ZyXEL M-302 User’s Guide
ZyXEL M-302
XtremeMIMOTM 802.11b/g Wireless PCI Adapter
User's Guide
Version 1.0
November 2005
ZyXEL M-302 User’s Guide
Copyright
Copyright ©2005 by ZyXEL Communications Corporation
The contents of this publication may not be reproduced in any part or as a whole, transcribed, stored in a
retrieval system, translated into any language, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic,
mechanical, magnetic, optical, chemical, photocopying, manual, or otherwise, without the prior written
permission of ZyXEL Communications Corporation.
Published by ZyXEL Communications Corporation. All rights reserved.
Disclaimer
ZyXEL does not assume any liability arising out of the application or use of any products, or software
described herein. Neither does it convey any license under its patent rights nor the patents' rights of others.
ZyXEL further reserves the right to make changes in any products described herein without notice. This
publication is subject to change without notice.
Trademarks
Trademarks mentioned in this publication are used for identification purposes only and may be properties
of their respective owners.
ii
Copyright
ZyXEL M-302 User’s Guide
ZyXEL Limited Warranty
ZyXEL warrants to the original end user (purchaser) that this product is free from any defects in materials
or workmanship for a period of up to two (2) years from the date of purchase. During the warranty period
and upon proof of purchase, should the product have indications of failure due to faulty workmanship
and/or materials, ZyXEL will, at its discretion, repair or replace the defective products or components
without charge for either parts or labor and to whatever extent it shall deem necessary to restore the product
or components to proper operating condition. Any replacement will consist of a new or re-manufactured
functionally equivalent product of equal value, and will be solely at the discretion of ZyXEL. This warranty
shall not apply if the product is modified, misused, tampered with, damaged by an act of God, or subjected
to abnormal working conditions.
NOTE
Repair or replacement, as provided under this warranty, is the exclusive remedy of the purchaser. This
warranty is in lieu of all other warranties, express or implied, including any implied warranty of
merchantability or fitness for a particular use or purpose. ZyXEL shall in no event be held liable for
indirect or consequential damages of any kind of character to the purchaser.
To obtain the services of this warranty, contact ZyXEL's Service Center for your Return Material
Authorization (RMA) number. Products must be returned Postage Prepaid. It is recommended that the unit
be insured when shipped. Any returned products without proof of purchase or those with an out-dated
warranty will be repaired or replaced (at the discretion of ZyXEL) and the customer will be billed for parts
and labor. All repaired or replaced products will be shipped by ZyXEL to the corresponding return address,
Postage Paid. This warranty gives you specific legal rights, and you may also have other rights that vary
from country to country.
Online Registration
Register online at http://us.zyxel.com/ for free future product updates and information.
ZyXEL Limited Warranty
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ZyXEL M-302 User’s Guide
Federal Communications Commission (FCC)
1
Interference Statement
The device complies with Part 15 of FCC rules. Operation is subject to the following two conditions:
•
This device may not cause harmful interference.
•
This device must accept any interference received, including interference that may cause undesired
operations.
This equipment has been tested and found to comply with the limits for a Class B digital device pursuant to
Part 15 of the FCC Rules. These limits are designed to provide reasonable protection against harmful
interference in a commercial environment. This equipment generates, uses, and can radiate radio frequency
energy, and if not installed and used in accordance with the instructions, may cause harmful interference to
radio communications.
If this equipment does cause harmful interference to radio/television reception, which can be determined by
turning the equipment off and on, the user is encouraged to try to correct the interference by one or more of
the following measures:
1. Reorient or relocate the receiving antenna.
2. Increase the separation between the equipment and the receiver.
3. Connect the equipment into an outlet on a circuit different from that to which the receiver is
connected.
4. Consult the dealer or an experienced radio/TV technician for help.
Notice 1
Changes or modifications not expressly approved by the party responsible for compliance could void the
user's authority to operate the equipment.
Caution
This Transmitter must not be co-located or operating in conjunction with any other antenna or transmitter.
1
Refer to the Quick Start Guide for model specific FCC statement.
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ZyXEL M-302 User’s Guide
Customer Support
When contacting your Customer Support Representative, please have the following information ready:
•
Serial number for your specific product
•
Warranty information
•
Date you received or purchased your product
•
Brief description of the problem including any steps that you have taken before contacting the
ZyXEL Customer Support Representative
SUPPORT E-MAIL
TELEPHONE2
WEB SITE
REGULAR MAIL
FAX
2
NORTH
AMERICA
2
support@zyxel.com
+1-800-978-7222
www.us.zyxel.com
ZyXEL Communications Inc.
1130 N. Miller St.
Anaheim CA 92806-2001 U.S.A.
“+” is the (prefix) number you enter to make an international telephone call.
Customer Support
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Table of Contents
Copyright....................................................................................................................................................... ii
ZyXEL Limited Warranty..........................................................................................................................iii
Federal Communications Commission (FCC) Interference Statement .................................................. iv
Customer Support ........................................................................................................................................ v
Table of Contents......................................................................................................................................... vi
Preface ........................................................................................................................................................viii
Chapter 1 Getting Started.........................................................................................................................1-1
1.1
About Your ZyXEL M-302 ...........................................................................................................1-1
1.2
ZyXEL M-302 Hardware and Utility Installation........................................................................1-1
1.3
Using the ZyXEL Utility to Configure Your Network ..................................................................1-2
1.3.1
Network ...............................................................................................................................1-3
1.3.2
Profile ..................................................................................................................................1-4
1.3.3
Site Survey.........................................................................................................................1-14
1.3.4
Options...............................................................................................................................1-16
1.3.5
Version...............................................................................................................................1-17
Chapter 2 Wireless LAN Networking ......................................................................................................2-1
2.1
Overview ......................................................................................................................................2-1
2.1.1
SSID.....................................................................................................................................2-1
2.1.2
Channel ................................................................................................................................2-1
2.1.3
Transmission Rate (Transfer Rate) ......................................................................................2-1
2.1.4
Wireless Network Application.............................................................................................2-1
2.1.5
Roaming...............................................................................................................................2-3
2.2
Wireless LAN Security .................................................................................................................2-4
2.2.1
Data Encryption with WEP..................................................................................................2-5
2.2.2
IEEE 802.1x.........................................................................................................................2-5
2.2.3
WPA ....................................................................................................................................2-5
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2.2.4
2.2.5
WPA-PSK Application Example .........................................................................................2-6
WPA with RADIUS Application Example ..........................................................................2-7
2.3
Fragmentation Threshold.............................................................................................................2-8
2.4
RTS/CTS Threshold......................................................................................................................2-8
2.5
Authentication Type .....................................................................................................................2-9
Chapter 3 Maintenance .............................................................................................................................3-1
3.1
The Version Screen ......................................................................................................................3-1
3.2
Uninstalling the ZyXEL Utility.....................................................................................................3-2
3.3
Upgrading the ZyXEL Utility .......................................................................................................3-3
Chapter 4 Configuring Wireless Security ................................................................................................4-1
4.1
Configuring Security....................................................................................................................4-1
4.2
Configuring WEP .........................................................................................................................4-1
4.3
Configuring WPA-PSK.................................................................................................................4-3
4.4
Configuring WPA .........................................................................................................................4-4
4.5
Configuring 802.1x ......................................................................................................................4-4
4.5.1
Configuring 802.1x – EAP-LEAP........................................................................................4-4
4.5.2
Configuring 802.1x – EAP-PEAP........................................................................................4-5
4.5.3
Configuring 802.1x – EAP-TLS ..........................................................................................4-7
4.5.4
Configuring 802.1x – EAP-TTLS ........................................................................................4-9
Chapter 5 Troubleshooting .......................................................................................................................5-1
5.1
Problems Starting the ZyXEL Utility Program ............................................................................5-1
5.2
Problem with the Link Status .......................................................................................................5-1
5.3
Problems Communicating With Other Computers.......................................................................5-2
Appendix A Types of EAP Authentication ..................................................................................................i
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Preface
Congratulations on the purchase of your new ZyXEL M-302 XtremeMIMO 802.11b/g Wireless PCI
Adapter!
About This User's Guide
This manual provides detailed information about the ZyXEL Wireless LAN Utility. For hardware
installation guidelines, please refer to the Quick Start Guide also included in your purchase of the ZyXEL
M-302.
Syntax Conventions
•
“Type” or “Enter” means for you to type one or more characters. "Select" or "Choose" means for
you to use one of the predefined choices.
•
Mouse action sequences are denoted using a comma. For example, “click the Apple icon, Control
Panels and then Modem” means first click the Apple icon, then point your mouse pointer to
Control Panels and then click Modem.
•
Window and command choices are in Bold Times New Roman font. Predefined field choices are
in Bold Arial font.
•
The ZyXEL Wireless LAN Utility may be referred to as the ZyXEL WLAN Utility or, simply, as
the ZyXEL Utility in this guide.
Related Documentation
¾ Support Disk
Refer to the included CD for support documents and device drivers.
¾ Quick Start Guide
Our Quick Start Guide is designed to help you get your ZyXEL M-302 up and running right away.
It contains a detailed easy-to-follow connection diagram and information on installing your
ZyXEL M-302.
¾ ZyXEL Glossary and Web Site
Please refer to www.us.zyxel.com for an online glossary of networking terms and additional
support documentation.
User Guide Feedback
Help us help you! E-mail all User Guide-related comments, questions or suggestions for improvement to
support@zyxel.com or send via regular mail to:
The Technical Writing Team
C/O: ZyXEL Communications Inc.
1130 N Miller St
Anaheim, CA 92806, USA.
Thank you very much for your purchase and we look forward to hearing from you!
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Graphics Icons Legend
Wireless Access Point
Computer
Notebook computer
Modem
Wireless Signal
Switch
Router
Server
Telephone
Preface
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ZyXEL M-302 User’s Guide
Chapter 1
Getting Started
This chapter introduces the ZyXEL M-302 and prepares you to use the ZyXEL Utility.
1.1
About Your ZyXEL M-302
The ZyXEL M-302 is a state of the art high throughput IEEE 802.11b, and 802.11g compliant wireless
LAN PCI adapter. Using the latest MIMO technology, the ZyXEL M-302 provides you with the optimal
throughput speeds and range allowing you wireless mobility within almost any wireless networking
environment.
The following lists the main features of your ZyXEL M-302.
•
•
•
•
•
Your ZyXEL M-302 can communicate with other IEEE 802.11b/g compliant wireless devices.
Automatic rate selection.
Standard data transmission rates up to 54 Mbps.
Proprietary AtherosTM transmission rates of 108 Mbps through Super G Turbo Mode
Offers 64-bit, 128-bit and 152-bit WEP (Wired Equivalent Privacy) data encryption for network
security.
108Mbps Super G Turbo Mode & 152-bit WEP encryption must be supported on both the client
device and host device using AtherosTM solutions. Please refer to your user manual for more information.
•
•
•
•
1.2
Supports IEEE802.1x and WPA (Wi-Fi Protected Access) standards.
Low CPU utilization allowing more computer system resources for other programs.
External multiple antenna configuration for maximum signal strength and range
Driver support for Windows XP and Windows 2000 Operating Systems
ZyXEL M-302 Hardware and Utility Installation
Follow the instructions in the Quick Start Guide provided in the package to install the ZyXEL Utility and
also your ZyXEL M-302 802.11b/g Wireless PCI Adapter.
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1.3
Using the ZyXEL Utility to Configure Your Network
The following are explanations on how to configure and use the ZyXEL Utility program. For initial
setup, please see the included Quick Start Guide.
After completing the installation procedure, a new icon as shown below will automatically appear in the
lower right tray bar.
Double-clicking on the icon will display the following ZyXEL utility window.
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1.3.1
Network
This page shows the status of the present network such as: Network Mode, relevant information on the
current AP, TCP/IP, etc. This information cannot be modified in the Network screen.
*note: The “Link Information” (lower) window shows the Link Speed, Signal Level, Channel, etc. between
the client and AP. It is always in view regardless of which page (Network, Profile, SiteSurvey, Options,
Version) is selected within the ZyXEL Utility.
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1.3.2 Profile
This page is used to manage connections with Access Points. You can create different configuration
profiles for connections with different APs and SSIDs.
The advantage of saving different profiles is the easiness of quickly changing connections without having
to configure the PC with every single variable each time a connection change is made. Also, when
configuring the TCP/IP via the ZyXEL Utility it is not necessary to reboot your PC as when TCP/IP
configuration is done via Windows' Control Panel.
Please refer to the detailed explanation below for each button in the Profile menu.
Add
Clicking on this button enables you to create a new profile. The following steps show how this can be done.
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1) Click on [Add] and the following screen will appear.
2) On this screen you will insert some basic settings for your wireless network.
a.
[Profile Name] Enter in a descriptive name for this profile.
b.
[Network Mode] If connecting to an access point or wireless router, choose
“Infrastructure” 3. If you are going to network one computer directly to another
computer without an access point, then choose “Ad-Hoc”4.
c.
[SSID] Select [Browse] The utility will perform a brief site survey and display the
results to you. Click on the SSID5 of the access point you would like to connect to and
3
Infrastructure: You will need an access point to use the ZyXEL wireless adapter in Infrastructure mode. Because all
communication will be done via the Access Point, the Access Point’s SSID must be used.
4
Ad-Hoc: In Ad-Hoc mode communication is made peer-to-peer between the client PCs and without the use of an
Access Point. All PCs communicating in an Ad-Hoc should use the same SSID (whatever your choice is).
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then click on [Add to Profile]. If the access point you choose has encryption enabled, a
window will pop up reminding you to enter the encryption information on the next page.
If your access point is not listed, close the [Site Survey] window, and type the name of
the SSID into the [SSID] field.
d.
Click [Next]. The following screen will appear.
This screen will vary in appearance depending on if any encryption was enabled with your access point.
3) Enter in the appropriate security information.
a. Click [Next]. The following screen will appear.
5
SSID: The SSID is a name used by users of a common wireless network. Only those devices
using the same SSID are able to access each other. Also, you must use the same SSID as the
Access Point you want to connect with. SSIDs are case sensitive so please be careful when typing
out the SSID of a particular Access Point you wish to connect to..
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4) On this screen you will configure the wireless modes supported by this profile.
a. Under [Wireless Protocol], put a check mark next to each wireless protocol you want this
profile to support. If you are unsure of which protocol to choose, leave all checked.
b. Click [Next]. The following screen will appear.
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5) Final Step
a. Uncheck the box [Apply this profile now] if you do not want to activate this profile at
this time.
b. Click [Save] to complete the wizard and save the profile you have just created.
Remove
To remove a profile from the “Profile List” select it and then click on [Remove].
Apply
If you want to change the current profile with another profile from the “Profile List”, select the desired
profile and click on [Apply]. The new profile will immediately become the current profile and you will be
connected with its SSID.
Properties
Selecting a profile from the “Profile List” and clicking on [Properties] will allow you to check and/or
modify the properties of the selected profile. Clicking on [Properties] will take you to the following screen.
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Each page in [Properties] are explained below.
Basic Settings: In this page, you can verify the name of the current profile.
[Profile Name] Allows you to change the name of the current profile.
[Network Mode] Allows you to change between Infrastructure and Ad-Hoc networking modes.
[SSID] Allows you to change the SSID that this profile will associate with. Use the [Browse] button to
perform a site survey and select the SSID from a list of available SSIDs. Keep in mind when manually
entering an SSID that SSIDs are case sensitive.
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Advanced Settings: This screen allows you to make changes to the default ways the adapter operates
including advanced 802.11 settings. Unless you are an advanced user and have deep knowledge about each
property on this page, it is recommended that you leave them at the default settings.
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WLAN Security: This screen allows you to configure the security settings of your wireless LAN.
Security Mode
1) No Encryption
All data sent between the AP and the client is left unencrypted and may be viewed by other
wireless devices.
2) WEP
Wired Equivalent Privacy – Encrypts all traffic sent between the AP and the client using a
shared key. When using WEP encryption (available in 64, 128, or 152-bit), only those APs
and PCs using the same WEP Key are allowed to communicate with each other.
3) WPA
Wi-Fi Protected Access – Encrypts all traffic between the access point and the client using
either TKIP or AES encryption. Depending on the authentication protocol selected, each
client must authenticate using their own unique username, password, and security certificate.
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To learn more about WPA please see Chapter 2.
4) WPA-PSK
WPA-PSK is a compromise between WPA and WEP. Like WEP, it uses a pre-shared key
that every user of the network must have in order to be able to send and receive data. Like
WPA, it uses either TKIP or AES, which improve greatly over the encryption found in WEP.
We recommend you use WPA or WPA-PSK whenever possible.
Wireless Protocol: This screen lets you define which 802.11 wireless standards to try to connect to.
TCP/IP: This allows you to change your TCP/IP settings.
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[Use IP Changer] By putting a checkmark in the box, you will overwrite your existing WLAN TCP/IP
configuration and use the IP Changer software built-into the ZyXEL Utility. This allows you to configure
TCP/IP settings for each profile.
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1.3.3 Site Survey
This page shows a list of SSIDs in your vicinity. Information regarding each SSID is also shown: SSID,
mode, signal strength, channel, BSSID (MAC address), data rate, and WEP/WPA status.
Refresh
[Refresh] will scan the vicinity for a certain amount of time and display the scan results.
Detailed Info
[Detailed info] will display the following screen showing the selected device's configuration information.
An alternative to clicking on [Detailed info] is double-clicking on the SSID shown from the Available
Networks window.
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Connect
[Connect] will connect you to the access point selected.
Add To Profile
[Add To Profile] will allow you to add a specified access point / gateway to your favorites list.
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1.3.4 Options
In this page you can configure the behavior of the ZyXEL utility.
Let Windows manage this wireless adapter
Enabling this option will allow your Microsoft Windows operating system to use its Windows Zero
Configuration to setup your ZyXEL M-302 onto your computer
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1.3.5 Version
Software and Hardware information of the current client device.
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Chapter 2
Wireless LAN Networking
This chapter provides background information on general wireless LAN networking technology
and terminology.
2.1
Overview
This section describes the wireless LAN network terms and applications.
2.1.1
SSID
The SSID (Service Set Identity) is a unique name shared among all wireless devices in a wireless network.
Wireless devices must have the same SSID to communicate with each other.
2.1.2 Channel
A radio frequency used by a wireless device is called a channel.
2.1.3 Transmission Rate (Transfer Rate)
The ZyXEL M-302 provides various transmission (data) rate options for you to select. Options include
Fully Auto, 1 Mbps, 2 Mbps, 5.5 Mbps, 11 Mbps, 6 Mbps, 9 Mbps, 12 Mbps, 18 Mbps, 22 Mbps, 24
Mbps, 36 Mbps, 48 Mbps, 54 Mbps and 108 Mbps. In most networking scenarios, the factory default
Fully Auto setting proves the most efficient. This setting allows your ZyXEL M-302 to operate at the
maximum transmission (data) rate. When the communication quality drops below a certain level, the
ZyXEL M-302 automatically switches to a lower transmission (data) rate. Transmission at lower data
speeds is usually more reliable. However, when the communication quality improves again, the ZyXEL M302 gradually increases the transmission (data) rate again until it reaches the highest available transmission
rate.
2.1.4 Wireless Network Application
Wireless LAN works in either of the two modes: ad-hoc and infrastructure.
To connect to a wired network within a coverage area using Access Points (APs), set the ZyXEL M-302
operation mode to Infrastructure (BSS). An AP acts as a bridge between the wireless stations and the
wired network. In case you do not wish to connect to a wired network, but prefer to set up a small
independent wireless workgroup without an AP, use the Ad-hoc (IBSS) (Independent Basic Service Set)
mode.
WLAN Networking
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Ad-Hoc (IBSS)
Ad-hoc mode does not require an AP or a wired network. Two or more wireless stations communicate
directly to each other. An ad-hoc network may sometimes be referred to as an Independent Basic Service
Set (IBSS).
Figure 2-1 IBSS Example
To set up an ad-hoc network, configure all wireless stations in ad-hoc network
type and use the same SSID and channel.
Infrastructure (BSS)
When a number of wireless stations are connected using a single AP, you have a Basic Service Set (BSS).
Figure 2-2 BSS Example
A series of overlapping BSS and a network medium, such as an Ethernet forms an Extended Service Set
(ESS) or infrastructure network. All communication is done through the AP, which relays data packets to
other wireless stations or devices connected to the wired network. Wireless stations can then access
resource, such as the printer, on the wired network.
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Figure 2-3 Infrastructure Network Example
2.1.5 Roaming
In an infrastructure network, wireless stations are able to switch from one BSS to another as they move
between the coverage areas. During this period, the wireless stations maintain uninterrupted connection to
the network. This is roaming. As the wireless station moves from place to place, it is responsible for
choosing the most appropriate AP depending on the signal strength, network utilization or other factors.
The following figure depicts a roaming example. When wireless station B moves to position X, the ZyXEL
M-302 in wireless station B automatically switches the channel to the one used by access point 2 in order to
stay connected to the network.
WLAN Networking
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Figure 2-4 Roaming Example
2.2
Wireless LAN Security
Wireless LAN security is vital to your network to protect wireless communication between wireless
stations and the wired network.
The figure below shows the possible wireless security levels on your ZyXEL M-302. EAP (Extensible
Authentication Protocol) is used for authentication and utilizes dynamic WEP key exchange. It requires
interaction with a RADIUS (Remote Authentication Dial-In User Service) server either on the WAN or
your LAN to provide authentication service for wireless stations.
Figure 2-5 Wireless LAN Security Levels
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Configure the wireless LAN security using the Profile Security Settings screen. If you do not enable any
wireless security on your ZyXEL M-302, the ZyXEL M-302’s wireless communications are accessible to
any wireless networking device that is in the coverage area.
2.2.1 Data Encryption with WEP
WEP (Wired Equivalent Privacy) encryption scrambles all data packets transmitted between the ZyXEL M302 and the AP or other wireless stations to keep network communications private. Both the wireless
stations and the access points must use the same WEP key for data encryption and decryption.
There are two ways to create WEP keys in your ZyXEL M-302.
•
Automatic WEP key generation based on a “password phrase” called a passphrase. The passphrase
is case sensitive. You must use the same passphrase for all WLAN adapters with this feature in the
same WLAN.
For WLAN adapters without the passphrase feature, you can still take advantage of this feature by
writing down the four automatically generated WEP keys from the Security Settings screen of the
ZyXEL Utility and entering them manually as the WEP keys in the other WLAN adapter(s).
• Enter the WEP keys manually.
Your ZyXEL M-302 allows you to configure up to four 64-bit, 128-bit or 152-bit WEP keys and only one
key is used as the default key at any one time.
2.2.2 IEEE 802.1x
The IEEE 802.1x standard outlines enhanced security methods for both the authentication of wireless
stations and encryption key management. Authentication can be done using an external RADIUS server.
EAP Authentication
EAP (Extensible Authentication Protocol) is an authentication protocol that runs on top of the IEEE802.1x
transport mechanism in order to support multiple types of user authentication. By using EAP to interact
with an EAP-compatible RADIUS server, an access point helps a wireless station and a RADIUS server
perform authentication.
The type of authentication you use depends on the RADIUS server and an intermediary AP(s) that supports
IEEE802.1x. The ZyXEL M-302 supports EAP-TLS, EAP-TTLS and EAP-PEAP.
For EAP-TLS authentication type, you must first have a wired connection to the network and obtain the
certificate(s) from a certificate authority (CA). A certificate (also called digital IDs) can be used to
authenticate users and a CA issues certificates and guarantees the identity of each certificate owner.
2.2.3 WPA
Wi-Fi Protected Access (WPA) is a subset of the IEEE 802.11i security specification draft. Key differences
between WPA and WEP are user authentication and improved data encryption.
WLAN Networking
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User Authentication
WPA applies IEEE 802.1x and Extensible Authentication Protocol (EAP) to authenticate wireless clients
using an external RADIUS database.
Therefore, if you don’t have an external RADIUS server, you should use WPA-PSK (WPA -Pre-Shared
Key) that only requires a single (identical) password entered into each access point, wireless gateway and
wireless client. As long as the passwords match, a client will be granted access to a WLAN.
Encryption
WPA improves data encryption by using either Temporal Key Integrity Protocol (TKIP) or Advanced
Encryption Standard (AES), Message Integrity Check (MIC) and IEEE 802.1x.
Temporal Key Integrity Protocol (TKIP) uses 128-bit keys that are dynamically generated and distributed
by the authentication server. It includes a per-packet key mixing function, a Message Integrity Check
(MIC) named Michael, an extended initialization vector (IV) with sequencing rules, and a re-keying
mechanism.
TKIP regularly changes and rotates the encryption keys so that the same encryption key is never used
twice. The RADIUS server distributes a Pairwise Master Key (PMK) key to the AP that then sets up a key
hierarchy and management system, using the pair-wise key to dynamically generate unique data encryption
keys to encrypt every data packet that is wirelessly communicated between the AP and the wireless clients.
This all happens in the background automatically.
The Message Integrity Check (MIC) is designed to prevent an attacker from capturing data packets, altering
them and resending them. The MIC provides a strong mathematical function in which the receiver and the
transmitter each compute and then compare the MIC. If they do not match, it is assumed that the data has
been tampered with and the packet is dropped.
By generating unique data encryption keys for every data packet and by creating an integrity checking
mechanism (MIC), TKIP makes it much more difficult to decode data on a Wi-Fi network than WEP,
making it difficult for an intruder to break into the network.
The encryption mechanisms used for WPA and WPA-PSK are the same. The only difference between the
two is that WPA-PSK uses a simple common password, instead of user-specific credentials. The commonpassword approach makes WPA-PSK susceptible to brute-force password-guessing attacks but it’s still an
improvement over WEP as it employs an easier-to-use, consistent, single, alphanumeric password.
2.2.4 WPA-PSK Application Example
A WPA-PSK application looks as follows.
Step 1. First enter identical passwords into the AP and all wireless clients. The Pre-Shared Key (PSK)
must consist of between 8 and 63 ASCII characters (including spaces and symbols).
Step 2. The AP checks each client’s password and (only) allows it to join the network if it matches its
password.
Step 3. The AP derives and distributes keys to the wireless clients.
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Step 4.
The AP and wireless clients use the TKIP encryption process to encrypt data exchanged
between them.
Figure 2-6 WPA-PSK Authentication
2.2.5 WPA with RADIUS Application Example
You need the IP address of the RADIUS server, its port number (default is 1812), and the RADIUS shared
secret. A WPA application example with an external RADIUS server looks as follows. “A” is the RADIUS
server. “DS” is the distribution system.
Step 1. The AP passes the wireless client’s authentication request to the RADIUS server.
Step 2. The RADIUS server then checks the user's identification against its database and grants or
denies network access accordingly.
Step 3. The RADIUS server distributes a Pairwise Master Key (PMK) key to the AP that then sets up a
key hierarchy and management system, using the pair-wise key to dynamically generate unique
data encryption keys to encrypt every data packet that is wirelessly communicated between the
AP and the wireless clients.
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Figure 2-7 WPA with RADIUS Application Example
2.3
Fragmentation Threshold
The Fragmentation Threshold is the maximum data fragment size (between 256 and 2432 bytes) that can
be sent in the wireless network before the ZyXEL M-302 will fragment the packet into smaller data frames.
A large Fragmentation Threshold is recommended for networks not prone to interference while you
should set a smaller threshold for busy networks or networks that are prone to interference.
If the Fragmentation Threshold value is smaller than the RTS/CTS Threshold value (see previously)
you set then the RTS (Request To Send)/CTS (Clear to Send) handshake will never occur as data frames
will be fragmented before they reach RTS/CTS Threshold size.
2.4
RTS/CTS Threshold
A hidden node occurs when two stations are within range of the same access point, but are not within range
of each other. The following figure illustrates a hidden node. Both stations are within range of the access
point (AP) or wireless gateway, but out-of-range of each other, so they cannot “hear” each other, that is
they do not know if the channel is currently being used. Therefore, they are considered hidden from each
other.
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Figure 2-8 RTS Threshold
When station A sends data to the AP, it might not know that the station B is already using the channel. If
these two stations send data at the same time, collisions may occur when both sets of data arrive at the AP
at the same time, resulting in a loss of messages for both stations.
RTS/CTS Threshold is designed to prevent collisions due to hidden nodes. An RTS/CTS Threshold
defines the biggest size data frame you can send before an RTS (Request To Send)/CTS (Clear to Send)
handshake is invoked.
When a data frame exceeds the RTS/CTS Threshold value you set (between 0 to 2432 bytes), the station
that wants to transmit this frame must first send an RTS (Request To Send) message to the AP for
permission to send it. The AP then responds with a CTS (Clear to Send) message to all other stations within
its range to notify them to defer their transmission. It also reserves and confirms with the requesting station
the time frame for the requested transmission.
Stations can send frames smaller than the specified RTS/CTS Threshold directly to the AP without the
RTS (Request To Send)/CTS (Clear to Send) handshake.
You should only configure RTS/CTS Threshold if the possibility of hidden nodes exists on your network
and the “cost” of resending large frames is more than the extra network overhead involved in the RTS
(Request To Send)/CTS (Clear to Send) handshake.
If the RTS/CTS Threshold value is greater than the Fragmentation Threshold value (see next), then the
RTS (Request To Send)/CTS (Clear to Send) handshake will never occur as data frames will be fragmented
before they reach RTS/CTS Threshold size.
Enabling the RTS Threshold causes redundant network overhead that could
negatively affect the throughput performance.
2.5
Authentication Type
The IEEE 802.11b standard describes a simple authentication method between the wireless stations and
AP. Two authentication modes are defined: Open and Share.
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Open authentication mode is implemented for ease-of-use and when security is not an issue. The wireless
station and the AP do not share a secret key. Thus the wireless stations can associate with any AP and listen
to any data transmitted plaintext.
Shared authentication mode involves a shared secret key to authenticate the wireless station to the AP.
This requires you to enable the wireless LAN security and use same settings on both the wireless station
and the AP.
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Chapter 3
Maintenance
This chapter describes how to uninstall or upgrade the ZyXEL Utility.
3.1
The Version Screen
The Version screen displays related version numbers of the ZyXEL M-302.
The following table describes the read-only fields in this screen.
Maintenance
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About
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
S/W Version
This field displays the version number of the combination driver/utility package.
Driver Version
This field displays the version number of the ZyXEL driver.
Utility Version
This field displays the version number of the ZyXEL utility.
3.2
Uninstalling the ZyXEL Utility
Follow the steps below to remove (or uninstall) the ZyXEL Utility from your computer.
Step 1. Click Start, Programs, ZyXEL M-302 Utility, Uninstall ZyXEL M-302 Utility.
Step 2. When prompted, click [Yes] to remove the driver and the utility software.
Step 3.
3-2
Click [Finish] to finish the uninstall process. Reboot your computer if prompted to do so.
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ZyXEL M-302 User’s Guide
3.3
Upgrading the ZyXEL Utility
Before you uninstall the ZyXEL Utility, take note of the current network
configuration.
To perform the upgrade, follow the steps below.
Step 1. Download the latest version of the utility from the ZyXEL web site and save the file on your
computer.
Step 2. Follow the steps in Section 3.2 to remove the current ZyXEL Utility from your computer.
Step 3. Restart your computer if prompted.
Step 4. After restarting, refer to the procedure in the Quick Start Guide to install the new utility.
Step 5. Check the version numbers in the Version screen to make sure the new utility is installed
properly.
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Chapter 4
Configuring Wireless Security
This chapter covers the configuration of security options in the ZyXEL Utility.
4.1
Configuring Security
You can configure your security settings at any time. Simply select the profile you wish to edit under the
[Profile] tab, select [Properties] and then choose [WLAN Security]. You are also presented with the option
to configure security during the profile creation process. Whether changing the security settings of an
existing profile or creating a new profile, the steps to configure your security settings remain the same.
4.2
Configuring WEP
1.
Select [WEP] under [Security Mode]
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2.
3.
Put a check mark next to [Using Static WEP]
Click [Configure]. You will then see the screen below.
4.
[WEP Method] Select the correct encryption level to match your access point. Either 64,
128, or 152-bit. The encryption level set her must match the encryption level used by
your access point.
a. [Authentication] You can choose between Auto, Open System, and Shared. Please see
section 2.5 for more information on the different types of authentication. For most
installations choosing “Auto” is the best choice.
b. Enter the WEP key exactly as you did in your access point.
There are three ways of generating a WEP Key:
Make key using PassPhrase: a WEP Key is automatically generated as you type in any
PassPhrase of your choice. Use this feature when you have used a PassPhrase to generate
your WEP key on your access point.
Manual Input (ASCII): You generate your own WEP Key using ASCII characters (5
characters for 64-bit, 13 characters for 128-bit, 16 characters for 152-bit)
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Manual Input (Hexadecimal): You generate your own WEP Key using hexadecimal
characters (10 characters for 64-bit, 26 characters for 128-bit, 32 characters for 152-bit).
5.
6.
4.3
1.
2.
3.
Click [OK] to save your settings and return to the previous screen.
If you want to use 802.1x authentication with WEP, you will need to configure your
802.1x settings. Please see section 4.5 for details on configuring 802.1x.
Configuring WPA-PSK
Select [WPA-PSK] under [Security Mode].
Select [Encryption method]. You can choose between TKIP or AES. Most access points use
TKIP for WPA-PSK.
Under [PSK Pass Phrase] enter the same pass phrase used to configure WPA-PSK on your access
point.
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4.4
1.
2.
3.
4.5
1.
2.
Configuring WPA
Select [WPA] under [Security Mode].
Select [Encryption method]. You can choose between TKIP or AES. Most access points use
TKIP for WPA.
See section 4.5 for configuring 802.1x for WPA.
Configuring 802.1x
Choose the EAP method *TLS, TTLS, PEAP, LEAP* under [Authentication protocol].
Depending on the EAP method chosen the options under [User Information] will change.
4.5.1 Configuring 802.1x – EAP-LEAP
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1. Enter in unique User ID and Password under [User Information]
4.5.2 Configuring 802.1x – EAP-PEAP
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Click [Configure] under [Authentication protocol]
Select inner PEAP protocol. You choices are [EAP/MS-CHAP v2] or [EAP/GTC].
Click [OK] to finish and return to the previous screen.
Enter in unique User ID and Password under [User Information].
If using a user6 or server certificate click
6.
7.
[Configure Certificate]. The following window appears:
6
You must first have a wired connection to a network and obtain the certificate(s) from a certificate
authority (CA). Consult your network administrator for more information.
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[Use user certificate]: Put a check in the box to activate user certificate. Then select certificate from the
pull down menu.
[Validate server certificate]: Put a check in the box to activate server certificate. Then select the certificate
authority from the pull down menu.
[Server name]: Name of server used for 802.1x authentication.
Click [OK] to finish and return to the previous screen.
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4.5.3 Configuring 802.1x – EAP-TLS
1.
2.
3.
Enter in unique User ID and Password under [User Information].
TLS requires you to configure both a server and user7 certificate.
Click [Configure Certificate]. The following window appears:
7
You must first have a wired connection to a network and obtain the certificate(s) from a certificate
authority (CA). Consult your network administrator for more information.
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[Use user certificate]: Put a check in the box to activate user certificate. Then select certificate from the
pull down menu.
[Validate server certificate]: Put a check in the box to activate server certificate. Then select the certificate
authority from the pull down menu.
[Server name]: Name of server used for 802.1x authentication.
4. Make selections and then click [OK] to finish and return to the previous screen.
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4.5.4 Configuring 802.1x – EAP-TTLS
1.
2.
3.
4.
Enter in unique User ID and Password under [User Information].
Select inner TTLS protocol. You can choose between [PAP], [CHAP], [MS-CHAP], [MS-CHAP
v2], or [MD5-Challenge].
Click [OK] to finish and return to the previous screen.
Click [Configure Certificate]. The following window appears:
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[Use user certificate]: Put a check in the box to activate user certificate. Then select certificate from the
pull down menu.
[Validate server certificate]: Put a check in the box to activate server certificate. Then select the certificate
authority from the pull down menu.
[Server name]: Name of server used for 802.1x authentication.
5. Make selections and then click [OK] to finish and return to the previous screen. Server certificate
must be configured for TTLS to work.
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Chapter 5
Troubleshooting
This chapter covers potential problems and possible remedies. After each problem description,
some instructions are provided to help you diagnose and solve the problem.
5.1
Problems Starting the ZyXEL Utility Program
Table 5-1 Troubleshooting Starting ZyXEL Utility Program
PROBLEM
CORRECTIVE ACTION
Cannot start the ZyXEL
Wireless LAN Utility
Make sure the ZyXEL M-302 is properly plugged in your PCMCIA Type II Slot
and the LED(s) is on. Refer to the Quick Start Guide for LED descriptions.
Use the Device Manager to check for possible hardware conflicts.
Click Start, Settings, Control Panel, System, Hardware and Device
Manager. Verify the status of the ZyXEL M-302 under Network Adapter.
(Steps may vary depending on the version of Windows).
Install the ZyXEL M-302 in another computer.
If the error persists, you may have a hardware problem. In this case, you
should contact your local vendor.
5.2
Problem with the Link Status
Table 5-2 Troubleshooting Link Quality
PROBLEM
CORRECTIVE ACTION
The link quality and/or signal
strength is poor all the time.
Search and connect to another AP with a better link quality using the Site
Survey screen.
Change the channel used by your AP.
Move your computer closer to the AP or the peer computer(s) within the
transmission range.
There may be too much radio interference (for example microwave or
another AP using the same channel) around your wireless network.
Relocate or reduce the radio interference.
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5.3
Problems Communicating With Other Computers
Table 5-3 Troubleshooting Communication Problems
PROBLEM
The ZyXEL M-302 computer
cannot communicate with
the other computer.
A.
B.
5-2
Infrastructure
Ad-Hoc (IBSS)
CORRECTIVE ACTION
Make sure you are connected to the network.
Make sure that the AP and the associated computers are turned on and
working properly.
Make sure the ZyXEL M-302 computer and the associated AP use the
same SSID.
Change the AP and the associated wireless clients to use another radio
channel if interference is high.
Make sure that the computer and the AP share the same security option
and key. Verify the settings in the Profile Security Settings screen.
Verify that the peer computer(s) is turned on.
Make sure the ZyXEL M-302 computer and the peer computer(s) are
using the same SSID and channel.
Make sure that the computer and the peer computer(s) share the same
security option and key.
Change the wireless clients to use another radio channel if interference is
high.
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ZyXEL M-302 User’s Guide
Appendix A
Types of EAP Authentication
This appendix discusses the five popular EAP authentication types: EAP-TLS, EAP-TTLS, PEAP and
LEAP. The type of authentication you use depends on the RADIUS server. Consult your network
administrator for more information.
EAP-TLS (Transport Layer Security)
With EAP-TLS, digital certifications are needed by both the server and the wireless stations for mutual
authentication. The server presents a certificate to the client. After validating the identity of the server, the
client sends a different certificate to the server. The exchange of certificates is done in the open before a
secured tunnel is created. This makes user identity vulnerable to passive attacks. A digital certificate is an
electronic ID card that authenticates the sender’s identity. However, to implement EAP-TLS, you need a
Certificate Authority (CA) to handle certificates, which imposes a management overhead.
EAP-TTLS (Tunneled Transport Layer Service)
EAP-TTLS is an extension of the EAP-TLS authentication that uses certificates for only the server-side
authentications to establish a secure connection. Client authentication is then done by sending username
and password through the secure connection, thus client identity is protected. For client authentication,
EAP-TTLS supports EAP methods and legacy authentication methods such as PAP, CHAP, MS-CHAP and
MS-CHAP v2.
PEAP (Protected EAP)
Like EAP-TTLS, server-side certificate authentication is used to establish a secure connection, then use
simple username and password methods through the secured connection to authenticate the clients, thus
hiding client identity. However, PEAP only supports EAP methods, such as EAP-MD5, EAP-MSCHAPv2
and EAP-GTC (EAP-Generic Token Card), for client authentication. EAP-GTC is implemented only by
Cisco.
LEAP
LEAP (Lightweight Extensible Authentication Protocol) is a Cisco implementation of IEEE802.1x.
For added security, certificate-based authentications (EAP-TLS, EAP-TTLS and PEAP) use dynamic keys
for data encryption. They are often deployed in corporate environments, but for public deployment, a
simple user name and password pair is more practical. The following table is a comparison of the features
of five authentication types.
Appendix A
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Comparison of EAP Authentication Types
EAP-TLS
EAP-TTLS
PEAP
LEAP
Mutual
Authentication
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Certificate – Client
Yes
Optional
Optional
No
Certificate – Server
Yes
Yes
Yes
No
Dynamic Key
Exchange
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Strong
Strong
Strong
Moderate
Hard
Moderate
Moderate
Moderate
No
Yes
Yes
No
Credential Integrity
Deployment
Difficulty
Client Identity
Protection
ii
Appendix A