Yamaha K-31 Technical data

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Inside Cover
Swiss Army
No. 53.101 f
(Model 11, Model 31, Scoped Model 31/42, 31/43 and 55)
Approved on order of the Federal Military Department
Bern, 5.2.58
Chief of Instruction
Preliminary Remarks
The 1958 edition of the regulation of the included rifles introduces the following modifications
from the 1952 edition:
-section 17
: new instructions for cases of malfunction
-sections 33-34
: inspection procedures go into more detail
-sections 38-46
: Scoped Rifle Model 55 is new
-sections 43-44
: Changes pertaining to the new style blank rifle cartridge
-sections 52-59
: More detail to and simplifications of instructions
-Figures 23-30
: Are new
-Appendix I
: The figures in this appendix are new
2. The regulation 53.101 f is issued to
To personnel of the following titles
To Commissioned and Non-Commissioned officers of troops armed with the rifle
To Commissioned Officers of Health Service
To all gunsmiths while they are in basic training
To all members of the Military Police Service
To all officers on field duty
It is not allowed to exchange the 1958 version for the previous version.
b) The following will receive service copies for the command archives
To all Army units , Border Brigades, Fortress Brigades and Redoubt Brigades (2 Copies)
To Troop Corps and units (elite and landwehr) equipped with the rifle (1 Copy)
The commanders of troops equipped with the Scoped Rifle Model 1955 should order the necessary manuals
for their cadres instructed in the use of this weapon, from the Central printing and materiel office, Bern 3.
Table of Contents
Part 1: Weapon Description
I. Overview
II. Parts and Accessories
III. Disassembly and Reassembly
1. Weapon disassembly
2. Weapon Reassembly
3. Magazine Disassembly and Reassembly
IV. Function
1. Trigger mechanism and weapon discharge
2. Unlocking and opening the bolt
3. Closing and locking the bolt
4. Safety
V. Malfunctions and repairs
VI. Weapon Maintenance
1. Overview
2. Cleaning
3. Inspection
VII. The Scoped Rifles
A. Scoped Rifles Models 1931/42 and 1931/43
1. Overview
2. Maintenance
3. Operation
B. Scoped Rifle Model 1955
1. Overview
2. Technical Data
3. Operation and Maintenance
4. Adjustment (Sighting In) Procedures
5. Weapon Use
6. Training
7. Safety Measures
8. Shooting Program
Part 2: Ammunition
I. Overview
II. Ball Cartridges
1. Common rifle cartridge 11
2. Armor piercing cartridge
3. Tracer Cartridge
III. Blank Cartridges
IV. Handling Cartridges
V. Handling and storage
Part 3: Rifle Operation
1. Loading, reloading, and removal of cartridges
2. Shooter position, weapon support and discharge
3. Aiming
4. Bayonet use
5. Safety Rules
Appendix I: Training Figures
Appendix II: Tables
Appendix III: Orders regarding ammunition
Appendix IV: Instructions for avoiding small arms damage
Technical Information
Barrel Length in mm
Caliber in mm
Number of riflings
Length of riflings in mm
Depth of Rifling in mm
Max Chamber pressure in atm.
Muzzle velocity in m/sec (Vo)
Sight radius in mm
Elevation Gradient from 100m in 100m
Weapon weight unloaded and without bayonet in kg
Ball Ammunition
Blank Ammunition
Package of 480 Ball cartridges
Package of 480 Blank cartridges
Scoped Rifles:
Field of View
Objective Diameter
Eyepiece Diameter
Elevation gradient divided in 100 in 100 m
Rifle 11
Rifle 31
26.8 g
13.7 g
15.5 kg
9.3 kg
125 0/00
9 mm
5 mm
80 0/00
12 mm
4.3 mm
75 0/00
22 mm
6 mm
7 and 8
Part I
Weapon Description
I. Overview
The rifle (model 11 and model 31) is the soldier’s personal arm that he uses as a precision arm for
his protection at short distance. The great accuracy of this weapon allows the user to hit very
small targets at distances of more than hundreds of meters.
The Scoped Rifle is the weapon of the elite marksman. The scope improves visibility and
allows for more precise aiming.
The firing rate is very quick, due to the straight pull bolt that allows for simpler reloading motion.
A good marksman can fire 10 to 12 well-aimed shots per minute.
The rifle is used as well for launching anti-tank and smoke grenades. A grenade launcher is
provided for this purpose; the anti-tank grenade is launched with the help of a special propulsive
cartridge (contained in a special magazine).
Parts and Accessories
The principal parts of the rifle are:
The barrel, caliber 7.5 (fig. 2) with the sight mechanism. ( figs. 3 to 5)
The receiver (fig. 6 and 7) with the bolt stop;
The bolt with the bolt cam follower (fig. 8) , the cylinder (fig. 9) , the locking sleeve (fig. 10) and
the firing pin mechanism (fig. 11 and 12);
The trigger mechanism (fig. 6 and 7) with the trigger, sear and the trigger spring. The trigger
spring on the Model 31 activates the ejector as well.
The magazine (fig. 13), which holds 6 cartridges.
The Stock (fig.1) with the hand guard and fittings. (fig. 14)
The accessories comp rise
The muzzle cover to protect the mouth of the barrel and the front sight.
The bayonet (fig. 15)
The accessories pouch (fig. 16)
Fig. 1
A. Mq. Mod 31
1. Bolt with firing mechanism
2. Sights
B. Mq. Mod 11
3. Receiver
4. Hand Guard
5. Barrel
6. Stock
7. Magazine
8. Trigger
Figure 2
B. Mq. Mod 11
1. Front sight housing
2. Rear Sight
A. Mq Mod 31
3. Mounting Sleeve
The interior of the barrel has 4 lands and 4 grooves (right hand twist)
Barrel Caliber tolerances:
Mq. Mod 31 – 7.50 to 7.57mm
Mq. Mod 11 – 7.54 to 7.60mm
Figure 3
B. Mq. Mod 11
A. Mq. Mod 31
4. Front Sight Housing
5. Barrel Cross Section
Front Sight Blade
Front Sight
The front sight may be moved from side to side by use of a front sight adjustment tool. 1 mm of front sight
movement moves the point of impact a 300 m:
Model 31 =12 cm
Model 11 = 14 cm
To adjust the average height of the point of impact, we can change the front sight blade; there are 5 types of
front sight blades:
Figure 4
Rear Sight
A. Mq. Mod 31
Elevation Adjustment Slide
Sight Leaf
Rear Sight Slot
Sight Housing
Slide Stop
Front Sight types
Front Sight height
in mm
Change in impact height from one front
site to the next
Model 31: 16 cm
Model 11: 18 cm
Figure 5
Rear Sight
B. Mq. Mod 11
Rear Sight Base
Elevation Adjustment Slide
Sight Leaf
Rear Sight Slot
Slide Stop
14 and 15
Figure 6
A. Mq. Mod 31
1. Bolt with firing mechanism
2. Loading Slot
3. Barrel
4. Receiver
5. Magazine Slot
6. Trigger Mechanism
7. Ejector
II. Disarmed
8. Cam Follower Plate
16 and 17
Figure 7
B. Mq. Mod 11
Bolt with firing mechanism
Loading Slot
Magazine Slot
Trigger Mechanism
III. Disarmed
7. Ejector
8. Cam Follower
Figure 8
Cam Follower
A. Mq. Mod31
1. Cam follower pin
B. Mq Mod 11
2. Cam follower handle
The inner part of the cam follower pin slides in the helical slot of the locking sleeve and makes it turn when
the bolt is opened or closed; when the bolt is opened, the outer part of the cam follower pin arms the firing
pin mechanism by pushing against the base of the firing pin.
Figure 9
A. Mq. Mod 31
B. Mq. Mod 11
Cam follower pin slot
Extractor groove
Attachment lug
Threaded Connector
Cam follower pin slot
Extractor Housing
When the bolt is reassembled:
a) for Model 31 : the locking sleeve completely surrounds the cylinder; the cylinder and the
bolt plug are held in place by a locking lug arrangement.
Figure 10
Locking Sleeve
A. Mq. Mod 31
B. Mq Mod 11
Locking Lugs
Helical Slot
b) for Model 11 : only the rear part of the cylinder is surrounded by the locking sleeve; The
bolt plug and the cylinder are attached to each other by a male threaded area on the
cylinder and a female threaded area on the bolt plug.
The cam follower pin slides in the helical slot in the locking sleeve and makes the locking sleeve turn when
the bolt is opened or closed. It is this rotational movement that locks the lugs in place in the receiver when
the bolt is closed. (locked bolt) When the bolt is opened, the lugs move from their locked position in the
receiver and the bolt is unlocked.
The locking lug slots are found in the following locations
a) Model 31: ahead of the loading slot
b) Model 11: aft of the loading slot
Fig. 11
Firing Mechanism
A. Model 31
Firing Pin
Firing Pin Spring
Cocking Piece
Cocking Piece Sear
Bolt Plug
Safety Slot
Cam Follower Slot
Firing Slot
Cylinder Lug slots
The bolt plug is assembled to the bolt cylinder by means of a lug/slot arrangement.
Fig. 12
Firing Mechanism
B. Mq. Model 11
Firing Pin
Firing Pin Spring
Cocking Piece
Cocking Piece Sear
Bolt Plug
Safety Slot
Cam Follower Slot
Firing Slot
Threaded connector
The bolt plug is attached to the cylinder by means of a threaded connection
Fig. 13
B. Mq. Model 11
1. Magazine Plate
2. Magazine Spring
A. Mq. Model 31
3. Magazine Case
4. Magazine Stop
A. Mq. Model 31
Sling Loop
Sling Hook
Stacking Hook
Forward Barrel Band
Bayonet Lug
Magazine Plate
Trigger Guard
Action Screws (fore and aft)
Fig. 14
B. Mq. Model 11
Sling Loop
Sling Hook
Stacking Hook
Forward Barrel Band
Bayonet Lug
Magazine Plate
A sling hook is attached to the lower part of the sling. It permits the lower part of the sling to be removed
from the hook attachment bar, and also to put the weapon in a bandolier configuration or to remove the
sling when wearing a gas mask.
Fig. 15
Model 18 Bayonet with Sheath
Hand Guard
Fig. 16
Accessory Pouch
Grease Can
Grease Can Lid
Chamber Mirror
Cleaning Cord
Accessory Pouch
Grease Can
Chamber Cleaning Tool
Disassembly and Reassembly
1. Weapon Disassembly
Before disassembly it is important to check for and remove all cartridges by inspecting the
magazine and chamber.
The weapon should be disassembled no more than is necessary for proper cleaning. To avoid
dirtying the rifle parts all parts should be placed on a clean surface.
Disassemble the Rifle per the following:
a) Remove the Magazine (disassemble the magazine, if required, per section 9)
b) Remove the bolt
c) Disassemble the bolt
Grasp the bolt in the left hand
Place the cocking piece sear between the
two slots in the bolt plug
With the left hand, turn the locking
sleeve to the right; simultaneously push
and remove the cam follower piece.
Detain the firing pin spring by placing
the cocking piece sear in the firing slot
in the bolt plug.
Remove the firing mechanism by
unscrewing the cylinder from the bolt
Mq. 31
Grasp the bolt in the left hand; place the
cocking piece sear between the two slots on
the bolt plug.
Remove the cam follower pin from the helical
slot in the locking sleeve; then remove the
cam follower by pushing forward through the
slot in the bolt plug.
Grasp the locking lugs with the thumb and the
middle finger.
Hold the cylinder with the index finger next to
the extractor.
Turn the bolt plug a quarter turn.
Separate the locking sleeve from the
Separate the firing mechanism from the
locking sleeve and the cylinder.
With both thumbs, remove the extractor
by rotating it to the right; if necessary,
support the left part of the claw against
as stop and tap lightly on the cylinder to
free the extractor.
Separate the cylinder from the locking sleeve
Remove the 3mm extractor with a screwdriver
by pushing it forward. (Avoid removing the
extractor if possible as removal may break or
weaken the spring)
Retain the firing pin spring by placing the
cocking piece sear in the firing slot in the bolt
d) Disassembly of the firing mechanism
-Compress the firing pin spring
-Remove the firing pin, the firing pin spring and the bolt plug.
e) Disassembly from the stock
This procedure should be performed very rarely, for example when the weapon has been wet,
when it has lain dirty for a long period of time or for weapon inspection.
Completely unscrew and remove the forward barrel band. Unscrew 2-3 turns the screw on the
rear barrel band (Sling loop) (never remove completely!), slide the barrel band forward and
remove. Remove the hand guard.
30 and 31
Mq. 11
To remove the hand guard; it is necessary to raise the rear sight leaf to a 90 degree angle, then carefully lift
the hand guard turning it at the same time to clear the sight leaf. Unscrew the action screw and the
magazine plate screw and remove the barrel and the receiver.
Mq. 11
Mq. 31
Remove the barrel from the stock by Remove the barrel from the stock by
grasping it towards the rear.
grasping it from the muzzle
Only a gunsmith is authorized to disassemble the weapon further.
2. Re -assembly
Re-assembly is accomplish in reverse order of the disassembly. Be careful to not mix parts of
different rifles. Only parts with the same serial number should be assembled together.
Re-assembly operations
a) Mounting
Mq. 11
Mq. 31
Place the barrel in the stock front end first
so the mounting sleeve fits tightly into the
milled slot in the stock.
Place the barrel in the stock receiver first.
Replace the Magazine Plate
Loosely tighten the two magazine plate screws
Loosely tighten the Magazine plate Screws
and the Action Screw.
Final tighten the forward screw first and then the
aft screw
Tighten the center magazine screw
securely, then the remaining two screws
Replace the hand guard by ensuring that the metal
tab engages the slot in the rear sight housing.
Lift the rear sight leaf to a 90-degree angle
and replace the hand guard. Lower the
sight leaf
Slide the rear barrel band with the sling
loop and tighten it without bottoming out
the screw
Inspect the Sling loop spring to ensure
there is free movement and that the barrel
band is tight
Replace the front Barrel Band by placing
the lower part against the stock then swing
the upper part into position and tighten the
Replace the magazine plate
32 and 33
b) Bolt
Mq. 11
Mq. 31
Replace the Extractor
Replace the extractor
Slide the locking sleeve, lugs forward, over
the cylinder
Slide the locking sleeve with the lugs in front over
the cylinder
Replace the cocking piece and slide it into
the firing groove in the bolt plug
Replace the cocking piece and slide it into the firing
groove in the bolt plug
Replace the firing pin spring over the
cocking piece and compress it and hold
Replace the firing pin spring over the cocking piece
and compress it and hold
Replace the firing pin, release the spring
Replace the firing pin, release the spring
Pull and turn the cocking piece so the sear
rests between the two slots in the bolt plug
Pull and turn the cocking piece so the sear rests
between the two slots in the bolt plug
Assemble and tighten the firing mechanism
assembly to the cylinder/sleeve assembly
With the cylinder/locking sleeve assembly in the
left hand, hold the locking lugs with the thumb and
middle finger. Align the ejector slots in the locking
sleeve and the cylinder and hold them aligned with
the tip of the index finger.
Grasp the bolt in the left hand
Turn the locking sleeve until the end of the
helical slot aligns with the cam follower pin
slot on the cylinder and that these align with
the cam follower shaft slot in the bolt plug.
Replace the cam follower shaft by first
placing the cam follower pin in the forward
part of the helical slot as well as the cam
follower pin slot in the cylinder. Place the
small p in in the bolt plug slot.
Slide the sleeve/cylinder assembly into the firing
mechanism assembly until it bottoms, with the cam
follower plate slot in the bolt plug turned to the left.
Turn the sleeve/cylinder assembly a quarter turn
until the rear pocket of the helical slot in the locking
sleeve aligns with the cam follower plate slot in the
bolt plug.
Pull the cam follower shaft all the way to the
rear causing the locking sleeve to turn left to
the point the cam follower pin falls into the
aft pocket of the helical slot.
Replace the cam follower plate by inserting the rear
end of the plate in the cam follower plate slot in the
bolt plug; Slide the cam follower plate back until it
bottoms and turn the bolt to the left until cam
follower pin can slide into the pocket on the aft end
of the helical slot in the locking sleeve.
Place the Cocking Piece Sear into the safety
Place the Cocking Piece Sear in the safety slot in
the bolt plug.
c) Replace the bolt
d) Replace the Magazine
33 (cont) and 34
Disassembly and Assembly of the Magazine
The magazine should only be rarely disassembled. Perform only if the Magazine is very dirty.
Exercise caution when disassembling the Mod. 31 Magazine as it is very easy to break the
magazine spring at the point it is attached to the magazine follower plate so it is important not to
exert pressure at that point.
Magazine Disassembly
Mq. 11
Mq. 31
Remove the magazine plate by rocking it to
the right
Take the Magazine in the left hand with the stop
turned toward the body
Carefully remove the spring
With the left index finger, lightly press the left side
of the magazine plate in such a way to raise the
right side
Grasp the protruding side with the right index finger
and thumb and remove the lateral bulge from the
tabs by rocking the plate lightly along the
longitudinal axis. Grasp the plate by the bulge and
carefully remove it as well as the magazine spring.
(never pull the plate along its longitudinal axis).
10 Magazine Re-assembly
Mq. 11
Mq. 31
Replace the spring in a relaxed position with
the small rectangle formed by the steel wire
placed front to back
Replace the spring and the magazine plate by
inserting the assembly at an angle
Replace the magazine plate in such a way
that the end of the spring engages the small
notch in the plate
Replace the magazine and Inspect and
function test
Replace the magazine vigorously until the magazine
stop engages completely
Inspect and function test
35, 36
Trigger Mechanism and Rifle Discharge
(Fig. 17)
11 When the weapon is ready to fire, the bolt is closed and locked, the trigger mechanism is armed
(normal position. See Fig. 17)
The pressure placed on the trigger causes the trigger sear to lower; this trigger movement is paused
as the rear trigger boss comes into contact with the receiver. (stop point).
The lip of the trigger sear then holds the Cocking Piece Sear lightly such that a very slight
pressure on the trigger is all that is required to lower it completely.
At the moment that the cocking piece sear is freed from the restraint of the trigger sear, the
cocking piece, under the pressure of the firing pin spring, is projected forward. The firing pin
strikes the cartridge primer and it ignites.
Unlocking and opening the bolt
(Fig. 18)
12 When the handle of the cam follower is pulled to the rear, the cam follower pin slides in the
longitudinal slot in the cylinder and at the same time along the helical slot in the locking sleeve.
The cam follower pin arms the firing mechanism by moving rearward the firing pin and the
cocking piece and compresses the firing pin spring. The aft pocket of the helical slot in the
locking sleeve ensures that the cam follower pin will not be pushed forward by the firing pin
spring. The firing mechanism is armed in this fashion.
Fig. 17
A. Mq. Mod. 31
The three trigger positions
Normal Position
Position after trigger first stage (sear ready to release)
Post Weapon Discharge
Fig. 18
A. Mq. Mod. 31
Locking Lugs
Cam follower plate
Locking Lug slots
38 and 39
13 During locking sleeve rotation, the locking lugs exit the locking lug slots in the receiver and stop
rotation at the entrance of the locking lug guide grooves that run along the length of the inside of
the receiver; the bolt is, in this position, unlocked and may be pulled freely to the rear up to the
bolt stop.
At the same time, the extractor pulls out the empty case and the case is ejected at the point where
it hits the ejector.
The upper cartridge in the magazine is the raised into position by the magazine spring and stops in
front of the bolt
3. Closing and locking the bolt
14 When the bolt is pushed forward, the locking sleeve turns slightly as guided by the angled surfaces
on the locking lugs. The same movement frees the cam follower pin from the aft pocket in the
helical slot in the locking sleeve. The lip of the trigger sear then restrains the cocking piece sear.
The firing pin spring is remains compressed in this fashion. As the cam follower place is pushed
further forward, the cam follower pin, guided by the helical slot in the locking sleeve, turns the
locking sleeve. The locking lugs turn into the locking lug slots in the receiver and the bolt is
A bolt that is not completely locked exposes the shooter to the risk of accident, also the risk of
damaging the cam follower pin (see appendix IV of the present regulation “Instructions for
damage avoidance to small arms”). During bolt closure the bolt pushes the top cartridge in the
magazine forward and into the chamber. The extractor claw then snaps into the lip of the cartridge
15 When all of the cartridges in the magazine have been fired, it is not possible, then, to close the
bolt; the shooter is thus made aware of the need to reload.
4. Safety
16 When the cocking ring is pulled rearward and turned to the right, the cocking piece sear can be
placed in the safety slot in the bolt plug. This slot is shorter than the firing slot; it is for this reason
the firing pin cannot protrude past the face of the bolt cylinder. All contact with the cartridge
primer is thus prevented. The cocking piece sear falls into a pocket the keeps the bolt from
opening accidentally.
Malfunctions and Repairs
17 Most of the time, malfunctions are caused by poorly executed bolt operation, by poor
maintenance, or from inadequate inspection.
If malfunctions or misfires occur during operation and handling a loaded weapon is required, it is
necessary to proceed in the following fashion:
a) Secure the weapon by turning the cocking piece sear into the safety slot.
Open the bolt and remove the cartridge from the chamber.
b) If the bolt can be opened easily:
-Load and close the bolt,
-Inspect the cam follower plate to ensure that it is pushed all the way forward.
-Recock the weapon and continue shooting
40 and 41
If the bolt cannot be opened:
-Remove the magazine,
-Place the cocking piece sear between the safety slot and the firing slot in the bolt plug,
-Pull the bolt back by the handle with blows of the palm of the hand if required,
-Remove the bolt, disassemble and inspect all of the parts (especially the cam follower
-If no defect or damage is found reassemble and reload per step b,
d) If the bolt cannot be opened per step c:
-Safe the weapon and contact the specialist (gunsmith).
18 Loading malfunctions are caused the majority of the time by cartridges that are poorly placed in
the magazine or and foreign object in the system.
If the malfunction is caused by a case that is lodged in the chamber, extract it by closing and
opening the bolt several times; the bolt should be open by small taps to the handle of the cam
follower plate. If the case still remains in the chamber, use a cleaning rod to remove it. The cause
of this malfunction could be due to a worn or broken extractor claw or because the chamber has
become so dirty that the case remains stuck in the chamber.
19 Misfires can be caused when the bolt is not closed all the way, the firing channel is dirty or full of
grease or the point of the firing pin is broken. If these causes have been eliminated and the rifle
still does not discharge and the cartridge will not fire in another rifle, then the cartridge must be
considered a “misfire”.
20 Only the gunsmith is authorized to:
-Repair trigger mechanism malfunctions (for example, insufficient sear engagement)
-Remove foreign object, such as cleaning rods or parts of cleaning cord that are jammed in the
All needed repairs to be performed while on duty, can only be performed by troop gunsmiths or
arsenal gunsmiths; all repairs that may be required while off duty, can only be performed by
gunsmiths authorized to repair service (military) weapons.
21 If serious damage or malfunctions occur to the weapon or ammunition, apart from those caused by
weapon discharge, and if this damage will cause or could cause an accident, carefully gather all of
the damaged parts, as well as the cartridges, and set them aside without any modification. Advise
Military Technical Services in Bern by telephone at (031/61 76 26) or by telegraph so that the
damage may be studied in place and without delay, to determine the cause.
42, 43 and 44
VI. Weapon Maintenance
1. Overview
22 Each shooter is responsible for the maintenance of his rifle. The Group and Section Chiefs as well
as Unit Commanders of reserve units are responsible for periodic weapon inspection. The group
and section chiefs will perform an inspection and comment on all maintenance issues such as the
condition of the barrel, cleanliness and so forth.
A gunsmith should be present, if possible, to repair at site all small malfunctions, and to retain all
weapons that need repaired or returned to the arsenal.
23 Select locations for weapons storage that are dry and not subject to wide temperature variations.
The weapon should be unloaded, bolt closed, trigger spring released, if it will not be used for a
long period if time. The weapon should be well greased beforehand especially the barrel bore.
24 When a weapon is being shipped either by train or post, the front and rear sights should be well
padded. The bolt should be wrapped in thick paper or well wrapped in packaging material.
25 In order to properly handle the weapon, the following is forbidden:
Carrying more than one rifle on the same shoulder.
Loading unpackaged weapons into vehicles.
To obstruct the barrel muzzle with grease or a cleaning patch.
To modify the weapon in any way.
To use rifles as a stretcher.
2. Cleaning
26 The degree of rifle cleaning will depend on how dirty the weapon is. When the weather is dry it
is sufficient to dry then grease the exterior of the weapon and the bolt. After shooting with ball or
blank ammunition or with propulsive cartridges, a more thorough cleaning is required, also if the
weapon is soiled or wet.
If it is not possible to clean the weapon immediately after firing, the bore of the barrel should at
least be greased while it is still warm.
Only material provided in the accessory pouch and the weapon grease delivered to the troop
should be used for cleaning. Cleaning rods should be used only to grease and degrease the
barrels, they should not be used for cleaning.
Cleaning materials should be kept in good condition. The cleaning cord should be equipped with
a wire mesh that is not worn out. To wash the cleaning cord use hot water no hotter than 30° C;
the wire mesh should be removed beforehand. The wire mesh should only be placed on the cord
and the cord rolled only after the cord is dry.
27 Metal parts of the weapon should be rubbed with a dry cloth. It is necessary to remove old dried
on grease and gunpowder residue with a little fresh grease and clean the grooves and hard to reach
parts with small pieces of wood. One the cleaning is complete; lightly rub all of the metal parts
with a clean greased cloth. Ensure particularly that moving parts are well greased, especially the
locking sleeve and the cam follower plate/rod. The firing pin and the firing pin channel should
not be greased.
Rub rusted spots with a dry cloth, then grease sufficiently, then rub again. Repeat in this fashion
until all of the rust is gone and only the dark spots are visible.
28 The wooden parts of the rifle, the stock and hand guard, should be cleaned with a clean cotton
cloth and then lightly greased.
44 (cont), 45 and 46
29 Barrel cleaning is performed by means of a cleaning cord, after having removed the bolt and the
magazine. For Mq. 31 the locking sleeve should be re-inserted in place to ensure that the ejector
does not snag the cleaning cord. The cleaning cord is inserted through the receiver. The wire
mesh should be well greased and in good enough condition so that the wire will penetrate the
grooves of the rifling; if the wire mesh is too narrow, widen it by inserting a small piece of wood
into the cord. Two men should pull the cleaning cord exactly down the barrel axis; on each
cleaning pass, the wire mesh should pass all the way through the barrel.
After having removed all powder residues in this fashion, wrap a small thin patch around the cord
just ahead of the wire mesh, and clean the barrel again until the patch emerges clean. The barrel
is then inspected. Special attention should de paid to ensure rifling grooves are clean. After
inspection, grease the bore by greasing a thin cotton patch and wrapping it around the cord just
ahead of the wire mesh, then run the cord again through the barrel. The cleaning rod can also be
used to grease the barrel.
30 The chamber is cleaned by means of the chamber-cleaning tool. Grease the wire mesh and
loosen powder residue by inserting the tool into the chamber. Wrap a dry patch around the tool
and clean the chamber of all remaining residue. Inspect the chamber. Wrap a clean greased patch
around the tool and grease the chamber again after the inspection. If the chamber-cleaning tool is
not large enough to clean the sides of the chamber, it may be enlarged with a screwdriver.
31 Worn out wire meshes and wire mesh from the cleaning cord and cleaning tool should be
replaced. Place the new wire mesh into the buckle of the cleaning cord by placing the small sides
of the mesh against the center of the buckle and form the mesh in an ‘s’ shape through the two
pins on the buckle.
32 As a general rule, it is not necessary to perform a major disassembly except for purpose of
inspection by an arms inspector; a major disassembly may also be necessary after a long period of
bad weather. Before reassembling the weapon, grease all of the rifle parts that are not visible
outside of the stock.
3. Inspections
33 A minor inspection either by the shooter himself or by the non-commissioned officer after each
cleaning, or when the weapon has not been used during a certain period of time. Inspected are:
a) The cleanliness of the different parts, especially the bore
b) The smooth function of the bolt, the trigger, the magazine follower plate and the
magazine spring.
c) The position of the front barrel band and the sling loop barrel band and if the band screws
are securely tightened.
d) That the bore and the moving parts surfaces are sufficiently greased.
e) The shooter will inspect the weapon for cracks in the cam follower pin during each rifle
cleaning and inspection. If the shooter is uncertain of the condition of the pin, he should
contact a gunsmith (if not on active duty, he should contact the arms inspector or the
46 (cont), 47
34 If a major inspection is required, contact the responsible officers. A major inspection should take
place at least one time during short time active duty and once every two or three weeks during
prolonged periods of active duty. This inspection is composed of the following elements:
Remove all cartridges, the bolt and the magazine.
Degrease the barrel bore and the chamber (clean if necessary)
Perform a major disassembly, remove the stock if necessary
Barrel inspection:
-Place the bore mirror in the loading slot; inspect the rifling and the chamber
Inspect the sights: ensure the front sight housing is fixed in place, that the elevation slide
moves freely, check the condition of the slide stop and the condition of the rear sight
Inspect the movement in the trigger mechanism and the bolt stop.
Inspect the stock and the hand guard (for cracks)
Bolt inspection:
Disassemble the bolt into 4 parts, the firing mechanism will not be disassembled and the
extractor will stay fixed to the cylinder.
-Cylinder: firing pin channel and extractor slot are intact,
-Locking sleeve: no visible cracks, inspect free movement of the sleeve over the cylinder,
-Firing mechanism: point of the firing pin is in good condition, check the wear on the
cocking piece sear, verify that there are no cracks in the bolt plug,
-The cam follower plate: the shooter must inspect the cam follower pin for cracks at the
range as well as during rifle cleaning and inspection. If there is a doubt as to whether the
cam follower pin is fractured, contact a gunsmith (if not on active duty, contact the arms
inspector or the arsenal,
Magazine: check that the spring is in the proper position, check magazine follower plate
for free movement.
Reassemble the rifle without the magazine:
-Inspect the sears, weapon shouldered
-Inspect the firing mechanism by moving the bolt,
Inspect the bayonet: Fix it to the barrel and to the lug and check for movement (slight
play is allowed)
Inspect the screws and the barrel bands (on the Mq. 11 check that the mounting sleeve is
well inserted into the stock and the hand guard),
Check that the serial number of the weapon, the bolt, the magazine, and the bayonet are
the same,
Check that the weapon inspection information has been recorded in the weapon service
VII. Scoped Rifles
Scoped rifles 1931/42 and 1931/43
1. Overview
35 There are two Model 31 Scoped rifles:
Model 31/42, scope power 1.8X
Model 31/43, scope power 2.8X
The scope is set offset in the model 31 rifle. Because of this the regular iron sights can be used as
well as the scope.
The nomenclature of the different parts of the scoped rifle is outlined in fig. 19 and 20. The scope
reticle is shown in fig.21.
2. Maintenance
36 Maintenance of the scoped rifle itself is performed per the instructions provided for the regular
issue rifle. Perform scope maintenance per the following instructions:
-Handle carefully: protect the scope from impacts.
-Keep the scope clean and dry: if the scope gets wet, dry it out of the weather but not next to a
heat source.
-Clean the eyepiece lens with a soft cloth or with a chamois, after removing any sand grains with
-Oil only the metal parts lightly; in no circumstance use grease or gasoline.
-Scope adjustment (aimpoint adjustment) cannot be performed by anyone except a gunsmith.
The adjustment key is found in the cp. fus. & car. gunsmiths kit.
-No scope repair can be performed by troops in the field. Scoped rifles that need repair must be
returned to the issuing arsenal.
3. Handling
37 At all ranges the scope sees a ‘full view’. It is necessary therefore to move the crosshairs to the
center of the target.
If the distance between the view point and the impact point is more than 1 0/00 , that is represented
in target A, an impact point outside the visual field, the scope should be adjusted by a gunsmith.
For firing, it is necessary to raise the objective and place the elevation range on the sight leaf of
the scope.
Fig. 19
Scoped Rifle 31/42 and 31/43
With objective in view position
Scope housing
Mobile objective
Sight leaf
Elevation slide
Elevation Slide Stop
Eyepiece protector
Scoped rifle 31/42 and 31/43
With objective lowered
Scope housing
Mobile objective
Windage adjustment screw
Elevation adjustment screw
51, 52 and 53
After shooting, the mobile objective must be lowered into its slot in the stock and lower the elevation slide
to 1. If the objective remains raised, it can be easily bumped.
The thickness of the reticle crosshairs is 0.5 0/00. The
thickness of the auxiliary crosshairs is 2 0/00 . The visual
field of Model 41/42 (magnification 1.8X) measures
1250/00; The visual field of Model 31/43 (magnification
2.8X) measures 800/00.
Fig. 21
B. Scoped Rifle Model 1955
38 Scoped rifle Model 1955 is a weapon for precision shooters. It is a firearm that resembles the Mq.
Mod 31. In the hands of a good marksman, it is capable of destruction, using few cartridges, up to
distances of 500 to 600 meters, of targets isolated and not easily visible to the naked eye or in dim
lighting conditions. The scope not only facilitates sight, but also permits observation of the target
area. Thanks to good optics, an enlarged visual field and the stability of the weapon (bipod,
muzzle brake, weight of the weapon) one may observe the arrival of the shot on target.
2. Technical Information
39 Caliber
Muzzle Velocity
Uses the GP 11 cartridge
Weapon weight (ready to fire without bayonet)
Weapon weight (unloaded, without scope)
Weapon length
Height of the barrel axis from the ground (firing position with bipod)
Scope weight
Scope weight with case
Visual field
Correction tolerance
Distance adjustment
View adjustment tolerance
7.5 mm
780 m/s
6100 gr
5530 gr
121 cm
32 cm
520 gr
1050 gr
75 0/00
?75 0/00
from 0-800 m
?2 diopters
53 cont, 54
Additional infor mation
40 The scope can be removed.
A bayonet can be mounted to the barrel.
The rifle can be aimed with the iron sight with the scope mounted to a distance of 800 m.
Compared with the Mq. 31 the Mq. Lu 55 has a smaller target dispersion pattern due to the weight
of the weapon and the barrel muzzle brake.
A good marksman, using the
bipod, and after sighting in, can achieve 95 points in 10 shots at a 300 m 10 point target.
The weapon is adjusted to a 300-meter zero. Due to this the impact point for all distances will be
1 0/00 higher than the aimpoint.
3. Handling and Maintenance
41 The methods for carrying the weapon, loading, removing cartridges, and firing are in principle the
same as that of the Mq. Mod 31.
To reload, be sure to insert the charger at a slight angle from right to left. After use, the scope is to
be placed in its case in order to avoid damaging it. The scope should be mounted only just prior to
taking a firing position. During a march and changes in firing position, the scope must be placed
in the case.
For weapon maintenance, the same procedures used for the Mq. Mod 31 will be used, especially
the instructions concerning disassembly. Instructions concerning the assembly of all the parts
differ from those of the Mq. 31 with the exception of the firing pin, the cocking piece and the
firing pin spring.
Width of vertical crosshair 2 0/00
Width of horizontal crosshair 1 0/00
Gap in the horizontal crosshair 8 0/00
Fig. 23
55, 56
Fig. 24
Bolt plug
Cocking piece
Cam follower plate
Locking sleeve
Firing pin
Firing pin spring
Sling loop band
Sling Hook
Magazine plate
Receiver screws (front and rear)
Receiver with trigger mechanism
17. Muzzle brake (disassembled only by a gunsmith)
18. Round Screw
19. Locking ring
20. Bolt
21. Magazine
22. Bipod
23. Bipod mounting
24. Scope
25. Screwdriver for scope
26. Scope Case
For the scoped rifle, it is important to pay attention to the following points:
Use the weapon with care to avoid impacts, wet and dirty conditions. If the scope gets wet, dry it at room
temperature, not next to a heater on not in its case.
The lenses should be cleaned with a clean lens cloth or a chamois. Sand particles should be removed
preferably beforehand with tweezers.
Metal scope parts should only be lightly oiled. The lenses should never come in contact with grease or
petroleum based oils.
Troops are not authorized to make repairs to the scope.
Damaged scopes should be sent with the rifle to a competent arsenal.
42 Sight adjustment
The weapon should be sighted in without the scope. If this is not the case, it must be adjusted with
the help of a gunsmith per the gunsmith’s regulations. If the average point of impact while
shooting on the bipod, Target A at 300 meters with the elevation set at 3 and windage of 0, in calm
and normal conditions, is outside the black region on the target, the scope must be adjusted.
Scope adjustment will be performed by the soldier to which the weapon was issued or the
Procedure as follows:
While adjusting the elevation and windage knobs during sighting in, the average impact point
should be in the center of the black, with the aim point at “dead center”
Next, the elevation adjustment knob should be firmly held, the screws loosened around one turn
with the provided screwdriver found in the case, The scale on the knob will be set to 3 and the
screws retightened.
To adjust the windage, follow the same procedure, but now the scale on the knob should be placed
at “0”.
Fig. 26
27 Countersunk screws for adjusting elevation
28 Windage knob
59, 60
Fig. 27
29 Countersunk screws for windage adjustment (loosen 1 turn)
30 Elevation knob
31 Focus ring
4. Sight adjustment procedure
43 As a general rule, the scoped rifle will be fired using the bipod; or per the situation, perhaps
supported on sandbags or on a window frame
Before each shot, the diopter adjustment will be inspected.
For the Mq. 31, small corrections in windage and elevation are made by changing the sighting
point; the procedure is the same for the Mod. 55 Scoped Rifle when not using the scope.
When using the scope, always aim at the center of the target after having adjusted the elevation
and windage to ‘dead center’.
Ensure when sighting that your eye is sighting directly down the axis of the scope, if not, the aim
point will vary from the sighting point.
Adjust the scope aim point per the following instructions:
To move the aim point to the left; turn the windage knob counterclockwise.
To move the aim point to the right; turn the windage knob clockwise.
To measure windage correction: 1 knob mark in 6 clicks is equivalent to a correction of
45cm (roughly a mans width) at 300 m or 1/5 0/00.
To adjust the aim point higher; turn the elevation knob to smaller number.
To adjust the aim point lower; turn the elevation knob to a larger number.
Unlike the windage knob, the elevation knob doe not have stop clicks.
To measure elevation correction: an adjustment of 3 to 4 moves the impact point around
35 cm higher at a distance of 300 m.
If not many shots are fired, small adjustments, say one click on the windage knob, will not assure
an accurate adjustment due to the fact that at 300 m the impact point can theoretically move
7.5 cm with the overall pattern of the rifle being approximately 20 cm.
61, 62
For this reason; one should not, as a general rule, adjust the knobs unless the impact point is at
least 0.5 0/00 off center or is at least 15 cm off center at 300 m.
5. Weapon Use
44 The Scoped Rifle Model 55 is a weapon for advanced marksman, with which small, important
targets can be engaged at long distances.
The success of an elite marksman equipped with a Scoped Rifle is dependant on the following
Only marksmen who have proven themselves extremely competent using the Mq. 31 and the
assault rifle can be considered as Elite Marksmen.
Elite marksmen should not only be instructed in marksmanship but also in ways to use the terrain,
target reconnaissance, distance estimation, and use of binoculars as well as the scope of the rifle.
It will be necessary to give elite marksman the opportunity to inspect the scope adjustment with
more than the usual number of shots.
With a ‘sighted in’ rifle, a target of 0.2m2 (target style G) must be hit with the first shot at a
distance of 300 m.
Over larger distances, it is required most of the time to adjust while shooting. The visual field for
a target placed closer is too small to estimate with confidence the true aimpoint.
In order to enable a marksman to adjust his shot, it is necessary to know the enemies position. The
clarity and the lay of the terrain should permit observing the effect of his shot.
A marksman should not be able to see the effects of his shot except at distances of 300m and
beyond. In effect, at shorter distances the time from cartridge discharge, to when the bullet strikes
the target is so short that it is impossible to see the effect of the shot.
Elite marksmen operate alone or in teams. For this reason, a well defined mission should always
allow the snipers to operate independently within the combat structure.
A sniper team is composed of a man equipped with a scoped rifle and a second man equipped with
and assault rifle and binoculars.
This second man observes the terrain with the binoculars and looks to locate where the bullets
strike the target in the case the shooter cannot do it by himself.
Snipers are deployed in the following situations:
-Against hard to engage targets up to distances of 600m,
-At nightfall up to 300m.
-During the night against clearly seen targets,
-Against an enemy on the march at long range,
-Against especially dangerous targets, that are worth the effort (observation posts,
snipers, officers, tank viewports, marksmen hidden in trees, on roofs or in caves).
6. Training
45 Training will be performed by an officer. Soldiers selected for sniper training should continue
their training in the special disciplines and will adapt their weapons knowledge to the scoped rifle.
Since an elite marksman should be able to hit small targets up to distances of 500m that are
difficult to engage, he will shoot for the most part on a bipod, and in special cases supported or
with the help of the sling. As training progresses, shooting will be done in situations more and
more difficult, with perfect camouflage.
a) Supports
The fundamental rule for shooting, sitting and standing, is to put the left side of the body
forward and in general support the body against a solid mass (tree, wall etc.).
The sling can be wrapped around the around to give the weapon greater stability.
In order to shoot more accurately, the bipod and other supports that permit the shooter to have
a selection of good positions.
b) Choice of Position
When positioning the elite marksman, one must take into consideration the following factors:
-Space for two men (where possible)
-Free visual field, in the area of the rifle barrel, such that sight of the shooter will not be
blocked by flying dust or branches.
-Camouflaged and covered position
-No position on the crest of a hill
-No position that can be easily engaged.
-Position changes that can be attained under cover.
c) Approaching and departing the shooting position.
Often, it will take much time to attain or leave a position during the day.
Taking position by day: slowly, under cover
Leaving a position: slowly, under cover.
Accessory Materials: Rope/cord (pioneer tool), camouflage materials
d) Map (target map), distance estimate.
-Mark the target by means of a map (target map)
-Estimate the distance, with or without a measuring device.
The map should be a simple, good representation of the target area.
Target reconnaissance.
Training that consists of reconnoitering targets up to distances of 500m is of extreme
importance. To perform this training one must use the same field over which will be
performed the target acquisition exercises. With more experience visualizing the target at
different distances an experienced sniper can estimate different ranges very precisely.
(fig. 28)
Differentiation of hard to engage targets.
-Search and find target with binoculars.
-Shoulder the weapon and search with the scope
It is possible to increase the difficulty of the exercises with small or camouflaged targets.
This training can be done without live fire ammunition and in double action exercise.
Method for gauging fie ld targets at distances of 100, 300 and 500 m
66, 67
The shooting program should contain the exercises mentioned the Chapter 8 and can be developed
according the circumstances. Where it is not possible to shoot over an open field, camouflaged targets mu st
be used. In this situation, only sight in on the center of the target. In normal situations, the choice of
shooting positions should change; shooting in a sitting position should be practiced as well as other
positions. When performing a more advanced training stage, the time for the exercise will be limited.
Shooting at a 10-point target at 300m, after performing exercise numbers 1 and 2 will be the exception and
not the rule. Most of the practice time and ammunition should be spent in sight adjustment training on field
targets at unknown distances.
7. Safety
46 The same safety rules apply for the Mq. Lu. Model 55 as those for the Model 31 (Section 75 and
regulation 51.30 “ Safety procedures for combat exercises”, sections 75-77)
Shooting Program for Scoped Rifles
10 pt.
# of
10 pt.
Exercise Objective
Passing Score
Allow shooter to become familiar
with his weapon, to note the
effects of changes in sight
elevation and windage. Sight in
before performing exercise #2.
Exercise using a ‘sighted in’
Target style K, not visible to the
naked eye, placed before a
corresponding background; after
sighting in using the 10 pt. target
Sight adjustment in the field
90 points
8 hits
6 hits
Hard to see target over an
unknown distance after ‘sighting
in’ per exercise 4a.
Moving Target
6 hits
At night. Target Style G, lighted ,
light is ext inguished when the
target falls.
6 hits
6 hits
68, 69
Part 2
47 Ammunition for long rifle, musketoon (short rifle), Automatic rifle, and machine gun are
delivered to troops ready to fire. They are all the same.
The cartridge is composed of the bullet (projectile), the propulsive charge, and the case.
The bullet is inserted into the neck of the case. In order to hold the bullet tightly and seal the
interior of the case, the case neck is crimped into a circular groove near the base of the bullet. In
addition, a grease ring at the neck crimping seals the cartridge.
The propulsive charge placed inside the case, is composed of stick powder, which produces very
little smoke upon discharge (nitrocellulose).
The case is composed of brass. The sides of the case gradually thicken near the base. The primer
is placed in a special pocket located in the base of the cartridge. When a shot is fired, the point of
the firing pin strikes the center of the primer where the percussion material is placed. The
percussion material then creates a spark that ignites the propulsive charge.
The manufacturing data for the cartridge is stamped onto the base of the cartridge around the
primer. The letters and numbers indicate the following information:
Left Letter: Source of the case material
Right Letter: The initial of the munitions factory
Upper Number: Month of manufacture
Lower Number: Year of Manufacture
Common Rifle Cartridge 11
Armor Piercing Cartridge
Fig. 29 Ball Cartridges
Tracer Cartridge
70, 71
Common Bullet 11
Armor Piercing Bullet
Tracer Bullet
Common Cartridge
(No Color)
Armor Piercing Cartridge
Tracer Cartridge
Cartridge Bases
Fig. 30
Cartridges that carry a special bullet have been painted a particular color on the base:
Armor Piercing Cartridge: Purple
Tracer Cartridge: Red
Common Ball Cartridge 11
(Fig. 29 and 30)
48 There are three types of ball ammunition:
-Common Rifle Cartridge 11, 7.5 mm caliber
-Armor Piercing Cartridge, 7.5 mm caliber
-Tracer Cartridge, 7.5 mm caliber
These are identifiable by the color of their respective bases.
All of these ball munitions can be fired from either the Short Rifle (musketoon), Long Rifle, the
Automatic Rifle, and the Machine Gun.
Exception: One part of the ball ammunition (red label) has been designated as blue label
ammunition for security reasons. These ‘blue’ munitions should not be fired by any weapon
except a Machine Gun (see section 56, Packaging)
Rifle Cartridge 11
49 The bullet has a tapered form, pointed in front with a truncated cone at the rear. The middle of the
bullet is a cylinder that serves to guide the bullet on the inside of the barrel. The larger part of the
bullet is composed of lead, that gives it a relatively heavy weight. This leaden center is covered
with a steel jacket which makes the bullet more durable.
At 4000m the remaining bullet momentum is still sufficient to cause death.
Bullet Weight:
11.3 g
Powder Charge
3.2 g
Case Weight
12.3 g
Cartridge Weight
26.8 g
72, 73
Exterior Characteristics: No color code on the base of the cartridge.
2. Armor Piercing Cartridge
50 The armor-piercing bullet is similar in shape to the common bullet. The cylindrical part is slightly
longer. A specially hardened steel core and wrapped in lead is found inside the bullet. The armor
piercing cartridge is used shoot lightly armored targets that it can perforate at short distances. The
penetration power diminishes rapidly at longer ranges and if the bullet hits the armor at an angle.
Weight: Identical to the Common rifle cartridge 11
Color Code: Purple
3. Tracer Cartridge
51 The jacket covers a lead core and a cavity, located in the aft part of the bullet that contains a
luminous chemical.
Upon discharge, the luminous material ignites. It will burn up to a distance of 800m. Due to the
fact that the shape of the bullet is slightly different than that of the common bullet and it
constantly loses mass due to the consumption of the luminous material during trajectory, the
trajectory also is slightly different than that of the common bullet. However, this difference is so
minimal that it is not necessary to make adjustments for distances less than 1000 m.
The tracer bullet allows observation of the trajectory while the tracer chemical is ignited. This
bullet is used when quickly changing the direction of fire is required; for example, moving targets
(aerial or ground). Ordinarily tracer bullets will be mixed with common bullets or armor piercing
The luminous chemical ignites upon discharge and leaves residue in the barrel; It is necessary,
therefore, to clean the barrel with the wire mesh and cleaning cord, as quick as possible after
shooting, while the barrel is still warm. If cleaning is not possible in the field, the barrel should at
least be greased while warm.
Weight: Identical to the Common rifle cartridge 11
Color Code: Red
Blank Rifle Cartridge
(Fig. 31)
52 The blank rifle cartridge is used to simulate fire during combat exercises. The forward part is
composed of a green plastic material that opens upon discharge. The discharged gas that is
expelled from the muzzle is under high pressure and at short distances can cause burns. For this
reason, a minimum safe distance of 30m is recommended.
Weight: 12.3g
Color Code: Forward part composed of green plastic.
74, 75
Fig. 31
Blank Rifle
Blank Automatic
Rifle Cartridge
Blank Machine Gun
53 Shooting blank cartridges labeled “Blank Automatic Rifle Cartridge” (with a green wooden
bullet) and “Blank Machine Gun Cartridges” in a rifle is prohibited.
54 On the exterior the special cartridge for the Pz-WG. 44 and Ex-WG. 44 resembles the Blank
Machine Gun cartridge. This cannot be used except with the short rifle for use as the propulsive
charge for antitank grenade. To enable these cartridges to be distinguished from other
ammunition, this cartridge is stamped (with white color); the rearward part of the case is striped.
The magazine that holds these cartridges is stamped as well.
Handling Cartridge
(Fig. 31)
55 The handling cartridge resembles in shape, the ball cartridge. It does not have a powder charge or
primer. It can be handled without risk.
These cartridges are used to practice loading and unloading, as well as to demonstrate bolt
To distinguish these cartridges, two black rings are machined into the case. Fabrication, by troops
of handling cartridges from blank cartridges (such as machine gun blanks) is prohibited.
76, 77, 78
56 The charger with 6 cartridges and the package of 10 cartridges are the smallest available
Packages. Packaging Details:
Common Ball Cartridges:
Brown Chargers (for sport shooting while off duty: packages
of 10 cartridges with a red label)
Armor Piercing Cartridges:
Purple Charger
Tracer Cartridge:
Packages of 10 cartridges without a label (previously labeled
width a diagonal yellow stripe)
Blank Rifle Cartridges:
White Chargers with a small piece of wood on the forward
Red Chargers
Handling Cartridges:
10 chargers or 6 small packages (60 cartridges) are packaged together in a larger package; 8 of
these packages of 60 are packaged together into a carton of 480 cartridges. This is the standard
package for issue to troops. Damaged packages that are not per regulation are not issued. For
field use, the cartons should be placed in boxes.
57 The packages, the cartons and boxes are labeled per the type and quantity of the enclosed
munitions, as well as a stamp with the manufacture date.
These labels will have a white heading; the colored part carries the number ‘11’ (previously 1911).
Red: Ball munitions
Blue: Machine Gun Ammunition only
Green: Blank munitions
Common rifle cartridge 11:
No particular symbol
Armor Piercing munitions:
White triangle on a red (blue) field (previously a
brown diagonal)
Tracer munitions:
White disc on a red (blue) field (previously a yellow
Blank munitions:
Black writing (red writing = blank cartridge for
machine gun 11 and 51 only).
58 A perfect knowledge of the charger colors corresponding to different munitions and of the label
colors, should eliminate confusion between ball and blank cartridges. For the same reason, the
white chargers with blank munitions are supplied with a wooden block that only permits the entry
of blank cartridges and excludes live ball cartridges into the same charger.
Using different color chargers or packages than that which corresponds to the appropriate
ammunition is prohibited.
Handling and Storage
59 Ammunition should be stored in regulation packaging, organized by ammunition type and date of
manufacture. Unused, issued ammunition that are retired from troops and that will be restocked
should be reassembled into chargers (tracer cartridges into cartons) and in cartons. Opened
cartons should be kept and used as soon as possible, before using unopened cartons.
Ball and blank ammunition should be stored separately. If they cannot be stored in separate
storage areas they should be physically separated.
78 cont, 79
60 When choosing a storage location, an uninhabited and isolated place should be chosen, if possible.
Good storage locations for munitions will be dry, easy to aerate and provided with a floor. Storing
munitions on rock or dirt will damage the packaging. If the packaging becomes wet and
impossible to transport in cartons, find a dry floor and ensure that there is sufficient aeration in the
storage area.
Stacking cartons more than 5 cartons high is prohibited. Between different stacks as well as the
between the walls of the storage facility and the stacks the spacing should be such to ensure good
aeration of the cartons.
Part 3
Rifle Handling
Loading, Reloading and Unloading
(Fig. 34-37)
61 Handling cartridges instead of live ball or blank ammunition should be used to practice all
different handling movements.
The shooter should be able to load and reload rapidly and without malfunctions in all shooting
positions, on the march and in the dark.
The soldier need not be concerned about loading details that are not covered in the following
62 Loading: is should be performed either in the prone or combat position:
-Grasp the weapon in the left hand next to the trigger guard (toward the center of gravity),
-Right thumb placed on the left side of the cocking ring, the other fingers on the bolt handle on the
cam follower,
-Open the bolt by pushing with the right thumb ,
-Grasp the charger in the right hand and place it in the loading slot (fig. 34),
-Insert the cartridges in two movements (fig. 35), press the cartridges downward with the base of
the thumb, and then press the cartridges firmly down to the bottom, into the magazine with the tip
of the thumb,
-Grasp the charger in the right hand,
-With the right hand firmly closed, close the bolt with one, hard movement.
-Place the charger in the ammo pouch and close it with the right hand.
-Rest the rifle alongside the body if not immediately shooting.
To load standing, place the left foot slightly forward and angle the rifle slightly upward while
resting it on the ammo pouch.
The load command is as follows: “Load” (Chargez)
63 Reloading : After each shot the shooter reloads of his own accord without order:
-With the rifle on the shoulder, grasp the handle on the cam follower in the right hand and pull
quickly to the rear.
-Close the bolt again with one hard movement forward.
-Hold the rifle near the center of gravity; place index finger inside the trigger guard,
-Lower the rifle if shooting is interrupted.
If the bolt will not close because the magazine is empty, the shooter will reload using a fresh
charger as follows:
-Lower the weapon
-Place the charger into the loading slot,
-Insert the cartridges per section 62.
-Discard the empty charger,
-Close the bolt per section 62,
-Close the ammo pouch,
-Per the situation: Shoot, observe, or secure the weapon
64 Remove the cartridges (the weapon has been secured)
-Rest the weapon at an upward angle, as if loading in a standing position,
81, 82, 83
-Place the left thumb over the loading slot (fig. 36)
-Open the bolt with the right hand, and push the exposed cartridge downward into the magazine
with the right thumb.
-Remove the magazine with the right hand and lower the rifle, bolt open, and lean it against the
-Take the magazine and the empty charger in the left hand with the points of the cartridges toward
the shooter,
-Transfer the cartridges from the magazine to the charger (fig. 37)
-Place the charger into the ammo pouch with the right hand and close the ammo pouch.
-Take the rifle vertically in the right hand, magazine in the left and insert it into the magazine slot,
making sure that the magazine clip locks.
-Position the weapon in the “load standing” position; Check to make sure the chamber and the
magazine are empty.
-Close the bolt and lower the weapon.
If cartridge removal is ordered, the following command is given: “Remove Cartridges”
The soldier puts the weapon to his shoulder with the bolt open, after inspecting the magazine.
Once the inspection is complete, he will grasp the cam follower handle with the right hand, come
to the “load standing” position, close the bolt and lower the weapon.
Shooter Position, Shouldering the Weapon and Weapon Discharge
(Fig. 38-47)
65 In order to make a good shot, the shooter should take a shooting position most suited to the
terrain. The most used shooting positions are the prone and standing positions; over a slope or
berm and in the sitting position. (Fig. 47)
The kneeling position is used as a combat position with a support.
If at all possible, the weapon should be supported if the terrain allows for it. (Fig. 42-47).
In this case, the rifle should not come in contact with a hard object (rock, wood, etc.) The rifle
should be supported as close as possible to the center of gravity. If the rifle cannot be supported,
shoot free standing.
Prone Position: The prone position is slightly angled in relationship to direction of the shot. The
soldier will fall to the ground on the left knee and left hand, rifle held in the right hand. In order to
perform this movement noiselessly, the soldier may go down on the right hand instead of the left,
and hold the rifle in the left hand. Be careful not to render the weapon inoperable by getting dirt
in the barrel or damaging the sights.
Standing Position: Grasp the rifle in the left hand and put the left foot forward. Hold the rifle
horizontally at waist height, in the direction of the shot, place the feet shoulder width apart.
66 After assuming shooting position, the shooter prepares the weapon in such a way that he can
quickly and easily bring it to his shoulder:
-Put the weapon forward, with the right index finger in the cocking ring,
-Place the weapon in fire mode,
-Grasp the stock pistol grip firmly with the index finger placed inside the trigger guard.
The rear sight is moved forward if necessary.
Generally the shooter will perform these movements without command. If command should be
required, the command is as follows: “Ready!” (Armed to shoot; lit.)
Usually, the soldiers will safe the weapon without command. If command should be required, the
command is as follows: “Safe your weapon!”
-Safe the weapon by turning the cocking ring,
-Replace the rear sight slide.
-Rest the weapon against the body.
If the shooter stays in position, he will only perform the first movement. The weapon will be
safed prior any additional movement; however, the weapon will not be safed during a change in
shooting position or while firing in combat.
67 To shoulder and fire the weapon, the shooter looks at the target, raises the rifle to shoulder height,
and points the rifle at the target. The weapon is supported in the left hand.
83 (cont), 84
While bringing the weapon to the shoulder, the shooter will calmly inhale and exhale, set the rear
sight in one click, hold his breath, sight and pull the trigger with the index finger until the weapon
After firing, the shooter will stay for a moment in the same position, asses s the shot (during
training, the shot execution is announced out loud after firing) and observe, if possible, the effect
on the target. He then will reload per section 63.
68 In the prone position, the body is at a slight angle in relationship to the direction of the shot, the
two elbows are supported (Fig. 38). In the standing position, the left arm supports the weapon
close to the center of gravity, the elbow is free or supported against the body; the right arm is
nearly horizontal (Fig. 39 & 40)
69 Generally, standing shots are taken at fleeing and approaching targets. For a quick shot, precise
sighting is barely possible. To shoot closing moving targets, one may also shoot from the hip; the
shooter points the weapon towards the target, judges the distance and shoots without bringing the
weapon to shoulder (Fig. 41).
70 At distances in excess of 300m, it is necessary to aim at the bottom of the target; less than 300m,
aim at the center or just at the bottom (See Appendix II, tables 4 and 5).
Figs. 32 & 33
85, 86, 87, 88
Every rifle has it’s own aim point, that can vary depending on the eye of the shooter, the resolution of
the target as well as other factors. If the distance off target is small, the shooter will adjust the aim
point by himself to adjust for the distance by observing where the shots hit the target. Otherwise, if the
shot distance off target is large, then the front sight should be moved or changed.
A poor shooter will commit the error of firing at the instant where their line of sight is the same as the
aim point. This is a very tense method of aiming, in general and the shot is “pulled”. While sighting a
slight displacement of the rifle is unavoidable; therefore if the shooter correctly lets the shot fly more
relaxed, in the same moment his line of sight does not exactly align to the aim point, the shot is more
likely to arrive on target. The aim point is therefore, a small “aiming zone”.
III. Conduct of Fire
71 Most of the time, rifle shooting is a “fire at will” exercise conducted under minimal direction. The
Group Commander will, in general, indicate where the target, or the target area is. The shooter
will then choose by himself where he will shoot and at what distance.
The shooter will then ready his weapon under cover where possible, so that he can open fire, once
in position. He will halt fire once the mission objective has been completed or the engaged enemy
retreats. It is not logical to move to different cover after each shot because such movements will
attract too much attention from enemy fire. Due to this it is better to stay calmly in one position.
72 If the soldier can see the effect of his shots, he will adjust shot placement by himself by changing
the aim point and by changing the sight elevation. If the firing exercise is directed, elevation
corrections can be ordered. For example: “Elevation plus Two!”
Corrections in windage are called off in meters. For example: “Left, three meters!”
73 To order a cease fire the command is: “Halt!”
The shooter ceases firing a remains at alert to the orders of the commander. At the order of:
“Safe” the shooter pulls the rear sight slide all the way to the rear and safes his weapon.
If the command for cease fire and safe is not given, the shooter safes his weapon before leaving
his position.
IV. Use of the Bayonet
74 For combat at very short distances (assault, night, fog and in open terrain), it may be necessary to
place the bayonet onto the barrel in order to use the rifle as a shock weapon. Fix the bayonet to
the rifle with the left hand and check with your hand that it is locked into place.
Placement into the scabbard is performed as well with the left hand. The respective commands are
as follows: “Fix Bayonet!” and “Retire Bayonet!”
V. Safety Rules
75 The following ruled should be well know to all shooters in order to avoid accidents:
1. Every weapon should be considered loaded unless the shooter has personally determined that
the magazine and chamber are empty.
All cartridges should be removed prior each disassembly and prior to aiming exercises.
2. Pointing a rifle at someone in jest is not permitted. The rifle is not a toy.
3. No person should carry live and blank ammunition at the same time.
4. Before shooting exercises, with ball, blank, or propulsive ammunition, the barrel should be
inspected and if necessary, cleaned.
5. During peacetime, a loaded rifle cannot be placed in firing position unless the rifle is pointed
toward a target. Before leaving the shooting position, it should be safed again. The shooter
must not move with a loaded, cocked weapon.
6. Upon completion of shooting exercises, all cartridges should be removed. Excess
ammunition should be gathered and troops made aware of orders concerning munitions.
7. When shooting in a shooting stand, the weapon should not be loaded except while in the
stand, and all cartridges should be removed prior to leaving the stand.
8. While shooting ball ammunition in combat, shooting toward or over friendly troops is not
permitted except in the following conditions:
88 (cont)
-When shooting toward or over friendly troops, the friendly troops should not be more
than 100m from the weapon and in all cases at a shorter distance than that of the target.
-When shooting over friendly troops, the trajectory should pass 5m or more over the
troops so the same are not found at a “dead angle”.
-When shooting toward friendly troops the line of the shot should pass beyond two fist
widths (measured with the shooters arm extended), to the left or to the right of the closest
Shooting with blank cartridges is prohibited at distances of less than 30m.
90, 91
Appendix I
Training Figures
Loading: Inserting the Charger
Fog. 35
Loading: Inserting the Charger
92, 93
Removing cartridges: Opening the Bolt
Fig. 37
Removing cartridges: Replacing the cartridges in the charger
Fig. 38
Prone Position
Fig. 39
Standing Position: Rapid fire
96, 97
Fig. 40
Standing Position with body support
Fig. 41
Rapid Fire from the hip while marching
98, 99
Fig. 42
Prone Position with support
Fig. 43
Co mbat position on a slope with the elbow on a shovel
100, 101
Fig. 44
Example of a kneeling position
Fig. 45
Standing position behind a tree
102, 103
Fig. 46
Shooting position in a tree
Fig. 47 Sitting Position
104, 105
Appendix II
Table 1
Trajectory Danger Zones in meters
(Aim point = Target center)
Target Height in m
Target head .33m
Target Knee 1.00m
Danger Zone
Standing Target 1.65m
Table 2
Weapon Shot Spread
Shot spread for the Mod. 31 in cm
Rifle fixed to sighting apparatus
Spread in width
Spread in Elevation
DI 50%
DH 50%
Table 4
Sighting Errors
Displacement in meters, from impact point caused by sighting errors; shooting distance 300m Mod. 31
Front sight very thin, barely visible
Front sight off center touching the exterior edge of the rear sight slot
Rifle angled transversely at 10 deg (shot displacement downward)
106, 107
Table 5
Aim Point
Shot Distance
Elevation Setting
Mod. 11
Mod. 31
Aim point lower than the shot
30 cm
40 cm
30 cm
0 cm (full height)
10 cm (full height)
30 cm
Table 6
Sight Margin (windage correction)
Values in meters, sight margin for perpendicularly moved targets in the shot direction
Approximate Distance
100m 200m 500m 1000m
Man walking
Man running
Horse walking
Horse trotting
Horse at gallop
Motor vehicles (30 km.h)
Table 7
Pine Wood
Packed snow
Sheet Metal
Type of
Penetration: average with Common cartridge 11
5 m 300m 600m 1200m
Movement in the
direction of the shot
in cm
100 m
200 m
200 m
Target Image at time of discharge
magnified 2X
108, 109
Appendix III
Order of the Federal Military Department
(10 April 1951)
The following are considered munitions
-Ball and blank cartridges of all types and calibers
-Live and practice hand grenades
-Explosives and means of lighting of all types
-Bombs, projectiles and fuses, as well as propellants and loads of all types and calibers.
-Cartridges, smoke grenades, firecrackers, and toxic chemicals
-All pyrotechnic lighting and signaling materials
At entry to service, after each exercise and at decommissioning, all weapons
must be unloaded. The commanders and officer in charge are responsible for
inspection of these weapons.
While on active duty, officers non commissioned officers, and soldiers are not
authorized to carry ammunition on their person, unless authorized by their
superiors, or unless a general order allo ws them to do so. Section 2 letter C is
the exception.
Officer and non-commissioned officers than are issued pistols will receive with
their weapon 24, 7.65mm pistol cartridges, or 16, 9mm cartridges (pocket
ammunition) They will enter service with this ammunition and will return it
upon discharge. Officers and non-commissioned officers will carry the pistol
unloaded, but will have at hand a charger filled with ball cartridges;
In all branches of military service (schools and courses) there will be a strict
inspection of issued munitions.
Munitions not expended, will be returned after each exercise.
Soldiers may not carry ball and blank cartridges at the same time.
Ball and blank cartridges are to be stored separately.
Except for by special order, carrying or retaining upon discharge, service
ammunition, is not allowed.
Issue pocket munitions for portable firearms will not be used except for a
specific purpose or for service purposes.
Any person is found to possess munitions in violation of this regulation, will be
found in violation of service duties per article 72 of the Military Penal Code of
the 13th of June 1927 and can be imprisoned by order of a military tribunal.
b) Any found using munitions abusively, stealing or abandoning them, or
damaging or intentionally misplacing by negligence, or to benefit financially
from the sale of stolen munitions, or renders munitions unusable, can be
punished to imprisonment or discharge by a military tribunal. Abuse of material
(art. 73 MPC), theft (art. 129), abuse of trust (art. 131) or property damage (art.
Upon enlistment to service, after each exercise and upon discharge, this order will be
communicated to each soldier.
It will be posted in each detachment and canton, at shooting ranges and in
ammu nition storage facilities.
Other instructions concerning explosive munitions lighting methods and
flamethrower oil*) are the exceptions to this rule.
This order is valid as of 15 April 1951.
It replaced at this date the service order dated 9 October 1956 (FOM 46/190)
Federal Military Department: KOBELT
*) see also regulation 63.4 “Instructions for munitions in schools and courses”
110, 111
Appendix IV
Instructions for avoiding Small Arms Damage
Avoid Weapon Damage!
Shooting foreign ammunitions or non-issued ordnance with your weapon can destroy it
112, 113
1. How do you avoid barrel bulging?
-Never plug the barrel of your rifle with cleaning patches or grease.
-Ensure no dirt or snow gets in your barrel, especially while not in combat exercises.
-Never attempt to clear a barrel blockage with another discharge of ball or blank ammunition.
-Before each shot, make sure the barrel of your weapon is clear.
Remember That:
Shooting with a plugged barrel will cause the barrel to bulge.
If a barrel bulge is to occur, the barrel will be changed at your cost.
Be careful not to block the barrel of your rifle!
With Dirt
With grease
Shooting with a blocked barrel will cause a barrel bulge
Bulged Barrel
Fractured Bulge
Blocked, exploded barrel
Exploded Barrel
Before each shooting session, check to ensure the weapon is not blocked!
Barrel Inspection
Before each shooting session, especially under combat conditions, make sure that the weapon is not
blocked. By performing this inspection, you will avoid a barrel bulge, in other words, unnecessary
expense to the State and to yourself.
A barrel bulge is caused by a abnormal increase in pressure inside the barrel, specifically, if the barrel
is blocked in near the muzzle by grease, dirt, snow, water, or whatever foreign object. A piece of
cleaning rod, or cord in the barrel can cause an explosion while shooting.
116, 117
The barrel must be replaced if it is bulged
2. Take care of your weapon!
Manage your weapon to ensure wise treatment and proper handling.
-If you shoot when the handle is not all the way forward, you run the risk of breaking the cam
follower pin.
-Incorrectly disassembling the magazine will break the spring.
-The extractor should not be disassembled unless necessary. If this is required, do it correctly.
-Entrust the adjustment of the sear to a gunsmith, who has been trained in this repair.
-Avoid breaking or damaging the butt of your rifle by subjecting it to rough treatment.
118, 119
Take care of your parts!
Broken Cam
follower pin
If you shoot when the handle is not all the way forward, you run the risk of breaking the cam follower pin
Magazine Disassembly
Broken Magazine
If you pull the magazine plate
out like this it will break the spring
Rock the plate and turn it out
120, 121
Losing a Magazine!
Loss of a magazine due to poor placement in the weapon.
When inserting a magazine into your weapon, check to make sure it is
locked into place. This way you will avoid losing it.
Removing the extractor
The extractor should only be removed when necessary
You will deform the extractor removing it in this fashion.
Lift lightly to remove.
122, 123
Sear adjustment
Troops in the field are prohibited from adjusting or tampering with the rifle sear. Only gunsmiths may
adjust the sear of a rifle. Forcing or grinding the sears damages your weapon and runs the risk of causing
and accident.
Rounded Sears
You will damage in this fashion, the parts of your weapon, parts that will need to be replaced.
Avoid damaging your rifle stock
The butt is not a sledgehammer.
Broken stock butts are caused by using the rifle butt to pound in stakes, to carry or lift heavy objects, to
avoid obstacles, or while loading weapons onto a vehicle. Take care of your weapon.
124, 125
Stock disassembly for the Mod. 11
Removing the hand guard
Do not forget to raise the sight leaf vertically and remove the hand guard by turning it perpendicular to the
It is not prudent to lean your weapon against a wall, a fence
or a door. If it falls it will be damaged.
You will damage your
comrade’s weapons by
carrying them this way.
126, 127
3. Cleaning and greasing the barrel
-Take care of the barrel of your rifle and avoid oxidation by proper cleaning and greasing.
-After each shooting session, immediately grease the barrel with the help of a cleaning rod and brush. (The
barrel should still be warm.)
-As soon as you return to base, clean the barrel by means of a cleaning cord. Pay attention to pull the wire
mesh through in the correct way. The wire mesh should be well greased.
Inspect for cleanliness and regrease the barrel.
-Steel wool, emery cloth, or acids are the worst enemy of the rifle bore.
-Avoid ovalizing the muzzle of your barrel. The cleaning cord should be pulled straight down the barrel
-To clean the barrel, use a good wire mesh that will create a slight resistance to pull inside the barrel. It is
only necessary to pass the cord 3 or 4 times through the barrel.
These are a barrel’s worst enemies
(emery, steel wool, acid)
Steel wool will scratch the inside of the barrel.
128, 129
Take care of your cleaning cord!
Without the locking sleeve, the cord will snag on the ejector as it passes
Insert the locking sleeve
130, 131
Ovalization of the muzzle
Using this cleaning method will ovalize the muzzle of your barrel. A barrel with an ovalized muzzle, loses
its accuracy. Ensure the cleaning cord is always pulled down the axis of the barrel.
Normal Muzzle
Ovalized Muzzle
Avoid scratching the inside of your barrel!
Sand will scratch the interior of the barrel.
Keep grease and cleaning articles clean
Before inserting the cleaning rod into the barrel, clean the rod with a clean cloth.
132, 133
4. Shooting with a reducer tube
If you fired the weapon with a reducer tube, Please note the following points:
-Upon completion of shooting, remove the reducer tube from the weapon.
-Thoroughly clean the barrel and the chamber. Remove all powder residue or lead.
-A deep cleaning of the chamber is very important. While shooting with a reducer tube, an amount of
residue will be deposited in the chamber. If cleaning is neglected, there is a risk of malfunction (jammed
Reducer tube for Mod. 31
Deformed case.
While shooting with a reducer tube, a hardened ring of
powder residue is formed in the chamber, that will cause
while shooting normal cartridges, case deformation and
134, 135
5. Using the Muzzle Cover
-Protect the rifle barrel with a muzzle cover.
-Aside from issued muzzle covers, other cover are authorized for use, such as celluloid, bakelite or other
soft material or metal, providing they fulfill the following conditions:
Weight not greater than 1.3g
Held to the barrel by slots that provide space so the barrel is not hermitically sealed.
Will not cause the barrel to be sealed by grease or a patch. (risk of barrel bulge)
6. Sighting in the weapon
The impact point of your weapon is good, if when aiming at the 6 o’clock position, the shots hit the center
of the target.
Good impact point
Impact point offset
136, 137
Weapons where the impact point is offset should be sighted in.
Sighting in is a gunsmith’s job
The gunsmith has in his equipment, several types of front sights that will allow him to adjust the elevation
of the impact point. The windage adjustment is accomplished by moving the front sight.
If moving the front sight will not change the impact point, for example while shooting during off-duty.
Refer to the cantonal arsenal that is closest to your domicile.
Proper reassembly and proper screw pressures on your weapon are essential for weapon accuracy.
Modifications to the elevation adjustment and front sight are
After sight adjustment, the gunsmith will mark the front sight.
A front sight housing marked in this fashion is unusable and should be changed.