing hitch. The parts provided for
recovery are made of high strength
still specifically designed for vehicle
recovery. Failure to use the correct
factory equipment may result in an
accident involving death or personal
injury.
VEHICLE RECOVERY AND SPRING BRAKES
Recovery Hitch Installation
If your vehicle is not equipped with
the proper recovery hitch assembly,
contact an authorized dealer to obtain
the proper equipment.
Use the following procedure to install
the Vehicle Recovery Hitches. See
Recovery Hitch Assembly illustration
for part identification.
1.
2.
With lock pins removed, insert
hitches through bumper and into
the square hitch socket.
3.
Align the hole in the tow hitch with
the square hitch socket hole.
4.
Insert the lock pin into the square
hitch socket hole and through
the hole in the tow hitch until the
lock tab is within the square hitch
socket.
5.
Rotate the lock pin 90 degrees to
secure the pin in place.
6.
Remove the hitches and store all
parts after recovering the vehicle.
Recovery Hitch Assembly
1
2
3
4
5
Tow Pin
Tow Hitch
Square Hitch Socket
Lock Pin
Lock Tab
Check square sockets behind
lower bumper for obstructions,
clear if necessary.
Driver Controlled Main
Differential
Follow these steps to lock a
driver-controlled main differential.
2
WARNING
An open air line on the recovered
vehicle will cause a leak in the air
system of the recovery vehicle if
both vehicles’ brake systems are
connected.
This could cause a
loss of system air, which can cause
the service brakes not to function,
resulting in the sudden application
of the spring brakes causing wheel
lock-up, loss of control, or overtake
by following vehicles. You could
be in an accident involving death
or personal injury. Ensure that any
air line that has been removed from
a driver-controlled main differential
lock is firmly capped to prevent loss
of air pressure from the recovery
vehicle if it is supplying air pressure.
2-15
VEHICLE RECOVERY AND SPRING BRAKES
2
Driver Controlled Main Differential
Lock
1
2
1.
Air Line (remove to install
Caging Bolt)
Caging Bolt (in storage
location)
Lift driving wheels off the ground
or remove the driveline and axle
shafts before towing the vehicle.
2-16
CAUTION
CAUTION
Failure to lift the driving wheels off
the ground or remove the driveline
and axle shafts before towing the
vehicle could seriously damage your
vehicle. All lubricating and clutch
application oil pressure is provided
by an engine-driven pump, which
does not work when the engine is
stopped. When vehicles are towed
either by wrecker or piggyback,
lubricant in the top front of the drive
axle will drain to the rear. This
will leave the top components dry,
resulting in friction that will seriously
damage these components.
Water, dirt and other material can
enter an open hub or axle. This can
contaminate the axle fluid and cause
possible damage to components.
Ensure that the hubs are covered
with plastic whenever a drive axle
shaft is removed.
2.
Cover open hubs when removing
drive axle shafts.
3.
For vehicles with driver-controlled
main differential lock, install the
caging bolt before removing the
axle shafts for towing.
a.
Remove the air line and firmly
cap.
b.
Remove the caging bolt from
its storage hole.
c.
Screw the caging bolt into
the air line hole. When
fully engaged, a 0.25 - 0.5
in. (6.35-12.7 mm) space
will remain between the air
cylinder and the bolt head.
VEHICLE RECOVERY AND SPRING BRAKES
This action will lock the
differential by pushing a piston
into a “lock” position.
CAUTION
Failure to install the caging
bolt when towing vehicles with
driver-control main differential lock
can result in damage by failing to
lock internal components in position.
CAUTION
CAUTION
A recovered vehicle will have
no operational brake system.
Additionally, the rear axle spring
brakes will probably be applied.
Connect recovery rigging only to
hitches intended for that purpose.
Do not attach to bumpers or
brackets.
Connections to other
structural parts could damage the
vehicle.
•
If you desire to use the recovered
vehicle’s brakes, ensure that the
vehicles air system is connected
to that of the recovery vehicle.
Also ensure that any air line
that has been removed from a
driver-controlled main differential
lock is firmly capped to prevent
loss of air pressure from the
recovery vehicle.
•
If you don’t desire to use the
recovered vehicle’s brakes,
ensure that you cage the spring
brakes before attempting to move
the vehicle.
4.
Install recovery hitches and
rigging.
WARNING
Ensure there are no open air lines on
the recovered vehicle if the recovery
vehicle and recovered vehicle brake
systems are connected. An open
air line on the recovered vehicle will
cause a leak in the air brake system
of the recovery vehicle possibly
causing death, personal injury,
equipment or property damage.
2-17
2
VEHICLE RECOVERY AND SPRING BRAKES
Recovery Hitch Capacities
2
The maximum rated loads for vehicle
recovery varies depending on the
direction or angle of pull. These
capacities are listed in the table below
and are for the two hitches working
together, simultaneously.
Hitch Capacities
DIRECTION OF
PULL
MAXIMUM
CAPACITY
(Lb) *
80,000
14,600
Directly Forward
Directly Vertical or
Horizontally to the
Side
20,000
45º in any Direction
* Both hitches pulled simultaneously.
2-18
CAUTION
Recovery pull maximums assume
the tow rigging evenly distributes the
load between both recovery hitches.
See examples in Recovery Rigging
on page 2-19 for details. Serious
damage to the vehicle may occur if
rigging is not connected properly.
CAUTION
When recovering ditched or bogged
vehicles, stay well below Maximum
Capacities. Even at loads below
maximum, the physical strain of
recovering a vehicle could damage
axles, suspensions, fifth wheels,
etc.
VEHICLE RECOVERY AND SPRING BRAKES
Recovery Rigging
•
To connect to the vehicle, follow the
suggested rigging methods below.
Never loop a single chain or cable
through both hitches (3).
•
Use a spreader or equalizer bar to
distribute the load on both hitches
(1).
•
Use a double chain or cable setup
that distributes the load equally
to both hitches. See 1 or 2 in
Recovery Rigging illustration.
1. Spreader Bar or Equalizer
Preferred
•
cable no closer than 6 ft. from the
vehicle (2).
2
If no spreader bar is available,
connect the main tow chain or
2. Minimum 6 FT.
Acceptable
3. NEVER USE SINGLE CHAIN OR CABLE
LOOPED THROUGH TOW DEVICES
2-19
VEHICLE RECOVERY AND SPRING BRAKES
Returning Vehicle to Service
2
You will have to add lubricant to
prevent damage after your vehicle has
been towed.
1.
Into the pinion cage, add 1 pint
(.47 liter) of lubricant or into the
interaxle differential, add 2 pints
(.94 liter) of approved lubricant.
2.
After adding the specified type
and amount of lubricant, drive the
vehicle. It should be unloaded.
Drive 1 to 2 miles (1.5 to 3 km)
at a speed lower than 25 mph
(40 km/h). This will thoroughly
circulate the lubricant through the
assembly.
2-20
Spring Brakes—Manual
Release
Recovering a vehicle requires that you
release the parking brakes. There may
be times when there is not enough air
pressure to release the parking brakes.
In such cases, the parking brakes
(or Spring Brakes) can be manually
released.
WARNING
Do
not
drive
vehicle
with
malfunctioning brakes. If one of
the brake circuits should become
inoperative, braking distances will
increase substantially and handling
characteristics while braking will be
affected. You could lose control of
your vehicle or cause an accident.
Have it towed to the nearest dealer
or qualified repair facility for repair.
Failure to comply may result in
death, personal injury, equipment or
property damage.
The brakes can be released in this
manner should the pressure in the air
system not be enough to release them.
This may occur in instances where
the engine's air compressor is not
able to get the system up to operating
pressure.
WARNING
Do not disassemble a spring
brake chamber. These chambers
contain a powerful spring that is
compressed. Sudden release of
this spring may result in death or
personal injury.
VEHICLE RECOVERY AND SPRING BRAKES
WARNING
Do not operate a vehicle when the
spring brakes have been manually
released. Driving a vehicle after its
spring brakes are manually released
is extremely dangerous. The brakes
may not function. Failure to comply
may result in death, personal injury,
equipment or property damage.
WARNING
Always secure the vehicle with
wheel chocks, chains, or other safe
means to prevent rolling before
manually releasing the spring
brakes. Releasing the spring brakes
on an unsecured vehicle could
lead to an accident. The vehicle
could roll, which may result in
death, personal injury, equipment or
property damage.
pressure in the brake system, perform
the following procedure:
1. Remove the cap from
the spring chamber.
2. Remove the release
stud assembly from the
side pocket, and remove
the release nut and
washer from the release
stud.
3. Slide out the release
stud.
4. Insert the release stud
through the opening in
the spring chamber
where the cap was
removed. Insert it into
the pressure plate. Turn
the release stud 1/4
turn clockwise in the
pressure plate. This
secures the cross pin
into the cross pin area of
the pressure plate and
locks it into the manual
release position.
5. Assemble the release
stud washer and nut on
the release stud.
To move a vehicle immobilized by
the spring brakes due to loss of air
2-21
2
VEHICLE RECOVERY AND SPRING BRAKES
6. With a wrench,
turn the release stud
assembly nut until the
compression spring is
90-95 percent caged.
While doing this, check
to make sure the push
rod (adapter push
rod or service push
rod) is retracting. Do
not over-torque the
release stud assembly.
(S-Cam type maximum:
50 lb-ft, Wedge type
maximum: 30 lb-ft).
The spring brake is now
mechanically released.
2
Sand, Mud, Snow and Ice
WARNING
If the vehicle gets stuck in sand,
mud, snow, or ice:
•
Move the gearshift lever or
selector from First to Reverse.
•
Apply light pressure on the
accelerator pedal while the
transmission is in gear.
•
Remove your foot from the
accelerator while shifting.
•
Do not race the engine.
•
For best traction and safety, avoid
spinning the wheels.
Do not spin the wheels faster than
35 mph (55 km/h). Spinning a tire at
speedometer readings faster than
35 mph (55 km/h) can be dangerous.
Tires can explode from spinning too
fast. Under some conditions, a tire
may be spinning at a speed twice
that shown on the speedometer.
Any resulting tire explosion could
cause death or personal injury to a
bystander or passenger, as well as
extensive vehicle damage: including
tire, transmission and/or rear axle
malfunction.
Comply with the following
instructions to avoid transmission
damage:
•
2-22
Always start vehicle in motion with
the shift lever in first gear.
VEHICLE RECOVERY AND SPRING BRAKES
•
Be sure that transmission is fully
engaged in gear before releasing
the clutch pedal (manual only).
•
Do not shift into reverse while the
vehicle is moving.
•
If the vehicle needs to be
recovered from being stuck, do not
permit the vehicle to be towed for
long distances without removing
the driveshaft.
Tire Chains
If you need tire chains, install them on
both sides of the driving axle.
CAUTION
Chains on the tires of only one
tandem axle can damage the
driveline U-joints and the interaxle
differential. Repairs could be costly
and time-consuming.
Failure to
comply may result in equipment
damage.
Towing the Vehicle
Towing the vehicle should be done
by either an authorized dealer
or a commercial vehicle towing
service. The dealer or commercial
towing service will have the necessary
equipment to safely tow the vehicle and
should be able to make arrangements
to limit any damage to the vehicle. The
towing service and the dealer should
be aware of towing regulations and
safety precautions.
The towing service will ensure that the
following precautions are taken:
•
Use of a safety chain system.
•
Abide by all local towing
regulations.
•
Ensure that the towing device
does not contact any surfaces that
could be damaged while in transit.
•
If towing from the front, ensure
that the rear axles are prepared
for towing.
•
If towing from the rear, ensure
that all body components such as
roof, side and chassis fairings are
secured properly to avoid damage
while in transit.
WARNING
Secure the roof, side and chassis
fairings while towing from the rear.
An unsecured fairing may come
off of the vehicle during transit.
Failure to secure the fairings while
towing may cause an injury accident
resulting in death or personal injury.
2-23
2
CONTROLS
INSTRUMENT PANEL
Getting To Know Your Instrument Panel . . . . . . 3-5
Instrument Cluster . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-7
Instrument Cluster Description . . . . . . . . . . 3-8
Driver Information Display . . . . . . . . . . . 3-14
Driver Information Display Description . . . . . . 3-15
How To Navigate The Functions In The Instrument
Cluster Display . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-20
3
WARNING SYMBOLS
Guide to the Warning Symbols . . . . . . . . .
Description of Warning Symbols . . . . . . . .
3-29
3-37
OPTIONAL GAUGES
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . .
Axle, Pusher Air Pressure . . . . . .
Axle, Tag Air Pressure . . . . . . . .
Fuel Filter Restriction . . . . . . . .
Air Filter Restriction Indicator or Gauge
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
3-43
3-43
3-43
3-44
3-44
3-1
CONTROLS
Engine, Oil Pressure . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Engine, Oil Temperature . . . . . . . . . . . .
Manifold Pressure Gauge . . . . . . . . . . .
Fuel Pressure Gauge . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Transmission Temperature Gauge. . . . . . . .
Drive Axle Temperature Gauge (Forward and Rear)
Suspension Load Air Pressure, #1, #2 . . . . . .
Tractor Brake Application Air Pressure . . . . . .
Trailer Brake Application Air Pressure . . . . . .
Trailer Air Tank Air Pressure . . . . . . . . . .
Transfer Case Oil Temperature . . . . . . . . .
Transmission Oil Temperature, Auxiliary . . . . .
Transmission Retarder Oil Temperature . . . . .
3
3-44
3-45
3-45
3-45
3-46
3-46
3-47
3-47
3-47
3-48
3-48
3-48
3-49
SWITCHES
Dash Switches . . . . . . . . .
Controls On The Steering Column.
Steering Wheel Controls (Optional)
Door Mounted Controls . . . . .
3-2
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
3-50
3-66
3-72
3-74
CONTROLS
Exterior Lights Self Test . . . . . . . . . . . .
3-77
HEATING AND AIR CONDITIONING
Air Conditioning Controls. . . . . . .
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . .
Automatic Air Conditioning . . . . . .
Semi-Automatic Control Mode . . . .
MAX Defrost . . . . . . . . . . . .
Manual Override . . . . . . . . . .
Sleeper Heater - A/C Controls (optional)
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3-88
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3
ACCESSORIES
Radio (Option) . . . . . . . . . . .
Cigarette Lighter and Ashtray (Option) .
Cab Storage . . . . . . . . . . . .
Ignition Key Switch . . . . . . . . .
Vehicle Telematic System . . . . . .
Passenger Side 'down' Mirror. . . . .
Passenger Side Pull Out Tray . . . .
3-3
INSTRUMENT PANEL
INSTRUMENT PANEL
Getting To Know Your
Instrument Panel
This part explains the location of
the various features on your vehicle
and describes their function. For
information on using these features in
driving, see the paragraphs that follow.
Please remember that each vehicle is
custom-made. Your instrument panel
may not look exactly like the one in the
pictures that follow. We have tried to
describe the most common features
and controls available. You can pick
out the parts that apply to you and read
them to be fully informed on how your
particular vehicle operates.
3
3-5
INSTRUMENT PANEL
3
1.
2.
3.
4.
3-6
Instrument Cluster
Gauge (or Optional
PACCAR Navigation)
Switches
Air Conditioning
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
Cup Holder
Glove Box
Overhead Storage
Park Brake Controls
Radio
10.
11.
12.
13.
Ignition Switch
Headlight Switch
Menu Control Switch (MCS)
Passenger Side Pull Out
Tray
INSTRUMENT PANEL
Instrument Cluster
3
1.
2.
3.
4.
Speedometer
Tachometer
Engine Coolant
Temperature
Fuel Level (primary)
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
Engine Oil Pressure
Diesel Exhaust Fluid (DEF)
Primary Air Pressure
Secondary Air Pressure
Driver Information Display
10.
11.
12.
13.
Trip Reset Button
Ignition Switch
Headlight Switch
Menu Control Switch (MCS)
3-7
INSTRUMENT PANEL
Instrument Cluster
Description
Instrument System Self Test
3
When the ignition switch is turned
on the instrumentation system will
undergo a Self Test. This test will
verify the operation of the gauges and
warnings.
During the Instrumentation System
Self Test, multiple warning icons will
be displayed in a sequence. The total
sequence should only take no more
than 10 seconds to complete.
Refer to Warning Light/Indicator
Symbols on page 3-30 for information
on each symbol.
Completing this sequence will indicate
a successful Self Test. Have your
instrumentation system checked by a
qualified service technician if does not
successfully complete.
3-8
Audible Alarm
Optional Icons
The audible alarm will sound during
the Instrumentation System Self Test.
The audible alarm will also sound in
conjunction with most warning lights.
These events include but are not
limited to headlight on, fifth wheel, stop
engine, primary/secondary air, and
driver door open warnings.
Additional icons may be operational
depending on individual vehicle
specifications. These will be included
in the Instrument System Self Test.
NOTE
Some optional lights may illuminate
even though your vehicle is not
equipped with that particular feature.
INSTRUMENT PANEL
Check Messages
1. Speedometer
2. Tachometer
Check messages are provided to give
the operator additional information
regarding systems that require
attention due to a system malfunction
and/or operating conditions that may
hinder safe and proper performance
for the vehicle. Some messages can
be managed by the operator while
others may require an authorized
dealer repair.
The Speedometer indicates the vehicle
speed in miles per hour (mph) and
in kilometers per hour (km/h). The
Speedometer cluster also includes
several warning and indicator lamps
(see Audible Alerts on page 3-29).
The Tachometer measures the engine
speed in revolutions per minute (RPM).
The RPM Detail is also available as a
viewable screen in the instrumentation
cluster. Viewing the RPM detail is
accomplished by using the MCS dial to
rotate to the [VIRTUAL GAUGES].
The tachometer is a useful gauge
when attempting to drive efficiently.
It will let you match driving speed
and gear selection to the operating
range of your engine. If the engine
speed gets too high, you can select a
higher gear to lower the RPM's. If the
engine speed drops too low, you can
select a lower gear to raise the RPM's.
(Refer to Driving Tips and Techniques
on page 4-56 for further instructions
on driving techniques and using the
tachometer.) To avoid engine damage,
do not let the pointer exceed maximum
governed speed. (See your Engine
3-9
3
INSTRUMENT PANEL
Operation and Maintenance Manual
for RPM recommendations.)
3
The tachometer will illuminate a small
green light just below the numbers
of the gauge. This is to indicate the
engine speed for optimal fuel economy.
See Optimal Engine Speed on page
4-58 for more information on how
to use this indicator during normal
operation.
3. Engine, Coolant
Temperature
The water temperature gauge shows
the temperature of the engine coolant.
Under normal operating conditions
the water temperature gauge should
register between 165° and 205°F (74°
and 90°C). Under certain conditions,
somewhat higher temperatures may
be acceptable. But the maximum
allowable temperature is 210°F (99°C),
except for certain special engines.
Check your engine manual to be sure.
Please refer to Engine is Overheating
on page 2-5 for instructions on what to
do if the engine is overheating.
3-10
4. Fuel Level, Primary
The Primary Fuel gauge indicates the
total (approximate) amount of fuel in
the fuel tank. In addition to indicating
empty and full, the gauge(s) also
indicate the fuel level in graduated
increments. When the fuel level for the
tank is below 1/4 full, a red warning
light in the gauge will come on.
Primary
Secondary
INSTRUMENT PANEL
5. Engine, Oil Pressure
NOTE
WARNING
For Export vehicles, the fuel gauges
will not state: ULTRA LOW SULFUR
DIESEL FUEL ONLY.
Do not carry fuel containers or any
container used to store combustible
liquids. Failure to comply may result
in death, personal injury, equipment
or property damage.
NOTE
This vehicle may be manufactured
with different fuel systems and
different draw tube locations.
Because of this and the amount
of road crown, it is recommended
that you do not operate your vehicle
with less than one-quarter of your
truck’s fuel capacity. Allowing the
fuel level to go below one-quarter of
capacity could result in the lack of
fuel to keep the engine running. In
addition, you will want to keep the
fuel tanks at least half-full to reduce
condensation of moisture in the
tanks. This moisture can damage
the engine.
WARNING
Do not remove a fuel tank cap
near an open flame. Fuel vapors
may be hot and combustible and
can cause an explosion or fire.
Failure to comply may result in
death, personal injury, equipment or
property damage.
Refer to Refueling on page 4-64 for
more information.
It is important to maintain oil pressure
within acceptable limits. If oil pressure
drops below the minimum psi a red
warning light in the gauge will turn on,
the Stop Engine light will come on and
an audible alarm tone will sound.
For further information on engine oil
and normal operating pressures, see
the Engine Operation and Maintenance
Manual.
CAUTION
Operating
your
vehicle
with
insufficient oil pressure will cause
serious engine damage.
If the oil pressure fails to rise within 10
seconds after the engine starts, stop
the engine and determine the cause.
3-11
3
INSTRUMENT PANEL
Check the engine manufacturer's
manual for the correct oil pressure
ranges for your vehicle's engine.
3
If the oil pressure suddenly drops,
or the audible alarm and engine oil
pressure warning light come on while
driving, please refer to Engine Oil
Pressure Lamp Turns On on page 2-4
regarding what to do if oil pressure is
insufficient.
For further information on engine
gauges and operating your engine
properly, refer to Engine Maintenance
on page 5-91.
6. Diesel Exhaust Fluid
(DEF)
Primary Air Pressure
The diesel exhaust fluid gauge shows
the approximate amount of DEF fluid
in the DEF tank. Besides empty and
full, the gauge also indicates 1/4, 1/2,
and 3/4 of total capacity. DEF fluid
is required to meet certain emission
requirements. Do not allow your DEF
tank to remain empty. Please refer to
your emission supplemental manual
for more details about DEF fluid.
CAUTION
Use Diesel Exhaust Fluid only.
Failure to do so may damage
components
of
the
Diesel
Particulate Filter (DPF).
3-12
7 and 8. Primary and
Secondary Air Pressure
Secondary Air Pressure
The Primary Air Pressure gauge
indicates pressure in the rear braking
system. The Secondary gauge
indicates pressure in the front braking
system. Each gauge indicates the
amount of air pressure in each system
in pounds per square inch (psi).
On vehicles equipped with metric air
pressure gauges, the gauge face plate
includes a kPa (major) scale and psi
(minor) scale.
INSTRUMENT PANEL
Please refer to Low Air Alarm Turns
On on page 2-3 for instructions on
what to do if the air system becomes
inoperative.
NOTE
Be sure the air pressure registers
more than 100 psi (690 kPa) in both
service systems before you move
the vehicle.
NOTE
If the pressure in either or both
circuits falls below 65 psi (448 kPa),
a red warning light in the gauge
will turn on and an audible alarm
tone will sound when the engine is
running.
WARNING
WARNING
If the air pressure falls below 60 psi
(414 kPa), the spring brakes may
stop the vehicle abruptly which could
cause an accident resulting in death
or personal injury. Observe the red
warning lamps on the gauges. If one
comes on, do not continue to drive
the vehicle until it has been properly
repaired or serviced. If the light and
alarm do not turn off at start-up, do
not try to drive the vehicle until the
problem is found and fixed.
The air pressure warning light and
the audible alarm tone indicate
a dangerous situation: there is
not enough air pressure in the air
tanks for repeated braking and the
brake system has failed. Without
the use of your service brakes
your spring brakes could suddenly
apply causing a wheel lock-up,
loss of control, or over-take by
following vehicles. This may cause
an accident resulting in death or
personal injury. Bring the vehicle to
a safe stop right away, while you still
have control of the vehicle.
3-13
3
INSTRUMENT PANEL
9. Driver Information Display
10. Trip Reset
The display can show multiple warning
lights. Warning information will appear
momentarily and then will minimize in
the screen. Reviewing the warnings
can be done by navigating the menu
via the Menu Control Switch.
The cluster mounted trip reset button
is the only way to zero trip data. After
toggling the trip ODO (short pushes to
select Trip A, B, C, or D) to the desired
trip, HOLD the trip reset button, that
resets the displayed trip data.
Driver Information Display
3
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
3-14
Odometer/Trip Odometer
Outside Air Temperature
Clock
Active Warnings
Cruise Control Indicator
Automated Transmission &
Shift Indicator Area
Header
MCS Knob Cue
Main Content Window
INSTRUMENT PANEL
Driver Information Display
Description
WARNING
Do not look at the Instrument Cluster
Display for prolonged periods while
the vehicle is moving. Only glance
at the monitor briefly while driving.
Failure to do so can result in the
driver not being attentive to the
vehicle’s road position or situation,
which could lead to an accident and
possible death, personal injury or
equipment damage.
The Instrument Cluster Display,
located at the top of the instrument
cluster, displays important vehicle
information through a constant
monitoring of systems when any of the
following conditions are met:
•
ignition key in ON or ACC positions
•
ignition timer is active
•
MCS button is pushed or spun
(independent of ignition key switch
position)
•
clock alarm sounds
•
driver or passenger door is opened
•
hazard warning lamp switch is on
•
Service brake switch is on
•
Tractor marker lamp switch is on
•
Trailer marker lamp switch is on
•
Low Voltage Display not active
•
and the screen has not been put
into "Display Off Mode"
NOTE
Some Driver Information Display
functions are only accessible when
the vehicle is parked.
Other
functions are accessible while the
vehicle is moving or when parked.
Each function is identified in the
following descriptions.
In addition to a blank screen, the
following are menu items and the
information available within each menu
selections.
3-15
3
INSTRUMENT PANEL
1. Odometer/Trip Odometer
The Odometer/Trip Meter comes on
when the door is opened and when
the ignition key is in the ACC or ON
position.
3
The odometer displays the distance
your vehicle has traveled. The display
can be configured to display Metric
units or English units.
The current trip odometer displays how
far the vehicle has gone on a particular
trip and can display in increments of a
tenth of a unit. The maximum distance
that can be shown on the trip odometer
is 9999.9 before it rolls over to zero.
To reset the trip odometer, press and
hold the button on the cluster. The
numbers will reset to 0 and begin to
count new miles/km traveled.
Press the trip button on the instrument
cluster any time you wish to view
3-16
the odometer reading, Press the trip
button again to scroll through the other
odometers available in the cluster.
2. Outside Air Temperature
Used to display outside air temperature
information and a warning of low
temperatures.
The display will also alert the
driver when the outside temperate
approaches freezing (32° F or 0° C)
by displaying a snowflake symbol.
The symbol will turn on when the
temperature drops below 34° F or 11°
C and flash for the first 3 seconds,
then stay on until the temperature goes
above 37° F or 28° C.
The systems unit of measure
(Fahrenheit or Celsius) can be
changed by navigating to the settings
menu.
The outside air temperature display
will come on when the door is open
and when the ignition key is in the ACC
or ON position and turn off when the
ignition switch is turned off.
INSTRUMENT PANEL
The outside air temperature display
uses a sensor (located at the bottom
of the driver's side mirror assembly)
to measure outside air temperature
only. It is not capable of displaying
the temperature of the road surface
on either the temperature display or
the snowflake icon. Additionally, the
outside air temperature reading may
be affected by exposure to direct
sunlight.
3. Clock
The clock presents either the home
time or the local time when the clock is
set. If the clock is not set, the words
"SET CLOCK" will appear when the
ignition is turned ON. If the clock does
not get set, the message will disappear
and no time will be displayed. The time
can be set while the "SET CLOCK"
prompt is showing or it can be set by
navigating to the settings menu via the
Menu Control Switch.
Please refer to Settings on page 3-27
to read more about how to set the
clock.
3
The clock will display either the local
or the home time of day.
Set the Home time to the current
time at the base of operation. Set
the local time according to a time
zone of destination. Reset the local
time anytime the destination location
changes and you need to use this
function.
3-17
INSTRUMENT PANEL
3
4. Active Warnings
5. Cruise Control Indicator
Active warnings will appear in this
area in addition to areas around the
center of the display. Active Warnings
are those pop-up messages that have
come up on the screen and/or been
suppressed with an MCS button push.
If there are warning icons active while
in the cruise control is enabled, icons
will appear on each side of the cruise
control icon. If there are multiple
warnings, the display will show how
many are active. The numbers may
change without user interaction if
individual warnings are intermittent,
time based, self correcting, or the
situation is rectified.
This area is used to provide the
driver with a dedicated location for
cruise control set speed and if so
equipped, adaptive cruise control with
it’s following distance information.
Vehicles with adaptive cruise control
will display many different icons in
this area to alert the operator to take
specific actions.
3-18
NOTE
If there are secondary telltales active
while the cruise control is enabled,
icons will appear on each side of the
cruise control icon.
6. Automated Transmission
& Shift Indicator Area
This area will provide the operator with
feedback from the transmission. The
display may reflect the transmission
gear being operated, manual or
automatic mode, may provide
Progressive Shift Cues (for vehicles
built with PACCAR MX Engines with
Progressive Shift option) or fault
indicators specific for the transmission.
INSTRUMENT PANEL
7. Header
8. MCS Knob Cue
9. Main Content Area
This area displays the function
category in which the MCS knob and
display software are currently set.
Depending on the display operation,
the text color may change to indicate a
user selection.
Used to provide the driver with screen
navigation feedback. Cues are
provided regarding when a user can
push or spin the input control, shows
in icon format which function is active,
and which function will come up next if
the knob is rotated either clockwise or
counter clockwise.
There are 5 functions allowed when
driving, and 7 when the vehicle is
parked. Some functions are available
in both modes, but have different
content available dependent on the
mode
3
3-19
INSTRUMENT PANEL
How To Navigate The
Functions In The Instrument
Cluster Display
Menu Control Switch (MCS)
3
The MCS is used to navigate the
instrument display. It comprises of a
back button and a push and spin knob.
The Menu Control Switch is located on
the right side panel.
The MCS knob can perform two
functions. It can select and set values
when spun and enter your settings
when pushed.
The MCS button has a BACK button
located above the knob. Pressing this
button will go back to the previous
menu.
NOTE
If the button is held for 2 seconds, it
will turn off the display screen.
Here is a list of the available menu
items:
•
3-20
Blank screen - Use this menu item
to minimize information on the
screen.
INSTRUMENT PANEL
•
Virtual gauges - This menu item
provides dynamic information to
the operator.
•
Ignition timer - Use this menu to
set the time to idle the engine after
removing the ignition key.
•
Trip Information - Use this
information to get trip summary
details.
•
Truck Information - Provides
information about the vehicle.
•
Active Warnings - Use this menu
to view vehicle fault codes and
messages.
•
Settings - Use this menus to
change preferences.
•
Fuel Economy - Use this display
to view the fuel economy
performance of the vehicle.
(available in driving mode)
Navigation of the system is organized
into 3 levels of functions. The first level
of organization is identified as "Trunk"
level functions. The second level is
identified as "Branch" level functions.
The lowest level of functions are
identified as the "Leaf" level functions.
Some screens will appear differently
depending if the vehicle is moving
or parked. The following images
provide an example of a screen to get
familiarized with the interface.
Navigating at the Trunk level
Trunk Level
In the branch level of functions,
the MCS knob rotation controls a
cursor highlight. When something is
highlighted, an MCS Push will select
that item or toggle its contents. Toggle
fields typically use a darker colored
text to distinguish them from fields that
take the user to the “Leaf level”.
At this level, you can navigate between
functions by turning the MCS knob.
You can enter a function by pushing
the knob; at which you would then be
going to what is termed the “branch”
level of the software.
3
Branch Level
3-21
INSTRUMENT PANEL
Navigating at the Branch Level
Navigating at the Leaf Level
Description of Menu Screens
3
Blank Screen
Leaf Level
At this level, there are no more options
to choose from. The MCS can be used
to scroll through various information
and the back button can be used to
revert up to the branch (1 push) or the
trunk (2 pushes) levels of the system.
3-22
This screen is available in both parked
and driving modes.
The blank screen mode is to allow
for minimized screen elements, while
still maintaining some of the more
permanent screen content such as
the odometer, outside air temperature,
warning cue, etc. This is different
from the Display OFF Mode where the
entire display shuts off.
INSTRUMENT PANEL
The blank screen mode is selected
through the rotary MCS knob. The
Display OFF Mode is selected by
pressing the button above the MCS
knob for more than 2 seconds.
Virtual Gauges
Ignition Timer
3
The virtual gauges function is selected
through the rotary MCS knob and is
available in both parked and driving
modes.
Virtual gauges provide dynamic
information about the vehicle's
performance. Spin the MCS button
to scroll through the available gauges
and push to select the desired gauge
to view.
This function allows the driver to set a
timer to shut off the truck. This feature
is only available when the vehicle
is parked. After the timer is set, the
ignition key may be turned to the off
position and removed. The engine will
continue to run for the programmed
time.
3-23
INSTRUMENT PANEL
Fuel Economy
3
This function displays the dynamic fuel
economy performance of the vehicle.
It shows Average Speed, Average
Fuel Economy, and a dynamic
instantaneous indication of fuel
economy above or below the current
average. The screen is available
when driving. Average fuel economy
is computed by the fuel consumed
during the trip (see the next section for
Trip information). The fuel economy
for a trip will be reset when that trip
odometer is reset.
3-24
Trip Information
This function allows you to keep trip
information data on up to 4 separate
trips – labeled A, B, C, and D. Trips
are also selectable as “Active” or
“Inactive” so you can use the data
logging function to treat trips separate
from each other, or as segments of
a combined trip. When driving, the
screen only allows you to toggle which
trip is viewed in the trip odometer and
set the active/inactive status. When
parked you can select and view a
variety of data collected for each trip,
as seen in the list below:
•
Trip Economy
•
Trip Average Speed
•
Trip Engine Hours
•
Trip Fuel Used
•
Time in Cruise Control (%)
•
Time in Sweetspot (%)
•
Time in Overspeed (%)
•
Trip Idle Hours
•
Trip Idle Percentage (%)
•
Trip Idle Fuel Used
•
Trip Idle Percent Used (%)
•
PTO Total Hours
•
PTO Trip Hours
•
PTO Trip Percentage (%)
•
PTO Total Fuel Used
INSTRUMENT PANEL
•
PTO Trip Fuel Used
•
PTO Trip Economy
The cluster mounted trip reset button
is used to zero and clear accumulated
trip data. Short presses toggle
between the odometer view, and the
4 trips. Holding the button when on a
particular trip will zero the stored data
and also automatically set the cleared
trip to “active” status.
Truck Information
2.
NOTE
a.
Engine Make
Only available truck information
will be shown (i.e., manual
transmissions do not have a
software version).
b.
Engine Model
c.
Engine Software Version
d.
Governed Speed Limit
This information is available when the
vehicle is parked.
e.
Engine Power
3.
Using the MCS knob while in this
screen will only activate or deactivate
a trip function.
4.
NOTE
PTO options in the display will only
be shown if the vehicle is equipped
with a PTO.
Engine Information
1.
Chassis Information
a.
Chassis Number
b.
Fleet ID
c.
CECU Software Version #
3
Transmission Information
a.
Transmission Make
b.
Transmission Model
c.
Transmission Software
Version #
ABS Information
a.
ABS Make
b.
ABS Model
c.
ABS Software Version #
3-25
INSTRUMENT PANEL
Warning and Faults
to see the different warnings. The
highest priority warning defaults to the
top of the stack.
Diesel Exhst Fluid
Poor Quality
When the vehicle is parked, the
“Warnings and Faults” function will
access suppressed pop-ups that are
counted and presented in the upper
left corner of the screen.
Refill with new DEF
to Prevent Derate
1
3
3
12:39PM
25,326Mi
1.
how many faults, shown in a
scrollable stack format
2.
which ECU the fault is being
generated from
3.
a text description of the issue
4.
it’s actual fault code
5.
action instructions telling you what
to do (i.e. seek service soon vs.
correct at next scheduled service
visit)
78 F
The display has a message alerting
function that overrides the normal
viewing and navigation of functions
when an issue occurs on the truck.
These alert messages are called
“pop-ups” because they take over
the screen. Some messages are
low enough priority that they can
be “suppressed”, which is done by
pushing the MCS button. There will
be a screen indicator showing which
messages are suppressible. If multiple
pop-ups are present at the same time,
they are viewed in a stack format, and
a spin of the MCS knob will allow you
3-26
when parked. The menu selection
shown in the image above simply won’t
be there if the truck is driving, though
the warnings and tell-tale indicators
on the cluster will still be available as
indicators if the problem is serious.
Fault details screens include:
By selecting “Review Warnings” the
pop-up messages are recalled, and
if multiple are active, the stack can
be navigated by spinning the MCS
knob. The warning description can be
viewed when driving or when parked
but the fault details are visible only
An example of a Fault Details screen
is shown below:
INSTRUMENT PANEL
Settings
To Turn Alarm ON/OFF:
Fault Details Example
This menu is available only when the
vehicle is parked.
Various settings may be changed
using this function. The operator can
change the time format (12hr/24hr),
the time of day and alarm settings,
units of measure for the display
(mile/kilometer) and the language
being displayed. Changing settings
functions are typically done one of two
ways. Items can be toggled straight
from the highlighted selection (at the
branch level); these cases use dark
blue text that changes to the set value.
Others are menu selections that bring
up new “leaf level” screens. The
following shows examples of turning
the alarm on/off vs. screens that are
navigated to in order to set the clock
time.
3
1.
When in the Settings Menu, scroll
through the list of menu items to
“Alarm”. Press the MCS.
2.
Press the MCS to turn the alarm
ON or OFF.
To Set Clock Display Format:
1.
When in the Settings Menu, scroll
through the list of menu items to
“Format”.
2.
Press the MCS to display either 12
hour (AM/PM) or 24 hour (military)
time.
3-27
INSTRUMENT PANEL
To Set Home, Local or Alarm
Time:
6.
Press the button above the MCS
to Exit.
Display Mode
The display off mode is available at
any time in menu navigation, but the
screen minimize mode can only be
done when on this screen.
3
NOTE
1.
When in the Settings Menu, scroll
through the list of menu items.
2.
Press the MCS to select the item
to change.
3.
Rotate the MCS knob to change
the hour. Press the MCS.
4.
Rotate the MCS knob to change
the minutes. Press the MCS.
5.
Rotate the MCS to toggle AM/PM.
Press the MCS.
3-28
There are times when the “Display
Off” mode is not allowed or
over-ridden by the system, for
example if a “pop-up” message
appears, the screen will turn back
on, or if the truck is equipped with an
adaptive cruise control system, the
screen cannot be turned off when it
is active.
WARNING SYMBOLS
WARNING SYMBOLS
Guide to the Warning
Symbols
The warning lights and audible alarm
may indicate a system malfunction.
Check the lights frequently, and
respond properly as soon as you see
one go on. These lights could save
you from a serious accident.
When multiple warning icons are
shown on the instrument cluster,
they will appear at first and then
minimize. When minimized they
will be represented in the active
warnings area of the display (see
Driver Performance Center on page
3-30 for details). A triangle represents
a warning registered and a diamond
represents a check message.
WARNING
Do not ignore a warning light or
audible alarm. These signals tell
you something is wrong with your
vehicle. It could be a failure in
an important system, such as the
brakes, which could lead to an
accident causing death or injury.
Have the appropriate system
checked immediately.
Check messages are provided to give
the operator additional information
regarding systems that require
attention due to a system malfunction
and/or operating conditions that may
hinder safe and proper performance
for the vehicle. The system will emit
a chime to alert the operator that a
message is appearing on the cluster.
Some messages can be managed by
the operator while others may require
an authorized dealer repair.
The following is a list of Warning
Light/Indicator Symbols that appear
in the instrument cluster and Driver
Performance Center.
•
the Symbol Name
•
the appearance of the Symbol
•
the Symbol Color when it is
illuminated
•
whether the symbol is standard
(Std) or optional (Opt)
•
whether the symbol has an
associated check message
•
the Page Number reference for
additional information
3
Symbols are listed by major component
sections.
Example: Engine, and then in
alphabetical order.
3-29
WARNING SYMBOLS
Warning Light/Indicator Symbols
Symbol Name
Symbol
Msg
Page
Color
Std/Opt
1. Axle, Traction Control
Yellow
OPT
on page 3-37
2. Brakes, Anti-Lock Brake System (ABS)
Yellow
STD
on page 3-37
3. Brakes, Low Air
Red
STD
on page 2-3
4. Brake, Park Brake
Red
STD
on page 3-38
5. Brake, Service Brakes
Red
OPT
on page 3-38
3
3-30
WARNING SYMBOLS
Symbol Name
Symbol
Msg
Page
Color
Std/Opt
6. Brakes, Trailer Anti-Lock Brake System (ABS)
Yellow
STD
on page 3-38
7. Differential, Inter Axle Diff Lock
Yellow
OPT
on page 3-60.
3
8. Dump Truck, Body Up
9. Dump Truck, Gate
10. Dump Truck, Trailer Body Up
11. Emissions, Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF)
Red
OPT
on page 3-39
Yellow
OPT
on page 3-39
Red
OPT
on page 3-39
Yellow
STD
on page 3-39
3-31
WARNING SYMBOLS
Symbol Name
Symbol
Msg
Page
Color
Std/Opt
12. Emissions, High Exhaust System Temperature (HEST)
Yellow
STD
on page 3-39
13. Emissions, Malfunction Indicator Lamp (MIL)
Yellow
STD
on page 3-40
14. Engine, Check Engine
Yellow
STD
on page 3-40
15. Engine, Engine Fan
Green
STD
on page 3-40
16. Engine, Heater
Yellow
OPT
on page 3-40
17. Engine, Low Coolant Level
Yellow
STD
on page 3-40
3
3-32
WARNING SYMBOLS
Symbol Name
18. Engine, Retarder (Brake)
19. Engine, Stop Engine
Symbol
Msg
Page
Color
Std/Opt
Green
OPT
on page 3-40
Red
STD
on page 3-40
3
20. Engine, Wait To Start
Yellow
OPT
on page 3-41
21. Fuel, Water In Fuel (WIF)
Yellow
OPT
on page 3-41
22. Lane Departure Warning (LDW)
Yellow
OPT
on page 3-41
Blue
STD
on page 3-41
23. Lights, High Beam
3-33
WARNING SYMBOLS
Symbol Name
Symbol
Msg
Page
Color
Std/Opt
24. Power Take-off (PTO)
Yellow
OPT
on page 3-41
25. Power Take-off (PTO), Pump Mode
Green
OPT
on page 3-41
26. Refrigerator
Green
OPT
on page 3-41
27. Seat Belt, Fasten
Red
STD
on page 3-41
28. Suspension Dump
Yellow
STD
on page 3-42
29. Tire Inflation
Yellow
OPT
on page 3-42
3
3-34
WARNING SYMBOLS
Symbol Name
30. Transmission, Auxiliary
31. Transmission, Check
Symbol
Msg
Page
Color
Std/Opt
Yellow
OPT
on page 3-42
Red
OPT
on page 3-42
3
32. Transmission, Oil Temperature High
Yellow
OPT
on page 3-42
33. Transmission, Retarder (may include BrakeSaver when
applicable)
Yellow
OPT
●
on page 3-42
34. Transmission, Service Transmission (Allison only)
Yellow
OPT
●
on page 3-42
3-35
WARNING SYMBOLS
Symbol Name
Msg
Page
Color
Std/Opt
35. Turn Signal, Left
Green
STD
on page 3-42
36. Turn Signal, Right
Green
STD
on page 3-42
3
3-36
Symbol
WARNING SYMBOLS
Description of Warning
Symbols
1. Axle, Traction Control (ATC or
Automatic Traction Control)
A. Illuminates during the power-on
self test when the ignition is turned
ON. It turns off after a few seconds if
no system problems are detected. If
an ATC problem is detected, the ATC
Warning lamp will turn on and stay on.
B. Flashes when the ATC is regulating
wheel spin. (Refer to Automatic
Traction Control for more information.)
C. It blinks continuously when the
Deep Snow & Mud switch is turned on,
indicating that this feature is active.
(Refer to Deep Snow and Mud Switch
and Anti-Lock Braking System on page
4-21 for more information.)
NOTE
WARNING
For
vehicles
equipped
with
Electronic Stability Program, please
refer to additional material supplied
with this operator manual, included
in your glove box informational
packet.
If this chassis is equipped with an
electronic stability program (ESP)
and is modified (e.g. adding or
removing an axle, converting from
a truck to a tractor, converting
from a tractor to a truck, changing
the body, lengthening of the
wheelbase and/or frame, relocating
frame components, or modifying
pneumatic or electrical ABS/ESP
harnesses) the ESP must be
disabled by a qualified technician.
If you have any questions, contact
your authorized dealer.
Failure
to comply may result in death,
personal injury, equipment or
property damage.
2. Brakes, Anti-Lock Brake System
(ABS)
Illuminates during the Instrumentation
System Self Test. Have the ABS
system checked by an authorized
3-37
3
WARNING SYMBOLS
3
dealer if the ABS Warning Lamp stays
on for more than 3 seconds.
6. Brakes, Trailer Anti-Lock Brake
System (ABS)
Illuminates during normal operating
conditions to indicate a problem
with the ABS System. See ABS
Warning Lamps on page 4-21 for more
information.
Illuminates during the Instrumentation
System Self Test and the tractor/truck
is connected with a ABS equipped
trailer.
Illuminates when a problem exists
with the optional Wheel Spin Control
feature. See Advanced ABS with
Stability Control on page 4-21 for more
information.
Illuminates during normal operating
conditions to indicate a problem
with the Trailer ABS System. This
should be checked by an authorized
dealer as soon as possible. See ABS
Warning Lamps on page 4-21 for more
information.
4. Brake, Park Brake
Illuminates in the status indicator when
parking brakes are applied.
NOTE
Tractors/Trucks and trailers built
after 3/1/01 must be able to turn
on an In-Cab Trailer ABS Warning
Lamp (per U.S. FMVSS121).
The industry chose Power Line
Communication (PLC) as the
standard method to turn it on. See
Trailer ABS Warning Lamp on page
4-21 for more information.
On
trailers built prior to 3/1/01 verify
trailer ABS system status via the
required external warning lamp
mounted on the trailer. The indicator
lamp on the trailer should be yellow
and identified with the letters “ABS”.
7. Differential, Inter Axle Diff Lock
5. Brake, Service Brake
Indicates that a fault exists in the brake
system. This should be checked by an
authorized dealer as soon as possible.
3-38
Illuminates when the inter-axle
differential switch is ON thus locking
the inter-axle differential. This powers
the forward rear and the rear rear
WARNING SYMBOLS
differentials equally. When the switch
is turned off (inter-axle differential
unlocked) the engine power is allowed
to flow to any of the 4 drive tires based
on the differential effect (mostly to the
forward rear differential). (This feature
is standard on all tandem axles).
8. Dump Truck, Body Up
Illuminates when Truck Dump Body is
up.
11. Emissions, Diesel Particulate
Filter (DPF)
Illuminates when diesel particulate
filter is plugged. This warning will also
illuminate when regeneration operation
is disabled.
12. Emissions, High Exhaust
System Temperature (HEST)
Illuminates when the exhaust gas
temperature and exhaust components
become extremely hot.
9. Dump Truck, Gate
Illuminates when Truck Dump gate is
open.
10. Dump Truck, Trailer Body Up
Illuminates when Trailer Dump Body
is up.
Refer to the Engine Aftertreatment
control operator manual for complete
instructions and warnings.
WARNING
If this light is on, do not park in
an area of combustible vapors
or materials.
You must keep
combustibles at least five (5) feet
away from the exhaust (outlet)
stream (as it exits the tail pipe)
while the HEST lamp is illuminated.
Always park your vehicle outside.
Failure to do so could ignite an
explosion or harm bystanders which
could result in serious injury.
WARNING
If this light is on, do not park in
an area where people are close
by. You must keep combustibles
at least five (5) feet away from the
exhaust outlet while the HEST lamp
is illuminated. Failure to do so could
result in serious injury.
3-39
3
WARNING SYMBOLS
WARNING
3
If this light is on, temperature of
the tail pipe, exhaust pipes, diesel
particular filter (DPF), selective
catalytic reduction (SCR) device and
surrounding components including
enclosures and steps becomes
elevated during engine operation
or any regeneration event and can
cause serious burns to the skin.
Allow adequate cooling time before
approaching, working on or near
any part of the exhaust system or
surrounding components.
13. Emissions, Malfunction
Indicator Lamp (MIL)
Illuminates when an engine emissions
failure has occurred. The vehicle
can be safely driven but should be
serviced to correct the problem. The
situation should not be considered
an emergency. In some cases, the
Malfunction Indicator Lamp will activate
3-40
in conjunction with the High Exhaust
Temperature, Diesel Particulate Filter
(DPF) and Diesel Emission Fluid
(DEF) Warning Lights.
14. Engine, Check Engine
Illuminates with an audible alarm
indicating critically low coolant level.
The vehicle must be serviced to correct
the problem but the situation should
not be considered an emergency.
18. Engine, Retarder (Brake)
Illuminates when a non emissions
related problem exists, but the vehicle
can still be safely driven. Vehicle
should be serviced to correct the
problem but the situation should not be
considered an emergency.
15. Engine, Engine Fan
Illuminates when fan is active.
16. Engine, Heater
Illuminates when Engine Heater switch
is on.
17. Engine, Low Coolant Level
Illuminates when the engine retarder
(compression brake or exhaust brake)
switch is turned on. (Engine retarders
are an option.)
19. Engine, Stop Engine
Illuminates and an audible alarm tone
will sound when a major engine system
problem exists.
WARNING SYMBOLS
WARNING
This should be considered an
emergency.
You should stop
the vehicle as safely as possible
and turn OFF the ignition. The
vehicle must be serviced and the
problem corrected before driving
again. Failure to do so may cause
severe engine damage or cause an
accident involving death or personal
injury.
22. Lane Departure Warning (LDW)
high beam headlights will turn on at
50% normal brightness.
24. Power Take-off (PTO)
Illuminates when optional LDW system
is not able to track the vehicle's
position within the lane.
Illuminates when the PTO is engaged.
NOTE
NOTE
For vehicles equipped with Lane
Departure Warning, please refer to
Lane Departure Warning Driver's
Guide for additional information.
Do not drive vehicle with PTO
engaged.
25. Power Take-off (PTO), Pump
Mode
20. Engine, Wait To Start
23. Lights, High Beam
Illuminates when engine grid heater
is on. (PACCAR PX-6, PX-8, and
Cummins ISL engines)
21. Fuel, Water In Fuel (WIF)
Illuminates when water has been
detected in the fuel.
Illuminates when the high beams are
on. This icon will flash with audible
alarm if the headlamps are left on
when the door is open. In addition, this
icon will flash, but without an audible
alarm, if there is a problem with the
low beam headlights or the low beam
headlight wiring. In such event, the
Illuminates with remote throttle
application. Indicates pump mode is
active.
26. Refrigerator
Illuminates to indicate that the
refrigerator is on and ignition is off.
3-41
3
WARNING SYMBOLS
27. Seat Belt, Fasten
Illuminates when the ignition key is
turned on as a reminder to fasten your
seat belt.
28. Suspension Dump
3
Illuminates when suspension air bags
are deflated.
29. Tire Inflation
Illuminates when tire pressures need to
be checked. (Tire Pressure Monitoring
System is an option.)
30. Transmission, Auxiliary
Illuminates to indicate auxiliary
transmission is in neutral.
3-42
31. Transmission, Check
Illuminates when transmission
has recorded a fault code. This
icon may also appear in the
Transmission Display menu of the
Driver Performance Center. If the user
is in this display menu, the icon does
not indicate a fault code.
32. Transmission, Oil Temperature
High
33. Transmission, Retarder
(may include BrakeSaver when
applicable)
Illuminates when BrakeSaver (export
only) or Transmission Retarder is
active.
34. Transmission, Service
Transmission (Allison only)
Illuminates when Allison 1000/2000
transmission requires service.
35. Turn Signal, Left
Blinks when the left turn signal or the
hazard light function is operating.
36. Turn Signal, Right
Blinks when the right turn signal or the
hazard light function is operating.
OPTIONAL GAUGES
OPTIONAL GAUGES
Axle, Pusher Air Pressure
Axle, Tag Air Pressure
Introduction
Listed here are gauges that may or
may not be on your dashboard or
the center instrument cluster. For
vehicles with a telematic navigation
screen, optional gauges will be part of
the screen functions. Please refer to
the navigation system supplement for
further details about its functions and
how it works.
The Pusher Axle Air Pressure gauge(s)
indicate the air pressure in the pusher
axle(s) suspension air bags. This icon
may have a numeral above the image
of the wheel to indicate which pusher
axle if there are multiple pusher axles
on the vehicle.
The Tag Axle Air Pressure gauge
indicates the amount of air pressure in
the tag axle suspension air bags. This
icon may have a numeral above the
image of the wheel to indicate which
pusher axle if there are multiple pusher
axles on the vehicle.
3-43
3
OPTIONAL GAUGES
Fuel Filter Restriction
3
This gauge tells you the condition
of the fuel filter by indicating the
restriction from the fuel filter to the fuel
pump. Check the engine manual for
proper restriction. Replace the filter
with an approved filter only. Do not
substitute the wrong micron element.
NOTE
The maximum allowable restriction
could vary according to the type
or make of engine. Consult the
engine manufacturers manual or
engine dealer for fuel restriction
specifications.
3-44
Air Filter Restriction
Indicator or Gauge
This gauge indicates the condition of
the engine air cleaner.
CAUTION
Continued operation with the dirty
air filter may cause damage to
the engine. Inspect the filter and
replace if necessary. Holes in the
paper element render an air cleaner
useless and may cause the Air
Filter Restriction Gauge to give a
false reading, even if the element is
clogged. Replace the element if it is
damaged.
Engine, Oil Pressure
It is important to maintain oil pressure
within acceptable limits. If oil pressure
drops below the minimum psi a red
warning light in the gauge will turn on,
the Stop Engine light will come on and
an audible alarm tone will sound.
OPTIONAL GAUGES
Engine, Oil Temperature
Manifold Pressure Gauge
The Engine Oil Temperature gauge
indicates the engine oil temperature.
If the oil temperature exceeds the
maximum limits, a red warning
light in the gauge will turn on. Do
not exceed maximum engine oil
temperature recommended by the
engine manufacturer. (See the Engine
Operation and Maintenance Manual
for details.)
Your manifold pressure gauge
indicates the power your engine is
putting out by showing the amount of
turbo boost. If the pressure indicated
by your manifold pressure gauge goes
down, there may be something wrong
with your engine. Have it checked by a
qualified service person.
Fuel Pressure Gauge
Your vehicle may also have a fuel
pressure gauge.
3
WARNING
Do not carry additional fuel
containers in your vehicle. Fuel
containers, either full or empty, may
leak, explode, and cause or feed
a fire, possibly causing death or
personal injury. Do not carry extra
fuel containers, even empty ones
are dangerous.
3-45
OPTIONAL GAUGES
Transmission Temperature
Gauge
3
Your Transmission Temperature
Gauge indicates the temperature of
the oil in your transmission. Watch
this gauge to know when your
transmission is overheating. If it is,
have it checked by an authorized
service representative.
Maximum transmission temperature
may vary, depending upon the
transmission and type of lubricant.
Check your transmission’s owner’s
manual.
3-46
Drive Axle Temperature
Gauge (Forward and Rear)
These gauges indicate the temperature
of the lubricant in your vehicle’s axle(s).
These temperatures will vary with
the kind of load you are carrying and
the driving conditions you encounter.
Maximum axle temperature may vary,
depending upon the axle and type
of lubricant. Very high temperatures
signal a need to have your axle(s)
lubrication checked.
CAUTION
Driving with very hot temperatures
in your rear drive axles can
cause serious damage to axle
bearings and seals. Have your axle
lubrication checked if you notice a
sign of overheating.
OPTIONAL GAUGES
Suspension Load Air
Pressure, #1, #2
Tractor Brake Application
Air Pressure
Trailer Brake Application Air
Pressure
Suspension Load Air Pressure #1
The Tractor Brake Application Air
Pressure gauge indicates the amount
of air pressure applied to the tractor
brakes.
The Trailer Brake Application Air
Pressure gauge indicates the amount
of air pressure applied to the trailer
brakes during brake foot valve and/or
hand brake control valve applications.
Suspension Load Air Pressure #2
The Suspension Load Air Pressure
gauge indicates the amount of air
pressure in the air suspension air bags.
When the vehicle is equipped with dual
leveling valves, the #1 gauge indicates
the air pressure in the driver's side air
bags. The #2 gauge indicates the air
pressure in the passenger's side air
bags.
3-47
3
OPTIONAL GAUGES
Trailer Air Tank Air Pressure
3
The Trailer Air Tank Air Pressure
gauge indicates the amount of air
pressure in the trailer brake air tank.
Transfer Case Oil
Temperature
Transmission Oil
Temperature, Auxiliary
The Transfer Case Oil Temperature
gauge indicates the temperature of
the oil in the transfer case. If the oil
temperature exceeds maximum limits,
a red warning light in the gauge will
turn on. Do not exceed maximum
oil temperature recommended by the
manufacturer. (See the Transfer Case
Operation and Maintenance Manual
for details.)
The Auxiliary Transmission Oil
Temperature gauge indicates the
temperature of the oil in the auxiliary
transmission.
NOTE
Watch this gauge to know when the
transmission is overheating.
Do not exceed maximum oil
temperature recommended by the
manufacturer. (See the Transmission
Operation and Maintenance Manual
for details.)
3-48
OPTIONAL GAUGES
Transmission Retarder Oil
Temperature
The Transmission Retarder Oil
Temperature gauge indicates
the temperature of the oil in the
transmission retarder.
3
NOTE
Watch this gauge to know when the
transmission is overheating.
Do not exceed maximum oil
temperature recommended by the
manufacturer. (See the Transmission
Operation and Maintenance Manual
for details.)
3-49
SWITCHES
SWITCHES
Dash Switches
This custom vehicle will have a wide
variety of switch controlled equipment.
However, this particular vehicle may
3
not have every switch identified in this
section of the operator manual.
Some air device switches on the
dash may require that the vehicle
either be at a specific speed, park
brakes set or another device to be
on or off for the air device to operate.
The instrument display will display
information regarding what needs to
change in order for the air device to
operate as expected.
The following table provides a
complete list of icons that may be
found on the switch.
Dash Switches
Symbol Name
Symbol
Color
Standard
Option
Page
1. Axle, Diff-Lock - Dual
Amber
●
See Axle, Diff-Lock - Dual on page 3-60.
2. Axle, Diff-Lock - Forward Rear
Amber
●
See Axle, Diff-Lock - Forward Rear on page
3-60.
3. Axle, Diff-Lock - Steer
Amber
●
See Axle, Diff-Lock - Front on page 3-60.
4. Axle, Diff-Lock - Rear Rear
Amber
●
See Axle, Diff-Lock - Rear Rear on page 3-60.
3-50
SWITCHES
Symbol Name
Symbol
Color
Standard
Option
Page
5. Axle, Diff-Lock - Single Rear
Amber
●
See Axle, Diff-Lock - Single Rear on page 3-60.
6. Axle, Inter-Axle Differential Locked (Tandem)
Amber
●
See Axle, Inter-Axle Differential Locked
(Tandem) on page 3-60.
7. Axle, Two Speed
Green
●
8. Batteries, Low Voltage Disconnect (LVD)
None
9. Brakes, ABS Off-Road
Amber
3
See Axle, Two Speed on page 3-60.
See Batteries, Low Voltage Disconnect (LVD)
on page 3-60.
●
●
See Brakes, ABS Off-Road on page 3-60.
10. Brakes, Parking Brake Valve
Red
●
See Brakes, Parking Brake Valve on page 3-60.
11. Cab Dimmer Switch
None
●
See Cab Dimmer Switch on page 3-60.
3-51
SWITCHES
Symbol Name
Symbol
Color
Standard
Option
Page
12. Dump Truck Gate
Red
●
See Dump Truck Gate on page 3-60.
13. Engine, Brake Level
None
●
See Engine, Brake Level on page 3-60.
14. Engine, Brake On/Off
Green
●
See Engine, Brake On/Off on page 3-60.
15. Engine, Cruise Control On/Off
Green
●
See Engine, Cruise Control On/Off on page
3-61.
16. Engine, Cruise Control Set/Resume
None
●
See Engine, Cruise Control Set/Resume on
page 3-61.
17. Engine, Fan Override
Green
●
See Engine, Fan Override on page 3-61.
18. Engine, Heater
Green
●
See Engine, Heater on page 3-61
3
3-52
SWITCHES
Symbol Name
Symbol
Color
Standard
Option
Page
19. Engine, Remote Throttle
Amber
●
See Engine, Remote Throttle on page 3-61.
20. Engine, Shutdown
None
●
See Engine, Shutdown on page 3-61.
21. Exhaust, Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF)
Regeneration
None
22. Fifth Wheel Slide
Red
●
See Fifth Wheel Slide on page 3-62.
23. Fuel Heater
Amber
●
See Fuel Heater on page 3-62.
24. Generic Air, Accessory
Green
●
See Generic Air, Accessory on page 3-62.
Green
●
See Generic, Spare on page 3-62.
25. Generic, Spare
SPARE
See Exhaust, Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF)
Regeneration on page 3-62.
●
3-53
3
SWITCHES
Symbol Name
Symbol
Color
Option
●
26. Ignition Key Switch
3
Standard
Page
See Ignition Key Switch on page 3-90.
27. Lights, Auxiliary
Green
●
See Lights, Auxiliary on page 3-62.
28. Lights, Beacon
Green
●
See Lights, Beacon on page 3-62.
29. Lights, Daytime Running (Override)
Green
●
See Lights, Daytime Running on page 3-62.
30. Lights, Dome
None
●
31. Lights, Exterior Lights Self Test
None
●
32. Lights, Flood
Amber
3-54
See Lights, Dome on page 3-63.
See Lights, Exterior Lights Self Test on page
3-63.
●
See Lights, Flood on page 3-63.
SWITCHES
Symbol Name
Symbol
Color
Standard
Option
33. Lights, Flood ISO 3732 Spare
Amber
●
34. Lights, Fog
Green
●
Page
See Lights, Flood ISO 3732 Spare on page
3-63.
3
See Lights, Fog on page 3-63.
35. Lights, Hazard
Red
●
See Lights, Hazard on page 3-63
36. Lights, Headlight
None
●
See Lights, Headlight on page 3-64.
37. Lights, Marker/Clearance
None
●
See Lights, Marker/Clearance on page 3-64.
38. Lights, Marker/Clearance/Cab
None
●
See Lights, Marker/Clearance/Cab on page
3-64.
3-55
SWITCHES
Symbol Name
3
Symbol
Color
Standard
Option
●
Page
See Lights, Marker/Clearance/Trailer on page
3-64.
39. Lights, Marker/Clearance/Trailer
None
40. Lights, Park Light
None
41. Lights, Spot
Green
●
42. Mud & Snow Traction Control
None
●
43. Pintle Hook
Green
●
See Tow Hook on page 3-64.
44. Power Take-off (PTO)
Amber
●
See Power Take-off (PTO) on page 3-64.
45. Power Take-off (PTO), Forward
Amber
●
3-56
●
See Lights, Park Light on page 3-64.
See Lights, Spot on page 3-64.
See Mud & Snow Traction Control on page
3-64.
See Power Take-off (PTO), Forward on page
3-65.
SWITCHES
Symbol Name
Symbol
Color
Standard
Option
Page
46. Power Take-off (PTO), Rear
Amber
●
See Power Take-off (PTO), Rear on page 3-65.
47. Suspension, Axle, Pusher
Green
●
See Suspension, Axle, Pusher on page 3-65.
48. Suspension, Axle, Tag
Green
●
See Suspension, Axle, Tag on page 3-65.
49. Suspension, Dump
Amber
●
See Suspension, Dump on page 3-65.
50. Suspension, Lift
Amber
●
See Suspension, Lift on page 3-65.
51. Suspension, Third Axle Lift
Green
●
See Suspension, Third Axle Lift on page 3-65.
52. Trailer Air Supply
Red
●
See Trailer, Air Supply on page 3-65.
3-57
3
SWITCHES
Symbol Name
3
Symbol
Color
Standard
Option
Page
53. Trailer, Axle (3rd Axle) Lift
Green
●
See Trailer, Axle (3rd Axle) Lift on page 3-66.
54. Trailer, Axle Lift Forward
Green
●
See Trailer, Axle Lift Forward on page 3-66.
55. Trailer, Axle Lift Rear
Green
●
See Trailer, Axle Lift Rear on page 3-66.
56. Trailer, Belly Dump
Red
●
See Trailer, Belly Dump on page 3-66.
57. Trailer, Dump Gate
Red
●
See Trailer, Dump Gate on page 3-66.
58. Trailer, Dump Gate Center
Red
●
See Trailer, Dump Gate Center on page 3-66.
59. Trailer, Dump Gate Front
Red
●
See Trailer, Dump Gate Front on page 3-66.
3-58
SWITCHES
Option
Page
Red
●
See Trailer, Dump Gate Rear on page 3-66.
61. Trailer, Hotline
Green
●
See Trailer, Hotline on page 3-66.
62. Trailer, Suspension Air Dump
Amber
●
See Trailer, Suspension Air Dump on page
3-66.
63. Transmission, Transfer Case
Amber
●
See Transmission, Transfer Case on page
3-66.
64. Transmission, Transfer Case 2 Speed
Amber
●
See Transmission, Transfer Case 2 Speed on
page 3-66.
65. Winch Clutch
Green
●
Symbol Name
60. Trailer, Dump Gate Rear
Symbol
Color
Standard
See Winch Clutch on page 3-66.
3-59
3
SWITCHES
1. Axle Diff-Lock - Dual
Turn switch on to engage Front
and Rear Axle Diff Lock.
2. Axle Diff-Lock - Forward Rear
Turn switch on to engage Forward
Rear Axle Diff Lock.
3. Axle Diff Lock - Steer
Turn switch on to engage Front
Axle Diff Lock.
3
4. Axle Diff-Lock Rear Rear
Turn switch on to engage Rear
Rear Axle Diff Lock.
5. Axle Diff Lock - Single Rear
Turn switch on to engage Single
Rear Axle Diff Lock.
6. Axle, Inter-Axle Differential
Locked (Tandem)
Turn switch on to engage Inter-Axle
Differential Lock.
7. Axle, Two Speed
If equipped, the two speed axle switch
allows you to select axle high and low
ranges. The low range (Off) provides
maximum torque for operating
off-highway. The high range (On) is
a faster ratio for highway speeds.
8. Batteries, Low Voltage
Disconnect (LVD)
If your vehicle is equipped with a Low
Voltage Disconnect (LVD) feature,
the LVD module is located inside the
driver's side kick panel.
9. Brakes, ABS Off-Road
Turn switch on to engage ABS
Off-Road mode. See Anti-Lock
Braking System on page 4-21.
10. Brakes, Parking Brake Valve
Pull yellow knob to activate parking
brakes. See Parking Brake Valve
on page 4-34.
11. Cab Dimmer Switch
This switch is used to alter the
brightness of the instrument
panel lights.
12. Dump Truck Gate
Turn switch on to open Dump
Truck Gate.
13. Engine, Brake Level
In the up position there will be 100%
engine retarding. In the middle
position there will be 60% engine
retarding. In the down position there
will be 33% engine retarding.
For more information on when and
how to use the engine brake in your
vehicle, see the engine brake owner’s
manual for additional engine brake
information.
14. Engine, Brake On/Off
Turn switch on to activate Engine
Brake system.
For more information on when and
how to use the engine brake in your
3-60
SWITCHES
vehicle, see the engine brake owner’s
manual for additional engine brake
information.
15. Engine, Cruise Control On/Off
Turn switch on to activate Cruise
Control System.
SET
RESUME
16. Engine, Cruise Control
Set/Resume
The Cruise Control Set/Resume
switch allows you to SET the desired
speed or RESUME the desired
speed after the cruise control function
has been interrupted.
WARNING
Do not operate the cruise control
when operating on road surfaces
with poor traction (wet, icy, or snow
covered roads) or in heavy traffic.
Accelerations caused by the normal
operation of the cruise control
could cause you to lose control of
the vehicle resulting in an injury
accident.
17. Engine Fan Override
The engine fan switch allows you
to control the engine fan manually
or automatically. Please refer to
Engine Fan Control on page 4-11
for more information on how to
operate this switch.
CAUTION
The fan or equipment near it could
be damaged if the fan turns on
suddenly when you do not expect it.
Keep all tools and equipment away
from the fan.
WARNING
Do not work on or near the fan with
the engine running. Anyone near
the engine fan when it turns on could
be seriously injured. If it is set at
MANUAL, the fan will turn on any
time the ignition key switch is turned
to the ON position. In AUTO, it could
engage suddenly without warning.
Before turning on the ignition or
switching from AUTO to MANUAL,
be sure no workers are near the fan.
3
CAUTION
Do not operate the engine fan in
the MANUAL position for extended
periods of time. The fan hub was
designed for intermittent operation.
Sustained operation will shorten
the fan hub’s service life as well as
reduce fuel economy.
18. Engine Heater
Turn switch on to activate the
Engine Heater.
19. Engine, Remote Throttle
Turn switch on to activate Remote
Throttle Control.
3-61
SWITCHES
20. Engine, Shutdown Test
Momentarily push switch in to
activate the shutdown system.
21. Exhaust, Diesel Particulate
Filter (DPF) Regeneration Switch
Manually controls the diesel
particulate filter regeneration process.
Refer to Engine After-treatment
Controls Operator's Manual for
additional information.
3
22. Fifth Wheel Slide
Turn switch on to “Unlock” Fifth
Wheel Slide mechanism.
The switch is guarded to protect
you from accidentally activating
or releasing the lock.
WARNING
Do not move the fifth wheel while
the tractor-trailer is in motion. Your
load could shift suddenly, causing
you to lose control of the vehicle.
Never operate the vehicle with the
switch in the UNLOCK position.
Always inspect the fifth wheel after
you lock the switch to be sure the
fifth wheel slide lock is engaged.
Failure to comply may result in
death, personal injury, equipment or
property damage.
23. Fuel Heater
Turn switch on to activate Fuel Heater.
NOTE
Vehicles having an air slide fifth
wheel have a fifth wheel slider
lock controlled by a switch on
the instrument panel. By placing
the switch in the unlock position
you can slide the fifth wheel to
various positions to adjust weight
distribution.
3-62
24. Generic, Air, Accessory
Provides accessory air to the
end of frame connection when
switch is turned on.
SPARE
25. Generic, Spare
Turn switch on to power customer
installed accessory.
26. Ignition Key Switch
The ignition key switch (located to
the left of the steering column) has
four positions: ACC (Accessories),
OFF, ON, and START. For more
information, see Ignition Key
Switch on page 3-90.
27. Lights, Auxiliary
Turn switch on for Auxiliary Lights.
28. Lights, Beacon
Turn switch on for Beacon Light(s).
SWITCHES
29. Lights, Daytime Running
Lights (DRL) (with optional
over-ride switch)
Three controls (or conditions)
will affect whether the system
is ON or OFF:
•
headlight (master) switch
•
engine cranking
•
parking brake
If the headlight switch is turned
OFF, the DRL system engages
automatically after the engine starts
and you release the parking brake.
If the headlight switch is ON, the
DRL system is overridden, and
headlights operate normally. Also,
during engine cranking the DRL
is temporarily turned off.
WARNING
Do not use daytime running lights
(DRL) during periods of darkness
or reduced visibility. Do not use
DRL as a substitute for headlights
or other lights during operations
that require lighting of your vehicle.
Failure to comply may result in
death, personal injury, equipment or
property damage.
30. Lights, Dome
Turn switch on for Cab Dome Lights.
31. Lights, Exterior Lights Self Test
This switch will engage a program
which will illuminate exterior light for
the operator to verify functionality.
Please refer to Exterior Lights Self
Test on page 3-77 for more detail
on how to use the program.
33. Lights, Flood ISO 3732 Spare
Turn switch on for trailer mounted
Flood Lights.
34. Lights, Fog
Turn switch on for Fog Lights.
NOTE
Across the U.S.A. and Canada,
State/Provincial requirements vary
as to when high beams and fog lights
can and cannot be used together.
Some states allow only four lights
to be used together, while some
allow more. How your lights are
arranged will affect whether you can
operate headlights and fog lights
concurrently—always comply with
the state or provincial requirements
where you are driving.
32. Lights, Flood
Turn switch on for cab mounted
Flood Lights.
3-63
3
SWITCHES
35. Lights, Hazard
With the switch in the ON position,
the emergency flasher makes all four
turn signals (front and rear) flash
simultaneously. The flasher works
independently of the ignition switch.
You should always use the flasher
if the vehicle is disabled or parked
under emergency conditions.
3
WARNING
Use your Hazard Warning Light
System any time you have to stop off
the road or on the side of the road,
day or night. A hard-to-see vehicle
can result in an injury accident.
Another vehicle could run into you
if you do not set your flashers and
follow the placement of emergency
signals per FMCSR 392.22.
CAUTION
If you have confirmed there is a
problem in the low beam wiring
circuit, proceed with caution to the
next available exit/turnoff and safely
pull your vehicle completely off the
road and call for assistance. Driving
your vehicle with the headlamps on
high beam (at reduced intensity)
for a prolonged period could lead
to an injury accident. Contact your
nearest dealer to have the problem
corrected as soon as possible.
37. Lights, Marker/Clearance
Turn switch on to control Cab and
Vehicle Marker/Clearance lights.
NOTE
36. Lights, Headlight
Turn switch on for headlights. When
the Headlights are ON, the dash
lights, side, and tail lights are also on.
3-64
An interrupt switch for the trailer
marker lights is mounted on the end
of the turn signal lever.
38. Lights, Marker/Clearance/Cab
Turn switch on to control Cab
Marker/Clearance lights separately
from the trailer.
39. Lights,
Marker/Clearance/Trailer
Turn switch on to control
Trailer Marker/Clearance lights
separately from the vehicle
marker/clearance lights.
40. Lights, Park Light
Turn switch on for Park Lights. When
the Park Lights are on the dash lights,
side and tail lights are also on.
41. Lights, Spot
Turn switch on for Spot Light.
42. Mud & Snow Traction Control
Momentarily push switch in to engage
Traction Control (TC).
43. Pintle Hook
Turn switch on to remove the slack
from the Tow Hook.
SWITCHES
44. Power Take-off (PTO)
Turn switch on to engage PTO.
Your vehicle may be equipped with
a dash mounted switch that controls
PTO engagement/disengagement.
When the operator activates the
switch for the PTO, the status
indicator lamp (located on the
switch) will immediately illuminate
even though PTO engagement
may not have occurred.
If the PTO is engaged and the
operator turns the switch OFF, the
PTO status indicator lamp (located
on the switch) will go out immediately
even though PTO disengagement
may not have occurred.
NOTE
Actual
PTO
engagement/
disengagement may be delayed
momentarily since it is controlled
by the air system and mechanical
movement.
CAUTION
WARNING
Increasing engine RPM before the
PTO is actually engaged could
prevent the PTO from engaging
and/or cause PTO damage.
Do not operate the Air Suspension
Deflate Switch (Dump Valve) while
driving. Sudden deflation while your
vehicle is moving can affect handling
and control and could lead to an
accident. Use this switch only when
your vehicle is not moving.
45. Power Take-off (PTO), Forward
Turn switch on to engage
forward PTO.
46. Power Take-off (PTO), Rear
Turn switch on to engage Rear PTO.
47. Suspension, Axle, Pusher
Turn switch on to lower Single or
Forward Pusher Axle.
48. Suspension, Axle, Tag
Turn switch on to lower tag axle.
49. Suspension, Dump
Turn switch on to deflate suspension
air bags. The switch is guarded
to protect you from accidentally
deflating the suspension.
CAUTION
Operating a vehicle with air
suspension bags either overinflated
or underinflated may cause damage
to driveline components. If a vehicle
must be operated under such
conditions, do not exceed 5 mph (8
km/h).
50. Suspension, Lift
Turn switch on to over-inflate
suspension air bags. Turn switch off
for normal suspension height.
51. Suspension, Third Axle Lift
Turn switch on to raise Third Axle.
3-65
3
SWITCHES
52. Trailer, Air Supply
The red octagon knob controls the
air supply to the trailer.
60. Trailer, Dump Gate Rear
Turn switch on to open Trailer
Rear Dump Gate.
53. Trailer, Axle (3rd Axle) Lift
Turn switch on to lift 3rd Trailer Axle.
61. Trailer Hotline
Turn switch on to supply electrical
power to trailer accessories.
54. Trailer, Axle Lift Forward
Turn switch on to lift Forward
Trailer Axle.
3
55. Trailer, Axle Lift Rear
Turn switch on to lift Rear Trailer Axle.
56. Trailer, Belly Dump
Turn switch on to open Trailer
Belly Dump.
57. Trailer, Dump Gate
Turn switch on to open Trailer
Dump Gate.
58. Trailer, Dump Gate Center
Turn switch on to open Trailer
Center Dump Gate.
59. Trailer, Dump Gate Front
Turn switch on to open Trailer
Front Dump Gate.
3-66
Controls On The Steering
Column
Introduction
62. Trailer, Suspension Air Dump
Turn switch on to deflate Trailer
Air Suspension.
63. Transmission, Transfer Case
Turn switch on to shift the
transfer case.
64. Transmission, Transfer
Case 2 Speed
Turn switch on to shift the 2
speed transfer case.
65. Winch Clutch
Turn switch on to engage
Winch Clutch.
1.
2.
3.
Tilt telescoping lever
Turn signal lever
Trailer hand brake
NOTE
The ignition key must be turned to
ON for the signal/switch to operate.
The turn signal lever is mounted on
the left side of the steering column.
The lever controls several functions:
turn signal, high beam and windshield
wiper control.
SWITCHES
1. Tilt/Telescoping Steering
Column
Depending on your vehicle’s
configuration, you may have either
a Tilt/Telescoping or a fixed steering
column.
•
The tilt feature allows forward and
rearward movement of the wheel.
•
The telescoping feature allows you
to move the wheel up and down.
To activate these features, locate the
Tilt/Telescoping lever.
WARNING
Make all adjustments to the
steering mechanism while the
vehicle is stopped. Adjusting the
Tilt-Telescoping Steering Wheel
while the vehicle is in motion could
cause loss of control. You wouldn’t
be able to steer properly and could
have an accident resulting in death
or personal injury.
To adjust the steering wheel, PUSH
and HOLD the lever down fully. Push
or pull the wheel to the desired height
and angle, then PUSH the lever back
into the locked position.
3
Steering Column Locked
3-67
SWITCHES
2. Turn Signal/High Beam
Switch
•
To signal a right turn, push the
lever forward (clockwise).
NOTE
•
The ignition key must be turned to
ON for the signal/switch to operate.
To signal a left turn, pull the lever
back (counterclockwise).
•
Each time the turn indicator is
activated the audible warning
emits a short beep.
The lever-action turn signal/high beam
switch is located on the left side of the
steering column.. Each time a turn
indicator is activated the buzzer emits
a short beep.
3
Steering Column Unlocked
Turn Signals
Turn Signal
3-68
NOTE
If the vehicle turn signals and turn
signal indicators in the dash gauge
cluster ever begin flashing at an
accelerated rate (115 cycles per
minute) when the turn signal lever is
in the OFF (center) position, or when
a Right/Left turn has been selected,
the problem may be related to a
failed turn signal switch or turn signal
module. In either case, the problem
is not a failed bulb. Contact your
nearest authorized dealer to have
the problem corrected as soon as
possible.
SWITCHES
WARNING
After you complete a turn, shut
the system off by returning the
lever to the “OFF” (center) position.
Failure to shut off a turn signal could
confuse other drivers and result in
an injury accident. An indicator light
in the instrument panel will flash until
the turn signal is turned off.
High Beam
To return to previous beam: pull
the lever towards the steering
wheel again.
•
The high beams can be
momentarily flashed with or
without the headlights being on.
To flash the high beams, gently
push the headlight lever away from
the steering wheel to momentarily
turn on the lights.
3
NOTE
NOTE
The headlights must be ON for the
high beam switch to operate.
•
•
To switch your headlights to lower
or higher beam, gently pull the turn
signal lever, toward the steering
wheel, until you hear the switch
click and the beam changes.
The blue indicator light in the
instrument panel will be ON when
the high beam is being used.
Continued pressing of the high
beam flash will not keep the high
beams on.
Flash to pass
3-69
SWITCHES
Windshield Wipers/Washer
ID and Clearance Lights Flash
3
Your vehicle is equipped with a
two-speed, intermittent windshield
wiper system. The windshield wiper
system is integrated with the exterior
lights so that the low beam headlights
will turn on when the windshield wipers
turn on. To override this function, turn
the headlights on and then off again
and the low beams will turn off. A
seven-position rotary wiper switch
(located on the turn signal lever)
operates the windshield wipers and
washer. Rotate the end of the turn
signal lever to change the wiper mode.
NOTE
The ignition key must be turned to
ON or ACC for the wiper/washer
switches to operate.
3-70
Wiper/Washer
The first position after OFF is the
intermittent #1 cycle. The next
positions are intermittent #2, #3, and
#4. The last two positions are wiper
low speed and wiper high speed.
To Wash The Windshield
Push the rotary wash/wipe knob in
(towards steering column), hold for
more than 0.8 seconds and then
release. Hold the knob in to extend
the washing cycle. After the lever
is released, the wipers will shut off
automatically or resume the wiper’s
setting speed.
SWITCHES
To activate the wipers for one swipe
without activating the washer (“mist”
function), push the turn signal lever
in (towards the steering column) and
release in less than 0.5 seconds. The
wipers will perform a single swipe and
then resume the wiper’s setting speed.
WARNING
Clean blades regularly with a damp
cloth to remove road film and wax
build-up. Do not drive with worn or
dirty wiper blades. They can reduce
visibility, making driving hazardous
which may lead to an injury accident
resulting in death or personal injury.
CAUTION
3. Trailer Brake Hand Valve
CAUTION
If the electric pump is operated for a
long period (more than 15 seconds)
with a dry reservoir, the pump motor
may be damaged.
Check the windshield washing fluid
level daily. If necessary, fill to top.
This hand valve, mounted on the
steering wheel column, provides air
pressure to apply the trailer brakes
only. It operates independently of
the foot treadle valve. See Using the
Brake System on page 4-21, for more
instructions on proper use of the Trailer
Brake Hand Valve.
Clean all inside and outside windows
regularly. Use an alcohol-based
cleaning solution and wipe dry with
either a lint-free or a chamois cloth.
Avoid running the wiper blades over a
dry windshield to prevent scratching
the glass. Spray on washer fluid first.
A scratched windshield will reduce
visibility.
Do not use antifreeze or engine
coolant in the windshield washer
reservoir - damage to seals and
other components will result.
3-71
3
SWITCHES
Steering Wheel Controls
(Optional)
System Description
The steering wheel contains controls
for commonly used functions so that
the operator does not have to take
their hands off of the steering wheel to
operate.
CAUTION
3
Under no circumstances should
you attempt to service the steering
wheel, clockspring, or any of the
electrical wiring in the multiplex
system, or any steering components
(steering column, steering driveline
or steering gear). Tampering with
these components may result in an
inoperable multiplex system.
This vehicle may be equipped with an
optional steering wheel with audio and
cruise control button mounted on the
spokes of the steering wheel.
3-72
1.
2.
3.
Left Switch Pod
Horn
Right Switch Pod
SWITCHES
Operating the System
Horn - Depressing the bottom center
bar activates the electric horn.
Cruise Control - Vehicles with steering
wheel controls will have cruise control
options on the right hand of the
wheel instead of the switches on the
dashboard. These optional switches
for cruise control include a third switch
to allow the operator to accelerate or
coast while maintaining cruise control
operation. For complete operating
instructions, see Cruise Control on
page 4-36.
3
Left Switch Pod
1.
2.
3.
Audio Volume +/Audio Seek +/Audio Mute/Mode
Right Switch Pod
1.
2.
3.
Cruise Control
On/Off/Cancel
Cruise Control Set/Resume
Cruise Control
Accelerate/Coast
3-73
SWITCHES
WARNING
3
Do not operate the cruise control
when operating on road surfaces
with poor traction (wet, icy, or snow
covered roads) or in heavy traffic.
Accelerations caused by the normal
operation of the cruise control
could cause you to lose control of
the vehicle resulting in an injury
accident.
Door Mounted Controls
Introduction
If your vehicle is equipped with power
mirrors, the mirror controls will be
located on the driver side door pad.
Mirrors can be adjusted in 4 directions.
Horn
To use the electric horn, press the
button in the center of the steering
wheel, which is the standard location
for electric horns. Your vehicle may be
equipped with air horns. To operate,
pull on the lanyard extending from the
overhead header panel.
3-74
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Heated Mirror Control
Mirror Directional Control
Pad
Mirror Selector Switch
Door Lock/Unlock Switch
Power Window Switch
SWITCHES
1. Mirror Heat Button
WARNING
WARNING
Adjust all mirrors before driving.
Adjusting the mirrors while driving
can cause you to take your eyes
off the road, which could result in
an accident. Failure to do so could
lead to serious injury or equipment
damage.
Convex mirrors can distort images
and make objects appear smaller
and farther away than they really
are. You could have an accident if
you are too close to another vehicle
or other object. Keep plenty of
space between your vehicle and
others when you turn or change
lanes. Remember that other objects
are closer than they may appear.
To provide good visibility, adjust the
mirror so the side of your vehicle
appears in the inboard part of the
mirror.
Your vehicle may be equipped with
optional heated mirrors. Mirror heat
is controlled by the mirror heat switch
button, which is part of the mirror
switch module located on the driver
side door pad.
3
3-75
SWITCHES
2. Power Mirror Switch
If your vehicle is equipped with power
mirrors, the directional controls for
both mirrors are located near the top of
the driver side door trim pad.
1.
Move the mirror selector switch
to the right or left from the neutral
center position to select the
desired mirror for adjustment.
2.
Depress the mirror directional
control pad in one of its four arrow
directions to adjust the mirror
in/out or up/down.
3
NOTE
After mirror adjustments have been
completed, return the mirror selector
switch back to the center (neutral)
position to prevent unintentional
adjustments to the mirrors.
After mirror adjustments have been
completed, return the mirror selector
3-76
switch back to the center (neutral)
position to prevent unintentional
adjustments to the mirrors.
4. Power Door Lock Switch
Power door lock rocker switches are
located on the door pads. To lock or
unlock both cab doors as well as a
sleeper door, depress any door lock
switch at the end that displays a closed
or open padlock symbol, respectively,
on the switch face.
SWITCHES
5. Power Window Switch
Exterior Lights Self Test
•
Lo beam headlamps
Power window rocker switches are
located on the door pads. Depress
the switch to open the window or pull
up on the switch to close the window.
Release the switch to stop window
movement. The drivers side window
has an express down feature. Pushing
on the switch all the way down until the
switch bumps will activate the express
down feature. Release the button and
the window will continue to open until it
is completely open.
To start the Exterior Light Self-Test
(ELST) feature:
•
First set of fog/driving lights
1.
Park the vehicle and set the
parking brakes.
The test will turn those lights off and
then illuminate the:
2.
Insert the key into the ignition, start
the engine and allow the vehicle
to run through its own Power On
Self Test.
3.
Press the momentary switch on
the dash to start the ELST.
This feature allows the operator to
verify and inspect exterior lighting
operation typically performed during a
pre-trip inspection. When the feature
is engaged, via a switch on the dash, it
will illuminate the:
•
Park lights
•
Side marker lights
•
Hazard/turn signals
•
Park lights
•
Side marker lights
•
Hi beam headlamps
•
Stop/Brake lights
3
After turning these lights off, the
system will resume testing the first set
of lights. The light test will eventually
stop on its own. The operator may
interrupt the test by turning the vehicle
off or pressing the switch a second time
while the test is running. The operator
can verify the light functionality by
visibly watching the light from outside
the vehicle during the test or can read
the instrument cluster for any faults
displayed that are lighting related.
3-77
HEATING AND AIR CONDITIONING
HEATING AND AIR
CONDITIONING
Air Conditioning Controls
3
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
3-78
Fan Control Dial
AUTO Mode
Temperature Control Dial
MAX Defrost
Dash & Floor
Dash
7.
8.
9.
10.
Floor & Defrost
Defrost
Sleeper Override, Indicates
Sleeper HVAC is On (for
vehicles with a sleeper)
Floor
11.
12.
Air Conditioner Enable, Blue
Light (On) Indicates A/C is
Enabled
Fresh Air / Recirculate,
Blue Light (On) Indicates
Recirculated Air
HEATING AND AIR CONDITIONING
Introduction
Your vehicle's air conditioning system
is capable of controlling the cabin
air temperature automatically or in
a manual override mode so that
the driver may customize the air
conditioner for specific needs (clearing
fog or thin ice on the windshield).
When in Automatic mode the air
conditioning system can aid cold
vehicle startup procedures by utilizing
the fresh air/recirculated air option
without operator interaction. In some
cases, the system will use fresh air to
clear fog or thin ice on the windshield
or to warm up the cabin. In other
situations, the system may recirculate
air to help cool ventilate a hot cab.
unit is capable of controlling cabin air
temperature, however, the sleeper air
conditioner will only vary the air supply
temperature relative to the temperature
in the air ducts.
The cab heater and A/C controls are
located together in the center of the
dash just to the right of the steering
column.
WARNING
Do not drive with visibility reduced
by fog, condensation, or frost
on the windshield.
Your view
may be obscured, which may
result in death, personal injury,
equipment or property damage.
For clear visibility and safe driving
it is extremely important for
you to follow the instructions
pertaining to the function and
use of the ventilation/heating and
defogging/defrosting system.
If
in doubt, consult your dealer.
Maximum heating output and fast
defrosting can be obtained only after
the engine has reached operating
temperature.
For vehicles with a sleeper, the front
(cab) air conditioner control unit will
also have the capability for user to
turn the sleeper controls on or off.
The cab automatic air conditioner
3-79
3
HEATING AND AIR CONDITIONING
3
WARNING
WARNING
NOTE
Exhaust fumes from the engine
contain carbon monoxide,
a
colorless and odorless gas. Do not
breathe the engine exhaust gas.
A poorly maintained, damaged or
corroded exhaust system can allow
carbon monoxide to enter the cab.
Entry of carbon monoxide into the
cab is also possible from other
vehicles nearby. Failure to properly
maintain your vehicle could cause
carbon monoxide to enter the cab,
resulting in death or personal injury.
Never idle your vehicle for prolonged
periods of time if you sense that
exhaust fumes are entering the cab.
Investigate the cause of the fumes
and correct it as soon as possible.
If the vehicle must be driven under
these conditions, drive only with the
windows open. Failure to repair
the source of the exhaust fumes
may result in death, personal injury,
equipment or property damage.
Keep the engine exhaust system
and the vehicles cab ventilation
system properly maintained. It is
recommended that the vehicles
exhaust system and cab be
inspected:
•
By a competent technician every
15,000 miles
•
Whenever a change is noticed in
the sound of the exhaust system
•
Whenever the exhaust system,
underbody, or cab is damaged
NOTE
To allow for proper operation of the
vehicle ventilation system, keep
the inlet grille at the base of the
windshield clear of snow, ice, leaves
and other obstructions at all times.
3-80
HEATING AND AIR CONDITIONING
Automatic Air Conditioning
CAUTION
NOTE
Do not stay in the vehicle with the
engine running or idling for more
than 10 minutes with the vehicle's
Heater and A/C ventilation system
in RECIRC or at LOW FAN SPEED.
Even with the ventilation system on,
running the engine while parked or
stopped for prolonged periods of
time is not recommended.
If you are required to idle your
vehicle for long periods of time,
install an auxiliary heater or
automatic idle control.
These
auxiliary devices can reduce fuel
consumption and save you money.
NOTE
When idling for short periods of time:
•
Set the heating or cooling system
to Heat or A/C
•
Set the fan to Medium or High
speed
•
Set the controls to FRESH AIR
NOTE
If you are parked next to idling
vehicles, move your vehicle or do
not stay in your vehicle for prolonged
periods of time.
Your vehicle’s air conditioning system
has an automatic function that can
manage the cabin air temperature
to the setting on the control unit. In
automatic mode, the air conditioner
changes the air distribution, outlet
temperature, and fan speed based
on the temperature setting selected,
the amount of sunlight it senses from
the dash board sensor and the cabin
temperature determined from the
temperature sensor on the front of the
control head. The button that enables
automatic mode is labeled AUTO.
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3
HEATING AND AIR CONDITIONING
If the air conditioner is using fresh air in
AUTO mode, the operator may select
recirculated air to avoid temporary
external odors or pollution without
exiting AUTO mode.
The system may have difficulties
in obtaining the desired cabin
temperature if the temperature setting
is repeatedly changed.
3
NOTE
1
Sunlight Sensor
Pressing the AUTO button will enable
the automatic air conditioning system.
The operator only needs to set the
temperature via the temperature
control knob in the center. The
system will dynamically adjust various
settings to obtain the desired cabin
temperature.
3-82
The system has two sensors, one on
the dash and one on the control unit.
Be sure neither of these sensors is
blocked.
Semi-Automatic Control
Mode
If user changes airflow mode during
AUTO function the airflow mode
indicator will light and the airflow
function will go to the requested airflow
location, however the fan speed
and temperature will continue to be
controlled in AUTO function.
If user changes fan speed during
AUTO function the fan speed indicator
will light and the fan function will go
to the selected fan speed, however
airflow mode and temperature will
continue to be controlled in AUTO
function.
HEATING AND AIR CONDITIONING
MAX Defrost
Defrost the system will not allow the air
to be recirculated.
When utilizing Max Defrost, the system
will not allow the compressor to be
turned off by the user.
The air conditioner’s MAX Defrost
function automatically distributes
outside air through the windshield
defroster vents and de-mister
vents. The AC compressor will
also be engaged when the outside
temperature is above 34ºF (1ºC) to
remove humidity from the air. Fresh air
and hi fan speed settings will result in
the fastest reduction in fog or thin ice.
This function is enabled by pressing
the MAX button.
Manual Override
The air conditioner will also allow the
operator to override the automatic
function. The operator may override
the system by either:
•
Pressing the AUTO button again
•
Rotating any fan speed or air
distribution knob
•
Pressing the A/C button
•
Pressing the MAX button
In this mode, the operator has the
option of what temperature setting is
used during MAX operation. Increase
the temperature to improve the speed
of fog or thin ice removal from your
windshield. When utilizing MAX
3-83
3
HEATING AND AIR CONDITIONING
What Each Control Does
*Defrost and De-mister Vents
Fresh Air/Recirculation Switch
Fan Speed Adjustment
*Fresh air and air conditioning are
automatically turned ON.
Temperature Control Dial
3
Turning this dial clockwise from the OFF
position turns the fan ON and increases the
fan speed.
Air Flow Control Dial
This dial directs the air flow through 5 primary
sets of vents:
Instrument Panel and De-mister
Vents
Instrument Panel, De-mister and
Floor Vents
Turn this dial clockwise for heat,
counterclockwise for cool.
Air Conditioner Switch
This button turns the A/C compressor on
and off. When using the Max Def function
the user will not be able to turn off the AC
compressor with this button.
NOTE
Floor and De-mister Vents
Floor, De-mister Vents and
*Defrost Vents
3-84
Fan Control Dial must also be in the
ON position for A/C to be on. A/C
engages automatically in AUTO,
defrost and floor/defrost.
This switch controls the source of the air
flowing into the heater and air conditioner
unit
Recirculated air may reduce the amount of
time needed to cool down the interior of the
vehicle (when used with A/C) and may also
help reduce undesired outside odors from
reaching the interior of the vehicle. This
button can be engaged manually in any
non-defrost modes.
NOTE
You may notice changes in sound
between recirculated mode and
other airflow modes.
HEATING AND AIR CONDITIONING
Sleeper Override Switch (for
vehicles with a sleeper)
Press this button if the user wants to control
the on/off function of the sleeper heating and
air conditioning unit.
Using this button does not allow this control
unit to control sleeper blower speed or
sleeper temperature. It only turns the sleeper
heating and air conditioning unit on or off.
Operating tips when
overriding automatic
controls
An air conditioner can reduce fog build
up on the windshield by setting it to the
defrost or the floor/defrost air selection.
To increase the effectiveness of the
air conditioner, use the A/C button
in the ON position, increase the air
temperature setting and/or increase
the fan speed.
If the cabin becomes humid or damp,
use the air conditioner with the fan
on, with fresh air (not in recirculate air
mode) and the A/C in the ON position
to dry the cabin air.
In situations where more cooling of
the cab is required, make sure the
system is in the recirculation mode.
This setting will be more effective than
using fresh air.
How To Use The System
The engine must be running for the
heater and air conditioner to generate
hot and cold air.
To Cool - Manually
Push the Fresh Air/Recirculation
Switch to the Fresh Air mode
(Blue indicator light off). Manually
setting the system to recirculate
air will increase the effectiveness
and uses the least amount of fuel.
Turn ON the Fan Control Dial to
the desired fan speed.
Turn Temperature Dial to Desired Setting.
Turn the Air Flow Control Dial to
Dash Vents.
3-85
3
HEATING AND AIR CONDITIONING
If the outside air is not cold enough
to cool the cab, press to engage
the compressor which will deliver
colder air.
For more cooling effect, you may
need to press the switch back to
recirculation mode.
3
Using this function in "manual" mode
will provide the maximum heating
performance.
The air conditioner removes moisture
from the air while the heater heats the
air.
To Dehumidify
To Defog and Defrost the Windshield
Push the Fresh Air/Recirculate
Switch to the Fresh Air mode (Blue
indicator light off).
Turn the Fan Control Dial clockwise
to the highest fan speed.
To Heat
Turn the Fan Control Dial ON to
the desired fan speed.
Turn the Air Flow Control Dial to
Floor Vents.
Adjust the Temperature Control Dial
clockwise until the air temperature
feels comfortable.
3-86
Turn ON the Air Conditioning
Switch (Blue indicator light on).
Turn ON the Fan Control Dial to
the desired fan speed.
Turn the Air Flow Control Dial to
Defrost Vents.
Fresh air and air conditioning are
automatically turned ON.
Adjust the Temperature Control Dial
clockwise to full heat.
Adjust the Temperature Control
Dial until the air temperature feels
comfortable.
HEATING AND AIR CONDITIONING
CAUTION
During extreme cold weather, do
not blow hot defroster air onto cold
windshields. This could crack the
glass. Turn the Air Flow Control Dial
to Defrost and adjust the fan speed
accordingly while the engine warms.
If the engine is already warm, move
the Temperature Control Dial to
cool, then gradually increase the
temperature when you see that
the windshield is starting to warm
up. Failure to comply may result in
equipment damage.
Sleeper Heater - A/C
Controls (optional)
A separate switch on the dash HVAC
unit will send power to the “bunk” or
sleeper control unit The button on the
cab HVAC unit must be pressed and
in the on mode to use the sleeper
controls. The sleeper control unit has
three controls:
1.
Air speed control
2.
Air conditioner compressor on/off
3.
Air temperature control
Unlike the cabin air temperature
controls, the sleeper temperature
control will alter the air temperature
based on the knob setting. The
Temperature Control is not keyed
to specific temperatures. Turning
counterclockwise means cooler than
it is now. Clockwise means warmer
than it is now. Once the desired
temperature is reached, the system
will maintain it automatically.
NOTE
The sensor is located on the
sleeper heater - A/C control panel
and measures the sleeper air
temperature at the panel. There
will be a time delay between
Temperature Control adjustment
and sleeper air temperature change.
Also, be careful of any heat
source which could affect the air
temperature by the sensor. Avoid
hanging items (e.g. shirt, jacket,
etc.) which could block the air flow
to the sensor.
3-87
3
ACCESSORIES
ACCESSORIES
Cigarette Lighter and
Ashtray (Option)
Radio (Option)
3
As an option, your vehicle has either
an AM/FM Stereo Receiver, which may
or may not have a CD, or may have
the stereo system integrated with your
Navigation and telematics unit.
For instructions on how to operate your
particular radio, see the supplemental
operating manual for those units.
NOTE
WARNING
The cigarette lighter will operate with
the ignition key in either the OFF,
ACC (accessory), or ON position.
Do not place paper or other
combustible substances in an
ashtray, it could cause a fire. Keep
all burnable materials, besides
smoking materials, out of the
ashtray. Failure to comply may
result in death, personal injury,
equipment or property damage.
This vehicle comes standard with two
cupholders and power ports located
in the center of the dashboard. This
vehicle may have the optional ashtray
insert (for the cupholder) and the
optional cigarette lighter in a power
port.
To operate, push in on the knob end
of the lighter. After a few moments,
the lighter will automatically pop out,
glowing hot and ready to use. After
use, insert the lighter back into the
socket without pushing all the way in.
The socket of the cigarette lighter may
be used to operate 12 volt, 15 ampere
3-88
appliances, such as a hand spotlight
or small vacuum cleaner.
WARNING
Do
not
exceed
the
voltage/amperage capacity of the
cigarette lighter. It could result in
a fire. Follow all warnings and
instructions in the operator's manual
for the appliance you are using.
Failure to comply may result in
death, personal injury, equipment or
property damage.
ACCESSORIES
Cab Storage
Glove Box
A glove box is provided to store
important documents, the vehicle
literature set (including this Operator's
Manual) and other related materials.
WARNING
Do not drive with the glove box open,
it can be dangerous. In an accident
or sudden stop, you or a passenger
could be thrown against the cover
and be injured. To reduce the risk
of personal injury during an accident
or sudden stop, keep the glove box
closed when the vehicle is in motion.
- overhead storage compartments
WARNING
Do not carry loose objects in your
cab, it can be dangerous. In a
sudden stop, or even going over
a bump in the road, they could fly
through the air and strike you or a
passenger. You could be injured
or even killed. Secure all loose
objects in the cab before moving the
vehicle. Carry any heavy objects
such as luggage in the exterior
storage compartment and close it
securely.
Appliances
If your vehicle is equipped with a
television, or other appliance, be sure
they are compatible with your vehicle's
electrical system. Secure them in the
cab so they cannot come loose in a
sudden stop.
3
WARNING
In a sudden stop or collision a heavy
object in your cab could strike you
or anyone with you. You could be
injured or even killed. Secure any
appliance (such as a radio, or TV)
you add to your sleeper or cab.
You can choose from a variety of other
interior storage options to store your
personal supplies or small tools:
- center console
- map pocket on the door
3-89
ACCESSORIES
Ignition Key Switch
The ignition key switch (located to the
left of the steering column) has four
positions: ACC (Accessories), OFF,
ON, and START.
3
OFF: In this position all accessories
are OFF (except those listed below)
and you can remove the key.
The following lights and accessories
have power when the key is in the OFF
position:
3-90
•
brake lights
•
emergency hazard flasher
•
dome and courtesy lamps (on
doors)
•
electric horn
•
cigarette lighter
•
tail lights
•
marker lamps
•
headlights
•
radio station memory
•
instrument lights
•
auxiliary power
•
Instrument panel memory settings
ACC (Accessory): With the key in this
position you can play the radio, defrost
mirrors (if equipped with mirror heat)
or use other accessories.
ON: In the ON position all circuits are
energized. Panel warning lights will
light and the buzzer will sound until
(1) the engine is started, (2) normal oil
operating pressure is reached, and (3)
air brake system pressure is above
65 psi (441 kPa). In this position, the
ignition key cannot be removed.
START: Turn the key to this position
to start your engine. Release the
key after the engine has started. For
complete engine starting procedures,
see Operating The Engine on page
4-5.
ACCESSORIES
Vehicle Telematic System
Your vehicle may be equipped with
an onboard telematics system. This
system is a Global Positioning Satellite
(GPS)-linked computer. It receives
input from multiple sources to locate
your vehicle. Read and understand
the Supplemental Telematics and
Navigation System Owner’s Manual
and observe the Warnings, Cautions,
and Notes that follow before using the
system.
WARNING
Verify legal weight and height
restrictions for the route suggested
by the telematic system. Failure to
verify height restrictions could lead
to causing death, personal injury or
property damage. Failure to verify
weight restrictions could result in a
traffic infraction.
WARNING
WARNING
Only glance at the system monitor
while driving. Prolonged periods of
viewing while driving could result
in an accident involving death or
personal injury.
Regardless of how and where the
navigation system directs you, it is
your responsibility to operate the
vehicle in a safe and legal manner.
Failure to comply may result in
death, personal injury, equipment or
property damage.
WARNING
Do not program the telematic
system while driving. Always stop
your vehicle when programming
or changing the settings on the
telematic system. Programming the
system while driving can cause you
to take your eyes off the road, which
could result in an accident involving
death, personal injury or equipment
damage.
WARNING
Ensure the volume level of all
audio devices is set to a level that
still allows you to hear outside
traffic and emergency vehicles.
Failure to comply may result in
death, personal injury, equipment or
property damage.
3-91
3
ACCESSORIES
Care of the Display Screen
Screen Display On/Off
From time to time it may be necessary
to clean the display screen. To clean
the screen, dampen a clean, soft,
lint-free cloth with water only. A mild
glass cleaner that does not contain
alcohol or ammonia may also be
used. Cleaners that contain alcohol
and/or ammonia will eventually dry-out,
crack and "yellow" the screen. Wipe
the screen gently back and forth. You
can also use a commercial cleaner
especially designed for LCD screens.
1. Press and hold the POWER/LIGHT
button for approximately 1 second.
CAUTION
Do not rely on the telematic
system to route you to the closest
emergency services.
Not all
emergency services are in the
database.
3
NOTE
The map database is the most
current available at the time of
production.
The database is
designed to provide you with
route suggestions and does not
take into account the relative
safety of a suggested route or of
factors that may affect the time
required to reach your destination.
See the Supplemental Navigation
System Owner’s Manual for more
information.
3-92
2. After the display has been turned
on, the following Warning/Informational
screen will appear:
ACCESSORIES
Warning/Informational Screen
4. To turn the system off, press and
hold the POWER/LIGHT button for 3
seconds.
WARNING
Do not let this device distract you while
driving. Always concentrate on your
driving. Distractions could cause an
accident resulting in injuries to you or
others.
IMPORTANT
Disclaimer: Map data may be inaccurate and
navigation routes may not be available for
larger size vehicles.
Regardless of how and where the navigation
system directs you, it is your responsibility
to operate the vehicle in a safe and legal
manner.
Note: Before using this system, read
the Owner's Manual and learn how it
operates. Some functions of this system
will not operate when the truck is moving.
Disclaimer
Passenger Side 'down'
Mirror
The vehicle manufacturer is not
responsible for erroneous map data,
misrouting or any downtime or other
damages associated with or arising out
of the use of the Navigation System.
3
A mirror is located above the
passenger door that provides a quick
view of the blind spot created by the
passenger door.
3. After reading the information, touch
the T in the upper right corner of the
screen with your finger indicating you
acknowledge and understand the
information. The MENU screen will
automatically appear next.
3-93
ACCESSORIES
Passenger Side Pull Out
Tray
3
Rotate the mirror up or down to get the
desired view.
The dashboard for the front passenger
contains a pull out tray for writing
convenience. To use the tray, push in
on the panel and allow the tray to pop
out. Firmly pushing the tray back into
the dashboard will lock it back in place.
3-94
STARTING & OPERATING
STARTING & OPERATING
Introduction . . . . . . . .
Normal Weather . . . . . .
Cold Weather . . . . . . .
Engine Block Heater (Option).
Engine Warm-up . . . . . .
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4-5
4-5
4-6
4-6
4-7
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4-11
4-11
4-12
4-13
Operating Hydraulic Clutch (Manual Transmission)
Operating Manual Transmissions . . . . . . . .
Putting the Vehicle in Motion . . . . . . . . . .
Automatic and Automated Transmissions . . . .
Auxiliary Transmission . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4-14
4-14
4-15
4-18
4-19
OPERATING THE ENGINE
Stationary PTO Operation
Engine Fan Control . . .
Winterfronts . . . . . .
Engine Control Display .
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4
OPERATING THE TRANSMISSION
4-1
STARTING & OPERATING
More Transmission Tips . . . . . . . . . . . .
4-19
OPERATING THE BRAKE SYSTEM
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Retarders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Parking Brake . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4-21
4-32
4-34
CRUISE CONTROL
Cruise Control Switch . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Adaptive Cruise Control (Optional) . . . . . . .
4-36
4-38
Differential Lock . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Dual Range (Two-Speed) Rear Axle . . . . . . .
Auxiliary Axles - Pusher or Tag . . . . . . . . .
4-41
4-42
4-44
AXLE
4
SUSPENSION
Setting Ride Height . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Driving with Deflated Air Springs . . . . . . . .
4-51
4-54
AFTER-TREATMENT SYSTEM
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4-2
4-55
STARTING & OPERATING
DRIVING TIPS AND TECHNIQUES
Introduction . . . . . . .
Coasting . . . . . . . . .
Descending a Grade . . .
Engine Overspeed . . . .
Fuel - Excess Consumption
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4-56
4-56
4-57
4-57
4-60
Sleeper Bunk. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4-62
SLEEPER BUNKS
4
STOPPING THE ENGINE
Before Stopping the Engine
Refueling . . . . . . . .
Refuel Before the Final Stop
Final Stop . . . . . . . .
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4-64
4-64
4-65
4-66
4-3
STARTING & OPERATING
STARTING &
OPERATING
Introduction
Since each vehicle is
custom-equipped, all engine operation
instructions in this manual are general.
You will want to consult the manual for
your engine to find out details about
your specific engine’s needs. You
may need to use a slightly different
procedure from the one outlined here.
Below are instructions for both
normal-temperature starting and
cold-weather starting.
Normal Weather
NOTE
When the outside temperature is
above 50° F (10° C), you can use the
following procedure.
1.
Set the parking brake.
2.
Put your main transmission in
Neutral.
3.
Disengage (depress) the clutch
(with manual transmission).
4.
Turn the key switch to ON.
Some starters are equipped with
overcrank protection. Check the
“Engine Operation and Maintenance
Manual” for details.
5.
CAUTION
Never operate the starter motor
while the engine is running. The
starter and flywheel gears could
clash or jam, severely damaging
them.
6.
Turn the ignition key to the START
position. If the engine does not
start within 30 seconds, release
the ignition switch. To avoid
overtaxing the starter motor or
the batteries, don’t use the starter
for more than 30 seconds. Let
the starter motor cool and the
batteries recover for two minutes
before trying again.
If the engine still won’t start after a
couple of tries, check the fuel lines
for possible fuel starvation or air
leaks. Starting failure may mean
fuel isn’t reaching the injectors.
As soon as the engine starts, begin
to watch the oil pressure gauge.
Check your engine manufacturer’s
4-5
4
STARTING & OPERATING
manual for the right pressure for
your engine. If the oil pressure
doesn’t rise within a few seconds,
stop the engine. Find out what
is wrong before restarting the
engine.
7.
Slowly engage (release) the clutch
after the engine has started.
8.
Wait for the oil pressure gauge to
reach normal operating pressure
before operating the vehicle or
idling faster than 1000 rpm.
4
4-6
Cold Weather
In cold weather, fast engine starting
helps relieve the loads on the electrical
system and cranking motor. Using the
special cold starting equipment will
help starting. If you follow a few simple
guidelines, you will extend the service
life of your engine.
•
Keep the electrical system in top
condition.
•
Use the best quality fuel of the
recommended grade.
•
Use recommended engine
lubricating oil.
•
Fully depress the accelerator
pedal after engaging the starter.
•
For manual transmissions and
auxiliary transmissions, leave the
transmission in neutral and allow
the transmission lubricating oil
to warm up (approximately 3-5
minutes) before operating vehicle.
Engine Block Heater
(Option)
To preheat the engine before starting,
plug the optional engine block heater
into a properly grounded AC electrical
source. Do not start the engine with
the heater plugged in.
WARNING
Engine block heaters can cause
fires which may result in death,
injury and/or property damage
if not properly maintained and
operated.
Regularly inspect the
engine block heater wiring and
connector for damaged or frayed
wires. Do not use the heater if
there are any signs of problems.
Contact your authorized dealer or
the manufacturer of the heater if you
are in need of repairs or information.
STARTING & OPERATING
CAUTION
Always unplug heater before starting
the engine. Damage to the cooling
system could occur if the heater is
not turned OFF (unplugged).
Depending on engine make, when the
temperature falls below -10° F (-24°
C), the block heater is required.
•
•
Use a solution of half ethylene
glycol antifreeze and half water for
best heater performance. Do not
exceed 65 percent concentration
of antifreeze, as a shortened
heater life will result. See Engine
Cooling System on page 5-70, for
more information.
After servicing the cooling system,
operate the vehicle for a day or two
before using the heater. Trapped
air inside the engine needs time
to escape.
Engine Warm-up
Engine
The purpose of engine warm-up is to
allow oil film to be established between
pistons and liners, shafts and bearings
while your engine gradually reaches
operating temperature.
Warm-up Procedure
1.
2.
After you’ve started your engine,
idle it at approximately 600 RPM
while you check:
a.
oil pressure
b.
air pressure
c.
alternator output
After a few minutes of idling at
600 RPM, increase your idle
speed to 900 or 1000 RPM.
Continue your warm-up. This
procedure allows oil to warm and
flow freely while pistons, liners,
shafts, and bearings expand
slowly and evenly. In extremely
cold temperatures, you may have
to increase idle speed.
NOTE
In colder climates where the
temperature is often below freezing,
the warm-up for turbocharged
engines is especially important.
Chilled external oil lines leading to
the turbocharger will slow the oil
flow until the oil warms, reducing oil
available for the bearings. Watch
the engine oil temperature or
pressure gauge for a warming trend
before increasing engine idle speed
(RPM).
3.
Continue the engine warm-up until
the coolant temperature reaches
at least 130° F (54° C). At this
temperature, you can use partial
throttle. Wait until the coolant
temperature is at least 160° F (71°
C) before operating at full throttle.
4-7
4
STARTING & OPERATING
WARNING
CAUTION
NOTE
Exhaust fumes from the engine
contain carbon monoxide,
a
colorless and odorless gas.
A
poorly maintained, damaged, or
corroded exhaust system can allow
carbon monoxide to enter the cab or
sleeper. Failure to properly maintain
your vehicle could cause carbon
monoxide to enter the cab and
cause death or personal injury.
The use of a winterfront can result
in excessive engine coolant, oil, and
charge air (intake) temperatures,
which can lead to overheating and
possible engine damage. If you
must use a winterfront:
Keep the engine exhaust system
and the vehicle’s cab/sleeper
ventilation
system
properly
maintained. It is recommended that
the vehicle’s exhaust system and
cab/sleeper be inspected:
4
WARNING
Never idle your vehicle for prolonged
periods of time if you sense that
exhaust fumes are entering the cab.
Investigate the cause of the fumes
and correct it as soon as possible.
If the vehicle must be driven under
these conditions, drive only with
the windows slightly open. Failure
to repair the source of the exhaust
fumes may lead to death or personal
injury.
4-8
•
•
Refer to the “Engine Operation
and Maintenance Manual”
for operating restrictions and
recommendations.
Use only a winterfront available
from your dealer that is
compatible with an EPA-compliant
engine cooling system. These
winterfronts are specifically
designed for use with new grill
snap patterns.
•
By a competent technician every
15,000 miles
•
Whenever a change is noticed in
the sound of the exhaust system
•
Whenever the exhaust system,
underbody, cab or sleeper is
damaged
STARTING & OPERATING
NOTE
•
Do not stay in the vehicle with
the engine running or idling
for more than 10 minutes with
the vehicle’s Heater and A/C
ventilation system in RECIRC
or at LOW FAN SPEED. Even
with the ventilation system On,
running the engine while parked
or stopped for prolonged periods
of time is not recommended.
•
If other vehicles are parked next
to you idling, move your vehicle
or do not stay in your vehicle for
prolonged periods of time.
WARNING
CAUTION
To reduce the chance of death
or personal injury and/or vehicle
damage from overheated engines,
which can result in a fire, never
leave the engine idling without an
alert driver present. If the engine
should overheat, as indicated by
the engine coolant temperature
light, immediate action is required
to correct the condition. Continued
unattended operation of the engine,
even for a short time, may result in
serious engine damage or a fire.
Do not allow your engine to idle,
at low rpm's (400–600 rpm), longer
than five minutes. Long periods
of idling after the engine has
reached operating temperatures
can decrease engine temperature
and cause gummed piston rings,
clogged injectors, and possible
engine damage from lack of
lubrication. The normal torsional
vibrations generated can also cause
transmission wear.
Idling the Engine
Under most circumstances, idling
your engine for long periods merely
wastes fuel. In severe arctic weather
conditions, however, you may need
longer idling to be sure all parts of your
engine are fully lubricated.
4-9
4
STARTING & OPERATING
Transmission
In cold weather (below 32° F (0°
C), you may find shifting sluggish
when you first start up. Transmission
warm-up is especially important at
this time, but it is always a good
idea to warm-up your transmission
before starting out on the road. To
warm-up the transmission, follow these
procedures.
4
To warm-up the transmission
lubricating oil during engine warm-up,
with a single transmission (manual and
automatic):
1.
Put the transmission in Neutral.
2.
Release the clutch pedal (manual
only) and operate the transmission
in neutral for 3 to 5 minutes prior
to operating the transmission in
either forward or reverse range.
3.
If you have a two-transmission
combination:
4-10
a.
Put the main transmission in
gear.
b.
Put the auxiliary transmission
in Neutral. This will allow
the transmission countershaft
to turn, agitating the oil and
warming it.
OPERATING THE ENGINE
OPERATING THE
ENGINE
5.
Stationary PTO Operation
Cancelling Cruise Control
The cruise control buttons for this
vehicle may be used to control the
engine rpm when the vehicle is
stationary and the operator wants to
use the PTO on the engine. Use the
cruise control options in the same
manner as with the vehicle in motion,
but instead of setting vehicle speed,
the engine speed (RPM) is set instead.
You can cancel cruise control in any
of these ways:
Toggle the SET/RESUME switch
to obtain the desired engine rpm.
•
Tap the brake pedal.
•
Tap the clutch pedal.
•
Move the ON/OFF switch to the
"OFF" position.
Engine Fan Control
The engine fan can be turned ON
using a switch that is mounted on the
accessory switch panel. This lets you
set the fan to manual or automatic
operation.
•
With the ignition key turned ON
and the fan switch in the MANUAL
position, the engine fan will be ON
regardless of engine temperature.
•
With the engine fan switch in the
AUTO position, the engine fan will
automatically turn ON when the
engine computer sends a signal
requiring the engine fan to be on.
Setting Idle Speed
1.
Ensure parking brakes are applied.
2.
Ensure transmission is in Neutral.
3.
Engage PTO per the
manufacturer's operating
instructions.
4.
Move the ON/OFF switch to the
"ON" position.
4-11
4
OPERATING THE ENGINE
4
Winterfronts
WARNING
NOTE
Do not work on or near the fan
with the engine running. Anyone
near the engine fan when it turns
on could be injured. If it is set at
MANUAL, the fan will turn on any
time the ignition key switch is turned
to the ON position. In AUTO, it could
engage suddenly without warning.
Before turning on the ignition or
switching from AUTO to MANUAL,
be sure no workers are near the fan.
Do not operate the engine fan in
the MANUAL position for extended
periods of time. The fan hub was
designed for intermittent operation.
Sustained operation will shorten
the fan hub's service life as well as
reduce fuel economy.
CAUTION
The fan or equipment near it could
be damaged if the fan turns on
suddenly when you do not expect it.
Keep all tools and equipment away
from the fan.
4-12
A winterfront or other air flow restriction
device may be mounted in front of
the radiator to increase cab heater
temperature in cold climates.
CAUTION
A winterfront should only be used
at temperatures below 40°F (4°C).
Use of a winterfront above 40°F
(4°C) can decrease life of cooling
module components.
Remove
winterfront as soon as the ambient
temp reaches 41°F (5°C). The use
of a winterfront above 40°F (4°C)
can result in excessive engine
coolant, oil, and charge air (intake)
temperatures, which can lead to
overheating and possible engine
or coolant module damage and
emissions non-compliance.
OPERATING THE ENGINE
Engine Control Display
NOTE
The
winterfront
is
designed
to minimize the temperature
differences across the radiator and
reduce the possibility of cooling
module damage.
Aftermarket
winterfronts may not provide the
proper airflow distribution and could
cause cooling module damage.
Your vehicle may come with an optional
Engine and Driver Information Display.
This instrument records information
on engine diagnostics, scheduled
maintenance, driving conditions, and
general trip information. The specific
features of your display may vary
depending on engine make. For
complete information on the display
see the engine manufacturer's manual.
4
4-13
OPERATING THE TRANSMISSION
OPERATING THE
TRANSMISSION
Operating Hydraulic Clutch
(Manual Transmission)
4
Manual transmissions will also have a
clutch pedal situated to the left of the
brake pedal. Pressing down on the
clutch pedal will disengage the clutch
and will allow the transmission gears
to be shifted.
At the beginning of the pedal stroke,
there will be about ½ inch (13 mm) of
movement before any resistance is
felt. As the pedal is pressed further, the
operator will feel increased resistance
as the clutch is disengaged. After
the clutch has been fully disengaged,
there will be another 1 - 1 1/2 inches
(25 -40 mm) of pedal travel which will
engage the clutch brake. At this full
stroke, the pedal will feel like it cannot
be pressed anymore.
4-14
If the transmission is not shifting
smoothly into gear while the clutch
pedal is completely pressed to the
floor, then it is time to have the clutch
and hydraulic system inspected and
serviced.
CAUTION
Do not push the clutch pedal
completely to the floor when shifting
while the vehicle is in motion. using
the clutch brake while shifting a
vehicle in motion will damage the
clutch brake. A non functioning
clutch brake will make shifting
very difficult when the vehicle is
stationary.
If the clutch pedal is pressed
completely to the floor and the
transmission is not shifting, then it is
time to have the clutch adjusted or
serviced.
Operating Manual
Transmissions
The transmission shift pattern for
your vehicle may be located on the
shift control knob. In addition to
understanding the shift pattern and
its location, you should read the
transmission manufacturer’s manual
provided with your vehicle before
operating the vehicle.
OPERATING THE TRANSMISSION
Putting the Vehicle in Motion
CAUTION
After making sure the vehicle's oil
and air pressure are correct and all
other parts and systems are in proper
working condition:
1.
Fully depress the clutch pedal (for
manual transmission) until the
clutch brake makes contact.
a.
b.
The total stroke of the clutch
pedal is about 6 inches (152
mm). The first ½ inch (13
mm) is free travel. After the
free travel comes the release
stroke, which is the part that
fully releases the clutch. The
last ½ inch (13 mm) engages
the clutch brake.
Always start out in a low
gear. Starting in higher gears,
even with a light load, will
cause a very jumpy start and
excessive wear.
Always use first gear or a low
speed range to start the vehicle
in motion. The use of a higher
gear or speed range forces undue
strain on the engine, clutch, other
transmission components, and may
cause damage.
2.
Evaluate the road surface
conditions and terrain your vehicle
is on. Select a gear low enough to
let your vehicle start forward with
the throttle at idle.
3.
Push the parking brake valve
handle (Yellow) against the dash
panel to release the brakes.
4.
Release the clutch pedal (manual
only), then gradually accelerate to
permit smooth starting,
5.
Do not allow your vehicle
to roll (even a little) in the
opposite direction during clutch
engagement. If you need to
start up on an incline, apply your
service brakes before you release
the parking brake. Then release
your service brakes as you engage
the clutch and apply throttle.
For further instructions on
operating your transmission, see
the transmission manufacturer's
Driver/Operator's Instruction Manual.
If you have a misaligned gear condition
in your vehicle's transmission and
cannot start, gradually release the
clutch, allowing the drive gear teeth to
line up properly. Then the drive gear
can roll enough to allow the teeth to
line up properly and complete the shift.
The best engine performance and
maximum economy is obtained if gears
are properly selected. This efficiency
is achieved by always selecting gears
within optimum engine RPM, which is
where maximum torque and power are
4-15
4
OPERATING THE TRANSMISSION
obtained. For further information, see
More Driving Tips and Techniques on
page 4-56.
4
4-16
Shifting Gears in a New
Vehicle
Clutch Brake and Travel
Shift carefully in a new vehicle. The
transmission may be a little stiff at
first. Avoid gear clashing, by closely
following these procedures.
The clutch brake is used for stopping
transmission gears, allowing you to
easily shift into first gear or reverse
without grinding gears. Approximately
the last ½ inch (13 mm) of clutch pedal
travel activates the clutch brake.
When you are operating a new vehicle
or one that has been exposed to cold
weather, you want the transmission
lubricant (fluid) to circulate and coat
the contacting surfaces of the gears.
Metal contacting metal in moving
parts may seriously damage your
transmission, do not drive in one
gear for long periods of time until the
transmission lubricant has a chance to
coat all contacting surfaces.
To apply the clutch brake (while the
vehicle is stopped) fully depress the
clutch pedal to stop the gears. With
the throttle at idle, select first gear
then release the clutch pedal to let the
vehicle start forward, until the clutch is
fully engaged. See the manufacturer's
Driver/Operator's Instruction Manual
for further details.
If the transmission has a butt-tooth
condition and you cannot engage a
gear, gradually release the clutch.
Then the drive gear can roll enough to
allow the teeth to line up properly and
complete the shift.
OPERATING THE TRANSMISSION
During Normal Driving
Double Clutching
If you want to shift directly into any gear
other than first or reverse, depress the
clutch pedal only far enough to release
the clutch. Fully depressing the pedal
applies the clutch brake and could
cause gear hang-up.
Whether you are upshifting or down
shifting, it is best to double clutch.
Double clutching is easier on the
transmission and on the engine,
helping your vehicle match engine
speed with driveline speed and
achieving clash-free shifts.
4.
Now quickly press the pedal to
disengage the clutch and move
the gear shift lever to the next gear
speed position.
To double clutch:
5.
Release the pedal to engage the
clutch.
CAUTION
Be careful not to apply the clutch
brake while the vehicle is moving.
The purpose of the clutch brake is
to stop the transmission so that you
can shift into a starting gear without
grinding gears. Applying the clutch
brake when the vehicle is moving will
render the clutch inoperative.
1.
b.
Downshifts: press accelerator,
increase engine and gear
speed to the RPM required in
the lower gear.
Push the clutch pedal down to
disengage the clutch.
2.
Move the gear shift lever to
neutral.
3.
Release the pedal to engage
the clutch. This lets you control
the RPM of the mainshaft gears,
allowing you to match the RPM of
the mainshaft gears to those of the
output shaft.
a.
4
Upshifts: let the engine and
gears slow down to the RPM
required for the next gear.
4-17
OPERATING THE TRANSMISSION
Automatic and Automated
Transmissions
An automatic or automated
transmission makes shifting much
easier. It remains important to
completely understand how to operate
the transmission to optimize its
efficiency. Please read the manual
for your automatic or automated
transmission included with your
vehicle.
4
For automated transmissions, there is
no “park” position. So you will need to
apply the parking brake before leaving
the cab.
4-18
Hill Hold
WARNING
The hill hold feature is available as
an option with certain automated
transmissions. This feature holds the
vehicle while on a hill to allow the
operator to release the service brakes
and press the accelerator. This feature
will hold the vehicle if the vehicle is
attempting to go up a hill from a stop in
either drive or reverse.
Do not leave the cab of your vehicle
without applying the parking brake.
The truck could roll and cause
an accident resulting in death or
personal injury. Always apply the
parking brake before you leave the
cab.
OPERATING THE TRANSMISSION
Auxiliary Transmission
WARNING
If your vehicle has an automated
transmission, be aware that it can
roll backwards when stopped on
a hill or grade, or when starting
from a stop on a hill or grade.
Failure to comply may result in
death, personal injury, equipment
or property damage. Observe the
following guidelines:
•
When stopped on a hill or grade,
press the brake pedal.
•
When starting from a stop on a
hill or grade, quickly remove your
foot from the brake pedal and
firmly press on the accelerator
pedal.
If you have an auxiliary transmission,
see your transmission manufacturer’s
manual for its proper operation.
More Transmission Tips
Riding the Clutch
The clutch is not a footrest. Do not
drive with your foot resting on the
clutch pedal. It will allow your clutch to
slip, causing excessive heat and wear,
damage could result.
Release Bearing Wear
When you must idle your engine for any
period of time, shift your transmission
to neutral and disengage the clutch
(take your foot OFF of the pedal). This
helps prevent unnecessary wear to
your clutch release bearing, and it is
less tiring for you, too.
Tips
•
Always use the clutch when
making upshifts or downshifts.
•
Always select a starting gear
that will provide sufficient gear
reduction for the load and terrain.
4-19
4
OPERATING THE TRANSMISSION
4
•
Never downshift when the vehicle
is moving too fast.
•
Never slam or jerk the shift lever
to complete gear engagement.
•
Never coast with the transmission
in neutral and the clutch
disengaged.
•
To provide smooth gear
engagements while shifting,
use proper coordination between
shift lever and clutch.
Double clutching is a very effective
means to increase the service life of
your transmission. Double clutching
refers to a technique where the clutch
pedal is used twice per shift instead of
once. It also requires that you adjust
the engine rpm in the middle of the
shift which ultimately synchronizes the
gears during shifting. Synchronizing
reduces wear on the gears.
4-20
OPERATING THE BRAKE SYSTEM
OPERATING THE
BRAKE SYSTEM
Introduction
This vehicle’s brake system functions
with the use of compressed air
generated from the engine’s air
compressor. The compressed air is
stored in various air tanks to ensure
that air pressure is available whenever
the driver needs it.
Compressed air is delivered to the
brake system through the valve at
the brake pedal and is controlled
with various valves and braking
circuits. The brake system is designed
with separate front, rear and (when
applicable) trailer circuits so that if one
circuit is compromised and loses air,
the other circuits will not be affected.
Safety valves in each circuit will protect
the other circuits in the event that a
circuit loses air.
The air compressor on the engine will
typically provide 100-130 psi (690-896
kPa) to the air tanks. The vehicle
is also designed with an air dryer,
which removes moisture from the
compressed air in order to protect all
components in the air system.
The brake system may be further
enhanced by additional devices
such as brake proportioning valves,
Anti-lock braking systems or sensors
designed to let you know if your brake
pads need to be serviced.
Certain conditions may result in the
brake surfaces getting wet. Brake
surfaces that are wet do not perform
as well as when they are dry. There
may be situations where wet brake
surfaces cannot be avoided. In such
situations, apply the brakes while in
motion, to dry the brake surfaces.
Certain conditions may result in your
brake surfaces becoming overheated
(above 800° F or 427° C). Overheated
brakes will damage linings and
drum surfaces, ultimately decreasing
braking performance. Refer to
Retarders and Descending a grade to
avoid overheating the brakes.
This vehicle may be equipped with
an anti-lock braking system (ABS).
This ABS reduces the possibility of
wheel lock-up. If a wheel is about
to lock during braking, the ABS will
automatically adjust air pressure to the
brake chambers on the appropriate
wheel(s) to prevent wheel lock-up. The
ABS is automatically turned on when
the ignition switch is turned on.
4-21
4
OPERATING THE BRAKE SYSTEM
4
WARNING
WARNING
WARNING
The Anti-Lock Brake System is a
critical vehicle safety system. For
the safety of you and others around
you, have the vehicle submitted for
periodic preventive maintenance
checks as well as having any
suspected problems immediately
checked by an authorized dealer.
Failure to properly maintain your
brake system can lead to serious
accidents. Failure to comply may
result in death, personal injury,
equipment or property damage.
Do not drive through water deep
enough to wet brake components,
as it may cause the brakes to work
less efficiently than normal. The
vehicle's stopping distance may
be longer than expected, and the
vehicle may pull to the left or right
when brakes are applied, which
could contribute to an accident
involving death or personal injury.
Do not rely on an anti-lock
brake system that is functioning
improperly. You could lose control
of the vehicle resulting in a severe
accident, causing death or personal
injury.
If your ABS lamp goes
on while you are driving or stays
on after the self-check, your
anti-lock system might not be
working. The ABS may not function
in an emergency.
You will still
have conventional brakes, but
not anti-lock brakes. If the lamp
indicates a problem, have the ABS
checked.
Vehicles without anti-lock brake
systems (ABS) are typically equipped
with a bobtail brake proportioning
system. When a trailer is not
connected, the drive axle brake
application pressure will automatically
be limited by the proportioning system.
4-22
OPERATING THE BRAKE SYSTEM
When driven in a bobtail mode,
these tractors will require greater
brake pedal application to provide the
equivalent braking to a bobtail tractor
not equipped with a proportioning
system.
Trailer ABS
Power Line Communication
(PLC)
North American on-highway vehicles
are equipped with a separate electrical
circuit to power the anti-lock brake
system (ABS) on towed vehicle(s).
In most cases, the ABS power will
be supplied through the Auxiliary
circuit on the primary 7-way trailer
light line connector. If the vehicle
was manufactured with a switchable
Auxiliary circuit for trailer accessories,
an additional 7-way connector would
have been provided for trailer ABS
power. In either case, the ABS
power line on the vehicle will be PLC
equipped.
CAUTION
Do not splice into the non-switchable
Auxiliary circuit on the primary 7-way
trailer light line. Doing so may cause
the trailer ABS to malfunction. This
circuit is dedicated for trailer ABS
power. To add a switchable auxiliary
circuit, contact a dealership.
Vehicles and trailers built after
3/1/01 must be able to turn on an
In-Cab Trailer ABS Warning Lamp
(per Federal Motor Vehicle Safety
Standards (FMVSS) 121). The industry
chose Power Line Communication
(PLC) as the standard method to turn
it on.
NOTE
Trailers not equipped with PLC can
not turn on the In-Cab Trailer ABS
Warning Lamp.
4-23
4
OPERATING THE BRAKE SYSTEM
NOTE
CAUTION
For doubles or triples, the lamp does
not distinguish between trailers. An
ABS problem in any of the trailers
will activate the Trailer ABS Warning
Lamp.
The center pin of the 7-way trailer
light line may be constantly powered
for ABS. Make sure it will not
accidently turn on trailer equipment.
NOTE
4
If you change the intended service
in any way (i.e. number of axles,
multiple trailers, add switchable
trailer accessories, etc.) from the
date the vehicle was manufactured,
you should contact your trailer
manufacturer and/or trailer anti-lock
brake manufacturer to determine if
the power available at the 7-way
trailer light line is adequate. Failure
to do so might result in insufficient
power to the trailer ABS system
which may affect its operation.
4-24
Special Trailer ABS (Without
PLC) Option
If a trailer does not have PLC, but
it does have ABS that is powered
through an optional second trailer
connector (ISO 3731) and that trailer
ABS is designed to control the Trailer
ABS Warning Lamp in the cab and
the vehicle has been ordered with the
option to turn on this lamp for these
types of trailers, then this lamp will turn
on when that trailer ABS has a system
problem. This should be checked by a
dealer as soon as possible. The Trailer
ABS Warning Lamp will not turn on for
the power-on test when connected to
these types of trailers.
NOTE
Very few trailers built before 3/1/01
have this option. Trailers built after
3/1/01 are built with PLC technology.
OPERATING THE BRAKE SYSTEM
Advanced ABS with Stability
Control
This vehicle may be equipped
with an optional Electronic Stability
Program (ESP). ESP is a feature for
ABS-equipped vehicles that reduces
the risk of rollovers, jackknifing and
other loss of control situations. ESP
features include Roll Stability Program
(RSP) and Yaw Control.
During operation, the ECU of the
Bendix® Advanced ABS system
constantly compares performance
models to the vehicle’s actual
movement, using the wheel speed
sensors of the ABS system, as well
as lateral, yaw, and steering angle
sensors. If the vehicle shows a
tendency to leave an appropriate travel
path, or if critical threshold values are
approached, the system will intervene
to assist the driver.
Roll Stability Program
thereby reducing the tendency to roll
over.
Bendix® RSP, an element of the
overall ESP system, addresses
rollover conditions. In the case of
a potential roll event, the ECU will
override the throttle and quickly apply
brake pressure at all wheel ends to
slow the vehicle combination. The
level of braking application during an
RSP event will be proportional to roll
risk.
4
A Real World Example of How
the RSP System Operates
Excessive speed for road conditions
creates forces that exceed the
threshold at which a vehicle is likely to
rollover on a higher-friction surface.
The system automatically reduces
engine torque and applies the service
brakes (based on the projected rollover
risk) to reduce the vehicle speed,
RSP Example
4-25
OPERATING THE BRAKE SYSTEM
4
Yaw Stability
Yaw Control
Yaw stability counteracts the tendency
of a vehicle to spin about its vertical
axis. During operation, if the friction
between the road surface and the tires
is not sufficient to oppose lateral (side)
forces, one or more of the tires can
slide, causing the truck/tractor to spin.
Yaw Control responds to a wide
range of low- to high-friction surface
scenarios including rollover, jackknife
and loss of control. In the case of
vehicle slide (over-steer or understeer
situations), the system will reduce the
throttle and then brake one or more
of the “four corners” of the vehicle
(in addition to potentially applying
the trailer brakes), thus applying a
counter-force to better align the vehicle
with an appropriate path of travel. For
example, in an over-steer situation,
the system applies the “outside”
front brake; while in an under-steer
condition, the “inside” rear brake is
applied.
These yaw events are referred to as
either “under-steer” (where there is a
lack of vehicle response to steering
input due to tire slide on the steer axle)
or “over-steer” (where the tractor's
rear end slides out due to tire slide
on the rear axle) situation. Generally,
shorter wheelbase vehicles (tractors,
for instance) have less natural yaw
stability, while longer wheelbase
vehicles (straight trucks, for instance)
have greater natural yaw stability.
Factors that influence yaw stability
are: wheelbase, suspension, steering
geometry, weight distribution front to
rear, and vehicle track width.
4-26
The Bendix® Yaw Control system
reduces engine throttle and selectively
applies brakes to reduce the vehicle
speed, thereby reducing the tendency
to jackknife.
A Real World Example of How
Yaw Control Operates
Excessive speed exceeds the
threshold, creating a situation where a
vehicle is likely to spin and jackknife.
Yaw Control Example
OPERATING THE BRAKE SYSTEM
ESP May Reduce The
Vehicle Speed Automatically
To minimize unexpected deceleration
and reduce the risk of a collision the
operator must:
•
Avoid aggressive driving
maneuvers, such as sharp
turns or abrupt lane changes at
high speeds, which might trigger
the stability system.
•
Always operate the vehicle safely,
drive defensively, anticipate
obstacles and pay attention
to road, weather and traffic
conditions. ABS, ATC and ESP
stability systems are no substitute
for prudent, careful driving.
Towing Doubles Or
Triples May Reduce The
Effectiveness Of Stability
Systems
ESP is designed and optimized for
trucks and for tractors that tow single
trailers. If a tractor equipped with
ESP is used to power multiple trailer
combinations (known as “doubles” or
“triples”) the effectiveness of the ESP
system may be greatly reduced.
WARNING
Exercise extreme care when towing
doubles or triples with a vehicle
equipped with Electronic Stability
Program.
Excessive speed and
aggressive maneuvers, such as
sharp turns, sudden steering inputs
or abrupt lane changes should be
avoided because these maneuvers
could cause loss of vehicle control
possibly resulting in an accident
involving death or personal injury.
Limitations Of Stability
Systems
The ESP stability system’s
effectiveness may be greatly reduced
if:
•
The load shifts due to improper
retention, accident damage or the
inherently mobile nature of some
loads (for example, hanging meat,
live animals or partially laden
tankers),
•
The vehicle has an unusually high
or off-set center of gravity (CG),
•
One side of the vehicle drops off
the pavement at an angle that is
too large to be counteracted by a
reduction in speed,
•
The vehicle is used to haul double
or triple trailer combinations,
•
If very rapidly winding steering
inputs are inputted at high speeds,
4-27
4
OPERATING THE BRAKE SYSTEM
•
4
There are mechanical problems
with suspension leveling of the
tractor or trailer resulting in uneven
loads,
•
The vehicle is maneuvering on a
high banked road creating either
additional side forces due to the
weight (mass) of the vehicle or
a deviation between expected &
actual yaw rates,
•
Gusty winds are strong enough
to cause significant side forces
on the vehicle and any towed
vehicles.
To Maximize The
Effectiveness Of ESP
•
Loads must be properly secured
and evenly distributed at all times.
•
Drivers need to exercise extreme
caution at all times, and avoid
sharp turns, sudden steering
inputs or abrupt lane changes at
high speeds, particularly if:
a.
the vehicle hauls loads that
could shift,
b.
the vehicle or load has a high
or off-set center of gravity
(CG) when loaded, or
c.
4-28
the vehicle tows doubles or
triples.
Truck Chassis Modifications
The ESP system was specifically
calibrated and validated only for
your vehicle’s original factory-built
configuration. If your vehicle’s chassis
components are altered (for example;
a wheelbase extension or reduction,
tag axle addition or removal, tractor to
truck conversion or steering system
component change) the ESP system
must be disabled immediately by a
qualified mechanic.
WARNING
Failure to disable ESP “Electronic
Stability Program” when modifying
a vehicle could result in a loss of
vehicle control possibly resulting
in an accident involving death or
personal injury.
OPERATING THE BRAKE SYSTEM
WARNING
For vehicles equipped with ESP
“Electronic Stability Program” do not
replace the vehicle’s steering wheel
with an aftermarket or different part
number than originally supplied.
Using a different steering wheel
could cause ESP to malfunction
causing a loss of vehicle control
possibly resulting in an accident
involving death or personal injury.
Steering Angle Sensor
Re-Calibration
Wheel Spin Control Warning
Lamp
Whenever maintenance or repair
work is performed to the steering
mechanism, linkage, gear, adjustment
of the wheel track, or if the steering
angle sensor is replaced or the steering
wheel is changed or re-centered, the
Steering Angle Sensor must be
re-calibrated.
Your truck/tractor ABS may have an
acceleration slip regulation (ASR)
or automatic traction control (ATC)
feature. This feature is controlled by a
switch as shown in the next illustration.
Either of these features is monitored by
a warning lamp located on the switch.
WARNING
If the Steering Angle Sensor is
not re-calibrated, the Yaw Control
system will not function properly. A
uncalibrated sensor could result in a
loss of control of your vehicle which
can lead to an accident involving
death or personal injury.
4
The Traction Control warning lamp on
page 3-37 will briefly illuminate and
then go out when the ignition switch
is first turned on. The traction control
warning lamp will illuminate whenever
the ASR or ATC system detects drive
wheel spin. The lamp will remain
illuminated as long as wheel spin is
detected and the ASR or ATC system
4-29
OPERATING THE BRAKE SYSTEM
4
is applying the drive wheel brakes or
reducing engine torque. Do not allow
the traction control lamp to remain on
continuously for an extended length of
time. Extended continuous use of the
ASR/ATC can cause overheating of
the drive wheel brakes. Engine torque
or vehicle speed should be reduced
to eliminate wheel spin and prevent
excessive application of the ASR/ATC
system. Except for checking for proper
illumination of the ABS and traction
control warning lamps when first
starting the vehicle, and for monitoring
these lamps while driving, no special
operating procedures are required.
For detailed system description, see
literature for your specific ABS that
was provided with your vehicle.
4-30
Optional ATC Functions
Wheel Spin Control (option)
Your ABS may have the optional
Acceleration Slip Regulation
(ASR)/Automatic Traction Control
(ATC) feature. This feature is
monitored by a wheel spin control ASR
Warning Lamp. See the appropriate
vehicle section in this manual for
details. This feature helps improve
traction when vehicles are on slippery
surfaces or surfaces with poor traction
(i.e. mud or snow) by reducing drive
wheel overspin. Wheel spin control
works automatically in two different
ways:
•
If a drive wheel starts to spin,
wheel spin control applies air
pressure to brake the wheel. This
transfers engine torque to the
wheels with better traction.
•
If all drive wheels spin, wheel spin
control reduces engine torque to
provide improved traction.
Wheel spin control turns itself on and
off, you do not have to select this
feature. If drive wheels spin during
acceleration, the ASR Warning Lamp
comes on, indicating wheel spin control
is active.
Do not allow the ASR Warning Lamp
to remain on continuously for an
extended length of time. Extended,
continuous use of the ASR/ATC can
cause overheating of the drive wheel
brakes.
Deep Snow and Mud Switch
(option)
A deep snow and mud switch is
included with Wheel Spin Control. The
Deep Snow and Mud feature is helpful
during acceleration. This function
increases available traction on extra
soft surfaces like snow, mud or gravel,
by slightly increasing the permissible
wheel spin. When this function is in
OPERATING THE BRAKE SYSTEM
traction surfaces such as loose
gravel, sand and dirt.
use, the ASR Warning Lamp blinks
continuously.
Off-Road ABS Function Switch
(option)
Your vehicle may be equipped with
a separate switch to activate an
Off-Road ABS function. This function
is NOT to be used for On-Highway
driving but is intended to be used
to improve stopping performance in
Off-Highway conditions (e.g. loose
gravel and mud). The Off-Road ABS
function is accomplished by allowing a
“wedge” of material to build-up in front
of momentarily locked wheels.
Features and Benefits
•
Changes the ABS control limits to
allow for a more aggressive ABS
function while off-road.
•
Improves vehicle control and
helps reduce stopping distances
in off-road conditions or on poor
•
Allows retarders to function
independently of the ABS function.
•
If your vehicle does not have an
engine retarder, the Off- Road
ABS switch will function the same.
WARNING
While the off-road mode can
improve
vehicle
control
and
shorten stopping distances, some
steering ability may be reduced
on certain surfaces resulting from
the momentarily sliding tires.
Always operate your vehicle at safe
operating speeds. Failure to do so
may cause you to lose control of
the vehicle and could result in an
accident or personal injury.
CAUTION
Never drive your vehicle on
improved roads/highways with the
Off-Road ABS function turned on.
When you drive your vehicle onto an
improved road surface or highway,
immediately turn off the Off-Road
ABS switch.
Failure to do so
will cause the ABS system to not
function properly in an ABS event
under 25 mph and could result in an
accident or personal injury.
How The Off-Road ABS
Function Works
•
The ABS lamp flashes slowly
during off-road mode engagement.
This is done to alert you of a
modification to the ABS control
software.
•
At speeds above 25 mph, the ABS
controller operates in the normal
on-highway mode.
4-31
4
OPERATING THE BRAKE SYSTEM
•
4
At speeds between 10 and 25
mph, the ABS control software is
modified to allow short periods
(0.25 seconds) of locked-wheel
cycles.
•
At speeds below 10 mph, the ABS
control software is turned off to
allow locked wheels.
•
When the Off-Road ABS function
is enabled, the Retarder Disable
output is turned off. That is,
the engine retarders are left to
function without ABS intervention.
For additional information, see the
Off-Road ABS pamphlet in your
vehicle’s glove box.
Retarders
Various retarders are available which
function against the engine, driveline,
or transmission. These are devices
that use your engine’s power to slow
down your vehicle. They save wear
and tear on your service brakes and
can be a safety feature, too, because
they can keep your brakes from
overheating.
Ideally, you should always slow your
vehicle with your retarder (where
permitted by law) and use your service
brakes only for stopping completely.
Operating this way will greatly prolong
the life of your brakes.
WARNING
Do not use any of the vehicle’s
retarders in any situation that
requires an immediate stop and/or
in situations of poor traction (such
as wet, icy or snow covered roads).
Trying to use the retarder instead
of the service brakes may cause a
loss of vehicle control which may
result in an accident involving death
or personal injury.
WARNING
The service brakes must be used
in an emergency.
The retarder
alone might not stop you fast
enough to prevent an accident.
Failure to comply may result in
death, personal injury, equipment or
property damage.
The retarder is NOT intended as the
primary brake for the vehicle, nor is
it an emergency brake. The retarder
4-32
OPERATING THE BRAKE SYSTEM
only helps the service brakes by using
pressure to slow the drivetrain. Use
the service brakes for quick stops.
Do not use the retarder when operating
on road surfaces with poor traction
(such as wet, icy, or snow covered
roads or gravel). Retarders can
cause the wheels to skid on a slippery
surface.
Driving Bobtail or with an
Unloaded Trailer
We recommend that you do not use
your engine retarder to slow down
when you are bobtailing or pulling an
empty trailer.
WARNING
Using an engine retarder can cause
a wheel lockup. The trailer is not
loading the tires enough to give
the traction you may need. When
you are bobtail or unloaded, you
can have a serious accident if
your wheels lock suddenly during
braking. You could be killed or
injured. Don’t use your retarder
when you are driving bobtail or with
an unloaded trailer.
Transmission Retarder
If you have this option, it will act
like a brake to slow your vehicle
without using the brakes. Take your
foot off the throttle and operate the
retarder switch. When you do not
need full retarder effect, you can
apply it intermittently (off and on)
to cause gradual or partial slowing.
Continuous application of your retarder
will cause your hydraulic fluid to get
hotter. Intermittent application will help
prevent overheating.
4-33
4
OPERATING THE BRAKE SYSTEM
WARNING
Parking Brake
Do not rely on your automatic
transmission hydraulic retarder to
stop your vehicle. If your engine
shuts down, the vehicle’s retarder
will cease to operate which may lead
to an accident involving death or
personal injury. Always be ready to
suddenly apply the service brakes.
Parking brakes work in reverse action
of the regular brakes. When the
parking brakes are engaged, air is
exhausted from the spring chambers
which allow the spring to engage the
brakes. This design also provides for
the safety function if a brake circuit
has a leak and loses air. In such a
scenario, the parking brakes will apply.
The vehicle’s parking brake controls
are the yellow diamond shaped knob
on your dash board. If the vehicle is
equipped to tow a trailer, then there will
be an additional red octagon shaped
knob for the trailer parking brakes.
Parking brakes will be engaged when
either of these knobs are pulled OUT.
(If one knob is pulled out, the other
knob will automatically pop out.)
4
1.
2.
3.
4-34
Normal Run Position
Trailer Park With Vehicle
Released
System Park or Trailer
Charge With Vehicle Parked
Pushing IN a knob will disengage
the respective parking brakes. If you
push in the yellow knob only, you
will disengage the vehicle’s parking
OPERATING THE BRAKE SYSTEM
brakes but will not disengage the trailer
parking brakes (if applicable). Either
knob will pop back out if the system
pressure is not above 60 psi (414 kPa).
The instrument panel display will
provide a message any time the
parking brakes (vehicle or the trailer)
are set and the vehicle is put into
motion.
4
4-35
CRUISE CONTROL
CRUISE CONTROL
Cruise Control Switch
This vehicle may have cruise control
switches located on the steering wheel
instead of the switches on the dash
board. The instructions are still the
same. Please see Steering Wheel
Controls on page 3-72 to determine
where the cruise control switches are
located.
4
For information about the Adaptive
Cruise Control, see Adaptive Cruise
Control on page 4-38.
•
To Turn On:
Press the ON/OFF button.
•
To Turn Off:
Press the ON/OFF button. Any
previous speed settings are cleared.
Using Cruise Control While Driving
4-36
Setting Cruise Speed
1.
Ensure that the vehicle speed
is above the minimum cruise
control speed (19 mph (30 km/h)
for PACCAR MX engine and 30
mph (48 km/h) for the Cummins
engines) and the engine speed is
above 1100 rpm.
2.
Press the "ON/OFF" button.
3.
Accelerate the vehicle to the
desired cruise speed.
4.
Press the "SET" button to set the
cruise speed.
NOTE
Cruise Control may not hold the set
speed going down hills. If the speed
increases going down a hill, use
the brakes to slow down. This will
cancel Cruise Control.
Changing the Cruise Set Speed
For vehicles with cruise control buttons
on the steering wheel, the cruise
speed may be changed by using the
+/- button. The pressing and holding
the + button will increase speed while
pressing and holding the - button will
decrease speed. For vehicles with
dash mounted cruise control switches,
changing the speed is done through
the "Set/Resume" button. To increase
the speed, press and hold the Set
button. To decrease the speed, press
and hold the "Resume" button.
Cancelling Cruise Control
You can cancel cruise control in any
of these ways:
•
Tap the brake pedal.
•
Tap the clutch pedal.
CRUISE CONTROL
•
Press the ON/OFF button if the
vehicle has dash board mounted
cruise control switches or the
CANCEL button if the vehicle has
cruise control switches on the
steering wheel.
Setting Idle Speed
1.
Ensure parking brakes are applied.
2.
Ensure transmission is in Neutral.
3.
Engage PTO per the
manufacturer's operating
instructions.
4.
Press the "ON" button.
5.
Press the "SET" button to obtain
the desired engine rpm.
Resuming Cruise Control
1.
2.
If you tapped the brake or
clutch pedal, the cruise control
remembered the previously set
cruise speed. To resume that
set speed, accelerate above the
minimum cruise control speed and
press the "RESUME" button.
If you pressed the "OFF" button
(or the steering wheel mounted
"CANCEL" button) or turned the
ignition key OFF, this cleared the
system memory and you will need
to set a new cruise speed.
Using Cruise Control for Stationary
PTO Operation
Cancelling Cruise Control
You can cancel cruise control in any
of these ways:
•
Tap the brake pedal.
•
Tap the clutch pedal.
•
Press the "OFF" button (or
the steering wheel mounted
"CANCEL" button).
NOTE
Cruise control functions and
features may vary depending upon
which engine you have. For specific
explanation of your cruise control,
see the cruise control or engine
manual included with your vehicle.
This vehicles electronic system will
perform a ‘rationality check’ every time
the vehicle is started. This check is
to ensure that the service brakes are
working before allowing cruise control
to function. This safety feature is
designed to ensure that a driver is able
to cancel the cruise set speed by using
the service brake pedal. The system
will not allow cruise control operation if
it does not pass the ‘rationality check’.
The instrument cluster will prompt you
to press the service brake pedal if it
has not been pressed since the vehicle
has been started.
4-37
4
CRUISE CONTROL
In vehicles with Eaton transmissions,
the cruise control switches may be
located on the shift control knob.
4
Adaptive Cruise Control
(Optional)
This vehicle may have an adaptive
cruise control system that enhances
the cruise control function. The
adaptive cruise control system uses
a radar sensor to detect the following
distance to vehicles in front. The
system will attempt to maintain either
a safe distance or the vehicle speed
depending on what is selected by the
driver. If a following distance conflict
occurs the system will alter the vehicles
throttle position, apply engine braking
and even apply vehicle foundation
brakes in attempt to maintain the
following distance. The driver should
always remain alert and ultimately
is the one still responsible for safe
vehicle control.
When the system is active and
controlling the speed and distance, the
screen will show the following display.
4-38
The information in the instrument
cluster will provide various visual
and audible information. The audible
sounds may be a steady beep or
a repeating beep depending on the
situation. The following illustrations
are provided with the beeping
characteristics.
Level 3 (Green) Following Distance
Alert
This warning is active when the
following distance is less than what
is set in the system. This is the
least severe of all the warning tones.
The system will emit a single beep
CRUISE CONTROL
repeating at a rate of 42 tones per
minute.
Level 2 (Amber) Following Distance
Alert
This warning is active when the
following distance is less than what is
set in the system. This warning is more
severe than the Level 3 Following
Distance Alert. The system will emit a
double beep repeating at a rate of 80
tones per minute (40 double beeps per
minute).
Level 1 (Red) Following Distance
Alert
This warning is active when the
following distance is less than what
is set in the system. This warning
tone is the most severe following
distance alert. The system will emit
a continuous beep repeating at a
rate of 188 tones per minute and a
popup “WARNING Following Distance”
:Increase Gap to Vehicle Ahead”.
applying more braking power and/or
steering clear of the vehicle ahead to
avoid a potential collision. The system
will emit a solid beep for a 3 second
duration.
Stationary Object Alert
Brake Command Warning
The system can also detect stationary
objects in the vehicles path. The
operator needs to take control of the
vehicle to avoid the stationary object.
The icon will be accompanied with a
pop-up message but no audible sound.
This is the most severe warning issued.
When the system uses the foundation
brakes the level 1 warning will appear
on the screen accompanied with a
"Collision Alert BRAKE" message.
The warning is active when the driver
must take immediate evasive action by
4-39
4
CRUISE CONTROL
WARNING
The Wingman® ACB sensor may
not be able to detect vehicles and
objects with limited metal surfaces
(such as recreational vehicles,
horse-drawn buggies, motorcycles,
logging trailers, etc.). Failure to
understand the system limitation
may result in death, serious injury,
and/or property damage.
4
4-40
Fault Alert
This warning is presented to alert
the operator that the ACB system is
malfunctioning and will be disabled.
The operator will need to resume
control of the vehicle’s throttle and
brakes. The system will remain
disabled until the fault is corrected.
AXLE
AXLE
Differential Lock
The vehicle may be equipped with
switches to lock the either of the rear
axle differentials. Depending on how
the vehicle is specified, a combination
individual switches may be available
that can lock the interaxle driveline
and/or any combination of the forward
rear or rear-rear driving axles.
The interaxle differential switch allows
each axle to turn independently.
In certain situations, engaging the
interaxle differential lock relieves
stress on the rear axles and reduces
tire wear. Engaging this switch will
also provide better traction in slippery
or loose gravel conditions.
In the LOCK position, continuous
operation on paved, dry surfaces, put
stress on the axles, and can possibly
damage the internal gears. The switch
has a guard to prevent accidental
operation of the switch.
Locking the differentials is typically
used during ice or snow conditions
and without tire chains, unpaved roads
that have loose sand, mud or uneven
surfaces. Look ahead and predict
when the differential needs to be
locked. Stop the vehicle and lock the
differentials before approaching.
WARNING
Do not put the differential lock in the
LOCK position while the wheels are
spinning freely (slipping), you could
lose control of the vehicle or cause
axle damage. Switch to LOCK only
when the wheels are not spinning.
Failure to comply may result in
death, personal injury, equipment or
property damage.
4
While using the differential in the
locked position, do not exceed 25 mph
(40 km/h). When disengaging the
differential lock, reduce the throttle to
prevent drivetrain damage.
4-41
AXLE
Dual Range (Two-Speed)
Rear Axle
Your vehicle may be equipped with a
two-speed or dual range axle (option).
You can select two rear axle ratios for
operating under heavy loads or rough
terrain as well as for over the road
hauling.
4
The Low Range provides maximum
torque for hauling heavy loads or
traveling over rough terrain. The High
Range is a faster ratio for highway
speeds and general over the road
conditions. A switch on the accessory
switch panel controls the Dual Range
Rear Axle. You will notice that the
switch has a guard to protect you from
activating it accidentally. Always park
your vehicle with the range selector in
LOW.
4-42
Dual Range Axle Operation
CAUTION
Important tips on operating a Dual
Range Axle with Interaxle Differential:
Shift the axle with the inter-axle
differential in the unlocked position
only.
When you are driving with poor
traction, lock the differential. When
you have the differential locked, drive
with the axle in LOW range only.
When you are driving on a surface
with good traction, keep the interaxle
differential unlocked. You can drive
with the axle in the LOW or HIGH
range.
Always UNLOCK the inter-axle
differential before shifting the axle
speed range.
If you shift the axle range with the
inter-axle differential in LOCK, you
could seriously damage the axles.
Never shift the axle range with the
differential locked.
AXLE
Starting-Up
1.
Unlock the inter-axle differential
before starting.
2.
Put the Range Selector in the
LOW range. Shift the transmission
to start the vehicle moving.
3.
When you are driving on rough
terrain and secondary roads, or
under a very heavy load, keep the
axle in the LOW range. Shift the
transmission to maintain proper
road speed.
WARNING
Never shift the axle when moving
downhill.
Engine driveline
disengagement
may
occur,
eliminating engine retardation and
allowing the wheels to spin faster
than the current speed of the engine.
This may require severe braking to
slow the vehicle down and can result
in an accident. Failure to comply
may result in death, personal injury,
equipment or property damage.
Proper shifting of the axle depends on
the synchronization of engine/driveline
and wheel speed. When you shift
the axle, the connection between the
engine and wheels is momentarily
disengaged while the gearing is
synchronized. Normally when the axle
is shifted the speed of the engine, axle,
and wheels adjust, allowing for proper
gear engagement.
When going downhill the wheels will
not slow down, but will tend to speed
up, which makes gear synchronization
almost impossible. As a result, the
axle is neither in HIGH nor LOW range
and all engine/driveline retardation is
lost. Without engine retardation it is
more difficult to slow the vehicle down
and greater stress is put on the brake
system.
CAUTION
To avoid damaging your vehicle shift
the axle at slower travel speeds until
you are used to driving with a dual
range axle.
4-43
4
AXLE
LOW to HIGH (Cruising)
When you go from rough terrain to
highway driving, shift the axle to the
HIGH range following this procedure:
1.
2.
3.
4
4.
Be sure the differential is
UNLOCKED.
HIGH to LOW (Rough
Terrain)
If you need to downshift the axle for
more power or you are driving on
rough terrain:
1.
Maintain your vehicle speed
(accelerator depressed) and move
the Range Selector lever to HIGH.
Maintain your vehicle speed
(accelerator depressed) and move
the Range Selector lever to LOW.
2.
Keep driving with the accelerator
depressed until you want the axle
to shift.
Keep driving with the accelerator
depressed until you want the axle
to downshift.
3.
To make the axle downshift,
release and depress the
accelerator quickly to increase the
engine RPM. The axle will shift to
LOW range.
4.
You are now in the LOW axle
range for rough terrain and heavy
loads. Shift the transmission
normally to maintain the desired
speed.
To make the axle shift, release the
accelerator until the axle shifts.
You are now in the HIGH axle
range for highway speeds. Shift
the transmission normally to reach
your desired cruising speed.
4-44
Auxiliary Axles - Pusher or
Tag
Adjustable auxiliary axles (commonly
known as Pusher or Tag axles) can
add to the productivity of the vehicle by
increasing the load capabilities of the
vehicle when they are in the deployed
(down) position. There are different
configurations of axles with different
functionality (liftable versus steerable)
Without the extra axle, the excessive
weight can reduce the service life
of vehicle components such as, but
not limited to, the frame rail, axles,
suspension and brakes.
Operation of the auxiliary axles
includes the proper maintenance of the
system and calibration of its controls.
Operating the auxiliary axles will also
require a firm understanding of the
AXLE
GAWR and the load that is being
carried.
The vehicle will have switches on the
dash to control the position of the
auxiliary axles. In certain situations,
however, the system will override the
controls to protect the axle system.
Any liftable and steerable auxiliary
axles will rise off of the ground when
the parking brakes are engaged or
when the vehicle is put in reverse.
If the liftable auxiliary axle is not a
steerable axle, then it will remain in the
down position when activated by the
dash mounted switch.
axle manufacturer and are based on
axle model and intended service of
the vehicle. Contact an authorized
dealership if you are unable to identify
the axle creep rating of this vehicle.
•
Liftable/steerable (axle lift
calibration required)
•
Liftable/non-steerable (axle lift
calibration required)
•
Non-liftable (some suspensions
require dump valve calibration)
WARNING
Do not operate or park the
vehicle with auxiliary axles in
the down/loaded position when
vehicle is unladen, or is being
unloaded. Raise or dump air into
driver-controlled auxiliary axle(s)
prior to unloading vehicle. Failure
to do so can result in loss of vehicle
control or rollaway that may result in
death, personal injury, equipment or
property damage.
Operating the auxiliary liftable axles
must be performed in a manner that
does not exceed the axle creep rating.
Axle creep ratings are weight and
speed limits that are allowed while
the vehicle is fully loaded (in excess
of the vehicle’s standard GAWR) and
the axle is in its up position. Axle
creep ratings are assigned by the
4-45
4
AXLE
Axle Creep Rating Definition
Creep Ratings
Low speed, off-highway (work site)
axle loads, which exceed the standard
gross axle weight rating (GAWR) of a
particular axle.
4
Operator's using vehicles equipped
with liftable auxiliary axles must
consider creep ratings when any
liftable axle is unloaded or in the raised
position. Liftable auxiliary axles should
only be raised (or unloaded) to improve
maneuverability in an off-road use or
when vehicle is unloaded.
NOTE
Axle Creep ratings MUST NOT be
exceeded.
Contact your dealer or axle
manufacturer to determine what
the creep rating is for your particular
axle(s) and configuration. Creep
4-46
ratings are generally limited to the
following:
•
Tandem rear axles only
•
Straight trucks only
•
Maximum spring mount
centers per axle manufacturers
specifications
•
Maximum tire static loaded radius
(SLR) per axle manufacturers
specifications
CAUTION
Always lower the axles as soon
as possible after receiving a load.
Never exceed 5 miles per hour when
driving with a load with the auxiliary
axle(s) raised/unloaded. Failure to
lower the axle(s) can overload the
frame and remaining axles, and
could cause equipment damage.
WARNING
Never operate the vehicle with
more pressure in the lift axles than
is necessary to carry the load,
as determined by the calibration
procedure described. Failure to do
so can result in loss of traction and
stability at the steer and/or drive
axles and can result in increased
braking distance which could cause
loss of vehicle control resulting in
an accident.
Failure to comply
may result in death, personal injury,
equipment or property damage.
CAUTION
Do not modify the air system and/or
control functionality on a factory
installed auxiliary axle(s). Modifying
the factory operation of the pusher
and/or tag axle(s) will void your
warranty, and can cause equipment
damage.
AXLE
CAUTION
A change in tire size on either the
auxiliary axles or the drive/steer
axles can change the calibration
of the auxiliary axles. If tires are
installed with a different loaded
radius, the calibration procedure
must be repeated. Failure to do so
can cause equipment damage.
Liftable/Steerable or
Liftable/Non-Steerable
Pusher and/or Tag Axle
Calibration Procedure
Below are some general instructions
on how to adjust and calibrate the air
control valve for the auxiliary axles to
obtain the proper load distribution of
the axle(s). For additional operating
and maintenance instructions, see the
pusher or tag suspension manufacturer
literature in the glove box or contact
them directly.
Setting the Pressure-to-Load
Ratio
To obtain the desired axle load
distribution, you must correlate the
suspension air gauge pressure to the
actual axle load by scaling the axle
weight(s) and adjusting the pressure
to obtain the desired load. Once the
desired load or load range is achieved,
document the pressure-to-load ratio or
setting for future use.
4
NOTE
This procedure must be performed
prior to placing the vehicle into
service.
4-47
AXLE
General Calibration
Guidelines
These instructions are general in
nature. For more specific instructions,
review the pusher or tag suspension
manufacturers maintenance manual or
contact the nearest authorized dealer.
some non-liftable axles, inflate air
suspension).
4.
NOTE
4
Perform this procedure at or near
a weight scale.
Procedure can
be performed while parked on the
weight scale if scale is available.
1.
Park loaded vehicle on level
surface with wheels blocked.
2.
Release vehicles spring
brakes. (Do not release for
Liftable/Non-Steerable pusher or
tag axles).
3.
Lower the pusher/tag axles with
the axle lift control flip valve. (For
4-48
5.
Adjust the amount of load on
each axle by turning the pressure
regulator clockwise to increase
the load or counterclockwise
to decrease the load. (The
suspension manufacturer
may publish pre-established
Pressure-to-Load Ratio Pressure
Settings to assist you in achieving
an estimated ground load).
After setting the pressure to obtain
the desired axle load, verify proper
ground loading with the weight
scale.
NOTE
Exceeding local, state or federal
weight limits may result in citations.
Contact your local commercial
weight enforcement office for limits
in your area.
Operation guidelines
NOTE
Steerable-pusher and/or tag axle(s)
will raise when the transmission is
shifted into reverse or when the
parking brakes are applied.
AXLE
Maximizing Drive Axle
Traction
Coupling To A Loaded
Trailer
Adjust the pressure regulator control
knob to a lower pressure until desired
traction is obtained. By reducing air
pressure at pusher or tag axle, load
will be transferred to drive axles. Do
not overload drive axles.
Inflate air springs of the auxiliary axles
to the desired pressure after coupling
to a loaded trailer while still maintaining
proper traction of the drive axles.
Unloading Operation
Always deflate air springs of the
auxiliary axles before attempting to
unload vehicle. This allows maximum
traction of the drive axles to control the
vehicle.
4
4-49
AXLE
Non-liftable (Non-steerable)
Axles
Some suspensions require dump valve
calibration.
Example: Neway dead axles do not
lift, but the air can be dumped out of
them to unload them when empty. Air
pressure is controlled via an adjustable
regulator. These axles need to be
calibrated for load.
4
Contact your authorized dealer or
axle/suspension manufacturer for
dump valve calibration procedures.
4-50
SUSPENSION
SUSPENSION
Setting Ride Height
Vehicles equipped with rear air
suspensions have their ride height and
axle (pinion) angle(s) preset at the
factory. These are precision settings
and should not be altered. Incorrectly
adjusted ride height may result in
improper interaxle U-joint working
angles. This can result in pre-mature
driveline wear and driveline vibration.
If your vehicle is equipped with a
Peterbilt rear air suspension, and if it
becomes necessary to reset the ride
height, you may temporarily set it by
following the next procedure. Proper
ride height measurement and values
for a fully laden vehicle are shown in
the illustration and table below.
Ride Height Measurement (Location
for Tandem Axles Shown)
Fully Laden Vehicle
Proprietary
Ride Height,
Rear
inches (mm)
Air
Tandem
Single Drive
Suspension
Drive
Air Leaf
N/A
11.70 (297)
Air Trac
11.00 (279)
11.00 (279)
Low Air Leaf
6.50 (165)
8.50 (216)
Low Low Air
N/A
6.50 (165)
Leaf
FLEX Air
N/A
8.50 (216)
Proprietary
Rear
Air
Suspension
Air Leaf
Air Trac
Low Air Leaf
(Before April
2004)
Low Air Leaf
(After April
2004)
Low Low Air
Leaf
FLEX Air
Unladen Vehicle
Ride Height,
inches (mm)
Tandem
Single Drive
Drive
N/A
12.0 (305)
11.38 (289)
11.38 (289)
8.75 (222)
8.75 (222)
6.75 (171)
8.75 (222)
N/A
6.75 (171)
N/A
8.75 (222)
Follow this procedure to temporarily
set ride height.
WARNING
Ensure that a vehicle is parked
and the wheels chocked before
beginning this procedure.
4-51
4
SUSPENSION
NOTE
CAUTION
Completing this procedure will
enable you to safely reach the
nearest authorized Peterbilt repair
facility to have ride height and
pinion angle reset using the proper
equipment and technique.
Do
this as soon as possible to avoid
potential driveline damage.
4
NOTE
Typical Height Control Valve (Location
on Vehicle)
Suitable wheel chocks are at a
minimum an 18-inch (46 cm) long
4x4.
1. Ensure that the tractor is fully laden
during this procedure. Do not use
these procedures on a vehicle that is
not laden (bobtail).
2. Ensure the air supply and delivery
plumbing of the height control valve
is consistent with the following
illustrations.
4-52
Typical Height Control Valve (Rear
View Looking Forward)
1.
Alignment Dowel
•
At least one of the mounting holes
in the height control valve bracket
will be slotted to permit rotating
the valve.
•
On dual-valve systems, begin
with the LH valve on the next
step.
3. Loosen the fasteners mounting a
height control valve to its bracket.
SUSPENSION
WARNING
•
•
•
The rear of a vehicle will drop
about 3 1/2 inches (88 mm)
when the air springs are deflated.
Ensure that no persons or objects
that could be killed, injured or
damaged are under the vehicle
before deflating the air springs.
To minimize risk of death,
personal injury or property
damage, do not use a dump
valve to deflate the air springs.
Rotate the height control valve(s)
manually to ensure positive
control of air spring deflation.
To minimize risk of death or
personal injury, keep away from
air springs as they are being
inflated.
4. Rotate the valve either clockwise or
counterclockwise until air pressure in
the air springs provides the ride height
specified for that suspension. Measure
the ride height from the bottom of the
frame rail to the approximate centerline
of the rearmost drive axle hub:
•
For tandem axles, make the
vertical measurement at the
centerline of the suspension (see
illustration on page 4-52).
•
For a single axle, make the
measurement in front of the axle,
in the area forward of the tires but
not past the suspension bracket.
8. Repeat Steps 2 through 6 above
for the RH valve on vehicles with a
dual-valve system.
4
5. When at the correct ride height,
ensure that the height control valve
lever is in the neutral position, then
install either the built-in alignment
pin or a 1/8-inch (3 mm) dowel (see
illustration on page 4-52).
6. Torque the mounting fasteners to
55-75 Lb. in. (6.2-8.5 Nm.).
7. Remove the alignment pin or dowel.
4-53
SUSPENSION
Driving with Deflated Air
Springs
If an air spring is ruptured, there will
be enough air pressure to drive the
vehicle to a safe stop off the highway
to investigate the problem.
WARNING
4
Do not continue to drive with
ruptured air springs. The air loss
can cause the spring brakes to apply
allowing your brakes to drag and
burn up the linings, which could
lead to an accident causing death or
personal injury. Do not continue to
operate the vehicle in this condition.
You can get to a repair facility if you do
the following:
1.
Remove the height control link
connected to the axle and to
the suspension air valve control
arm. This will cause the air valve
4-54
control arm to center in the closed
position.
2.
The air system can then be
pumped up to normal pressure for
continued operation.
WARNING
Do not drive the vehicle if the air
pressure is less than 100 psi (690
kPa). Driving the vehicle with less
than 100 psi (690 kPa) could make
the brakes unsafe to use which
could cause an accident involving
death or personal injury.
CAUTION
Operating a vehicle with air
suspension bags either overinflated
or underinflated may cause damage
to driveline components. If a vehicle
must be operated under such
conditions, do not exceed 5 mph (8
km/h).
AFTER-TREATMENT SYSTEM
AFTER-TREATMENT
SYSTEM
Introduction
This vehicle will has an exhaust
After-Treatment System (ATS), to
control vehicle exhaust emissions,
which consist of a Diesel Particulate
Filter (DPF), Selective Catalyst
Reduction (SCR), Regeneration
Switch and warning lights. The DPF
will trap soot from the engine exhaust
gases. The SCR uses Diesel Exhaust
Fluid to reduce the levels of NOx in
the engine exhaust. The ATS will
periodically clean (regenerate) the
DPF. Please refer to the Exhaust
Aftertreatment System Supplement
provided with the vehicle for more
detailed description of functionality and
warnings.
4
4-55
DRIVING TIPS AND TECHNIQUES
DRIVING TIPS AND
TECHNIQUES
Introduction
This section covers additional driving
tips and techniques on how to drive
your vehicle more efficiently.
4
Coasting
WARNING
Do not coast with the transmission
in neutral or with the clutch pedal
depressed—it is a dangerous
practice. Coasting in neutral may
result in damage to your drivetrain
when you try to re-engage the
transmission. You could lose control
of the vehicle which can lead to an
accident involving death or personal
injury.
Do not coast with the transmission
in neutral or with the clutch pedal
depressed. Besides being illegal and
dangerous, coasting is also expensive.
It causes premature failure or damage
to the clutch and transmission and
overloads the brake system.
4-56
Coasting with the transmission
in neutral also prevents proper
transmission component lubrication.
During coasting the transmission is
driven by the rear wheels, and the
countershaft gear (which lubricates
the transmission components by oil
splash) will only be turning at idle
speed.
DRIVING TIPS AND TECHNIQUES
Descending a Grade
Engine Overspeed
WARNING
CAUTION
Do not hold the brake pedal down
too long or too often while going
down a steep or long grade. This
could cause the brakes to overheat
and reduce their effectiveness. As
a result, the vehicle will not slow
down at the usual rate. To reduce
the risk of an accident which could
cause death or personal injury,
before going down a steep or long
grade, reduce speed and shift the
transmission into a lower gear to
help control your vehicle speed.
Failure to follow procedures for
proper downhill operation could
result in loss of vehicle control.
To avoid engine damage, do not
let the engine rpm go beyond the
maximum governed rpm—valve
damage could result if overspeed
conditions occur.
the engine rpm to exceed maximum
governed speed.
Under normal load and road conditions
operate the engine in the lower end of
the range.
NOTE
Often
these
recommendations
are secondary to maintaining an
adequate and safe speed relative
to the surrounding traffic and road
conditions.
4
Operate the engine within the optimum
engine rpm range and do not allow
the rpm's to exceed the maximum
governed speed. See your Engine
Operation and Maintenance manual
for information regarding engine rpm.
When the engine is used as a brake
to control vehicle speed (e.g., while
driving down a grade), do not allow
4-57
DRIVING TIPS AND TECHNIQUES
Use of Tachometer
The tachometer is an instrument that
aids in obtaining the best performance
of the engine and manual transmission,
serving as a guide for shifting gears.
to the engine. However, the governor
has no control over the engine rpm
when it is being driven by the vehicle's
transmission, for example, on steep
downgrades. Apply service brakes or
shift to a higher gear.
Refer to the Engine Operation and
Maintenance manual for optimum
engine rpm.
Fuel economy and engine performance
are also directly related to driving
habits:
•
•
The best results in trip time and
fuel economy are obtained while
driving the vehicle at a steady
speed.
•
Shift into higher or lower gears (or
apply the service brake) to keep
engine rpm near the lower end of
the optimum operating range.
•
Avoid rapid acceleration and
braking.
4
•
If the engine rpm moves beyond
the maximum governed speed,
indicating an overspeed condition,
apply the service brake or shift to
a higher gear to bring engine rpm
within the optimum speed range.
When driving downhill: shift to a
lower gear, use the engine brake
(if so equipped), and use the
service brake, keeping the engine
speed below 2,100 rpm.
When the engine speed reaches
its maximum governed speed, the
injection pump governor cuts off fuel
4-58
Optimal Engine Speed
1.
Optimal Engine Speed
Indicator
DRIVING TIPS AND TECHNIQUES
WARNING
Do not look at the Instrument Cluster
Display for prolonged periods or at
it repeatedly in a short period of
time while the vehicle is moving.
Extended glance durations to
instrument cluster and or overly
frequent glances inside the vehicle
can cause a loss of attention to
the situations on the roadway
and vehicle’s road position, which
could lead to an accident and
possible death or personal injury or
equipment damage.
during steady state driving. In addition
to proper maintenance and good
driving habits, this visual cue can help
minimize the fuel consumption.
Use of Instrument Cluster
Display
The Instrument cluster display
provides information to help the driver
optimize vehicle efficiency. Refer to
Instrumentation Cluster Information on
page 3-14 for details. A driver will find
the section describing Trip Information
and the RPM Detail useful.
4
The tachometer displays a green bar
just below the most efficient engine
speed for the vehicle. The placement
and size of this bar is dependent on
the engine as installed at the factory.
The driver’s general goal should
be to select a gear that keeps the
tachometer needle positioned over
the green light as much as possible
4-59
DRIVING TIPS AND TECHNIQUES
Fuel - Excess Consumption
Maintenance
The vehicle's fuel consumption is
connected to three important factors:
maintenance, driving habits, and
general condition of the road, traffic
conditions, and vehicle load.
Proper maintenance will keep the
vehicle running like new even after
long periods of use. The driver must
perform the daily and weekly checks
of the vehicle.
4
4-60
Maintenance factors affecting
fuel consumption:
•
air and/or fuel filters partially
clogged
•
engine valves out of adjustment
•
injection pump improperly
synchronized
•
injection nozzles defective or
uncalibrated
•
improperly inflated tires
•
wheel bearings improperly
adjusted
•
clutch improperly adjusted or worn
(slipping)
•
fuel leaks
DRIVING TIPS AND TECHNIQUES
Driving Habits
General Condition
Wrong driving habits must be
corrected and the recommendations
on economic driving should be
followed.
Other factors affecting fuel
consumption are related to loads
and type of roads on which the vehicle
operates. It is not always possible to
choose the most adequate road, but
it must be kept in mind that the ideal
road is the one that allows a steady
speed in high gear, without requiring
frequent braking and acceleration.
Driving factors affecting fuel
consumption:
•
excessive speed and unnecessary
fast acceleration
•
long periods of idling
•
driving with foot resting on the
(manual transmission) clutch
pedal
The following general
conditions can affect fuel
consumption:
•
overload
•
unbalanced load
•
very high load
•
inadequate roads
•
traffic conditions
4
4-61
SLEEPER BUNKS
SLEEPER BUNKS
WARNING
Sleeper Bunk
If your vehicle has an upper and lower
bunk, the upper bunk can be folded up
out of the way to provide you with more
dressing area in the sleeper cab. The
lower bunk has storage underneath
it to stow your luggage and other
belongings. The upper bunk weight
limit is 320 lb. (145 kg).
4
WARNING
Be sure the restraint system is
used when anyone is occupying the
sleeper while the vehicle is moving.
In an accident, an unrestrained
person lying in a sleeper bunk could
be injured. He or she could be
thrown from the bunk.
Always keep the lower bunk in its
down (latched) position while the
vehicle is moving. If left open, stored
items could become loose during an
accident and strike you. Before you
move the vehicle, check to be sure
the lower bunk is latched securely.
Failure to comply may result in death
or personal injury.
•
Before you move the vehicle,
check to be sure the lower
bunk is latched securely.
To Lower Upper Bunk: pull on the
lanyard in the upper left corner of the
bunk to release the bunk. This will free
it from the anchored position and allow
you to lower the bunk.
To Raise Upper Bunk: fold the
upper bunk up and push it against the
retaining latch until you hear a click.
4-62
Pull on the bunk to be sure it is latched
securely.
WARNING
Be sure the latch that holds the
upper bunk in the folded position is
working properly so the bunk will not
fall down. If the bunk falls, you could
be injured.
WARNING
Be sure to stow away all loose
belongings before you move your
vehicle.
Do not store objects
on the bunks, they could cause
damage or injury in an accident.
Failure to comply may result in
death, personal injury, equipment or
property damage.
SLEEPER BUNKS
Sleeper Occupant Restraint
WARNING
Be sure the restraint system is
used when anyone is occupying the
sleeper while the vehicle is moving.
In an accident, an unrestrained
person lying in a sleeper bunk
could be injured. He or she could
be thrown from the bunk. Failure
to comply may result in death or
personal injury.
WARNING
Be sure no one ever rides unsecured
in the upper bunk. That person
could be thrown out in an accident
and could be injured. Do not use the
upper bunk while you are moving.
Failure to comply may result in death
or personal injury.
The sleeper restraint is stored in a
compartment on the rear sleeper cab
wall.
WARNING
Failure to properly use the sleeper
restraint when an individual is
located in the sleeper bunk and the
vehicle is moving can result in death
or personal injury.
4
See Sleeper Bunks and Restraints on
page 1-26, for more information on
cab/seat restraint systems.
4-63
STOPPING THE ENGINE
STOPPING THE ENGINE
Turbochargers
Refueling
Before Stopping the Engine
This cooling-down practice is
especially important on a turbocharged
engine. The turbocharger contains
bearings and seals that are subjected
to hot exhaust gases. While the
engine is operating, heat is carried
away by circulating oil. If you stop the
engine suddenly, the temperature of
the turbocharger could rise as much as
100°F (55°C) above the temperature
reached during operation. A sudden
rise in temperature like this could
cause the bearings to seize or the oil
seals to loosen.
Air inside the fuel tanks allows water
to condense in the tank. To prevent
this condensation while the vehicle is
parked for extended periods of time,
fill the tanks to 95 percent of capacity.
Never fill to more than 95 percent
capacity as this provides room for
expansion resulting from temperature
extremes. When refueling, add
approximately the same amount to
each fuel tank on vehicles with more
than one tank.
A hot engine stores a great amount of
heat. It doesn’t cool down immediately
after you shut it off. Always cool your
engine down before shutting it off. You
will greatly increase its service life.
4
Idle the engine at 1000 RPM for
five minutes. Then low idle for thirty
seconds before shutdown. This will
allow circulating coolant and lubricating
oil to carry away heat from the cylinder
head, valves, pistons, cylinder liners,
turbocharger, and bearings. This
way you can prevent serious engine
damage that may result from uneven
cooling.
4-64
WARNING
Do not carry additional fuel
containers in your vehicle. Fuel
containers, either full or empty,
may leak, explode, and cause or
feed a fire. Do not carry extra
fuel containers, even empty ones
are dangerous. Failure to comply
may result in death, personal injury,
equipment or property damage.
STOPPING THE ENGINE
WARNING
Diesel fuel in the presence of an
ignition source (such as a cigarette)
could cause an explosion. A mixture
of gasoline or alcohol with diesel fuel
increases this risk of explosion. Do
not remove a fuel tank cap near an
open flame. Use only the fuel and/or
additives recommended for your
engine. Failure to comply may result
in death, personal injury, equipment
or property damage.
Location of Fuel Shut-Off
Valves
If your vehicle is equipped with shut-off
valves for the take-off and return lines,
they are located on the fuel lines
entering the top of the fuel tank. Fuel
shut-off valves for the fuel crossover
line are on the bottom of the fuel tank,
at the crossover line connection.
Refuel Before the Final Stop
Air space in your fuel tanks allows
water to condense there. To prevent
this condensation while you are
stopped, fill your tanks to 95% of
capacity.
4
Specification: Use only Ultra
Low Sulfur Diesel (ULSD) Fuel,
as recommended by engine
manufacturers. If you need further
information on fuel specifications,
consult the Engine Operation and
Maintenance Manual.
4-65
STOPPING THE ENGINE
Final Stop
Final Stopping Procedures
To make sure your vehicle is ready
to go after a long stop (such as over
night), please follow the suggestions
below. Your vehicle will be easier to
get going when you are ready, and
it will be safer for anyone who might
be around it. Please remember, too,
that in some states it is illegal to leave
the engine running and the vehicle
unattended.
1. Set the parking brake before leaving
the driver’s seat. To hold your vehicle
while it is parked, don’t rely on:
•
Air Brakes
•
Hand Control Valve for Trailer
Brakes
•
Engine Compression
2. If you are parked on a steep grade,
block the wheels.
Suitable wheel chocks are at a
minimum an 18-inch (46 cm) long 4x4.
WARNING
4
Using the trailer hand brake or air
brakes to hold a parked vehicle is
dangerous. Because they work with
air pressure, these brakes could
come loose. Your vehicle could roll,
causing an accident involving death
or personal injury. Always set the
parking brakes. Never rely on the
trailer hand brake or truck air brakes
to hold a parked vehicle.
4-66
Blocked Wheels
3. Drain water from the air reservoirs.
While the engine and air supply
system are still warm, drain moisture
from the air reservoirs. Open the
reservoir drains just enough to drain
the moisture. Don’t deplete the entire
STOPPING THE ENGINE
air supply. Be sure to close the drains
before leaving the vehicle.
4
Opening Drains
4. Secure the vehicle. Close all the
windows and lock all the doors.
4-67
MAINTENANCE
PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE SCHEDULE
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-9
Maintenance Schedule . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-12
LUBRICANT SPECIFICATIONS
Introduction . . . . . . . . .
Engine . . . . . . . . . . .
Master Lubrication Index . . . .
Fuller Transmission Lubrication .
Allison Transmission Lubrication
Spicer Transmission Lubrication
Oil Changes . . . . . . . . .
Meritor Axle Lubrication . . . .
Eaton/Dana Axle Lubrication . .
Wheel Bearing Lubrication . . .
Universal Joint Lubrication . . .
Steering Gear Lubrication . . .
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5-33
5-33
5-36
5-39
5-41
5-41
5-42
5-43
5-44
5-45
5-45
5-46
5
5-1
MAINTENANCE
AIR SYSTEM
Introduction . . . . . .
Air Dryer . . . . . . . .
Air Tanks . . . . . . .
Air Gauges and Air Leaks
Air Compressor . . . . .
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5-47
5-50
5-52
5-53
5-54
Brake Adjustment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5-56
Exterior Maintenance . . . . . . . . . .
Cleaning, Protecting and Weather Stripping
Safety Restraint System - Inspection . . .
Windshield Wiper/Washer . . . . . . . .
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5-61
5-62
5-65
5-69
Cooling system maintenance . . . . . . . . .
Engine (Block) Heater . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5-70
5-74
BRAKE SYSTEM
CAB
5
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COOLING SYSTEM
5-2
MAINTENANCE
ELECTRICAL
Electrical System . . . . . . . . .
Light Bulbs . . . . . . . . . . . .
Bulb Specifications . . . . . . . .
Fuses, Circuit Breakers and Relays .
Fuse Inspection and Replacement .
Adding Electrical Options . . . . .
Batteries . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Battery Care . . . . . . . . . . .
Battery Charging . . . . . . . . .
Electrical and Alternator Precautions
Remote Keyless Entry . . . . . . .
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5-75
5-76
5-77
5-78
5-82
5-82
5-83
5-87
5-87
5-90
5-90
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5-91
5-92
5-95
5-96
5-97
5
ENGINE
Engine Maintenance
Engine Lubrication .
Accessory Drive Belts
Engine Fan . . . .
Air Intake System . .
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5-3
MAINTENANCE
Turbocharger . .
Air Cleaners . .
Filter Minder . .
Exhaust System
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5-97
5-98
5-99
5-99
FUEL SYSTEM
Location of Fuel Shut-off Valves. . . . . . . . . 5-100
Specification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-100
Fuel Filters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-100
FRAME
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-102
FRONT AXLE AND SUSPENSION
5
Axle Lubrication
Inspection . . .
Wheel Alignment
U-Bolt Torque .
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5-106
5-107
5-107
5-108
HEATER AND AIR CONDITIONER
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-110
5-4
MAINTENANCE
Air Filters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-111
Heater. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-113
Air Conditioner . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-114
NOISE AND EMISSION CONTROL
Noise Emission Warranty . . . . . . . . . . . 5-115
Inspection and Maintenance Instructions . . . . . 5-117
Noise Control System - Maintenance Log . . . . 5-122
REAR AXLE AND SUSPENSION
General Maintenance . . .
Visual Inspection . . . . .
Rear Suspension Fasteners
Rear Axle Lubrication . . .
Rear Axle Alignment . . .
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5-124
5-125
5-126
5-127
5-129
5
STEERING SYSTEM
Power Steering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-130
Fluid Level and Refill . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-131
Steering Shaft . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-132
5-5
MAINTENANCE
DRIVELINE
Driveshaft Maintenance . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-134
U-Joints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-134
TIRES AND WHEEL
Tires . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Wheel Mounting and Fastening . . . . . .
Wheel Replacement With Disc Brake Option
Disc Wheels . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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5-135
5-140
5-142
5-144
WHEEL BEARING
Wheel Bearing Adjustment . . . . . . . . . . . 5-145
TRANSMISSION MAINTENANCE
5
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-146
Transmission Lubricants . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-147
Automatic Transmissions . . . . . . . . . . . 5-148
CLUTCH
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-149
Clutch Hydraulic Fluid . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-149
5-6
MAINTENANCE
Clutch Adjustment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-150
Clutch Adjustment - Normal Wear . . . . . . . . 5-150
5
5-7
PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE SCHEDULE
PREVENTIVE
MAINTENANCE
SCHEDULE
Introduction
Preventive maintenance program
begins with the daily checks. See
Driver’s Check List on page 1-34
for these routine checks. Routine
vehicle checks can help avoid many
large, expensive, and time consuming
repairs. The vehicle will operate better,
be safer, and last longer. Neglect
of recommended maintenance can
void your vehicle’s warranty. Some
maintenance operations demand
skills and equipment you may not
have. For such situations, please take
your vehicle to an authorized Service
Center.
WARNING
WARNING
Before attempting any procedures
in the engine compartment, stop
the engine and let it cool down.
Hot components can burn skin on
contact. Failure to comply may
result in death, personal injury,
equipment or property damage.
If work has to be done with the
engine running, always (1) set
the parking brake, (2) block the
wheels, and (3) ensure that the
shift lever or selector is in Neutral.
Failure to comply may result in
death, personal injury, equipment or
property damage.
WARNING
If the engine must be operating
to inspect, be alert and cautious
around the engine at all times.
Failure to comply may result in
death, personal injury, equipment or
property damage.
WARNING
Exercise extreme caution to prevent
neckties, jewelry, long hair, or loose
clothing from getting caught in the
fan blades or any other moving
engine parts. Failure to comply
may result in death, personal injury,
equipment or property damage.
5-9
5
PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE SCHEDULE
WARNING
WARNING
WARNING
Disconnect the battery ground strap
whenever you work on the fuel
system or the electrical system.
When you work around fuel, do
not smoke or work near heaters
or other fire hazards. Keep an
approved fire extinguisher handy.
Failure to comply may result in
death, personal injury, equipment or
property damage.
When working underneath the
vehicle without appropriate safety
stands but with the wheels on the
ground (not supported), make sure
that (1) the vehicle is on hard level
ground, (2) the parking brake is
applied, (3) all wheels are blocked
(front and rear) and (4) remove
the ignition key so that the engine
cannot be started. Failure to comply
may result in death, personal injury,
equipment or property damage.
Never start or let the engine
run in an enclosed, unventilated
area.
Exhaust fumes from the
engine contain carbon monoxide, a
colorless and odorless gas. Carbon
monoxide can be fatal if inhaled.
Failure to comply may result in
death, personal injury, equipment or
property damage.
WARNING
5
Always support the vehicle with
appropriate safety stands if it is
necessary to work underneath the
vehicle. A jack is not adequate
for this purpose. Failure to comply
may result in death, personal injury,
equipment or property damage.
5-10
The following pages contain a table
of maintenance tasks with the related
intervals for each task on the right
side of the table. The top of the table
displays a guide to a maintenance
interval and its schedule. Some
tasks are dependent on the vehicle
application. These tasks will be
shown as separate tasks and will have
the words “ON HIGHWAY”, “CITY
DELIVERY” or “OFF-HIGHWAY”
after the description. These tasks
are differentiated because they are
PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE SCHEDULE
dependent on the vehicle’s operating
environment.
recommendations in this table and
component supplier recommendations.
On highway is defined for applications
where the vehicle is NOT used off of a
paved road during normal operation.
•
Engine lubricating oil change
intervals aren’t listed here. Refer
to your engine’s operating manual
for recommendations. For specific
information on maintenance
procedures consult your vehicle
maintenance manual.
•
The initial fill of drive axle lubricant
must be changed before the end
of the first scheduled maintenance
interval. Refer to Oil Changes on
page 5-42 before you put a new
vehicle into service.
•
The initial fill of lubricant in
manual transmissions must be
changed before the end of the first
maintenance interval. See Fuller
Transmission Lubrication on page
5-39 for specific information.
•
If your vehicle is equipped with an
automatic transmission, consult
City Delivery is defined for applications
where frequent start and stopping is
required during normal operation and
the highway is used infrequently and
for short periods of time.
Off highway is defined for applications
where the vehicle may be driven off
the pavement on a regular basis, even
if it is an infrequent basis and/or for a
brief time period.
Please contact an authorized
service dealership if there are
questions regarding which interval
to follow. Consult the supplier for
specific recommendations where
discrepancies develop between these
the owner’s manual for it that came
with your vehicle to obtain lubricant
check and change intervals.
5
5-11
PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE SCHEDULE
Maintenance Schedule
New Vehicle Maintenance Schedule
New Vehicle Maintenance Schedule
Operation\Frequency
5
Steering Shaft U-Bolts. (OFF-HIGHWAY) See Steering System on page 5-130.
Wheel Mounting. See Wheel Mounting and Fastening on page 5-140.
Front Axle U-Bolt Torque. See Front Spring Suspension U-Bolts on page 5-108.
Charge Air Cooler and Air Intake Pipe Clamps, re- torque fasteners.
Rear Suspension Fasteners. See Rear Suspension Fasteners on page 5-126.
Transmission Lubrication.
1. For Fuller transmission, see Fuller Transmission Lubrication on page 5-39.
2. For Allison transmission, see Allison Transmission Lubrication on page 5-41.
3. For Spicer transmission, see Spicer Transmission Lubrication on page 5-41.
Axle Lubrication.
1. For Meritor axle, see Meritor Axle Lubrication on page 5-43.
2. For Eaton/Dana axle, see Eaton/Dana Axle Lubrication on page 5-44.
5-12
50 – 100
First Day (80 – 160)
After First Miles (km)
3,000
500 (800) 2,000
(3218)
–5,000
(4800
–8000)
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE SCHEDULE
PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE (PM) INTERVALS
SYSTEM
Frame
COMPONENT
Fifth Wheel
Frame Fasteners
Front Axle
(Meritor)
MAINTENANCE TASK
Check the kingpin lock and plate for wear and function;
lubricate (NLGI #2 grease).
Inspect fifth wheel operation (shown on page 5-126)
Check for tightness; tighten to the specified torque value as
required (shown on page 5-104).
Inspect for cracks and loose fasteners. Replace or tighten to
the specified torque value as required (shown on page 5-104).
Check and adjust as required.
Inspect for wear and damage and endplay. Shim or replace as
required (shown on page 5-130).
Crossmembers and
Mounting Brackets
Total Vehicle Alignment
Steering knuckle spindles,
thrust bearings, kingpins,
drawkeys, tie rod ends,
steering stops, & bushings
Kingpin bushings, thrust
Lubricate with approved grease.
bearings, & tie rod ball ends
Drawkeys
Tighten nuts
I
Recommended PM Interval
A
B
D
E
C
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
5
X
X
X
5-13
PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE SCHEDULE
PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE (PM) INTERVALS
SYSTEM
Front Axle
(Dana)
5
5-14
COMPONENT
Total Vehicle Alignment
Kingpin bushings, thrust
bearings, & tie rod ball ends
(ON HIGHWAY)
Kingpin bushings, thrust
bearings, & tie rod ball ends
(OFF-HIGHWAY)
Steering knuckle spindles,
thrust bearings, kingpins,
drawkeys, tie rod ends,
steering stops, & bushings
(ON HIGHWAY)
Steering knuckle spindles,
thrust bearings, kingpins,
drawkeys, tie rod ends,
steering stops, & bushings
(OFF-HIGHWAY)
MAINTENANCE TASK
Check and adjust as required.
Lubricate with approved grease.
Lubricate with approved grease.
I
X
Recommended PM Interval
A
B
D
E
C
X
X
X
X
Inspect for wear and damage and for endplay. Shim or replace
as required.
Inspect for wear and damage and for endplay. Shim or replace
as required.
X
PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE SCHEDULE
PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE (PM) INTERVALS
SYSTEM
Front
Suspension
COMPONENT
Front Spring
Spring Pins & Shackles
Shock Absorbers
Spring Pins
U-bolts (ON HIGHWAY)
U-bolts (OFF HIGHWAY)
MAINTENANCE TASK
Inspect for cracked leaves, worn bushings, & excessive
corrosion.
Inspect for worn parts and excessive joint clearance. Shim
or replace as required.
Inspect for leaking, body damage, and damaged or worn
bushings. Replace as required. Check the shock mounting
stud torque.
Lubricate with approved grease.
Check for proper function.
Check the general condition and the tightness of the nuts.
Tighten the nuts to the specified torque value as required
(shown on page 5-109).
Check the general condition and the tightness of the nuts.
Tighten the U-bolts after the first day or two of operation.
Then tighten the nuts to the specified torque value as required
(shown on page 5-109).
I
Recommended PM Interval
A
B
D
E
C
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
5
X
5-15
PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE SCHEDULE
PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE (PM) INTERVALS
SYSTEM
Drive Axle
(Dana)
5
5-16
COMPONENT
Axle Housing
MAINTENANCE TASK
Visually inspect for damage or leaks.
Check oil level. Check “cold.” Torque the drain plug.
Drain the lubricant while warm. Flush each unit with clean
flushing oil. Change the lubricant.
Air Shift Unit
Check the lubricant level.
Remove the housing cover and drain the lubricant. Wash the
parts thoroughly and dry in air.
Breather
Clean or replace.
Lube Pump (ON HIGHWAY) Remove the magnetic strainer and inspect for wear particles.
Wash in solvent and dry in air.
Lube Pump (OFF
Remove the magnetic strainer and inspect for wear particles.
HIGHWAY)
Wash in solvent and dry in air.
Lube Filter (ON HIGHWAY) Change.
Lube Filter (OFF
Change.
HIGHWAY)
Magnetic drain plug and
Clean or replace.
breather (ON HIGHWAY)
Magnetic drain plug and
Clean or replace.
breather (OFF HIGHWAY)
I
Recommended PM Interval
A
B
D
E
C
X
X
See information on page 5-43
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE SCHEDULE
PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE (PM) INTERVALS
SYSTEM
Drive Axle
(Meritor)
Drive Axle
(SISU)
COMPONENT
Axle Housing
Lubricant filter
Breather
Input shaft & pinion shaft
Axle shaft
Interaxle differential
Axle Housing
Breather
Lube Filter
S-cam brakes
MAINTENANCE TASK
Check the “cold” fill level at the differential carrier plug for a
pinion angle of less than 7 degrees, or at the axle bowl plug
for a pinion angle of greater than 7 degrees. Tighten the plug
to 35-50 Lb. ft. (47-68 N.m.)
Visually inspect for damage or leaks.
Drain and replace the lubricant.
Change the filter.
Check the operation. If the cap doesn’t rotate freely, replace.
Check and adjust the endplay.
Tighten the rear axle flange nuts to the specified torque value.
Check the operation.
Change the oil in the differential carrier and the hubs, and clean
the magnetic oil drain plugs.
Check the wheel bearing hubs and adjust if necessary.
Visually inspect for damage or leaks.
Check the oil level in the differential carrier and hubs.
Check the breather for proper operation.
Clean the suction filter for the optional pressure lubrication
system.
Overhaul the brakes; degrease all moving parts; check the
bushings and seals for wear.
I
Recommended PM Interval
A
B
D
E
C
X
X
See information on page 5-42
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
5-17
5
PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE SCHEDULE
PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE (PM) INTERVALS
SYSTEM
Rear
Suspension
5
5-18
COMPONENT
U-bolts
MAINTENANCE TASK
Frame & crossmember
bolts
Check the torque. Tighten to specified torque value as required
(shown on page 5-127).
Check the torque. Tighten to specified torque value as required
(shown on page 5-104).
Mounting brackets and
fasteners
Check the condition and the fastener torque. Tighten to the
specified torque value as required (shown on page 5-104).
I
X
Recommended PM Interval
A
B
D
E
C
X
X
X
X
PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE SCHEDULE
PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE (PM) INTERVALS
SYSTEM
Drum Brakes
(All)
COMPONENT
Slack adjusters
Brake camshaft bearing
Brake treadle valve
Brake air system
Brake lining
MAINTENANCE TASK
Check the push rod travel and check the control arm for cracks.
Adjust at reline (shown on page 5-59).
Lubricate (NLGI #2 grease).
Check for excessive camshaft paly in the axial and radial
directions. Max allowable play is 0.003 in. Lubricate (NLGI
#2 grease).
Clean the area around the treadle, boot, and mounting plate.
Check the pivot and mounting plate for integrity. Check the
plunger boot for cracks. Lubricate roller pin, pivot pin, and
plunger (NLGI #2 grease).
Check air lines and fittings for leaks (shown on page 5-47).
Adjust routing as required to prevent chafing. Check tank
mounting and condition.
Clean or replace the inline filters.
Inspect; replace as required.
I
Recommended PM Interval
A
B
D
E
C
X
X
X
X
X
5
X
X
5-19
PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE SCHEDULE
PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE (PM) INTERVALS
SYSTEM
Disc Brakes
(Bendix®)
COMPONENT
Brake pads
Brake disc/rotor
Caliper sliding function
Caliper slide pins
System operation
5
5-20
MAINTENANCE TASK
Inspect; replace as required.
Inspect for visible cracks, heat checking, galling, or scoring of
surface. Check for runout (max allowable is 0.002 in.).
Ensure caliper slides freely with no obstructions or excessive
play.
Inspect protective caps of the guide pins for damage or
cracking.
Check operation; inspect as per manufacturer’s service
literature.
I
Recommended PM Interval
A
B
D
E
C
X
X
X
X
X
PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE SCHEDULE
PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE (PM) INTERVALS
SYSTEM
Hub, Drum, &
Hubcap
COMPONENT
Hubs (non-LMS)
Hubs (non-LMS) with
outrunner seals
Hubs (non-LMS) with
standard seals
Hub seals (all)
LMS Hubs (Dana)
LMS Hubs (Dana) with
Synthetic Lubricant
LMS Hubs (Dana) with
Mineral Lubricant
Brake drums
Hubcaps
MAINTENANCE TASK
Check the bearing endplay and adjust as required (shown on
page 5-45).
Clean the components and check for excessive wear or
damage. Change the oil and seal (shown on page 5-45).
Clean the components and check for excessive wear or
damage. Change the oil and seal (shown on page 5-45).
Check for leaks; replace as required.
Inspect for leaks. Check the bearing endplay and adjust as
required (shown on page 5-45).
Service the bearings, seals and oil. This interval may be
different depending on the results of the regular inspection.
(shown on page 5-45).
Service the bearings, seals and oil. This interval may be
different depending on the results of the regular inspection.
(shown on page 5-45).
Inspect for visible cracks, heat checking, galling or scoring of
the braking surface, and for severe corrosion on the outside
surface. Check for out-of-round or oversize condition [0.080 in.
(2 mm) more than the original diameter]. Replace as required.
Clean the sight window. Check the center plug, mounting
flange, and fill plug for leaks and for proper installation.
Replace broken or damaged parts. Check the lubricant level
and add as required.
I
Recommended PM Interval
A
B
D
E
C
X
X
X
X
X
500,000 miles/ 800,000 km
5
350,000 miles/ 560,000 km
X
X
5-21
PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE SCHEDULE
PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE (PM) INTERVALS
SYSTEM
Main &
auxiliary
transmission
5
Auxiliary
transmission
5-22
COMPONENT
Main & auxiliary
transmission and transfer
case
Mounting Brackets and
Fasteners
Oil cooler
Main & aux. transmission
Main & auxiliary
transmission (ON
HIGHWAY)
Main & auxiliary
transmission (OFF
HIGHWAY)
Cotta Transfer Case
TR2205
Fabco Transfer Case
TC142/TC143/TC170/
TC270
Marmon-Harrington
Transfer Case
MVG2000/MVG2000SD
MAINTENANCE TASK
Inspect for visible damage, signs of overheating, and leaks.
Check the drain plugs for tightness.
I
X
X
Check the condition of the fasteners and their torque. Tighten
to the specified torque value as required.
Clean the fins (air-to-oil type) and body. Check the hose
condition and for leaks; replace as required.
Check the oil level; refill as required.
Drain lubricant while warm. Flush each unit with clean flushing
oil.
Drain lubricant while warm. Flush each unit with clean flushing
oil.
Inspect: Check oil level; inspect for leaks and any visible
damage.
Initial oil change: Drain oil while warm; flush case with gear
oil-compatible fluid; clean magnetic drain plug; refill. Do not
flush the case with any solvent.
Change oil.
Recommended PM Interval
A
B
D
E
C
X
X
X
X
500,000 miles/ 800,000 km
X
X
X
X
X
X
PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE SCHEDULE
PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE (PM) INTERVALS
SYSTEM
Air Intake
Clutch
Cooling
COMPONENT
MAINTENANCE TASK
I
Recommended PM Interval
A
B
D
E
C
X
Air intake piping, mounting, Check the system for broken pipes, leaks, joint integrity,
and charge air cooler
cleanliness, and proper support (shown on page 5-99).
Air cleaner
Replace the engine intake air cleaner element (shown on page When required by air restriction
indicator or required by the engine
5-97).
manufacturers operator manual.
X
Clutch hydraulic fluid
Replace fluid and bleed system.
Lubricate.
X
Clutch release bearing
X
Inspect and adjust when necessary (no adjustment required
for SOLO type clutches)
Hoses
X
X
Check the radiator and heater hoses for leaks.
X
Extended Life Coolant
Check the freeze point (shown on page 5-71).
(ELC)
X
Check for contamination using test strips (shown on page 5-70).
X
Replace blank water filter if applicable.
X
Perform lab analysis (shown on page 5-70).
If lab analysis shows coolant is unsuitable for continued use:
Flush, drain, and refill (shown on page 5-70).
Add ELC Extender (shown on page 5-70).
X
Flush, drain, and refill with new coolant (shown on page 5-70).
Fan clutch
X
X
Check for air leaks. (shown on page 5-96).
Check the fan drive bearings (turn the sheave in both directions
to check for worn hub bearings).
X
Solenoid valve
Check the fan drive for proper engagement and disengagement. X
5-23
5
PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE SCHEDULE
PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE (PM) INTERVALS
SYSTEM
COMPONENT
Tires & Wheels Tires
Disc wheels
Demountable rims
Wheel nuts and studs
5
5-24
Recommended PM Interval
I
A
B
D
E
C
Check inflation pressure (shown on page 5-135).
Weekly “cold” using calibrated gauge
X
Inspect for cuts, irregular wear, missing lugs, sidewall damage,
etc.
X
Inspect the wheel disc for any cracks or surface irregularities.
Inspect the rim edge and bead seat area for damage. Replace
any damaged wheels - DO NOT ATTEMPT TO REPAIR.
X
Inspect the mounting ring, rim gutter, side ring, and lock ring for
damage; replace as required.
X
Check the tightness of the fasteners and tighten the fasteners
to the specified torque as required (shown on page 5-140).
X
Inspect for damaged hex corners, stripped or damaged
threads, and excessive corrosion; clean or replace as required.
MAINTENANCE TASK
PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE SCHEDULE
PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE (PM) INTERVALS
SYSTEM
Power
Steering
COMPONENT
MAINTENANCE TASK
Reservoir
Reservoir (ON HIGHWAY)
Reservoir (OFF HIGHWAY)
Steering gear
Check the fluid level (shown on page 5-46).
Drain, replace the filter, and refill (shown on page 5-46).
Drain, replace the filter, and refill (shown on page 5-46).
Check the lash of the sector shaft; adjust as required.
Grease the trunnion bearing (EP NLGI #2 lithium-based,
moly-filled, HD grease).
Grease the input shaft seal (EP NLGI #2 lithium-based,
moly-filled, HD grease).
Lubricate the ball joints. Inspect for leaking rod seals, damaged
ball joint boots, and damage to cylinder rod or barrel.
Check for leaks and chafing.
Check all joints for excessive lash; replace as required (shown
on page 5-130).
Check the torque; tighten to specified torque value as required.
Power assist cylinder
Hoses and tubes
Steering linkage
Draglink tube clamp and
ball socket
Pitman arm clamp bolt and Check the torque; tighten to specified torque value as required.
nut
Steering intermediate shaft Check the torque on the pinch bolt and nut.
Recommended PM Interval
A
B
D
E
C
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
I
X
X
X
5
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
5-25
PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE SCHEDULE
PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE (PM) INTERVALS
SYSTEM
Power
Steering
5
Fuel & Tanks
COMPONENT
MAINTENANCE TASK
Steering intermediate shaft
U-joints (ON HIGHWAY)
Steering intermediate shaft
U-joints (OFF HIGHWAY or
CITY DELIVERY)
Draglink and tie rod arm ball
sockets (ON HIGHWAY)
Draglink and tie rod arm ball
sockets (OFF HIGHWAY or
CITY DELIVERY)
Fuel tanks
Lubricate [EP NLGI #2 HD grease, +325° F to -10° F (+163° C
to -23° C) range].
Lubricate [EP NLGI #2 HD grease, +325° F to -10° F (+163° C
to -23° C) range].
Fuel tank breathers
Fuel tank straps
5-26
I
X
Recommended PM Interval
A
B
D
E
C
X
X
X
Lubricate (EP NLGI #2 lithium-based, moly-filled, HD grease).
X
X
Lubricate (EP NLGI #2 lithium-based, moly-filled, HD grease).
X
Inspect tanks, brackets, hoses, and fittings for correct location,
tightness, abrasion damage, and leaks; repair or replace as
required.
Check for proper function; clean the drain hoses.
Check the strap tightness; tighten to proper torque value as
required:
Aluminum tank: 30 Lb. ft. (41 N.m.)
Cylindrical Steel tank: 8 Lb. ft. (11 N.m.)
X
X
X
X
X
PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE SCHEDULE
PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE (PM) INTERVALS
SYSTEM
Driveshafts
COMPONENT
MAINTENANCE TASK
Models SPL-90, 1710 and Lubricate*.
1810 slip member & U-joints Inspect.
Model SPL-100 slip
member & U-joints
Lubricate*.
Inspect.
Models
SPL-140/140HD/170/
170HD/250/250HD slip
members & U-joints (ON
HIGHWAY & LINEHAUL)
Lubricate*.
Inspect.
Recommended PM Interval
I
A
B
D
E
C
X
X
U-joint inspections should be
performed every time a vehicle comes
in for scheduled maintenance.**
X
U-joint inspections should be
performed every time a vehicle comes
in for scheduled maintenance.**
X
U-joint inspections should be
performed every time a vehicle comes
in for scheduled maintenance.**
5-27
5
PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE SCHEDULE
PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE (PM) INTERVALS
SYSTEM
Driveshafts
5
COMPONENT
Models
SPL-140/140HD/170/
170HD/250/250HD slip
members & U-joints (OFF
HIGHWAY)
Models
SPL-140XL/170XL/250XL
slip members and U-joints
(ON HIGHWAY & LINE
HAUL)
MAINTENANCE TASK
Lubricate*.
Inspect.
Lubricate*.
Inspect.
Recommended PM Interval
I
A
B
D
E
C
X
U-joint inspections should be
performed every time a vehicle comes
in for scheduled maintenance.**
350,000 mi (560,000 km) 1st interval
and then every 100,000 mi (160,00
km) after that.
U-joint inspections should be
performed every time a vehicle comes
in for scheduled maintenance.**
X
U-joint inspections should be
performed every time a vehicle comes
in for scheduled maintenance.**
Models
Lubricate*.
SPL-140XL/170XL/250XL Inspect.
slip members and U-joints
(OFF HIGHWAY & CITY)
*Use only Spicer Driveshaft approved lubricants when greasing Spicer U-joints.
**Refer to Spicer Driveshaft service manual DSSM-0100 (3264-SPL) for detailed instructions.
5-28
PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE SCHEDULE
PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE (PM) INTERVALS
SYSTEM
COMPONENT
Battery Boxes, Battery cables
Tool Boxes,
and Steps
MAINTENANCE TASK
Check the condition of the cables, cushion clamps, nylon tie
straps, and routing. Replace a cushion clamp if the rubber has
deteriorated. Repair or tighten terminals, and secure cables to
prevent chafing. Replace damaged cables (cuts, cracks, or
excessive wear) (shown on page 5-75).
Batteries (ON HIGHWAY & Check for cracks and damage, electrolyte level, condition of
LINE HAUL)
terminals, and tightness of holddowns (shown on page 5-75).
Batteries (OFF-HIGHWAY) Check for cracks and damage, electrolyte level, condition of
terminals, and tightness of holddowns (shown on page 5-75).
Battery box and tray (ON
Check the box integrity. Clean the drain tube and check for acid
HIGHWAY & LINE HAUL) leaks. Check condition of all equipment mounted under the box.
Battery box and tray
Check the box integrity. Clean the drain tube and check for acid
(OFF-HIGHWAY)
leaks. Check condition of all equipment mounted under the box.
Battery Cable Fasteners
Check battery cable fasteners and tighten as necessary to
10-15 Lb. ft. (13.6-20.3 N.m.) as specified on the battery label.
I
Recommended PM Interval
A
B
D
E
C
X
X
X
X
5
X
X
5-29
PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE SCHEDULE
PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE (PM) INTERVALS
SYSTEM
Electrical &
lights
COMPONENT
Headlamps
Warning lights in light bar
Turn, Stop, Reverse lights
and signals
Alternator
5
MAINTENANCE TASK
Check the aim and adjust as required.
Check at the ignition start position to verify bulbs and driver
information display function (shown on page 3-30).
Visual check.
Check operation and output.
Check tightness of the pulley nut.
Check the tension of the drive belt (shown on page 5-95).
Check tightness of the terminal hex nuts.
Starter
Check torque on hex nuts.
ECM connector
Check the tightness of the ECM connector.
Wheel sensors
Check for damaged sensors and connectors, and worn or
frayed wires.
Fuel and diesel exhaust
Check the mounting screws and electrical connections for worn
fluid tank sending unit
or damaged wires and connectors.
Power supply harnesses
Check for worn or damaged insulation, corroded terminals,
(engine, transmission, etc.) frayed wires, and oil or fluid leaks on the connectors or wiring.
Wash to remove excess grease.
Cab structure, Hood
Lubricate the lower hood pivot (only if lube fittings are present).
doors & hoods Hinges and latch
Lubricate with silicone spray.
Body & cab holddown bolts Check the condition and tightness.
5-30
I
Recommended PM Interval
A
B
D
E
C
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE SCHEDULE
PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE (PM) INTERVALS
SYSTEM
Heating & Air
Conditioning
COMPONENT
Air conditioner
Heater & air conditioner
Cabin fresh air filter (ON
HIGHWAY)
Cabin fresh air filter
(OFF-HIGHWAY)
Condenser
Sleeper air filter
Recirc cab air filter (ON
HIGHWAY)
Recirc cab air filter
(OFF-HIGHWAY)
Aftertreatment System
System
Diesel particulate filter
Diesel exhaust fluid tank
MAINTENANCE TASK
Operate the system.
Perform the checks listed shown on page 5-110.
Full operational and diagnostic check.
Inspect and clean, replace if necessary, as shown on page
5-111.
Inspect and clean, replace if necessary, as shown on page
5-111.
Clear any debris from the front of the condenser.
Inspect and clean, replace if necessary, as shown on page
5-112.
Please contact an authorized dealer when the service interval
is required to inspect the cabin recirculation air filter.
Please contact an authorized dealer when the service interval
is required to inspect the cabin recirculation air filter.
Check for leaks and proper support (shown on page 5-115).
Clean filter.
Inspect the tank, straps, brackets, hoses and fittings for
abrasion damage, leaks, tightness and fully engaged
connectors.
Diesel exhaust fluid supply Replace filter.
module
I
Recommended PM Interval
A
B
D
E
C
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
5
X
X
Refer to the Engine Maintenance
Manual.
X
Refer to the Engine Maintenance
Manual.
5-31
PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE SCHEDULE
PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE (PM) INTERVALS
SYSTEM
Air
Engine
5
Safety
5-32
COMPONENT
Air compressor governor
Air lines
System
Inline filters
Air dryer
Air dryer (ON HIGHWAY)
Air dryer (OFF HIGHWAY)
Basic Engine
Three-point Safety Belt
System
Recommended PM Interval
A
B
D
E
C
Replace air strainer.
X
X
Check condition and routing to prevent chafing.
X
Lubricate (shown on page 5-47).
Replace elements or clean with solvent.
X
X
Perform the checks listed (shown on page 5-47).
Overhaul.
360,000 miles/576,000 km
X
Overhaul.
Maintenance and service interval recommendations are detailed in the engine manufacturer’s
Operations and Maintenance Manual included with the vehicle. The engine manufacturer’s
recommendations vary depending engine model. Information is also available from authorized dealers,
the engine manufacturer’s authorized service centers, and the engine manufacturer’s web site.
Inspect.
20,000 miles/32,000km
If the vehicle is exposed to severe
environmental or working conditions,
more frequent inspections may be
necessary.
MAINTENANCE TASK
I
LUBRICANT SPECIFICATIONS
LUBRICANT
SPECIFICATIONS
Introduction
at top economy and in prolonging
its life is proper lubrication servicing.
Neglecting this essential aspect of
vehicle care can cost time and money
in the long run.
WARNING
CAUTION
Handle lubricants carefully. Vehicle
lubricants (oil and grease) can
be poisonous and cause death,
personal injury or sickness. They
can also damage the paint on the
vehicle.
Do not mix different types of
lubricants.
Mixing lubricants (oil
and grease) of different brands
or types could damage vehicle
components; therefore, drain (or
remove) old lubricants from the unit
before refilling it.
Engine
Proper engine lubrication depends
on the outside temperatures where
you will be driving. Use the oil
recommended for the conditions you
are most likely to be operating in. You
will find a complete engine lubrication
service guide in the Engine Operation
Manual that came with your vehicle.
The engine operator manual contains
specific maintenance tasks that you or
a qualified service technician need to
perform to maintain the engine.
In this section you will find the basic
information you need to do the routine
lubrication your vehicle requires. Of
course you will want to schedule
service more frequently if you are
operating under severe conditions
such as extreme heat or cold, with
very heavy loads, off-road, etc. For
any special service requirements,
consult your service manuals and your
lubricant supplier. Please remember:
one key to keeping your truck running
5
5-33
LUBRICANT SPECIFICATIONS
WARNING
WARNING
NOTE
Exhaust fumes from the engine
contain carbon monoxide,
a
colorless and odorless gas.
A
poorly maintained, damaged, or
corroded exhaust system can allow
carbon monoxide to enter the cab
or sleeper.
Failure to properly
maintain your vehicle could cause
carbon monoxide to enter the cab
and cause death, personal injury or
serious illness.
Never idle your vehicle for prolonged
periods of time if you sense that
exhaust fumes are entering the cab.
Investigate the cause of the fumes
and correct it as soon as possible.
If the vehicle must be driven under
these conditions, drive only with
the windows slightly open. Failure
to repair the source of the exhaust
fumes may lead to death, personal
injury or serious illness.
Keep the engine exhaust system
and the vehicle’s cab ventilation
system properly maintained. It is
recommended that the vehicle’s
exhaust system and cab be
inspected:
5
•
By a competent technician every
15,000 miles/ 24,000 km
•
Whenever a change is noticed in
the sound of the exhaust system
•
Whenever the exhaust system,
underbody, cab or sleeper is
damaged
NOTE
Use only an exact replacement
parts in Aftertreatment exhaust
system.
Using a noncompliant
replacement part could violate
emissions requirements and also
void the emission system’s warranty.
5-34
LUBRICANT SPECIFICATIONS
Pipe and Hose Clamps
Use the following table for torque
specifications to check pipe and hose
clamps.
Pipe and Hose Clamp Torque Values
APPLICATION
Radiator & Heat Exchanger Hoses
Heater Hoses
Air Intake Pipes
Plastic Air Intake Pipes
Charge Air Intake Hoses
Fuel, Oil & Water Heat Exchangers (for
hoses less than 9/16 diameter)
APPROVED CLAMP
Constant-Torque CT-L
Constant Tension
Hi-Torque HTM-L
Constant- Torque CT-L
Flex Seal 667
B9296
Miniature 3600L
TORQUE
Nm
10.2-12.5
not required
11.3-14.2
4.5
7.9-11.3
6-7
1.1-1.7
Lb-In
90-110
not required
100-125
40 (maximum)
70-100
50-60
10-15
5
5-35
LUBRICANT SPECIFICATIONS
Master Lubrication Index
ATF
BB
CB
CC/CD
CD
CD50
CE
CJ-4
CL
EP
GL
HD
HT
MP
DOT3 or DOT4
5
Lubricant Symbol Key
MD3 or MERCON®-approved automatic transmission fluid
High temperature ball bearing grease. Chevron SRI Mobile Grease HP, Texaco Multifax 2 or equivalent
Engine oil for mild to moderate requirements
Engine oil for severe requirements (MIL-L-2104B /MIL-L-45199B w/ 1.85% max. sulfated ash content)
Engine oil meeting API “Five engine test sequence”
SAE50W synthetic transmission fluid
Engine oil meeting severe duty service requirements for direct-injection turbocharged engines
Engine oil for PACCAR MX and Cummins EGR engines
Multipurpose chassis grease
Extreme Pressure Lubricant (Lithium 12-hydroxystearate base NGLI 2)
Straight mineral gear lubricant
Hypoid Gear Oil, A.P.I. - GL-5, SAE 75W-90FE synthetic gear lubricant
High Temperature grease (Timken Spec. 0-616)
Multipurpose gear lubricant (MIL-L-2105B)
Brake Fluid
NOTE
The responsibility for meeting these
specifications, the quality of the
product, and its performance in
service rests with the lubricant
supplier.
For oil reservoir with side filler plugs
(transmission, axles, steering gear
5-36
boxes, transfer cases, etc.) the oil
must be level with the filler opening.
1
2
Improper Oil Level
Proper Oil Level
Use care when checking the oil level
with a finger. Just because you can
reach the oil level with a finger, does
not mean the oil level is correct.
LUBRICANT SPECIFICATIONS
Component Lubrication Index
Universal Joints
EP*
Drive Shaft Splines
CL*
Steering Column
CL
Alternator Bearing
BB*
Fan Hub
BB*
ATF
Power Steering Reservoir
Steering Drag Link
CL
Steering Knuckles
CL
Spring Pins
CL
BB
Clutch Release Bearings
HT
Brake Shoe Anchor Pins
HT
Brake Cam Bearings
Slack Adjusters
CL
Starter Bearings
CC
Turbocharger Aneroid
CC
Water Pump
BB*
EP
Suspension Fittings (other than threaded pins & bushings)
EP
Steering Axle: Grease Fittings on Steering Arm; Tie Rod Ends; Drag
Link; King Pins
EP
Steering Shaft Grease Fittings
Brake Treadle Hinge and Roller
Engine oil
Lock lubricant
Lock Cylinders
Door Hinges
Not required - Teflon bushings
Polyethylene grease stick
Door Latches & Striker Plates
Door Weatherstrip
Silicone lubricant
Hub-piloted Aluminum Wheels
Coat the wheel pilot or hub pads with Freylube #3 lubricant (light colored)
or Chevron Zinc lube. Do not get lubricant on the face of the wheel or
the hub.
5-37
5
LUBRICANT SPECIFICATIONS
Component Lubrication Index
Manual Transmission Hydraulic Clutch
DOT3 or DOT4 (Brake Fluid)
*Consult manufacturer or lubricant supplier for special details.
5
5-38
LUBRICANT SPECIFICATIONS
Fuller Transmission
Lubrication
Fuller transmissions are designed so
that the internal parts operate in a
bath of oil circulated by the motion of
gears and shafts. Grey iron parts have
built-in channels where needed to
help lubricate bearings and shafts. All
parts will be amply lubricated if these
procedures are closely followed:
1.
Maintain oil level; check it
regularly.
2.
Change oil regularly.
3.
Use the correct grade and type of
oil.
4.
Buy oil from a reputable dealer.
Lubrication Change and
Inspection
Off-Highway Use
Refer to the Eaton Fuller transmission
manual for servicing information.
Highway Use
•
Refer to the Eaton Fuller
transmission manual for servicing
information.
•
Refer to the oil change vs.
temperature chart that follows for
special oil change information. The
“intermittent peak temperature”
is the maximum temperature
observed for a short time in a
fully loaded vehicle performing
normally.
CAUTION
Exceeding the recommended oil
change intervals may be harmful to
the life of the transmission and the
transmission oil cooler.
5-39
5
LUBRICANT SPECIFICATIONS
Recommended Lubricants
Type
Heavy Duty Engine Oil MIL-L-2104B, C, or D;
API - SF, or API-CD
Mineral gear oil with rust and oxidation inhibitor
API-GL-1
Synthetic Lubricant*
*See your dealer for approved brands.
5
5-40
Grade (SAE)
50
40
30
90
80W
50
Ambient Temperature
Above 10° F (-12° C)
Above 10° F (-12° C)
Below 10° F (-12° C)
Above 10° F (-12° C)
Below 10° F (-12° C)
All
LUBRICANT SPECIFICATIONS
Allison Transmission
Lubrication
Lubrication Change and
Inspection
•
Refer to your transmission
manual (furnished separately) for
lubrication information.
•
Refer to the Allison Transmission
manual for servicing information.
Spicer Transmission
Lubrication
It is extremely important to use the
proper lubricants and maintain the
correct oil levels in Spicer units. This
will ensure proper lubrication and
operating temperatures in these units.
Type
30, 40, or 50
Heavy Duty Engine Oil MIL-L-2104D or
MIL-L-46152B, API-SF or API-CD (MIL-L-2104B 30
or C or MIL-L-46152 designations are
acceptable)
90
Mineral gear oil (R & O type) API-GL-1
80
CD50
Synthetic Engine Oil meeting MIL-L-2104D or
MIL-L-46152B, API-SF or API-CD
CD30
Grade (SAE)
Recommended Lubricants
The lubricants listed below are
recommended, in order of preference,
for use in all Spicer mechanical
transmissions, auxiliaries, and
transfer cases. Do not use extreme
pressure additives such as those
found in multipurpose or rear axle-type
lubricants. These additives are not
required in Spicer transmissions,
and may in some cases create
transmission problems. Multipurpose
oils, as a group, have relatively poor
oxidation stability, a high rate of sludge
formation, and a greater tendency to
react with or corrode the steel and
bronze parts.
Ambient Temperature
Above 0° F (-18° C)
Below 0° F (-18° C)
Above 0° F (-18° C)
Below 0° F (-18° C)
All
5-41
5
LUBRICANT SPECIFICATIONS
Type
Grade (SAE)
EP75W90
All
*Synthetic Gear Oil Meeting MIL-2105C or
API-GL5
EP75W140
*EP Gear Oils are not recommended when lubricant operating temperatures are above 230° F (110° C).
Oil Changes
CAUTION
When adding oil, types and
brands of oil should not be
intermixed because of possible
incompatibility,
which
could
decrease the effectiveness of the
lubrication or cause component
failure.
5
An initial oil change and flush should
be performed after the transmission
has been placed in actual service.
This change should be made any time
after 3000 miles (4800 km) but never
longer than 5000 miles (8000 km) of
over-the-road service. In off-highway
use, the change should be made after
24 hours but before 100 hours of
service have elapsed.
5-42
Refilling
Remove all dirt around filler plug. Refill
with new oil of the grade recommended
for the existing season and prevailing
service. Fill to the bottom of the
level testing plug positioned on the
side of the transmission. Do not
overfill the transmission. Overfilling
usually results in oil breakdown due
to excessive heat and aeration from
the churning action of the gears. Early
breakdown of the oil will result in heavy
varnish and sludge deposits that plug
up oil ports and build up on the splines
and bearings. Overflow of oil can also
escape onto clutch or parking brakes.
When adding oil, do not mix different
types of oil.
Ambient Temperature
LUBRICANT SPECIFICATIONS
Meritor Axle Lubrication
NOTE
Axles utilized in 100% off-highway
use are not eligible for Meritor’s
Advanced Lube Rear Drive Axle
program.
RS-17-145
RS-19-145
RS-21-145
RS-23-160
RS-23-161
Refer to the Meritor Field
Maintenance Manual for a
Application
On Highway
AVAILABLE ADVANCED LUBE AXLES
RT-40-145
RT-40-145P
SQ-100A
SQ-100AP
RT-44-145
RS-23-180
RS-26-180
RS-30-180
RT-34-145
RT-34-145P
Meritor rear axles that do not appear
on the list above will continue to
require an initial drain at 3000-5000
miles (4800-8000 km).
•
Under Meritor’s Advanced Lube Rear
Drive Axle program, the axles listed
below are exempt from an initial
lubricant change:
particular axle for lubricant
specifications.
•
RT-44-145P
RT-46-160
RT-46-160P
RT-52-160
RT-52-160P
•
Refer to the following chart for
lubricant change intervals:
See your dealer for
Meritor-approved lubricant
brands.
Type Of Lubricant
Synthetic
Synthetic with Pump and Filter
Mineral Base
Mileage Interval
240,000 mi. (384,000 km)
500,000 mi. (800,000 km)
120,000 mi. (192,000 km)
5-43
5
LUBRICANT SPECIFICATIONS
Application
City Delivery
Off Highway
•
Change the lubricant filter every
120,000 miles (192,000 km). Top
off the lubricant level with a similar
lubricant.
5
Type Of Lubricant
Synthetic
Synthetic with Pump and Filter
Mineral Base
Synthetic
Synthetic with Pump and Filter
Mineral Base
Eaton/Dana Axle Lubrication
•
•
•
5-44
The original mineral-based
lubricant must be drained within
3000-5000 miles (4800-8000
km) on all Eaton axles. This
initial change is very important
because it flushes out break-in
contaminants that might otherwise
cause premature wear.
No initial drain is required on
Eaton axles that are factory filled
with an Eaton-approved synthetic
lubricant.
Mineral-based lubes must be
drained within the first 5000 miles
(8000 km) if converting to an
Eaton-approved synthetic lube.
120,000
240,000
120,000
120,000
120,000
120,000
mi.
mi.
mi.
mi.
mi.
mi.
Mileage Interval
(192,000 km)
(384,000 km)
(192,000 km)
(192,000 km)
(192,000 km)
(192,000 km)
•
Change the lubricant within the
first 5000 miles (8000 km) of
operation after a carrier head
replacement, regardless of the
lubricant type.
•
Refer to the Eaton Field
Maintenance Manual for a
particular axle for lubricant
specifications.
•
See your dealer for
Eaton-approved lubricant brands.
•
Refer to the chart below for
lubricant change interval.
LUBRICANT SPECIFICATIONS
Type of Lubricant
Mineral-Based
Eaton-Approved Synthetic
Eaton-Approved Synthetic
in axle with extended drain
interval option
On-Highway Mi. (km)
120,000 (192,000)
240,000 (384,000)
350,000 (560,000)
Maximum Change Interval On/Off Highway Severe
Service Mi. (km)
Yearly
60,000 (96,000)
2 Years
120,000 (192,000)
Wheel Bearing Lubrication
Oil-lubricated Driven Hubs
Oil-lubricated Nondriven
Hubs
Use hypoid oil, A.P.I.-GL-5 SAE
75W-90FE synthetic gear lubricant
or equivalent. A minimum of 1 quart
(921 ml) of oil is required for proper
lubrication of each drive hub. Add oil
through the filler hole in the hub; if
none, add oil through the differential
filler hole. (Note: Remember to replace
vent plug or threaded filler plug when
done.) Allow time for the oil to seep
through the bearings when initially
filling a hub. Maintain the differential
oil level by adding oil until its surface is
even with the bottom of the filler hole
(see illustration on page 5-36).
Use CD50 synthetic transmission fluid
SAE 50W or equivalent. A minimum of
9 oz. (270 ml) of lubricant is required
for proper lubrication of an LMS™ hub;
10-13 oz. (295-400 ml) is required for
a non-LMS hub, depending on wheel
design. Allow time for the fluid to seep
through the bearings when initially
filling a hub. When properly filled, the
fluid level will lie between the fluid level
line and 1/4” above the line.
Maximum Change Interval
Yearly
Yearly
Universal Joint Lubrication
Refer to the Spicer Universal Joints
and Driveshafts service manual and
lubrication specifications.
5
NOTE
Remember to replace vent plug
when done.
5-45
LUBRICANT SPECIFICATIONS
Steering Gear Lubrication
Fluid Refill
Inspection
NOTE
The following recommendations are
for general purpose steering systems
(both TRW and Sheppard).
5
•
For normal temperatures, use
Automatic Transmission Fluid
(ATF) Type E or F or Dexron® III.
•
For cold temperatures of -22º F
(-30º C) and above use ATF Type
A.
•
For extremely cold temperatures
between -22º F (-30º C) and -40º
F (-40º C) use ATF Type B.
5-46
Before removing reservoir cover,
wipe outside of cover so that no dirt
can fall into the reservoir.
1.
Check the fluid level; add fluid if
required.
2.
Check fluid for contamination,
discoloration, or burnt smell;
correct source of such problems
before replacing fluid & filter.
CAUTION
When adding fluid, be sure to use
fluid of the same type. While many
fluids have the same description
and intended purpose, they should
not be mixed due to incompatible
additives. Mixing incompatible fluids
may lead to equipment damage.
If incompatible (insoluble) fluids are
mixed in a power steering system,
air bubbles can be produced at the
interface of the two fluids. This can
cause cavitation, which reduces the
lubrication between moving parts in
the gear. This could result in worn
components.
The mixture of two different fluids,
although harmless to individual
internal components, may initiate a
chemical reaction that produces a new
compound that will attack seals and
other internal components.
Do not mix different fluids.
AIR SYSTEM
AIR SYSTEM
Introduction
WARNING
Do not attempt to modify, alter, repair
or disconnect any component of the
air system. Repairs or modifications
to the air system, other than what
is described in this section, should
only be performed by an authorized
dealer. Failure to comply may result
in death or personal injury.
WARNING
WARNING
Prior to the removal of any air
system component, always block
and hold the vehicle by a secure
means other than the vehicle's
own brakes. Depleting air system
pressure may cause the vehicle
to roll unexpectedly resulting in an
accident causing death or personal
injuries. Keep hands away from
chamber push rods and slack
adjusters, they may apply as system
pressure drops.
Never connect or disconnect a hose
or line containing air pressure. It
may whip as air escapes. Never
remove a component or pipe plug
unless you are certain all system
pressure has been depleted. Failure
to comply may result in death,
personal injury, equipment or
property damage.
WARNING
After completing any repairs to
the air system, always test for air
leaks, and check the brakes for
safe operation before putting the
vehicle in service. Failure to comply
may result in death, personal injury,
equipment or property damage.
WARNING
Never exceed recommended air
pressure and always wear safety
glasses when working with air
pressure.
Never look into air
jets or direct them at anyone.
Failure to comply may result in
death, personal injury, equipment or
property damage.
5-47
5
AIR SYSTEM
WARNING
WARNING
Never attempt to disassemble a
component until you have read
and understood recommended
procedures.
Some components
contain powerful springs and
injury can result if not properly
disassembled.
Use only proper
tools and observe all precautions
pertaining to use of those tools.
Failure to comply may result in
death, personal injury, equipment or
property damage.
Completely bypassing a Bendix®
AD-IS air dryer will bypass the
system’s pressure protection valves.
This could lead to loss of air
pressure or damage to the vehicle’s
air system, which could cause
an accident involving death or
personal injury. Always adhere to
the manufacturer’s procedure if it
is necessary in an emergency to
temporarily bypass an AD-IS-series
air dryer. Failure to comply may
result in death, personal injury,
equipment or property damage.
5
The operation of the vehicle’s braking
system and many vehicle accessories
depends upon the storage and
application of a high-pressure air
supply.
Your vehicle’s compressor takes
outside air and compresses it, usually
to 100-120 psi (689-827 kPa). The
5-48
compressed air then goes to the
reservoirs to be stored until needed.
When you operate your air brakes, the
stored compressed air flows into the
chambers where it is used to apply
your truck and trailer brakes. That is
why, when you push down on your
brake pedal, you don’t feel the same
amount of pressure on the pedal that
you do when you apply the brakes on
your car. All you are doing on your
truck is opening an air valve to allow
air to flow into the brake chambers.
Contamination of the air supply system
is the major cause of problems in
air-operated components such as
brake valves, and suspension height
control valves. To keep contaminants
to the lowest possible level, follow
these maintenance procedures.
AIR SYSTEM
WARNING
If the supply and service tanks are
not drained at the recommended
frequency, water could enter the
air lines and valves. This could
cause corrosion or blockage, which
could compromise the brake system
safety and potentially cause an
accident involving death or personal
injury.
Daily
Periodically
•
Drain moisture from the supply
and service air tanks.
•
•
Operate air devices to circulate
lubricants within the unit.
Clean filter screens ahead of the
valves by removing the screens
and soaking them in solvent. Blow
them dry with pressurized air
before reinstalling them.
5
5-49
AIR SYSTEM
Twice a Year
Air Dryer
•
The function of the air dryer is to collect
and remove air system contaminants in
solid, liquid and vapor form before they
enter the brake system. It provides
clean, dry air to the components of
the brake system, which increases
the life of the system and reduces
maintenance costs.
•
Maintain the air compressor to
prevent excessive oil by-pass.
See your maintenance manual for
details.
Replace worn seals in valves and
air motors as they are needed.
drain cocks, or valves and checking for
presence of water.
NOTE
Because no two vehicles operate
under
identical
conditions,
maintenance and maintenance
intervals will vary. Experience is a
valuable guide in determining the
best maintenance interval for any
one particular operation.
5
NOTE
A small amount of oil in the system
may be normal and should not,
in itself, be considered a reason
to replace the desiccant cartridge.
Oil stained desiccant can function
adequately.
A tablespoon of water found in the
air tank would point to the need for a
desiccant cartridge change. However,
the following conditions can also
cause water accumulation and should
be considered before replacing the
desiccant cartridge.
•
Every 900 operating hours or 25,000
miles (40,200 km) or every three (3)
months check for moisture in the air
brake system by opening air tanks,
5-50
Air usage is exceptionally high
and not normal for a highway
vehicle. This may be due to
accessory air demands or some
unusual air requirement that
does not allow the compressor
to load and unload (compressing
AIR SYSTEM
and non-compressing cycle) in a
normal fashion or it may be due to
excessive leaks in the air system.
•
•
In areas where more than a 30°
F (17° C) range of temperature
occurs in one day, small amounts
of water can accumulate in
the air brake system due to
condensation. Under these
conditions, the presence of small
amounts of moisture is normal
and should not be considered as
an indication that the dryer is not
performing properly.
An outside air source has been
used to charge the air system.
This air did not pass through the
drying bed.
Overhaul
Maintenance intervals typical for
on-highway operation would be 2 - 3
years, 350,000 miles or 10,800 hours.
Maintenance intervals typical for high
duty cycle usage such as transit bus,
refuse hauler, dump truck, cement
mixers and off-highway operation
would be 1 year, 100,000 miles or
3,600 hours.
NOTE
Review the warranty policy before
performing
any
maintenance
procedures. An extended warranty
may be voided if unauthorized
maintenance is performed during
this period.
Bendix® AD-IS Series Air
Dryer
Your vehicle may be equipped with a
Bendix® AD-IS series air dryer. Any
air dryer replacement should be made
with an identical component.
WARNING
If a different air dryer brand or model
is installed on the vehicle other
than what was originally installed,
it could cause the air system to
not perform correctly unless the
full air system design is reviewed
and modifications made to comply
with Federal Motor Vehicle Safety
Standards (FMVSS) 121 - Air Brake
Systems. Failure to abide by this
warning and maintain compliance
to FMVSS 121 could cause loss
of vehicle control and may lead to
death or serious personal injury.
5-51
5
AIR SYSTEM
Air Tanks
WARNING
The AD-IS Series air dryer has
incorporated into its design various
components that have typically been
installed separately on the vehicle (see
below for components/areas affected).
5
•
Pressure protection valves
•
Safety valve
•
Governor and plumbing
•
Plumbing of the front and rear
service air tanks
•
Plumbing to accessory systems
These components are required to
meet the Federal Motor Vehicle Safety
Standards (FMVSS 121 - Air Brake
Systems). As the Warning above
states, any other type of air dryer
installed in the place of an AD-IS Series
will require changes, modifications
and/or additions to your vehicle’s air
system to maintain compliance with
FMVSS 121.
5-52
If the supply and service air tanks
are not drained at the recommended
frequency, water could enter the
air lines and valves. This could
cause corrosion or blockage, which
could compromise the brake system
safety and potentially cause an
accident. Failure to comply may
result in death, personal injury,
equipment or property damage.
To eject moisture from the air system
tanks, pull the line that is connected to
the moisture ejection valve. Continue
pulling until the air comes out free of
water.
CAUTION
Daily: The supply and service air
tanks, must be drained on a daily
basis. Operate air devices daily to
circulate lubricants within the unit.
Periodically: Clean filter screens
ahead of the valves by removing the
screens and soaking them in solvent.
Blow them dry with pressurized air
before reinstalling them.
Do not use penetrating oil, brake
fluid, or wax-based oils in the air
system. These fluids may cause
severe damage to air system
components.
•
Maintain the air compressor to
prevent excessive oil bypass.
•
Replace worn seals in valves and
air motors as they are needed.
AIR SYSTEM
Your authorized dealer carries
rebuild kits for most units.
Air Gauges and Air Leaks
Your vehicle comes with air pressure
gauges for two separate systems,
Primary and Secondary: the Primary
gauge indicates pressure in the rear
braking system; the Secondary gauge
indicates pressure in the front braking
system. Each gauge indicates the
amount of air pressure in pounds per
square inch (psi).
If the light and alarm do not turn off at
start-up, do not try to drive the vehicle
until the problem is found and fixed. If
the pressure in either or both systems
is too low for normal brake operation,
i.e., the pointer of one gauge falls
below 65 psi (448 kPa), a warning light
on the gauge will glow and the audible
alarm will sound.
NOTE
WARNING
Do not operate the vehicle if leakage
in the air system is detected.
Conduct the following procedure
and contact an authorized dealer
(or any other properly equipped
service center) if a leak is detected.
Failure to check the brakes or follow
these procedures could cause a
system failure, increasing the risk
of an accident and may result in
death, personal injury, equipment or
property damage.
Park brakes lock up at 60 psi (414
kPa), the audible alarm will sound at
65 psi (448 kPa).
5
Primary Air Pressure Gauge
5-53
AIR SYSTEM
5.
Start the engine and build up the
air pressure again.
6.
Stop the engine, and apply the
brakes fully. Apply the brake pedal
and hold it down for five minutes.
The pressure drop should not
exceed 3.0 psi (21 kPa) per
minute.
7.
If you detect excessive leakage
(air pressure loss greater than 3.0
psi (21 kPa) after five minutes of
brake application), a leakage test
should be made at the air line
connections and at all air brake
control units. These tests should
determine where air is escaping.
Secondary Air Pressure Gauge
Follow the procedure below to
check the compressed air system
for leaks:
1.
Periodically, or after maintenance
or replacement of air system
components:
2.
Build up air pressure in the system
to the governor cutout point or until
120 psi (827 kPa) is reached.
3.
Stop the engine and release the
service brakes.
4.
Without applying the brake pedal,
observe the rate of air pressure
drop. This rate should not exceed
2.0 psi (14 kPa) per minute.
5
5-54
Air Compressor
Operation
All compressors, regardless of make
or model, run continuously while the
engine is running. System pressure
is controlled by the governor. The
governor acts in conjunction with
the unloading mechanism in the
compressor cylinder block to start
and stop compression of air. The
compressor is unloaded when the
system pressure reaches 120 psi (827
kPa) and compression is reestablished
when system pressure falls to 100 psi
(690 kPa).
AIR SYSTEM
Preventive Maintenance
The following service checks are
provided for your information only and
should be performed by a certified
mechanic. Contact your dealer or the
engine manufacturer's Maintenance
Manual for further information on
servicing air compressors.
After completing any repairs to the air
system, always test for air leaks, and
check the brakes for safe operation
before putting the vehicle in service.
presence of excessive carbon. If
excessive carbon is found, clean
or replace the compressor cylinder
head. Also, check compressor
discharge line for carbon, and
clean or replace the discharge line
if necessary.
•
Disassemble compressor and
thoroughly clean and inspect
all parts. Repair or replace
all worn or damaged parts, or
replace compressor with a factory
exchange unit.
CAUTION
When draining the engine cooling
system is required, to prevent
damage
from
freezing,
the
compressor must also be drained at
the cylinder head and block. Engine
damage could occur if the cooling
system is not periodically drained
and maintained.
See Cooling
System on page 5-70 for further
information.
Below is a list of areas to maintain for
the air compressor:
•
Inspect compressor air filter
element, if so equipped, and
replace element if clogged. Check
compressor mounting and drive
for alignment and belt tension.
Adjust if necessary.
•
Remove compressor discharge
valve cap nuts and check for
5
5-55
BRAKE SYSTEM
BRAKE SYSTEM
Brake Adjustment
WARNING
Do not work on the brake system
without the parking brake set and
wheels chocked securely. If the
vehicle is not secured to prevent
uncontrolled vehicle movement, it
could roll and cause death, serious
personal injury or damage to the
vehicle.
5
To operate your vehicle safely
and profitably, you need some
understanding of its brake systems.
For more on brakes, see the Index,
under Brakes.
Brake adjustment and brake balance
must be set carefully to (1) make
the most efficient use of the forces
available for braking and (2) allow
equal stopping forces at all wheels.
5-56
CAUTION
The air brake system of this
vehicle was configured for ONE
of the following operations: tractor
or truck, and complies with the
respective portions of FMVSS 121.
A tractor shall not be operated or
configured as a truck, nor shall a
truck be operated or configured
as a tractor, without significant
modifications to the air brake system
in order to retain compliance with
FMVSS 121. Contact your dealer
for instructions.
Once a brake system is set to
specifications, changing any one of
its components or any combination of
components may cause the system
to not work as well. All parts have
to work together to perform as they
should. Any replacement components
in your brake system should be exactly
equal to the original components.
Any changes from the original
specifications can affect the whole
system. All of the following areas
are interrelated and must conform to
original specifications:
•
Tire Size
•
Drum brakes
•
a.
Cam Radius
b.
Wedge Angle
c.
Drum Radius
d.
Brake Linings
e.
Brake Chambers
f.
Slack Adjusters
Disc Brakes
a.
Disc Rotors
BRAKE SYSTEM
WARNING
WARNING
Do not use any replacement
part in the brake system unless
it conforms exactly to original
specifications.
A nonconforming
part in your vehicle's brake system
could cause a malfunction resulting
in an accident causing death or
personal injury. Sizes and types
are so related to one another that
a seemingly unimportant change in
one may result in a change in how
well the brakes work for you on the
road. If parts do not work together
properly, you could lose control of
your vehicle, which could cause a
serious accident.
Do not use brake linings with
a thickness below the specified
minimum. Such linings will have
lining rivets exposed that can
damage the brake drum and reduce
brake efficiency, which could cause
death, personal injury or system
failure.
All vehicle operators should check
their brakes regularly.
Air Disc Brakes
Have brake pads inspected by a
qualified mechanic for wear at regular
intervals according to the Preventive
Maintenance Schedule on page 5-12.
In severe service or off-highway
applications inspect the linings more
frequently.
Regularly inspect for pad/rotor wear:
•
Park on level ground and chock
the wheels.
•
Temporarily release the parking
brakes.
•
Compare the relative position
of two notches; one located on
the caliper and the other on the
carrier. See the illustration below
to determine if the brakes require
a detailed inspection by a qualified
mechanic.
5-57
5
BRAKE SYSTEM
•
Have a qualified mechanic
perform a detailed inspection
if the notches are not found.
The pads and rotors should
be measured and compared
against the manufacturers
specifications located in the brake
manufacturer’s service manual.
•
Chock the wheels.
•
Temporarily release the parking
brakes.
•
Grab the caliper and move it. This
movement is Running Clearance.
•
Proper Running Clearance is
0.08 inch (2 mm) of movement of
the brake caliper (approximately
the thickness of a nickel) in the
inboard/outboard direction.
•
Have a qualified mechanic provide
further inspection if the caliper
does not move or appears to move
more than the specified clearance.
Caliper Detail
1.
2.
3.
5
4.
5.
Brake Caliper Assembly
Location of Inspection
Grooves
Notches Line-Up (Time to
schedule inspection of Pads
and Rotors)
Brake Rotor
Brake Carrier Assembly
Regularly inspect caliper for Running
Clearance:
•
5-58
Stop the vehicle on level ground
and let the brakes cool down. Hot
brake calipers can burn skin on
contact.
BRAKE SYSTEM
Drum Brakes
Automatic Slack Adjusters
Have brake drum linings and disc
brake pads inspected by a qualified
mechanic for wear at regular intervals
according to the maintenance
schedule. In severe service or
off-highway applications inspect the
linings more frequently.
Periodically check the Brake Chamber
Stroke. Replace the slack adjuster if
proper stroke cannot be maintained.
Operational checks of
automatic slack adjusters
•
Measure brake chamber stroke
with the spring brake released and
the air pressure no less than 100
psi (690 kPa).
•
Brake Chamber Stroke is the
difference between the applied
and the retracted position of the
air chamber pushrod.
•
A correctly installed and
functioning auto slack adjuster will
produce the following strokes:
Chamber Type
36 (rear brakes)
30 (rear brakes)
16, 20 & 24 (front
brakes)
Stroke
1-1/2” - 2-1/4”
(38 - 57 mm)
1-1/2” - 2”
(38 - 51 mm)
1” - 1-3/4”
(25.4 - 44.4 mm)
5
Brake Chamber Stroke
5-59
BRAKE SYSTEM
WARNING
Manual adjustment of automatic
slack adjusters is a dangerous
practice that could have serious
consequences. It gives the operator
a false sense of security about
the effectiveness of the brakes.
Contact the Service Department
at your dealership if the stroke
exceeds the above specifications. A
stroke exceeding these values may
indicate a problem with the slack
adjuster or the brake foundation.
5
5-60
CAB
CAB
Exterior Maintenance
Painted Surfaces
Wash painted surfaces frequently to
remove grime and caustic deposits
which may stain the finish. See
Cleaning, Protecting, and Weather
Stripping on page 5-62.
Chrome and Aluminum
Surfaces
To prevent rust, keep chromed parts
clean and protected with wax at all
times, especially in winter conditions
where the roads are salted.
•
If necessary, use a commercial
chrome cleaner to remove light
rust.
•
Chrome surfaces are best
cleaned with fresh water. Wipe
dry to preserve their luster. A
commercial chrome cleaner will
remove light rust. After cleaning,
wax flat surfaces and apply a thin
coat of rust preventive lubricant
around bolts or other fasteners.
•
•
Under corrosive conditions, such
as driving on salted roads, clean
aluminum parts with steam or high
pressure water from a hose. A
mild soap solution will help. Rinse
thoroughly.
5
Clean aluminum wheels and
bumpers with warm water. Tar
remover will get rid of heavy
deposits of road grime. To prevent
spotting, wipe aluminum surfaces
dry after washing.
5-61
CAB
Tail Pipe Surface Cleaning
WARNING
Always allow hot surfaces to cool
down before attempting to work near
them. Failure to comply may result
in death or personal injury.
5
To maintain your quality finish, wash
with a soft cloth, mild soap and water
or glass cleaner. A non-abrasive
chrome polish (e.g. Windex®) can be
used sparingly on hard to clean areas.
Do Not clean your high heat chrome
using scouring pads, abrasive chrome
polish, highly acidic chemical cleaners
or any other abrasive cleaners.
5-62
Stainless Steel
Even high quality stainless steel parts
can rust under prolonged exposure
to salt water, especially when the
salt-laden moisture is held against
the metal surface by road grime. It
is, therefore, important to frequently
clean salty moisture and grime from
stainless steel surfaces.
•
If surface rust is encountered,
wash the surface and use a
commercial polishing compound
to clean off the rust, followed by a
coating of wax.
•
Never use steel wool when
cleaning stainless steel because
minute particles of the steel wool
can embed in the surface of the
stainless steel and cause rust
staining.
Cleaning, Protecting and
Weather Stripping
Frequent washings of the vehicle
are required to remove grime and
contaminants that can stain and
oxidize paint and accelerate corrosion
of plated and polished metal surfaces.
Waxing offers added protection against
staining and oxidation. But to allow
enough time for your truck's finish to
cure, wait about 30 days after the date
of manufacture before waxing. Do not
apply wax in the hot sun and do not
friction burn the paint with a buffing
machine.
Occasionally spray weather-stripping
on doors and windows with silicone
compound to help preserve resiliency.
This is especially useful in freezing
weather to prevent doors and windows
from sticking shut with ice.
CAB
Vehicle Cleaning
WARNING
Precautions
Do not clean the underside of
chassis, fenders wheel covers, etc.
without protecting your hands and
arms. You may cut yourself on
sharp-edged metal parts. Failure
to comply may result in death,
personal injury, equipment or
property damage.
WARNING
Handle cleaning agents carefully.
Cleaning agents may be poisonous.
Keep them out of the reach of
children. Failure to comply may
result in death, personal injury,
equipment or property damage.
WARNING
WARNING
Do not use gasoline, kerosene,
naphtha, nail polish remover or other
volatile cleaning fluids. They may
be toxic, flammable or hazardous
in other ways. Failure to comply
may result in death, personal injury,
equipment or property damage.
Moisture, ice, and road salt on
brakes may affect braking efficiency.
Test the brakes carefully after each
vehicle wash. Failure to comply
may result in death, personal injury,
equipment or property damage.
•
Observe all caution labels.
•
Always read directions on the
container before using any
product.
•
Do not use any solution that can
damage the body paint.
•
Most chemical cleaners are
concentrates which require
dilution.
•
Only use spot removing fluids in
well ventilated areas.
•
Any vehicle is subjected to
deterioration from industrial
fumes, ice, snow, corrosive road
salt, etc., to name just a few
causes. A well-cared-for vehicle
can look like new many years
later. Regular and correct care
will contribute to maintaining the
beauty and the value of your
vehicle.
Your dealer has a number of
vehicle-care products and can advise
you on which ones to use for cleaning
the exterior and interior of your vehicle.
5-63
5
CAB
Washing the Exterior
CAUTION
Do not aim the water jet directly at
door locks or latch. Tape the key
holes to prevent water from seeping
into the lock cylinders. Water in lock
cylinders should be removed with
compressed air. To prevent locks
from freezing in the winter, squirt
glycerin or lock deicer into the lock
cylinders.
1.
2.
5
3.
5-64
Begin by spraying water over the
dry surface to remove all loose dirt
before applying the car wash and
wax solution.
Do not wash the vehicle in direct
sunshine.
Do not spray water directly into the
cab vents.
Using soapy water, wash the
vehicle with a clean soft cloth or
a soft brush made for automotive
cleaning.
Use cool or warm water and a
mild, household type soap. Strong
industrial detergents and cleaning
agents are not recommended.
Do not use stiff brushes, paper
towels, steel wool, or abrasive
cleaning compounds because
they will scratch painted, plated,
and polished metal surfaces.
Rinse surfaces frequently while
washing to flush away dirt that
might scratch the finishes during
the washing operation.
4.
Wipe everything dry with a
chamois to avoid water spots.
To prevent water spotting, dry off
the cosmetic surfaces with a clean
cloth or chamois.
5.
Remove road tar with an
automotive type tar remover or
mineral spirits.
6.
After cleaning and drying, apply a
quality automotive wax.
NOTE
To allow enough time for your truck's
finish to cure, wait at least thirty days
after the date of manufacture before
waxing.
•
Do not apply wax in the hot sun.
•
Never dust off dry surfaces with a
cloth because it will scratch the
finishes.
CAB
Cleaning the Chassis
•
•
Hose dirt and grime from the
entire chassis. Then, if an oil
leak develops, you will be able to
detect it easier.
Corrosive materials used for ice
and snow removal and dust control
can collect on the underbody. If
these materials are not removed,
accelerated corrosion (rust) can
occur on underbody parts such as
fuel lines, frames, floor pan, and
exhaust system, even though they
have been provided with corrosion
protection.
At least every spring, flush these
materials from the under body with
plain water. Be sure to clean any
area where mud and other debris can
collect. Sediment packed in closed
areas of the frame should be loosened
before being flushed. If desired, your
dealer can do this service for you.
Cleaning Interior Vinyl and
Upholstery
Safety Restraint System Inspection
•
Wipe vinyl upholstery and lining
with a good commercial upholstery
cleaner. Do not use acetone or
lacquer thinner.
•
Clean fabric upholstery with
upholstery shampoo specially
formulated for this purpose. Follow
instructions on the container.
The seat belt system, including
webbing, buckles, latches, and
mounting hardware, endures heavy
use in heavy-duty vehicles, much more
than seat belt systems in passenger
cars. All users should be aware of the
factors contributing to this heavy use
and reduced belt life.
WARNING
Failure to properly inspect and
maintain restraint systems can
lead to injury or loss of life.
Without
periodic
inspection
and
maintenance
to
detect
unsafe conditions, seat restraint
components can wear out or not
protect you in an accident.
5-65
5
CAB
Factors contributing to reduced
seat belt life:
•
Heavy trucks typically accumulate
twice as many miles as the
average passenger car in a given
time period.
•
Seat and cab movement in
trucks causes almost constant
movement of the belt due to ride
characteristics and seat design.
The constant movement of the belt
inside the restraint hardware and
the potential for the belt to come
in contact with the cab and other
vehicle parts, contributes to the
wear of the entire system.
•
Environmental conditions, such as
dirt and ultraviolet rays from the
sun, will reduce the life of the seat
belt system.
5
Due to these factors, the three-point
safety belt system installed in your
5-66
vehicle requires thorough inspection
every 20,000 miles (32,000 km). If
the vehicle is exposed to severe
environmental or working conditions,
more frequent inspections may be
necessary.
Any seat belt system that shows cuts,
fraying, extreme or unusual wear,
significant discoloration due to UV
(ultraviolet) exposure, abrasion to the
seat belt webbing, or damage to the
buckle, latch plate, retractor hardware
or any other obvious problem should
be replaced immediately, regardless
of mileage.
WARNING
It is important to remember that
any time a vehicle is involved in an
accident, the entire seat belt system
must be replaced.
Unexposed
damage caused by the stress of an
accident could prevent the system
from functioning properly the next
time it is needed. Failure to comply
may result in death or personal
injury.
CAB
Inspection Guidelines
Follow these guidelines when
inspecting for cuts, fraying, extreme
or unusual wear of the webbing,
and damage to the buckle, retractor,
hardware, or other factors. Damage to
these areas indicates that belt system
replacement is necessary.
other parts of the cab interior.
These areas are typical places
where the web will experience
cutting or abrasion. Cuts, fraying,
or excessive wear would indicate
the need for replacement of the
seat belt system.
2.
The pillar web guide (D-loop) is
the area where almost constant
movement of the seat belt
webbing occurs because of
relative movement between the
seat and cab.
3.
Check the Comfort Clip for cracks
or possible damage and check for
proper operation.
WARNING
Replace the entire belt system
(retractor and buckle side) if
replacement of any one part is
necessary.
Unexposed damage
to one or more components could
prevent the system from functioning
properly the next time it is needed.
Failure to comply may result in death
or personal injury.
1.
Check the web wear in the system.
The webbing must be closely
examined to determine if it is
coming into contact with any sharp
or rough surfaces on the seat or
4.
5.
Check buckle and latch for proper
operation and to determine if
latch plate is worn, deformed, or
damaged.
Inspect the retractor web storage
device, which is mounted on the
floor of the vehicle, for damage.
The retractor is the heart of the
occupant restraint system and can
often be damaged if abused, even
unintentionally. Check operation
to ensure that it is not locked up
and that it spools out and retracts
webbing properly.
6.
If tethers are used, be sure they
are properly attached to the
seat and, if adjustable, that they
are adjusted in accordance with
installation instructions. Tethers
must also be inspected for web
wear and proper tightness of
mounting hardware.
7.
Mounting hardware should be
evaluated for corrosion, and for
tightness of bolts and nuts.
8.
Check web in areas exposed to
ultraviolet rays from the sun. If the
color of the web in these areas is
gray to light brown, the physical
strength of the web may have
deteriorated due to exposure to
5-67
5
CAB
the sun's ultraviolet rays. Replace
the system.
4
5
6
7
8
Buckle casting broken.
Retractor Web Storage for
damage. (located behind
trim panel)
Tethers for web wear and
proper tightness of mounting
hardware.
Mounting hardware for
corrosion, proper tightness
of bolts and nuts.
Web for deterioration, due
to exposure to the sun
WARNING
5
Seat Belt Inspection Points
1
2
3
5-68
Web cut or frayed or
extremely worn at latch
area.
Web cut or frayed at D-loop
web guide.
Comfort Clip cracked or
damaged.
Failure to adjust tether belts properly
can cause excessive movement
of the seat in an accident. Tether
belts should be adjusted so that
they are taut when the seat is in its
most upward and forward position.
Failure to comply may result in death
or personal injury.
Once the need for replacement of
the seat belt has been determined,
be certain it is only replaced with
an authorized PACCAR Parts
replacement seat belt.
If the inspection indicates that any
part of the seat belt system requires
replacement, the entire system must
be replaced. An installation guide is
attached to every replacement belt.
Utilize the proper guide for your type of
seat, and follow the instructions very
closely. It is vitally important that all
components be reinstalled in the same
position as the original components
that were removed and that the
fasteners be torqued to specification.
This will maintain the design integrity
of the mounting points for the seat belt
assembly. Contact your dealer if you
have any questions concerning seat
belt replacement.
CAB
Windshield Wiper/Washer
The windshield wiper system is
maintenance free. Check wiper blades
annually or every 60,000 miles (96,000
km).
Washer Reservoir
CAUTION
Do not use antifreeze or engine
coolant in the windshield washer
reservoir, damage to seals and other
components will result.
Daily: Check reservoir water level,
located in the engine compartment. If
necessary, refill to the proper level.
5
5-69
COOLING SYSTEM
COOLING SYSTEM
CAUTION
Cooling system
maintenance
Your engine’s cooling system is
standard with Extended Life Coolant
(ELC). ELC consists of a mixture of
ethylene glycol, water, and organic
acid technology chemical inhibitors.
ELC prevents corrosion and scale
formation as well as provides freezing
and boiling point protection.
The engine cooling system has
very specific maintenance and
inspection requirements. Failure to
follow requirements can damage the
engine. Engine damage can include
but is not limited to:
•
Freezing
•
Boiling
•
Corrosion
•
Pitted cylinder liners
This information is found in the
engine
manufacturers
owner’s
manual.
It is the owner’s
responsibility
to
follow
all
requirements listed in the engine
manufacturers owner’s manual.
5
What To Check In An
ELC-filled Cooling System
ELC Concentration
Check the level of freeze/boilover
protection, which is determined by
the ELC concentration. Use a glycol
refractometer to determine glycol level.
Add ELC to obtain the ELC to water
ratio required to provide the protection
you need. Use the chart below to help
determine how much ELC you need
to add.
NOTE
Maximum
recommended
ELC
concentration is 60% ELC and
40% water by volume (a 60/40
coolant mixture).
The minimum
recommended concentration is
40%.
In an ELC-filled cooling system, the
freeze point should be maintained
5-70
COOLING SYSTEM
between -30° F and -45° F (-34° C and
-43° C).
Desired
ELC/
Water
ratio:
Freeze
point °F
(°C)
Items in
0%
10%
15%
20%
25%
30%
35%
40%
45%
50%
55%
60%
65%
70%
75%
80%
85%
90% 100%
+32
(0)
+25
(-4)
+20
(-7)
+15
(-9)
+10
(-12)
+5
(-15)
-5
(-21)
-12
(-24)
-23
(-31)
-34
(-37)
-50
(-46)
-65
(-54)
-75
(-59)
-84
(-64)
-70
(-57)
-55
(-48)
-43
(-42)
-30
(-34)
-5
(-21)
bold are the recommended levels of concentration.
ELC Condition (Contamination
and Inhibitor Concentration)
Perform a visual inspection of the
ELC. It should have no cloudiness
or floating debris. Determine the
chemical inhibitor concentration level
by using an ELC-specific test kit or
test strips. Inhibitor concentration level
determines corrosion protection. If you
are concerned about possible coolant
quality, contamination, or mechanical
problems, submit a coolant sample for
analysis. Improper maintenance may
cause coolant degradation and could
result in damage to the cooling system
and engine components. Consult
your dealer or the ELC manufacturer’s
representative for recommended ELC
test kits, test strips, and laboratory
sample procedures.
Maintenance Schedule on page 5-12.
Never use filters that contain SCAs in
an ELC-filled system.
ELC Extender
5
Add ELC extender if necessary at the
maintenance interval under “Cooling”.
Coolant Filter
If your vehicle came with a
non-chemical filter (“blank filter”),
replace it only with a blank filter at the
interval specified in the Preventive
5-71
COOLING SYSTEM
Topping Off
NOTE
WARNING
5
Removing the fill cap on a hot engine
can cause scalding coolant to spray
out and burn you badly. If the engine
has been in operation within the
previous 30 minutes, be very careful
in removing the fill cap. Protect face,
hands, and arms against escaping
fluid and steam by covering the cap
with a large, thick rag. Do not try to
remove it until the surge tank cools
down or if you see any steam or
coolant escaping. In any situation,
remove the cap very slowly and
carefully. Be ready to back off if any
steam or coolant begins to escape.
If frequent topping off is necessary
and there are no visible signs of
coolant leaks when the engine is
cold, check for leaks with the engine
operating at normal temperature.
Top off the cooling system when
coolant does not rise to the level
indicated as ‘MIN’ on the surge tank.
The surge tank is translucent which
allows the coolant level to be seen.
Add coolant through the surge tank fill
cap. Do not remove the pressure cap
to fill the cooling system.
Surge Tank
NOTE
Do not use the pressure cap to fill the
surge tank with fluid.
Proper Coolant Level
NOTE
Do not overfill a cooling system.
Excess coolant may result in
overflow, loss of antifreeze, and
reduced corrosion protection.
5-72
COOLING SYSTEM
•
•
rate until the surge tank is full (to
the base of the fill neck). It may be
necessary to pause for 1 minute
and then re-fill if the fluid level
dropped.
The minimum fluid level is
determined by the line on the
surge tank indicated by the letters
“MIN”. This indicator is located
below the fill cap.
The cooling system will need fluid
if the surge tank level does not rise
to the “MIN” line regardless if the
system is hot or cold.
Refilling Your Radiator
1.
If your cooling system is built with
drain valves in the upper engine
coolant pipe, open them before
filling the surge tank.
2.
Close any open coolant drains in
the system.
3.
Remove the surge tank fill cap
(do not remove the surge tank
pressure cap).
4.
Fill the system with premixed
coolant through the surge tank fill
cap. Pour coolant at a steady flow
9.
Fill the surge tank as necessary
to raise the coolant level to ½ in.
above the “MIN” level.
10. Operate the engine at high idle for
another 10 minutes and then fill
the surge tank again to ½” above
the “MIN” level.
5.
Close any drain valves that were
opened in Step 1.
6.
Start the engine and idle at low
RPM.
11. Replace the surge tank fill cap.
7.
During low rpm idle, air will purge
from the cooling system which will
lower the coolant level in the surge
tank. Continue to fill the surge
tank until the coolant level remains
approximately ½ in. above the
"MIN" line. This may take up to 2
minutes, depending on the outside
temperature.
Check the coolant level after each trip.
Add coolant as necessary. You may
find your coolant level is not up to the
correct level soon after you have filled
the radiator. This may be because all
the trapped air in the system has not
yet been purged. It takes a little time
for all of the air to leave the system
after you fill your radiator.
8.
Operate the engine throttle
until the operating temperature
stabilizes (when the thermostat
opens).
5-73
5
COOLING SYSTEM
Engine (Block) Heater
WARNING
5
Do not use the heater if there are
any signs of problems.
Engine
block heaters can cause fires
resulting in death, personal injury,
equipment or property damage
if not properly maintained and
operated.
Regularly inspect the
engine block heater wiring and
connector for damaged or frayed
wires.
Contact your authorized
dealer or the manufacturer of the
heater if you are in need of repairs
or information. Failure to comply
may result in death, personal injury,
equipment or property damage.
CAUTION
Always unplug the block heater
before
starting
your
engine.
Damage to the cooling system could
occur if not turned OFF (unplugged).
5-74
Use a solution of half ethylene glycol
antifreeze and half water for best
heater performance. Do not use
more than 65 percent concentration of
antifreeze, as a shortened heater life
will result.
After servicing the cooling system,
operate the vehicle for a day or two
before using the heater. Trapped
air inside the engine needs time to
escape.
ELECTRICAL
ELECTRICAL
Electrical System
WARNING
Battery posts, terminals and related
accessories contain lead and lead
compounds, chemicals known to the
State of California to cause cancer
and reproductive harm. Wash hands
after handling.
Low Voltage Disconnect
(LVD)
Purpose
The LVD may increase battery life
and prevent unnecessary jump
start conditions by ensuring that an
unattended load does not deplete
the battery charge to a level that will
prevent you from starting your vehicle.
Operation
CAUTION
Do not modify or improperly repair
the vehicles electrical system or
power distribution box. All electrical
repairs should be performed by
an authorized dealer.
Improper
repair or modifications will void
your warranty and/or cause serious
damage to your vehicle.
The LVD will disconnect non-vital
battery loads when battery voltage
drops below 12.3V for 3 minutes and
the key switch is in the ACC or OFF
position. During the last 2 minutes the
LVD will emit a slow audible beep. 30
seconds before disconnecting loads
the alarm will change to a fast beep.
The battery voltage must come back
up above a certain voltage before the
LVD will reset.
See an authorized dealer if the LVD
fails to reconnect loads during normal
operation.
Circuits Disconnected By LVD
•
Cab Dome Lamps
•
Cab Accessories
•
Spare Battery A & B
NOTE
All LVD circuits are color-coded blue
on the central electrical panel cover
label.
5
5-75
ELECTRICAL
WARNING
Do not use the Spare Battery
A & B circuits or other circuits
that are controlled by the LVD to
power electronic engine controls,
ABS circuits, or safety/work-related
lighting. Before adding any device
to the vehicle's electrical system,
consult your nearest authorized
dealer or read the contents of TMC
RP-136.
Failure to do so may
cause equipment damage or lead to
personal injury.
5
NOTE
The
determination
of
what
circuits/loads that were connected
to the LVD was based upon the
recommendation from Technology
and Maintenance Council (TMC) of
the American Trucking Association.
To review the recommended
practice, see TMC RP-136.
5-76
Light Bulbs
Aero Hood - Headlight
Replacement
Replacing a headlight bulb is
accomplished by accessing the rear
of the headlight via a access panel in
the front fender. Open the hood to get
access to this panel.
Once the panel is open, the headlight
bulb socket may be removed to replace
the bulb.
WARNING
Optional HID headlights have high
voltage circuits and should only be
serviced by a trained technician.
Attempting to service the HID ballast
without proper training may result in
severe electrical shock which could
lead to death or personal injury.
Access door
ELECTRICAL
Vocational - Headlight
Replacement
Turn the bulb lock ring
counterclockwise and remove
the bulb. Do not allow the glass of
the new headlamp bulb to come into
contact with anything. The glass could
become contaminated and cause bulb
failure. Reassemble in reverse order.
Headlight Aiming
Bulb Specifications
The headlights were properly
aimed at the factory to meet safety
specifications. If the headlights need to
be adjusted, please have an authorized
dealership aim the headlights.
Bulb Location
Low Beam Halogen
Low Beam HID
High Beam Halogen
Daytime Running
Lamp/ Position
Lamp/Turn Signal/
Side Marker
Rear tail light/ Turn
Signal
Interior
map/dome/indirect
light
Type of Bulb
H11-LL (SAE), H7
(ECE) (long life
version not required)
D1-S
HB3A – LL (long life
version not required)
4157K (SAE), 3157K
(ECE)
Not applicable – LED
lighting
Not applicable – LED
lighting
5
5-77
ELECTRICAL
Fuses, Circuit Breakers and
Relays
Fuses, circuit breakers, and relays are
located in the Power Distribution Box
to the left of the steering column behind
the clutch pedal. Additional fuses are
located in the engine compartment
(drivers side bulkhead) and also
in the sleeper under bunk storage
compartment.
5
5-78
ELECTRICAL
5
Engine Area Fuse Label
5-79
ELECTRICAL
5
In-Cab Fuse Label
5-80
ELECTRICAL
5
Sleeper Fuse Label
5-81
ELECTRICAL
Fuse Inspection and
Replacement
If a fuse is blown, see What to do if
fuse or relay blows on page 2-6 for
more information.
Adding Electrical Options
WARNING
Do not add a fuse with a rating
higher than 30 amps.
Follow
the circuit protection size/type
recommended by the component
manufacturer.
Installing a fuse
or circuit breaker greater than
designated may damage the
electrical system which could lead to
equipment damage and/or personal
injury.
CAUTION
5
Fuse Puller
5-82
Follow all manufacturers' circuit
protection recommendations for
the components and wires being
added. Failure to comply may result
in equipment damage.
ELECTRICAL
NOTE
WARNING
If you are unfamiliar with proper
electrical repair practices and
procedures, see your authorized
dealer for assistance.
Never install a circuit breaker in a
circuit that is designated as “fuseonly” circuit(s). Fuse-only circuits
are marked with an * on the reverse
side of the Power Distribution Box
cover. Using a circuit breaker in
those fuse-only circuits may cause
the circuit to overheat when a short
exists which could lead to equipment
damage and/or personal injury.
NOTE
Easy addition of circuits is provided
by plug-in connectors that have a
ground and a power wire.
For proper electrical system
performance, refer to a wiring
diagram for your chassis before adding
electrical options.
Batteries
Battery Access
The vehicle is originally equipped with
three or four batteries. Replacement
batteries must meet the following
specifications: maintenance-free,
group 31 size, threaded stud, 12V/ 650
cold cranking ampere (CCA), and 160
minutes of reserve capacity.
The battery compartment is located on
the left side of the vehicle, under the
cab access steps.
1.
Remove the 6 bolts that are
located in the 2 cab access step
plate.
2.
Remove battery cover for access.
5-83
5
ELECTRICAL
In-Cab Battery Box
Your vehicle may be equipped
with Absorbed Glass Mat (AGM)
batteries located in the cab under the
passenger’s seat. The glass mat in
AGM batteries are designed to absorb
the battery acid inside the battery that
can leak or spill out in conventional
batteries. This design feature allows
batteries to be positioned in any
orientation without risk of leaking.
To access the batteries:
1.
Remove 6 fasteners securing the
passenger side seat base to the
battery box assembly.
2.
Remove the seat and seat base
as one unit to gain access to the
batteries.
5
5-84
WARNING
WARNING
Replace only with AGM (Group 31)
batteries. Use of other batteries
could result in acid leaks causing
personal injury in the event of a
vehicle accident. Failure to comply
may result in death, personal injury,
equipment or property damage.
Electrical damage or battery
explosion
can
occur
when
improperly
charging
batteries.
Refer to the Charging System on
page 5-87 for appropriate charging
instructions. Failure to comply may
result in death, personal injury,
equipment or property damage.
WARNING
Battery cables and air/electrical
harnesses are mounted to the
bottom of the floor. Do not drill
or screw into floor pan without
first checking the location of the
cables, harnesses or any other
component that might be damaged.
Damaging any component could
result in electrical shock which
could cause personal injury and/or
loss of a critical truck system.
Failure to comply may result in
death, personal injury, equipment or
property damage.
ELECTRICAL
WARNING
CAUTION
Batteries release gases that are
flammable. Batteries are equipped
with vent tubes and flash arrestors
which vent battery gases out of
the cab. Ensure all vent tubes,
flash arrestors and grommets are
properly installed and ensure they
are clear and functioning properly.
Failure to reinstall or keep the
vent tubes and grommets clear
or ensure the flash arrestor(s) are
functioning properly could result
in personal injury or equipment
damage. Failure to comply may
result in death, personal injury,
equipment or property damage.
Properly secure battery tie downs
and battery box cover when
reinstalling batteries after service.
Do not over tighten. Over tightening
can crack the battery case which
can lead to equipment damage.
CAUTION
Do not store other items in this
battery box. Failure to comply could
result in damage to the truck and/or
batteries.
Removing and Installing
Batteries:
1.
Be sure all switches on the vehicle
are turned OFF.
2.
Disconnect negative ground cable
first.
3.
Disconnect positive cable.
4.
Unscrew bolt of holding plate with
open end wrench.
NOTE
Always dispose of automotive
batteries in a safe and responsible
manner. Contact your authorized
dealer for disposal standards. Call
your local authorized recycling
center for information on recycling
automotive batteries.
Follow the procedure below to reinstall
batteries on the vehicle:
5-85
5
ELECTRICAL
NOTE
Make sure to reconnect the ground
(negative) cable last.
1.
Place batteries in vehicle and
tighten bolt of holding plate.
2.
Reconnect positive cable.
3.
Reconnect ground (negative)
ground cable.
Replacing Parts Removed
for Access
1.
Replace battery cover.
2.
Install 2 bolts in step strut. Torque
to 24-32 lb-ft (33-43 Nm).
3.
Install fairing and install 4 bolts.
Torque to 6-7 lb-ft (8-9 Nm).
4.
Install steps by installing 2 bolts in
each step. Torque to 24-32 lb-ft
(33-43 Nm).
WARNING
5
Battery replacement may alter
or disturb battery cable routing.
Check to insure battery cables are
free from any point of chaffing.
Failure to comply may result in
death, personal injury, equipment or
property damage.
5-86
WARNING
Always reinstall the steps before
entering the cab. Without the steps
you could slip and fall, resulting in
possible injury to yourself.
WARNING
Fairings not installed properly
could come loose and cause other
motorists to have an injury accident.
It is important that fairings be
installed properly. Failure to comply
may result in death, personal injury,
equipment or property damage.
WARNING
Before attempting any work on
the batteries or electrical system,
remove all jewelry. If metal jewelry
or other metal comes in contact with
electrical circuits, a short circuit may
occur causing you to be injured, as
well as electrical system failure and
damage.
ELECTRICAL
Battery Care
Regular attention to the charging
system will help prolong the service
life of the batteries. Here are some
common causes of battery failure:
Dirty or Loose Connections:
improper connections may stop the
flow of electrical power to and from the
battery.
Battery Charging
Except for using small trickle charges
to maintain battery condition, you
should have your vehicle's batteries
charged by a qualified service facility.
Overcharge: this condition results
from improper voltage regulator
adjustment. It results in overheating
of the battery, warped plates, and
evaporation of electrolyte.
WARNING
Batteries can injure you severely.
They contain acid,
produce
poisonous and explosive gases, and
supply levels of electric current high
enough to cause burns. A spark
or flame near a battery on charge
may cause it to explode with great
force. Never remove or tamper with
the battery caps. Failure to comply
may result in death, personal injury,
equipment or property damage.
Undercharge: the voltage regulator
is malfunctioning, the drive belt is
slipping, or your vehicle has undergone
long periods of standing idle or short
distance driving. These conditions
result in battery plates becoming
covered with a hard coating.
Vibration: loose battery hold-downs
may cause battery plate failure.
Short Circuits: these discharge the
battery by draining electricity.
To help reduce the risk of personal
injuries, follow these guidelines
carefully when recharging a battery:
•
Before attempting any service
in the electrical installation,
5-87
5
ELECTRICAL
disconnect the battery negative
cable.
•
Allow no sparks or open flame
anywhere near the charging area.
•
Charge a battery only in a
well-ventilated area, such as
outdoors or in a fully open garage
which contains no pilot lights or
other flames. Gases generated
during the charging process must
be allowed to escape.
•
5
•
Always make sure the battery
charger is OFF before connecting
or disconnecting the cable clamps.
To avoid short circuits, damage
to the vehicle, or personal injury,
never place metal tools or jumper
cables on the battery or nearby.
Metal that accidentally comes in
contact with the positive battery
terminal or any other metal on the
vehicle (that is in contact with the
5-88
positive terminal), could cause a
short circuit or an explosion.
Charging Reminders
•
Use protective eyewear.
•
Keep all batteries away from
children.
•
Never reverse battery poles.
•
Never attempt to place the vehicle
in motion, or run the engine with
batteries disconnected.
•
Keep the battery clean and dry.
•
Look for any signs of damage.
•
Battery terminals should not
be coated with improper
grease. Use petroleum jelly
or commercially available,
noncorrosive, nonconductive
terminal coatings.
•
Never use a fast charger as a
booster to start the engine. This
can seriously damage sensitive
electronic components such
ELECTRICAL
as relays, radio, etc., as well
as the battery charger. Fast
charging a battery is dangerous
and should only be attempted by
a competent mechanic with the
proper equipment.
Slow Battery Charging
WARNING
NOTE
Follow the instructions that come
with your battery charger.
•
It is not necessary to remove the
battery from the compartment.
WARNING
Charger cables must be connected
positive to positive (+ to +) and
negative to negative (- to -). If
connected improperly, batteries
could explode. Failure to comply
may result in death, personal injury,
equipment or property damage.
Always make sure the battery
charger is OFF before connecting
or disconnecting the cable clamps.
To reduce the danger of explosions
and resulting death or personal
injury, do not connect or disconnect
charger cables while the charger is
operating.
1.
Disconnect the battery cables.
2.
Connect charger cables.
3.
Start charging the battery at a rate
not over 6 amperes. Normally, a
battery should be charged at no
more than 10 percent of its rated
capacity.
4.
After charging, turn OFF charger
and disconnect charger cables.
5-89
5
ELECTRICAL
Electrical and Alternator
Precautions
•
Take the following precautions to
avoid burning out alternator diodes:
•
Do not reverse the cables of the
alternator, starter motor, or battery.
•
Do not polarize the alternator. The
alternator should not be polarized
like a generator. To ensure correct
polarity, use a test lamp or a
voltmeter.
•
•
5
Do not start the engine
with alternator disconnected
(connections removed) from the
circuit.
Before welding, disconnect all
electronic connections to the
vehicle batteries.
•
Remove battery power cable and
insulate it from the vehicle.
•
Do not run the engine with the
batteries disconnected.
•
Do not disconnect the battery
cables or alternator connection
cables with the engine running.
•
Never turn the ignition switch from
the ON position to the START
position with the engine running.
5-90
When charging the battery
(installed in the vehicle) disconnect
the battery cables.
Remote Keyless Entry
The remote keyless entry system may
become inoperational due to a key
fob battery. If you have issues with
a key fob, replace the battery and
re-synchronize the key fob. In some
situations, the key fob may need to
be replaced and in others, a fuse may
have failed and may render both key
fobs inoperative.
Contact your dealer for more help if
a key fob does not work and it is not
because of a bad battery.
ENGINE
ENGINE
Engine Maintenance
WARNING
Exhaust fumes from the engine
contain carbon monoxide,
a
colorless and odor less gas. Do
not breathe the engine exhaust
gas. A poorly maintained, damaged
or corroded exhaust system can
allow carbon monoxide to enter the
cab. Entry of carbon monoxide into
the cab is also possible from other
vehicles nearby. Failure to properly
maintain your vehicle could cause
carbon monoxide to enter the cab
and cause death or personal injury.
WARNING
NOTE
Never idle your vehicle for prolonged
periods of time if you sense that
exhaust fumes are entering the cab.
Investigate the cause of the fumes
and correct it as soon as possible.
If the vehicle must be driven under
these conditions, drive only with the
windows open. Failure to repair
the source of the exhaust fumes
may result in death, personal injury,
equipment or property damage.
Keep the engine exhaust system
and the vehicles cab ventilation
system properly maintained. It is
recommended that the vehicles
exhaust system and cab be
inspected:
•
By a competent technician every
15,000 miles
•
Whenever a change is noticed in
the sound of the exhaust system
•
Whenever the exhaust system,
underbody or cab is damaged
5
5-91
ENGINE
Engine Lubrication
Refer to the engine manufacturer's
Engine Operation and Maintenance
Manual supplied with your vehicle for
information about draining and refilling
engine oil, engine crank case capacity,
engine oil type, and changing oil filters,
etc.
WARNING
5
Hot engine oil can be dangerous.
You could be burned. Let the engine
oil cool down before changing it.
Failure to comply may result in
death, personal injury, equipment or
property damage.
5-92
Inspection of the Engine Oil
Level
1.
Make sure that the vehicle frame
rail is standing on a flat and level
surface.
2.
Make sure that the vehicle is
horizontal, both lengthwise and
crosswise. Check this carefully
on a vehicle with air suspension.
Note that the engine may be
inclined up to 4° depending on the
vehicle model and wheelbase.
3.
Twist the dipstick handle to unlock
it, then pull the dipstick out of the
holder.
4.
Wipe the dipstick clean with a
lint-free cloth.
5.
Place the dipstick back into the
holder.
6.
Pull the dipstick out again and
check the oil level. The oil level
should always be between the 2
marks on the dipstick.
NOTE
It takes approximately 15 minutes
for all the oil to run into the sump
when the engine is ‘warm.’ If the
level is checked immediately after
switching off the engine, the dipstick
will show a low oil level.
ENGINE
7.
Reinstall the dipstick and twist to
lock it in place.
1.
2.
Topping Up the Engine Oil
Pipe and Hose Clamps
1.
Top up with oil, if necessary, via
the filler opening. Use the correct
grade in the correct quantity. For
oil replacement, please see engine
Operator’s Manual included with
this chassis.
Use the following table for torque
specifications to check pipe and hose
clamps.
2.
After topping up, wait 1 minute and
check the oil level again.
3.
Reinstall the oil fill cap and twist
to lock it in place.
5
Engine Oil High Level
Engine Oil Low Level
5-93
ENGINE
Pipe and Hose Clamp Torque Values
APPLICATION
Radiator & Heat Exchanger Hoses
Heater Hoses
Air Intake Pipes
Charge Air Intake Hoses
Fuel, Oil & Water Heat Exchangers (for
hoses less than 9/16 diameter)
Exhaust Clamps
5
5-94
APPROVED CLAMP
Constant-Torque CT-L
Constant Tension
Hi-Torque HTM-L
Flex Seal 667
B9296
Miniature 3600L
Breeze V-Band
TORQUE
Nm
10.2-12.5
not required
11.3-14.2
7.9-11.3
6-7
1.1-1.7
Lb-In
90-110
not required
100-125
70-100
50-60
10-15
54
480
ENGINE
Accessory Drive Belts
You can extend the reliability and
service life of your vehicle's drive belts
with proper attention to installation,
and maintenance. Neglect could
cause belt failure. The result could be
the loss of the electrical or air system
as well as possible engine damage
from overheating. So it's a very good
idea to check your belts frequently and
replace them as soon as you detect
trouble.
2.
Slip the belt around the idler
pulley attached to the automatic
tensioner.
3.
Release the automatic tensioner.
4.
Check the belt alignment on each
pulley. The belt must fall between
the flanges of each pulley.
PACCAR MX Belt Routing
Follow this procedure to install an
accessory drive belt:
1.
Route the new belt around the
pulleys, and then rotate the
automatic tensioner so that the
idler pulley swings toward the
belt routing. The following figure
shows an example of the rotation
direction to release the tensioner.
5
Cummins Belt Routing
5-95
ENGINE
Engine Fan
WARNING
Do not work on the fan with the
engine running. The engine fan can
engage at any time without warning.
Before turning on the ignition, be
sure that no one is near the fan.
Failure to comply may result in death
or personal injury.
Your truck may be equipped with an
On/Off or Viscous Fan Drive. Follow
these guidelines to check your engine
fan:
5
Check the fan bearings for fan hub
bearing looseness, loss of lubricant
and any abnormal conditions. (For
example, fan belt misaligned or
excessive wear/damage.) Before
starting the engine and with the engine
off, look and feel for looseness in the
fan hub.
5-96
Fan Drive and Blade
With the engine idling and the hood
open, stand at the front of the vehicle.
Listen for any noises coming from
the fan hub. Bearings that have lost
lubricant, and are dry, will typically emit
a squeal or a growl when the engine is
at operating temperature and the fan
clutch is engaged. If noise is detected,
have the fan bearings inspected by an
authorized dealership.
WARNING
Do not work on the fan with the
engine running. The engine fan can
engage at any time without warning.
Before turning on the ignition be
sure that no one is near the fan.
Failure to comply may result in death
or personal injury.
Fan Blade Clearance: Around the fan
shroud, the recommended distance
is 1 in. (25 mm) from front edge of
any fan blade-to-radiator side member.
Minimum clearance is 3/4 in. (19 mm).
•
Rear edge of any blade must be
no closer than 3/8 in. (9 mm) to
the nearest engine component. If
this cannot be obtained, the fan
spacer or fan is not correct.
•
The leading edge of any fan blade
must be 1 in. (25 mm) from the
inside edge of the shroud.
ENGINE
Air Intake System
Turbocharger
CAUTION
Engine heat, vibration, and age
combine to loosen air intake
connections and cause cracks in
the tubing and elbows. Leaks in the
intake system allow abrasive dust to
enter the engine and quickly cause
expensive damage. During your daily
walk-around inspection, carefully
check all tubing, elbows, clamps,
supports and fasteners for condition
and tightness.
•
Check the Charge-Air-Cooler for
air leaks annually. The air leaks
can be caused by cracked tubes
or header. For service see your
authorized dealer.
Do not use air intake pipes and
connections as a step or to pull
yourself up. This could loosen the
connections and open the system to
unfiltered air which could damage
the engine.
When servicing the air intake and
exhaust systems on a turbocharged
engine, check the items listed below.
WARNING
Do not operate engine with
turbocharger
intake
piping
disconnected. A suction is created
when the engine is running. This
suction could draw your hand or
anything else near it into the impeller
fan. You could be injured. Always
keep the intake piping connected
when you will be running the engine.
5
Lubricating System: Check the oil
lines, housing, and connections. Look
for leaks, damage, or deterioration.
Leaks could mean you have damaged
oil lines or oil seals.
Manifold: With the engine operating,
check for leaking manifold or flange
gaskets.
5-97
ENGINE
High Frequency Vibration: Vibration
may indicate turbo rotor imbalance.
Have your dealer investigate this
immediately. If you detect any
deficiencies, take the vehicle to an
authorized dealer for servicing. Delay
could lead to severe and expensive
damage to your vehicle.
Air Cleaners
The following service information is
basic to all air cleaner makes and
models.
CAUTION
Failure to replace air filter at proper
intervals may result in passage of
dirt/debris into the engine or the
“dusting” of an engine resulting in
significant engine damage.
Service the air cleaner filter elements
as specified in the Preventive
Maintenance Schedule on page 5-12.
If your vehicle is equipped with an
optional air inlet restriction indicator,
service the filter elements when the air
inlet restriction indicator locks in the
extreme Up position. Paper elements
require care and proper handling
because they are critical to engine
service life. If your vehicle has an
external air cleaner and cab-mounted
5
5-98
mirrors, the mirror must be pivoted to
provide access for servicing the filter
element.
ENGINE
Replacing the Engine Air
Intake Filter
1.
Open hood.
2.
Loosen a total of 4 screws.
(screws will not come out of the
housing)
3.
Remove lid.
4.
Remove filter.
Filter Minder
Exhaust System
The exhaust system is part of the
noise and emission control system.
Periodically check the exhaust for
wear, exhaust leaks, and loose or
missing parts. For details see Noise
and Emission Control on page 5-115.
Please refer to the Exhaust
Aftertreatment operator manual
for more details on how to maintain the
emission's components in the exhaust
system.
The Filter Minder is installed on the air
cleaner or air induction piping so it has
access to clean filtered air. As the filter
plugs and restriction increases, the
yellow position indicator moves into
the clear window and locks at several
points. When it reaches the red zone,
the air filter should be replaced. The
indicator can be reset by pressing
the yellow button at the end of the
indicator.
5
5-99
FUEL SYSTEM
FUEL SYSTEM
Specification
Fuel Filters
Location of Fuel Shut-off
Valves
Use only diesel fuel as recommended
by engine manufacturers.
Please follow these recommendations
when you are changing your fuel filters
or strainer elements. Your engine
will run better and last longer if you
do. See the engine manufacturer’s
recommendations for proper water and
micron requirements.
Fuel shut-off valves for the fuel
crossover line are on the bottom of the
secondary fuel tank, at the crossover
line connection. They are optional on
the primary fuel tank.
WARNING
A mixture of gasoline or alcohol with
diesel fuel in the presence of an
ignition source (such as a cigarette)
could cause an explosion resulting
in death or personal injury. Use only
the recommended diesel fuel.
•
When removing filters, cover any
electrical equipment and wiring
that might get soaked with fuel.
Diesel fuel may permanently
damage electrical insulation.
•
When installing spin-on
(throwaway) filters, hand tighten
them only to 1/2 to 2/3 turn after
gasket contact. Over-tightening
these filters may distort or crack
the filter head.
CAUTION
If anyone ever pours gasoline into
your fuel tank, drain the entire
system. Otherwise, the pump and
engine will be damaged. Don’t try to
dilute the gasoline by adding diesel
fuel (See Warning above).
5
5-100
FUEL SYSTEM
NOTE
To expel air from density-type
strainer elements, soak them in
clean fuel before installing them.
•
When replacing a fuel filter
element, don’t use a substitute.
Install only filter elements designed
for fuel filtration. First clean and
inspect the shell. Then insert the
new element and fill the container
at least 2/3 full of clean fuel before
installing the shell.
•
Throw away old gaskets. Replace
them with new ones to ensure a
positive seal.
•
Position the shell and gasket
properly. Then tighten the cover
nut or bolt just enough to prevent
fuel leakage.
•
After starting the engine, check for
leaks around the filter.
5
5-101
FRAME
FRAME
Emergency Welding
Introduction
WARNING
Do not cut, splice or weld frame
rails or drill through the top or
bottom flanges of the rails. These
operations could affect frame rail
strength leading to a failure resulting
in an accident. Rail failures resulting
from such modifications are not
warrantable.
Failure to comply
may result in death, personal injury,
equipment or property damage.
WARNING
Frame
welding
is
NOT
recommended.
The high heat
of welding nullifies the special
heat treatment of the rails, greatly
reducing the tensile strength of
the frame rail. If a frame member
becomes cracked from overloading,
fatigue, surface damage or a
collision, the only permanent repair
is to replace the damaged frame
member with a new part.
In an emergency, a temporary repair
may be performed. Observe the
following precautions to protect
electronic systems during welding
operations. Emergency welding
procedures are further explained in the
maintenance manuals. Please refer to
the ordering information on the back
cover to obtain a maintenance manual.
5
5-102
Welding Precautions
In the event of emergency welding of a
frame rail and when welding any other
part of your truck or any component
attached to your truck, observe the
following precautions before welding:
•
Disconnect all electronic devices.
It is not possible to list all of the
electronics that could be affected,
but a few examples include the
following: alternator, engine
Electronic Control Unit (ECU),
transmission ECU, ABS ECU,
navigation devices, diagnostic
devices, and monitoring devices.
•
Disconnect battery cables and
insulate them from the vehicle.
•
Do not use the ECU or engine
ground stud for the ground of the
welding probe.
•
Ensure that the ground connection
for the welder is as close to the
FRAME
weld point as possible. This
ensures maximum weld current
and minimum risk to damage
of electrical components on the
vehicle.
Painting
Fifth Wheel Maintenance
Do not electrostatically paint your
truck or any component on your
truck without first removing all of
the electronic components from the
truck. It is not possible to list all of
the electronics that could be affected,
but a few examples include the
alternator, engine Electronic Control
Unit (ECU), transmission ECU, ABS
ECU, navigation devices, diagnostic
devices, and monitoring devices.
Proper preventive maintenance is
essential to trouble-free service and
safe operation of the fifth wheel.
Every 15,000 miles or monthly:
•
Refer to specific manufacturer's
literature for any special
instructions.
•
Steam clean the fifth wheel.
•
Check lock guard operation using
a commercial lock tester.
•
Clean and oil all moving parts.
•
Lubricate the lock mechanism with
a lithium-base grease.
•
All grease fittings (especially those
which grease the top surface of
the fifth wheel).
5-103
5
FRAME
Every 60,000 miles or 6 months:
5
•
Refer to specific manufacturer's
literature for any special
instructions.
•
Remove fifth wheel from vehicle.
Refer to the Shop Manual, “Fifth
Wheel Removal.”
•
Steam clean the fifth wheel and
mounting brackets.
•
Check all moving parts for
excessive wear or damage.
Replace all worn or broken parts.
•
Complete two-month service
procedure.
•
Install fifth wheel. Refer to
the Shop Manual, “Fifth Wheel
Installation.”
5-104
Frame Fastener Torque
Requirements
Tighten all frame fasteners with a
torque wrench. Torque specifications
apply to the following fasteners with
lightly lubricated threads.
NOTE
Whenever possible, torque all frame
fasteners on the nut end, not the bolt
head.
Standard Grade 8 UNF or UNC and Metric
TORQUE *
FASTENER
SIZE
Nm
Lb-Ft
22-30
16-22
5/16
41-54
30-40
3/8
75-88
55-65
7/16
109-122
80-90
1/2
156-190
115-140
9/16
224-265
165-195
5/8
394-462
290-340
3/4
517-626
380-460
7/8
1
952-1,129
700-830
1,346-1,591
990-1,170
1-1/8
1,877-2,217
1,380-1,630
1-1/4
METRIC WITH NYLON INSERT NUTS
M5
8-12
6-9
M6
9-15
7-11
M8
23-31
17-23
M10
33-43
24-32
55-75
M12
75-101
M16
163-217
120-160
M20
352-460
260-340
* ESNA Style Lock Nut, with nylon insert.
Lubricate nylon insert nut lightly with SAE
20/30 oil.
FRAME
Sliding Fifth Wheels
Lubricate bearing surface of support
bracket through the grease fittings on
the side of the fifth wheel plate. Use a
water resistant lithium-base grease.
NOTE
The plate must be lifted up slightly
to relieve the weight of the bracket
while applying grease.
5
5-105
FRONT AXLE AND SUSPENSION
FRONT AXLE AND
SUSPENSION
Axle Lubrication
Change bearing lubrication when seals
are replaced, or brakes are relined.
See Preventive Maintenance Schedule
on page 5-12.
Thoroughly clean hubs and bearings
with solvent and a stiff bristle brush,
then dry and inspect components for
wear or damage. Re-lubricate with
approved axle lubricant.
5
Kingpin Lubrication
Suspension Lubrication
Lubricate with approved lubricant.
Lubricate knuckle thrust bearings,
knuckle pins, and tie rod ends. See
Preventive Maintenance Schedule
on page 5-12. Lack of lubrication
causes premature wear and hard
steering. Lubrication schedule may be
shortened if necessary.
Each standard spring anchor pin
has a grease fitting. Pressure
lubricate spring pins as specified. See
Preventive Maintenance Schedule on
page 5-12.
At regular intervals, the spring leaves
may be lubricated with a rust-inhibiting
oil applied with a spray gun or brush.
Depending on your suspension,
lubricate all spring pins until grease
flows out of both ends of the bushing.
Look for signs of rust or water in the
flushed grease. If a pin will not accept
grease, it should be removed, cleaned,
and inspected.
CAUTION
Do not spray the suspension with
chemical products or mineral oil; it
can cause damage to the bushings.
5-106
FRONT AXLE AND SUSPENSION
Inspection
Wheel Alignment
For all vehicles, mandatory
maintenance procedures include
retightening all U-bolts and inspecting
the suspension for loose fasteners,
abnormal wear, or damage. However,
even with proper maintenance, the
service life of leaf springs is affected
by many factors, such as: fatigue,
vehicle gross weight, type of load, road
conditions, and vehicle speed.
For driving safety and comfort, and
to prolong the life of your vehicle, it
is important to have wheels correctly
aligned. Check tire wear frequently.
Uneven tire wear is a sign that the
wheels may be misaligned.
If you see uneven wear, take your
vehicle to an authorized dealer familiar
with aligning wheels on your vehicle.
Check for cracks, wear marks, splits,
or other defects on the surface of
the spring. Defective parts must be
replaced. Because repaired springs
cannot be fully restored to their original
service life, replace the complete
assembly if cracks or other defects are
detected.
5
Visually inspect shock absorbers and
rubber bushings.
5-107
FRONT AXLE AND SUSPENSION
U-Bolt Torque
It is important that U-bolts remain tight.
Severe use of your vehicle will cause
them to loosen faster. But all vehicles
need to have their U-bolts checked and
tightened regularly. Be sure someone
with the proper training and the right
tools checks and tightens the U-bolts
on your vehicle.
New springs can settle in after service,
relieving the tension on the U-bolts.
Loose U-bolts can cause leaf spring
breakage, axle misalignment, hard
steering and abnormal tire wear.
5
All vehicles should have suspension
U-bolts tightened after the first 500
miles (800 km) of operation. Re-torque
the front spring pinch bolts and shackle
pinch bolts.
5-108
WARNING
Do not operate the vehicle if the
U-bolts are not properly tightened.
Loose U-bolts will cause the axle
to not be properly secured to the
suspension, which could cause
loss of vehicle control and an
accident. Loose U-bolts can also
cause uneven tire wear and poor
alignment. Failure to comply may
result in death, personal injury,
equipment or property damage.
U-bolts are difficult to tighten unless
you have the right equipment. If you
cannot tighten them correctly yourself,
be sure to have them checked and
tightened regularly by an authorized
mechanic.
Tighten U-bolt nuts to the specified
torque value with the vehicle loaded to
its normal gross weight. The following
torque values apply to U-bolts and
nuts with clean threads lubricated with
Chevron zinc lubricant (SAE 20 or 30
oils acceptable but not preferred).
WARNING
Do not replace U-bolts and nuts
with common U-bolts or standard
nuts. These parts are critical to
vehicle safety. If the wrong U-bolts
or nuts are used, the axle could
loosen or separate from the vehicle
and cause a serious accident.
Use only U-bolts and nuts of SAE
Grade 8 specification or better.
Failure to comply may result in
death, personal injury, equipment or
property damage.
FRONT AXLE AND SUSPENSION
Front Spring Suspension U-Bolts, Grade 8
U-BOLT SIZE
DIAMETER
(Inch
Dimensions)
3/4
7/8
1
1-1/8
1-1/4
1-1/2
TORQUE
Nm
Lb-Ft
333-408
598-734
925-1,060
1,470-1,660
1,890-2,120
3,130-3,860
245-300
440-540
680-780
1,080-1,220
1,390-1,560
2,300-2,840
5
5-109
HEATER AND AIR CONDITIONER
HEATER AND AIR
CONDITIONER
Introduction
The combination heater-air conditioner
provides comfort for those in the cab
through accurate control of the cab
environment in all weather conditions.
Regular attention to the items below
will help you keep the heater-air
conditioner unit running well.
5
Keep the vehicle's ventilation system,
engine exhaust system and cab
joints properly maintained. It is
recommended that the vehicle's
exhaust system and cab be serviced
as follows:
•
Inspected by a competent
technician every 15,000 miles
•
Whenever a change is noticed in
the sound of the exhaust system
5-110
•
Whenever the exhaust system,
underbody or cab is damaged
To allow for proper operation of the
vehicle ventilation system, proceed as
follows:
•
Keep the inlet grille at the base of
the windshield clear of snow, ice,
leaves and other obstructions at
all times.
•
Keep the exhaust pipe area clear
to help reduce the buildup of
exhaust gas under the vehicle.
•
Check the drain tube of the fresh
air inlet for trapped water before
assuming that there is a leak in the
heating system.
Special Precautions
WARNING
Excessive heat may cause the
pressurized components of the air
conditioning system to explode.
Never weld, solder, steam clean,
or use a blow torch near any part
of the air conditioning system.
Failure to comply may result in
death, personal injury, equipment or
property damage.
WARNING
Air conditioning refrigerant can
be hazardous to your health. Do
not expose yourself to leaking
refrigerant for prolonged periods
near excessive heat, open flames,
or without proper ventilation. Failure
to do so may result in death or
personal injury.
If a refrigerant leak develops in the
presence of excessive heat or an
HEATER AND AIR CONDITIONER
open flame, hazardous gases may be
generated. If you become aware of a
refrigerant leak on your vehicle have
your system serviced immediately and
observe the following precautions:
Stay away from the hot engine until the
exhaust manifold has cooled.
Do not permit any open flame in the
area. Even a match or a cigarette
lighter may generate a hazardous
quantity of poisonous gas.
Do not smoke in the area. Inhaling
gaseous refrigerant through a cigarette
may cause violent illness.
Air Filters
Cabin Fresh Air Filter
The fresh air filter for the cab HVAC is
located in the air intake housing that is
located in the passenger rear corner of
the engine compartment. The filter can
be replaced without using any tools.
1.
Tilt the hood open.
2.
Locate air intake housing at
passenger rear corner of vehicle
under the rain tray.
3.
Locate filter cover labeled “OPEN”
with an arrow pointing rearward in
vehicle. Slide filter cover rearward
in vehicle until you are able to
remove the cover.
4.
Remove and inspect filter referring
to maintenance interval schedule.
5.
Replace filter in housing taking
care to align the airflow direction
that is indicated on the side of
5-111
5
HEATER AND AIR CONDITIONER
the side of the filter element with
the airflow direction that is clearly
marked on the air intake housing.
6.
5
7.
Replace the filter cover on the air
intake housing and slide the cover
forward in vehicle. An audible
snap sound can be heard when
the cover is correctly in place. If
the snap feature is damaged there
are two screw features that may
be utilized to retain the cover in
place.
Close and secure hood of vehicle.
5-112
Cab Recirculation Air Filter
Sleeper HVAC Air Filter
Please contact an authorized dealer
when the service interval is required to
inspect the cabin recirculation air filter.
The sleeper recirculation filter is
located under the sleeper bunk on the
passenger side of the vehicle. Lift the
bottom bunk to access the unit. The
filter can be replaced without using
any tools.
1.
Lift the sleeper bunk to expose the
sleeper HVAC module.
2.
Find the retention tab at the side
of the filter element and move it to
release the filter. Moving this tab
HEATER AND AIR CONDITIONER
element such that it points into the
HVAC housing.
will allow the filter to be removed
in an upward direction.
4.
5.
Insert the filter and make sure the
retention tab has re-engaged to
secure the filter.
Close the bunk.
Heater
•
Check all heater controls for
full-range operation.
•
Check hoses, connections, and
heater core for condition and
leaks.
CAUTION
During extreme cold weather, do
not blow hot defroster air onto cold
windshields. This could crack the
glass. Turn the air direction lever
to Defrost and adjust the fan speed
accordingly while the engine warms.
If the engine is already warm,
move the temperature selector to
Cool, then gradually increase the
temperature when you see that the
windshield is starting to warm-up.
3.
Align the airflow direction that is
indicated on the side of the filter
5-113
5
HEATER AND AIR CONDITIONER
Air Conditioner
necessary. Small particles may
be removed with compressed
air blown through the core in the
opposite direction of normal air
flow.
WARNING
The air conditioning system is
under pressure.
If not handled
properly during servicing, it could
explode. Any servicing that requires
depressurizing and recharging the
air conditioning system must be
conducted by a qualified technician
with the right facilities to do the
job. Failure to comply may result in
death, personal injury, equipment or
property damage.
•
5
•
Listen to the compressor and drive
clutch for noise and vibration.
If you find problems, have the
system checked thoroughly. A
malfunctioning clutch usually
indicates trouble elsewhere in the
system.
Check the evaporator core, filter,
and condenser core for debris
restricting air flow. Clean if
5-114
WARNING
Wear eye protection any time
you blow compressed air. Small
particles blown by compressed air
could injure your eyes.
•
Check the engine belt for condition
and proper tension.
•
Check all hoses for kinks,
deterioration, chafing, and leaks.
Adjust kinked or chafing hoses to
eliminate restrictions and prevent
further wear.
•
Check all components and
connections for refrigerant leaks.
If you discover a leak, do not try to
tighten a connection. Tightening
a connection may cause a leak
to worsen. Have a qualified
technician correct the problem.
NOTE
A leaking evaporator or condenser
core cannot be repaired; it must be
replaced.
Have the air conditioning system fully
serviced annually by your authorized
dealer. Qualified service technicians
will have to evacuate and recharge the
system.
NOISE AND EMISSION CONTROL
NOISE AND EMISSION
CONTROL
Tampering with Noise
Control System
Noise Emission Warranty
Federal law prohibits the following
acts or the causing thereof:
There are specific components on
the vehicle that are designed to meet
certain EPA emissions and noise
regulations. To maintain conformance
with the regulations, these components
need to be functional and properly
maintained.
(1) The removal or rendering
inoperative by any person other than
for purposes of maintenance, repair, or
replacement, of any device or element
of design incorporated into any new
vehicle for the purpose of noise control
prior to its sale or delivery to the
ultimate purchaser or while it is in use,
or (2) the use of the vehicle after such
device or element of design has been
removed or rendered inoperative by
any person.
5
Among those acts presumed to
constitute tampering are the acts listed
below:
5-115
NOISE AND EMISSION CONTROL
Air Intake System
Fuel System
•
•
Removing or rendering inoperative
the air cleaner/silencers or intake
piping.
Engine Cooling System
•
Removing or rendering inoperative
the fan clutch.
•
Removing the fan shroud.
•
Removing of air signal attenuator
on engines equipped with this
device.
•
Removing of diesel exhaust fluid
tank and system.
Engine
•
5
•
Removing or rendering engine
speed governor inoperative so as
to allow engine speed to exceed
manufacturer's specifications.
Modifying ECU parameters.
Inner Fender Shields and Cab
Skirts
•
Removing shield or skirts.
•
Cutting away parts of shields,
skirts or damaged or loose
portions of shields or skirts.
Exhaust System
•
Removing or rendering inoperative
exhaust system components.
5-116
Removing or rendering engine
speed governor inoperative,
allowing engine speed to exceed
manufacturer's specifications.
Noise Insulating Blankets
•
Removing noise insulators from
engine block or from around the
oil pan.
•
Cutting holes in, or cutting away
part of noise insulators.
•
Removing hood-mounted noise
insulation.
NOISE AND EMISSION CONTROL
Inspection and Maintenance
Instructions
The following instructions are based on
inspection of the noise control system
at regular intervals as indicated in the
Noise Control System Maintenance
Log on page 5-123.
If, during periodic inspection and
maintenance of other systems and
components, it is found that parts of the
noise control system require attention,
we recommend that those parts be
inspected at more frequent intervals
to assure adequate maintenance and
performance.
Air Intake System
•
Do all checks and maintenance
procedures listed in this manual
under Engine Air Intake System
and Air Cleaner. See Air Dryer on
page 5-50.
•
Check the induction tubing, elbow
connections, clamps, brackets,
and fasteners for deterioration,
cracks, and security.
•
If you find an air leak anywhere
between the air cleaner and
the engine, repair that leak
immediately.
CAUTION
Air leaks cause excessive noise and
may result in serious damage to the
engine. If you do not repair them the
engine damage will not be covered
by your warranty. Repair all air leaks
as soon as you find them.
Engine Mounted Noise
Insulators
•
Check condition. Is the insulator
secure? How you do this will
depend on the method of attaching
the noise insulators on the engine
and around the oil pan (bolts,
snap fasteners, or straps). Tighten
loose fasteners and repair or
replace any worn or damaged
fasteners.
•
Check insulators around fasteners
and stress points, especially
where they may be affected by
engine vibration. Repair any
cracked or damaged mounting
points. Use suitable reinforcing
plates to ensure that the insulators
will remain in position.
5-117
5
NOISE AND EMISSION CONTROL
Exhaust System
Joints and Clamps
•
Check for exhaust leaks,
which would indicate a leaking
manifold gasket; replace gasket if
necessary.
•
Check cap screws for tightness,
including those at the flanges.
Refer to the engine manufacturer's
service manual for proper
tightening sequence and torque
values.
•
•
5
5-118
Check for leaks, and tighten as
necessary. Check for deterioration
or dents in pipes and clamps which
could allow exhaust to escape.
Replace any serviceable joints,
flexible pipes and gaskets at the
service intervals.
Selective Catalyst Reduction
(SCR)
•
Check SCR canister filter, clamps
and mounting brackets. Tighten if
necessary. Inspect SCR canister
for signs of rust or corrosion.
NOISE AND EMISSION CONTROL
Piping
•
Check exhaust piping for rust,
corrosion, or damage. Replace
deteriorated piping before holes
appear. If piping is perforated at
any point, temporary patching or
lagging is acceptable until you can
have permanent repairs made.
On turbocharged engines, check
joints at flanges and mounting
brackets for tightness.
Diesel Particulate Filters
(DPF)
•
Check diesel particulate filter
(DPF), clamps, and mounting
brackets. Tighten if necessary.
Inspect diesel particulate filter
(DPF) for signs of rust or corrosion.
•
Check internal baffling. You can
do this by listening for rattling
sounds while tapping on the diesel
particulate filter (DPF) with a
rubber mallet or revving the engine
up and down through its normal
operating range.
Diesel Exhaust Fluid Tank
Vehicles that comply with 2010 EPA
emission requirements will have a
Diesel Exhaust Fluid (DEF) tank
mounted to the vehicle frame.
DEF filter
The DEF system has a supply
pump filter and this filter should be
serviced according to the preventive
maintenance schedule. Follow these
5-119
5
NOISE AND EMISSION CONTROL
steps to replace the DEF supply pump
filter:
1.
Turn off the vehicle and allow the
vehicle to cool down. Take special
precaution with hot exhaust piping.
WARNING
The exhaust piping can become
extremely hot during engine
operation and can cause personal
injury including serious burns to the
skin. Allow adequate cooling time
before working near any part of the
exhaust system.
5
2.
Remove the pump protective plate
mounted on the bottom of the DEF
tank.
5-120
3.
Using a 27 mm socket wrench
(DIN3124), remove the filter cap
that is screwed to the DEF Supply
pump.
NOISE AND EMISSION CONTROL
Exhaust Tail Pipe
•
Engine Fan and Shroud
Check the mounting. Tighten as
necessary. The miter cut at the tip
of the pipe must be facing the rear
of the vehicle. Do not modify the
end of the pipe in any way.
WARNING
Do not work on the fan with the
engine running. The engine fan can
engage at any time without warning.
Anyone near the fan when it turns
on could be injured. Before turning
on the ignition, be sure that no one
is near the fan.
•
Check all fasteners for tightness.
Check for stress cracks in the
shroud. Make sure the shroud is
adjusted so that it does not touch
the fan blades.
•
Check to verify that the fan is
disengaged (not turning) with
the engine running at normal
operating temperatures (from cold
to the point that the fan engages).
•
Check fan blade mounting bolts.
Inspect fan blades to be sure they
are not cracked or bent.
Hood Insulation Blanket
•
Check all fasteners for condition
and security. Repair or replace
any broken or defective fasteners.
•
Check for chafing or tears. Patch
it if necessary. Find the cause of
the damage. If any component
or accessory is causing wear or
damage and cannot be relocated,
put reinforcing pads on the blanket
at the site of wear.
5
5-121
NOISE AND EMISSION CONTROL
Inner Fender Shields and
Cab Skirts
Noise Control System Maintenance Log
•
Check all fasteners that hold the
fender shields in place.
•
Check fender shields for tire
marks, worn spots, or damage
from objects thrown from tire
treads.
To ensure your vehicles noise control
requirements are maintained, record
maintenance checks. Use the
following log sheet and retain copies
of documents regarding maintenance
services performed and parts replaced
on the vehicle.
•
Check cab skirts, sills, and
brackets for overall condition
and repair them as necessary.
Damaged rubber fender shields
or cab skirting cannot be repaired.
You will need to replace it.
5
5-122
NOISE AND EMISSION CONTROL
Noise Control System - Maintenance Log
Recommended
Interval (Miles)
25,000
Exhaust System
Routing Integrity
25,000
Shutters
Shrouds
Hood Insulation
10,000
Blanket
Engine Mounted
10,000
Hose Insulators
Fasteners
Inner Fender
50,000
Shields
50,000
Cab Skirts
Fasteners
5,000
Air Intake
System Integrity
Element
10,000
Clutch Type Fan
Drive
Component
Date & R.O. No.
Repair Facility
WorkPerformed
& Location
Date & R.O. No.
Repair Facility &
WorkPerformed
Location
5
5-123
REAR AXLE AND SUSPENSION
REAR AXLE AND
SUSPENSION
General Maintenance
WARNING
Do not work on the vehicle without
the parking brake set and wheels
blocked securely. If the vehicle is
not secured to prevent uncontrolled
vehicle movement, it could roll and
may result in death, personal injury,
equipment or property damage.
5
Your vehicle's suspension, by
design, requires a minimal amount of
maintenance. However, suspensions
in over-the-road operations require
periodic inspection to ensure troublefree performance.
5-124
WARNING
WARNING
Do not operate the vehicle if the
U-bolts are not properly tightened.
Loose U-bolts will cause the axle
to not be properly secured to the
suspension, which could cause
loss of vehicle control and an
accident. Loose U-bolts can also
cause uneven tire wear and poor
alignment. Failure to comply may
result in death, personal injury,
equipment or property damage.
Failure to maintain the specified
torque values or to replace worn
parts can cause component system
failure, possibly resulting in an
accident.
Improperly tightened
(loose) suspension U-bolts can
lead to unsafe vehicle conditions,
including:
hard steering, axle
misalignment, spring breakage or
abnormal tire wear.
See Front
Spring Suspension U-bolts on
page 5-109 for proper torque
specifications. Failure to comply
may result in death, personal injury,
equipment or property damage.
CAUTION
Do not spray the suspension with
chemical products or mineral oil; it
can cause damage to the bushings.
REAR AXLE AND SUSPENSION
Visual Inspection
NOTE
Failure
to
follow
recommendations
could
warranty.
these
void
For all vehicles, mandatory
maintenance procedures include
retightening of U-bolts and complete
inspection. However, even with proper
maintenance, many factors affect the
service life of springs and suspension
components, such as: fatigue, vehicle
gross weight, type of load, road
conditions and vehicle speed.
It is important that U-bolts remain tight.
Severe use of your vehicle can cause
them to loosen faster. But all vehicles
need to have their U-bolts checked and
tightened regularly. Be sure someone
with the proper training and the right
tools checks and tightens the U-bolts
on your vehicle.
•
After the first 500 miles (800 km) of
operation, inspect the suspension
periodically, as noted below:
•
Visually check for loose or missing
fasteners, cracks in hanger or axle
connection brackets.
•
Check that springs are centered in
hangers and in good condition.
•
Check for cracks, wear marks,
splits, or other defects on the
surface of the spring.
•
Replace defective parts. Because
repaired springs cannot be
fully restored to their original
service life, replace the complete
assembly if cracks or other defects
are detected.
•
After replacement of any part or
discovery of loose components,
check the torque of all fasteners.
•
New springs settle-in after the
vehicle's initial service, causing
the U-bolts to become loose.
5-125
5
REAR AXLE AND SUSPENSION
Rear Suspension Fasteners
U-Bolt Torque
NOTE
To maintain the performance of the
air suspension, check fastener torque
values after the first 2,000 miles (3,218
km) of service and every 60,000 miles
(96,000 km) thereafter.
Torque recommendations apply to
fasteners supplied and installed by
vehicle manufacture. The values listed
in the tables below, are for cadmium
plated or phosphate and oil fasteners
only.
5
U-bolts are difficult to tighten unless
you have the right equipment. If you
cannot tighten them correctly yourself,
be sure to have them checked and
tightened regularly by an authorized
mechanic.
5-126
NOTE
To ensure an accurate torque
reading, use properly maintained
and calibrated torque wrenches.
Clean the nut and bolt. No dirt, grit,
or rust should be present.
Whenever possible, torque all
fasteners on the nut end, not the
bolt head.
Rear Suspension Fasteners (Metric &
Standard)
SIZE/TYPE
WARNING
Do not operate the vehicle if the
U-bolts are not properly tightened.
Loose U-bolts will cause the axle
to not be properly secured to the
suspension, which could cause
loss of vehicle control and an
accident. Loose U-bolts can also
cause uneven tire wear and poor
alignment. Failure to comply may
result in death, personal injury,
equipment or property damage.
TORQUE *
Nm
Lb-Ft
163-217
120-160
M16
nylon-insert
nuts
352-460
260-340
M20
nylon-insert
nuts
M20 all-metal
427-475
315-350
lock nuts
109-122
80-90
1/2 in. nut
394-462
290-340
3/4 in. nut
1-1/4 in. nut 1,877-2,217 1,380-1,630
* Torque requirements apply to manufacturer
proprietary suspensions. All other
suspensions must refer and adhere to
original manufacturers shop manual.
REAR AXLE AND SUSPENSION
Rear Suspension U-Bolts, Grade 8
(lubricated*)
U-BOLT SIZE
TORQUE**
DIAMETER
Nm
Lb-Ft
THREAD
333-408
245-300
3/4
598-734
440-540
7/8
1
925-1,060
680-780
1,470-1,660 1,080-1,220
1-1/8
1,890-2,120 1,390-1,560
1-1/4
3,130-3,860 2,300-2,840
1-1/2
*Chevron Zinc Lubricant or SAE 20/30 oil
should be used on U-Bolt threads
**Torque requirements apply to manufacturer
proprietary suspensions. All other
suspensions must refer and adhere to
original manufacturers shop manual.
•
WARNING
Do not replace U-bolts and nuts
with common U-bolts or standard
nuts. These parts are critical to
vehicle safety. If the wrong U-bolts
or nuts are used, the axle could
loosen or separate from the vehicle
and cause a serious accident.
Use only U-bolts and nuts of SAE
Grade 8 specification or better.
Failure to comply may result in
death, personal injury, equipment or
property damage.
Rear Axle Lubrication
Check oil level with the vehicle parked
on level ground and the fluid warm.
The level should be even with the
bottom of the filler hole.
5
Load the vehicle to its normal
gross weight before tightening
U-bolts. Loading the vehicle
ensures proper adjustment of the
U-bolt and spring assembly.
5-127
REAR AXLE AND SUSPENSION
Dana Spicer and Fabco
CAUTION
Do not mix lubricants of different
grades; although, mixing different
brands of the same grade
lubricant (meeting MIL L2105C), is
acceptable. Lubricants of different
grades are not compatible and
could damage the axle.
No initial drain is required on Dana
Spicer axles that are factory filled with
an Dana Spicer-approved synthetic
lubricant.
All Vehicles with Dana Spicer
and Fabco Axles: See Preventive
Maintenance Schedule on page 5-12.
Contact your dealer for approved
synthetic lubricant brands.
•
•
Petroleum-based lubricants must
be drained within the first 5,000
miles (8,000 km) if converting to
an approved synthetic lubricant.
NOTE
In all cases, lubricant supplier
assumes full responsibility for the
performance of their product, and
for product and patent liability.
5
For recommended types and brands of
lubricants, contact your dealer.
Initial Change: See Preventive
Maintenance Schedule on page 5-12
for standard rear axle service intervals.
Change mineral-based lubricant in
other Dana Spicer and Fabco axle
assemblies (new or rebuilt) within the
first 3,000 to 5,000 miles (4,800 to
8,000 km).
•
5-128
For petroleum-based axles, use
lubricants meeting MIL L2105C/D
grade specifications or approved
synthetic lubrication. Do not use
oil additives.
Dana Spicer Axles with synthetic
lubrication and Out Runner Seals:
drain, flush, and refill at 500,000
miles (804,000 km).
Axle Housing Breather Vent:
•
Check and clean the axle housing
breather vent at each oil level
check.
Meritor:
•
See Meritor Lubrication
Maintenance Manual (MM1).
REAR AXLE AND SUSPENSION
Rear Axle Alignment
Continual road shock and load
stresses may force the rear axles
out of alignment. If you detect rapid
tire wear on the rear axles, you may
have misaligned axles. If you suspect
rapid tire wear, have your rear axle
alignment checked and adjusted by an
authorized dealer.
In addition to pre-delivery inspections,
suspension alignment should be
checked when any one of the following
conditions exist:
•
Discovery of loose suspension
fasteners. (Loose, defined as any
torque below the recommended
torque value.)
•
Discovery of elongated holes in a
suspension component.
•
Bushing replacement.
•
Excessive or abnormal tire wear.
5
5-129
STEERING SYSTEM
STEERING SYSTEM
WARNING
Power Steering
Do not operate the vehicle if the
steering system is not working
properly. You could lose control
of your vehicle if the steering
system is not in good working
condition, which could result in a
serious accident. For driving safety,
visually check the steering gear
and components. Frequent checks
are important for driving safety,
especially after traveling over rough
roads. Failure to comply may result
in death, personal injury, equipment
or property damage.
Oil (under low pressure) provides the
power to operate the steering gear. It
also serves to lubricate moving parts
and remove heat. A loss of steering
efficiency will occur if too much heat
builds up in the system.
5
If the steering feels unbalanced from
side-to-side while turning, check for
the following possible causes:
5-130
•
unequal tire pressures
•
vehicle overloaded or unevenly
distributed load
•
wheels out of alignment
•
wheel bearings improperly
adjusted
If you cannot correct the problem,
check with an authorized dealer.
Your vehicle is equipped with integral
power steering. The system includes
an engine-driven fluid pump, a fluid
reservoir, the steering gear, and
connecting hoses. Because of the
hydraulic power assist, little effort is
required to turn the steering wheel.
When no input is applied through the
steering wheel, the steering gear will
return to the neutral position. If, for
any reason, the power assist system
goes out, steering the vehicle is still
possible, yet it will require much
greater effort.
Visually check the following parts:
•
Crosstube: Is it straight?
STEERING SYSTEM
•
Draglink tube clamp: Check for
looseness or interference.
•
Ball joints and steering U-joints:
Check for looseness.
•
Steering wheel for excessive
free-play. Check the simplest
probable causes first:
•
Fluid Level and Refill
•
Maximum/Minimum level is
indicated on the reservoir. These
same levels are also indicated by
two lines on the dipstick in the
reservoir.
•
There are two ways to check
whether the power steering fluid
is at its proper level. Both checks
are with the engine NOT running.
1.
If you check the fluid with the
engine and steering system
COLD, the fluid level should be
at/or above the Minimum indicator
level and should generally not
exceed the middle point between
Maximum and Minimum level
indicators.
Have the power steering fluid and
filters changed at an authorized dealer.
CAUTION
a.
unequal tire pressures
b.
loose cap nuts
c.
bent crosstube
d.
lack of lubrication
If these checks do not reveal the
problem, or if you correct them
and still have a steering problem,
take your truck to an authorized
dealer for evaluation.
When adding fluid, be sure to use
fluid of the same type. While many
fluids have the same description
and intended purpose, they should
not be mixed due to incompatible
additives. Mixing incompatible fluids
may lead to equipment damage.
•
Check and completely change the
fluid level according to Preventive
Maintenance Schedule on page
5-12. Use the following procedure:
NOTE
Before removing reservoir cover,
wipe outside of cover so that no dirt
can fall into the reservoir.
2.
If you check the fluid with the
engine and steering system
WARM, the fluid should NOT
exceed the Maximum level
indicator and should generally
not drop below the middle point
5-131
5
STEERING SYSTEM
between the Maximum and
Minimum level indicators.
Fluid Filter Replacement
Steering Shaft
The following are common torque
specifications for most steering shafts.
CAUTION
5
Servicing the power steering system
without bleeding it of trapped air may
cause damage to the power steering
pump.
5-132
1.
Replace both fluid and filter as per
the chart below.
2.
Bleed the system if necessary.
•
Torque on U–joint pinch bolt and
nut (7/16 in) 74–81 Nm (55 to 60
lb-ft), lubricated.
•
Torque on Pitman arm clamp bolt
and nut (3/4 in): 406–433 Nm (300
to 320 lb-ft), lubricated.
•
For off–highway vehicles, tighten
the U–bolts after the first day or
two of operation. Then check
weekly.
STEERING SYSTEM
WARNING
If this chassis is equipped with an
electronic stability system (ESP)
and any part of the steering system
(e.g. linkage, steering driveline,
column, front-end alignment, etc) is
repaired, removed, or disassembled
in any way, or if the steering angle
sensor is replaced, the steering
angle sensor must be recalibrated.
Any repairs or adjustments to any
part of the steering system must be
performed by an authorized dealer.
Failure to comply may result in
death, personal injury, equipment or
property damage.
5
5-133
DRIVELINE
DRIVELINE
U-Joints
Driveshaft Maintenance
The slip joints and universal joints of
the driveshaft should be lubricated
periodically.
Use a good quality lithium-soap-base
or equivalent extreme pressure (E.P.)
grease: NLGI Grade 2.
5
Dana SPL U-joints and driveshafts
should be inspected every time
a vehicle comes in for scheduled
maintenance (Refer to Spicer
Driveshaft service manual DSSM-0100
(3264-SPL) for detailed instructions).
Use only Spicer Driveshaft approved
lubricants when greasing Spicer SPL
U-joints.
5-134
For SPL170XL and SPL250XL, the
U-joint lube interval changes after the
initial lube at 350,000 miles. After
the first lube interval, the U-joint
needs lubrication every 150,000 miles.
Inspection of the U-joints is the same
regardless of when the U-joint grease
interval happens.
WARNING
The slip joints and universal joints of
the drive shaft should be lubricated
according to Preventive Maintenance
Schedule on page 5-12.
Use a good quality lithium-soap-base
or equivalent extreme pressure (E.P.)
grease: NLGI Grade 2.
Use only Spicer Driveshaft approved
lubricants when greasing Spicer SPL
U-joints.
Improper lubrication of U-joints can
cause them to fail prematurely. The
driveshaft could separate from the
vehicle and result in an accident.
Make sure lubricant is purged at all
four ends of each U-joint and loosen
caps if necessary. Also, regularly
inspect U-joints for excessive wear
or movement, and repair or replace
as necessary. Failure to comply
may result in death, personal injury,
equipment or property damage.
TIRES AND WHEEL
TIRES AND WHEEL
Tires
WARNING
Do not repair damaged tires unless
you are fully qualified and equipped
to do so. Wheel and tire assemblies
cannot be worked on without proper
tools and equipment, such as:
safety cages or restraining devices.
Have all tire repairs performed by
an expert. Stand away from the
tire assembly while the expert is
working. Failure to do this may
result in death or injury.
Your tires are a very important part of
your vehicle’s whole braking system.
How fast you can stop depends in
large measure on how much friction
you get between the road and your
tires. In addition, keeping your tires in
good condition is essential to the safe,
efficient operation of your vehicle.
Regular, frequent inspection and the
right care will give you the assurance
of safe and reliable tire operation.
Here are some tips on maintaining
your tires.
Checking Inflation Pressure
Give your tires a visual test every day,
and check inflation with a gauge every
week:
•
When checking tire pressure,
inspect each tire for damage to
sidewalls, cuts, cracks, uneven
wear, rocks between duals, etc. If
a tire appears underinflated, check
for damage to the wheel assembly.
Don’t forget to check between dual
wheels. If you find wheel damage,
have an expert tire service repair
it.
•
Maximum tire pressure will be
indicated on the sidewall of a tire.
•
Check pressure only when the
tires are cool. Warm or hot tires
cause pressure buildup and will
give you an inaccurate reading.
So never deflate a warm tire to the
specified pressure.
5-135
5
TIRES AND WHEEL
Underinflated Tires
Low pressure is a tire’s worst enemy.
Underinflation allows tires to flex
improperly, causing high temperatures
to build up. Heat causes early tire
damage such as flex break, radial
cracks, and ply separation. Low
pressure may affect control of your
vehicle, especially at the front wheels.
Most tire wear problems are caused
by underinflation as the result of slow
leaks, so you’ll want to check tire
pressure regularly. Lower tire pressure
does not provide better traction on ice
or snow.
WARNING
WARNING
Do not operate a vehicle with
underinflated tires. The extra heat
caused by underinflation can cause
sudden tire failure such as a tire
fire or blow out which can cause
an accident resulting in death or
personal injury. Low pressure may
affect control at the front wheels,
which could result in an accident
involving death or personal injury.
Keep your tires inflated to the
manufacturer's recommended air
pressure.
Do not attempt to raise the vehicle
to remove or install a damaged tire
and wheel assembly if you are not
fully qualified and not equipped with
the proper tools and equipment.
Do not attempt to re-inflate a tire
that has been run flat.
Obtain
expert help.
A person can be
seriously injured or killed if using
the wrong service methods. Truck
tires and wheels should be serviced
only by trained personnel using
proper equipment. Follow OSHA
regulations per section 1910.177.
5
NOTE
Follow all warnings and cautions
contained within the tire and wheel
manufacturers literature.
5-136
TIRES AND WHEEL
Overloaded tires
1
3
Proper-Inflation: the
correct profile for full
contact with the road.
TREAD CONTACT
WITH ROAD
TREAD CONTACT
WITH ROAD
2
Over-Inflation:
reduces the tread
contact area with
the road surface,
concentrating all of
the vehicle weight
on the center of the
tread. This causes
premature wear of the
tire.
Overloading your truck is as damaging
to your tires as underinflation. The
following chart shows how neglect or
deliberate abuse can affect the life of
your tires.
Under-Inflation:
causes abnormal tire
deflection, which builds
up excessive heat,
running the risk of
TREAD CONTACT failure. It also causes
WITH ROAD
irregular wear.
Vehicle Load
Tire Pressure
Expected Total Tire
Mileage
5
Normal
Normal
EFFECT OF LOAD PRESSURE ON TIRE LIFE
20% Over
40% Over
60% Over
20% Low
30% Low
35% Low
80% Over
45% Low
100% Over
55% Low
Normal
70%
30%
25%
50%
40%
Overinflated tires
Too much air pressure reduces the tire
tread contact area and results in rapid
wear in the center of the tread.
5-137
TIRES AND WHEEL
Matching tires
WARNING
Overinflated tires can cause
accidents. They wear more quickly
than properly inflated tires and are
more subject to punctures, cracks,
and other damage. They could fail
and cause you to lose control of
your vehicle resulting in an accident
causing death or personal injury. Be
sure all tires are inflated correctly
according to the manufacturer's
recommendations.
5
5-138
WARNING
Be sure to buy matched tires for
your vehicle, especially on the rear
axles. Mismatched tires can cause
stress between axles and cause the
temperature of your axle lubricant to
get too hot. Matched tires will help
your driveline last longer and will give
you better tire mileage.
WARNING
Do not mismatch tires, it can be
dangerous.
Never mix tires of
different design such as steel belted
radials and bias ply tires, etc. Mixing
tire types and sizes will adversely
affect the road-holding ability of both
types of tires and can lead to loss of
vehicle control and causing death or
personal injury.
Do not install regrooved or
reinforcement-repaired tires on
steering axles.
They could fail
unexpectedly and cause you to lose
control of your vehicle resulting in an
accident causing death or personal
injury.
TIRES AND WHEEL
Replacing Tires
Front: Replace front tires when less
than 4/32 in. of tread remains. Check
at three places equally spaced around
the tire.
Drive Axles or Trailers: Replace tires
on drive axles or trailers when less than
2/32 in. of tread depth remains in any
major groove. Check at three places
equally spaced around the tire. See
the next illustration for recommended
measuring points for tread depth.
WARNING
Do not replace original equipment
tires with load ratings less than the
original tires. Doing so could lead
to unintentional overloading of the
tire, which could cause a failure
resulting in loss of vehicle control
and an accident. Failure to comply
may result in death, personal injury,
equipment or property damage.
Tire chains
If you need tire chains, install them on
both sides of each driving axle.
CAUTION
Chains on the tires of only one
tandem axle can damage the
driveline U-joints and the interaxle
differential. Your repairs could be
costly & time-consuming.
NOTE
To prolong your tires’ life and make
them safer, have their radial and
lateral run-out checked at your
dealer. And of course you should
have your tires balanced anytime
you change a tire.
5
Steer Tire Points (left), Drive Tire
Points (right)
5-139
TIRES AND WHEEL
Speed Restricted Tires
WARNING
This vehicle may be equipped with
speed restricted tires. Check each
tire’s sidewall for maximum rated
speed. The vehicle should not be
operated at sustained speed in
excess of maximum rated speed.
Failure to comply with these speed
restrictions could cause sudden tire
failure which can result in death,
personal injury or property damage.
5
Wheel Mounting and
Fastening
After the vehicle travels about 50 to 100
miles (80 to 160 km), wheel mountings
seat in and will lose some initial torque.
Check hub/wheel mountings after this
initial period and retighten.
WARNING
Never use oil or grease on studs or
nuts; improper torque readings will
result, which could cause improper
wheel clamping and could lead
to a wheel failure resulting in an
accident. Failure to comply may
result in death, personal injury,
equipment or property damage.
Wheel Cap Nut Torque
At the first scheduled lube interval,
have all wheel cap nuts torqued to
their specified value listed in Wheel
Cap Nut Torque on page 5-140. After
that, check wheel cap nuts at least
once a week. Contact an authorized
dealer for information on the proper
installation procedure for the wheels
on your truck. This is a job you may
not be able to do yourself. You need
the right torquing equipment to do it.
Wheel Cap Nut Torque
WHEEL & NUT CONFIGURATION
Steel or Aluminum Disc-Type
Wheel; Double Cap Nut Mounting;
Standard 7/8 Radius Ball Seat
5-140
STUD SIZE
3/4-16
1-1/8-16
TORQUE FOR INNER & OUTER CAP NUTS & RIM CLAMP NUTS
Nm
Lb-Ft
610-680
450-500
610-680
450-500
TIRES AND WHEEL
WHEEL & NUT CONFIGURATION
STUD SIZE
Heavy-Duty Steel Disc-Type Wheel;
Double Cap Nut Mounting;
1-3/16 Radius Ball Seat:
Hub-Piloted Disc-Type Wheel
w/Two Piece Flanged Cap Nuts:
Steel or Aluminum Wheel
PHP-10; Budd Uni-Mount-10;
WDH-8
Stud Backnuts (when used)
15/16-12
1-1/8-16
1-15/16-12
M22-1.5
TORQUE FOR INNER & OUTER CAP NUTS & RIM CLAMP NUTS
Nm
Lb-Ft
1,020-1,220
750-900
1,020-1,220
750-900
1,020-1,220
750-900
610-680
450-500
3/4-16
1-14
240-270
240-410
1/2” Dia.
5/8” Dia.
3/4” Dia.
110-120
220-250
305-335
175-200
175-300
Rim Clamp Nut Torque
Cast Spoke Wheel Assembly
Threads should be clean and dry. Do
not lubricate wheel nuts or studs.
Proper Torque and
Sequence
Proper wheel torque can best be
obtained on level ground. Install lug
nuts and finger-tighten in the numerical
sequence as shown below, see Nut
Tightening Sequence for Hub Piloted
Disc Wheels on page 5-142 or Nut
Tightening Sequence for Stud Piloted
Disc Wheels on page 5-142. This
80-90
160-185
225-245
procedure will ensure that the wheel is
drawn evenly against the hub. Torque
each nut to the torque value listed in
Wheel Cap Nut Torque on page 5-140.
5-141
5
TIRES AND WHEEL
Wheel Replacement With
Disc Brake Option
WARNING
Tighten wheel cap nuts properly.
If they are not tightened properly,
wheel nuts could eventually cause
the wheel to become loose, to
fail, and/or to come off while the
vehicle is moving, possibly causing
loss of control and may result in
death, personal injury, equipment or
property damage.
5
Nut Tightening Sequence for Hub
Piloted Disc Wheels
5-142
WARNING
Nut Tightening Sequence for Stud
Piloted Disc Wheels
Use only the wheel brand, size
and part number originally installed.
Use of a different wheel brand or
size could cause valve stem to
interfere with a brake component
which could lead to loss of vehicle
control. Failure to comply may result
in death, personal injury, equipment
or property damage.
Vehicles equipped with front disc
brakes are fitted with wheels designed
specifically for disc brake applications.
If it ever becomes necessary to
replace an original equipment wheel,
the replacement wheel must be the
same brand and size as the take-off
wheel. On vehicles equipped with 22.5
in. disc wheels, installing the wrong
replacement wheel could result in
the wheel valve stem making contact
TIRES AND WHEEL
with the disc brake assembly. When
installing any replacement wheel,
always inspect the tires/wheels to
ensure there is adequate clearance
between other vehicle components.
With the hood open, check for
clearance between the wheel and disc
brake assembly. Use a hydraulic jack
to raise the front of the vehicle off
the ground to allow the wheel to spin
freely. While rotating the wheel, check
to ensure there is adequate clearance
between the wheel and disc brake
assembly
•
WARNING
WARNING
If the hood falls, anyone under it
could be injured.
Always make
sure that the hood hold open device
engages when the hood is in its
open position any time anyone gets
under the hood for any reason.
Improperly
mounting
and
demounting tire and rim assemblies
is dangerous. Failure to observe
proper precautions could cause
the tire-rim assembly to burst
explosively, causing death or
personal injury.
See the wheel
manufacturer's literature for the
proper way to mount and demount
your tires and rims. Follow their
precautions exactly.
The hood could hurt someone
that is in the way of its descent.
Before lowering the hood, be sure
no objects or people are in the
way.
WARNING
5
Always support the vehicle with
appropriate safety stands if it is
necessary to work underneath the
vehicle. A jack is not adequate for
this purpose.
5-143
TIRES AND WHEEL
Disc Wheels
WARNING
Use the correct components and
tools when working on wheels.
Grooves in the wheel disc or other
damage to the disc can weaken the
wheel and cause it to eventually
come off. This could cause you
to lose control of your vehicle,
and may result in an accident.
Failure to comply may result in
death, personal injury, equipment or
property damage.
5
The end of the wheel wrench must
be smooth. Burrs on the end of the
wrench can tear grooves in the disc.
These grooves may lead to cracks in
the disc, and can cause it to fail.
5-144
WHEEL BEARING
WHEEL BEARING
Wheel Bearing Adjustment
For safe, reliable operation and
adequate service life, your wheel
bearings must be adjusted properly at
the recommended intervals. Contact
your authorized dealer to make sure
the wheel bearings are properly
adjusted.
5
5-145
TRANSMISSION MAINTENANCE
TRANSMISSION
MAINTENANCE
Introduction
Proper maintenance of the
transmission will ensure that the
vehicle will operate efficiently.
5
To check the transmission fluid level,
park the vehicle on a level ground. For
an automatic transmission the oil level
should be checked with the engine
idling and the transmission fluid at
operating temperature. Checking the
fluid of a manual transmission may be
done with the engine off.
The recommended fluid replacement
intervals contain an initial change and
a separate interval for the changes
after the initial drain. When the oil
needs to be replaced, be sure to refer
to the manufacturer’s literature on
the correct grade and type of oil to
purchase.
5-146
For more details, please refer to
the maintenance section in the
transmission manufacturer’s manual
or service literature.
CAUTION
When adding oil, types and
brands of oil should not be
intermixed because of possible
incompatibility,
which
could
decrease the effectiveness of the
lubrication or cause component
failure.
Initial Change: drain and replace
according to Preventive Maintenance
Schedule on page 5-12; for some
transmissions this may not be required.
Oil Change
Change fluid according to change
procedures specified in the
Transmission Service Manual.
Use the recommended types of oil
as specified in the Operation and
Service Manual (included with vehicle).
Select from the appropriate lubricant
for varying ambient (outside air)
temperatures.
TRANSMISSION MAINTENANCE
Transmission Lubricants
Manual Transmission
Manual transmissions are designed so
that the internal parts operate in a bath
of oil circulated by the motion of gears
and shafts.
Service Intervals
For recommended types and brands
of all lubricants, see the transmission
manufacturer's Service Manual and
Preventive Maintenance Schedule on
page 5-12.
Check all hoses for kinks, deterioration,
chafing, and leaks. Adjust kinked or
chafing hoses to eliminate restrictions
and prevent further wear. To ensure
proper inspection, it may be necessary
to inspect under and inside frame rails
and unclip harnesses, hoses and cable
bundles.
Standard Transmission Oil
Level
NOTE
The vehicle must be parked on level
ground.
See the Transmission Operator's
Manual for information on checking the
transmission oil level.
5
5-147
TRANSMISSION MAINTENANCE
Automatic Transmissions
Service Intervals
Check daily with engine idling. See
Preventive Maintenance Schedule on
page 5-12 for service intervals.
Automatic Transmission Oil
Level
NOTE
The vehicle must be parked on level
ground.
See the Transmission Operator's
Manual for information on checking the
transmission oil level.
5
5-148
CLUTCH
CLUTCH
Clutch Hydraulic Fluid
Introduction
Visually inspect the clutch fluid from the
reservoir. There are molded lines with
the letters MIN to indicate minimum
fluid level and MAX to indicate the
maximum fluid level recommended for
proper operation. Be sure to maintain
the fluid between the MIN and MAX
levels indicated on the plastic reservoir.
If the fluid level repeatedly goes below
the MIN line, then it is time to have
your clutch adjusted or the hydraulic
system to be inspected for service.
The clutch pedal transmits force from
the operator to the clutch via hydraulic
and air assist action. The clutch pedal
position is factory set and does not
require adjustment.
air to escape. Close the fitting when
fluid starts coming out. Then refill the
reservoir. Repeat this until all air has
been purged from the system.
Replace with the recommended fluid
Component Lubrication Index on page
5-37.
To replace the fluid, locate the drain
fitting on the air solenoid mounted to
the transmission housing. Open this
fitting and allow fluid to drain out of the
system. Once all the fluid is drained
out, close the fitting and fill the system
through the master cylinder reservoir
in the engine compartment. Once the
system is full, then purge the system of
air by simultaneously pressing on the
pedal and opening the fitting to allow
5
5-149
CLUTCH
Clutch Adjustment
Some clutches are self-adjusting
however; there are manually adjusted
clutches that will require the operator
to know when to adjust the clutch. The
clutch will need adjustment when your
clutch pedal stroke seems to get longer
and its effectiveness at a seamless
shift becomes less.
5
Another sign of the clutch needing
adjustment is the level of the fluid in
the reservoir. If the hydraulic fluid is
not leaking but the fluid level is getting
lower, then the clutch may need to be
adjusted. Please take the vehicle to
an authorized dealership to have the
clutch adjusted.
5-150
Clutch Adjustment - Normal
Wear
See the clutch manufacturer's Service
Manual for the proper adjustment
procedures.
INFORMATION
CONSUMER INFORMATION AND VEHICLE IDENTIFICATION
Vehicle Identification . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
General VIN Information . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Component Identification. . . . . . . . . . . . .
6-3
6-3
6-6
CONSUMER INFORMATION
Federal Safety Standard Certification Label
How to Order Parts . . . . . . . . . . .
NHTSA Consumer Information . . . . . .
Canadian Consumer Information . . . . .
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
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.
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6-8
6-8
6-8
6-9
6
6-1
CONSUMER INFORMATION AND VEHICLE IDENTIFICATION
CONSUMER
INFORMATION
AND VEHICLE
IDENTIFICATION
Vehicle Identification
Each vehicle completed by Peterbilt
Motors Company uses a Vehicle
Identification Number (VIN) that
contains the model year designation
of your Peterbilt. The practice is in
compliance with 49 CFR 565, Code of
Federal Regulations.
The Vehicle Identification Number is
on the Peterbilt labels on the left hand
door post. The VIN contains 17 digits.
The 10th digit is the code for the model
year of your vehicle. The example VIN
below shows how this code works:
Example VIN:
1
2
3
4
5
6
Manufacturer Identifier
Vehicle Attributes
Reserved Space
Model Year
Assembly Plant
Serial Number (Chassis Number)
General VIN Information
VIN Locations
The full, 17-digit VIN is located on the
Weight Rating Data Label. The label is
located on the driver's side door edge
or on the driver's side door frame.
Model Year
D = 2013
E = 2014
F = 2015
G = 2016
Glider Kit Identification
0 (zero) = Glider Kit
Plant Code
6
D = Denton Factory
6-3
CONSUMER INFORMATION AND VEHICLE IDENTIFICATION
Chassis Number
Certification Labels
The Chassis Number refers to the last
six characters of the VIN. This number
will allow your dealer to identify your
vehicle. You will be asked for this
number when you bring it in for service.
Your vehicle information and
specifications are documented on
labels. As noted below, each label
contains specific information pertaining
to vehicle capacities and specifications
that you should be aware of.
Chassis Number Locations
6
•
Right frame rail, top flange, about
3 ft. from the front end
•
Cab back, left-hand rear panel,
lower edge
•
Tire, Rim, and Weight Rating Data
label (truck)
•
Components and Weights label
•
Noise Emission label
•
Paint Identification label
6-4
Components and Weights
Label
The Components and Chassis Weight
Label is located on either the driver’s
side door edge or on the driver’s
side door frame. It includes chassis
number, chassis weight and gross
weight, plus model information for the
vehicle, engine, transmission, and
axles.
CONSUMER INFORMATION AND VEHICLE IDENTIFICATION
Tire and Rim Data Label
The Tire, Rim and Weight Rating
Data Label is located on the driver’s
side door edge or on the driver’s side
door frame. It contains the following
information:
•
GVWR - Gross Vehicle Weight
Rating
•
GAWR FRONT, INTERMEDIATE
and REAR - Gross Axle Weight
Ratings for Front, Intermediate
and Rear Axle
•
TIRE/RIM SIZES AND INFLATION
PRESSURES - Tire/Rim Sizes
and Cold Pressure Minimums
•
VIN including CHASSIS NUMBER
WARNING
Do not exceed the specified load
rating. Overloading can result in
loss of vehicle control and personal
injury, either by causing component
failures or by affecting vehicle
handling. Exceeding load ratings
can also shorten the service life of
the vehicle.
Noise Emission Label
The Noise Emission Label is located
in the driver's side door frame. It
contains information regarding U.S.
noise emission regulations, chassis
number, and date of manufacture.
The components of your vehicle
are designed to provide satisfactory
service if the vehicle is not loaded
in excess of either the gross vehicle
weight rating (GVWR), or the maximum
front and rear gross axle weight ratings
(GAWRs).
NOTE
6
GVW is the TOTAL SCALE WEIGHT
the vehicle is designed to carry.
This includes the weight of the
empty vehicle, loading platform,
occupants, fuel, and any load.
6-5
CONSUMER INFORMATION AND VEHICLE IDENTIFICATION
Paint Identification Label
The Paint Identification Label contains
the paint colors used by the factory
to paint your vehicle. It lists frame,
wheels, cab interior and exterior
colors. This label is located inside the
glove box.
Federal Safety Standard
Certification Label
The NHTSA regulations require a label
certifying compliance with Federal
Safety Standards, for United States
and U.S. Territories, be affixed to
each motor vehicle and prescribe
where such label may be located.
This certification label, which indicates
the date of manufacture and other
pertinent information, is located on
the driver’s side door edge or on the
driver’s side door frame.
Component Identification
Each of the major components on
your vehicle has an identification label
or tag. For easy reference, record
component numbers such as, model,
serial, and assembly number.
Engine: For further information,
please refer to the Engine Operation
and Maintenance Manual.
Transmission: For both manual
and automatic transmissions, the
identification number is stamped on a
tag affixed to the right rear side of the
transmission case.
Clutch: Enclosed in clutch housing.
Location depends on manufacturer.
6
Steer Axle: The front axle serial
number is stamped on a plate located
on the center of the axle beam.
Drive Axles: The drive axle numbering
system includes three labels or stamps:
6-6
CONSUMER INFORMATION AND VEHICLE IDENTIFICATION
1.
Axle Specification Number, usually
stamped on the right rear side of
the axle housing. This number
identifies the complete axle.
2.
Axle Housing Number Tag, usually
located on the left forward side
of the housing arm. This tag
identifies the axle housing.
3.
Axle Differential Carrier
Identification, usually located
on the top side of the differential
carrier. The following information
is either stamped, or marked with a
metal tag: Model No., Production
Assembly No., Serial No., Gear
Ratio, and Part Number.
6
6-7
CONSUMER INFORMATION
CONSUMER
INFORMATION
Federal Safety Standard
Certification Label
The National Highway Traffic Safety
Administration regulations require
a label certifying compliance with
Federal Safety Standards, for United
States and U.S. Territories, be affixed
to each motor vehicle and prescribe
where such label may be located.
This certification label, which indicates
the date of manufacture and other
pertinent information, is located on the
left hand cab door post.
How to Order Parts
Replacement parts may be obtained
from an authorized dealership.
When you order, it is IMPORTANT
that you have the following information
ready:
•
Your name and address.
•
Serial number of the truck.
•
The name of the part you need.
•
The name and number of the
component for which the part is
required.
•
The quantity of parts you need.
•
How you want your order shipped.
NHTSA Consumer
Information
If you believe that your vehicle has
a defect which could cause a crash
or could cause death or personal
injury, you should immediately inform
the National Highway Traffic Safety
Administration (NHTSA) in addition to
notifying the vehicle manufacturer.
If NHTSA receives similar complaints,
it may open an investigation, and
if it finds that a safety defect exists
in a group of vehicles, it may order
a recall and remedy campaign.
However, NHTSA cannot get involved
in individual problems between you,
your dealer, and vehicle manufacturer.
Contacting NHTSA is possible through
telephone, written mail and email.
NHTSA also has a website where you
can input your comments directly to
them on the web. Please use any of
the four ways to contact NHTSA:
6
6-8
CONSUMER INFORMATION
www
@
Toll Free 888-327-4236
(800-4249153 TTY)
8:00 am to 10:00 pm ET
Monday-Friday
Office of Defects
Investigations/CRD
NVS-216
1200 New Jersey Ave SE.
Washington, D.C. 20590
www.safercar.gov
nhtsa.webmaster@dot.gov
Canadian Consumer
Information
Canadian customers who wish to report
a safety-related defect to Transport
Canada, Defect Investigations and
Recalls, may telephone the toll free
hotline 1-800-333-0510, or contact
Transport Canada by mail at:
Transport Canada, ASFAD
Place de Ville Tower C
330 Sparks Street
Ottawa ON K1A 0N5
For additional road safety information,
please visit the Road Safety website
at:
http://www.tc.gc.ca/roadsafety/
menu.htm
6
6-9
Index
Index
5th wheel
maintenance 5-103
A
Accessories
cigarette lighter 3-88
radio 3-88
Adding electrical options 5-82
Additional sources of information 1-9
California proposition 65
warning 1-7
data recorder 1-7
installed equipment - operator's
manuals 1-9
other sources 1-10
Adjustable auxiliary axles 4-44
liftable/non-steerable pusher
calibration 4-47
liftable/steerable calibration 4-47
tag axle calibration 4-47
Aero Hood - Headlight
replacement 5-76
After-treatment system
introduction 4-55
Air compressor 5-54
Air dryer 5-50
Air dryer (Bendix® AD-IS series) 5-51
Air dryer overhaul 5-51
Air gauges
air pressure - air suspension air
bags #1 & #2 3-47
pusher axle(s) air pressure 3-43
tag axle air pressure 3-43
tractor air brake pressure 3-47
tractor air brake pressure primary/secondary 3-12
trailer air brake pressure 3-47
trailer air tank pressure 3-48
Air system
air cleaners 5-98
air compressor 5-54
air dryer 5-50
air filter restriction gauge 3-44
air gauges and air leaks 5-53
air intake system 5-97
draining air tanks 5-52
primary air pressure gauge 5-53
secondary air pressure gauge 5-53
turbocharger 5-97
Air system maintenance 5-47
Air tanks 5-52
Alarms
headlight on alarm 3-41
low coolant level alarm 3-40
stop engine alarm 3-40
Alert screens
fault alert 4-40
impact alert 4-39
level 1 following distance alert 4-39
level 2 following distance alert 4-39
level 3 following distance alert 4-39
stationary object alert 4-39
Anti-lock brakes
trailer ABS 4-23
trailer ABS (without PLC) 4-24
wheel spin control 4-30
Index-1
7
Index
Anti-lock brakes (ABS)
electronic stability program
(ESP) 4-25
roll stability program (RSP) 4-25
Appliances 3-89
Automatic transmissions
oil level 5-148
service intervals 5-148
Auxiliary axles 4-44
B
7
Batteries
battery access 5-83
battery care 5-87
battery charging 5-87
jump starting vehicles 2-8
removing and installing
batteries 5-85
Brake gauges
tractor air brake pressure 3-47
tractor primary/secondary air brake
pressure 3-12
trailer air brake pressure 3-47
trailer air tank pressure 3-48
Brake system
Index-2
adjustment 5-56
retarders 4-32
roll stability program (RSP) 4-25
spring brakes 2-20
yaw control 4-26
Bulb replacement
aero hood - headlight 5-76
vocational - headlight 5-77
C
Cab and frame access 1-11
Cab storage 3-89
glove box 3-89
California Proposition 65 Warning 1-7
Certification labels
components and weights label 6-4
federal safety standard certification
label 6-6
noise emission label 6-5
part identification label 6-6
tire and rim data label 6-5
Cigarette lighter 3-88
Clock
to set alarm ON/OFF 3-27
to set alarm time 3-28
to set clock display 3-27
to set home/local time 3-28
Clutch
clutch brake 4-15
clutch linkage adjustment 5-150
clutch travel 4-15
double clutching 4-17
identification 6-6
riding the clutch 4-19
Clutch maintenance 5-149
Component identification
reference 6-6
Consumer information
Federal safety standards 6-8
how to order parts 6-8
Controls 3-88
Cooling system
adding coolant 5-72
fan 5-96
fan clutch 5-96
maintenance 5-70
Cooling system maintenance 5-70
D
Daily checks 1-35
Index
Data recorder 1-7
Daytime running light (DRL) 3-63
Deck plate access 1-14
DEF filter 5-119
Diesel Exhaust Fluid Tank 5-119
Displays/menu screens
clock display 3-27
driver information display 3-20
fuel economy 3-24
ignition timer 3-23
settings 3-27
to set time 3-28
trip information 3-24
truck information 3-25
virtual gauges 3-23
warning and faults 3-26
Door lock 1-12
key fob synchronization 1-14
remote keyless entry (RKE)
system 1-13
Drive axles
identification 6-6
Driver information display 3-14
fuel economy 3-24
ignition timer 3-23
menu screens 3-20
settings 3-27
trip information 3-24
truck information 3-25
virtual gauges 3-23
warning and faults 3-26
Driver's
check list 1-34
daily checks 1-35
weekly checks 1-38
Driving tips
coasting 4-56
descending a grade 4-57
engine RPM 4-57
fuel economy 4-60
optimal engine speed 4-58
using the driver information
display 3-14, 4-59
using the tachometer 4-58
Dual range (two-speed) rear axle 4-42
E
Electrical and alternator
precautions 5-90
Electrical system
adding electrical options 5-82
batteries 5-83
battery care 5-87
battery charging 5-87
electrical and alternator
precautions 5-90
fuses, circuit breakers and
relays 5-78
jump starting vehicles 2-8
removing and installing
batteries 5-85
Electrical system maintenance 5-75
Emergency
battery connections 2-10
emergency equipment kit 1-34
jump starting vehicles 2-8
Engine
air cleaners 5-98
air intake system 5-97
drive belts 5-95
exhaust system 5-99
identification 6-6
lubrication 5-92
pipe and hose clamp torque
values 5-35, 5-93
Engine (block) heater 5-74
Engine lubrication 5-92
Index-3
7
Index
Engine maintenance 5-91
Engine operation
engine block heater 4-6
engine control display 4-13
engine cool down 4-64
engine fan control 4-11
winterfronts 4-12
F
Fifth wheel
maintenance 5-103
Filter Minder 5-99
Frame fastener torque
requirements 5-104
Front axle and suspension
maintenance 5-106
Fuel gauges
fuel filter restriction 3-44
fuel tank(s) level 3-10
Fuel shut-off valve 4-65
Fuel specification 4-64
Fuel system
fuel filters 5-100
shut-off valves 5-100
7
Index-4
Fuses, circuit breakers and
relays 5-78
G
Gauges
air pressure - primary 3-12
air pressure - secondary 3-12
auxiliary transmission oil
temperature 3-48
diesel exhaust fluid (DEF) 3-12
engine coolant (water)
temperature 3-10
engine oil pressure 3-11, 3-44
engine oil temperature 3-45
fuel filter restriction 3-44
fuel tank(s) level 3-10
primary air pressure 5-53
pusher axle(s) air pressure 3-43
secondary air pressure 5-53
speedometer 3-9
suspension load air pressure
#1 3-47
suspension load air pressure
#2 3-47
tachometer 3-9
tag axle air pressure 3-43
tractor brake application air
pressure 3-47
trailer air tank air pressure 3-48
trailer brake application air
pressure 3-47
transfer case oil temperature 3-48
transmission retarder oil
temperature 3-49
Gauges (optional)
air filter restriction 3-44
drive axle temperature (forward and
rear) 3-46
fuel pressure 3-45
manifold pressure 3-45
transmission temperature 3-46
Gauges (standard)
tachometer 4-58
GAWR - Gross Axle Weight
Rating 1-33
GCW - Gross Combination
Weight 1-33
Glove box 3-89
Guide to the Warning Symbols 3-29
GVWR - Gross Vehicle Weight
Rating 1-33
Index
H
Headlight aiming 5-77
Headlight switch 3-64
Heater and air conditioner 5-110
air conditioner 5-114
heater 5-113
Heater and air conditioner
maintenance 5-110
Heating and air conditioning
air flow control dial 3-84
cooling 3-85
defrost vents 3-84
dehumidify 3-86
fan control dial 3-84
floor and defrost vents 3-84
floor vents 3-84
fresh air/recirculation switch 3-84
heating 3-86
instrument panel and de-mister
vents 3-84
instrument panel, de-mister and
floor vents 3-84
sleeper heater - A/C controls 3-87
sleeper override 3-85
temperature control dial 3-84
what each control does 3-84
windshield defog and defrost 3-86
Hood tilting
hood hold downs 1-16
hood hold-open device 1-18
hood latch 1-17
How to use this manual 1-3
I
Ignition key switch 3-62
Installed Equipment - Operator's
Manuals 1-9
Instrument cluster 3-7
Instrument panel 3-5
Instrumentation
driver information display 3-14
instrument cluster 3-7
instrument panel 3-5
instrument system self test 3-8
menu control switch (MCS) 3-20
J
Jump starting vehicles 2-8
K
Keys
remote keyless entry (RKE) 1-12
Kingpin lubrication 5-106
L
Lap/Shoulder belt 1-22
Load distribution 1-33
Low voltage disconnect (LVD) 3-60
Lubricant specifications 5-33
M
Maintenance
5th wheel 5-103
air cleaners 5-98
air conditioner 5-114
air intake system 5-97
air system 5-47
Allison transmission
lubrication 5-41
brake adjustment 5-56
brake inspection 5-57
chrome and aluminum
surfaces 5-61
cleaning vinyl and upholstery 5-65
Index-5
7
Index
7
clutch 5-149
cooling system 5-70
driver's check list 1-34
Eaton/Dana axle lubrication 5-44
electrical system 5-75
emergency welding 5-102
engine 5-91
exterior 5-61
frame fastener torque
requirements 5-104
frame fastener torque table 5-104
front axle and suspension
lubrication 5-106
fuel system 5-100
Fuller transmission lubrication 5-39
heater 5-113
inspection 5-107
lubricant specifications 5-33
maintenance schedule 5-12
Meritor axle lubrication 5-43
noise and emission control
standards 5-115
oil changes 5-42
painted surfaces 5-61
preventive maintenance 5-9
rear axle alignment 5-129
Index-6
rear axle and suspension 5-124
rear axle lubrication 5-127
rear suspension fasteners torque
table 5-126
rear suspension U-bolt torque
table 5-127
safety restraint system inspection 5-65
safety restraint system - inspection
guidelines 5-67
sliding fifth wheel 5-105
Spicer transmission
lubrication 5-41
stainless steel 5-62
steering and driveline 5-130
steering gear lubrication 5-46
tail pipe surface cleaning 5-62
tires 5-135
transmission 5-146
U-bolt torque 5-108
U-bolt torque table 5-109
universal joint lubrication 5-45
vehicle cleaning 5-63
washing chassis 5-65
washing exterior 5-64
wheel alignment 5-107
wheel bearing lubrication 5-45
windshield wiper/washer 5-69
Maintenance Procedures
inspection of the engine oil
level 5-92
topping up the engine oil 5-93
Maintenance schedule 5-9
Malfunction Indicator Lamp (MIL) 3-40
Manual transmission 4-14
clutch brake 4-16
clutch travel 4-16
double clutching 4-17
release bearing wear 4-19
riding the clutch 4-19
shifting gears 4-16
Mirrors 3-74
mirror heat button 3-75
power mirror switch 3-76
N
Noise and emission control
maintenance 5-115
Noise control inspections 5-117
air intake system 5-117
diesel particulate filters 5-119
Index
engine fan and shroud 5-121
engine mounted noise
insulators 5-117
exhaust system 5-118
exhaust tail pipe 5-121
hood insulation blanket 5-121
inner fender shields and cab
skirt 5-122
joints and clamps 5-118
maintenance log 5-122
piping 5-119
O
Oil changes 5-42
Oil gauges
auxiliary transmission oil
temperature 3-48
engine oil pressure 3-11, 3-44
engine oil temperature 3-45
transfer case oil temperature 3-48
transmission retarder oil
temperature 3-49
Operating procedure
automatic and automated
transmissions 4-18
refueling 4-65
setting ride height 4-51
stopping procedures 4-66
transmission retarder 4-33
P
Painting 5-103
Pipe and hose clamp torque
values 5-93
Pressure gauges
engine oil pressure 3-11, 3-44
Pusher axle(s) air pressure
gauge 3-43
R
Rear axle - dual range
(two-speed) 4-42
Rear axle and suspension
maintenance 5-124
rear suspension fasteners 5-126
visual inspection 5-125
Refueling 4-64
fuel specification 4-65
Remote Keyless Entry (RKE) 5-90
batteries 1-14
key fob operation 1-13
key fob synchronization 1-14
Remote keyless entry (RKE) 1-13
S
Safe vehicle operation 1-31
Safety
cab and frame access 1-11
deck plate access 1-14
deflated air springs 4-54
driver's check list 1-34
emergency equipment kit 1-34
safe vehicle operation 1-31
safety alerts 1-4
setting ride height 4-51
vehicle loading 1-32
vehicle safety 1-6
Safety alerts 1-4
Safety restraint belts 1-21
belt damage and repair 1-26
during pregnancy 1-25
inspection 5-65
safety restraint tips 1-29
Seat adjustment 1-20
Index-7
7
Index
7
driver's seat with air
suspension 1-21
reclining seats 1-21
standard driver's seat 1-20
Seat belts 1-20
adjustments 1-20
belt damage and repair 1-26
during pregnancy 1-25
Komfort-Lok feature 1-24
lap/shoulder belt 1-22
safety restraint tips 1-29
Seats
adjustments 1-20
Komfort-Lok feature 1-24
tether belts 1-23
To adjust an external tether
belt 1-24
Seats and restraints 1-20
Shut-down
fuel specification 4-65
location of fuel shut-off valves 4-65
refueling 4-64
sleeper bunk 4-62
Sleeper bunk 4-62
sleeper restraint 4-63
Sliding 5th wheel
Index-8
maintenance 5-105
Sliding Fifth wheel
maintenance 5-105
Starting procedure
cold temperature 4-6
engine warm-up 4-7
normal temperature 4-5
Steer axle
identification 6-6
Steering and driveline
maintenance 5-130
fluid level and refill 5-131
Steering column 3-66
tilt/telescoping 3-67
trailer brake hand valve 3-71
turn signal/high beam switch 3-68
Steering system maintenance
steering shaft 5-132
Steering wheel controls 3-72
Suspension lubrication 5-106
Switches
2 speed transfer case 3-59
ABS off-road switch 3-51
accessory air switch 3-53
air conditioner switch 3-84
auxiliary light switch 3-54
axle switch, diff-lock - dual 3-50
axle switch, diff-lock - forward
rear 3-50
axle switch, diff-lock - rear rear 3-50
axle switch, diff-lock - single
rear 3-51
axle switch, diff-lock - steer 3-50
axle switch, inter axle differential
locked (tandem) 3-51
axle switch, pusher 3-57
axle switch, tag 3-57
axle switch, two speed 3-51
beacon light switch 3-54
brake level switch 3-52
brake on/off switch 3-52
cab dimmer 3-51
cruise control 4-36
cruise control on/off switch 3-52
cruise control set/resume
switch 3-52
dash switches 3-50
daytime running light switch 3-54
diesel particulate filter (DPF)
regeneration switch 3-53
dome light switch 3-54
dual range rear axle switch 4-42
Index
dump truck gate switch 3-52
engine fan override switch 3-52
engine fan switch 4-11
engine heater switch 3-52
exterior lights self test switch 3-54
fifth wheel slide switch 3-53
flood light switch 3-54
fog light switch 3-55
forward power take-off (PTO)
switch 3-56
forward trailer axle lift switch 3-58
fresh air/recirculation switch 3-84
fuel heater switch 3-53
hazard light switch 3-55
headlight switch 3-55
ignition key 3-54
ignition key switch 3-62
low voltage disconnect (LVD) 3-51
marker light switch 3-55
marker/clearance/cab light
switch 3-55
marker/clearance/trailer light
switch 3-56
mud & snow traction control 3-56
off-road ABS function switch
(option) 4-31
optional deep snow and mud
switch 4-30
park light switch 3-56
parking brake valve 3-51
pintle hook switch 3-56
power door lock 3-76
power take-off (PTO) switch 3-56
power window 3-77
rear power take-off (PTO)
switch 3-57
rear trailer axle lift switch 3-58
remote throttle switch 3-53
shutdown switch 3-53
sleeper override 3-85
spare switch 3-53
spot light switch 3-56
suspension dump switch 3-57
suspension lift switch 3-57
third axle lift switch 3-57
trailer air supply valve 3-57
trailer axle (3rd axle) lift switch 3-58
trailer belly dump switch 3-58
trailer center dump gate
switch 3-58
trailer dump gate switch 3-58
trailer front dump gate switch 3-58
trailer hotline switch 3-59
trailer marker light interrupter
switch 3-68
trailer rear dump gate switch 3-59
trailer suspension air dump 3-59
transfer case 3-59
turn signal/high beam switch 3-68
winch clutch switch 3-59
windshield wipers/washer 3-70
T
Tag axle air pressure gauge 3-43
Telematic system
care and operation 3-92
disclaimer 3-93
Temperature gauges
engine oil temperature 3-45
transmission retarder oil
temperature 3-49
water temperature (engine
coolant) 3-10
Tether belts 1-23
Tires 5-135
inflation check 5-135
replacement 5-139
Index-9
7
Index
tire chains 5-139
Tires and wheels
wheel cap nut torque
sequence 5-141
wheel cap nut torque table 5-140
wheel mounting and
fastening 5-140
Transmission
identification 6-6
lubricants 5-147
maintenance 5-146
oil change 5-146
shifting gears in a new vehicle 4-16
transmission tips 4-19
Transmission maintenance 5-146
Transmission temperature gauges
auxiliary transmission oil
temperature 3-48
Transmissions
automatic and automated 4-18
auxiliary transmission 4-19
transmission retarder 4-33
Turbocharger 5-97
7
Index-10
V
Vehicle identification
chassis number 6-4
chassis number locations 6-4
VIN number 6-3
VIN number locations 6-3
Vehicle loading 1-32
GAWR 1-33
GCW 1-33
GVWR 1-33
load distribution 1-33
Vehicle recovery
driver controlled main
differential 2-15
recovery guidelines 2-12
recovery hitch capacities 2-18
recovery hitch connection 2-14
recovery hitch installation 2-15
recovery procedure 2-13
recovery rigging 2-19
returning vehicle to service 2-20
sand, mud, snow and ice 2-22
spring brakes 2-20
towing the vehicle 2-23
Vehicle safety 1-6
Vocational - Headlight
replacement 5-77
W
Warning light/indicator symbols
anti-lock brake system (ABS) 3-37
anti-lock brake system (ABS),
trailer 3-38
axle, inter-axle differential locked
(tandem axles) 3-38
axle, traction control 3-37
dump truck, body up 3-39
dump truck, gate 3-39
dump truck, trailer body up 3-39
emissions, diesel particulate filter
(DPF) 3-39
emissions, high exhaust system
temperature (HEST) 3-39
engine brakesaver or transmission
retarder 3-42
engine, check engine 3-40
engine, engine fan 3-40
engine, heater 3-40
engine, low coolant level 3-40
engine, retarder (brake) 3-40
Index
engine, stop engine 3-40
engine, wait to start 3-41
lane departure warning (LDW) 3-41
lights, high beam 3-41
malfunction indicator lamp 3-40
park brake 3-38
power take-off (PTO) 3-41
power take-off (PTO), pump
mode 3-41
rationality check 3-38
refrigerator 3-41
seat belt, fasten 3-42
service transmission 3-42
suspension dump 3-42
tire inflation 3-42
transhigh 3-42
transmission, auxiliary 3-42
transmission, check 3-42
turn signal, left 3-42
turn signal, right 3-42
water in fuel (WIF) 3-41
wheel spin control 4-29
Weekly checks 1-38
Welding (emergency) 5-102
What to do if... 2-3
engine is overheating 2-5
engine oil pressure lamp turns
on 2-4
fuse or relay blows 2-6
low air alarm turns on 2-3
stop engine lamp turns on 2-4
you need roadside assistance 2-3
Windshield wiper/washer 5-69
Windshield wipers/washer 3-70
7
Index-11