Washington Apple Pi Journal, January 1985

$2
Wa/hinglon Apple Pi 8
The Journal of Washington Apple Pi, Ltd
Volume. 7
v
Januaru 1985
number 1 Hiahliahtl
-- ­
TI-IE WAP ABBS PROGRAmminG TI-IE 65C802/816 1001 BinARY TAlE.S - Part 3 TI-IE mUSICAL APPLE - Pa rt 2 In This Issue...
3
Officers & Staff
4
••
David
Morganstein
President's Corner
4
General Information 5
WAP Calendar
6
Minutes, Event Queue, Classifieds 8
SIGNews • • • • Peter Combes 8
EDSIG News ••
• Judy Rein 8
DisabledSIG News
• Charlene Ryan 9
Apple III SIG News
Leon H. Raesly 9
Did Ja?
•• Did Ja Call?
Bruce F. Field 10
Q & A
•
•
14
WAP Hotline A Page From the Stack
Dana J. Schwartz 15
Apple IIc and Acoustic Modem •• Caird E. Rexroad Jr 18
Setting the Date with ProDOS
••
Bob Velke 18
simpleWord • •
•
J.T.(Tom) DeMay Jr 20
• Thomas S. Warrick 22
Calendar Program
• Thomas S. Warrick 24
The WAP ABBS •
• • Bob Trexler 28 Be Careful in "The Print Shop".
•
•
• 28
•••
• •••••
Job Mart
Raymond Hobbs 29
Pi SIG News
•••
=Alexander- 30
Best of WAP ABBS.
Cyril Fefer 32
Improving Keyboard Use on LCS Logo.
· .. ..
Changing a Few Internals in LCS Logo •• Cyril Fefer 33
Programming the 65C802/816 • • • Lawrence Husick 34
• ••
•
35
Bugs and Other Parasites
Raymond
Hobbs
36
•
Views and Reviews
•
•
John
F.
Day
38
LISA SIG News
•
•
•
John
F.
Day
39
Desktop Calendar for the LISA.
Steve Hunt 40
The 512K Mac - The Real Benefits SigMac News
••••
Steve Hunt 41
1001 Binary Tales: Mac Innards 3.
Raymond Hobbs 42
Notes on Using Mac Font Editor 2.0 •• Peter Trinder 43
MicronEye: A Review.
Steve Crandall 44
Love at First Byte
•
Rana Pennington 45
My Mac and My V A X . .
Bob Wilson 46
Using MacTEP for VAX/VMS Comm •• Kenneth Nellis 47
Compo Aid for Sys. Dsgners: A Reprint •• Dan Chiles 48
Dollars and $ense: A Review.
Kevin Nealon 51
"Inside Mac": Author Responds
Raymond Hobbs 52
What's New with Forth
Bruce F. Field 52
The Musical Apple
•
•
Raymond Hobbs 53
Bruce F. Field 54
WAP Tutorials
•• • 55
Disketeria Mail Order Form
56
Tutorial Registration
56
Index to Advertisers, Author Index
There's onlyone place to buy apples. AT FREDERICK COMPUTER PRODUCTS !!!
As an Authorized Apple Dealer we offer a full selection of
both Apple Hardware and Software at low, low prices.
Also, as an Authorized Service Center we provide fast and
efficient service on all Apple products.
FREDERICK COMPUTER PRODUCTS, INC.
Microcomputer Systems And Peripherals 5726 INDUSTRY LANE-FREDERICK, MD.- (301)694-8884 ®
pplcz
computczr
Authorized Dealer
Checkmate Technology presents 3 new peripheral cards for the Apple
The MultlVlew 80/160 Card"'- the intelligent video card for the II, II+, //e, or Franklin. Perfect for
Spreadsheets and Word Processing.
7 Screen Sizes Choose from among Ihese highly readable screen sizes wllh a simple
command: 80x24 80x32 80x48 96x24 132x24 132x30 160x24. Use
with any monitor!!'"
Wide Angle Screens Stretch the screen with one command. An 8o-column screen becomes
as easy to read as a 40-column screen and a t 32 column screen
becomes as easy to read as a normal 80-column display. We call It
the "Eye-Saver".
Reg. Price $349.95
SPECIAL CLUB PRICE: $225.00
12 Attribute Sets Choose anyone of 12 attribute sets for a screen display. BOld. underlined.
invers~. and normal characlers combine with normal and Inverse
backgrounds 10 prOVide 12 exciting new ways to view Ihe Apple
screen.
//e Compatible Works In slot 3 of lie. And If an extended 80-column card IS In the auxiliary
slot. use MulllView to program the aUXiliary 64K memory with simple
BASIC commands.
Software Support
Compalible With all languages and operating systems used on the
Apple.
Programmer's Aids Bring back into view your program or catalog lisling that scrolled off
screen With our hardware REVERSE SCROLLING command ... or add
a 25th. 26th. or 27th line 10 the screen With the PROMPT LINE
command l
"12MHz or beller Money Back Guarantee 10 day money back poliCY If not delighted With MulliVlew.
Applewrlter //e Pre boot'"
Language Factory Character PROMS ..
Word processing In any of MulliView's sizes and attnbutes.
See almost a full page on screen with an 8ox48 screen SIZOI
Appfewriler II and ProDOS verSion pre boots available
January 1985. Reg. Price 519.00
See Engineering/Math or Foreign Language or GraphiC
characters on the same screen With standard ASCII
characters uSing the appropnate Language Factory
PROM"
Reg. Price $44.95 SPECIAL CLUB PRICE $30.00 SPECIAL CLUB PRICE $12.00
InfoBank
Jr-
Universal Spreadsheet Preeboot'" Simplified "user fnendly" data base that even a child can dOl 132 column format calendar funclions and auto dialing With your modem. SpeCial 240 column field lor (jetalled comments.
Reg. Price $89.95 SPECIAL CLUB PRICE $59.00
See any MulllVlew screen size With VlslCalc. Multiplan.
Maglcalc! THE Spreadsheet. Acecalc. and IACALC Use any
aUllhutes Including underlining and bolej face I'nth your
spreadsheet DeSigned for use With MulllVlew onlyl
Reg. Price $49_95
SPECIAL CLUB PRICE $29.00
I/e SORAM CARD" +
64K of memory 80 columns for your //e" Features double
hi-resolution graphics l! Can be used With MultlV,ew With no screen flicker on any monitor!'
Reg_ Price $129_95
SPECIAL CLUB PRICE $S5.00
Zee SOA Card'· For /I, 11+. lie. and Franklin. Needed for CP/M rJrograms like
Wordstar. dBase II. Muiliplan and other bUSiness programs
Software not Included
Reg. Price 589.95
SPECIAL CLUB PRICE $59.00
Superworks PROM ..
20 Function keys. a program line-editor complete With auto­
numbering. and a screen dump print command make your
Apple a programmer's dream'
Reg_ Price 539.95
All products made in the U.S.A. featuring a 5 YEAR WARRANTY.
SPECIAL CLUB PRICE: $25.00
!tl(' ",Hh'm,uk 01 /HI~J( I " "
1,.. d,"11,111o. 'It l'Ipph' Compt,!!'! 111\
t\pplf~\'''lltk'' ,lIld '\pplCwrlh'r aft' ttl!' Iradpm.lflo., ~:, ji,!pl~' Computer Il!l
1\( I'C.11e
I~,
''\p~Hj' I', ttl.'
Manufactured by
( " M I', Itlt.' ,r .. d('n1.HJ.; 01 DIgital ReseafOl
Checkmate Technology, Inc.
Rockford Drive - Tempe. Arizona 85281
F r,!tlkll'l
10;
lnt' Ir,H1em.Hk 01 Franklin COmPLjll"
Ilie • .tIc
I',
!tIl'
\h.1!,p1olfl
tr.I~1em<trlo..
I!J(
or HlP Inlern.lllnn.11 A,'p1f'
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'.'I'-"C,I'j
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CALL the Club office at 654-S060 to arrange purchases or for more information.
Washington Apple Pi January 1985
, .:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
OUR APPR0ACH
'
All Products Always Discounted
Reference Literature & Guides For Browsing
Demo Machine:;
Special Orders Our Speciality
Gift Certificates Available
Rainchecks For Out-Of-Stock Specials
Comfortable Showroom Environment
Special Corporate, Government, Educational & User Group Accounts
SOFTWARE
. -HARDWARE
Business
Scientific
Education
Recreation
Programming
Home & Personal
Specialized
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
LITERATURE
STORE HOURS
10-6
Mon-Fri
Thurs
10-8
10-5
468-1001
• Media & Media Storage
• PC Protection & Care Products
• Paper & Custom Forms
Complete coupon to be placed on Software City Special Mailing lis\.
l
Montros~
Randolph Rd
Rd
.s
"'.;..".
Mallll"lIllIti
"
Address
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Nebel Slreel 1E.I~nd~dl >RlA:kvllle Maryland 20852
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Phone
NIcholson lan2
To DC
2
Monitors
Printers
Drives
Interfaces
Modems
Expansion Boards
Cables
HOCKVll.lE
u ~
t1621
.
ACCESSORIES & SUPPLIES
• Books
• Magazines
• Free Product Information
Sat
.
Type PC at Work
n", Mo'
Type PC at Home
fkl''''ay
ctlE~ASE
January 1985
Washington Apple Pi
Off ICE.R5
&
,5 TAf F President
(301) 972-4263
- David Morganstein
Vice Pres-Programs- Tom Warrick
(301) 656-4389
Vice Pres-SIGs
- Bob Platt
(806) 378-1065
- Edward Myerson
(703) 759-5479
"-" Treasurer
Secretary
(301) 762-3215
- Nancy Little
Directors
(301) 951-5294
- Bernie Benson
- Peter Combes
(301) 251-6369
- J. T. (Tom) DeMay Jr (301) 779-4632
- Bruce Field
(301) 340-7038
- Nancy Ph i 11 pp
(301) 924-2354
- Jay Thal
(202) 244-3649
- Rich Wasserstrom
(703) 893-9147
Editor
(301) 229-3458
- Bernie Urban
Associate Editor - Genevie Urban
(301) 229-3458
Journal Staff:
Store 0 fstrbtn. - Ray Hobbs
(301) 490-7484
Columnists:
Apple III
- Charlene Ryan
(703) 836-0463
Applesoft
- J.T. (Tom) DeMay Jr (301) 779-4632
DfsabledSIG
(202) 244-3649
- Jay Thal
EDSIG
(301) 251-6369
- Peter Combes
Pascal (PIG)
(301) 445-1583
- Mike Hartman
Q &A
- Bruce Field
(301) 340-7038
Telecomm
- Dave Harvey
(703) 527-2704
VisiCalc
(202) 966-5742
- Walt Francis
Review Coord.:
Hardware
- Scott Rullman
(301) 779-5714
Software
- Raymond Hobbs
(301) 490-7484
Group Purchases - Rich Wasserstrom *(301) 951-3919
*(Call Kevin at office)
Disketeria Staff: - John Malcolm
(301) 384-1070
- Dave Weikert. Joy Aso. Ed Lang.
- Jim & Nancy Little. Pat Foreman.
- Gordon Stubbs
New Dfsks
- Dana Schwartz
(301) 725-6281
Pascal Lib.
- John Dyer
(703) 538-5636
CP/M Lib.
"-" SigMac Lib.
- Tony Anderson
(30ll 277-0386
Head Reading Lib. - Walt Francis
(202) 966-5742
Apple Tea Coord. - Paula Benson
(202) 951-5294
Arrangements
Demonstrations
General Counsel
- Jim Taylor
(301) 926-7869
- Signe Larson
(703) 524-4541
- Jim Burger (Burger & Kendall)
day (202) 293-7170
Membership
- Dana Schwartz
(301) 654-8060
Program
- Cara Cira
(301) 468-6118
Publicity Chairman- Hunter Alexander
(703) 820-8304
Public Relations - Lee Raesly
(301) 460-0754
Rules & Elections - Bob Platt
(806) 378-1065
School Coordinators:
Virginia
(703) 451-9373
- Barbara Larson
(703) 691-1619
- Nancy Strange
Mont. Co. MD
(301) 657-2353
- Margie Stearns
Pro Geo. Co. MD - Conrad Fleck
(301) 699-8200
Special Publctns. - Betsy Harriman
(202) 363-5963
SYSOP
(301) 656-4389
- Tom Warrick
Tutorials
(301) 881-2543
- Steve Stern
(301) 460-0754
- Leon Raesly
Volunteer Coord. - Sue Roth
(703) 356-9025
SIG Coordinator - Bob Platt
(806) 378-1065
SIG Chairmen:
Appleseeds
(202) 244-3649
- Ian Thal
Apple III
- Jerry Chandler &
(703) 790-1651
(703) 941-5050
- Bill Rosenmund
Apple IIc
- Chuck Holzwarth
(03) 751-7575
CP/M
(301) 997-9138
- Charles Franklin
DisabledSIG
- Jay Thal
(202) 244-3649
EDSIG
- Peter Combes
(301) 251-6369
Forth SIG
- Kevin Nealon
(703) 280-1136
Frederick Slice - Randy Pasley Jr.
(30ll 695-9416
GAMESIG
- Ronald wartow
(301) 654-4439
LAWSIG
LISASIG
(703) 750-0224
- Gordon Stubbs
LOGOSIG
SIG Mac
- Steve Hunt
(301) 262-9080
NEWSIG
- Bernie Benson
(301) 951-5294
Pascal (PIG)
- Larry Taborek
(703) 960-2250
PI-SIG
- Raymond Hobbs
(301) 490-7484
STOCKSIG
- Robert Wood
(703) 893-9591
Telecomm. SIG
- George Kinal
(202) 546-7270
Washington Apple Pi. Ltd. 8227 Woodmont Avenue. Suite 201 Bethesda. MD 20814 Office (301) 654-8060 ABBS (301) 986-8085 - 24 hourslday
ABBS-Buy and Sell (301) 871-7978 - 7:30 PM to 7:30 AM Copyright 1985. Washington Apple Pi. Ltd.
waShington Apple Pi January 1985
3
PI~E..s
I DE.nT ' .s
Do\! i cJ
morgon.ste.
ACCELERATOR CARD GROUP BUY. Titan Technologies sells,
perhaps the only, versatile 6502 speed-up card for the
Apple.
It permits your computer to run 3.5 times
faster. (It works for DOS, ProDOS and Pascal programs
only, not CP/M software.) Titan has offered us a
group purchase opportunity. The card lists for $600.
In quantity they will sell it to us for under $300.
If you want to be a part of this buy, you must leave a
check at the office by the end of December when the
offer expires. Contact the office for more informa­
tion.
SIG NEWS. LOGO SIG: Nancy Strange, who has served so
ably as the co-ordinator of the LOGO SIG, has told us
that her current activities prevent her from continu­
ing to serve as Chairperson. Nancy has put in many
long volunteer hours to help WAP members see what LOGO
has to offer. We want to thank her for her time and
fruitful efforts. Those interested in continuing the
LOGO activities should meet in the cafeteria after the
ma in meet ing in January. Dagobert Soerge 1, another
LOGO enthusiast, has indicated that he can help plan
programs for the next few months if other volunteers
will shoulder some of the effort needed.
GAMES SIG: Last month we reported Ron Wartow's call to
restart the Games SIG at the January meeting. This is
a reminder that Ron will be looking for you and your
ideas come the fourth Saturday in January.
LISA SIG: Gordon Stubbs and John Day have located 28
LISA owners and are looking for more. They are hold­
ing SIG meetings at the office on the second Saturday.
The meetings begin at noon, allowing people to start
at the Mac meeting at USUHS and move to the office for
the LISA gathering afterward. If you own a LISA or
know of someone who does, this is an opportunity to
learn from others and share what you know.
DUES INCREASE.
Those people joining the club or
renewing after January I, 1985 will have to pay twenty
dollars for annual dues. (New members continue to pay
an additional seven dollar initiation fee.) This is
the first dues increase we have had in over four
years. In that period we have rented office space and
added paid staff members.
We made a number of
improvements in the appearance or the journal. This
Fall, we felt that a part-time bookkeeper was neces­
sary to give us regular financial information from
which to make better decisions. We hope that you will
understand the need for the dues increase.
APPLEWORKS UPDATE Vl.2.
There is a new version
available as of November. It uses the latest ProDOS
Kernel version 1.1.1. and fixes several bugs in the
earlier version. It supports the Scribe printer and
permits you to modify printer settings for other
inter.face cards. Take your original in to your local
dealer.
FREE TUESDAY NIGHT TUTORIAL. To help new members get
acquainted with their computer, the Board has decided
to provide one free evening of our four-part, Tuesday
night series. As of January, new members will receive
a coupon good for one evening. The only "catch" is
that you must pre-register. You can not just "drop
in" and use the coupon. Please call to reserve a
We now have eight exceptional instructors for
seat!
these evenings. Most new owners have found the help
inval uable.
4
n
OTHER TUTORIALS. We have held few special tutorials
this past fall. Do you want any? On what subjects?
We have had sessions on Visicalc, Visiplot/trend,
ScreenWriter, DB Master and Dbase, among others.
If
there is interest, we can find the instructors.
ABBS DEVELOPMENTS. Dave Harvey's committee continues
its investigation into possibilities. The most desir­
able alternative would be to find an information
service with main-frame capacity and multiple input
lines that can be used as our ABBS (for a modest
charge). The committee is exploring this approach and
hopes to have some news for us.
HACWORKS FOR THE LISA. Macintosh owners generally
seem pleased with their computer, other than the
delays in software release dates. Apple's priCing of
the upgrade from 128K to 512K, on the other hand, has
generated
considerable disappointment among earll
buyers who feel they should be "taken better care of
for their trust and support. (The cost of the upgrade
seems excessive to most owners, myself included, even
though the cost to Apple may not be much less than
they are charging.)
Having had the pleasure of working with a LISA with a
meg of memory, I wanted to describe the power of the
Hac with the extra memory and hard disk.
Using
Apple's MacWorks and Profile Install programs and a
public domain RAM disk program about to be released on
a WAP club disk, a LISA owner can have a "Fat Mac·
with a 512K RAM disk and hard-disk speed and storage
capacity.
(The list price of a LISA 2/5 at $4500 is
comparable to a Fat Mac with an external hard disk.)
No more disk swapping and slow program start-ups! You
can use the desk accessory mover (WAP Mac Disk 7) to
add several ·cute" new accessories and store every
font ava llable, as welll
(t
,~
(J f_rlE.Rr~L
I (~IF ORrrlAT 10('1
Apple user groups may reprint without prior permission
any portion of the contents herein, provided proper
author, title and publication credits are given.
Membership dues for Washington Apple Pi are $25.00 for
the first year and 18.00 per year thereafter, begin­
ning in the month joined. If you would like to join,
please call the club office or write to the office
address.
A membership application will be mailed to
you. Subscriptions to the Washington Apple Pi Journal
are not available. The Journal is distributed as a
benefit of membership.
Current Office hours are:
Monday - Friday - 10 AM to 2:30 PM
Tues. & Thurs. - 7 to 9:30 PM
Saturday
- 9:30 AM to 12:30 PM (except meeting ~
Sat)
- 12:00 to 3:30 PM (meeting Sat only)
January 1985
Washington Apple Pi
January 1985 *
*
WAF
SUNDAY
MONDAY
TUESDAY
WEDNESDAY
THURSDAY
FRIDAY
SATURDAY
-----------,-----------~-----------,-----------,-----------,-----------~----------,
, 1
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2
, 3 SigMac 11
11 5
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1IBest Wishes1I
1I7:30PM-Lady1l->Thursday,1I
11
1Ifor a Happy1l
1Iof LoUrdeSj1l3rd contd.1I
~
~New Yearl
11
1IDisab1edSI~1IAppi e III
11
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~7 PM CCCC->~7:30PM W.R.~
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~Dead1ine
~Beginning
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~artic1es
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~7:30 PM
~Office
11
1Ifor
~STOCKSIG
Journa1~Tutoria1 #1~
~8:00
PM
1IOffice
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AM
~
~9:00
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~LISAS G
1INoon-Office
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~USUHSf'
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1IBoard 7:30 ~Beginning
~PM-Officei ~Tutoria1
~PI
~PM
SIG 8:uO~7:30 PM
- Office~Office
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#211
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11 17 pascal ~ 18
1ISIG 8:00 PM~
1IOffice
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1Iwith Pascal~
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~1:00 PM
~Office
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Meeting
119:00 AM
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~Office
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~USUHS-Acct.
Finan.
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lITutoria1 #4~
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February 1985 *
WAP
SUNDAY
MONDAY
TUESDAY
WEDNESDAY
THURSDAY
FRIDAY
SATURDAY
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lITutoria1 #ll1for Journa111of Lourdesj~
117:30 PM
lIartic1es
~Disab1edSI~1I
~Office
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~7 PM ecce
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~9:00
AM
~USUHSi
~LISAS1G
~Noon-Office
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SIG
118:00 PM
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~Office
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lITutoria1
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117:30 PM
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lIWAP Meeting
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1I0ffice
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AM
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and
lIGraphics
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lIEDSIG
117:30 PM
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Washington Apple Pi
~Beginning
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January 1985
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5
CLA551F
SUMMARY OF NOVEMBER EXECUTIVE BOARD HEETING
The Executive Board of Washington Apple Pi, Ltd. met
on November 16, 1984 at the WAP office. John Malcolm
summarized disk sales figures. Work continues on the
Member Reference Book.
The Board voted that the
transportation of equipment to and from USUHS for
meetings be a compensated item. Six proposals for
printing the Journal have been received from printers.
Gena Urban will prepare a monthly report of membership
size and growth patterns. The Board ratified a $1.00
entrance fee for the December Garage Sale. The search
continues for a video projector. The bookkeeper will
submit a monthly report to the Board.
NOVEHBER GENERAL HEETING
WAP, Ltd. met at the USUHS on November 24, 1984 at
10:00 AM, with Vice President Tom Warrick presiding.
The next meeting on December 15 will be a Garage Sale.
$1.00 admission fee will be collected at the door
(exact amount only - no change available). The Games
SIG will meet in January. Logo SIG will begin meeting
WAP dues will be $20 beginning January, 1985.
again.
The Journal will accept articles via modem, but this
needs to be scheduled with the office.
A graphics
presentation followed the business session.
~
QU~U~
Washington Apple Pi meets on the 4th Saturday (usual­
ly) of each month at the Uniformed Services University
of the Health Sciences (USUHS), Building B, 4301 Jones
Bridge Road, Bethesda, MD, on the campus of the
National Naval Medical Center. Library transactions,
Journal pickup, memberships, etc. are from 8:45
10:00 AM. From 9:00 to 10:00 AM there is an informal
"Help" session in the auditorium. The main meeting
starts promptly at 10:00, at which time all sales and
services close so that volunteers can attend the meet­
ing.
A sign interpreter and reserved seating are
provided for the hearing impaired.
Following are dates and topics for upcoming months:
January 26 - Home Accounting and Financial Packages
February 23 - Tax Preparation on Personal Computers
The Executive Board of Washington Apple Pi meets on
the second Wednesday of each month at 7:30 PM at the
office.
All members are welcome to attend.
(Some­
times an alternate date is selected. Call the office
for any late changes.)
~
I~DS WANTED
TO READ: Manual, schematic for
Mountain
Computer Multifunction card for Amdek RGB Color Card.
Call Charles, 320-5171.
DONATION WANTED: High School Resource Program for
Learning Disabled students needs Apple computer(s)
andlor printer(s) to help students learn problem
Your tax deductible
solving and writing skills.
donation may help some young person progress in school
and gain the self confidence and skills slhe needs to
succeed in college or gain employment after gradua­
tion.
Please call Caroline Touchton, weekdays (301)
320-5900 x 239 or evenings and weekends (301) 530­
4152.
APPLE ][ PLUS WANTED: Private elementary school seeks
donation or to purchase at low cost an Apple ][+
system for use by students. Please write to Or. Peter
Hulick, James River Day School, 5039 Boonsboro Road,
Lynchburg, VA 24503.
FOR SALE: Two new Apple disk drives with a disk con­
troller card.
$400 or best offer.
Call Carlton
Henry, (0) 862-5800, (H) 439-7370.
FOR SALE: LISA 2/5, 1 meg and 5 meg ProFile Hard Disk
Office System 7/7 rel 3.0 plus MacWorks with hard disk
support. $4400. S. Jeffery, 983-0224.
FOR SALE: Dow Jones Market Manager, a portfoliO
manager program. Sells for $299. Bargain at $150 or
best offer. Apple ][+ including good resolution 12"
TV with rf modulator, shift key modification, 16K RAM
card (for a total of 64K), Apple disk drive, all in
good working order with same warranty as if new.
Price: 60 % of lowest price you can find advertised.
Call Newt Steers (9:30 AM - 9:30 PM) 301-320-5820.
FOR SALE: APPLE ][+ with Lazer Micro Systems lower
case adaptor, keyboard enhancer, and shift key mod
($450); 16K RAM card ($40); Panasonic green screen
monitor ($100); Videx Videoterm aD-column card and
softswitch ($140); Apple disk controller, Apple drive
and
Micro-Sci drive ($300); Prometheus Versacard
[serial interface, parallel interface, and clockl
calendar] ($100); Synetix RAM disk with 288K RAM
($400); Titan Accelerator II Coprocessor ($375); Epson
FX-80 printer with tractor feed, Epson parallel inter­
face card and cable ($375); Koala pad [brand new]
($70); THE Spreadsheet ($45); Aztec C compiler with E
editor, assembler, linker, librarian, archiver, etc.
($150); Global Program Line Editor ($25); TASC Basic
compiler ($60); The General Manager ($100). Software
includes original disks and documentation. Call Jim
evenings at (703) 533-0601.
cr)mm~RCIAI_
EQUIPMENT NEEDED FOR ST. MARY'S SCHOOL
St.
Mary's
School in Rockville needs
computer
They would like to acquire by donations
equipment.
(tax deductible) or purchase of used equipment the
following: Atari 800's, disk drives and monitors;
Commodore 64's, disk drives and monitors; Apple lie's,
disk drives and monitors. They also need computer
furniture and educational software.
If you can help, contact Gustavo M. Guerra, st. Mary's
School, 600 Viers Mill Road, Rockville, MD 20852.
6
CI_AS5If
I~D5
FOR SALE: Apple III with 256K RAM + 10MB Corvus
disk wlVCR tape backup, plus software. $3000.
(202) 546-2164.
hard
Call
FOR SALE: Used State-of-Art software. Compatible for
Franklin and Apple. General Ledger, Accounts Receiv­
able, Accounts Payable, Forecasting & Planning. (301)
831-6030.
~
January 1985
Washington Apple Pi
~
R DISK Ilion R II ? $199
WOWI
Clinton Computer had an opportunity to buy a limited
number of brand new Apple Disk I I Is at a very special
price from Apple. We made this purchase because we have
manufactured an adapter to make these Apple Disk I I Is work
on the Apple I I Plus or Apple I Ie, with either DOS 3.3 or
ProDOS. The adapter requires no modification to the computer,
disk drive or cable. These drives will operate on an Apple I I
or an Apple I I I.
/ ___.___J
r,.'?
There are many third party drives for the Apple I I. Most
of them have a low Initial price, but are more expensive over
the life of the drive because they are not widely serviced or
supported. The Apple Disk III, on the other hand, was built as
an Improvement over the Disk I I. The Disk I I I works better
and qUieter, it looks nicer and It can be serviced by any
authorized Apple dealer. A disk controller Is also available
for $69, If you need one.
Apple Disk I I Is available only at our Clinton location.
Call ahead for large quantities.
'"-"
Branch A VI', (Rt, 5) at 6443 Old AII'X. Ftrr}' Rd. Clinton. MD 10735 (30 I) 856-1500 Washington Apple Pi
January 1985
7
5 I G 1,E.W5
APPLE III SIG usually meets on the second Thursday of
the month at 7:30 PM. However, the next meeting will
be on January 3 (1st Thursday) at Walter Reed Insti­
tute of Research. From 16th street entrance go 3/4
around circle. Go in North entrance of the 4-story
building on your right and ask the guard for Room
3092. See Apple III SIG News elsewhere in this issue.
Apple IIc SIG has been organized. Watch for further
details in the Journal or call the Chairperson listed
in aOfficers & Staff".
APPLESEEDS is the special interest group for our
younger members. They meet during the regular WAP
meeting.
DISABLEDSIG - See the DisabledSIG column elsewhere in
this issue. Call Jay Thal for details.
EDSIG - the education special interest group the EDSIG page elsewhere in this issue.
FORTHSIG w111 hold its next meeting on
January 19 at 1:00 PM in the WAP office.
EDSIG Calendar
Thursday. January 24. 1984. 7:30 PM.
office.
the
Please note that the meeting date and location
been changed.
PIG, the Pascal Interest Group, meets on the third
Thursday of each month at 8:00 PM at the Club Office.
The meetings are now structured roughly as follows:
8:00 to 8:30 - Q & A session
8:30 to 8:45 - PIG business, other news
8:45 to 9:30 - Main Presentation
9:30 to 10:00 - Further discussion.
The scheduled presentation/discussion topics for the
next two meetings are:
December 20 - Plotters and digitizers
January 17 - Telecommunications under Pascal
PI SIG (formerly ASMSIG) meets on the second Monday of
each month at 8:00 PM in the WAP office. See Pi SIG
News elsewhere in this issue. For further details,
call Ray Hobbs at 490-7484.
SigMac meets on the 1st Thursday of each month at 7:30
PM at Our Lady of Lourdes School. 7500 Pearl Street.
Bethesda. MD; and on the 2nd Saturday from 9:00 AM to
12:30 PM at USUHS. in the auditorium.
STOCKSIG meetings are on the second Thursday at 8:00
PM at the WAP office.
the
have
~
D I 3A13LE.D3 I G nE.UJ3
J u d.~ Re n t~
•· · · · · ....••. · · · · · ~IG
DISABLEDSIG JANUARY MEETING Thursday. January 3. 1985 Chevy Chase Community Center Connecticut Ave. & McKinley St •• NW. DC issue
NEWSIG will meet just after the regular Washington
Apple Pi meeting and conducts a "drop-in" for new
Apple owners on Thursday evenings from 7:30-9:00 PM in
the office. They will answer questions and try to
help new owners get their systems up and running.
Telecomm SIG usually meets after
meeting.
the WAP
David Wyatt will talk on aCurrent Developments in the
Use of Microcomputers in Education". All who are
1nterested in education at any level are invited to
attend.
LISA SIG meets after the S1gMac meeting on the second
Saturday of the month. See LISA SIG news elsewhere in
th1s issue.
LOGOSIG - watch for further details in a later
of the Journ a1.
at
see
Saturday,
GAHESIG is being revived. They will meet after
WAP meeting on Saturday, January 26.
E.D3IG nE.W3
Pete. Combes
regular WAP
~
••••••••••••••••••••
At the January meeting of the DISABLEDSIG, Bud Rizer
will speak about peripheral devices that interface
with Apple ][ computers to allow severely disabled
rehabilitation clients access to computer technology.
Bud is the Coordinator of Technology Resources at the
Maryland Rehabilitation Center in Baltimore. He has
three years experience as the coordinator of an
innovative grant which evaluated and identified com­
puterized technologies that enable physically handi­
capped clients to complete vocational evaluations and
participate in vocational training programs. Bud is
also an instructor in the Technology in Education
graduate program at Johns Hopkins University.
•••••••
The Johns Hopkins University offers a graduate program
of studies for a Certificate of Advanced Studies or a
Master of Science in Education with a concentration in
Technology for Educators. The emphasis of this pro­
gram is on applications of technology for the handi­
The program is designed for special educa­
capped.
tors, physical therapists, occupational therapists,
speech and language therapists and other practitioners
who provide services in special education. Courses
may be completed in a part-time, two-year sequenced
program of studies. Areas of study include: program­
ming; analYSis of hardware, software and interface
devices; review of applications for specific technolo­
gy systems; and administrative issues related to use
of computers. Candidates admitted to the program are
eligible for tuition assistance.
For more information contact:
Dr. Marion Panyon
Division of Education
Room 100 Whitehead Hall
Johns Hopkins University
Baltimore, Maryland 21218
(301) 338-8273
8
January 1985
Washington Apple Pi
APPLE. / / / 51G
DID
nE.w.s
\.-1 A
b~
Cho.
JA?
DID CALL?
Le.o n 1-1. Rae. s
lene
Did ja? ••• did ja call? Wasn't that a gas? Wow,
those voicesl What a neat idea!
all
Did ja? ••• did ja call? Did ja hear the band in
background? I wonder how they did that?
the
The Apple III Special Interest Group is alive and
well.
We Apple III owners were all quite upset, to
say the least, when Apple Computer announced plans to
discontinue further development of the Apple III. At
the meeting that followed, thoughts were voiced on
where to go from here. Several things were realized:
Most of us love our Apple III and don't want to be
forced to follow a trend that appears to be pushing us
toward the mouse and away from the keyboard. If we do
wish to continue using our Apple III, we will need the
support of a group like our Apple III SIG to help each
other when we have nowhere else to go. There is much
knowledge within our own Apple group.
Did ja? ••• did ja call? Did ja get invited for dinner
Who was that? I'll go for dinner or anything
too?
with a voice like that. Wowl
At the September meeting, Bill Hershey stepped down
from leadership of the Apple III SIG,
and Bill
Rosenmund accepted the challenge to co-chair with
Jerry Chandler.
I was asked to play the role of
secretary (which is why I'm writing this article).
Did ja? ••• did ja call? And the Wozl How about him?
Deleted his file ••• ? Hahl Not the Wozi And now it's
official. We can call him Wozi Whoooeel
We had a long discussion and came up with very inter­
esting ideas. Tutorials seem to be the most ambitious
of these ideas. We are planning tutorials covering
such things as the Sophisticated Operating System
(SOS) and drivers. We are also looking forward to
having tutorials on software such as Word Juggler and
3 Easy Pieces. We laid out a rough plan which will be
discussed at the December 13 meeting at Walter Reed.
(This article will not be read until the 15th of
December.)
Those interested in taking part in this
effort to keep the Apple III going can watch for
what's happening in the WAP Journal, and, of course,
attend the meetings. We will need assistance in this
sharing of knowledge.
Our January 3 (note: 1st Thursday) meeting at Walter
Reed will be a special treat. Bruce Hodges, author of
the Third Wave Graphic and an engineer for Apple for
two years, will be our guest speaker.
New products are still showing up on the market for
the Apple III despite its demise. An upgrade 512K
board for Apple III is now available. More room for
your favorite application. I understand that this is
especially terrific for folks who work with large
spreadsheets.
It's available from On Three magazine
for $949.
It uses 256K memory ch fj)S ~will work
with everything that runs on SOS.
If you are
interested and wish more information, you can call me
at home in the evenings (836-0463).
Did ja? ••• did ja call? How about that Steve Jobsl
Unassuming way, huhl
That was somethingl
And 20
voices in unison. On a speaker phone it sounds much
betterl
Did ja? •••did ja call? And how about that choir?
Pretty neat, huh? And the thunderous applause?
Did ja? ••• did ja call? And all from a blind ad. At
one time 4000 people backed-up on line! Wow!
And
they had many trunk lines to handle the calls!
Did ja? ••• did ja call? And noticed that there were
two versions?
Yep. They changed itl
The second
version is on now.
Did ja? ••• did ja call? The ad, appearing in the
November 14th issue of Wall Street Journal and USA
Today, as well as the November 26 issue of InfoWorld,
said, "If you are one of the 2,000,000 owners who've
made the Apple ]["lle, and IIc the world's leading
family of personal computers, please call: 800-862­
7753.
Oid ja? •••did ja call?
DEMONSTRATION OF JAZZ
The
Integrated Software Federal Users Group
is
sponsoring a demonstration of the software package
"JAZZ· on January 31, 12: 15 PM, at the FAA Bul1ding,
3rd Floor Auditorium, 7th and Independence Aves., SW,
L'Enfant Plaza Metro stop.
All Washington Apple Pi members are welcome to attend.
Our November meeting included a demonstration by Bill
Rosenmund of Draw On III. The program works like
MacPaint, but can work with the keyboard or joystick.
The plus over the Macintosh is color. The screen
image is not as fine as that other little machine, but
it is still awesome - especially in color. On Three
magazine announced that they have adapted the-Draw-uff
III package to work with the Apple ][ mouse. Using
the mouse is much faster than the joystick and I feel
that it makes this software package more excitingl
If you have information you would like to share
through this column, or wish to contribute directly to
the Journal about Apple III, you may contact me at the
above mentioned phone number.
~
TYSONS CORNER CENTER'S
Home'nform
Information on Store Names,
Sales, Events, Restaurants,
Theatres, Gifts, Metrobus
Schedules and Much More
'--' Washington Apple Pi
January 1985
9
Q
&
Bruce.
f
fie. l d
A little while ago I received a question about an
expansion chassis for the Apple. David Scheuer of
Houston. Texas wrote to say that he has an early model
of the Mountain Computer expansion chassis and that
you can toggle back and forth between the chassis and
the motherboard slots with either a couple of software
POKEs or by pressing a switch. A later model allows
you to set dip switches and come up with any user
selected mixture of slots. That is. you could start
with motherboard slot s 1. 2. 5. 6 and expans ion
chassis slots O. 3. 4. 7 and then toggle to the
reverse combination. David comments:
"The device is well made and has worked well. except
that there are compatibility problems. I can state
positively it didn't 11ke music synthesizer cards. It
worked with most of the standard cards.
Obviously
when one fills a chassis. one is liable to be getting
beyond the standard cards. so I suggest your question­
er will either have to try before he buys or take h1s
chances.
It 1s st111 available s1nce I received an advertise­
ment from Elek-Tek (800 621-1269 except 312 677-7660
1n Illin01s). However there may not be a lIe model.
In my case when the t1me came to switch over I got an
adapter card from Mountain Hardware; I think it was
about $15.00.
When the height of the ch1ps on the
motherboard prevented me from instal11ng 1t properly
(one of Apple's 11ttle changes) Mountain Computer (a
most helpful place. very unusual in this 1ndustry)
adv1sed me how to cope in a minute with a couple of
very cheap Radio Shack jumpers. However. 1f one were
dealing with the latest lIe w1th soldered chips I
think it would take a very experience person to pull
those chips and do an 1nstall without damaging the
computer.
have an ALS CP/M+ card with 64K. and a Tecmar Data­
mac hard disk in my Apple lIe at the office.
Both
work perfectly with a Grappler+ printer card; ne1ther
would work with a Tymac printer card installed.
The
ALS card also snooted a Seiko pr1nter card which the
Datamac accepted.
I guess it helps to work in an
office w1th 14 other Apples to trade stuff with."
Last month I had a quest10n about using the Mousepaint
program w1th printers other than the Apple Image­
writer.
B111 Ayers called to report that a small
company. Ahware. (805 Luz Court. Danville. CA 94526)
has a program. Mouseprint. that modifies your copy of
Mousepaint to work w1th any printer you specify. When
you write. tell them what type of printer you have and
what pr1nter interface card. They will send you a
vers10n custom1zed for your printer and 1nterface
card. Oh yes. almost forgot the pr1ce. $22.95.
Qu1te some t1me ago I received an 1nteresting publica­
tion from "down under". Daryl's Apple D1gest 1s a
bibl10graphy obtained from 17 m1crocomputer publica­
tions indexed according to program reviews. game
reviews, articles. t1ps & tutorials. programs to key
in. and hardware and construct10n.
N1ne of the
m1crocomputer publications indexed are published in
the USA; however it is frustrating to have an exciting
topic catch your eye only to note that it was pub­
lished 1n the Australian Apple Review. Daryl claims
that since it is updated every two months "1t is a
m1ne of 1nformat10n for the remote (and not so remote)
Daryl Jones. 26 Parslow Street. Malvern V1c.
user".
3144, Australia, will send you 6 issues (one year) air
10
ma 11 for $30.
Q. I have been us1ng the S. H. Lam routine to load
mach1ne language from Applesoft programs but I have
found that it only works if the Lam routine is not
in a subroutine.
Although I can usually work
around th1s it is inconvenient. Is there some fix?
A. The Lam rout1ne was originally publ1shed in Call­
A.P.P.L.E. and was reprinted in Call-A.P.P.L.~
Depth. Number I, All About Applesott. Ihe or1g1naT
routTri'e-wOrie<r OriTy--rrQm Integer Bas ic and was
later modified to work with Applesoft. For those
not fam1liar with it I will repeat the Applesoft
vers10n here.
63000 A$ • "300:A5 00 20 DA FD 60 N D823G"
FOR I ~ 1 TO LEN (A$): POKE 511 + I,
ASC ( MID$ (A$.I.l» + 128: NEXT
63010 POKE 72.0: CALL -144
The string A$ contains Mon1tor instructions that
are POKEd into the keyboard buffer area and then
executed.
In this case the Monitor instruction
300:A5 00 20 DA FD 60 stores the hex numbers AS 00
20 DA FD and 60 starting at memory locat10n 300.
Any Monitor instructions may be substituted.
At
the end of the string you should include an "N" to
separate the preceding command from the following
one. D823G. which returns control to Applesoft.
This procedure only works. however, if the routine
is not in a subroutine. If you w1sh to use it in a
subroutine (and only 1n a subroutine) you should
replace the D823G with D9C6G. (For a mini "So what
did you expect?", figure out what that short
machine language program at $300 does.)
Q. What can you tell us about the new processors
the Apple?
for
A. The Apple IIc contains a 65C02 processor that 1s
sl1ghtly d1fferent from the 6502 processor used in
the Apple ][. ][+, and lIe. It is fabricated using
a different technology (CMOS. complementary metal­
oxide-sem1conductor. as opposed to NMOS. N-channel
metal-oxide-semiconductor). To the user this means
reduced power consumption. wh1ch 1s one reason they
use it in the Ilc. The 65C02 is pin compatible
with
the 6502 but has 27 additional machine
language
instructions.
Some of the new
instructions are PHX. PLX, PHY. and PLY (push and
pull the X an Y registers from the stack). BRA
(branch always). STZ (store zero). TSB and TRB
(test and set or reset bits) and true indirect
addressing with indexing. LOA ($23). The indirect
addressing mode is now available for ORA, AND. EOR.
ADC, STA, LOA, CMP. and SBC. There are also new
modes for the BIT and JMP instruct ions. INC and
DEC also work with the A register.
These ch1ps are being manufactured by NCR, GTE, and
Rockwell (and poss 1bly others) but they are not all
the same. The Rockwell chip contains 4 additional
instructions to set. reset. and branch or single
bits that are not available in the other chips.
All the ch1ps seem to work 1n the Apple lIe but not
Some
necessarily 1n older Apple ][s and ][+s.
people have had success using 2HHz ch1ps in the
older Apples but they don't always work.
contd.
January 1985 Wash1ngton Apple P1
Compare
*
ACCOUNTING
COMMUNICATIONS
88
50
88
72
102
OATA BASE
DB Master
Datastar (reQ. CP/M)
Incredible Jack
PFS: File
PFS: Graph
PFS: Report
Visidex
Visifile
160
195
93
86
86
86
175
175
EOUCATION
ABC - Alphabet Beast & Co.
Algebra 1,2,3,4
ea.
Algebra 5 & 6
Alphabet Zoo
Basic Skills
Body Awareness
Bouncing Kamungas
Cause & Effect (red/blue)
Cog ito
Compumath/arithmatic
Compumath/decimals
Compumathlfractions
Computer SAT
Facemaker
Fact or Opinion (red/blue)
Foreign Languages
Grandma's House
Gertrude's Puzzles
Gertrude's Secrets
Hands on BASIC Prog.
KinderComp
Learning w/Fuzzywomp
UNLIMITED to Myone else!
SHOP NOW FOR THE HOLIDAYSI-¥*" "Specializing in •
The Accountant
$67
The Accountant ~o
88
AR/AP/GL/PR(Cont.) ea. 165
AR/ AP/PR (BPI)
ea. 260
Church Management (BPI) 325
General Accounting (BPI)
260
Horne Accountant
51
Inventory Control (BPI)
260
Tax Advantage
48
ASCII Express Pro
Data Capture 5.0
P-Term Pro
Visiterm
Z-Term Pro
COMPUTER WARE
21
29
36
21
14
35
21
35
24
36
36
36
55
21
35
14
21
31
31
56
21
21
I.
Apple Computer Software"
Lucky's Magic Hat
$28
Mastering the College Bds. 121
104
Mastering the SAT
Mastertype
28
Math Blaster
34
Math & Social Studies
14
24
Micro Habitats
Micro Speed Read
87
Moptown Hotel
28
Mr. Cool
21
Number Farm
21
PSAT Word Attack Skills
36
Rocky's Boots
34
SAT Word Attack Skills
36
Speed Reader II (Davidson) 48
Spellicopter
28
Sticky Bear ABC
28
Sticky Bear Basket Bounce 28
Sticky Bear Numbers
28
Sticky Bear Opposites
28
Sticky Bear Shapes
28
Terrapin Logo
68
Typing Tutor
20
Typing Tutor III
35
U.S. Geography
28
24
Wizard of Id's Wiz Type
34
Word Attack
24
World Builders
LEISURE
A.E.
Arcade Machine
Beyond Castle Wollenstein
Checkers
Chess 7.0
Computer Ambush
Computer Baseball
Computer Gin Rummy
Computer Quarterback
Cosmic Balance
Cranston Manor
Dark Crystal
Deadline
Decathlon
Enchanter
Epidemic
"alactic Gladiator
Infidel
Knight of Diamonds
Legacy of Llylgamyn
24
42
24
34
48
43
29
18
29
29
24
26
35
24
28
25
29
31
24
28
Lode Runner
$24
Napoleon's Campaign
43
Odin
34
Old Ironsides
28
28
Planetfall
24
Prisoner II
43
Pursuit of Graf Spee
Questron
36
29
Rails West
Run for the Money
35
Sargon III
35
Seastalker
28
43
Shattered Alliance
31
Sorceror
43
Southern Command
35
Starcross
Suspended
35
Tigers in the Snow
29
Time Zone
68
Transylvania
25
21
Tubeway
42
Ultima II
42
Ultima III
23
Ulysses
58
War in Russia
Warp Factor
29
28
Witness
Wizard and the Princess
23
34
Wizardry
28
Zork I
ea.31
Zork II, III
SPREADSHEET
Calcstar (req. CP/M)
Flashcalc
Magicalc
Multiplan
Visicalc
Visit rend /Visiplot
Visischedule
132
71
107
153
175
71
107
Fontrix
Frame Up
Graphics Magician
Graftrix
Hi-Res Secrets
Merlin
Munch-a-Bug
Picture BUilder
Printographer
Pronto DOS
Routine Machine
Silicon Salad
Super Disk Copy
Utility City
Zoom Graphics
WORO PROCESSING
Addressbook/Mall List
Bank Street Speller
Bank Street Writer
Format II
Homeword
Magic Window II
PIE Writer
Print Shop
Sensible Speller
Screenwriter II (Pro,)
Spellstar (req. CP/M)
Super Text Professional
Super Text Home/Office
Word Handler
Wordstar With star card
34
49
49
102
48
107
103
35
85
88
67
119
85
55
325
MISCELLANEOUS
Dollars and Sense
Micro Barmate
Micro Cookbook
Appetizers
Soups & Salads
Desserts
69
28
28
9
9
9
DISKETTES
UTILITYIGRAPHICS
20
Alpha Plot
27
Apple Mechanic
137
Applesoft Compiler
Complete Graphics System 56
41
Data Plot
17
DOS Boss
24
Double Take
Doubletime Printer
68
$51
20
42
44
90
44
28
28
28
20
28
17
21
20
35
5"," SS/SD WABASH
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No charge's or COD's • Prices subject to change. Call for items not listed
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P.O. Box 1247. CoIumbia.MD 21044· (~1) 854-2346
Washington Apple Pi
January 1985
11
So much for the past. Two new ch1ps have recently
appeared, the 65802 and 65816. These are both CMOS
ch1ps wlth 16-bit registers and contain a 6502
emulation mode. The 65802 is pin compatible with
the 6502 and can be plugged into an Apple and used
without any other modification. (I have been told
1t works 1n a lIe, but I don't know whether 1t will
work 1n a][ or ][+.) The 65816 has a slightly
d1fferent p1nout and cannot be used d1rectly in
place of a 6502, although it can emulate the soft­
ware 1nstruct10ns. On both ch1ps though, clear1ng
the emulat10n b1t 1n the status reg1ster will put
the ch1p 1n the 16-b1t mode. In th1s mode the A,
X, and Y reg1sters are extended to 16-bits and a
new 16-b1t 01rect Page register augments the zero
page address1ng mode to allow zero page addressing
anywhere in the first 64K bytes. The 65802 con­
tinues to address a max1mum of 64K bytes but the
65816 can address up to 16M bytesl
Eleven new
addressing modes and new 1nterrupt features are
added.
Most of the forg01ng information came from
various issues of Apple Assembly Line, a very
useful newsletter puDlTSned by S-C SOftWare, P.O.
Box 280300, Dallas, TX 75228.
In an art1cle in the November 19, 1984 InfoWorld,
Stephen Wozn1ak conf1rmed that a new vers10n of the
Apple ][, the IIx w111 use the 65816 and will be 1n
product10n in 1986. The December 3, 1984 issue of
InfoWorld reported that Wozniak cla1ms there 1s no
IIx project, that the IIx is just a w1sh 11st for a
product he'd 11ke to see. Hmmm •••
Q. ProDOS doesn't want to boot on my Frank11n.
there some way to get 1t to work?
Is
A. Corne11s Bongers wrote an article on the Bas1s 108
(Call-A.p.P.L.E., May 1984, Pp. 51-54) in wh1ch he
presented the solut10n for gett1ng ProDOS to run on
the Bas1s.
There 1s a rout1ne 1n ProDOS that
determ1nes the type of Apple (][, ][+, lIe, or Ilc)
by check1ng several bytes 1n the Mon1tor ROMs.
Corne11s suggested search1ng the ProDOS d1sk w1th a
d1sk' zap utl11ty for the instruction LOX $FBB3 (AE
B3 FB) and changing 1t to LOX I$EA, NOP (A2 EA EA)
and also finding ADC I$OB, BNE +5 (69 OB DO 03) and
changing 1t to ADC I$OB, NOP, NOP (69 OB EA EA).
This will probably work on the Franklin also.
Bob stout wrote a short note (Apple Assembly Line,
March 1984, p. 20) descr1bing a-aTfTerent technique
on how to get ProOOS to work on the Frank11n. Boot
the ProDOS d1sk and when it stops spinning press
the RESET switch. Get into the Monitor (presumably
with CALL -151) and type 2647:EA EA <return> and
2000G <return>.
Q. When I tr1ed to boot up a friend's CP/M disk on my
system I got the error message ·CAN'T FIND Z80
SOFTCARD".
However if I boot up w1th my CP/M
system d1sk I have no problem. What does this
mean?
A. Unlike Apple DOS, CP/M must be conf1gured to work
with spec1fic hardware. Apple DOS will load into
the top of memory automatically but a common
problem with CP/M is having it conf1gured for more
memory than is in your Apple. I suspect that this
is the case, or possibly one of the versions of
CP/M has been custom1zed by the manufacturer to
work with a spec1f1c Z80 card. If you feel you
must be able to run your fr1end's CP/M make sure 1t
is conf1gured for the amount of memory you have and
the locations of the printer 1nterface card, the
80-column card, and the modem (serial) card.
Q. I have just obta1ned ProOOS and I have a problem
when converting DOS 3.3 f11es from a full disk or a
half-f111ed d1sk. I rece1ve the error message a no
room on volume (d1sk)" for the f11es I want to
transfer.
Th1s only happens when I am us1ng one
d1sk dr1ve, 1f I use two drives the transfer works.
Does ProDOS use part of the d1sk for file transfer,
or should the f11es from the or1ginal disk be con­
ta1ned 1n memory and then transferred to the dest1­
nat10n disk? Would more memory help? Is there a
way to use one disk drive without plac1ng each file
on another disk one by one?
A. When converting f11es, ProDOS reads a file from the
or1g1nal disk in DOS 3.3 format, puts 1t 1n memory,
and then wr1tes it out to the dest1nat10n d1sk in
ProDOS format.
As far as I know ProDOS does not
wr1te anyth1ng to the source d1sk so 1t should not
make any d1fference 1f the d1sk is full or not. Of
course your destinat10n d1sk should have enough
room on it for the fl1 e be 1ng trans ferred and if
there 1sn't enough room you will get the "no room
on volume" error message. If you are sure there is
enough room (two sectors of a DOS 3.3 file equal
one block of a ProDOS file) then you are probably
runn1ng into a bug 1n the CONYERT program or
ProDOS. There have een several versions of ProDOS
(with CONYERT) released; the version of ProDOS that
I have (as of November 1984) 1s version 1.1.1.
Check with your dealer to make sure you have the
latest vers ion.
I suppose, although I have never tried it, that 1f
your f11e 1s too big to fit in memory all at one
t1me that CONYERT will fill the memory to convert
as much as possible w1th each pass. Unless you are
converting very large files extra memory won't do
you any good.
It 1s also poss1ble in theory to write a program to
convert an ent1re disk 1n a few passes although I
don't know of any program to do th1s. (A few years
ago when faced with the task of converting several
hundred DOS 3.2 disks to DOS 3.3, I dec1ded it was
time to buy a second disk drivel)
Q. I have been using Apple Writer II Yersion 2.0 on my
IIc. Yersion 2.0 has some enhanced features over
Apple Wr1ter lIe, such as a Ctrl(underline)
command to get a page and line count from the
editing display. The problem 1s that Yersion 2.0
won't output a Ctrl- to the printer even if
inserted between two Crrl-Y's.
The printer I am using is an IDS Microprism 480.
The Ctrl- is the control code to turn on 16.8 CPI
print density.
Consequently I can't use this
feature of my printer. How can I get Apple Wr1ter
to output this control code? All other control
codes seem to work properly when inserted between
Ctrl-Y's except th1s one.
A. I don't have a "for sure" solution for th1s one but
In
I have a couple of ideas that you might try.
the or1g1nal Apple Wr1ter II the escape character
is used to toggle between upper and lower case. In
order
to get th 1s control character 1nserted
between Ctrl-Y's you had to type Ctrl-Y and then
type escape three t1mes in succession. The first
escape put you 1n the upper case mode, the second
put you 1n the cursor movement mode and the third
f1nally got 1nserted in the text. You m1ght try a
s1m11ar techn1que with your Ctrl- ; type it two or
more times after typing Ctrl-Y. ­
If that
glossary
12
January 1985 doesn't work you m1ght try creat1ng a
f11e from outs1de of Apple Wr1ter. This
contd.
Wash1ngton Apple P1
file should contain a glossary designator charac­
ter, then Ctrl-V, Ctrl- , Ctrl-V, carriage return.
It is quite easy to do-this from Applesoft. The
following program sets up a Ctrl- using the under­
line character (you can substituTe any other char­
acter you wish) as the glossary designator.
Put
your word processing data disk in your drive and
run the following program.
100
110
120
130
PRINT CHR$(4)"OPEN GLOSSARY.FILE"
PRINT CHR$(4)"WRITE GLOSSARY.FILE"
PRINT CHR$(13)i" "iCHR$(22)iCHR$(31)iCHR$(22)
PRINT CHR$(4)·CL~SE"
To use this from Apple Writer, type Ctrl-Q to get
the special functions menu. Select "E" to load the
glossary file, and when prompted for the file name
enter GLOSSARY.FILE.
To insert a Ctrl-, type
Ctrl-G and then the underline. Whether th~s will
work or not is questionable, but it's just possible
that although you can't type Ctrl- from the key­
board you can enter it from a glossary.
Q. Can Appleworks use RAM in the Apple lIe that is
greater than 128K? I have a Neptune board with 64K
on it now. Is it worth buying more chips to make
it larger?
• • • DISCOUNT PRICES • • •
Amdek Colcr I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1270
Amdek Coler II (RGB) . . . . . . . . . . $410
Amdek 300 A. . ..
.... ... .. $155
NEC 1260 (Green) . . . . . . . .
. $120
NEC Colcr (Composite). . . . .
. ... 1270
NEC RGB. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . $l95
NEC 3510 SplnWliler. . . . . . . . .. . .. $1250
Okldala 82 A . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .. . $l10
Okidala 83 A . . . . . .. ........ .. S560
Okidala 92. .. ......
. . $435
Okldala 93. . .
$650
Epson FX 80 ....
. . .. $435
Epson FX 100 .. ..
. . .. $600
Toshiba 1351. .. ...
. .$1300
D. C Hayes Micromodem lie . .
1230
A. If you go to the Configuration Subsystem after you
have set up your printing settings, and select Save
Configuration Files, the Page Width, Text Width,
and other settings should be saved and properly set
on boot up next time. This still leaves us with
the problem of setting the printer to compressed
print. I suggest you use a short Applesoft program
as a boot up program. This program should first
turn on the printer, set it to compressed print,
turn off the printer, and then run THE Spreadsheet.
When you want to run THE Spreadsheet run your
Applesoft program instead. G&
A/lple Dumpling wl16K ..
A/lpllcard (6 MHz) .. . ...
.....
. ....
.
.....
$480
$195
$165
S280
Stock Oplion Analysis Program
(H & HScienlilic) ..
. ... 1250
Stock Option Scanner
... $l5O
(H & HScienlilic) ..
Money Decisions Vol. II..
Fox & Geller Quick Code .
BPt Generat Accounling lie
.. $180
.. 1210
... 1240
•
CALL FOR ITEMS NOT LISTED
We carry a complete line of hardware and software items.
RAMADA COMPUTER PRODUCTS
A Division of H & H Scientific
13507 Pendleton St.
Ft. Washington, MD 20744
Prospective purchasers might check out the rather
negative review of Appleworks in the December 10,
1984 issue of InfoWorld.
The reviewer found
Appleworks too limited for business use and mar­
ginally adequate, but too expensive, for personal
use.
Q. When using THE Spreadsheet 2.0, Version 2.173, it
is possible to specify lower case video and
keyboard, printer slot and driver, as well as video
slot and driver for your own system and save these
settings on disk under the file SYS.OPTIONS. When
printing on my FX80, I always use the compressed
printing feature to save space. It requires going
to the Format Subsystem to change Page Width to
132, and Text Width to 132, then gOing to Print
Subsystem to Enter a Setup String, then I can
finally go to Print Hardcopy and get started.
Is
it possible, using a "Disk Zap· type program, to
change the default settings on these other
subsystems on the disk so my printing settings are
the defaults on boot up?
Koala Gibsan Light Pen ..
..... 1215
VISA/Me (Add 3%). money order. certified check.
Government purchase orders accepted.
Prices subject to change. Shippinglhandling S5
MD residents at 5% tax. Mail order only.
A. No, Appleworks cannot use more than 128K, 64K on
the motherboard and 64K on the extended memory
card.
~
D.C. ~ 300 Baud
Smartmodem .....
D.C. Hayes 1200 Baud
Smartmodem ..
Tel. (301) 292-2958
.Paragon Technologies, Inc.
offers classes in our IBM PC laboratory
and Apple lie laboratory in McLean:
· Getting Started With The Micro
Computer
· VISICALC, LOTUS 1, 2, 3
· d Base II
· WordStar
· Programming in BASIC
· Computer assisted SAT preparation
All classes are hands-on with one person
per computer.
Call
556-9659
JJ)atl~
a bappy fJol t~ay ... Washington Apple Pi January 1985
or write to us:
P.O. Box 6128
McLean, Virginia 22106
13
UJAP
I-tOTL I nE..
Have a problem? The followlng club members have agreed to help. PLEASE, keep ln mlnd that the people 11sted
are VOLUNTEERS.
Respect all telephone restrlctlons, where 11sted, and no calls after 10:00 PM except where
lndlcated.
Users of the Hotllne are remlnded that calls regardlng commerclal software packages should be
11mlted to those you have purchased.
Please do not call about copled software for whlch you have no
documentatlon.
If the person called has a telephone answerlng machlne, and your call ls not returned, don't
assume that he dld not try to return your call - perhaps you were not home. Try agaln.
General John Day
Dave Harvey
Robert Hart ln
Accountlng Packages
Accountant(Oec.Sup.) Hark Pankln
Home Accountant
Leon Raesly
(301) 672-1721
(703) 527-2704
(301) 498-6074
(703) 524-0937
* (301) 460-0754
APPLE SSC
Bern 1e Benson
(301) 951-5294
Apple TechNotes
Lance Bell
Sh lrl ey Weaver
(703) 550-9064
(301) 761-2479
AppleWorks Carl Elsen
(703) 354-4837
J.J. Flnkelsteln (301) 652-9375
Jay Jones (BaIt.) (301) 969-1990
Communlcatlons Packages and Modems-Telecom.
Anchor Hark 12
George Klnal(7-10)(202)
Jeremy Parker
(301)
Apple CAT II
Ben Acton
(301)
ASCII Express
Dave Harvey
(703)
BIlCOMP Modem
Jeremy Parker
(301)
General
Tom Neblker
(216)
Hayes Smartmodem
Bernle Benson
(301)
Omnlnet
Tom Vler (1-6 PH) (202)
VISITERM
steve Wl1dstrom
(301)
XTALK CPIH Comm.
Bernle Benson
(301)
Computers, Speclflc
Apple Ilc Apple lie
II sa
Haclntosh
Corvus Hard Dlsk
Data Bases
dBne II
John Day
Scot t Ru llman
Scott Rullman
John Day
Don Kornrelch
Jay Heller
Scot t Ru llman
Tom Warrlck
Donald Schmitt
(301)
(301)
(301)
(301)
(301)
(301)
(301)
(301)
(717l
546-7270
229-2578
428-3605
527-2704
229-2578
867-7463
951-5294
887-7588
564-0039
951-5294
672-17 21
779-5714
779-5714
672-1721
292-9225
948-7440
779-5714
656-4389
334-3265
Tom Vler (1-6 PH) (202) 887-7588
(301)
(703)
(301)
(301)
(301)
(301)
(301)
(301)
(703)
(301)
(202)
(301)
Expedlter ComplIer
Peter Rosden
(301) 229-2288
Graphlcs
Bl11 Schulthels
(703) 538-4575 L1st Handler
PFS
QulckFl1e II
languages
A
A, I
A
A
A
A,I,P,H
A,I,H
A,I,H
H
P
P
261-4124
759-3461
593-8420
460-0754
736-4698
935-5617
460-0754
977-3054
620-2103
469-6457 362-3887
652-9375
I~Integer, P·Pascal, H~Machlne
Peter Combes
(301) 251-6369
Jeff Dl110n
(301) 422-6458
Rlchard Langston (301) 258-9B65
Hark Pankln
(703) 524-0937
leon Raesly
* (301) 460-0754
Bl11 Schulthels
(703) 53B-4575
(703) 241-8678
Rlchard Untled
John love
(703) 569-2294
Raymond Hobbs
(301) 490-7484 Dottle Acton
(301) 428-3605
Donn Hoffman
* (412) 578-8905
(A~Applesoft,
Bruce Fleld
(301) 340-7038
Ron Hurray (eve.) (202) 328-3553
Fred Naef
(703) 471-1479
Mathl O.R. Applns.
Hark Pankln
(703) 524-0937
Honltor, RGB Color John Day
(J01) 672-1721
Rlchard Langston
Rlchard Unt led
Robert Fretwell
Ray Hobbs
Rlchard langston
(301)
(03)
(03)
(301)
(3011
Tom Riley
(3011 340-9432
Operatlng Systems
Apple DOS
CP/M
ProDOS
Paddles
Paul Bublitz
John Staples
Dave Elnhorn
leon Raesly
*
Bob Schmldt
Normand Bernache
leon Raesly
*
Jon Vaupel
B111 Etue
Ben Ryan
Jenny Spevak
J.J. Finkelsteln
DB Master
Data Perfect
Data Factory
General Hanager
languages, contd.
Forth
LOGO
LISP
(eve.)
258-9865
241-8678
971-2621
490-7484
258-9865
Prlnters
General
Walt Franch
(202) 966-5742
Leon Raesly
* (301) 460-0754
Apple Color Plotter John Day
(301) 672-1721
Apple Dalsy Wheel
John Day
(JOl) 672-1721
Apple Dot Matrlx
Joan B. Dunham * (301) 585-0989
Dalsywrlter 2000
Bl11 Etue
(03) 620-2103
Henry Greene
(202) 363-1797
IDS 460
Jeff Stetekluh
(703) 521-4882
Imagewrlter
John Day
(301) 672-1721
Scott Rullman
(03) 779-5714
MX-80
Jeff Dll10n
(301) 434-0405
NEC 8023
Bill Mark
(3011 779-8938
Okldata
Fred Feer
(703) 978-7724
Scott Rullman
(301) 779-5714
Sl1entype
Bruce Field
(301) 340-7038
Spreadsheets
lotus 1-2-3
Hultlplan
V1s1Calc
Spreadsheet 2.0
(Hag 1Ca1c)
Leon Raesly
Walt Franc1s
Wa lt Franc 15
Roy Rosfeld
Terry Prudden
Wa 1t Franc 15
leon Raesly
leon Raesly
* (301)
(202)
(202)
(JOl)
(301)
(202)
* (301)
* (301)
460-0754
966-5742
966-5742
340-7962
933-3065
966-5742
460-0754
460-0754
Statlstlcal Packages Jlm Carpenter
Mark Pankln
(301) 371-5263
(703) 524-0937
Stock Harket
Robert Wood
(03) 893-9591
Tax Preparer-H.Soft
Leon Raesly
* (301) 460-0754
Tlme-Sharlng
Dave Harvey
(703) 527-2704
Word Processors
Apple Wrlter II
Walt Francls
(202)
Dianne Lorenz
(301)
Leon Raesly
* (301)
Executlve Secretary Louls Blggie
(301)
Format II
Henry Donahoe
(202)
Gutenberg
Nell Huncy
Can.(416)
letter Perfect
Cara Clra
(301)
leon Raesly
* (301)
Magic Wlndow and II Joyce C. llttle
(301)
Peach Text
Carl Elsen
(703)
PIE Writer/Apple PIE Jlm Graham
(703)
ScreenWriter I I
(301)
Peter Combes
E. E. Carter
(202)
Supertext II
(301)
Peter Rosden
Word Hand ler
Jon Yaupel
(301)
Chrlstopher Romero(703)
Work Juggler lIe
Carl Eisen
(703)
Word Star
Chrlstopher Romero(703)
966-5742
530-7881
460-0754
967-3977
298-9107
298-3964
468-6118
460-0754
321-2989
354-4837
643-1848
251-6369
363-2342
229-2288
977-3054
471-1949
354-4837
471-1949
*Calls up until mldnlght are ok.
14
January 1985 Washington Apple Pl
A
PAG f_
FRom TI-1~ STACI<
Dana .J . .5chLuartz
As the Holiday Season approaches, the Disketeria Staff
has recommended several selections which you might
consider as gifts for that certain Someone. I'm sure
you know the one I mean: the cutie pie with 5 1/4 inch
stockings over the fireplace, maybe your buddy with
the line of credit at the used electronic parts store,
perhaps that little rascal who bought a fur coat for
his Mouse, or even yourse1fl Although all WAP disks
can make memories to last a lifetime, here are a few
that are especially appropriate for this time of year:
Volume
Volume
Volume
Volume
Volume
Volume
72
74
103
142
143
157
This month we
from our old
Fred Edwards.
as provided by
-
Keyboard Games
Paddle Games (released this month)
Merry Christmas
Pinball Games (I really like this one)
Sports
Arcade Games
introduce four disks that were selected
3.2 series of disks and repackaged by
Here are the contents and descriptions
Fred.
VOLUME 74: PADDLE GAMES
All of the games on this disk run in color and are
more fun that way, although they can all be played on
a regular monitor.
{74.1} BATTLESHIP (1 player) - It's you against
Admiral Apple in this one. Use both paddles and
either button to place your five ships and select your
firing grid. You can sink your own ships so be care­
ful where you shoot. Admiral Apple does not follow up
a hit so you should be able to beat him most of the
time.
{74.2} FLYING SAUCERS (2 players) - Each player has 10
phaser units to use to destroy the opponent's ship. On
a hit· or if both sides use up their phaser units
recharging occurs automatically and another round is
played. A game is ten rounds with scores shown as the
game progresses.
{74.8} LE MANS FOR ONE (1 player) - Select from 10
skill levels and steer your 'car' thru a winding
track.
Five crashes put you out of the race and 10
laps without a crash is a perfect score.
{74.9} MIDWAY (1 player) - You have five aircraft to
sink five aircraft carriers by dropping bombs while
dodging anti-aircraft fire.
Select from 2 skill
1eve1 s.
{74.10} SAVE THE WORLD (1 player) - You have ten shots
to lob a shell on 'it' and blow' it' up. Use Pdl(O)
to set trajectory and button to fire.
{74.11} SHOOT OUT (2 players) - Each player gets 25
rounds of ammunition. Use paddles to duck out from
behind a moving wagon and shoot at your opponent.
{74.12} SPACE ADVENTURE (1 player) - It's you against
the alien spaceship in this race against the clock.
Use Control-Reset to quit.
{74.13} STAR ATTACK (1 player) - Shoot at seven
different targets in this 'timed' game. Three of the
targets are friendly and subtract from your score if
you shoot them so be careful.
{74.14} TENNIS (2 players) - Eleven points wins this
game which is more like handball since the walls are
p1 ayed.
{74.15} WIPE OFF (1 player) - You get five balls to
clear the screen in this better than average 'bounce'
game.
There is no maximum score. If you're good
enough you can play forever. There is a choice of
three difficulty levels and an option to change the
screen colors to whatever you want.
VOLUME 75: COLOR GRAPHICS FOR FUN
{74.3} FOUR BUDGE GAMES (2 players) - The four games
you can choose from are Bumper Pool. Hockey. Scramble
and Tennis. Players can select difficulty level and
choose to have gravity or no-gravity which really
gives some strange results. When you consider that
this integer program is only nine sectors long it is a
little gem.
The 35 programs on this disk are not utilities and.
unless you list them and study the programs, won't
teach you much.
They are designed to produce
interesting things on your color screen, just for fun.
hitting
{74.4} GRAND PRIX FOR TWO (2 players) - Choose from
three difficulty levels and steer your 'car' down a
The game shows winner and loser
narrowing road.
scores at the end.
ALL programs on this disk can be stopped by
any key while the graphics are running.
{75.1} ABSTRACT ART - Autoruns six
four types of 'abstract art'.
showing
{74.S} HI-RES BREAKOUT (1 player) - Player gets five
balls per game.
Pdl(O) puts a ball in play.
The
speed increases as you keep the ball in play and gets
frantic if you're really good. Score is displayed as
the game progresses. At the end. hitting any key will
start another game. Hit Control-Reset to quit.
(74.6) INVADERS (1 player) - If memory serves. this is
the one that started the video game craze. A nice
version of a classic.
'-'
have to fire a round and then sort of guess where it
is aimed when the target comes by. Choose from five
You shoot until you hit 15
levels of difficulty.
flying saucers and the game then gives you a rating.
{74.7} LASER CANNON (1 player) - This one could
frustrate a lot of players. Your cannon moves its aim
from left to right but you can't see it move.
You
Washington Apple Pi
screens
{7S.2} ANDROMEDA STRAIN - Autoruns a random 10-res
pattern until the screen is full. Clears and runs a
new pattern.
Let it cycle several times.
Some
patterns are more interesting than others.
{75.3} ARTSHOW - Menu for eight patterns, Explode
Vortex, Snowflakes, Falling. Flasher, Fan, Slinky and
Searchlights.
Each choice reverts to menu after
running its course.
{75.4} BLOBS
{75.S} BOUNCING BALL
{7S.6}
January 1985
BOXES -
These three
programs will
auto run
contd.
15
forever but change forever too. Remember any key will
stop them. Interesting effects.
{75.7} CARDS MENU - Menu for three programs;
Cards, Fast Shuffle and Fifty-Two Pickup.
Playing
{75.S} CIRCLES - Autoruns a nice effect. After you
see an "S" in the pattern it won't change much.
If
you don't see an "S" you may have an eye problem.
{75.9} COLOR EATER - Autoruns forever. A few minutes
is enough unless you want to see if you can get a
solid color screen.
{75.10} COLOR TEXT - Menu for three programs: Alphabet
Soup, Random Color Alphabet and Messages. Messages
lets user set up a six word screen which could be
saved and used elsewhere.
{75.11} COLOR WORM - Autoruns and recycles. Let it
run a few times. Some screens are better than others.
{75.12} DIGITAL CLOCK - Input the time and, as someone
once said, you have a very expensive digital clock.
{75.13} DRIP - The blue drops of water eventually fill
the randomly drawn container.
(75.14) EASTER EGG - Autoruns forever.
{75.15} EIGHTS - Don't quit this one too soon. As the
screen fills the pattern gets quite interesting.
(75.16) FLAG - A patriotic treat. The sound effects
even manage to hit the note in the National Anthem
that almost nobody can.
(75.17) GARYS QUICKY - Maybe not as good as Andromeda
Strain or Kaleidoscope but worth a run or two.
(75.18) GRANDAPPLE - Three nice user options for this
grandfather clock: Tick-Tock, Chimes and Alarm. To
stop the Alarm hit any key while it is ringing. Anyone
like to write a sub-routine for a second hand??
(75.19) GRAPHIC CRAPS - Input number of rounds you
want and try your luck. Keeps track of your wins and
losses and tells you on exit.
(75.20) HIDDEN LINES - Good illusion.
(75.21) KALEIDOSCOPE - One of the nicest lo-res screen
effects your reviewer has ever seen. A delight.
(75.30) SUPEROSE II - Options for automatlc or manual
mode.
Thls one ls fun in elther mode. Don't key
yourself out too qulckly. Sometlmes it's hard to tell
that drawlng is stll1 golng on. The program will
"beep· when a deslgn ls complete.
(75.31) SUPEROSE III - Same as Superose
dlfferent drawlng technique.
II
but
~
a
{75.32} THE MAZE - The program takes a little tlme to
set up a maze but the wait is worth it when your
'whlte rat' makes the run for the exlt.
(75.33) WASHINGTON - Good likeness.
(75.34) XTAL - Kind of welrd.
(75.35) XTAL 3D - Even welrder.
VOLUME 76: EDUCATION
(76.1)
APPLE STAND - A mlxed text and graphics
slmulation which allows student to investigate the
effects of price changes on the sales and income of a
small applestand. Has a nlce feature which permits
the student who has not found the best price in five
trles to continue until he/she does.
(76.2) BEGINNER HATH - A graphics program which
displays simple problems in addition, subtraction and
multiplication.
Student chooses the type of problem,
the number of problems to be done and the maximum
number (up to 9) to be used. The program gives the
stUdent another tryon incorrect answers.
(76.3) DIVISION PRACTICE - A text program which
presents 10 simple division problems, gives the
student his score and repeats up to three incorrectly
answered questions for the student to try again.
There is a "reward" message for a perfect score.
,,-...,.,
{76.4} MATH BY LEVELS - A graphics math game with
several levels of difficulty. Levell is addition;
Level 2 is addition and subtraction; Level 3 is
addition, subtraction and multiplication; Levels 4 and
up are addition, subtraction, multiplication and
division.
Size of the numbers increases with the
levels. Student has 40 tries (problems) to get to the
top of the screen. Graduation to the next level
occurs when student ls successful. Correct answer ls
displayed when student answer is wrong.
{76.5} MULTIPLICATION PRACTICE - Same as Division
Practice except problems are simple multlplicatlon.
(75.22) LIGHTHOUSE - Nice color mixes in this one.
(75.23) LINCOLN - Good likeness. (75.24} OSJECT DRAWING - Menu for eight objects
(Ellipse, Squares, Triangles, Rectangles, Etch-a­
Sketch, Lines, Dots and Random Design) and a tone
generator demo. Etch-a-Sketch uses paddles.
(75.25) PATTERNS - Autoruns eight screens of geometric
des igns.
{75.26} SANDYS FOLLY - Autoruns a random lo-res
pattern until the screen 1s full. Clears and runs a
new pattern.
Let it cycle several times.
Some
patterns are more interesting than others.
(75.27) SEVEN BY KEATING - Menu for seven designs;
Cardoid, Hex, Vertex, Lines, Internal Spiral, External
Spiral and Garden. Give each design some time. The
screen changes and you never know what's next.
{75.2S} SEVEN MORE BY KEATING - Menu for seven
designs; Skyline, Rug, Target, Frame, Doodle, Zeppelin
and Canyon. Give each design some time.
16
(75.29) SQUARES - Pleasant.
(76.6) NORTHERN CONSTELLATIONS - A graphics program
which shows how one may tell time using the Big
Oipper. Program also shows visually how the constel­
latlons rotate over the hours. Instructions are in
the program.
(76.7) SCRAMBLE - A text program with a vocabulary of
100 words.
The program selects a word at random,
scrambles it and asks the student to input the
unscrambled word. If the student is unable to "see"
the word hitting "return" twice rescrambles the same
word for another try.
(76.B) SOLAR TUTOR - This program presents intro­
ductory information about the use of solar energy in
the home using a nice mixture of text and graphics.
The program uses the technique of chaining one basic
program into the next, thus insuring that the graphics
memory area is not overrun. The user, however, sees
the result as one long continuous program. An address
(current as of 11/15/84) is given where additional
solar energy informatlon may be obtained by mail.
contd.
January 1985
Washington Apple Pi
~
{76.9} SOUNDS-LIKE SPELLING - A game to see if the
student can spell up to 8 words which end with the
same sound. Student selects the number of words he
wants for each sound.
{76.l0} TALKING CALCULATOR - A text program which
"talks" as problems in addition. subtraction and
multiplication are entered. Handles both positive and
negative values but cannot handle numbers or calcula­
tions greater than 32767 since the program is written
in Integer Basic.
{76.l1} THAT'S RIGHT - A text quiz that presents a
series of 10 questions for each of which 5 possible
answers are displayed. Student fs asked to choose the
correct answer.
An incorrect answer brfngs up a
statement on why the answer is wrong and asks the
student to try again. In some ways the explanations
on why answers are incorrect are as interesting as
being correct. When a student grows tfred of "know­
ing· the correct answers he/she can be set the task of
·pre-explaining" why the other four possible answers
to each question are wrong.
-. {76.l2} US PRESIDENTS - Student is asked to rearrange
a random list of the presidents into their proper
order.
Not easy. After all who knew that Pierce was
the 14th ?
VOLUME 77: UTILITIES
{77.l2} SKYWRITER INSTRUCTIONS - A multi-screen
explanation of the skywriter routine and the theory
behind vector plotting.
{77.l3} SKYWRITER - A 'free-hand' hi-res drawing
program that uses vectors to do the plotting.
The
skywriter (cursor) is a hi-res airplane controlled by
paddles or joystick. A command summary is included in
the program.
{77.14} SKYWRITER (ONELINER 1) - A one line Applesoft
Basic program that produces a complex screen pattern.
Loading and
listfng the program wfll help in
understanding vector plotting. {77.l5} SKYWRITER (ONELINER 2) - Another pattern. Same as above. {77.l6} SKYWRITER (SNOOPY) - Cute demo.
manipulate with Skywriter commands. User can {77.l7} SWEET 16 DISASSEMBLER - Disassembles
code to yield Sweet-16 opcodes. (77.l8) TED 11+ - An Editor/Assembler.
documentation on WAP disk 101. object
Deta 11ed {77.19} TEXT FILE READER (REVISED) - Reads a text file
to either screen or PRII (your choice at start of
program).
~
{77.l} APPLESOFT LINE WRITER - A programming aid for
writing a variety of commonly used routines including
DDS strings into a program. Instructions for use are
in the program.
{77.2} BIORHYTHM (PRINTER) - An old favorite with a
nice printer format. Without restarting. an internal
menu permits user to run several different people for
same 45 day projection period or several different 45 _ - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - . .
day projections for the same person or combinations.
MINUTE MANUALS {77.3} EXPANDED DUMP-IDS440 - Doubles size of page 1
screen and dumps to a Paper Tiger printer.
(77.4) FIND TEXT-TOKEN - Appends lines to an integer
program which can then be searched for specified text
string or token.
{77.5} HIRES SKETCH - Drawing routine includes line.
triangles (8 types). parallelograms (4 types) and
rectangles (3 types). User specifies size. location
and color (green. violet or white). Has options for
writing text on screen. erasing part or all of screen.
save picture to disk and load picture from disk.
Command summary included in the program.
{77.6} INTEGER RENUMBER - Used to 'renumber'
integer program.
Has options for part or all
program and line increment.
an
of
or more and those who want to find out about them. Also
contains Quick Guide to over 50 procedures. Tutorial. Prin·
ter codes for Epson. Gemini. Apple. Prowriter. NEC, &
Okidata. $12.95.
Minute Manual For Apple Writer lie . A lot of sup·
port for $7.95. Beginners guide to word proceSSing, step by
step instructions for the basic and advanced procedures.
Over 60 pages of problem solving procedures on formatting
and printing. Specific procedures for Epson, Gemini, Apple,
Prowriter, NEC, Okidata.
{77.8} LOADHON INSTRUCTIONS - How to use LOAOMON.
Glossary Disk For Apple Writer lie and ][ + . Easy
to use· Automatically load glossary from menu. Select Ap·
pie Writer lie or)[ +. Select Epson FXJMXJRX, Gemini 10/10X,
Prowriter, Apple DMP/lmagewriter, NEC 8023A, or Okidata
92183A. Then turn on or off any print style with a Single
keystroke. $14.95.
{77.9} LOADMON - For language card owners who want the
'old' Monitor.
Can also be used to load 'new'
Monitor.
Minute Manual For Apple Writer][ +
Minute Manual For DB Master
{77.l0} PAPER TIGER HIRES DUMP - Dumps screen to an
IOS-440 printer with Apple parallel card in slot 1
with regular prom, not Centronics.
Available at COMM CENTER, B. Dalton, Sidney Kramers (H
St.), VF Assoc., Logical Choice, Towson Computer, Com·
puters Unlimited. Westminster Computers & more. or send
check + $1 SlH to Minuteware. P.O. Box 2392. Columbia.
MD 21045 (301) 995-1166.
{77.7} LAZARUS - Resurrects a 'dead' integer program
fragment.
BLOAD it and either: (1) CALL 768 for
longest program segment found or (2) CALL 772 for last
segment found. Then 'list' to see what was found.
~
Minute Manual For PFS: FILE/REPORT/GRAPHI
WRITE· Each program explained. for those who have one
{77.ll} PROGRAM TRACE - Appends a series of lines to
an integer program which will then list each source
statement, either in real time or post-exec.
Washington Apple Pi January 1985
$7.95
$12.95
17
TI-iE.
I~COlj5T
Ie
Cai rei
rnODE-m
The apparent solution to the problem was to put a new
RCA 5 pin connector onto an old cable, replacing one
of the 2 DB 25 pin connectors. Radio Shack had the 5
pin connector for under $2. The information that
could not be found for under $50 was the signals pro­
vided on each of the pins of the 5 pin connector on
the IIc. Because I wanted the reference manuals for
my new IIc, I bought the manual, but with the follow­
ing description maybe you won't have that need.
The following table provides the appropriate connec­
tion information that enabled my lie to communicate
Bob
uSing either the port's built-in terminal program
accessible from ProDOS or my own Pascal communication
program.
Signal on Port 2
Port 2 Pin to DB-25 Pin
Data Terminal Ready (DTR2B)
1
20
2
2
3
7,1
4
3
Receive Data (RD2B)
5
8
Data Set Ready (DSR2B)
Transmit Data (TD2B)
GND (Power and Signal)
The pins on the Apple port are numbered clockwise
you face the port.
It's always
enough. possible
LU I TI-1
TI-iE.
to
save money
if you
as
spend
(t
PRODO.S
Ve. l 1<.. e.
Those who purchase the ProDos User's Disk are provided
with a utility to set the computer's internal date.
The date is accessed when creating or modifying files
and shows up under the "CAT" or "CATALOG D commands.
However, new Apple Ilc owners are provided with the
ProDos operating system through the System Utilities
Disk which lacks the date-set option. The following
program was designed to rectify that omission.
If
saved as the "STARTUP" program on your ProDos program­
ming disks, it will run automatically when Prodos is
booted.
10 REM <PRDDOS DATE SET ROUTINE> 20 0$ = CHR$ (4)
30 PRINT D$i"RESTORE DATESAVED": REM <READ
PREVIOUS DATE FROM DISK>
40 PRINT D$i"PRI3": REM <80 COLUMN SWITCH> 50 TEXT: HOME : PRINT
60 REM <INPUT DATE>
70 VTAB 22: HTAB 1: PRINT ·PLEASE ENTER TODAY'S DATE
(MM'DD'YY)"
75 PRINT "OR <RETURN> TO ACCEPT "i
80 PRINT MNTHi"'"iDAYi"'"iYR 90 VTAB 23: HTAB 23: INPUT S$
100 REM <ERROR CHECKING OF INPUT>
110 IF LEN (S$) = 0 THEN GOTO 400: REM
<END-PREVIOUS DATE ACCEPTED> 120 FOR I = 1 TO LEN (S$) 130 IF MID$ (S$,I,l) = "'" THEN Sl = I: GO TO 160 140 NEXT I 150 GOSUB 800: GOTO 60
160 FOR I = Sl + 1 TO LEN (S$) 170 IF MID$ (S$,I,l) = "'" THEN S2 = I: GO TO 200 180 NEXT I 190 GOSUB 800: GOTO 60 200 IF Sl = 1 OR S2 - Sl < 2 OR LEN (S$) - S2 < 2 THEN GOSUB 800: GOTO 60 18
Jr.
E." Re.xroad
One of the advantages of the Apple IIc is the presence
of serial ports that can be used for the printer and
communications.
My problem was that I desired to use
an acoustically coupled 300 baud modem to communicate
from home to the computer at work (and to the WAP
Bulletin Board).
Without spending the $20 - $30
necessary for a store-bought connecting cable, how
could I use a Livermore 76B modem with an RS232-C
interface?
.Sf_ TT I riG
AnD An
r~PPI_E.
210 REM <DECIPHER INPUT> 220 MNTH = VAL ( LEFT$ (S$,SI - 1» 230 DAY = VAL ( MID$ (S$,Sl + 1(S2 - Sl - 1)
240 YR c VAL ( RIGHT$ (S$, LEN S$) - S2»
250 IF MNTH < 1 OR MNTH > 12 OR DAY < 1 OR DAY> 31
OR YR < 1 OR YR > 99 THEN GOSUB 800: GOTO 60
260 Bl = YR • 2 + INT (MNTH , 8)
270 B2 a (MNTH - (8 * INT (MNTH I 8») * 32 + DAY
280 POKE 49041,Bl
290 POKE 49040, B2
<SAVE DATE TO
300 PRINT D$i"STORE DATESAVED": REM
DISK>
400 END
800 INVERSE: VTAB 21: HTAB 1: PRINT "PLEASE ENTER EXACTLY AS SHOWN": NORMAL 810 RETURN After saving this program and BEFORE running it for
the first time you must type the following line with
your disk in the drive:
PRINT CHR$(4)i"STORE DATESAVED" Thereafter the program will save the last date entered
in a separate file and restore it as the default the
next time the program is run.
~
January 1985 I
~
--¥-­
Washington Apple Pi
• SS/DD. BOX OF 10
• SS/DD. 10 BOXES
• DOUBLE·NOTCHED DS/DD.
EACH
Sl.35
• DOUBLE·NOTCHED DSIDD.
100
S125.00
• HARD PLASTIC STAND·UP
DISKETTE LIBRARY
$2.75 EACH
CASES
.... 4 FOR 510.00
(specify cofor choices beige. bfack. blue. green
grey. red, yellow)
• SMOKED PLASTIC JUMBO·SIZE
FLlP·TOP 75 DISKETTE
FILE CASES
S16.00 •
• 70·DISKETTE FILE CASES
S12.00 •
• 140·DISKETTE LOCKING WOOD FILE CABINET
.
S33.00 ~
PRINTERS
• PANASONIC Pl090
• PANASONIC 1091
• EPSON RX·80 FIT
• EPSON RX·l 00
• EPSON FX·80
• OKI·DATA MICROLINE 92A
DOT MATRIX
• SILVER REED 400
LETTER QUALITY
• STARWRITER A·l0 25CPS
LETTER QUALITY
• TOSHIBA 1340 DOT MATRIX
AND LETTER QUALITY
COMBINED
S239.00
S299.00
.S289.00
.S389.00
S379.00
$369.00
S269.00
S495.00
5795.00
PRINTER INTERFACES
AND ACCESSORIES
• STANDARD PARALLEL
INTERFACE CARD
$49.00
• GRAPHICS PARALLEL
INTERFACE CARD .
S75.00
• FINGERPRINT PUSH·BUTTON
GRAPHICS CARD.
$119.00
• MICROFAZER GENERAL PRINT
BUFFER
$149.00
• PRINTER STAND
$14.00
• SWITCH BOX
3 PARALLEL PORTS
S129.00
• SWITCH BOX.
3 SERIAL PORTS
S79.00
FLOPPV DISK DRIVES
• FOURTH DIMENSION
(FULL OR SLiMLlNE)
·DISTAR
• LASER
• lie DRIVES
• DISK CONTROLLER
• DOUBLE·SIDED DRIVE
• 650K RANA DRIVE
Washington Apple Pi
• 5 MEGABYTE WITH CONTROLLER
AND SOFTWARE
$749.00
• 10 MEGABYTE
51175.00
• 16 RAM CARD
• 549.00 • 64K RAM & 80 COLUMN CARD FOR lie
S109.00
• MEMORY MASTER liE 64K + RAM
MONITORS
& 80 COLUMN CARD
S145.00
• GORILLA 12·INCH GREEN
$84.00
• MEMORY MASTER liE 128K RAM
• USI 12·INCH GREEN
S94.00·
& 80 COLUMN CARD
S175.00 •
S99.00· • MICROTEK II + 128 K VISICALC
• USI 12·INCH AMBER
AND MEMORY EXPANSION
5219.00 • INTRA 14·INCH COMPOSITE
COLOR/80 COLUMN
S239.00
• MODEM ELIMINATOR CABLE S21.00 • SERI·ALL SERIAL
MODEMS
INTERFACE CARD
$119.00
• ZOOM TELEPHONICS
• aO·COLUMN CARD (VIEWMASTER)
300·BAUD
$109.00
WITH SOFT·SWITCH
S129.00
• CENTAURI 300 BAUD
$179.00
• CENTAURI APS Z·80 CARD
S59.00
• PRO·MODEM 1200
$349.00
• z·ao PLUS CARD
• PRO·MODEM 1200A
(CPM FOR APPLE)
5115.00
INTERNAL
S279.00
• FAST Z·80 CARD
• SINGALMAN MARK XII
5239.00
APPLICARD
5175.00
•
TIME
MASTER
II
CLOCK/CALENDAR
GRAPHICS DEVICES
CARD
5109.00
• POWER PAD &
QUICK·LOADER
PROM
•
STARTER KIT
599.00
BOARD
5149.00
• ANALOG/DIGITAL BOARD
599.00
VIDEO & DISPLAY EQUIPMENT
• SUPER I/O BOARD
$49.00
• DIGITIZER
$299.00
• MULT1PLE·SLOT EXPANSION
• B & W CAMERA
S195.00
CHASSIS ................. 5149.00
• COLOR PROCESSOR
S99.00
• SINGLE·SLOT EXTENDER
529.00
• COLOR PROCESSORIENHANCER
STABILIZERISYNTHESIZER
$279.00 SPECIAL PERIPHERALS
• COOLING FAN WITH
GENERAL ITEMS
SURGE PROTECTOR
$39.00
• 6 OUTLET POWER STRIP
519.00 • TITAN KEYBOARD
$159.00
• SURGE PROTECTOR
Sll.00
• LIFETIME EXTERNAL POWER
• RF MODULATOR.
S49.00
SUPPLY
S179.00
• COMPUTER STAND
S24.00
• SHIFT KEY MOD KIT
S8.00
GAME 110 DEVICES
• SCREEN SWITCHER/
DRIVE STEPPER
574.00
• CH MACH II JOY:::ICK
S37.00
APPLE SOFTWARE
• CH MACH III JOYSYICK
S45.00
• WORD STAR
5195.00
DENOTES NEW PRICE OR ITEM
• MAIL MERGE/SPELL STARI
STAR INDEX
S125.00
e e
*
LONG DISTANCE
CALL TOLL FREE
WITH TOUCH TONE PHONE
FROM ANY CITYI
DIAL 950-1088
WAIT FOR TONE
DIAL 363-1313
VISIT OUR NEW STORE
LOCATION
8231 WOODMONT AVE.
(AT SATTERY LANE)
INSETHESDA
UPS shipping,
S4.00 per order
1=-""'1
$179.00
S159.00
$139.00·
S158.00·
559.00
5199.00
S439.00
ORDERS &
CALL BACK
MESSAGES
(ANSWERING
MACHINE)
(202) 362·9176
'F.4ssocJlfs
8231 WOODMONT AVE., BETHESDA, MARYLAND
January 1985
STORE HOURS:
12-8
M-TH
12-6
FRI
11-5
SAT
SPECIAL.
APPLE lie
PRINTER
CABLES
$19.00·
19
simp l
l:J~
e.WORD
.J.T.
(Tom)
J r "
'simpleWORD'
is an elementary "word
processing"
program. It is very easy to learn, loads quickly, is
almost free (except for the typing), will work with
DOS 3.3 or ProDOS, on an APPLE Ilc, lIe, or with
slight modifications on a ][+. This makes it a
natural for those short memos, addressing envelopes,
or whatever else you might imagine. simpleWORD is an
easy way to put your thoughts on paper.
In thirty-odd lines of APPLESOFT, there lies an ele­
gant yet simple memo writer. I tried to stick to the
basics while implementing the necessities.
simple­
WORD is a line oriented editor. In other words, you
enter a line, then press RETURN to tell simpleWORD
that you are finished with the line. Changes can be
made using the normal APPLESOFT editing procedures
until the RETURN key has been pressed. The remainder
of the text must be entered before any other correc­
tions can be made to that line. Another restriction
is that only 20 lines of text can be entered at a
Tabs are not supported, but unlike the
time.
APPLESOFT INPUT ROUTINE, leading spaces are accepted,
as are commas and colons. Text that is entered cannot
be saved to a text file, but if you need to keep your
work for later modification or printing, I suspect you
will want to use your aREAL a word processor.
You
know, the one that can do everythingl The one that
takes forever to load. The one with all those seldom
used commands that you need to look up whenever you
want to use them. The one that was so expensive in
the first place.
You know, the one I am using to
write this article.
simpleWORD could be easily modified to suit your
For example, a subroutine could be added to
needs.
read a clockcard and add the date and time as a head­
ing for the memo. If you have a good idea for an
addition, let us all know about it. For now, let's
take a look at how it works and maybe learn some
APPLESOFT programming tips as we go.
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
************************ **
** **
** "simpleWORD a
**
** BY
** "J.T. (Tom) DeMay" ** ** COPYRIGHT 1984 WAP ** ** **
************************ REM
REM
REM
REM
REM
REM
REM
REM
90 GOTO 150
CALL - 657: FOR K = 512 TO 588
100 T$
110 IF PEEK (K) = 141 THEN K 588: GOTO 130
120 T$ T$ + CHR$ ( PEEK (K) - 128)
130 NEXT
140 RETURN
150 0$
CHR$ (4): DIM 1$(20)
160 PRINT: PRINT D$"PRI3 a
170 PRINT ·simpleWORD - Enter up to 20 lines
of text. Press I on a line by itself to
end.": PRINT
180 FOR I = 1 TO 20: VTAB I + 2: IF I < 10
THEN PRINT"";
190 PRINT I".
(there should be 75 spaces
between the. and the
VTAB I + 2: HTAB 5:
200 GOSUB 100
210 1$(1) = T$:T$ = ""
220 J
I: IF 1$(1)
THEN J
I - 1:1
20
230 NEXT
240 PRINT: VTAB 23: HTAB 1: PRINT "Print.
g
"":
g
g
g
I)
g
20
g
"/"
I":
g
g
250
260
270
280
290
300
310
320
330
340
350
360
Correct, Restart, or Quit: a;: GET CH$
IF CH$ "p a OR CH$
"p" THEN 300
IF CH$
aRa OR CH$ = "r" THEN 160
IF CH$
aQ" OR CH$ = "qa THEN TEXT:
HOME : END
IF CH$
ac" OR CH$ = "c" THEN PRINT
GOTO 400
GOTO 240
PRINT: PRINT D$apRll":
PRINT CHR$ (9) + a80N a
IF FLAG THEN FLAG = 0: PRINT CHR$ (12)
FOR I " 1 TO J
PRINT 1$( I)
NEXT
PRINT D$apRI3 A
VTAB 1: PRINT "Print another copy. Enter a
new message, or Quit:";: GET CH$: PRINT CH$:
IF CH$ = apR OR CH$ D "p" THEN FLAG 1:
GOTO 300
IF CH$ a "Q" OR CH$ a "q" THEN TEXT
HOME : END
IF CH$ = aE" OR CH$ a "ea THEN 160
GOTO 360
VTAB 23: HTAB 1: CALL - 868: PRINT "Which
line (l/ aJ;") a;: INPUT aa;LN$:LN a VAL
(LN$): IF LN < 1 OR LN > J THEN 400
VTAB LN + 2: POKE 1403.79: PRINT al";:
VTAB LN + 2: HTAB 5: GOSUB 100:1$(tN) a T$
VTAB 23: CALL - 868: GOTO 240
END
g
g
g
g
g
g
370
380
390
400
410
420
430
Lines 100 thru 140 make up the "INPUT ANYTHING"
routine first publicized by Bert Kersey from Beagle
Brothers.
I modified it slightly to accept lines of
only 76 characters. In a program of this size, this
subroutine could have been placed anywhere, but it is
standard practice to place often used subroutines at
the beginning of a program to increase program speed.
Next. in line 150 we initialize the 0$ variable to
Ctrl-D [CHR$(4] and make room for 20 lines of text.
Line 160 turns on the eighty column card in slot 13.
The simpleWORD title and instructions are printed by
line 170.
A FOR ••• NEXT loop (lines 180-230) is implemented to
get the data for each of twenty lines. Pay particular
attention to the way in which an early exit is han­
dled.
If the only character of a line is a A/" then
in line 220. J is set to I minus 1 and I is set to 20.
The NEXT in line 230 sends control to the beginning of
the FOR ••• NEXT loop at line 180. Since I is now equal
to the upper limit of the loop (20) the loop is exited
correctly.
If this had not been done. the FOR ••• NEXT
loop would still be in effect. Exiting incorrectly
uses the Astack" unnecessarily. and could result in an
OUT OF MEMORY error. even if there is sufficient
memory still available to the program.
Line 240 asks if you want to print. make corrections.
start over again. or exit the program. Lines 250 thru
280 determine where to send control depending on your
answer to line 240. If program control gets to line
290. then an invalid request was made and simple- WORD
asks for your request again. The actual printing is
controlled by lines 300 thru 350. First the print- er
in slot ·11 is turned on and asked to print lines of
eighty columns. If the FLAG is set (greater than 0)
then it is reset and a FORMFEED is sent to the
printer. Can you see where the FLAG is set and why?
The
January 1985 printing
is
done in a FOR ••• NEXT
loop (lines
contd.
Washington Apple Pi
320-340). Look back to line 220 and see why the upper
limit of this loop is J. J is the number of lines
entered.
This technique permits printing only the
number of lines entered. The printer is turned off
and the eighty column card in slot 13 is turned on
again in line 350.
Lines 360 thru 390 present a submenu and direct execu­
tion to the correct location. again checking for
invalid input as was done in lines 240 thru 290. The
remainder of the program lines 400 thru 420 are used
to enter the corrections. when required. Control is
directed here from line 2BO.
Line 430 is not
required. but is often included as the last line of a
program because it is required by some versions of
BASIC. and people who program in several dialects of
BASIC add it out of habit.
You can enter the program yourself. or obtain a copy
from the Washington Apple Pi disk Library. If you are
new to entering programs. just follow these simple
steps:
1. BOOT your APPLE with the DOS System Master of your
choice. (00S3.3. PROOOS. etc.)
2. Type NEW to clear the program in memory.
3. Enter the program exactly as listed. You may need
to make some changes in the slot 1 or control codes
for your printer. (Note: there should be 75 spaces
between the. and the in line 190).
I
4. When you have finished entering the program. type
LIST and compare the program listing you typed with
the
listing in the WAP Journal.
Make any
corrections necessary by retyping the offending
lines.
5. Type RUN. This will start the program. Type a
sample of text (don't forget to press RETURN at the
end of each line). Does the program react as you
expect? If everything works as you want. proceed
to step 6. If not then go back to step 4.
6. Insert an initialized disk into the disk drive and
type: SAVE sfmpleWORO and press the RETURN key.
(DOS will probably change the lowercase letters to
uppercase. but that·s life. In my mind it will
always be called sfmpleWORO.)
7. Then next time you want to use sfmpleWORO. load the
disk in the disk drfve and type: RUN SIMPLEWORO and
press the RETURN key.
As always. I solicit your comments and suggestions.
Maybe this will have taken some of the MAGIC out of
computing.
At any rate. I hope you have learned
something and most of all. remember to have fun with
your computer.
~
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most advertised prices.
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=======~============================
Washington Apple Pi January 1985
21
cr~LEJIDr~R
Thomos
PROG
Rr~rrl ..s.
UJo ,- r
"CALENDAR" is the program that generates the monthly
calendar of events that appears in the Washington
Apple Pi Journal. It is a menu-driven program that
allows you to enter up to 55 characters of information
for a given date and to print out that data in a con­
ventional calendar format.
1.
Configuring CALENDAR.
To set
things:
up CALENDAR, you need to tell it these
three
a.
What is the name of the calendar? You can have
several different calendars at the same time by call­
ing each one a different name. This name is stored in
CN$, and is defined in line 3(1. If you give a calen­
dar for January 1984 the name "WORK", it will be saved
on the disk as "WORK.CALENDAR.1984.1".
b.
What year is this?
line 50.
This is YR, and is defined in
c.
On what day of the week does this year start?
This is MS(l).
The starting dates for February­
December are calculated based on MS(I).
In this
notation, Sunday is I, Monday is 2, and so on. If you
want to be creative, write a function to generate this
automat ically.
2.
Using CALENDAR.
ck one or two characters of regular text, and can be
overwritten if you wish (or if you are not careful).
Use the left and right arrows to copy over text you
want to preserve and to move around the display. set
up each cell the way you want it to appear and press
RETURN.
Remember that, as when entering any text,
only the text to the left of the cursor will actually
be .entered.
Text underneath the cursor and to the
right of the cursor will be replaced by blank spaces.
Each cell entry can be no longer than 55 characters.
If you type exactly 55 characters, the cursor will
show up on the bottom line of the display box. If you
press RETURN at this point the bottom line will go
away, but this is what should happen. If you enter
more than 55 characters, however, the entry will not
be accepted, and you will go back to the way the cell
was originally.
LIST ENTRIES ON SCREEN: Use this if you want to see
the entries for an entire month without any fancy
formatting.
This is intended to be quick and dirty.
and you will not see the entries as they will actually
appear.
The principal purpose of this command is to
let you find a specific entry when you do not know its
exact date.
This command displays only those dates
that have non-blank characters beginning in the fourth
position, i.e., the date alone does not make an entry
a non-blank entry.
You can exit the program by entering a carriage return
or Ctr1-C. If you do, you will be reminded that you
can re-enter the program without clearing any of the
variables by typing "GOTO 100".
PRINT MONTH: This command prompts you for the month
you wish to print. Like "E", if you have previously
selected a month, it will be displayed and you can
select it simply by pressing RETURN.
As CALENDAR
comes to you, the print option is set for an Okidata
92 or 93 printer. The calendar will print from an
Apple Parallel Printer Card (or compatible card such
as the Grappler or Epson) in slot 1 in 12-pitch type
with 8 lines to the inch. To change th is for your own
printer configuration, change line 1400 based on the
instructions in your printer and printer interface
card manual s.
INITIALIZE MONTH:
The first thing to do is to ini­
tialize a file for a particular month.
First, the
program will verify that the month has not already
been initialized. This protects you from erroneously
erasing a calendar that has been initialized previous­
ly.
If you or someone else have already created a
file with the same name as the one you are intending
to initialize, you will be given the option of erasing
the old calendar.
PROGRAMMER'S NOTES:
Make sure that A$ is the first
variable in the program so that the "INPUT NEARLY
ANYTHING" routine will work. This routine, which is
POKEd into memory by line 42, allows the entry of
commas and colons into an input string. You can use
this routine in your own programs so long as A$ is the
first variable in the program. Input must be done
using the canmands CALL 768:A$cMID$(A$,1l and will
leave the input string assigned to A$.
ENTER DATA: This command allows you to enter data for
a particular date. You will be asked to select the
month and date. Note that if in running the program
you have already designated a particular month, its
number (January=l. February=2, etc.) will be displayed
and you can select that month by pressing RETURN.
After you have chosen the date, you will see the day
of the week the date falls on and a white square with
the date inside it. At this pOint if you press RETURN
you will not make any changes to the entry for that
date. If, however, you move the cursor even one space
to the right before pressing RETURN, only the text to
the left of the cursor will be saved; text underneath
the cursor and to the right will be replaced by blank
spaces.
I use line 33 as a standard quick-editing line in most
of my programs. Whenever I need to edit an a1ready­
existing line, I enter GOSUB 33:LIST xxxx where "xxxx"
is the line number. This clears the text screen, sets
the right margin to 33 and lists the line.
Setting
the right margin to 33 supresses App1esoft's desire to
center the line on the screen with lots of spaces on
either side of it. Supressing spaces allows me to
then move the cursor to the first character of the
line using ESC-I's and a J, followed by right arrows
until I have copied that part of the line I wish not
to change. Once you get the hang of this technique,
it is quite easy and a great time-saver. On the other
hand, if you want to, you can delete lines 32, 33 and
34.
Text in the cell is actually a string of 55 characters
in 5 rows of 11 characters per row. The date is just
Note that even though line 40 always sets February to
28 days, line 52 fixes it during leap years.
contd.
Running CALENDAR gives you a menu with four options:
EI LP-
ENTER DATA
INITIALIZE MONTH
LIST ENTRIES ON SCREEN
PRINT MONTH
January 1985
Washington Apple Pi
Lines 10-59 are the initialization commands.
Lines
60-61 are a commonly-used routine to read in an entry
for a particular date. Lines 100-999 are the main
menu routine. Lines 1000-1999 are the Print routine,
Lines
Lines 2000-2999 are the Enter Data routine.
3000-3999 are the List Entries on Screen routine.
Lines 10000-end are the Initialize routine.
Listing
10 A$ = " ":J = O:K = J:M = J: DIM
E$(31) ,MN$(l2) ,MD(12) ,MS(12) :S$ ..
"
":L$ = "
":0$" CHR$ (4):L .. 60: DIM
DW$(7): REM A$ MUST BE 1ST VAR, L=RECORD LENGTH
20 B"7:DEF FNM(A)" INT«A/B- INT(A/B»
• B + .05)· SGN (A / B)
29 REM CN$=NAME OF CALENDAR
30 CN$" "WORK"
32 GOTO 34
33 TEXT: HOME: POKE 33,33: RETURN: REM USED FOR
EASY EDITING
34 REM
40 FOR J = 1 TO 12: READ MN$(J),MD(J): NEXT: DATA
JANUARY,31,FEBRUARY,28,MARCH,31,APRIL,30,MAY,31,
JUNE ,30,JULY,31 ,AUGUST,31 ,SEPTEMBER,30,OCTOBER,31 ,
NOVEMBER,30,DECEMBER,31
41 FOR J a 1 TO 7: READ DW$(J): NEXT: DATA SUNDAY,
MONDAY,TUESDAY,WEDNESDAY,THURSDAY,FRIDAY.SATURDAY
42 FOR J = 768 TO 790: READ K: POKE J,K: NEXT: DATA
162,0.32,117,253,160,2,138,145,105,200,169,0,145,
105,200,169,2,145,105,76,57,213: REM INPUT
ANYTHING ROUTINE
49 REM LINES 51-52: MS(I)=l BECAUSE 1984 STARTS ON A
SUNDAY, LY=LEAP YEAR (l a YES)
50 YR" 1984
51 MS(1)" 1
52 LY" ( INT (YR / 4) .. YR / 4): IF LY THEN MD(2) =
29
53 FOR J = 2 TO 12:MS(J) = FN M(MS(J - 1) + MD(J ­
1»: IF MS(J) .. 0 THEN MS(J) a 7
54 NEXT: REM COMPUTE STARTING DAYS
55 F$ a CN$ + a.CALENDAR." + STR$ (YR) + ",": REM
FILE NAME (WITHOUT MONTH SUFFIX)
59 GOTO 100
60 PRINT D$,"READ",F$,M,",R",D: CALL 768:A$ ..
MID$ (AS,O :E$(D) = AS
61 RETURN
100 TEXT: HOME: PRINT TAB( 16),: INVERSE: PRINT
" CALENDAR ": NORMAL: PRINT" COPYRIGHT 1983 BY
THOMAS S. WARRICK": PRINT"
NONCOMMERCIAL
DISTRIBUTION WELCOMED a : PRINT: PRINT :ZZ ..
FRE (J): POKE 51,6
110 PRINT SPC( 4),"OPTIONS:": PRINT: PRINT "E ­
ENTER DATA": PRINT: PRINT "I - INITIALIZE
MONTH A: PRINT: PRINT "L - LIST ENTRIES ON
SCREEN": PRINT
120 PRINT"P - PRINT MONTH": PRINT: PRINT "<RETURN>
- END": PRINT: PRINT "WHICH? ",: GET A$: PRINT
A$: IF ASC (A$) = 13 OR ASC (A$) a 3 THEN 999
130 IF ASC (A$) > 95 THEN A$ c CHRS ( ASC (AS) ­
32)
140 IF A$) <" E" AND A$ > <" I· AND A$ > <" pA
AND A$ > < "L" THEN 100
150 PRINT "WHAT MONTH? ",: IF M> 0 THEN PRINT M,
CHR$ (8). CHR$ (8). CHR$ (8 • (M > 9»,
160 INPUT" ",B$: IF LEN (B$) .. 0 AND M> 0 THEN 190
170 Me INT,VAL(B$»: IFM>OANDM<13
THEN 190
180 PRINT "INVALID MONTH": FOP. J .. 1 TO 700: NEXT:
POKE 216,0: GOTO 100
190 POKE 216,0
200 IF A$ = "P" THEN 1000
210 IF A$ a "E" THEN 2000
220 IF A$ a "I" THEN 10000
230 IF A$ a aL" THEN 3000
999 PRINT "ENTER 'GOTO 100' TO RE-ENTER":
PRINT D$,·PR'O": END
1000 REM PRINT CALENDAR
Washington Apple Pi 1010 PRINT D$,"OPEN",F$,M.",L",L
1020 FOR 0" 1 TO MD(M): GOSUB 60: NEXT
1400 PRINT D$"PRI1": PRINT CHR$ (9),"85N".
CHR$ (28), CHR$ (27) ,"8": REM OKIDATA SETUP
1410 REM PRINT CALENDAR USING 12-PITCH TYPE ON 8 1/2"
X II" PAPER, 8 LINES/INCH-ADJUST FOR YOUR
PRINTER
1420 K" FRE (J): PRINT SPC( 34 - LEN (MN$(M»).:
FOR K a 1 TO LEN (MN$(M» + 10: PRINT
MID$ (". " + MN$(M) + " "+ STR$ (YR) + "
·",K,I),· ",: NEXT: PRINT: PRINT: PRINT CN$:
PRINT
1430 PRINT"
SUNDAY
MONDAY
TUESDAY
WEDNESDAY THURSDAY
FRIDAY
SATURDAY"
1440 R a 0:0 .. 1 1450 R e R + 1: PRINT "-----------". CHR$ (252)."-----------", CHR$ (252)."-----------".
CHR$ (252),"-----------", CHR$ (252).
"-----------", CHR$ (252)."-----------·;
CHR$ (252) ;"-----------"
1460 IF R > 1 OR HS(H) .. 1 THEN 1540
1470 FOR J a 0 TO 4
1480 FOR K .. 1 TO MS(M) - 1: PRINT L$; CHR$ (252).:
NEXT
1490 FOR 0 = 1 TO 8 - MS(M): PRINT MID$ (E$(D),J·
11 + I,ll).: IF 0 > < 8 - MS(M) THEN
PRINT CHR$ (252);
1500 NEXT
1510 PRINT
1520 NEXT J
1530 0 = 9 - MS(M): GOTO 1450
1540 FOR J .. 0 TO 4
1550 FOR K .. 0 TO 0 + 6: IF K > MD(M) THEN
PRINT L$,: GOTO 1570
1560 PRINT MID$ (E$(K) ,J • 11 + I,ll).
1570 IF K < 0 + 6 THEN PRINT CHR$ (252);
1580 NEXT: PRINT : NEXT J
1590 IF K < a MD(M) THEN 0 = K: GOTO 1450
1999 PRINT: PRINT: PRINT: PRINT D$,"PRIO":
GOTO 100
2000 HOME: INPUT ·WHAT DATE? A.D: IF 0 < 1 OR 0 >
MD(M) THEN 100 REM ENTER DATA
2010 VTAB 9:K a FN M(MS(M) + 0 - l):K .. K + 7 *
(K .. 0): PRINT TAB( 23 - LEN (DW$(K» /
2) ;DW$(K): PRINT
2020 PRINT D$;AOPEN";F$;M;",L";L: GOSUB 60: PRINT 0$
2030 PRINT TAB( 17).: INVERSE :PRINT "
"
2040 FOR K .. 0 TO 4: NORMAL: PRINT TAB( 17);:
INVERSE: PRINT A ".: NORMAL: PRINT MID$ (E$(D) ,K * 11 + I,ll),: INVERSE PRI NT " ": NEXT 2050 NORMAL: PRINT TAB( 17);: INVERSE:
PRINT"
": NORMAL
2060 POKE 33,11: POKE 32,17: PRINT: VTAB 12:
CALL 768:A$ = MID$ (A$,I)
2065 IF LEN (A$) < 2 THEN 100
2070 IF LEN (A$) > 55 THEN TEXT: VTAB 12:
CALL - 958: GOTO 2040
2077 IF LEN (AS) < 55 THEN A$ .. A$ +
RIGHT$ (S$,55 - LEN (A$»
2080 E$(D)" A$
2090 PRINT D$."WRITE",F$,M.",R".D: PRINT E$(D):
PRINT D$."CLOSE"
2999 GOTD 100
3000 REM LIST CALENDAR ENTRIES ON SCREEN
3010 PRINT D$;"OPEN";F$.M,",L";L
3020 FOR 0 = 1 TO MD(M): GOSUB 60: NEXT: PRINT
D$,·CLOSE A: HOME: PRINT ·SUMMARY OF ENTRIES FOR
·;MN$(M) ,":": PRINT
3030 FOR 0 .. 1 TO MD(H): IF MID$ (E$(D),4) > <
HID$ (S$,4) THEN PRINT E$(D)
3040 NEXT: INPUT "HIT RETURN";A$
3999 GOTO 100
10000 ONERR GOTO 10070: REH INITIALIZE CALENDAR
10010 PRINT D$,·VERIFYA;F$;M
10020 PRINT "YOU ALREADY HAVE A CALENDAR FOR THIS
MONTH. SHOULD IT BE DELETED (Y/CR)? a;:
GET A$: PRI NT A$: IF A$ > <" y" AND A$ > <
Ay" THEN POKE 216,0: GOTO 100
contd. on pg 28
January 1985
23
TI-iE. WAP AI3BS
bH Thomas 5.
Wa r ric. 1<,
Washington Apple Pi runs two Apple Bulletin Board
Systems (ABBS) with electronic mail, programs for
downloading and other information for the use of
members with access to computer telecommunications
equipment. The "main" board is located in Bethesda,
Maryland, at telephone number (301) 986-8085. This
board runs twenty-four hours a day, seven days a week
except during file and program maintenance. A sepa­
rate "WAP Classif1eds" board runs out of Kensington,
Maryland, at telephone number (301) 871-7978. It is
usually available at all times except between nine
a.m. and noon on weekdays. WAP is currently planning
to set up a third and perhaps a fourth board in the
near future; these will be announced in the WAP
Journal.
you would enter:
<Ctrl-A><Ctr1-Q>
and then dial the number (slowly). You may well get a
busy signal when dialing the ABBS, but if you do, keep
trying.
(See below for tips on how to have your
computer dial the phone until you get a connection.)
When you are connected, the ABBS will respond:
ENTER A CARRIAGE RETURN:
Do so simply by pressing the RETURN key on your
board.
3. The ABBS will then say:
The WAP Classified board is intended as a "special
purpose" board. Messages on it should be limited to:
a.
b.
c.
d.
Items offered for sale.
Items you are interested in buying.
Offers of employment.
Solicitations of offers of employment.
Messages on these subjects on other WAP boards may be
deleted.
In addftion, non-WAP members may read
messages on the WAP Class1f1eds board, although they
may not leave messages. This enables your message to
reach a wider audience than just Pi members.
Any member of Washington Apple Pi with access to a
modem (a contraction of "modulator-demodulator") can
obtain a password for the ABBS by calling the WAP
office in Bethesda, Maryland, at (301) 654-8060.
During WAP office hours, a password will be assigned
on the spot. Alternatively, a member may call the
main ABBS with a modem and leave a message for the
System Operator (SYSOP) stating the member's name, WAP
membership number and day and evening phone numbers.
The WAPABBS program which runs on WAP's bulletin board
systems has a number of special features and commands,
and even those users who are exeer1enced with other
BBS programs should use the"H (Help) command to
learn about them.
To use
steps:
ures.)
the main WAP bulletin board, follow these
(WAP's other boards follow similar proced­
1. After you have obtained a password, set up
your modem to send and receive at 300 baud or 1200
bps.
Note that if you want to use 1200 bps, your
modem must use what is called 212A protocol. Another
1200 bps protocol called 202 is used by the Novation
Apple-Cat, so if you have any other 1200 bps modem you
almost certainly are using 212A protocol. Set your
modem for full duplex, so that you do not see charac­
ters on your screen until they are echoed back to you.
The character format is 1 start bit, 8 character bits,
no parity, and 1 stop bit. This is the standard full
duplex setting on most modems, including the D.C.
Hayes M1cromodem II. If you are using a M1cromodem II
in slot 2 with no terminal program, you can activate
this by doing:
INI2 <RETURN>
<Ctr1-A> <Ctr1-F>
are
24
2. Dial the ABBS at 986-8085 or 871-7978. If you
using a M1cromodem II with no terminal program,
key­
ENTER WAPNNN.PSWD OR WPNNNN.PSWD:
You should enter "WAp· if your Washington Apple Pi
number is less than 1000, and "WP" if it is 1000 or
greater.
You should then enter a "." and your
four-character password.
If you used a "." to
separate your membership number from your password,
the password characters will be echoed back to you as
underscores (".) • If you use a comma or some other
character, you will see each password character
followed by an underscore. Note that all lower-case
characters you type will be echoed back to you as
upper case. This will happen most of the time. The
only time you will see lower case as lower case is in
message summaries and message text and then only if
you have told WAPABBS to send you lower case. This is
explained more fully below.
You have three chances to sign on. After the second
incorrect try, you will be asked whether you want
assistance in signing on. If you have not logged on
successfully after three tries, a brief message will
be printed, and you will be allowed to leave a 238­
character message for the SYSOP. In entering this
message, use the carriage return only at the end of
the message.
4. At this pOint, WAPABBS will load into its
memory its recollection of how you like certain
For example, WAPABBS remembers whether you
things.
need linefeeds, whether you want lower-case charac­
ters, whether you want some text in 80 columns, and so
on.
These characteristics are selected by the "U"
command, described below. You will then be told the
message numbers of all messages for you:
WELCOME TO WAPABBS. The following messages are FOR YOU: 10 30 73
5. Next you will see the current date, the date
of the most recent bulletin, and the date you last
signed on:
It is now: 84/10/14 17:46:30
Last bulletin update: 84/10/12
You last called on 84/09/30 at 7:35
The bulletin is a short message from
matters of general interest that all
read. Note that the last time shown is
the nearest 6 minutes. Of course, the
sign on the system, the date you "last"
be incorrect.
January 1985
the SYSOP on
users should
approximate to
first time you
signed on will
contd.
Washington Apple Pi
6. You will then be asked whether you wish to
read the bulletin. If you say no when you mean yes,
you can use the .p. command to retrieve the bulletfn
later.
7. The ABBS will next give you the ·COMMAND?"
prompt, which allows the user to enter any of the
ABBS' commands.
The commands for the main WAP board are: (Other WAP
boards may have a subset of these commands.)
Any number from 1 through the largest message
number allowed on the board, currently (10/14/84) 255
on the mafn board - To retrieve a specific message,
enter the number of that message. You will then see a
two-line summary with the message number, the WAP num­
ber of the sender, the WAP number of the recipient,
the date the message was entered, and the subject of
the message. After a short pause, the ABBS will then
list the message.
If the message is addressed
specifically to you, you will be asked whether you
wish to delete it.
Note that it is poss1ble to have a message to one
person open to all to read. These messages have a
colon between the "to" and the user number of the
recipient:
to:WAP538
Messages that are pr1vate have a blank space between
"to· and the user number.
A - (Amend a message in memory) After a message
has been entered using the "E" command (see below),
portions of it may be changed using the "A" command.
The ·A· command g1ves you access to all of the editing
features of the ·E· command's Ed1t mode. After you
enter the message number, you will be g1ven a chance
to list the message prior to ed1ting it.
B - (Bulletin boards)
Th1s command lists the
telephone numbers and locations of other computer bul­
letin board systems, principally in the Washington,
D.C. area. This list is kept as current as possible,
but computer bulletin boards - particularly private
ones - are often ephemeral. Please let the SYSOP know
of any changes that should be made.
C - (Chat with the SYSOP) Occasionally the SYSOP
will be available to come to the ABBS to give help,
advice, opinions, or just to chat. When you use this
command, you will be told whether the SYSOP is "avail­
able" or "not available." These do not necessarily
correspond with the SYSOP's physical presence, because
often he or she may be in but unable to come to the
If the SYSOP is in, you can ·call" him or
keyboard.
her by causing the ABBS' Apple speaker to sound.
Continue using the ABBS, and the SYSOP will come to
the keyboard and cut in. Chat mode can be ex1ted at
your cammand by enter1ng ctrl-C or ctrl-K.
D - (Delete a message)
Once you have read a
message d1rected specif1cally to you, you will be
asked 1f you wish to delete it.
Delet1ng messages
frees up the space for yourself and other users.
Also, if a message of yours has gone unanswered for a
month, delete 1t yourself. Only the sender of a mes­
sage, the rec1p1ent (in the case of a private mes­
sage), and the SYSOP can delete messages. Period1cal­
ly the SYSOP deletes all messages more than several
weeks old.
E - (Enter a message) When entering a message,
you will f1rst have to designate the recipient.
You
can send it to the SYSOP, in which case the ABBS will
convert it to the SYSOP's WAP number (currently
WAP53B), to a particular individual, us1ng the stand­
Washington Apple Pi
ard form WAPnnn or WPnnnn (for WAP numbers 1000 or
higher), to All, or to cancel the entry of the message
(C). If you send a message to an ind1vidual, you will
then be asked whether you want the message to be
private or open to all users to read. If you respond
.p., the message will be private and no other users
can read the message; otherwise, everyone can read 1t.
You then enter a short summary of the message, not
exceed1ng twenty characters.
This summary may be
entered using lower case characters (see ctrl-l
below).
'
You then enter the text of the message, which may be
up to 10 lines of up to 39 characters per line.
You
will be prompted with the line number before each
line.
If you are in 80-column mode (see "+", below)
and not us1ng the abbreviated prompts (see K, below),
you will see a 11ne showing you how long 39 characters
would be. To end the message before the loth 11ne,
just enter a return. When you get to 10 lines, you
will be asked whether you w1sh to cont1nue the
message.
If you say "Y", then the message will be
continued automatically. After you have entered the
message, you w111 be given a chance to start over or
edit the message if you respond "N" to the question
"Save to disk?" (Note that if you have continued the
message from another message, you can edit only the
last message. To edit earlier parts of the message,
use the "A" command.)
If you decline to save the message to disk, you will
then be asked if you wish to edit it, re-enter it from
scratch, or cancel the entry. If you select "E", you
will be asked whether you wish to edit the name of the
recipient, the summary, or a item selected from the
message. The line will be listed in its current form,
and the cursor will return to the first character of
the line. Use the right-arrow to copy any characters
you do not wish to change. You may also add a line to
the message, up to a total of 10 lines.
After you have edited the line, you will be asked
whether you wish to edit another line or save the mes­
sage.
Note that if you are using the "A" command,
re-entering or cancelling the message both have the
effect of deleting the message.
S - (Goodbye)
"S" will disconnect you from the
If you fail to enter a character for about 7
system.
minutes when the ABBS expects you to enter a charac­
ter, you will be automatically disconnected. WAPABBS
will ask you a question to make sure you do indeed
wish to hang up.
H - (Help)
Enter "H" to see a short list of
available commands and control characters. This list
is also printed in response to any non-legal command.
like other messages, it can be terminated with ctrl-C
or ctrl-K.
The "I" command g1ves
I - (Instructions)
explanations of available commands much 11ke this
Th1s 11st1ng has more deta11 than does
descript10n.
the AH" cammand listing.
K - (Knowledgable user) Users who are fam111ar
w1th the system can use the "K" cammand to shorten the
printing of many prompt1ng messages. Thus,
for
example, "COMMAND?" becomes "1".
l - (List messages) Use this command to review
all messages sent to you or to All (whether w1th "ALL"
or as open private messages). You may use the "l"
command to list all messages within a certain number
of days of SYSDATE, all messages, or all messages
entered s1nce the last time you signed on. Zero days
would retr1eve messages entered on the same date only.
After each message is 11sted, if the messages file is
not full, you will be given the opportunity of
contd.
January 1985
25
responding to the message, finding out who sent the
If the
message, or going on to the next message.
message is to you alone, you will be asked to delete
it.
To skip to the next message during a listing,
enter ctrl-O.
M- (Meeting notices)
"M" lists all meeting
dates, times and places for Washington Apple Pi and
the Special Interest Groups. Tutorials are also
listed.
N - (Nulls)
As discussed above, some systems
require the insertion of linefeeds, which move the
cursor down a line without returning to the left
margin.
Some systems also require "nulls," which are
delays after carriage returns in order, for example,
to allow the printer head to return to the left
margin.
Insertion of linefeeds and the number of
nulls may be examined and set bt the "N" command. You
must have linefeed insertion on" in order to have
delays after carriage returns. You may also set a
delay factor to slow up transmission of each character
Note that entering a
using a "SPEEO=" command.
linefeed (ctrl-J) at any time also automatically
begins sending you linefeeds. Linefeeds can be turned
off only with the "N· command. See the au· command
for another, better way to have WAPABBS give you
l1nefeeds.
o - (Opinion poll) Because Washington Apple Pi
is a users' group, the opinions of members are of
importance to the group. The Opinion poll is intended
to sound out users' opinions on questions of interest
to the officers of WAP. It also serves as a survey of
members' interests and experiences with computer hard­
ware and software. The question is usually changed
weekly. Results are discussed in the Bulletin file.
Pinitial
bullet in
step 5
asked .if
(Print bulletin) The "P" command prints the
signon messages that give the date, the last
date, and the last time you signed on. (See
of the signon procedure.) You will also be
you wish to "Request bulletin?"
Q - (Quick summary of messages) "Q" lists only
the numbers of messages to you, to a", or from you,
all in chronological order, and gives the total number
of messages currently in use. The maximum number of
messages currently allowed on the main board is 255.
You will then be asked whether you wish to flag mes­
sages for reading in full. This is identical to the
"S" command discussed below, except that only the
message number and the summary are displayed.
R - (Recipes)
This is WAP's attempt at organ­
ing a recipe exchange among members. USing it is very
much like downloading a file, except that a recipe is
usually much shorter. See the description of "X·
below, or better yet, just try it and see what hap­
pens.
If you wish to contribute a recipe, please let
the SYSOP know.
S - (Summary of messages) "S" is perhaps the
most useful and convenient way to retrieve messages.
In fact, if you use "S·, you may never need to learn
anyone's membership number to send messages. ·S· will
first ask you how far back you wish to search for
The choices are the same as in the "L"
messages.
command.
You will then be asked if you wish to flag
messages for reading in full. WAPABBS will list the
two line summary of all messages within the specified
number of days. Entering "0" will retrieve messages
from "today· only.
The summary lists the message
number, the WAP number of the sender, the recipient,
the date, and a 20-character summary of the subject.
(We are planning to introduce more characters into
this header that will give more information, such as
whether the message has been read by its recipient.
See the "I· file on the bulletin board for further
26
information.) If by the end you have flagged at least
one message for reading in full, you will be asked to
hit return, and the entire text of the flagged mes­
sages will be listed using the aL" command. You can
skip the listing of a message using ctrl-O, and if
message space is available, you can enter messages.
U - (Update User Record) Any computer bulletin
board system must cater to a variety of different
systems, but because each user generally calls from
the same type of system, the computer - not the user ­
should keep track of how the user likes things.
"U"
does this for WAPABBS. WAPABBS will tell you the cur­
rent settings for:
a. 80-column display vs. 40-column display.
"+" command.)
b. Linefeeds after carriage returns.
ctrl-J commands.)
c. Abbreviated
command. •
or
complete
prompts.
(See the
(See the "N· and
(See
the
"K"
d. Transmit lower-case characters as lower case or
translate lower case to UPPER CASE. (See the ctrl-L
command .)
For each of these options you will see the current
setting and be asked whether you wish to change it.
Note that ·U· does not have an immediate effect, i.e.,
it will take effect only the next time you call in.
W- (Who is on the ABBS) To find out the name
that belongs to a WAP number or the WAP number associ­
ated with a name, use the ·W· command. After choosing
which type of search you want, enter either the first
two letters of the name or the WAP number. A search
of a match for a name can take several minutes.
X - (Xfer [Transfer] files) The file transfer
subsystem has its own set of instruct ions, li sted in
response to an "H a command once inside the file trans­
fer subsystem.
The other command is aD· for "down­
loading. a (The opposite of downloading is uploading,
which would refer to sending a program from your
computer to the ABBS's computer.) There are essen­
tially two ways of retrieving files: as text files
captured in the memory of your terminal program, or by
loading them directly into the memory of your D.C.
Hayes Micromodem-equipped Apple ][, ][+, lie, or IIc.
If you do not have a Micromodem, you must have a
terminal program in order to download effectively.
When you have selected downloading, you will first be
given the menu of files available for downloading, the
type of file it is, along with a short remark about
each file, which will usually say how long it takes to
download the program. Tell the ABBS whether you have
a terminal program or whether you are using a Micro­
modem I I or lIe without a terminal program. If you
say you have a terminal program, the ABBS will simply
send the file without any control characters. It is
the responsibility of you and your terminal program to
save the file to disk. If you do not have a terminal
program and are using a Micromodem, the ABBS will send
your Apple a ctrl-R, which should force the modem to
exit its internal terminal program so that the file
will be loaded directly into your App le' s memory. If
the file to be downloaded is a program, the ABBS then
does an "FP" or an "INT" and waits in case your Apple
needs to load the proper BASIC from disk.
It then
lists the file and, when the listing is complete,
returns you to the terminal program by poking the
appropriate value in the FLAGS byte of your Micro­
modem:
January 1985
POKE PEEK(1784)/16+1912,138
contd.
Washington Apple Pi
PEEK(17S4)/16 is the slot number in which the modem is
located, and slot+1912 1s the location of the FLAGS
byte.
One hundred th1rty-eight means that the M1cro­
modem will send in full duplex (12S), w1th the term1­
nal program on (S), plus the value that tells the
Micromodem to respond to your keyboard commands (2).
The ABBS will then give you final instruct10ns on how
to save the program to disk.
Upload1ng f1les 1s more complex. Users desiring
send a f1le to the ABBS should contact the SYSOP.
to
$ - (Pr1ces on products ava1lable through group
purchase)
"$" w111 11st the current products avail­
able to members through WAP's group purchase program,
and the latest ava11able price 1nformation. No guar­
antee of accuracy of either prices or products 1s
made.
Requests for items should not be made through
the ABBS. Contact the appropr1ate people at the WAP
off1ce.
+ - "+" toggles an SO-column mode for users w1th
SO-column boards or printers. If your system has SO­
column capability, you can use this command to display
some text on one line that would normally take up to
two lines. Entry of material is not affected, and is
always as if you are in 40-column mode.
Note that
what the "+" command actually does is to change every
other carriage return in most file listings into a
space.
? - "?D lists the letters of all available com­
mands.
Use 1t when you don't need to see the short
descr1ption listed 1n response to the "H" command.
These control characters are also supported:
Ctrl-C or ctrl-K (up-arrow on the lIe or IIc) act
as ctrl-C normally does 1n BASIC: to stop whatever is
Ctrl-C and ctrl-K will return to the
going on.
COMMAND? prompt. They are enabled once your password
is accepted, so that you need not wait to see if you
have any messages. On some occasions, such as dur1ng
downloading, ctrl-C is temporarily d1sabled.
Backspace (ctrl-H or left-arrow) erases the last
character from your screen.
Ctrl-J (down-arrow or linefeed) enables linefeed
insertion.
In this respect, it serves the same func­
tion as the "N" command, although it does not set or
change the delay following carriage returns.
Ctrl-J
may be entered anytime the ABBS expects 1nput from
you.
If linefeed insertion is off, there will be no
delay following carriage returns. Ctrl-J may f1rst be
entered when the ABBS asks you to DENTER A CARRIAGE
RETURN:".
To see whether linefeed insert10n is
active, use the "N D command.
Ctrl-L toggles lower case translation. If you
wish to send and receive lower case, you must enter
ctrl-L at some pOint. (As w1th ctrl-J, no carr1age
return is required. Thus, you may enter ctrl-L and
another command on the same line. Lower case is only
allowed in message text and subject summar1es. At all
other t1mes, lower case will automat1cally be trans­
lated into upper case before it 1s echoed back to you.
Ctrl-O allows you to stop the 11sting of a
message during the mult1ple-message 11st1ng commands
(L, Q and S).
Ctrl-S temporarily suspends any 11sting, almost
exactly as it does on an Apple ][ with the Autostart
ROM.
Type any other character to resume. The ABBS
expects you to decide when you want to suspend a
11st1ng.
Washington Apple Pi
Right arrow (ctrl-U) retr1eves prev10usly-erased
characters.
Ctrl-X behaves exactly as it does 1n normal Apple
][ line input: it cancels the 11ne be1ng entered and
allows you to retype the entire 11ne.
This program undergoes continual modificat10n and
improvement.
Thus, certain aspects of the operation
of WAP's bulletin boards may have changed by the time
you read this. These changes may be significant, so
keep up with the WAP Journal for details.
One of the more frequently-asked questions is how to
get an ABBS session printed on paper. If you have a
terminal program, the instructions should tell you how
to print while online. If not, this technique works
on a Micromodem II and may work on other modems as
well:
<Ctrl-A><Ctrl-X><RETURN> PRll<RETURN> <Ctrl-A><Ctrl-F> The first line exits terminal mode, the second line
act1vates the printer, and the third line returns you
to term1nal mode.
Note that when printing, particularly when pr1nting
with a parallel printer, you may lose the first
character or two on each line. Th1s is because the
Apple 1s DtalkingD to the printer but not "listening"
to the modem. Use the "N" command to give you delays
after each carriage return or to slow down trans­
m1ssion.
In many respects, however, you may f1nd it
easier to save a session 1n memory using a terminal
program, and print out only those portions that need
to be preserved 1n hard copy.
As has been noted above, many people have difficulty
in getting through to one of WAP's bulletin boards.
The ma1n WAP board gets about 19 000 calls a year.
The ·peak hours· are in the evenings, although S:OO
a.m. to 10:30 a.m. is also quite busy. Indeed, about
the only time you could get it without at least one
busy signal is 2:00 a.m. to 6:00 a.m., but even th1s
cannot be guaranteed!
To get around th1s problem, many WAP members arrange
to have their computers dial the bulletin board's
phone number repetitively until they get a connection.
Terminal programs such as ASCII Express - The Pro­
fessional have ·macros" that allow th1s. A (relative­
ly) simple Applesoft BASIC program that will do the
same thing 1s:
Q$ ~ CHR$ (17):Z$ = CHR$ (26):0$ = CHR$ (4)
SL = 5
N$ = "9S6-S0S5"
PRINT D$;DPR'"SL
PRINT Q$;N$
X = PEEK ( - 16250 + 16 * SL)
X c INT (X I 4)
IF INT (X I 2) = X I 2 THEN FOR J = 1 TO 2000:
NEXT: IF INT (X I 2) a X I 2 THEN 140
90
FOR J = 1 TO 200
100 X = PEEK (12 * 4096): REM READ KEYBOARD
110 IF X > 127 THEN POKE 12 * 4096 + 16,0:
PRINT D$"PRIO": END
120 NEXT
130 GOTO 50
140 PRINT D$;"PRIO·
150 FOR J = 1 TO 5
160 PRINT CHR$ (7);
170 NEXT
ISO PRINT
190 PRINT D$;"BRUN REMEMBER II SLOT 5": REM ADJUST
FOR YOUR TERMINAL PROGRAM
contd
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
SO
January 19S5
27
Note that this program will occasionally yield a
·false positive,· i.e., it will think that the other
end answered when in fact you actually got a busy
signal.
This is a function of the modem hardware and
is difficult to avoid. The program has not been known
to give any ·false negatives,· i.e., it does not fail
to detect carrier if it is actually there.
B~
WAP policy also prohibits the use of its ABBS's for
the furtherance of illegal acts, including particu­
larly the illegal copying of copyrighted software.
Disciplinary action may be taken against a member who
violates this rule.
Finally, while it is not formal WAP policy, please be
very careful when discussing the solution to "puzzle"
Others on the board have the
or adventure games.
right to discover solutions for themselves and not to
have their pleasure cheated by being told the solu­
tions.
As a general rule, please do not offer hints
or clues unless in response to a specific question.
When responding to another member's question, please
make your response a private message.
A copy of the current version of the WAPABBS 1.1
software is available from the club as Disks 121 and
You must have all three disks. To run the
135-136.
system, you will need the three disks with the WAPABBS
software on them, an Apple ][+, lie or an Apple ][
with either an Applesoft ROM card or a 16K card. You
will also need two disk drives (you may be able to get
by with one but you will not be able to use many of
the informational files), a D.C. Hayes Micromodem II,
and, optionally, a printer and a clock card. This is
not a simple program, and will require extensive
knowledge of BASIC and at least a limited knowledge of
assembly language in order to use the program effec­
tively.
The disks are fully documented with line-by­
line explanations of both the BASIC and Assembly
Language code.
The SYSOP usually checks his or her board once every
other day or so. In addition, particularly if you are
not in the Washington, D.C., area, I can also be
Et
reached at MCI Mail mailbox TWARRICK.
Calendar Program contd. from pg 23
10030 POKE 216,0: PRINT DS;"OPEN";FS;M;" ,L";L
10040 FOR K = 1 TO MD(H): PRINT O$;"WRITE";F$;H;",R";
K: PRINT" a;: IF K < 10 THEN PRINT·";
10050 PRINT K; "
.: NEXT
10060 PRINT D$;"CLOSE": GOTO 100
10070 POKE 216,0: IF PEEK (222)
< 6 THEN PRINT
"DOS ERROR OF TYPE "; PEEK (222): INPUT "PLEASE
SEE YOUR MANUAL. PRESS RETURN WHEN READY."
10080 GOTO 10030: REH FILE DOES NOT YET EXIST; OK TO~
INITIALIZE
UL
"TI-lE=_ PR I rlT
Bob
WAP Policy
WAP policy prohibits commercial messages on its
bulletin board systems. ·Commercial· messages are
those offering items for sale or soliciting customers
other than for casual sales or purchases. The SYSOPs
have the authority to delete commercial messages from
the boards. Offers of employment or messages seeking
employment are permitted on the WAP Classifieds board
only.
C(~RE..f
T("e:xLe:r
Having learned from Leon Raesly at the October meeting
that "The Print Shop" was a pretty neat program, I
visited my local Crown Books and bought a copy.
However, my experience with it is mixed. The program
works as advertised; and while it takes a long t1me to
do one page of just about anything, what you get is
pretty good looking and easier to come by than by
trying to do it with HGR and HPLOTs. My problem, and
maybe yours, is that the documentation supplied with
1t does not give fair warning about the backup disk­
ette procedure.
Broderbund Software states that you may make one
backup copy, and that you should do th1s during the
"LOAD" of the original by pressing ESC. There is no
warning that any other means of copy will preclude
making a backup copy. Unfortunately for me, I tr1ed
to make a backup by other means. When that did not
work, I went back to the manual to find out what the
"official" procedure was. Again, unfortunately for
me, when I attempted to follow the procedure, it did
not work.
Whether it ever works, I cannot now say.
If anyone knows what the backup procedure is after you
hit escape, I would be interested in knowing too.
My purpose in wr1t1ng this small cautionary note 1s to
say that: Yes, it 1s possible to run "The Print Shop"
without bothering to read the manual, but you had
better read it if you don't want to be cheated out of
~
a backup as I was.
mr~RT
HELP WANTED
Tutors Wanted - lie, IIc, Mac - for Upper Montgomery
Good
County, Fa1r Oaks VA, DC, and Silver Spr1ng.
pay.
Hours arranged at your convenience. Share your
expert1se and earn extra SSS. Call (301) 596-0707,
COMPUTER TUTOR, for further information.
Programmer Wanted - Production company seeks student
for few hours programming on Dec-Hate II.
Need
customizat10n to job cost accounting program already
written.
Is in H-BASIC, CP/M operating system lan­
guage. S15 - S20 an hour. Must be able to revise one
particular section to our needs and enter into comput­
er.
Completion needed by year's end.
Call Lori
Harrington or Tom Bentz, Jack Morton Productions, 1825
Eye Street, NW, 296-9300.
Wanted: Typist with a Macintosh to share in the
production of one or more books for pub11cation.
Prox1m1ty to Alexandria would be helpful but not
critical.
Please call Bob at (703) 370-2525.
Leave
message w1th answer1ng serv1ce if not at home.
Clerical Position ope(")- can be fUl(l)or part t1me.
Call Mary Ann Forman, W 442-7900, H 241-1216.
~
28
January 1985
Washington Apple P1
.~
PI
.5 I G nE.lJJ5
Ra~mond
-
'*******~**~~****~«~~*«~~*»~~**~*****~
1-10 b b s*=
=
*
PI SIG meets at the Woodmont Avenue WAP off1ce on the
second Monday of each month, at 8:00 P.M. *=
*=
**
=
**
=
We are also so11c1t1ng responses from those of you who *
would be 1nterested 1n see1ng a repeat of our Assembly *
language tutor1a1s.
If the interest is there, a =
ser1es of Al tutor1a1s w111 be announced soon.
*
A note on lOTUS ' JAZZ for the Mac: The announced *
release of Jazz, by lOTUS Development Corporat10n, has =
been met with a great deal of enthus1asm by those who *
have been waft1ng for a spreadsheet w1th more clout *
than M1crosoft's Mu1t1p1an. While the 5-app11cat10n *
JAZZ (spreadsheet, database, word processor, graph1cs =
and communicat10ns) sports plenty of clout, don't sell *
yourself on the 256 x 8192 cell spreadsheet size - you *
wonlt get to use even lOS of itl JAZZ is a SYMPHONY *
(for IBM-PC) 100ka11ke. S1nce the Mac (even the Fat =
Mac) has less memory than a full-blown PC, and s1nce *
Mac ' s res1dent operat1ng system takes up considerable *
more real estate than does PC DOS, we are betting that *
you ' 11 wind up getting less spreadsheet space on the =
Mac than on the PC - to be spec1fic I we think that a *
256 x 256 cell spreadsheet will bomb, even before you *
load data into it (whether or not a cell has data in *
it, if it is part of the active window of the spread- =
sheet, it has a couple of bytes of RAM allocated to *
it).
If JAZZ pages RAM into and out from disk in *
order to beat the space 1 imitation, look for a S-l-O-W *
running package.
We will discuss the lOTUS spread- *
sheet products at our next meet 1ng. For those members =
who have an itch to find out something more about the...
December' s meet1ng was held at chez Hobbs I 1n order to
have a 11ve demonstrat10n of mus1c synthesis. (NOTE:
as th1s 1s be1ng wr1tten, that meeting 1s st111 a week
into the future.) The two synthes1zers used are the *
Alpha Syntaur1 16-v01ce add1t1ve synthes1zer and the
Mac1ntosh 4-v01ce square wave synthes1zer. For those...
of you who m1ssed out on the performance, please
contact me somet1me 1n the next month, and weIll try
to arrange another demonstrat 10n.
Apple or Mac 1nternals, or merely to brush off some
old systems programming skills, you are invited to
attend the next (January 14) meeting, ask questions,
or just tune in to the ·shop talk" about what 1s g01ng
on inside those micros.
For more
do), call
992-4953.
*
*
**=
..
informat10n on PI SIG (who we are, what we =
Ray Hobbs (301) 490-7484 or Mike Yore (301) *
FREE SHIPPING =*
=
*
=
*
*:
:It OF EPSON PRINTER
#*
**
i
*********************
...
=
EPSON MX 80 FIT PRINTER
359 *
**
EPSON FX 80 PRINTER
459 =
*
MITAC DISK DRIVE (100% APPLE 159 *
COMPATIBLE, SHUGART 390)
*=
MITAC DISK DRIVE CONTROLLER
45 *
=
:i*******************1
PRINTER CLEARANCE
*I FREE
PRINTER I/F
:* CARD WITH PURCHASE:*
16K RAM CARD Z-80A CARD PROFESSIONAL JOYSTICK(AUTO
CENTERING) FOR APPLE REGULAR SYNCO 12 II AMBER MONITOR (18
MHZ) VERBA TIM DA TALIFE SS/DD DISK
(10 PACKS IN SOFT BOX) DIABLO 620 PRINTER (FLOOR SAMPLE) MEMORY CHIPS FOR IBM (4164,
200 NS, SET OF 9) MICRO STAR COMPANY
P. O. BOX 2J07 COLUMBIA, MD 21045
(J01) 7JO-7172 ...
*
=
...
=
:
...
=
]f)st1t s
IJSPPJ!
...
*
*
70 =
*
**
*=
*
12 *
=
90 *
**
=
20 *
**. .
:
CALL *
**
44:
**
*~
19
*
~=
...
=
**
=
...
=
JOYSTICK FOR APPLE
40
*=
*
:
*.=..
Terms I Add $1.00 handling t'ee per
order. MD residents add 5% tax.
...
Personal or company checks allow 2 =
weeks to clear. COD accepted hy M.o. +
or cashier check only(ndd $1.65 COD
charge).Prices are subject to change:
without notice. Q'ty is subject to
...
availability. MC & VISA CUSTomers
add ).5" surcharge. Manufacturer or =
MSC warranty provided.
...
=
=
.***************************************
Rity
Washington Apple Pi January 1985
29
TI-iE.
From WP3587
phone lines
BE.5T OF
LUI~P
I~
r-­
to
t e.xan cJe.
ALL
Oate a lO/24
Subject:
Noisy
Anyone know how to fix (or get the phone company to
fix) noisy phone lines. My line has become impossible
whenever it rains. HELP! HELP! HELPI
From WP2243
phones(R) to:WP3587
Oate a lO/25
Subject:
noisy
I~BB5 zine (some believe it has already "arrived)."
So,
some relief for ex-Softalk junkiesl
Tom Warrick
From WP4609
Kaypro
to ALL
How's
buck?
From WPl095
noi se
From WAP286 to ALL
A.P.P.L.E. orders?
Oate=10/26
Subject:
phone
Call phone company maintenance dept and tell them you
have water in your outside pole mounted junction box
and expect to have it fixed, otherwise threaten to
call the Public Service Commission of your state/area.
From WP5l8l to ALL
From a Mac
Oate=11/03
Subject: Apple 2 ?
Subject:
IIc
vs
As for actual cost vs. money's worth, it appears that
Kaypro might give more for the money PLUS easier
carrying IF you need something that·s portable. This
is just a guess •••• if anyone knows differently,
please comment. Thanks
We had (have) a similar problem here at work, and the phone company has been working on it now for 3 years.
(and that was even back before the break up when you
still could get service.) Problem is usually ground
water leaking into an underground or above-ground
cable somewhere and is usually very hard to track
down. Brett
to:WP3587
Oate=11/08
From WP2243
Kaypro
to :WP4609
Oate=ll/08 Subject:
IIc
vs
about a good used Osborne for more bang for the
Oate a ll/05
Subject:
Call-
I ordered Spreadsheet from Call-A.P.P.L.E. three weeks
ago but haven't received it yet. Is it usual for
their order system to take so long?
From WAP286
Spreadsheet
to:WP1500
Oate=1l/18
Subj ect:
THE
As one who joined Washington Apple Pi as a Hac owner,
I am curious as to why you use the characters "][" and
"II" to mark your Roman numerals rather than "II". I
am a late-comer to the Apple scene, so I don't know
the story behing this. Please explain.
Thanks for the info on the Call-A.P.P.L.E. delays. I
finally did get The Spreadsheet, but I am having some
problems with it.
It starts dropping a bit in my
displays and gives me ASCII characters 8 less than I
put in occasionally. It also blows up when I ask it
to do report functions. Any ideas? Alan
From WP4772 to:WP5181
From WP1468 to ALL
H,II
Oate=11/04
Subject: Where from
I believe that the ][ and II come from the models that
they originally came from, the ][ from the first Apple
H, and the II from the Apple /Ie. It allows for
quick 10 of the particular model. Hope this helps.
Chip ....
Fom WAP208 to:WP5l8l
use revealed
Oate=11/04 Subject:
][ & II
The original Apple II's logo was the Apple )[.
The
Apple Ill's logo was the 'Apple III.' With the Apple
/Ie 'e' for 'enhanced,' Apple changed to Apple /Ie,
to make it easier for typesetters, I presume, and to
promote uniformity between the 'II' series and the
'III' series. Is that confusing enough?
From WP3lll to:WP5181
Oate=11/04 Subject:
][, II
The original Apple 2 computer had APPLE][ as its
written name on the case and all reference material.
The APPLE ][+ was the next model. When the Apple 3
came out, slashes were used, Apple III, and the
~'QchQ~
were carried over to the next Apple 2s, the
lie and the lie. nther companies seem to like calling
all sorts of things the IH1~ II or THAT II; Apple goes
with ][ and /I.
From WAP538 to ALL
A+
Oate a ll/03 Subject: SOFTALK &
I received a letter today from A+ that said that my
Softalk subscription would be fulfilled with A+, which
many (incl. me) believe to be an up-and-coming maga­
30
Oate=11/08
Subject: VisiCalc
Does anyone know if there is a version of VisiCalc
that has individually variable col. widths and runs on
an Apple ][+?
From WP3502 to:WP1468
Oate a ll/08
Subject:
VisiCalc
Ultraplan is a VisiCalc type program that is compati­
ble with VisiCalc and VC files. The commands are very
similar.
Ultraplan offers variable col width.
Eric
Rall
From WP4795 to:WP1468 Oateall/lO
FlashCalc
Subject: VisiCalc­
The new program FlashCalc for which you would no doubt
soon like to have ProOOS to run has variable col
widths plus some other updated items. If you have
VisiCalc you may be able to get FlashCalc for $50.00
by sending them a letter. VISICORP 2895 Zanker Rd, San
Jose, CA 95134 asking for the program.
Include a
copy of the bill of sale for the original program or
the warranty registration card and a Check for $50.
You may check with Computer Learning Tree in Annan­
dale.
A salesperson said they could sell the new
program to me for the same $50 - this may have been
incorrect so call them first. Good Luck---Bob Wood
From WP2825
update
to All
Date=ll/lO
Subject:
VisiCalc
Yes, there 1s a Vis1Calc w1th 1ndependently variable
column w1dths.
Computerland of Woodbridge had a
V1siCalc d1splay board that had a $50.00 upgrade kit
during Sept and Oct. I suspect the offer has ended by
contd.
January 1985
Washington Apple Pi
-
now, and you'll have to pay full prfce for the kft,
but I got one and ft fs unreal to be able to do so
much more wfth ft. It runs on my ][+'s and the IIc.
My wffe uses ft at work for statfstfcs and data
reductfon. (Sort of drfvfng a Cadfllac to a hamburger
stand, eh?). Anyway, ft's avaflable and ft works.
Jerry
From WP4099 to All
Mfcromodem
Date=11/11
Subject: AE Pro on
I recently purchased a Mfcromodem lIe wfth Smartcom I.
The software works ffne but I would lfke to use AE
Pro. The problem fs that AE Pro does not access the
speaker, or tone dfal. Is there a way to reconffgure
AE Pro to do thfs? Do newer versfons offer access to
these functfons? Thanks. John Klecker
From WP1755 to:WP4099 Date=11/11
Mfcromodem
Subject: AE Pro on
I bought a T-plug for the back of the Mfcromodem and a
mfnf-amplfffer speaker from Radfo Shack for about $10.
I modfffed the cord for the speaker usfng a capacftor
on one lead and ft works just lfke the Smartmodem.
From WAP538 to ALL
jofn CompuServe
Date=11/13 Subject:
How to
I've ffnally decfded to take the plunge and
CompuServe. What fs the cheapest way to do so?
Warrfck
jofn
Tom
From WP5531 to:WAP538 Date=11/13 Subject: Gettfng on
CompuServe
Tom, you can buy a CompuServe starter kft for about
$40.00 whfch gets you a user's gufde and 4 hours of
300 baud connect tfme. Any other questfons leave me a
msg as I have a CompuServe membershfp.
From [YOU]
128K lie?
From WP2243 to:[YOU]
lie
a
From WP1830 to [YOU]
Date=11/15
Subject: Compuserve
From WAP538 to:WP5181
From WAP017 to:[YOU]
lie
ROBiNS INC~/.,Y
~/"
The Small Computer
Equipment Store ~
Wash1ngton Apple p(
-­
10 megabyte ­
$1 ,295.00
20 megabyte ­
$1 ,949.00
30 megabyte ­
$2,439.00
PERCOM HARD DISK DRIVES
PERCOM DATA now has a Hard Disk System for your Apple II
and lie. The PHD provides innovative 5'1. mass storage technol­
ogyand is available in 10,20, and 30 megabyte models to allow
for maximum use of disk space. And of course, the PHD supports
such popular Apple operating system software as PRO DOS.
Apple DOS 3.3, CP/M, CP/M Plus and APPLE PASCAL. Call us
for more information on this reliable Hard Disk System.
ALSO AVAILABLE
*
10 Megabyte Tape Backup .......... $999.00
Apple Interface Kit ................. $119.00
Macintosh Disks (from Brown) ....... $41.95
.
SSDD $14.90
Bulk Pack Diskettes .......... DSDD $16.50 XON/XOFF
The ABBS supports XON/XOFF from your end, 1.e., when
you send a Ctrl-S (XOFF) the ABBS waits for you to
type another character. The ABBS does not 1tself send
XOFF.
Inc1dentally, there 1s a bug 1n the Mac's
ser1al routines that makes XON/XOFF not work.
Pro­
grammers must use a RAM driver to get around th1s.
Don't know wh1ch Microsoft BASIC uses. Unfortunately,
CMD-S is 1ntercepted by MS-BASIC & is not transm1tted
Date=11/22 Subject: 128K for
There are a variety of extended 80 col. cards for the
lIe wh1ch w1l1 add an additional 64K. The Club group
purchase offers 80/64 cards from M1cro-Sci and Applied
Eng1neer1ng.
The latter company also offers an ex­
pandable card - The Memory Master - wh1ch allows ad~­
ing 128K to the motherboard RAM.
\t
*
Date=11/06 Subject:
128K lIe
As other people have sa1d, you must have an extended
80 column card. You can buy the Apple one or another
good answer would be the one from Micro-Sci. I have
Micro-Sci and it works just 11ke the one from Apple.
Last t1me I was at The Comm Center in Laurel they were
selling them for just $99.00.
A good buy. Any
questions just ask.
Scott Rullmann
For $20
got an out-dated, v1rtually contentless
manual and 1 free hour from Rad10 Shack. I then spent
$30 and got 5 free hours, and a good manual from BEST
Products.
wI Mac
Datea 11/15 Subject:
Subject: CompuServe
Hf Tom, (never m1nd the above tftle - poor joke). You
can ffnd a cheap join-up package at most Rad10 Shack's
in the area. It's lfke $19 w1th 5 free hours to see
1f you're 1nterested 1n CompuServe's servfce. Next,
you can enter your MasterCard number after you s1gnon
by whfch CompuServe w111 b111 you and then sends you
the User ' s Gu1de. Its really, really easy. - Chuck ­
From [YOU] to:WAP538
Best Buy
Date a 11/14 Subject: 128K Apple
The only way to get a useable 128K lIe 1s to get the
Apple ext 80-col card or one of its clones. All of
those 128k programs look for that card, and without ft
you can have the th1ng stuffed w1th RAM cards 1n the
other slots, but still only have a 64K Apple as far as
they are concerned. Sorry.
Brett
B. Dalton's carrfes a $40 package whfch gfves you 5
'free' hours of tfme, and fncludes the docs to formal­
ly sfgn up. Don't know ff ft's the cheapest way, but
ft's one of the easiest.
From WP3542 to:WAP538
Wants You
Date a 11/14 Subject: How get
to ALL
What 1s the best way to upgrade my trusty old 64K lIe
to lZ8K? I have Appleworks in mind especially, also
Applewr1ter.
Not a Fat Mac maybe, but just a husky
helper.
=Alexander-
From WAPZ08 to:WAP538 Date=11/14 Subject: CompuServe
Package
.
Date 11/14
Tom Warrick
to the other system.
Hours: Monday thru Friday 9:00-5:00 • Saturday 10:00-2:00
8304 Hilltop Road
Fairfax, Virginia 22031
560-5900 UPS Shipping
FOB Fairfax, Virginia
560-7888 Call us at or Specialist in personal computer supplies and equipment
January 1985
31
I mPRO'v' I nG I<.E.. YBOARD U5E..
COmpUTE.R 5Y5TE.rn5 LOGO l
Where and how can this change be made in Logo?
By
using a disassembler written in Logo (Apple's built­
in monitor disassembler works on Logo code only up to
$CFFF and there's lots of Logo code on the 16K card)
and a hex search also written in Logo. I determined
that the keyboard input routine was written on page
$B5.
(The disassembler therefore was not really
needed.)
The search amounted to looking for refer­
ences to $COOO. the keypress address. So far. so
good.
I could break in there. go off on an excursion
to some quite unused corner in memory and write a few
lines capturing all apostrophes and semicolons and
transforming them into Logo friendly symbols and
finally return to from where I came.
The problem was in finding an unused corner
very crowded Logo interpreter. After some
in the
looking
10 FIX
STEPI 768 :PROGRAM.FIX .IIE
STEPl
ItILLBUFF
THE
768
THE
THE
TO STEPI :ADDRESS :PROGRAM
IF EMPTYP :PR06RAM [STOP]
.DEPOSIT :ADDRESS HEIDEC fiRST :PROGRAM
STEP I :AODRESS + I 9F :PROGRAM
END
THE ADDRESS IS IN DECIMAL
PIITS ANY CODE LIST AT ANY ADDRESS
10 STEPl • DEPDS IT 46565 0 • DEPOSIT 46566 3 THIS EFFECTS A JUMP (REALLY A
JSR) OUT OF THE LOGO
INTERPRETER TO SlOO, AN EMPTY SPOT
TO KILLBUFF • DEPOSIT 46364 HEIDEC '4C
.DEPOSIT 46365 HEIDEC 31,
.DEPOSIT 46366 HEIDEC '85
END HERE IS THE CODE FOR A JUMP OYER
THE SECTION OF CODE THAT STORES KEYSTROKES AT SlOO TO SllF THE TYPE-ANEAD BUFFER. TO
IF
IF
If
If
IF
IF
OP
CONVERTS A SINGLE HEX DIGIT TO
DECIMAL
EKG
CONY :NUM8U :NUM8ER • 'F COP
:NUMBER • 'E [OP
:NUM9ER • '0 [OP
:NUM9ER • 'C [DP
:NUMBER • '8 [DP
:HUMBER • 'A [DP
:NUM8ER
15]
14]
LOGO fe.Fe.r The Apple lie's keyboard was not designed with Logo
users in mind. Logo frequently requires colon and
quote signs which have to be accessed by pressing two
keys. the shift key and the key with the colon or
It is rather easy to get around this double
quote.
key press; on the lie the colon shares the same key as
the semicolon. and the quote shares the key with the
apostrophe.
If one were willing to sacrifice the
apostrophe. the lower case of the quote key. and to
sacrifice as well the semicolon. lower case of the
colon key. we could get what we wanted with one key
press.
Because I neither wanted nor needed the apos­
trophe or semicolon I did not make provision for their
access.
With just a bit more complexity these two
symbols could be restored. even taking the original
places of the colon and quote. But what follows will
be clearer by far if that embellishment is left as a
reader exercise.
END
on
PROCEDURE THAT DOE S IT ALL
IS S300 .... :PROGRAM.F11 .IIE IS
LIST OF HEI CODE THAT DOES
J08 AT SlOO
about. our old favorite piece of real estate. $300.
was determined to be the start of the type ahead
buffer. Why not kill the buffer provision (by right
or eminent domain) and use that area for our own
devices?
In fact. the type ahead buffer can be a
hinderance. especially within procedures containing
the READ CHARACTER primitive. I use the READCHARACTER
technique to force a PAUSE-UNTIL-KEYPRESS while the
screen is being read by the program user. If a key is
held down too long (automatiC repeat on the lie) or
keypresses are made during a wait (the Logo primitive
WAIT) these keypresses are stored in the buffer.
If
another PAUSE-UNTIL-KEYPRESS is called for later in
the program the result is disaster; pages of text
flash by beyond control of the user.
The KILL BUFFER procedure provided below will force
Logo to jump over the code that stores the (extra)
keystrokes at $300 to $33F. Any keypress beyond one.
when that procedure is active. will result in a bell.
and that's all. (Under certain circumstances this
KILL BUFFER procedure will also serve as a software
solution to an auto-repeat key problem in the lie.
See Washington Apple Pi. June 1984. for a hardware
solution.)
Here is the plan: Protect $300 to $33F from being
overwritten; this is PROCEDURE ••• KILLBUFF. Write
code at $300 that will substitute the colon for the
semicolon; this is PROCEDURE ••• STEPt. Get into the
original Logo code and intercept any keypress with the
substitution routine at $300; this is PROCEDURE
STEP2.
The definitions of the procedures and lists used:
TO UNKILL
.DEPOSIT 46364 HEIDEC 'C9
.DEPOSIT 46365 HEIDEC I .DEPOSIT 46366 HEIDEC 'FO RESTORES THE TYPEAHEAD BUFFER PROVISION EKG
TO UNFIX
.DEPOSIT 46565 HEIDEl 'EA
.DEPOSIT 46566 HEIDEl '95 END UNDOES FIX (BUT DOES NOT TOUCH THE KILLBUFF EFFECT) :::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: I::::: ::::n:z::::: n::::::: u:::::n
Enter the fIrst 6 procedures
:PROGRAK.FIX.IIE AND RUN FIX •
above and
the
lht
UNFIX and UNKIll are Included for those that .. Ish
orIgInal, pure, unadulterated Logo •
to
defInitIon
return
of
to
the
:::::::::::::: :::::: :::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::
For those .. ~nt Ing to exa<llne the Logo code that ..as changed, here is
orIgInal Logo code on page SB5.
--) B5E420
85E790
B5E960
I/e .. til copy these hlo Itnes (and
--) 85EAAD
11]
_e) 85EDthe prograCl's loglcl at S300
10
10]
_e) B5EFI/e .. til come back here
C9
after we are through at SlOO
BSFI30
EKG
85F349
95F549
TO HUDEC :NUM9ER
CONYERTS TVO DIGIT 85F7C9
HEI NUMBER TO DECIMAL I F SF :NUMBER . ' COP CONY FIRST :NUMBER]
95F900
OP 116 • COllY FIRST :NUMBER) • COllY LAST :NUMBER B5FBA9
END
B5FD00
B5FFC9
MAKE ·PROGRAM.FIXIIE [AD 0 CO 10 OF C9 89 00 1 A9 8A C9 A7 DO 2 A9 A2 4C 8601DO
EF IS 18 60] 8603A9
8605l8
(THE ABOYE IS THE HEX CODE THAT
860660
SUBSTITUTES COLONS FOR SEMI­
860719
COLONS AIID SO ON.)
B60960
32
one
I/e ..111 cut In here and go to SlOO
131
12
January 1985 EA 85
F3
00 CO
16
EO
02
20
80
53
04
58
06
11
02
5C
JSR
BCC
RTS
LOA
8PL
CMP
BHI
EOR
EOR
CMP
BNE
LOA
lINE
CMP
lINE
LOA
SEC
RTS
ClC
RTS
the
$85EA
$8607
$COOO
$8607
ISEO
S85F5
1$20
1$80
1S5E
S8605
1$58
SB60S
'$II
S8605
ISSC
contd. on pg 33
Washington Apple Pi
CI-iAnG I nG
A
InTE.RnAL5
f E.W
LOGO
VE..R510n Of
l
fe.Fe..
The reference manual for the Logo Computer System
version of Logo makes few references to locations
within the code. Occasionally I have found that I
wanted to change things about a bit, and that would
require changing the original code. Some of these
changes and their locations might be of general
interest.
The next few paragraphs will (1) outline methods to
avoid the exclamation pOint at the end of a line, (2)
describe how to change the prompt, (3) provide a non­
flashing cursor, and (4) provide the addresses which
allow changes to the text window.
deposit line in a procedure. Other cursors are avail­
able. The underline is becoming fashionable.
(4) THE TEXT WINDOW ADDRESSES
A programming convenience not provided by this version
of Logo is that of being able to restrict the text
screen window. Here are the default parameters and
addresses:
HEX
The use of the 'I' as the 40th character of a line
more than 39 characters long is useful when making or
examining complex procedures. Long lines, with the
-different- logic from that of many small 1nes, are
made visible.
It is, however, a pain to behold as
screen output, especially when that output is to be
viewed by those not familiar with Logo.
A method to avoid these mandatory exclamations is to
have a space ($20) printed instead of the 1($21). The
routine for providing a terminal I is on page $88. At
$8848(47176), if $20(32) is substituted for $21 this
patch is accomplished. To implement this directly in
Logo without a permanent effect, have certain proced­
ures defined in this form:
TO WHATEVER
.DEPOSIT 47176 32
PRINT [ANY LONG LINE. EVEN MORE THAN 40 CHARACTERS]
.DEPOSIT 47176 33
END
In this way. the I is preserved for use in the Editor
and only specified procedures make use of the patch.
(2) THE PROMPT
The Logo prompt outside the Editor is the _?D.
Spe­
cial circumstances may dictate another prompt. perhaps
more procedure oriented; if music enhancements have
been loaded the percent sign might be used as the
prompt.
Ordinarily $3F(63) is at $E75C(59228).
Merely .DEPOSIT 29228 64 (or 93 or 60 or your choice).
These custom prompts can be overdone.
(Note 1) The ability to write to the 16K card is some­
times disabled. Page $E7 for Logo (the page contain­
ing $375C) is on the 16K card and if the above
.DEPOSIT is not successful enable a write to page $E7
with .DEPOSIT 49291 0 repeated twice. After this you
can .DEPOSIT 59228 64. for example.
(Note 2) To find the code for the prompt I had to
examine page $E7. The ROM monitor is of little use in
seeing any code beyond $0000. This is because the
.8PT primitive does not access Logo's code from $0000
to $FFF because this code is located on the 16K card
and .8PT reads the motherboard ROM only.
For this
reason I examined Logo's code by writing disassembler
procedures in Logo itself.
(3) NON-FLASHING CURSOR
ADDRESS
DECIMAL
NORMAL CONTENTS
HEX DECIMAL
$342
(834)
0
(0)
BOTTOM $343
(835)
$17
(23)
LEFT
$344
(836)
0
(0)
RIGHT
$345
(837)
$27
(39)
SCREEN TOP
(1) THE EXCLAMATION POINT
Example: To make the window exclude four lines at the
top and ten lines at the bottom of the screen, type in
the following:
.DEPOSIT 834 4 .DEPOSIT 835 13
Make your .DEPOSITs with care to avoid conflicts; left
window-edge to the right of the right window-edge
s ells disaster. Improving Keyboard Use on LCS Logo contd. from pg 32 STEP2 will have this effect on the above:
85£4-
20 00 Ol
JSR
$300
TAKE A DETOUR TO $JOO
Here 11 what wu written In lIIachlne langulge, Ind subsequently trlns­
forllled Into the list :PROGRAH.FIX.IIE. Loot It the 2nd, lrd Ind 4th
colu",ns on the left Ind cOlllpare to the list :PROGRAH.FIX.IIE.
30030l305307l09lOBlOD30F311314315
AD 00 CO
10 OF
C9 88
00 02
A9 BA
C9 A7
00 02
A9 A2
4C EF as
18
60
LOA
8Pl
CHP
BIlE
LOA
CHP
BIlE
LOA
JMP
CLC
RTS
$COOO
$0314
un
$OlOB
U8A
UA7
$Olll
UA2
UsEF
REAO A KEY
KEY NOT PRESSEO - START OVER
IS IT AN APOSTROPHE?
IF NOT SUP NEXT SUBSTITUTlflN
SUBSTITUTE A QUOTE
IS IT A SEMI COLON?
IF NOT SKIP MElT SUBSTITUTION
SUBSTITUTE A YUOTE
GO BACIC TO OR SINAL LOGO CODE
IIhat about a provision that allows us to access other
prograllls? Cons Ider the following code:
300l03305307l09lOC300
lOl
AD
10
C9
FO
4C
18
60
60
00 CO
07
A6
05
EF 85
LOA
8Pl
CMP
BEQ
JMP
CLC
RTS
RTS
$COOO
$030C
UA6
$030E
UsEF
Nchlne
langulge
IS IT AN AMPERSAND?
IF SO THEN EXECUTE CODE AT $JOE
PROYIDEO $030E STARTS A ROUTINE
Once the abOft 15 bytes ha" been entered (,nd don't forget KILLDUFF and
STEP21: 111 If another MIL routine Is Installed It UOE (782) containing no
Clore than the rClClOlnlng 50 b,tes of the fOrCIer TYPE-AHEAD 8UFFER, Ind (21
In Il!IperSind Is typed In ""fie In Logo, th.n (ll thlt MIL rout Ine at UOE
will be executed. If no routine Is so pieced th.n the' Ind Its CAlL Ire
Ignored (except for I bell). Of course, we Clnnot use the IClpernnd for
In other purpose once It has been so dedicated.
As In ell4l11ple, the following sO\lIl coll,ctlon of 10 by tel will caule
Inverse output, one letter It a tillie, provided that the a.. perSind hIS been
pressed flrlt. To get an Inwerse-T, press the' tey Ind th.n the two teys
<Control) and Thy at the slCle tlCle. Until this Is done any other hy
will be Ignored.
The keypress after the Inverse-T Is shown on the screen will
un less It too Is preceded by an ampersand.
To obtain a non-flashing cursor change $B5C4 from $40
to $0 by typing .DEPOSIT 46532 0 or y including that
Washington Apple Pi
TI-iE. lOE­
lll31l315-
January 1985
AD
C9
10
4C
00 CO
98
F9
F7 85
LOA
CHP
ePL
J"P
$COOO
$98
$30E
$85F7
be
nomal
IS THE KEYPRESS A CTRl CHARACTER?
NO. WAIT FOR ONE
GOT ONE, NOli RETURN TO ORIGINAL LOGO
33
PROGRAmminG TI-fE. 65C81Z12/816
'_alU (" e. nee.
l-f
u s
Being somewhat of a purist and a snob, I scoffed at
IBM when their PC was introduced as a "16-bit·
microcomputer system. The thought of a chip with 16
bit wide internal registers tied to an 8 bit wide data
bus seemed absurdly wasteful. After all, how could you
fit two people through a turnstile designed for one?
In the three years since the PC's introduction,
marketing seems to have prevailed over engineering
sense, and now even Apple uses the size of a micro­
processor's internal registers as the bit size of the
machine (thus the Mac and Lisa are "Apple 32s").
While there are other important numbers to consider in
evaluation of a personal computer, it is often the
amount of RAM and the word size which make a splash
with the buying public and press. By these ·stand­
ards· then, my old Apple J[+ is obsolete beyond
belief!
At only 8 bits and 64K, it is small and slow
(never mind that it runs rings around my IBM for those
functions where it really counts, like word processing
an~ graphics!)
The IBM PC is a 16 bit computer capable of using up to
640K of RAM. (While it uses an 8 bit data bus, which
slows it down considerably ••• see BYTE, it is still
advertised as 16 bit.) The Mac is a 32 bit machine
with up to 512K, and the Lisa is 32 bit with up to 1
Megabyte of RAM.
If all of this sounds like silly one-upsmanship,
that's because, in large part, it is.
What really
counts is the computer's usefulness to people, an area
where it's hard to beat Apple. However, there are
times when a little faster crunching, or a little
bigger spreadsheet would be nice •••
Enter the 65C816/65C802
Just
when you thought that your good old Apple J[,
or IIc was obsolete, a designer named
William Mensch has rescued it from the trash heap.
The rescue comes in the form of a couple of new
microprocessors with a very respectable family tree.
][+,
lie,
The 65C802 is to the 6502 as the 80C88 is to the 8080.
While that analogy is absolutely useless to 99~ of all
readers, it is, nonetheless, true. The 8080 is an 8
bit chip (most used in early CPIM systems before the
Z-80 took over the world.) Intel's follow-up act was
the 8086, a 16 bit chip which shared many of the
characteristics of the 8080. Another member of the
family is the 8088 which is 16 bits wide internally
but is able to use the older 8 bit wide data bus. It
is this 8088 chip which is the heart of the IBM PC and
most of the compatibles.
The ·C" in the middl e denotes the process used in
making the chip. Older chips (those in the Apple l[,
J[+, and lIe) are NMOS (N-channel Metal Oxide Semi­
conductor).
These are relatively fast and easy to
make.
The newer type of chip is CMOS (Complementary
Metal Oxide Semiconductor) which is harder to make,
but just as fast, and uses lots less electricity! The
Apple Ilc uses a 65C02, which is a CMOS 6502. That
chip uses about 1~ of the electricity used by the
older NMOS 6502 in most Apples. (By the way, other
chips are also made using CMOS, so that machines which
can run for long periods on batteries, and can keep
their memory chips (RAM) on all the time can be prac­
tical.)
34
cl<..
The 65C802 is a 16 bit chip internally, but communi­
cates with the rest of the computer via an 8 bit wide
data bus. The most exciting thing about the chip is
that all of its pins are identical to those of the
6502 or 65C02 in your current Apple! That's right,
take out your microprocessor, and plug in a new one
with more horsepower, with NO changes to the machine.
Of course, at this stage of the game, you'll have to
write programs to take advantage of the added compu­
tational power, but in the meanwhile, the 65C802 will
look to the Apple just like your old 6502, or rather,
like a 65C02 since there are some minor differences
between the chips. (These are not a problem for 99%
of the software on the market. Only super strange
protected stuff which used un-documented commands of
the 6502 will fail to run. However, if it runs on the
Ilc, it runs on a 65C802.)
The 65C816 is a slightly different chip from the
65C802 in that some of the pins differ from the 6502.
These pins, however, allow some real magic.
First,
the 816 can address 16 megabytes, not 64K like the
6502. This tremendous addressing capacity is achieved
by putting an extra eight bits of address information
in "bank registers· and placing this address informa­
(During
tion on the 8 data lines by multiplexing.
certain times, lines 00-07 have data on them and at
other times, they become BAO-BAl, the bank address
lines.)
The information which is used on these bank
address lines is contained in three new registers in
the 816 chip - the X Data Bank Register, the Y Data
Bank Register, and the Program Bank register. These
registers are 8 bit extensions to the X, Y, and
Program Counter Registers respectively.
Other additions to the internal registers include an
extra 8 bits of Accumulator, and a 16 bit "Direct
Register".
This register allows the 816 to have the
equivalent of 6502 Zero-Page addressing mode, but over
the ent ire fi rs t 64K of RAM! Since the zero-page
addressing mode is one of the reasons for the 6502's
speediness in comparison with other 8 bit micro­
processors, the direct register's expansion of this
concept should allow comparable performance in the 16
bit mode.
Finally, one more bit is present in the processor's
status register. In addition to the standard flags, a
new one, the E (Emulation) flag is present. This flag
is "stacked" over the Carry flag, and indicates
whether the 816/802 is to appear to be a 65C02, or a
16 bit processor. If the flag is set (1) the chip
looks just like an 8 bit 65C02. However, if the E
flag is cleared (0), the chip becomes a 16 bit pro­
cessor. (The new instruction XCE, eXchange Carry with
Emulate does this.) Other new flags include the Index
Register Select (X) and Memory Select (M), which tell
the processor whether to use 8 or 16 bit registers and
memory addressing. (Of course, in the 806, the M flag
is inoperative due to its 16 bit address bus limita­
tion.)
Some of the pins which make the 816 really perform
are: Valid Data Address (VDA) and Valid Program
Address (VPA) which allow cycle-stealing DMA: Abort
input which stops the execution of any instruction
without changing any memory address or internal regis­
ter:
Vector Pull (VP) for impl enent i ng vectored
interrupt designs.
contd.
January 1985
Washington Apple Pi
BRA
BRL
COP
JML
JSL
-
Branch Always
Branch Long
CoProcessor Instruction
Jump Long
Jump Subroutine Long
­
-
W65SC816 Proceuor Programming Model
Memory to Memory Move Backward
Memory to Memory Move Forward
Wait for Interrupt - Standby Mode
stop the Clock - Standby Mode
Exchange Accumulator MSB with LSB
Exchange Carry with Emulate
MVN MVP
WAI
STP XBA XCE
Finally, the 816 has 11 new addressing modes to com­
plement the 6502's 13 original modes, and has some new
and very powerful instructions:
More on programming
installment. the
65C802/816
in
the
next
Pin Configuration
r-------­
L__ .! !'!S__ ::!:::;::;8=8='T=S:::::=!~::;::1=8='T=S:;::=!
r
oaiaea~
Reg
x ReglSl8f HI (X) X RogISI8f Low
L __ J~~)__ =!:==I=X=H)==:!===I=XL=)=~
f5aiaBri A~
Y RegISI8f Hi
REB
(Y) Y Reglsler Low
~:: ~~~)= = :::!:==(=YH=)==:!===(Y=L)=~
I
IRQ
VDA
MIX
o211H)
Accumulalor
iii:
NM!
E
(A)
VPI\
Slack Regisler HI(S) Slack Reg Low
(SH)
(SL)
00
L _______ ~:;::::::::;:::=!:::;:=~:::
Accumulalor (C)
(B)
rogram Bank Reg.
IPBR)
Counler
IPel)
StatU8 Register Coding
EMULATION 1 =6502
CARRY
ZERO
IRQ DISABLE
DECIMAL MODE
INDEX REG. SELECT
MEMORY SELECT
OVERFLOW
NEGATIVE
13UG .5
pr~RA5
Voo
l ' TRUE
l ' RESULT ZERO
l ' DISABLE
1= TRUE
1 =8 BIT. 0 =16 BIT
1 • 8 Brr; 0 = 16 BIT
1= TRUE
o110Un
IRQ
Voo
DO
01
02
D3
D4
D$
DVBA2
A2
DliBAl
A2
Al
M
D41BM
DSiBAS
D61BAS
Al
M
AS
AS
A7
AS
Ai
AID
All
D7/BA7
All
All
AU
AU
AID
All
vu
AS
so
OOIlH)
NC
NC
AO
AI
A7
AU
OZIOUl)
NC
HMI
SYNC
DOIBAO
DI/BAI
AO
AI
AS
AS
STATUS REG.
(P)
BE
Vu
RDY
AI2
De
D7
AU
AU
AU
A12
Vu
1 = NEGATIVE
& OTI-i~R
I TE.5
APPLEKDISK DRIVES $150.
Direct crlve, TEAC mechallsm, 112 Ht.
The following is contributed by Michael Hartman:
There is a small error in the ATTACH document ion from
Apple on PIGO:. In the file DOC.l.TEXT, under section
A, Character-Oriented Devices, point 5, the stack for
CONSOLE: status should look like:
CONTROL WORD
POINTER TO STATUS RECORD
RETURN ADDRESS
MACRO CARD
2nh~~C2n
$15.
128k RAMCARDs $150.
GRAFIX-PRINT Cards + 32k BUFFER $160
<--TOS
Also, on PIG4:, the PASCALZAP program has a bug which
prevents patching in values between $01 and $OF on a
disk.
A new version of the program is available at
PIG meetings, and a revised WAP library disk will be
available shortly.
Et
Washington Apple Pi
kRyboand
70 FIXED function keys, 120+ USER DEFINED,
128 KEY TYPE-AHEAD BUFFER, nACRO DISK FILES,
APPLESOFT AND CPtn; for Apple II & 11+.
January 1985
" 15110lS lID 41 un SIB $].
SYSTEMS SERVICES CO.
HERNDON,
VA 22010
x co A e
1125 SHANNON PLACE
(103) 435-3896
35
V I E.W.3
AnD
RE. V I E.UJ.3 Ra~mond 1-10 b b s This month's reviews consist of a potpourri of
stock i ng stuffers, plus a coupl e of real workhorses
(better wrap these up instead of stuffing them in
socks!).
LETTER PERFECT (LJK Inc.)
This one is thanks to a small blurb Lee Raesley put in
the WAP Journal for October '84, in which he put us
all onto one of the best deals I have seen for getting
a good piece of software for a great price. Refer to
Lee's article for details on how to order LETTER
PERFECT (or one of its companions) at a $50 discount ­
almost 50S offl I did so, and I'm writing this column
on LETTER PERFECT right now.
LETTER PERFECT is yet one more entry into the word
processing arena.
Now, a word processor is only as
good as its ability to keep up with the user - that
is, if you find yourself fumbling for keys, or waiting
an interminable time for some textual operation to
take place, the package belongs on the shelf, not in
RAM.
Being an old hand with Wordstar, I am comfort­
able with a particular set of commands for cursor
placement and text block operations, so I didn't look
forward to learning another command set.
Happily,
LETTER PERFECT's commands are both logical and easy to
learn - plus LJK includes one of the best Quick­
reference cards I've seen (command orientation on one
side and keyboard orientation on the other).
The
package is full-featured, including cursor placement
by letter, word, line, paragraph, page, block and
file, and insertion/deletion is just as precise. Text
block operations (move, insert, etc.) are also Quite
powerful, as are reformatting and printer control
commands.
LETTER PERFECT includes a spelling checker with a
one-disk dictionary, which works well for most appli­
cations (technical writers will have to know how to
spell their own jargon, though). If a word is unknown
to the dictionary, it will try to find a match through
phonetics - usually it's a pretty good guesser.
The only gripe I have with LETTER PERFECT is its
inablil1ty to load in blocks of text from several
files.
LETTER PERFECT works in native Apple mode, 40
or 80 column, and is menu driven. All parts (Editor,
File Handler, Printer, etc.) are resident at all
times, though you'll have to insert the dictionary
disk to check spelling. However, if you happen to
have only one disk drive, it is quite handy to be able
to boot the system with LETTER PERFECT and then take
out the program disk and replace it with your data
disk.
You can put the program disk away, as a matter
of fact - LETTER PERFECT truly needs only one disk
drive to operate efficiently.
LETTER PERFECT is not
copy-protected, so you can make a backup disk for a
working copy of the program.
RECORD MASTER (Bridget Software Co.)
My thanks to Valus White for his review of RECORD
MASTER. The review was so complete, I'm putting it in
just as he wrote it.
RECORD MASTER, by Bridget Software Co. of Silver
Spring, Md. is billed as -The complete data base
system for Apple computers·. I decided that the pur­
pose of my review was to explore the completeness of
36
the software and make a stab as to how ·suitable· it
might be to 1) the casual user, and 2) the profession­
al user.
I began my analysis by reading the documentation cover
to cover. The book comes in an 8 x 11 format with the
pages bound to permit use with a copy stand. The type
consisted of a variety of sizes and shading to empha­
size chapters, main point and plain narrative text.
The booklet has a table of contents and an index; an
abstract of Record Master's features appears on the
back cover.
The physical layout of the book itself
made it very easy to read. Instructions on how to use
the different commands, cautions and hints were plain­
ly laid out. The manual was clearly geared to a non­
technical person unfamiliar with the software, and led
the reader by the hand, explaining what each command
does and what the user is supposed to do in order to
get the desired result. I value good documentation as
and aid to productivity and as a courtesy to a custom­
er.
Clearly, a great deal of thought went into the
manual.
After reading the manual, I put it away for a week,
then blindly began to work the software.
Friendly
software can be used without constantly referring to
the manual, and I had only one major problem in that
regard: I had trouble redefining the record structure
of a file. It was necessary to go back to the manual
for that.
In addition, designing report formats
requires practice and reading, practice and reading •••
The manual points out that there is such a variety to
the report formats one can develop, the procedure can
take more time to learn than the other procedures in
Record Master.
For the most part, however, using
Record Master was very easy.
Here is my list of positive and negative attributes:
+ copyable, DOS 3.3.
+ Written in Applesoft
and machine language using
overlays.
+ Password protection actually works.
+ Compatible with the entire Apple II series.
+ Can repeat previous field when doing data entry.
+ Can restart data entry for a given record.
+ <ctrl>A rather than <ctrl>C cancels add records
function (in many packages, <ctrl>C is the cancel
command) •
+ Update or change each field, one-by-one, or en masse
(by global search and replace).
+ Deletes can be either automatic or prompted (to be
sure you really want to delete the data).
+ Uses Shell-Metzner sort, which means that sorting,
while not the fastest, is fairly quick.
+ Sorts are either ascending or descending (user
selectable).
+ Sorts up to 10 fields at once.
+ Data types can be character, numeric, date, dollar
or computed (add, subtract, multiply, divide) to
produce other fields.
+ Printer defaults support Epson printers only;
however the documentation describes several ways
that other printers can be supported.
+ Data is stored in regular DOS TEXT files, which
means they can be transmitted to remote computers
via modem, or edited by a word processor.
+ Does averages and other calculations (in addition to
those mentioned above).
+ Special features for mailing labels.
+ When you have completed your work for the day, the
contd.
January 1985 Washington Apple Pi
program w111 ask you for todayls date plus a com­
ment. Th1s 1s a good feature, espec1ally for ma1n
ta1n1ng aud1t tra11s and records of f11e updates.
+ Seems to be -at home- w1th e1ther 1 or 2 d1sk
dr1ves; no swapp1ng of d1sks 1s necessary (data can
be wr1tten on the program d1skette).
+ Can store up to 750 one-hundred character records
per d1skette.
- S1ngle letter commands should not requ1re the
<RETURN> key to be pressed.
- Default responses are marked w1th an apostrophe;
they would be eas1er to p1ck up 1f they were 1n
1nverse pr1nt 1nstead.
- Under the -VIEW- opt10n, there 1s a continuous pr1nt
feature wherein whole records are scrolled by at
about 1 per second, which is too fast; however, the
user can use another feature to manually scroll
records.
- When asked for file statistics, Record Master will
give you memory left, disk space left, and other
technical details; however, as a user, I want to
know how many records I can fit into the machine.
- When you mess up, Record Master tells you -ERROR HAS
OCCURRED-, and refuses to let you back out; it
should also tell you what you have done wrong.
- Every time you get an opportun1ty to specify files
(such as when initially asking for the file to be
worked on), the program should give you a catalog of
files to choose from.
- Record Master does not use indexing. Indexing would
speed up the sort process, but storing the indices
could create a space problem on the diskette.
My final comment is concerning suitability.
Record
Master would be more than adequate for keeping track
of checkbooks, collections, inventories and so on.
With some ingenuity, 1t could be used in a small busi­
ness, certainly in a classroom (and in fact, Bridget
says that it has been used by the Department of
Defense).
I think that it competes with dbase II
(which is 1n the CP/M environment) for most file
management and basic data base applicat10ns. (* RFH
Note: dBASE II is programmable, though.*) I believe
that $49.95 for this program would be very well spent.
System requirements for Record Master are 4BK or 64K
Apple ][, ][+, lie or Ilc, lor 2 disk drives, DOS
3.3, Printer (for reports only).
HACPROJECT ( Apple Computer, Inc.)
MacProject is a project management tool from Apple
which tracks your projectls progress task-by-task from
beginning to end (or, alternatively, from end to
beginning!).
For those of you who have trouble
getting organ1zed, MacProject should be on your MUST
list - not your WISH list. MacProject runs on a 12BK
or 512K Macintosh, and outputs to the Imagewriter
printer.
You begin by defining those tasks which have to be
done in order to complete the project, 1n terms of
resources used (time and personnel). Th1s is done by
first drawfng a rectangle a la MacPaint, typing in the
task (inside the box - MacProject will default the
cursor there for you), then accessing a resource
screen to enter the resource data. If you draw the
box too small for all the text to f1t in, not to
worry.
MacProject has all the text, and you can
enlarge the box by dragging a corner. Want all the
task boxes to be the same size? Easy. Just duplicate
your first box umpteen times to get umpteen identical
Each box will be just like the first, sans
boxes.
text.
After you have entered all your tasks and
resource data, line up the task boxes in order of
dependency, from left to right (by dragging, of
If you run out of screen, scrolling is
course).
automatic in all directions. Connect dependent tasks
Washington Apple Pi to the tasks upon which they are dependent by dragg1ng
from INSIDE the box on the left to the box on the
right.
If some tasks are independent of the others,
they may be drawn underneath or above 1nstead of to
the right of other tasks. In other words, you may
pretty much design your own chart. MacProject will
calculate the time at wh1ch each task must beg1n, will
print that 1nformation on the chart, and will
determine and ident1fy the cr1t1cal path by making the
task boxes and dependency lines boldface. If you have
m11estone events (and START must be one), MacProject
lets you change a task box into a milestone box, or
vice-versa.
If you have to redraw or rearrange
anything, MacProject will remember all dependencies
and will move the dependency lines correctly as you
drag task boxes from one location to another. Mac­
Project w111 produce PERT and GANTT charts, cost out
projects and allow you to track by resources or by
task. It will also, incidentally, make sure that your
chart 1s printed correctly, no matter how long it is.
In other words, Apple did about everything r1ght 1n
this one.
I really havenlt said anything about the documenta­
tion, but I don't want to neglect that aspect of the
package.
Like the operating system and the MacWr1tel
MacPaint application, Apple 1ncluded a -guided tour­
disk and cassette tape as a tutorial. For those of
you who do not respond well to the sound and light
shOW, the tutor1al appears 1n the manual as well, and
can be used sans cassette tape and gu1ded tour disk.
The tutor1al process, 1n either event, is a snap. The
reference section is similar to that found in the
operating system and MacWrite/MacPaint packages - you
may have to hunt around a bit 1f you are 100k1ng for
an explanat10n of some nitty gr1tty thing. live seen
a lot better reference manuals than those available
from Apple for the Mac. On the whole, though, the
package is quality throughout.
Finally, the price: here I fell down on you. I got
the package d1rect from the factory at a bft of a
discount, so I donlt know exactly what the retail
price will be. I suspect somewhere in the $100-$125
range.
Sorry - shoot me if 11m wrong; but if it were
$150, it would be a bargain IF YOU NEED THE PROJECT
TRACKING FUNCTION IT PROVIDES. One other thing - it
isnlt protected, so you can put your data safely onto
a program disk and work easily if you have just one
drive.
THE ROUTINE MACHINE & CHART (Roger Wagner Publishing.
Inc.)
On occasion we more experienced users forget what it
was like when we were not so experienced. On a hunch,
I gave this package to a less experienced user to see
how much expertise might be needed to use it to full
advantage. The following is Betsy Lewis review, from
the standpoint of a relative newcomer to the Apple
micro community. live added my comments at the end.
Hardware Requirements: Apple IIc or lIe with 64K and
a single disk drive. It also will support double
hi-resolution graphics mode on Apple Ilc or lIe with
extended memory BO-column card.
Copy Protected?
Language:
No.
BASIC
Documentation: The single disk contains a demonstra­
tion of the routines as well as a tutorial.
The
examples in the manual, illustrating various capabili­
ties are fairly easy to follow.
Instructions are
probably easy to understand for an experienced pro­
grammer; however, a certain level of BASIC programming
experience and know-how is assumed. There is no
contd.
January 1985
37
quick-reference card or a reference section.
tionally, the manual is not tabbed or indexed.
Addi­
As described in the manual, the Routine
Evaluation:
Machine Amper-Chart is a series of subroutines which
may be incorporated into a BASIC program to generate
shapes, create pie charts, bar graphs, or plot line
graphs on your own defined X and Y axes, which may be
labeled both horizontally and vertically.
Graphics
can be displayed with associated text and can be
designated for specific parts of the screen. Included
are also routines which will create different back­
grounds and fills (in colors) for the graphics,
reallocate memory to allow for long routines without
interfering with hi-res graphics, store a rectangular
area of the screen into an integer array and then
later restore that area, transfer graphics information
from a hi-res to a lo-res graphics page, and flow­
charting.
This is a good software package designed for the
experienced BASIC programmer who wants to use graphics
routines without going through the agony of writing
them from scratch.
RFH's NOTES:
Betsy experienced difficulty connecting the ampersandroutines to her BASIC program. Although I had no
particular trouble getting the ampersand-routines to
interface properly, upon re-reading the manual I did
become aware that there are several steps which must
be taken in order to connect the ampersand hooks
properly, and a minor slip in anyone of the steps
could very well bomb out the interface. I think that
a beginner can do it, but had better follow the manual
pretty closely. Here, in a nutshell, are the steps:
HUMANFORHS (The Reference Corporation)
The Reference Corporation sent me a demo disk of their
HUMANFORMS package for the Macintosh, at $59.95. Let
me say up front that what it does, it does well, and
it's easy to use. 11m just not sure that what it does
is all that useful.
HUMAN FORMS is a collection of MacPaint files, depict­
ing both male and female figures, unencumbered by
clothing, in a variety of poses by body section.
By
lassoing and dragging the various parts and appendages
to their proper connection point, one can assemble a
picture of a human male or female in virtually any
position imaginable this side of the Kama Sutra.
Since there are little XiS marking the connection
points, it's almost impossible to misplace a limb.
The drawings are very well done, and quite accurate.
Although The Reference Corporation suggests that the
drawings would be very useful in a scientific applica­
tion (Anatomy 101 or something), I believe that any
such application would require reference to bone,
ligament and muscle placement. What HUMAN FORMS gives
you is skin. Now, I have nothing against skin - some
of my best friends possess skin by the raftload. For
that reason, and because I cannot see any other appli­
cation for HUMANFORMS (except perhaps for a doodling
fashion designer), I recommend the package as a
stocking stuffer only for the budding Playboy artist/
Vargas lookalike who does his designing with a Mac.
And what I do with the demo disk is none of your
r--.....l:b~u:.2.s.!.in::.:e=.:s~s~.___________________~=-
LI5A
Additional capabilities of the ROUTINE MACHINE include
windowing, clip-region definition, graphics page flip­
ping, text-on-graphics, text printed sideways, change
plot axes to log or linear, graphic scaling, color
reversal, and a few more. There are also some utili­
ties which may be invoked for use with or without the
ROUTINE MACHINE in place, including zoom-graphics with
or without change curve smoothing, program splitter
and graphics printer dump.
There actually is a reference section in the manual ­
it's not well-marked, though, and it's not very handy
for quick access.
I made a duplicate copy of the
several pages and I keep them handy in lieu of the
manual.
Similarly, there are five orange-colored
pages in the back that index the commands used by the
ROUTINE MACHINE. However, you must know the command
you are looking for in order to use the index.
One last comment - I ran the ROUTINE MACHINE on an
Apple ][+, and can vouch for the fact that it will run
properly (but don1t look for double hi-resl). I think
that this is a great package, and at $39.95 it's a
fantastic stocking-stuffer!
However, keep in mind
that I have several years' programming experience.
Like Betsy said, it's designed for the programmer, not
the new userl
nE..W5
Da~
f
John
1. Boot the program disk.
2. ESCape back to APPLESOFT.
3. Enter "FP" to clear RAM.
4. EXEC the AMPERSAND SETUP program (this estab­
lishes the &-hooks).
5. BRUN the ROUTINE MACHINE program.
6. APPEND and NAME two subroutines (this is menu­
prompted) •
7. Enter your BASIC program code, which may include
the ROUTINE MACHINE-supplied extended commands.
51G
The first meet ing of the Lisa special interest group
took place on Saturday, November 9th at the WAP
office. The turnout was excellent. The meeting was
used to introduce interested Lisa owners to each other
and to get an idea of what each of us has learned
about using our Lisas. The wide range of interests of
the different users included restaurant management,
Macintosh software development, insurance, writing,
accounting, general business and just plain hobbyist
activities.
The result was a better understanding of
who was in the SIG, what the collective Lisa knowledge
level of the group was, and the topiCS that the mem­
bers wish the SIG to pursue.
The general consensus seemed to indicate that the Lisa
SIG should work in the following areas:
1) Collection
of hardware information, to include
technical help on specific pieces of equipment.
2) Collection of software information, to include help
with software packages.
3) Compilation of tips and tricks.
4) Review
and demonstration of new products.
5) Generating
fl eet.
interest
in the Flagship of the
6) Providing
a list of other Lisa
members of the SIG.
7) Writing
Journal.
articles
on
Lisa subjects
owners
for
Apple
to
the
the WAP
8) Providing
information on alternate operating
systems for the Lisa, such as MacWorks, the Lisa
Workshop, and Unix.
contd. on pg 39
38
January 1985
Washington Apple Pi
.~\
Df_~)I<.Tnp
John
--
C.r~I_E.nDAR
F
Da,y
As many lisa owners know. there is a general paucity
of software available for the lisa series of comput­
ers.
Most of us are using the basic programs from
Apple that come in the Lisa 7/7 software system. and
are quite happy with the spectacular performance that
they provide.
Occasionally. however. we yearn for
wider horizons and features that were not part of the
package. This article covers a product that works in
conjunction with the lisa 7/7 software and provides a
significant enhancement to the 7/7 system.
Desktop Calendar is a time management tool for the
Lisa 7/7 Office System. The program is made by Videx.
a name long associated with high quality software and
hardware for the Apple ][ series. Desktop Calendar is
the first venture for Videx into the world of the
Apple Super 32 Family. with the promise of more
products to come in the future. It is an automated
appointment calendar that allows you to keep track of
appointments. hold addresses for easy reference. and
reminds you of important events. Desktop Calendar is
specifically designed to work like any other Lisa 7/7
tool. and has all the normal features found in a
standard Lisa window such as pull-down menus. scroll­
ing controls. and the Lisa editing features we have
all come to love.
Installation of Desktop Calendar is similar to that of
the other Lisa 7/7 tools and is easy to accomplish.
The user is supplied with a pad of Desktop Calendar
·paper" and starts to use the program by tearing a
sheet of calendar paper off the pad. naming the calen­
dar and opening the newly named calendar. Each sheet
of calendar paper has a distinctive icon that makes
identification of a Desktop Calendar document simple.
When opened. the user is presented with a window that
looks essentially like most other Lisa windows. The
Desktop Calendar window is divided into two parts. a
graphic calendar that depicts a normal calendar. and a
calendar notes portion that is used to enter related
notes and appointments about a particular day. The
graphic calendar is sequential for one year and is
accessed by use of the scroll controls.
To enter an appointment pertaining to a certain day.
use the mouse to select the day of the appointment on
the graphic calendar. and then enter the time of the
appointment and the reminder note in the calendar note
portion of the window. Any note in the calendar notes
portion can be made into an audible and visual remind­
er by first filling in the calendar note portion of
the window. and then pulling down the "Reminders" menu
and selecting "Set Reminder" from the reminder menu.
When the time of the appointment reminder comes. the
lisa will stop whatever else it is doing and alert you
with a beep and a visual message on the screen.
For
example. you have an important meeting with your boss
at 2 p.m. on Tuesday January 22. 1985 and you want
your lisa to help you remember it.
First. select
January 22. fill in the time of the appointment in the
calendar notes. type the reminder in the note list
column. and then select "Set Reminder" from the
At 2 p.m. on January 22. your lisa
pull-down menu.
will beep and display the message that you entered.
You are then given the option of canceling the remind­
er. or having it alert you again in 5 minutes. 30
minutes or 1 hour. The reminder feature will work
even if you are working with another of the lisa tools
such as LisaDraw. When the reminder time comes. Desk­
top Calendar will interupt your work to remind you of
your appointment.
Washington Apple Pi
FOR TI-iE. L 15A
There is no limit to the number of notes you can add
to the calendar. as long as you have room on your hard
disk.
The times can be displayed in either 12 or 24
hour formats. and the days can give an optional Julian
date to the side of the normal date. Holidays and
vacation periods can be highlighted to distinguish
them from normal days. A notepad is also built into
the calendar to allow you to put commonly used notes.
addresses. phone numbers. or whatever else you need at
jour fingertips.
There is also a feature called
work-load gauges that puts a visual indicator of work
load in the graphic calendar to help the user distrib­
ute his/her work more evenly through a month.
A
built-in search function allows you to find specific
entries in the calendar notes easily. Desktop Calen­
dar has split screen capability. similar to that of
lisaCa1c. for either the graphic calendar or the
calendar notes.
80th the graphic calendar and the
calendar notes can be printed. though it is not
possible to print the calendar notes in the graphic
calendar itself.
I have used the Desktop Calendar over the last three
months and have been very impressed with its utility
and quality. The documentation provided is excellent.
as I have come to expect from Videx, and is very
similar in style to the Lisa 7/7 documentation.
I have only two minor complaints about the program.
The calendar reminders will not work if the calendar
is put away. I work around this problem by leaving my
working calendar at the bottom of the desktop all the
time, like the calculator or wastebasket. Also. the
cost of $295 seems rather high, although I suspect
that it is a function of expected sales rather than
price gouging.
In summary, the Videx Desktop Calendar is an easy to
use, powerful and welcome addition to the family of
If you have a need to manage your
Lisa software.
time, Desktop Calendar is the product for you.
LISA SIG News contd. from pg 38 The members were encouraged to submit articles con­
cerning the Lisa to the WAP Jurnal. The meeting was an excellent start for the Lisa SIG. The next meeting of the Lisa SIG will be on the 12th
of January, 1985, at the WAP office and will include a
discussion of Lisa operating tips and a software
demonstration.
<t
January 1985
39
TI-IE.. 5 1 21<'
BE.nE.F IT.5 Steve.
mAC I nT031-f
TI-fE.
RE.AL l-f u n t
If you have been following the announcements and
stories about the new 512K Macintosh, you already know
that main memory has been increased four times, that
some applications can work with larger files, and that
you get greater processing speed with some applica­
tions.
There is an additional benefit which may be of even
greater value than the time savings - YOU DON'T REALLY
NEED AN EXTERNAL DISK DRIVE. You can probably save
the cost of buying a second disk drive and yet still
achieve the same performance of a two drive system.
Let me explain why.
What does this really mean to you? Is the added
investment really worth it? Are there any "tricks"
for taking advantage of this added capability? This
article will address these issues and give you a few
suggestions which may help you make up your own mind.
With RamDisk in operation, you actually have the
equivalent of two disk drives - (1) one 'disk image'
in main memory and (2) the internal drive. (If you
have an external drive connected, you would actually
have the equivalent of three drives.)
FIRST SOME BACKGROUND
HOW DO YOU MAKE IT WORK?
To get the most out of the 512K Mac, you really need a
software program called "RamDisk". There are several
versions of this RamDisk in circulation and ads are
already appearing for more powerful versions. (I am
using an unnamed version dated 17 October.) A short
explanation of this program will help set the stage.
The first step is to set up your start-up disk. To do
this, take the existing start-up disk and copy over
the RamDisk icon, the system file, and an application
"Move to Top".
(The system file on the RamDisk
includes initialization routines which automatically
start up the RamDisk application.)
RamDisk is a very small program (about 2K) which
generally resides in the System folder on a disk. (In
addition, the System file has been updated by the
Resource Mover to properly initialize the program.)
When the disk is loaded, the main memory of the Mac is
automatically partitioned into two sections - (1) a
work area and (2) a "RamDisk" area set aside for
copies of application programs and the system folder.
Second, turn on the Mac and load this new start-up
disk.
You will see TWO disk icons on the desk-top
(1) the actual start-up disk itself and (2) an icon
for the "RamDisk".
By moving the applications and system folder into main
memory, the Mac can do everything in main memory and
DOES NOT need to access the internal or external disk
drive except to get or save a file from that disk.
The improved speed of all applications working in this
environment is truely impressive.
THE RESULTS:
With the RamDisk version I am using, the initial set­
up time is about 40 seconds but the time savings once
this set-up is completed makes it well worth while.
For example:
Action
Seconds Required
512K Mac
512K Mac w/RamDisk
Single ~rive
Single Drive
set-up RamDisk
Start MacWrfte
Search for Partial
Word in MacWrfte
Save HacWrite file to
Dfsk
Start MacPaint
Select Paint File from
Another Dfsk
Close Application and
Return to DeskTop
0
19
40
5
3
3
15 *
20
7
7
22 **
5
16
7
Third, select the applications on the start-up disk,
the system file, and AMove to Top" (I draw a "box"
around the files I want to select) and drag them all
to the RamDisk icon. These files are then copied from
the disk into main memory. This transfer takes about
40 seconds but does not require any disk swapping.
select the start-up disk icon and EJECT that
Fourth,
disk.
Fifth, 'double click' on the icon for the "Move to
TopA application. This sets the RamDisk system file
(vice the system on the start-up disk) as the primary
system.
Sixth, insert your data disk. If you want to have
several different data disks available you should
insert and eject each so that they show on the desk
top.
If you intend to get or save files using a
separate disk, you have to insert at least one disk
before starting up an application.
Seventh,
cation.
open the RamDisk window and start an
appli­
NOTE: This seems like a complex process when you read
it but once you try these steps they really come
quite naturally.
(Hopefully, the new commercial
RamDisk products are going to provide an even easier
start-up sequence.)
HOW DO YOU TAKE MAXIMUM ADVANTAGE OF THIS CAPABILITY?
I have arranged my start-up disks as follows.
(All
System Folders include the RamDisk application, "Move
to Top", and the revised System File described above.)
* Required one disk swap
** Required several disk swaps
When using RamDisk you quickly SEE how much faster the
Mac can be - there is very little delay as you take
actions or move between applications. If you find
yourself getting frustrated with the length of time
required to do routine "housekeeping" functions I
believe you will be pleasantly surprised to find these
delays have been largely eliminated.
c ~I
~~
Mac Section contd. -">
40
January 1985
Washington Apple Pi
start Up Disk
Companion Data Disks
Primary Desk-Top Tools
System Folder
HacWr1te (2.0) *
HacPa1nt
Rolodex (from S1gHac Disk 2)
HacWr1te File (**)
HacPa1nt Files (**)
Click Art Disks
SUMMARY
Download/Upload
Files (**)
I think you will ffnd - as I did - that the new
RamDisk application AND the 512k Hac provide a signif­
icant improvement in speed and utility and also
reduces some of the hassle of the "floppy shuffle".
You should try it before you bUYl but I believe you
will find th1s added power 15 real,y valuable.
(t
Communications Tools
System Folder
HacTerm1nal
Basic & Utilities
Project Management Tools
System Folder
HacProject
Project Work
Files (**)
Draw Work Files (**)
Hac Draw
pack the RamD~sk too full, you will have difficulty
opening new files or printing. Try to leave at least
40K of space free in RamD1sk. When setting up your
RamD1sk, select only those applications which you need
at that time (rather than 'select all') and follow the
same procedures above.
* The new disk-based HacWrfte (3.0) is NOT compatible
with my RamDisk version. Perhaps other versions
wfll not have this problem.
** Do NOT install a system on these data disks.
Depending on your needs and desires, you can group
applications on your disks to suit the way you work.
If you plan to do a lot of "cutting and pasting"
between applications, you should group those appl1ca­
tfons on" the same start-up disk to get the maximum
speed.
A note of cautionl You do need to be careful about
the total size of the files you load to RamD1sk. The
memory reserved for RamDisk is 320k. If you try to
exceed the space available, the system will indicate
that there is not enough room on the "disk". If you
.5 I G mAC nE.W.5
b'y .5 t e. v e. 1-1 u n t
Because of the early press date for this issue of the
Journal, the December meeting notes and Q & A will be
delayed until the next issue.
We are trying to schedule a demonstration of JAZZ and
Microsoft BASIC 2.0 for the January 12 meeting at
USUHS.
We are also planning a tutorial on telecommunications
for the Mac, tentatively scheduled for January 19 at
Our Lady of Lourdes School, at 9:00 AM. The cost per
attendee will probably be $10. Please call the office
for further details.
(t
~'I!UD& ELECTRONIC
rW~liU IIAJLII
rp!QI:l
ceu,wm IPRIJPDHt
Ct1D
CilJNJLYI
iJ£VllI !WI WIPIP lLlJft lPllIlJ(clI
Just bring this ad or your club ID to qualify.
OUR SHOWROOM IS LOCATED AT 1042 ROCKVILLE PIKE ROCKVILLE. MD. ~UTURE ~URNITURE
The Complete Electronics Furniture Center
Call
Washington Apple Pi
January 1985
41
1001 Po
TAL~.s
mac
r t
Ro-Ymond
I~
0 b b s
This month we will begin to explore the procedure
calls available in Quickdraw. There is a lot to cover
too much for one article, I'm afraid - but we'll
begin with the same basics as before (grafPorts) , and
continue until we get the whole thing under our belts.
Usfng Grafport Routines
This subset of the Quickdraw routines is used to
generate most of the "MacMagic" we see on the Macin­
tosh screen. There are no drawing or text operations
here, but the basis for wfndowfng, pfcture merging,
and the super-fast Macfntosh graphics response is
contained in Quickdraw's handling of grafPorts. Let's
take a look into how grafPort routines interact with
the graphic entities we defined over the last few
months (see the WAP Journal, October and November,
1984) •
Operatfons on Grafports
InftGraf - A call to InitGraf, performed once at
the beginnfng of a program initfalizes and allocates
storage for the global variables which define the
grafPort pointer, screen size, cursor and background
patterns (a set of five). The initialization results
in the full-size Mac screen with a pointing arrow
cursor, a NIL pointer, and screen patterns of 100~
white, 100% black, 25~ gray, 50~ gray and 75~ gray. A
random seed of 1 is also generated.
Recall that
grafPorts are records defining the display, drawing
and movement of screen areas - the pointer defined in
InitGraf will be used to point to the grafPorts you
use.
OpenPort - This procedure allocates space for a
grafPort, and makes it the current port. Notice that
OpenPort operates on a specific grafPort, whereas
InitGraf operates of Grafports generic.
InitPort - This procedure is used to reinitialize
a given grafPort to be the current port (assuming that
it has been opened previously).
ClosePort - ClosePort releases the space
for a grafPort by OpenPort.
created
Set Port - A call to SetPort makes the grafPort
indicated by the Grafport pointer the active port.
This routine is called by both OpenPort and InitPort.
GetPort - This procedure returns a pOinter to the
active grafPort.
There are two reasons why you may
wish to call this procedure. First, during an inter­
active program, your routines may respond to the AREA
the user is accessing (via the mouse or whatever), so
your program may not need to know what is active at
any given time - only when it needs to respond to user
Second, you may wish to pass the pointer
actions.
along to another routine. Many programmers are used
to doing a considerable amount of housekeeping on
their own (especially with the Apple), but with Mac it
is useful to let Quickdraw do a lot of this type of
work for you.
pOinter to a RAM buffer, the program can draw off­
screen and later zap the image onto the visible screen
area.
PortSfze - PortSize changes the size of the active
grafPort's portRect.
What is changed is only the
portRect active area - what is seen on the screen
remains unchanged.
In other words, this procedure
only modifies that area of the screen in which subse­
quent portRect work will be done.
HovePortTo - Similar to PortSize in that no screen
change takes place, this procedure changes the loca­
tion at which future drawing inside the port will take
place.
SetOrigfn - A call to SetOrigin changes the local
coodinate system within an active grafPort for subse­
quent drawing operations. Again, the screen does not
change immediately.
SetC1ip - This procedure alters the clipRegion of
the current grafPort. A handle is passed to enable
the program to access the new region (which is a copy
of the old). The new clipRegion may be anywhere
inside the grafPort or outside of it.
GetC1ip
This operation is essentially the
reverse of SetClip. The current region is set to the
c1ipRegion of the active grafPort.
ClipRect - This procedure changes the clipregion
of the current grafPort to an indicated rectangle.
Thus, it may be used to move andlor alter the size of
the port's c1ipRegion.
BackPat - BackPat sets the background of the
active grafPort to the indicated pattern. This pat­
tern will fill in behind an image within the grafPort
which is moved or otherwise erased.
Now, let's see some of the things that you can do with
these Quickdraw routines (and also what you can't
do!) :
First, for the can't do's (but keep in mind that we
have only covered a fraction of the available Quick­
draw procedures so far):
1. 2. 3. 4. You can't draw anything on the screen.
You can't write text to the screen.
You can't use the cursor on the screen.
You can't operate directly on rectangles,
ovals, round rectangles, arcs or wedges.
5. You can't operate directly on bit images,
pictures or regions. Wow! That seems like a list of everything that we
wanted to do in the first place! Hey, Ray.
What's
left that I can do? Elementary, my dear Whatsit.
GrafDevice - GrafDevice points the port to an
indicated device. The default for this procedure is,
as indicated above in InitGraf, the Macintosh screen.
SetPortBfts - This routine points the port to an
indicated bitmap.
By redirecting the port's bitmap
42
nnards January 1985 1. You can initialize all the major grafPort record structures. 2. You can open numerous grafPorts and assign
them to a device (presumably, but not necessarily, the screen). 3. You can establish the working and visible
areas of each grafPort.
4. You can establish the order in which over­
lapping grafPorts are "stacked". 5. You can establish the background pattern to be
contd. on pg 50
Washington Apple Pi
~
fiOTE.5 on
E.DITOR
--
FonT U51nG TI-1E. mAC
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:JOUTH BRAmBLE
:JunnInG AVEnUE
~~~~ :JunnInGDALE
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BERE::JHIRE EnGLAnD
nde:.r
The Font Editor that is supplied with the Software
Supplement for Inside Macintosh is a preliminary
Version and has a few Qu1rks that the first time user
may find a bit tricky to use, so I thought a few notes
would be helpful.
Make up a disk with a System Folder, the Font Ed1tor,
the Resource Mover, and 1f there is room a copy of
MacWrite.
Alternatively have a second d1sk in the
external dr1ve with just MacWr1te on it.
Start-up and double-c11ck on the Font Mover Icon. The
program will load and present a dialog box with the
word ·System" high-11ghted; DON'T accept this because
the program will bomb I I Instead press backspace, then
You will now see a blank Ed1tor w1ndow and
Return.
the Mac w1ll double beep at you.
Font Ed1tor is an EDITOR, not a Creator, so to make a
different font you should f1rst select Load From
Resource ••• from the file menu. A d1alog box will ask
you for a font name. If you want Chicago 12 type
System and want to ignore the Current S1ze and New
Size check boxes, c11ck OK or h1t return.
~9PV
the System.
installed.
Now select Paste and your Font will
be
Quit the Resource Mover and run MacWrite to test your
masterpiece.
Fonts are allocated a number and there is, as you may
have not1ced, one extra file 1n the Fonts file when
you used the Resource Mover. This just contains the
Font Name, but must be present. Its number is NUMBER
* 128. The NUMBER, I think, is available on applica­
tion from Apple, but the Font Editor does assign a
default when you install a font and you can change it
in the Resource Mover by using Change 10. A twelve
point font number is NUMBER * 125 + 12 (point size).
If you have the Font Mover on the same disk make
certain that its Fonts files are renamed, say, xFonts,
before you run the Font Editor. Conversely, if you
use the Font Mover and the Ed1tors Fonts file is on
the disk, you will get an alert box saying that this
program didn't create Fonts.
I hope this is all fairly clear and wish you all good
luck with the Editor.
Ch1cago should now be loaded and v1sible on the
screen.
Assuming you are going to ed1t th1s 1nto
something else, it 1s now best to save 1t 1nto a
resource file by se1ect1ng from the file menu Save
Font In. A new d1a10g box comes up, so type MYFONT 12
and accept by clicking 1n the O.K. box.
At any time you can Read Font ••• by selecting th1s
command and typ1ng MYFONT 12 into the d1alog box. If
you now want this font to be 24 point, select Read
Font ••• and type MYFONT 12, but before accepting
change the Newsize checkbox to 24.
••••
II ·
~I_.~-
The actual ed1t1ng 1s fa1rly stra1ghtforward, so
won't take up space describ1ng th1s. There appear to
be no pitfalls or serious bugs in th1s section, but do
save by using Save Font regularly in case of power
outs etc.
Don't try Undo All Changes - mine Bombs!
Once you have created your masterpiece, the next task
is to install it. With the font 1n memory select
Install Fontl. The dialog box will ask you for Name.
Type your font name (just a name, no s1ze), select the
current and new s1zes, e.g. 24 and 24 if it 1s 24
point or 12 and 12 1f it's 12 p01nt. The program w11l
tell you 1t 1s sav1ng your font. It takes a while, so
be pat1ent unt1l 1t writes to d1sk. Then 1t' s almost
done.
Now Quit the Font Editor and you will see a file with
a rectangular Icon labeled fonts. Th1s contains your
new font. Startup the Resource Mover. The Resource
Mover has a bug 1n the p01nter refresh, so 1t leaves
the watch showing, but if you don't 11ke 1t select the
Alarm Clock c11ck on the sw1tch on the right and the
arrow w1ll be restored.
When the Resource Mover 1s runn1ng, c11ck on the Fonts
f11e and select Open from the f11e menu.
High11ght
BOTH files in the window of the Fonts file, select
Copy from the Edit menu, click on the Main Resource
Mover window to bring it to the front, then select
System and Open this file. You can scroll down to the
Fonts section and you will see the various fonts in
Washington Apple Pi
January 1985
Inl",1 Cha,
Delele Char
Char l,,11
Char RIghi
Char Up
Char Down
Inurl Column
Delele Column
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Un Dl!scenl
~ead
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XU
XD
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Wasllinlftvn AplJle
PI
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43
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5te:\je.
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Crandall
There has been some interest in connecting digitizing
cameras to the Mac, and a few pieces of hardware have
already been announced. I have had the opportunity to
spend some time with one of these - the MicronEye no by
Micron Technology, Inc. (Vision Systems Group, 2805
East Columbia Road, Boise, Idaho 83706).
The MicronEye has been around for some time now in
Apple ][, TRS-80, IBM PC and Commodore 64 versions.
The Macintosh version includes a small solid-state
camera, a tripod, an interface box, cables to the
Mac's modem port, and a software disk, in its $395
price.
Absent was any technical documentation, so my
technical comments are from information on the earlier
non-Mac versions (the hardware appears to be identi­
cal) •
Video cameras (conventional TV), although dropping
rapidly in price, are still rather expensive. If you
wish to connect one of these to any computer you will
need a frame buffer to convert the TV signal to a
digital signal that the computer can understand - more
$$$. The approach taken by Micron is to take advant­
age of the fact that RAM memories are optically sensi­
tive. The image sensor consists of an exposed 64K RAM
arranged in two cells measuring 256 by 128 cells. To
start an exposure, a capacitor in each cell is
charged.
As photons of light strike the cell, the
capacitor discharges proportionally to the number of
At the end of the exposure (set by a soft­
photons.
ware timer) the cells are addressed like a normal cell
would be read. During this read the voltage value of
each cell is compared with a threshold val ue and the
result of the decision is called an "I" or an "0". We
now have a two-grey level view (black and white only)
of whatever was imaged on the sensor.
So how does all of this work?
4 I,
,
44
e.w Re.v
The answer is,
well.
I unpackaged the parts and had an image on the
screen within 15 minutes. The fun is in getting a
quality image. The first problem you will have is
that of exposure. I taped a photo to the wall, afmed
the camera at ft, and proceeded to make trfal expos­
ures, adjustfng the exposure tfme (ft can vary from 1
millisecond to many seconds) and the camera f-stop
(you get a 16 mm Computar f1.6 "tv' lens). For the
first several trfes you will only get completely black
or white scenes. When you get one wfth both, it's
time to adjust the focus. Now that you have an fmage,
you can optfmfze it wfth dffferent exposures or use
special modes that generate shaded images wfth multi­
ple exposures. A "photo· can be modified by fnverting
the bitmap (change black to whfte and whfte to black),
edge smoothfng, outlining images, "correctfng· pixels
that are close to clumps of pixels, etc., etc. You
can dump the result to your prfnter or save ft as a
MacPafnt document for further modfffcatfons.
The end results aren't bad, consfderfng the prfce. I
mentfoned earlier that the RAM fs segmented in two
pfeces.
You can take a photo wfth efther an upper
half or a lower half (each fs about 128 high by 256
wide).
With care, a large picture can be made by
fooling with the tripod and/or the subject. I found
that most of my subjects required a few seconds expos­
ure fn ordfnary room lighting wfth conservative f num­
bers (to desensitfze the focus).
How would I improve this? It would be nice to have
some abflity to program the unit vfa some standard
Macfntosh language.
The unit would be "fnsane1y
great" ff the Mac could do more than two grey levels.
I have heard rumors that the memory-expanded Mac can
support 8 or 16 grey levels, given the appropriate
software (hfnt to the Mac developers ••• ).
pretty
I'
Hefght of an exposure
~
January 1985
Washington Apple Pi
AT F IR5T BYT~ Rana Penn ngton LOV~
I had bought my Macintosh only three weeks earlier,
and was still completely infatuated with it. I was
very happy with things as they were - just me and my
Mac - and could only pity those poor fools around me
who might never know the joys of this friendly little
bundle of bits and bytes, the Happy Mac.
Still, one can't live forever cut off from the world.
When it came time to rejoin society, I naturally
sought out the company of like-minded enthusiasts - a
Macintosh Users Groups. One call to Washington Apple
Pi, and two days later I found myself at a SigMac
meeting.
I am new to computers, and was somewhat apprehensive
about wandering all alone into a computer users group.
I had never been around U hackers· before, and I had a
certain image of what sort of people they would be: in
a word, strange. They would surely all wear glasses;
the ones with heavy black frames. Pale skin, from the
Disheveled
hours spent hunched over the terminal.
hair.
Wrinkled white shirts, nondescript slacks,
tennis shoes (old tennis shoes, mind you - no New
Balance for th;S-crowd). A certain ascetic air, a
sort of other-worldiness.
My first surprise came in the parking garage.
The
people I saw there, who were apparently headed for the
SigMac meeting, didn't fit the stereotype at all. In
fact, they looked a lot like me (up and coming young
intellectual, of course). My surprise increased when
I followed these people into the auditorium and saw
that most of the group seemed similarly normal. My
immediate impression was one of great energy. There
was a wide cross-section of people in the room; all
ages and appearances. And the majority of them looked
- well, sharp. Not wimps at all.
demonstrations.
I received some very important hints
on using the programs I own. Hearing about other
people's experiences gave me important information
about programs I was considering buying. The demon­
strations were especially interesting; I had read
about MacDraw and MacProject. but seeing the demos
really brought home the capabilities of those pro­
grams.
Most important was meeting the other people in the
group.
As soon as I sat down, I was drawn into dis­
cussions about using Filevision, the problems of copy
protection. and the merits of the various Apple
dealers in the metro area. It was wonderful to be
able to talk to other people about the Mac, and see
their eyes shining with the same sort of enthusiasm I
feel.
(When I talk to my non-Mac friends and col­
leagues. their eyes usually glaze over as I ramble on
about the raptures of FatBits or clicking and
dragging.)
Of course, I wouldn't adopt all the people I met.
I
suppose there's always One fnlEvery Crowd, and SigMac
has at least one - the person who is somehow oblivious
to reality, as shown by their repeated irrelevant
questions and generally annoying behavior. But this
was a minor irritation. As has often been said, a
perfect world would be very boring. (Sometimes, I
wonderl)
All in all, SigMac turned out to be exactly what I
would have wished for in a users group. NOW, if I can
just find a way to keep my membership when I transfer
to Anchorage next summer ••••
~
Three men were seated in front of the audience, con­
ducting a question and answer session. They were all
young, obviously intelligent, and - wonder of wonders
they had a sense of humorl There was Don, dressed
in denim and docksiders. Withers, in vest, slacks and
hiking boots.
Tony, with a very non-computerish
beard, and boots like mine (obviously a person of
taste).
These three fielded questions in a very impressive
way. answering straight-forwardly and understandably,
deferring answers to other people when appropriate,
and keeping the audience more or less in control. It
was a free-form meeting. which is a polite way of
saying that most of the time several things were going
on at once. A little overwhelming to the newcomer.
Each question sparked numerous side conversations in
the audience. With over a hundred people in the room,
it was occasionally distracting, though probably
unavoidable.
Even so, there was a satisfying blend of seriousness
and
professionalism, tempered with laughter.
learned some important truisms of computer work: 1)
errors occur in direct proportion to the value of the
document being worked on; 2) programs always fail
after five pm and/or on weekends when the publisher
can't be reached; and 3) those seemingly unexplained
glitches are actually the work of devilish and
undetectable cosmic rays.
The meeting was extremely informative.
I took
numerous notes during the Question session and the
Washington Apple Pi
January 1985
45
rny
rnr~C b8
B
0 12'
UII·
~ I
L son
Missing my VAX while on vacation, I bought a Macin­
tosh to have a PLC (Proper Little Computer) around the
house.
But once vacation was over, I brought my new
little friend into work to meet my VAX.
dumb terminal when the VAX is down. Also, working at
home is easier since the Mac does not hog the tele­
phone
(why dial-up if the Macintosh can travel
directly to the VAX).
Where to plug it in, was solved by Cary Luis The Apple
Macintosh
Book and forty-five dollars W-parts.
Atter conneCl:fng the modem port to a 9600 baud VAX
terminal port, the only remaining task was to fire up
MacTerminal.
In summary, whatever MacTerminal may lack in exact
keyboard compatability can be softened by the VAX
editor and is more than made up for by the standalone
power of a Macintosh.
One reason for getting a Macintosh was the VT-IOO like
feel of the keyboard and keypad. But retail store
demos only provide a taste of things to come. In real
use, MacTerminal keyboard quirks take getting used to.
NOTE: One might be tempted to always use MacWrite and
transfer the file to the VAX.
This works for short
first drafts but takes too long when only a small
number of changes are needed. Also, the VAX is not
size limited compared to MacWrite and the 3.5 inch
disks.
The first problem was the new location of the CONTROL
key which is known as COMMAND key on the Macintosh
(see Figure). VT-IOO keyboards place the CONTROL key
on the far left while the Macintosh key 1s under the
left palm.
Touch typists must lower the left little
finger below Z key rather than reach over the CAPS­
LOCK.
Donlt make the mistake of using the left thumb
since this "curls" the thumb under the hand and loses
home position which results in many mistakes.
Fur­
thermore, MacTerminal uses CONTROL key pairs for
otherwise
single VT-IOO keys.
Examples include
DELETE, LINE-FEED, ESCAPE and the ARROW keys.
Using
two keys is always slower and more prone to error.
Consider the problem of the arrow keys.
MacTerminal ARROW keys map over the VAX editor keys
for DELETE-LINE, DELETE-WORD, and DELETE-CHARACTER.
Failure to hold the COMMAND key deletes text instead
of moving the cursor (OUCH)!
VT-100 Keyboard
,.
PZ
rs
P.
-
.
7 II 9
1
5 6
2 J
I
t
n
0
I
Macintosh Keyboard
The VAX editor can ease the transition by redefining
key functions.
For example, consider the following
VAX edit f11e:
DEFINE KEY CONTROL H AS "-CD+C."
DEFINE KEY GOLD u AS "-V." (GOLD
DEF I NE KEY GOLD d AS "+V. " (GOLD
DEFINE KEY GOLD r AS "+C. • (GOLD
DEFINE KEY GOLD 1 AS A_C. A (GOLD
(BACKSPACE
bec omes DELETE)
u becomes up arrow)
d becomes
down arrow)
r becomes
right arrow)
1 becomes
left arrow)
Not only does the BACKSPACE become the familiar DELETE
key, but the disastrous effects of ARROW key operation
without COMMAND are avoided. This is probably accept­
able for "hunt and peck" but touch typist should not
del~y
learning the new keyboard since only the VAX
editor has this service.
With practice, the number of mistakes goes down and
the Macintosh keyboard begins to feel comfortable.
Compared to the new "ergomatic" keyboards on terminals
and PCs, the Selectric style which Macintosh uses
st ill feels best.
When communicating at 9600 baud, MacTerminal screen
output lags about ten to fifteen lines behind the last
characters received causing CONTROL-S (pause output)
to overshoot. Furthermore, there is an intermittent
communication lag of one or two seconds on first key
entry after a typing pause.
Otherwise,
46
the Macintosh works a lot better than
any
January 1985
I 2 J ~
o
D
I
VT-IOO Keys Using CNTL/CMO
cc4tt the MffMt&d
lkt Itt., cJ-I;td«J~L
:/!lWG
tvwi tk flaJ-
Cff40C/)
Washington Apple Pi
u.s I rl<J
rnf~C TE.P
f OR
cornrnun I CAT Ions
b
.~
1< e:. nne:.
t h
ne:. L L
At a SigHac meeting several weeks (months?) ago
heard a member lamenting the fact that HacTEP is not
very well suited for interacting with VMS, the stand­
ard operating stystem on DEC's line of VAX computers.
The problem is that three critical keys found on full
ASCII keyboards are missing on the Macintosh keyboard:
the DEL (sometimes RUBOUT) key, the ESC (escape) key,
and the CTRL (control) key.
As VHS users well know, the DEL key is used to correct
single-character mis-types from an input line.
Each
time the key is pressed, it deletes the last character
from the input line, thus defining a new "last" char­
acter.
Without the DEL key, when a character is
mis-typed to the VAX, the only way to correct the
error is to kill the entire line by pressing CTRL/U
(8C-U from the Macintosh keyboard), hardly ideal.
The absence of the the ESC key makes editing with
DEC's SOS text editor very difficult. This key is
used to delimit search and replace strings and to
terminate input from "alter" mode.
The CTRL key also plays a major role in VMS inter­
actions.
The Hac's "command" (SC) key may be used as a substitute for the missing CTRL key except for X -C. Pressing ag-c while running a BASIC program will abort 5
the program and return you to BASIC command level.
However, press ing . the • Enter" key on the Hac's key­
board will send a CTRL/C down the line. This is a
feature of BASIC's INKEY$ function, used by MacTEP.
Below is a four-line patch that I suggest for the Mac­
TEP terminal emulation program that is found on SigMac
Disk 1. This patch causes the Macintosh to transmit
the ASCII DEL and ESC codes when the user presses the
BACKSPACE and "grave accent" (~) keys, respectively.
(The grave accent is the unshifted upper-leftmost key
on the Mac's keyboard.) This patch leaves no provi­
sion for actually sending a BACKSPACE or grave accent
character down the line. The four lines to be added
are shown below, preceded with a bullet (e) and shown
sandwiched by the original lines with their original
lines numbers from MacTEP:
2100 XOFF=19: XOFF$=CHR$(XOFF)
e 2101 BS$=CHR$(8): DEL$=CHR$(127)
e 2102 GRACC$cCHR$(96): ESC$=CHR$(27)
2110 REM
6160 IF C$=CMDT$ THEN CALL LINE(O,4): GO TO 9000
e 6162 IF C$=BS$ THEN C$cDEL$
8
6164 IF C$=GRACC$ THEN C$=ESC$
6170 PRINT 11,C$;
(t
~rn clntosh
r:n rephics
onput
(C ontrDller
NOllJ RURILRBL£ FADM
~n(;lmmrnaJrmm£ml_:
(em (ij)r;J rntl(;J [J'
~[Pl1lilU1(OO
ll~ :
...............
1
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(703) 450-2363
I 1
I
24~
I
Mlladowland lane!
$1Br1in.,., Uirginia 22110
~rn(rJ~(C opens up a whole new world to the Macintosh owner, whether for
business or fun ... Use the MAGIC controller ond 0 UCA camero to take qualittl.photos
of anq ob iect or teHt, and then lazz it up with MacPoint. Many patterns auallable
to create "qraqs" and tones. It is the fastest focuslnq true photo dlqitlzer on the
market••• the aboue picture of George was taken using II mllcro lens.
"-"
MRGIC (withuut ltam8rat:S~gg i MRGIC (with UCR ,amera);S54'; macrD Igns and cafTyingltCl18 additional
We sell hardware and !AnWaR fAr aU comDuten at discount prices_HAC dish 535 : 5 114' [nr 51.50
Washington Apple Pi
January 1985
47
Computer Aid for System Designers This article first appeared in the November 1984 issue of SOLAR AGE
1984 SolarVision, Inc., Harrisville, NH 03450 USA. All right;
Reprinted and published by permission.
The powers of Apple's
Macintosh micro help a
designer and his clients
visualize solar installations
before flux meets solder.
Copyright
reserved.
...
.
By Dan Chiles
hiles Power Supply has been a dis­
tributor of solar/radiant-energy sys­
tems since 1980. Our niche is hybrid
energy systems. In the old days we sold the
promise of system performance backed
with a typewritten list of materials,
brochures, and a lot of client hand-holding.
But when we saw the Apple Macintosh
salesman performing graphic wonders on
a 9-inch screen, we stood and faced the
future.
Almost without negotiation we bought
the Mac and took it home for the kids to
draw pictures with. After eight hours at the
office the next day, we put our old Apple
II up for sale and there was no turning back.
After three days we had a working rela­
tionship with a 32-bit microcomputer that
has 128K of random-access memory (RAM)
and one built-in 400K cartridge disk-drive.
We now use it to produce detailed and con­
vincing schematics for the benefit of both
the client and the installer.
C
For the client
Our typical client is building from scratch
or doing serious remodeling, with a wish­
list in hand for the latest and best heating
and cooling systems. About 30 percent will
install the systems themselves. We design
their systems around several key com-
Dan Chiles is vice-president of Chiles Power
Supply. His disk, which includes over 100
plumbing/control icons and several com­
pleted schematics, is available for $49.95
prepaid (3131 W. Chestnut Expressway,
Springfield, Mo. 65802). Questions can be
answered at extension 31, 1-800-641-3322
in the United States or 1-800-492-3322 in
Missouri.
48
~~~':'-"
Y.
.'
!"he mouse does most of the work. and first-time users rely on it almost exclusively. But the keyboard
IS a powerful tool, and you can use it together with the mouse to shrink and enlarge pieces, and
move them precisely.
ponents: solar collectors, site-built storage
tanks, radiant floors, water-source heat
pumps, high efficiency gas heaters, and
wood boilers. Then there are the trimmings:
zone valves. smart controls, 12-volt backup
systems for power failures. fan-coil units.
chillers, stainless-steel heat exchangers, and
circulating pumps.
Using the Mac is often the first thing we
do lor a client. The Mac pictures the com­
plicated relationships between the com­
ponents as no ordinary list of materials can.
We print the schematics on expensive
paper, along with an estimate that lists all
the major components. Then we sit down
with the client and discuss the system in
detail, examining each component, con­
sidering needs, payback periods, and
options.
We encourage our clients to take the
drawings to their accountants, plumbers.
builders, or architects to get their approval.
Although some of the drawings are com­
plex, each time clients explain them to
someone, their understanding and involve­
ment with the project increases. Often the
schematic becomes a part of the AlA con­
tract we fill out and sign.
Designs we have drawn on the Mac in
the last lour months have covered pool­
heating, space-heating, DHW, and green­
house root-zone heating, snow melting,
glazed and unglazed collectors, wood, heat­
pump, and l'Iectric back-up systems. We
January 1985
also use it to lay our pre-plumbed modules
for plumbing and controls.
For the installer
With the Mac schematic, the installer can
do better work. The Mac forces designers
to do all their thinking in advance instead
of ignoring the details until the actual day
a system goes in. Installers get all the facts
before showing up at the site, in a clear,
concise fashion that allows them to ask the
right questions.
MacPaint
To draw system schematics, the MacPaint
D • •-IiK ~ suapbood:.,,== '
•• e
'.r
-tt
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II:e
fdqt"~
c.:'1
:1 HfJllI(ll1htl
.1 111~111' "I
Int,.
Figure 1. Pulling icons out of the ·scrapbook.·
The MacIntosh scrapbook is where icons,
logos, legal disclaimers, tille pages-anything
that is used repeatedly-are stored. This icon
represents the Extrol Package.
Washington Apple Pi
Figure 2. The selected Icon appears on the
screen surrounded by a "selection rectangle"
and Is moved by the arrow until it Is in posi­
tion on the screen.
software disk presents a window-oriented
menu bar across the top of a good-sized
drawing area. The graphic symbols, called
icons, on the left of the screen include tools
to copy, duplicate, stretch. and move things
from place to place; an "A" to insert 9- to
72-point text; a "paint bucket" for filling
spaces with patterns and a "spray can" that
sprays black, White, or patterns for shading;
an "eraser" for cleaning up areas, a "pen­
cil" to draw thin lines, various shapes that
can be used for pipes, and different line
thicknesses that are good for piping and
wiring.
Also included in the file menu is the "Fat
Bits" mode that can magnify a specified por­
tion of the drawing by eight times so you
can use the pencil to clean up pipe joints.
electrical connections, fuzzy letters, and tiny
mistakes.
The "scrapbook" and "clipboard" modes
are extremely useful. The clipboard is
where you store an image or whole screen
that you may want to move to other al>­
plications or to a different part of the page.
II also holds things temporarily while you
call up the scrapbook, where you store im­
ages long-term. The scrapbook is where I
file almost everything I may need again, In­
cluding legal disclaimers, company logos,
title pages, and plumbing and electrical
pieces at different scales. Pipes, storage
tanks. and water heaters are easier to draw
than they are to store.
The mouse
Everyone's seen the "mouse" in the Apple
ads. It's hard to describe how to use it. I
spent years operating a backhoe. and one
day a kid asked me what all the levers did.
I stared at my hands hoping they could ex­
plain what they did all day. The controls
had become a nonverbal extension of my
hands and feet. With time, the mouse is the
same way, becoming as familiar as a
toothbrush in your hand.
The mouse does most of the work. and
first·time users rely on it almost exclusive­
ly. But the keyboard is a powerful tool, and
using it together with the mouse you can
shrink and enlarge pieces. reproduce them.
and move them precisely.
Washington Apple Pi
Figure 3. The larger Items are placed on the
screen and then joined with piping. All the
pieces are poSitioned and connected before
they are labeled. Note the other plumbing
icons "floating" on the screen, waiting to be
moved.
Helpful hints
Draw your Intended picture on paper first,
and arrange It the way you want to see it
on the screen. This will save hours of time.
Remember that you only have the size of
a single page to get everything in. Then,
on the screen, draw or plug in the major
components such as storage tanks, boilers,
solar collectors, and heat pumps (Figure 2).
Position them (Figure 3). Select a pipe size
that fits both the scale of the drawing and
the components you have in storage and
connect the pieces with piping before label­
ing (Figure 4.).
Start a notebook with pictures of actual
plumbing, control, and solar items. Icons
turn out better if you are staring at the ac­
tual item or a good picture of II when you
draw. Fortunately, most of the drawing pro­
cess is straightforward and simple. There
are few problems with perspective. shading,
or motion. Angled lines except for 45
degrees are not perfect, so avoid them. I
do storage tanks in perspective, but very
little else. Electrical lines should only be
drawn in the X- and Y-axis or else they
become too distorted. They need to be
distinctive to avoid installation confusion.
Traditional legends to explain the icons
usually take up too much of the limited
space on a single page. I usually label at
least one of duplicate components and leave
identical ones unlabeled. The exceptions are
the traditional schematic for an engineer or
when the drawing is so crammed thllt a
legend actually saves space.
Group and store icons of the same scale
together 011 the scrapbook. Each scrapbook
retrieval takes at least five steps, and this
will save time.
Don't be tempted to overuse the textures.
It will make the finished product too much
like a crazy quilt. Leave lots of "white
space" and give major components a prom­
inent border to make them stand out. Pipes
should be drawn with a double thickness
line or else they disappear in the c1uller.
The MacPaint program can also be used
to draw small schematics to be inserted in­
to proposals. Draw with MacPaint, store on
the clipboard, eject, and set up the Mac-
January 1985
Figure 4. The "show page" reveals how the
drawing will look on an 8'12 by 11 sheet before
the components are labeled.
Write word-processing program. The blink­
ing cursor will spot the new location for the
drawing. Print quality on the MacWrite is
better than on the MacPalnt because it takes
twice the font size you select and shrinks
II for the final printing.
The printing ribbons cost SIS each. But
the inexpensive solution is an "inker." We
use one called the Maclnker ($59.95 from
Computer Friends, 6415 S.w. Canyon Ct.,
"10, Portland, Ore. 97225, (503) 297-2321).
It comes complete with stand, motor, and
ink to automatically re-ink your ribbons. It
takes 40 minutes to work, so I keep several
spares pre-inked.
Mac pros
Its small size and portability are great. My
desk top with a Mac still has room for other
work, and when I can't finish at the office,
I take everything home - including the
computer.
The 3Vz-inch drives hold 400K of infor­
mation. They're small enough to carry in
your shirt pocket, in a hard cartridge that
keeps the magnetic surface clean and
protected.
The g-inch black·and-white screen is
wonderful. I can sit at the computer all day
and not develop any more eyestrain than
with the paper and typewriter I grew up
with. The keyboard is smaIl and simple. The
Mac can print a picture of the screen at the
touch of three keys, bypassing all the save
and print instructions.
Mac cons
There isn't a lot of software available, and
the disks fill up rapidly. A complicated one­
page drawing can use up 30K of informa­
lion, so don't start on anything without at
least 70K of memory available on the work­
ing disk. I recommend the second external
drive to make your life easier.
The Mac is a true hybrid 32116 bit pro­
cessor, which means speed In computer
lingo. Still, I dread the moments I sit
watching the gray screen waiting for the
computer to process something. I schedule
daydreams during processing. The same is
true of the "high mode" printing time for
final letters or schematics.
The printer has a pin- and a friction-feed
and both are fairly accurate, except when
49
Figure 5, The final show page before printing.
The left axis displays the tools used to create
the drawing, and the bottom axis shows the
textures available. Even if you're not a great
artist, MacPaint includes special tools for
designing everything from technical illustra·
tions to office forms.
using large areas of dark patterns. Then it
fails to feed precisely and faint lines appear
on the page.
Mac disasters
Avoid running out of disk space on a
valuable drawing when the machine asks
you "Any changes?" by always answering
yes. Save frequently if you value your time.
Ilost an hour of finishing touches once by
clicking the "no" box.
Once I tediously revised a complex draw­
ing several times only to have a friend step
on the power cord and pull it out of the
wall. Design your workstation carefully, and
save frequently. The computer actually
keeps two versions of each drawing on the
disk and updates them as you move the
screen. This helps explain the very large
space you must keep available on a disk
when vou draw.
If you value your sleep at nighl, include
a legalistic disclaimer on every schematic.
You don't know who'll be making copies
of your drawings once they're out of your
hands,
Don't attempt to compete with the pro­
fessional engineer, There is a clear distinc­
tion between designing and engineering.
With the Macintosh, you can make an
engineer's job easier by making the presen­
tation to client and installer more clear. 0
PLUHBIIIIGICOIITROL SCHEMATIC
fOR HR. AtiD MRS. BECKERDITE
RADIAIIT, POOL. AltO WATER
HEATING WITH A WOOD fiRED
WATER HEATER
~1~
,,'
1
contd. from pg 42
!A,
filled in when an erase or move
operation 15 performed.
6. You can associate bftmaps with
your grafPorts.
7. You can change the s1ze and shape
of your grafPort's work1ng area.
a. You can make any grafPort act1ve.
In other words, you can prepare the graf­
Ports for any gfven p1ece of graph1c
mag1c you are plannfng to do - these are
the setup lfnes; the punch 11ne comes
later.
Now, let's get one more p1ece of
housekeep1ng done before we move on to
putt1ng 1mages onto the screen.
Operatfons on the Cursor
InftCursor - The f1rst cursor opera­
tfon 1s to fnftfa11ze 1t, and set up fts
default values.
The defaults set the
cursor bftpattern to an arrow p01nt1ng up
and to the left, w1th "level" of 0 (v1sf­
ble), and w1th the hotspot at the p01nt
of the arrow.
SetCursor
change the
assocht 1ng
have deff ned
- Th1s routine lets you
appearance of the cursor by
ft wfth the b1t 1mage you
as a Cursor RECORD.
HldeCursor - Thfs procedure erases the
The empty space w111 be fflled
cursor.
by whatever background pattern was set by
BackPat for the grafPort fn wh1ch the
v1s1ble.
Even whfle
cursor was
lnv1sfble, by the way, the cursor wfll
follow the mouse. HfdeCursor decrements
the "level" of the cursor (wh1ch 1s only
v1s1ble when it equals O.
ShowCursor - Wherever the cursor 1s
when th1s routfne 1s called, ft wfll pop
fnto vfew. If you called SetCursor wh11e
the cursor was h1dden. and you changed
the appearance of ft, the new cursor w111
be shown. ShowCursor can be called while
the cursor fs vfs1ble, and 1t won't do
anythfng but waste a few cycles. Th1s fs
because the "level" cannot be 1ncremented
to a value greater than O.
However,
repeated H1deCursor calls can be damagfng
sfnce the "level" can be decremented
repeatedly (remember, only ·'evel" • 0 1s
v1sfble).
Therefore, each H1deCursor
call should be balanced by a ShowCursor,
although the reverse fs not necessary.
Easy, ne-c'est pas?
I
1(
)
I(
!
)
TUB01AT}
i RADIAAT fLlIOJI)
L..__.......____.._
......................
HOT YAnR
HEATER
NOTIC[:
(
)
(
)
Tho appheotion not.. or SU99Htions , ...
.....n.tion 0' CII1I.. Pow... S<4>P~
procb:ls, .....tboJ submitt... , or. m.st­
..Ii.. on~ 0tId .....t not e.. 'ollow'" In
C'"I oc....! ... tollotion wlthovt
"'9........., or ItcIr>lc.lldY_ from ...... ­
s<>M01 propor~ Iictn.... In tho jurlsdicl­
ion wfwr. tho "'ta'iolion 1$ m&<J.. No
..,.,.r... 1v or nopr"ifSf'tlt4tion ....... Hd or
~1it<I IS to tho .,.;tll>""" of lho ........
lotion, dnign, md/......._ f1\ntr.tt<I.
U::::==========:!.I ."""""
~
DKSJeaBT
CBUBS
POVII1l
SOPP1.T Figure 6, The final page given to clients and installers, along with a major components list and
estimate. This is the schematic for a radlant·heating, pool·heating, and water·heating system
with a wood·fired water heater.
50 January 1985
ObscureCursor - Thfs somewhat aggra­
vat1ng procedure 1s the explanatfon for
one of the th1ngs that frequently both­
ers Hac users. ObscureCursor w111 make
the cursor 1nvfsfble unt11 the next tfme
the mouse fs moved. It does not fncre­
ment or decrement the cursor "level", so
ft doesn't need to be balanced by any­
thfng. And you thought that 1t was a bug
fn the package when you couldn't see the
cursor until you moved the mouse, right?
The cursor rout1nes are pretty self­
explanatory, so I won't say anyth1ng else
We wfll come back to the
about them.
Grafport rout1nes wfth some regularfty,
though, because they are really the heart
of Qu1ckdraw. Next tfme, we'll go 1nto
text-drawing and pen and 11ne-drawfng
procedures, so that we can get some p1c­
tures onto the screen.
Et
WaShington Apple Pi
~
DOLLAR.S AnD $E.nsE.
1< e. \/ i n ne.e) Lon Dollars and Sense is a home or business accounting
package for MS-DOS, Apple][ series and, in this
review, the Macintosh computer. This program is for
the person who itemizes his tax return, and would like
to keep a budget. In fact, any person who does a fa ir
amount of bookkeeping would be interested in this
program.
Now, bookkeeping has got to be one of the
most boring jobs around. You just don't hear people
saying how they can't wait to get home and balance
that check book. No program can make bookkeeping fun,
even on the Macintosh, and Dollars and Sense is no
different. What Dollars and Sense does accomplish is
to make good bookkeeping practices easier to learn and
keep up. It rewards you with the creation of an easy
to understand financial history which shows you what
you did with all that hard earned money.
Dollars and Sense has a good introduction to how the
program works with the mouse and keyboard, and how it
organizes its files. More importantly, the manual
follows with a first-time tutorial. As this was my
first-time at any kind of bookkeeping I found it quite
helpful in learning how to set up accounts and
budgets. The program also has help screens for each of
its pull-down menus. Creating a file of accounts is a
simple matter of filling in the blanks of a dialog box
with fiscal year, beginning month and file name. How­
ever, care must be taken at this step as none of the
mentioned items can be changed. Once done, you create
your list of accounts. Accounts are categories of
money, such as ·paycheck·, or ·car repairs·, that tell
where the money comes from, or where it's going.
Specifically, each account consists of an IDD, the
account's name, the account type (either expense,
income, asset, liability or checkl, a monthly budget
and a starting balance where appropriate.
Dollars and Sense gives you the option of either
starting with a ready made list of accounts, or build­
ing your own from scratch. Editing is easy to do with
either mouse or equivalent keyboard commands.
Two
accounts, titled Check Interest and Check Charges, are
mandatory in any list of accounts. I don't see any
reason why the designers did this, but it doesn't
bother me.
The list of accounts is automatically
ordered by 101, but when you need to index the account
to credit or debit money to it, you index it by its
name.
An important feature is that accounts can have
either a fixed or variable monthly budget. The list
of accounts can be edited at any time and in any way
with the only restriction being that accounts with
transactions credited to them cannot be deleted from
the lists, or have their account type changed, though
you can protect them from further use.
The entry of money spent and money received is just as
easy as account creation. Dollars and Sense uses the
double entry method of bookkeeping. This means that
every time you take money out of one account, checking
for instance, to pay the gas bill, Dollars and Sense
will show the debit in ·Personal Checking", and will
automaticaly put a credit in the account named "Gas
Company".
This lets you easily see where the money
came from and what it went to.
There are three
transaction screens, one each for checking, assets (a
bank account), or liabilities (your charge card). All
entry screens share a base account, which is where the
money is coming from, and a distribution account where
the money is going. Dollars and Sense indexes the
various accounts alphabetically, and it is possible to
just type in the first few letters to get the one you
Washington Apple Pi
Re.v·Ie.W want.
And if that's not it, you can scroll
the list either with mouse or keyboard.
through
Once again, editability of records is very good. The
check entry screen features a column to indicate
whether the check has cleared, automatic check number­
ing, the ability to void checks, and write the checks
on preprinted forms. All the entry screens can flag
transactions that relate to your taxes. Dollars and
Sense can also create sets of automatic transactions
for such items as mortgage payments. This cuts down
on the entries you have to type.
For report genera­
tion you can create composite accounts to compare
related items; for example you can bundle all you
automotive expenses to see how you spend money on your
car.
Dollars and Sense has a large number of report for­
mats. The problem is that the manual does not really
describe all the options, leaving the user to discover
what he likes best for himself. It might have been
better to allow use of a menu to pick the information
to appear on the report. Dollars and Sense also
produces a number of graphs, and with the use of
composite accounts can clearly demonstrate how a
financially complicated item like a car or house uses
money, and tell you which items are within or exceed­
i ng budget.
Some dry statistics of Dollars and Sense: it accomo­
dates 120 accounts, and 2000 transactions per account.
If this is not enough capacity it is possible to
extend the file, an operation which starts a new file
that has the same list of accounts, and transfers any
balances. The files are rather large and they require
a minimum of 140K on the disk, and a lot more when you
start to record transactions, so two drives make work
easier. The system loads the entire program on a 512K
Mac and spins the disk only when updating data files.
However the program is fast enough on a 128K Mac.
The well indexed manual is both an asset and a detrac­
tion from the product. The fi rs t-t ime tutori al is
quite good and the examples give you some ideas of
what Dollars and Sense can do. The reference section,
however, lacks detailed information on specifics of
the product. It should also include small examples to
illustrate these specifics.
My only other gripe is how the numbers are entered.
The program recognizes either the TAB or RETURN keys
but not the ENTRY key as a means to enter data. This
means that if you have a Macintosh Numeric Keypad you
can type the number on the keypad, but you have to use
the enter key on the main keyboard instead of the more
convenient one on the keypad.
Overall, Dollars and Sense is a very good product.
Its few flaws detract little from its quality of
The chore of bookkeeping is reduced to a
operation.
minimum, and the little effort that is required
Monogram,
produces some very useful information.
which publishes Dollars and Sense, has announced the
future release of a tax preparation program that will
work with or without Dollars and Sense. Dollars and
Sense lists for $149, but many stores and mail order
houses have discounted it to around $100. For those
interested in this product, a copy for review is
available at the office.
~
January 1985
51
on
nOTE.S
r~utho,
b ~
Ra
"
mAC I IIT051-l" ..
InSIDE.
Re.sPonds
~mo
nd
l-lo b b
S
With respect to Mike Hartman's defense of Inside
Macintosh, which appeared in the November WAP Journal,
I feel that I must stand by my conclusions on several
My intention was to try to explain why
points.
software for the Mac was not being generated by the
barge10ad, and I still think that I demonstrated that
quite clearly. Certainly, nobody would argue that
there is a barge10ad of software out there yet.
Naturally, I cannot speak for all the thousands of
software developers throughout the country, but I
personally know several developers for Mac, and I
believe that I addressed many of the frustrations they
have experienced. Some specific clarifications should
be made, however.
First, whether or not purchase of Inside Hac is open
to the general public is immaterial. Hy frame of
reference was software developers, not the entire
range of purchasers of the Hac. As a matter of fact,
Inside Hac is sold through a mail drop in California.
The address is obtainable by personal communication ­
that is, the publication is neither advertised nor
retailed. The software sold by my company is marketed
in a similar way. If you know that it exists, you can
order it, otherwise it can't be found.
I do not
consider this to be generally available to the public.
chased every product suggested by Apple for software
development, the level of available information would
be improved. Mike might recall, however, that much of
the
information was promised FREE to certified
developers, only to have a price tag put on it after
Apple had cashed the original developers' checks. To
date, if I had purchased everything suggested by Apple
for developers, I would have invested almost $20,000
(and I still wouldn't have an assemb1erldebugger,
which Apple originally promised for Harch, 19a41).
The suggestion in Hike's letter that developers who
experience problems with Inside Mac are less than
adequate programmers, and that assembly language
programmers may be merely hackers, really shouldn't be
addressed at all. However, let me point out two
things:
1) Apple Computer requires evidence of pro­
gramming capability for certification as a developer.
Is Hike suggesting that Apple merely cashes the checks
and disregards the applicant's qualifications? 2) The
Macintosh ROM is written entirely in machine language.
Are the authors of that code merely hackers?
Second, the information contained in Inside Mac to
which I referred was just that - not Inside Hac plus
another $100 worth of supplements (which really should
have been available to developers free of charge,
anyway, considering the stiff $150 price tag placed on
Inside Mac by Apple Computer). Again, I was trying to
give the reader some ins1ght 1nto the problems the
developer has experienced in trying to get products
out the door - I was not critiqueing Apple's literary
efforts.
Th1rd,
I will
llJI-lAT
b~
acknowledge that if the developer pur­
'~S
Please don't get me wrong. I think that the Mac is a
great piece of engineering. It's just that, unlike
some, I don't automatically ooh and aah at everything
Apple does. I believe that just as IBH makes barely
adequate hardware coupled with great marketing and
support, Apple makes great hardware coupled with
barely adequate marketing and questionable support.
Mike may sincerely believe that Apple Computer is
"dOing all it can do· to support the software
developer.
My experience 1s different (unanswered
letters, promises broken, development tools withheld).
Developers and users both have a responsibility to
positively reinforce Apple's good efforts and nega­
tively reinforce Apple's poor efforts. To neglect
this responsibility threatens an otherwise excellent
computer w1 th market ext i nct ion.
~
nEJJJ UJ I TI-l f ORTI-l
Bruce:
f
f le:.lcJ
The FORTH Special Interest Group has been active
recently and we have issued a new version of the
Fig-FORTH language. This new disk will be swapped for
the original copy of WAP disk 105 wh1ch contained the
original Fig-FORTH system. The new disk is numbered
WAP disk 703. Newcomers to FORTH are always welcome,
of course, and we highly recommend two books by C.
Kevin McCabe: Forth Fundam~ntals, Volumes 1 and 2, for
users who want-,rcr-get the most from our system.
WAP disk 703 contains a complete Fig-FORTH language
system and has almost everything you need to write
FORT~
programs. Disk 701 has a full screen ed1tor
that can be included in your system. This most recent
version of the editor will work with a 40-column
Apple, Smarterm aO-column card, or the Apple lIe
aO-column card. D1sk 700 contains a rudimentary line
ed1tor, a FORTH assembler, and several utilities. One
of these two editors is required 1f you wish to save
your source code to disk. WAP disk 702 is a tut.oria1
program to help you learn FORTH.
The new FORTH system (release 1.2) has several
improvements over the old version (release 1.0). The
placement of the FORTH screens on the disk has been
changed to avoid conflicts with DOS 3.3. As a result,
52
The:
the FORTH system, DOS 3.3 and 100 FORTH screens now
reside on the same diskette. This means that you can
boot your FORTH system and keep your FORTH source code
on the same diskette. Although th1s rearrangement of
FORTH screens is incompatible with the previous ver­
sion, a FORTH variable has been included to permit
reading of the old-format diskettes. The system has
also been modified to work correctly with an aO-co1umn
Although you could turn on an aO-co1umn card
card.
with the old system, if you got an error or pressed
RESET, the Apple reverted to the 40-co1umn mode. With
the new system you may set aO-column as the default
mode and the system stays in the aO-column mode. The
system also performs EMPTY-BUFFERS on a cold start.
No longer do you have to remember to type EMPTY­
BUFFERS before your startl
A couple of bugs in
ENCLOSE, and U> have been fixed.
Other than the
changes noted above, the systems works the same as the
old version; try the new system though, we think
you'll find it easier to use.
For inexperienced FORTH programmers the system can
seem confusing at first. The FORTH SIG urges you to
come to one of our meetings and let us help you get
started.
We usually meet at 1:00 pm on the third
~
Saturday of the month at the WAP office.
January 19a5
Washington Apple Pi
I CF "1r6e .usita:l !{pplt== b y
Ray m 0
1--1 0
n d
Judging from the feedback I got from the last article
(Computer Music - A Replay, which appeared in the WAP
Journal for November), there are quite a few members
out there who are interested in turning their Apples
(and Macsl) into soft-wired combos. That's great, and
I'd like to hear from more of you.
Maybe we can
organize a computer-music-symposium (or synthe­
sympos i um) !
flute's
On the
attack
that of
,
:1.'
r'
ORO AN
PIANO
VIOlIN
a,
suslaln
~
l"~'-j
Itm.
m,
P ,
sus lain •
1, ,
1 '
u,
al\ock
d,
~
envelope to be steeper than that of the cello.
other side of the envelope, we can expect the
slope of a plucked violin to be steeper than
a bowed violin.
a
m
P
!
1
I
I
I
sustain '" I
t
I
U I
d
e
I
The trick to designing instrument envelopes is to
visualize how the sound of the desired instrument is
produced, then translate that image into an envelope.
The envelope may, of course, be for an ex i st ing
instrument, or for one that you dream up yourself
(like a bowed tuba or a percussion oboe).
Keep in
mind, though, that the shape of the instrument will be
determined mainly by the waveform you use - more about
that next time.
~
d~01l
1­
The organ possesses an instantaneous presence - that
is, its attack tfme is zero. The tone experiences no
decay thereafter, but disappears when the organ key is
released (however, if the organ is located in a room
with acoustical reverberation properties, a decaying
echo will be heard). The organ's envelope, therefore,
shows no attack or decay time and a constant volume
throughout the life of the note. In contrast, the
piano, which produces tones by a felt hammer striking
one, two or three strings (all tuned to the same
pitch), does have a short attack slope, since the
greatest volume will be produced only after the string
(or strings) have had time to set up resonant sympa­
thetic vibrations in the instrument. This will take
place within a very short space of time, so the attack
slope is quite steep. Unlike the organ, the piano has
no facility for sustaining that peak volume, so the
tone immediately begins to decay. This is represented
by the lack of a sustain parameter in the envelope.
The violin's envelope has a shallower attack slope,
suggesting the more gentle stimulus of bowing the
string to set up the vibration, rather than striking
it. The tone is sustained at its given volume (aside
from the dynamics introduced by the performer) until
the bow is withdrawn, at which time the tone decays in
much the same manner as that of the piano.
We can see how much the envelope affects the sound
that is produced. The waveform of a violin tone,
played in the envelope of an organ, in fact, sounds
nothing like a violin. The envelope tells us how the
instrument is played. It does not tell us very much
about what shape the instrument is, but it does sug­
gest whether the sound is produced by a string, a
reed, a column of air or a membrane. For example, a
flute's tone decays rapidly when the performer stOpS
blowing across the mouthpiece, but the strings on a
cello continue to vibrate after the bow is withdrawn.
Therefore, we can expect the decay slope of the
Washington Apple Pi
5
VIOLIN
This month we will explore tone envelopes, and see how
they affect the tonal quality of synthesized music.
You will recall that envelopes define the attack,
sustain and decay phase parameters of each note
played. Let's start out with a short review.
As we saw in November, each note has its own life in
which it fs created, grows, sustains ftself, then
decays and dfes. How these phases of the note's 1ffe
are defined plays a large part in defining its char­
acter.
To illustrate, we used the examples of an
organ, a piano and a violin (see figures below).
b b
During the Romantic period of musical history, from
Beethoven's time through Tchaikovsky's (including the
works of composers such as Chopin, Smetana, Schumann,
Liszt and Mendelssohn), the music was composed to
represent visual images, or scenes. The composer
learned to look with his ears. In designing instru­
ments for music synthesis, the artist must learn to do
the reverse - listen with his eyes. The desired sound
must be translated into an instrument shape (waveform)
and the method of playing (envelope) in order to
produce the desired tone quality.
Of course, I'm not suggesting that instruments cannot
be created by accident - random hacking with the
instrument definition parameters - but I am suggesting
that to produce the desired effect on a steady, con­
sistent basis, there is a reasonable way to approach
the problem, and it requires the artist to learn to
deal with the abstract of seeing sound - much like the
postclassical composers learned to hear scenes. It is
a musical discipline which can be mastered.
As I close out this article, I would like to mention
one interesting thing that I have found while studying
envelopes of various instruments, both those I have
created and those which were created by others.
To
me, the most musically pleasing sounds are those which
are "bittersweet" - the viola, for example. The sound
is rfch and full, and when it dies away it remains
with you, somewhere just beyond reach. The envelopes
which represent these sounds demonstrate a rapid (but
not sudden) growth, a full sustain, and a long, gentle
decay - surprisingly reminiscent of the envelopes
which might surround a human life in birth, growth,
middle age and old age. Perhaps we respond to images
of ourselves in music, too.
~
January 1985
53
WAP TUTORIAL5
b,~
B iUC.e:
f
f Ie: l d
Our series of four monthly tutorials will start again
in January after a break for the holidays. They are
held on Tuesday evenings at the office from 7:30 to
9:00 pm. If you bring your computer. please arrive 15
minutes early to allow for setup. The cost is $10 if
you bring a computer. $15 without.
The four tutorials are arranged in two groups of two.
Tutorials II and 12 are for beginners and are designed
to help you become familiar with your Apple. how to
load and run programs. and how to make backup copies.
We suggest that you take tutorial II before tutorial
12. If you bring your computer please also bring your
DOS 3.3 System Master diskette (or a copy of it) and a
blank disk.
Tutorials 13 and 14 are to help beginners learn the
Again. we
Applesoft BASIC programming language.
suggest that you take tutorial 13 before tutorial 14.
These tutorials will give you a good basis for pro­
gramming in BASIC. and with the help of a book or two
should be all you need to get you off and programming.
Session 3. Welcome to Applesoft Basic
A.
What is programming?
B.
PRINT Statement
Difference between constants and variables
C. String and numeric variables
Assignment (LET) statement
D. Immediate mode and program storage
LIST. NEW. DEL. RUN
E.
INPUT statement
F. Program editing
ESC I. J. K. M
G.
Simple branching
IF ••• THEN GDTO Session 4. Applesoft Basic continued
Session 1.
A.
Welcome to the World of Apple
A. Looping and Branching
I = I +1 type loop
FOR ••• NEXT loops
Overview of a Computer
CPU. memory. input and output
B. Subrout ines
GDSUB. RETURN
B. Using floppy disks
Care and handling
Booting a disk
C. Character strings and string functions
Definition of strings - assignment with
LEFT$. MID$.RIGHT$. VAL. LEN
Concatenation
C. CATALOG - what's on this disk
The file name
Locked or unlocked? File types - A. I. B. T. R File size
D.
Other important DOS commands
LOAD - load image of program from disk into
memory
RUN
LOCK and UNLOCK DELETE BRUN
E.
Printing - text and graphics
F.
USing COPYA - the importance of backups
Session 2.
A.
"
D. Arrays
DIM
Using arrays ( with FOR ••• NEXT loops)
E.
READ... DATA
F.
Multiple statements on a line
Multiple statements with an IF ••• THEN statement G.
REM
How to use your Apple software
Initializing a disk - what it does
143Kbytes of information
Different versions of DOS - 3.2. 3.3. ProDOS
B.
USing FlO to copy files
C.
Introduction to ProDOS
Pathnames - (smart run)
Filer Convert D.
Disk recovery programs
E.
Selected programs from the New Members Disk
54
a
DISKETERIA TO PHASE OUT DOS 3.2 DISKS
The Disketeria staff is sad to announce that it will
cease selling WAP disks Volumes 1 through 40. the old
DOS 3.2 series. effective January 1. 1985. This is
necessary because there is no longer sufficient demand
for these disks. and most of the programs on these
disks have been improved. combined and reissued as
Volumes 70 - 79 (DOS 3.3).
However. as a service to its members. WAP will keep an
"archive" set of disks 1-40 in the office. Should you
need a copy of one of these early disks. the office
staff will copy it on a ademand" basis for a cost of
$5.00. (t
January 1985
Washington Apple Pi
WASHINGTON APPLE PI DISKETERIA MAIL ORDER FORM Software for Creative Living Disks from Washington Apple Pi's Disketeria are available for purchase.
that you want mailed to you.
This form is only for ordering disks
1/4" DISKETTES: - Members $ 5.00 ea.; Non-members $ 8.00 ea., Plus $1.00 ea. postage up to a maximum of $5.00
> ... 35 1/2""
- Members $ 7.00 ea.; Non-members $ 10.00 ea., Plus $1.00 ea. postage up to a maximum of $5.00
Note: ODS 3.2 disks (Volumes 1 - 40) have been discontinued.
each of these.
DOS 3.3
( ) Volume
( ) Volume
( ) Volume
( ) Volume
( ) Volume
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
)
)
)
)
)
)
)
)
Volume
Volume
Volume
Volume
Volume
Volume
Volume
Volume
41 lAC 25 Mach. Lang. Util.
42 One Key DOS ***
43 lAC 29 Utilities H
44 Utilities I
45 Divers i-Copy ***
70
71
72
73
74
75
76
77
Business/Math/Statistics
Music
Keyboard Games
Text Adventure Gemes
Paddle Games
Color Graphics for Fun
Education
Utilities
DOS 3.3 contd.
( ) Volume 135
( ) Vohane 136
( ) Volume 137
( ) Volume 138
( ) Volume 139
( ) Volume 140
( ) Volume 141
( ) Volume 142
( ) Volume 143
( ) Volume 144
( ) Volume 145
( ) Volume 146
( ) Volume 147
( ) Volume 150
( ) Volume 151
( ) Volume 152
( ) Volume 153
( ) Volume 154
( ) Volume 155
( ) Volume 156
( ) Volume 157
( ) Volume 158
The office will maintain an "archival"
WAPABBS 1.1 Disk 1 **
WAPABBS 1.1 Disk 2 **
lAC 21 Spreadsheet A
lAC 23 Utilities G
lAC 24 Education 3
Education 4
Special Data Bases
lAC 28 Pinball Gemes
Sports
lAC 27 Applesoft Prog.
Apple Logo Tool Kit
Apple Logo Semple Prog.
Logo Documentation
EDSIG1 (Elem. Math)
1983 Tax Template
lAC 31 Miscellaneous
Investments A
Investments B
lAC 33 Miscellaneous
lAC 35 Applesoft-AW//e
lAC 36 Arcade Games
Apple Logo Programs
Pascal
( ) Volume
( ) Volume
( ) Vol ume
( ) Volume
( ) Volume
( ) Volume
( ) Volume
( ) Volume
( ) Volume
( ) Volume
( ) Vol ume
( ) Volume
( ) Vol ume
( ) Volume
( ) Volume
copy
of
(See also Volume 133)
300 PIGO: ATTACH 1.1/BIOS
301 PIG1: 302 PIG2: 303 PIG3: 304 PIG4: 305 PIGS: 306 PIG6: 307 PIG7: 308 PIG8: 309 PIG9: 310 PIG10: 311 PIG11: 312 PIG12: 313 PIG13: Guerilla Guide 314 PIG14:
( ) Volume 90 Spreadsheet C Genl. Bus.
( ) Volume 91 Spreadsheet 0 Investment
CP/M
( ) Volume 92 Spreadsheet E Bus. Recd.
( ) Volume 401 Master Catalog
( ) Volume 93 VisiPlot and VisiTrend
( ) Volume 402 Utilities 1
( ) Volume 100 Utilities A
( ) Volume 403 Communications
( ) Volume 101 Utilities B
( ) Volume 404 Utilities 2
( ) Volume 102 Games A
( ) Volume 405 Utilities 3
( ) Volume 103 Merry Christmas
( ) Volume 406 ZCPR2 Install
( ) Volume 104 Business A
Eamon Seri es
( ) Volume 407 ZCPR2 Documentation
( ) Volume 106 Science Engineering
( ) Volume 180 Dungeon Designer
( ) Volume 408 ZCPR2 Utilities
( ) Volume 107 Games B
( ) Volume 181 Beginners Cave ( ) Volume 409 Modem 730
( )*Volume 182 Lair of Minotaur ( ) Volume 108 lAC 10 (Graphics)
( ) Volume 109 lAC 11 (Applesoft Tutorial) ( )*Volume 183 Cave of the Mind Forth
( )*Volume 184 Zyphur Riverventure ( ) Volume 110 Personal/Education
( ) Volume 700 Assembler/Disassembler
( ) Volume 111 Games C
( )*Volume 185 Castle of Doom ( ) Volume 701 Full Screen Editor
( )*Volume 186 Death Star ( ) Volume 112 Utilities C
( ) Volume 702 GoForth Tutorial
( ) Vol ume 113 Business B
( )*Volume 187 Devi1's Tomb ( ) Volume 703 Fig-Forth
( ) Volume 115 lAC 12/13 Misc.
( )*Volume 188 Caves of Treas.lsl. ( ) Volume 116 lAC 14 Micromodemll
( )*Volume 189 Furioso Macintosh - @$7.00 (see above)
( ) Volume 117 Picture Packer
( )*Volume 190 The MagiC Kingdom
() SigMac Disk 1 M$-BASIC P9ns
( )*Volume 191 The Tomb of Molinar ( ) Volume 118 Utilities 0
() SigMac Disk 2 Atkinson's Goodies
( )*Volume 192 Lost Isl. of Apple
( ) Volume 119 lAC 15 Misc.
() SigMac Disk 3 Fonts
( )*Volume 193 Abductor's Quarters ( ) Vol ume 120 lAC 16 Misc.
() SigMac Disk 4 M$-BASIC P9ns
( )*Volume 194 Quest for Trezore ( ) Volume 121 WAPABBS 1.1 Doc. **
() SigMac Disk 5 Desk Accessories
( )*Volume 195 Underground City
( ) Vol ume 122 lAC 17 Misc.
() SigMac Disk 6 Mac Paintings
( )*Volume 196 Merlin's Castle ( ) Volume 123 French Vocabulary
() SigMac Disk 7 Desk Calendar &MS-BASIC
( )*Volume 197 Horgrath Castle ( ) Volume 124 Utilities E
( ) Volume 125 lAC 18 Misc.
( )*Volume 198 Deathtrap
( ) Volume 126 Sights and Sounds
( )*Volume 199 The Black Death ( ) Volume 127 Math/Science
( )*Volume 200 The Temple of Ngurct
( ) Volume 128 Games 0
( )*Volume 201 Black Mountain ( ) Volume 129 GLAQ
( )*Volume 202 Nuclear Nightmare
( ) Volume 130 Divers i-DOS ***
( )*Volume 203 Feast of Carroll ( ) Volume 131 Personal/Educ. 2
( )*Volume 204 The Master's Dungeon
( )*Volume 205 The Crystal Mountain ( ) Volume 132 lAC 19 - Utilities F
( )*Volume 206 The Lost Adventure ( ) Volume 133 lAC 20 - Pascal &ODS 3.3
( )*Volume 207 The Manxome Foe ( ) Vol ume 134 New Herbers Disk
* Volume 181 required w1th these disks.
** Vols. 121, 135, 136 must be purchased together.
*** Use of this disk requires sending money to the author ($30 for Diversi-disks and $9 for One Key Dos.)
(NOTE:
ALLOW 3 TO 4 WEEKS FOR MAILING.)
Total Order"
disks.; postage $__; Total amount enclosed
$
Make check payable and send to:
NAME ADDRESS
CITY, STATE ZIP _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ TELEPHONE
_
_ _ _ _ _WAP MEMBERSHIP NO._ _ __
Washington Apple Pi
January 1985
Washington Apple Pi, Ltd.
Attn. Disketeria
8227 Woodmont Avenue, Suite 201 Bethesda, MD 20814 DATE _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
55
WAP TUTORIAL REGISTRATION The following four WAP tutorials are being offered on Tuesday evenings from 7:30 to 9:00 PM, at the office, 8227
Woodmont Avenue, Room 202, Bethesda, MO. (The tutorials start promptly at 7:30; if you bring your computer please
arrive 15 minutes early to set up.) You may sign up for any or all of the series. They are designed for the
"beginner" and will be repeated monthly. A detailed outline of the tutorials is given elsewhere in this issue ••
(
(
(
(
)
)
)
)
January
January
January
January
8
15
22
29
-
INTRODUCTION TO APPLE COMPUTER HARDWARE
HOW TO USE YOUR APPLE SOFTWARE
BEGINNING APPLESOFT BASIC
INTERMEDIATE APPLESOFT BASIC
()
()
()
()
February 5
February 12
February 19
February 26
The fee for each tutorial is $10.00 with an Apple, monitor and disk drive, $15.00 without (monitors available for
1st 5 registrants - call office). Please note that WAP does not have equipment for you to use; if you do not
bring your own, you will have to look over someone's shoulder.
Tutorials at $10.00 (with equipment)
--­Tutorials at $15.00 (without equipment)
Please check the desired tutorials and return this form with feels) made payable to Washington Apple Pi, Ltd. to:
Washington Apple Pi, Ltd.
Attn. Tutorials
8227 Woodmont Avenue, Suite 201
Bethesda, MD 20814
Name
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
Dayt ime Phone __________________ Even i ng Phone ________________________
Total Enclosed $ _______
INDEX TO AUTHORS
Barnes, Alexander
• 30
Chiles, Dan
• 48
Combes, Peter ••••
8
Crandall, Steve
.44
Day, John F
38, 39
DeMay Jr, J. T• (Tom).
20
Fefer, Cyril • ••
32, 33
Field, Bruce F •• 10, 52, 54
Hobbs, Ray 29, 36, 42, 52, 53
Hunt, Steve
44, 41
Husick, Lawrence.
• 34
Morganstein, David. • •• 4
Nealon, Kevin ••
51
Nell15, Kenneth.
47
Pennington, Rana
• 45
Raes ly, Leon H.
9
Refn, Judy. • • • • • •• 8
Rexroad Jr, Cafrd E.
18
Ryan, Charlene. • • • • • 9
Schwartz, Dana J. • ••• 15
Trexler, Bob.
• 28
Trinder, Peter • • • • • • 43
Velke, Bob. • • •
18
Warrick, Thomas S.
22, 24
Wilson, Bob. • • •
• • 46
INDEX TO ADVERTISERS
Anderson Jacobson • •
• • Bac k Cover
Checkmate Technology Inc
1
Clinton Computer ••••
7
Computer Den Ltd • • • • • • • • • • • • • 21
Computer Ware Unlimited.
• 11
Frederick Computer Products •• Inside Front
Future Furniture
• 41
Micro Star Co •
• • • • • • • • • • 29
MinuteWare
• • • • • • 17
Operant Systems •
Inside Back
Paragon Technologies Inc
• 13
Ramada Computer products
• • • 13
Robins Inc • • • • • •
• • 31
Software City • • • • • • •
2
SterlingWare Computer Products
• • • 47
Systems Services Company
• 35
Tysons Corner Center
• • •• 9
VF Associates • • • • • • •
• 19
56
January 1985
Washington Apple Pi
Operant Systems HARDWARE - ­
- - SOFTWARE
IllRO PROCESSING-
PRIIfTERS-
Epson FX-80 (160 cps, tractor/single sheet, graphics I .. ~
Wards tar 3.3 (including 6 Mhz Z-80 Applicard II!I .. 299 FX-IOO (wide carriage ~ersion of the abo~el ... . .. 625
ScreenWriter II (70 cal display , spooling, lore!l . 85 RX-BOF/T (100 cps tractor/single sheet, graphics I 305
Super-Text Professional .... . .. . . . .. . ...... " . ...... 115 LQ-1500 (200 cps, fantastic letter-quality lodel 1095
Bank Street Writer or Speller . . . .. ...
45 Fingerprint (pushbutton font selection for RX/FXI . ... 39/49
pfs : Write l(e or Proof l(e .... . . ...
85/49 Okidata 92 (160 cps,
graphics, BEST print for pricel .. 395
Pie Wri ter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99 93 (132 coluln version of abo~el .
. ... 629
Ward Handler + List Handler + Spell Handler ........ 109 Toshiba 1340 (144 cps draft , BEST letter-qual latrixl .. 799
HOleWord or HOleWord Speller . .
.... . ....
45/35 Texas Instrulents TI-855 (150 cps draft, 35 cps NlQI . 795
Sensible Speller IV (checks ANY file type) . ... .
85 IDS Prisl-80 (200 cps, calor/sheet-feed options availl . 999
The Word Plus (super spelling checker ~or CP/MI .... 99 eelini lOX (120 cps, tractor/single sheet, graphicsl . 265
SPREADSHEETS &FORTUNE-TELLERS-­
15X (wide-carriage, Sale features as Epson HXI . 375
Multiplan (state-of-the-art spreadsheetl . .
. .. 129 Powertype (18 cps daisywheell ...... . .. . ... ... ... 335
FlashCalc (VisiCalc gets a faceliftl ...... . ..... '" 75 C. ltoh F-I0 Starwriter (40 cps daisywheel , best for $1 1049
SuperCalc 2 (powerful CP/M spreadsheet) ..... . . . .... 179 ArlO (18 cps version of the abo~el .. . ..... . .. (calli
I~ORHATION I1ANAGEl£NT­
5il~er-Reed 550 (18 cps daisywheel, best at this speed I 439
dBASE II (w/ ZIP screen generatorl . ... . .. . ..... . ... 299 500 (14 cps daisywheel, as abovel ....... ... 375
p~s : File, Report, or Graph ....... .. . ...... . .. .... . 85 NEG 7710 (55 cps daisywheel, built like a tankl ....... 1795
The General Manager 2.0. . .... . . .. .... . . . . ..
149 Diablo 620 API (25 cps daisywheel I . .. .................. 839
Think tank (electronic thought organizer) . . ..... . ... 99 QUle Sprint 11/40 (40 cps daisywheell ............... . . 1295
DB Kaster 4.0 (latest version) ....... . .. .. ... . ..... 225 MODEMS-BUSINESS' ACCruITING­
Hayes Microlodel l(e (tone dialing/speaker/Slar\Col 11 . 239 Dollars' Senle (accounting + graphics) .. . . .... .69 &79 Slartiodel 1200 (1200 baud, RS-232 , auto-diall ... 469 Pe.chtree Peachpak (Gl/AR/AP) ........... all three : 229 Slartlodel300 (300 baud, as abo~el . ......... . ... 199 Back \0 Basics Accounting (Gl/AR/AP) ... . . 129 Novation Apple-Cat II (w/ COlware ; 1200 baud capablel . . 235 BPI Accounting (AR/AP/PAYROLL/INVENTDRYI ea lodule : 249 Saart-cat 300 (RS-232 , direct-connectl .. . ..... 175 COI9UHCATIONS­
Slart-Cat 300/1200 (as abovel ........... . ... . . 389 Ascii Express Professional (for OOS 3.3) ... . ..... . . B9 Proaetheus ProloOel (300/1200 baud, RS-232, auto-dial I . 365 Z-terl Professional (for CP/M) . ... . . . . . .... ....
99 Microcol ERA 2 (300/1200 baud card with softwarel ...... 359 pfs :Access (basic cOllunications for the l(e) .... . . 49 Zoo I Telephonics Networker (300 baud card w/softwarel .. 149 COlpuSer~e Starter Kit (password &5 ~ree hour51 ...
29 US Robotics Password (300/1200 baud, auto-dial/answerl . 335 LAtGJAG£S- Anchor Autolation Hark 12 (300/1200 baud, RS-232) ...... 269 Microsoft TASC Applesoft cOlpiler .......... . . . . . ... 119 Volkslodel (300 baud, RS-2321 . . .... . . 59 Softech LeSO p-Systel ................ . ..... . . .. . .. . 425 DISK DRIVES-
Microsoft Fortran-80 .
. .. . .... .. . ..... . . . .... 129 MicroSci A2 dri~e (1001 Apple-colpatible Shugart 390) .. 199
BDS C cOlpiler. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 115 RanI. Systels Elite One drive (40 track , 163K I .....
259
Microlotion FORTH-83 .
. ......... . ....... 79 Elite Two (40 track, double side, 326KI .. 389
Terrapin Logo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 69 Elite Three (80 track , double side, 652K) . 449
ODDS &ENOS-
10-MEG Winchester dri~e ....... . ... .. . . . . . 1149
Kensington Systel Saver Fan (w/surge protector) .... 66 TEAC Thinline drive (40 track , 1001 Apple cOlpatible) .. 219
Kraft Joystick / TG Joystick / Hayes III . . .. . . 35/35/40 Axlon 320K Raldisk .... .. .............. .. ...... B29
KoalaPad Graphics Tablet (with graphics softwarel .. 85 Da~ong , Cor~us, and Corona Winchester dri~es ......... (calll
Maxell, Verbatil, Dysan , Helorex , Wabash disks .. (calli CP/M &6502C SYSTEMS--
Filevision (database systell .
. ....... . 129 Applicard (6 Khz Z-80, 64K to 192K RAM, 70-col videa) .. 249
Microsoft Softcard l(e (Z-80, 80 cal &64K an one card) 265 ~
Odesta Helix (another database s~stell . . . . ..... . . .. 249 Hain Street Filer (yes ... yet another database) ..... 145 Softcard (includes CP/M 2.2 and H8A5IC) ...... 225 A
Dollars & Sense .
.. .. .......... .. .. .... .... 99 OR Gold Card (6 Mhz, 80
-col, 64-192K, CP/M 3.0, CBASIC) 259 C
Titan Systels Accelerator ]( (3 .6 Mhz 6502C processor) . 425
I
Microsoft Word (what MacWrite should have been) . . . . 129 Chart . ... .... . ........................ . . . 85 Speed Delon (6502C high-speed coprocessor) .. . .... . ..... 219 N
lr
Hac the Knife (canned doodles) .......... . ... . ...... 29 ~ITORS-T/Haker Click Art ( . . . Iore doodlesl . . .............. 39 Aadek 300G (12" green anti-glare screen, 18Khzl . . ...... 125 ()
Kensington HacHodei (300 baud) .. . ......... . . . . . . . .. 99 300A (12" alber anti-glare screen, 1811hz I .... . ... 145 !:i
Surge Protector (replaces power cordi ... 39 NEC JB-1201/1205 (green/alber anti-glare screen, 20Khz) 155 H
Tec&ar, Davong hard disk 5~steIS ............ . ... (call) J8-1260 (12" green, 15/'1hz, best value for laney) ... 109 USI PI-2 (12" gr~n anti-glare screen, 20 Hhz) . . . ..... . 125 CALL FOR PRICES (J' ITEMS t«JT LI STED
PI-3 (12" alber anti-glare screen, 20 11hz) . . . . . . . .. 125 INTERFACES & BUFFERS & CLOCKS­
Pkaso/U printer interface (superior graphics &lore !!) 129 - - - Please COlpare Our Prices - ­
If you find a lower price, gi~e us a chance to beat it .
Shuffle8uffer (32K--128K w/cut' paste/ser and pari . . .. 269 Grappler+ printer interface (parallel w/ graphics) . .... 109 8uffered Grappler+ (16K to 64K buffer plus graphics) . .. 169 Feel free to call for answers to technical questions .
CCS 7711 Super Serial (for printers &lodelsl . . . .. . . ... 95 Cdl Jeff Dillon at (301) 434-0405
TO ORDER :
Wizard IPI (graphics, text dUlP, page forlatting ) .. . .. 69 or
Practical Peripherals PraClock (ProDos cOlpatible) . .... 109 VIDEO &KEYBOARD--
Write or ~isit :
Videx Ultraterl (160 coluln/48 row display !!I ......... 249
OPERANT SYSTEMS, 7676 New Hilpshire A~., Suite 312 Videoterl (SO-coluln wI softswitch &inverse) .... 209
Langley Park, Md 20783 MicroSci SO-col card w/64K RAM for lee . . ..... . . . ...... . 125
Keytronic KB-200 low-profile detached keyboard . ........ 235
Md . 5ales add 51 tax . UPS shipping is a~ailable
.
HEMORY EXPANSION-
All itels carry full lanufacturer's warranties . Wespercorp Wizard 16K RAM card (2-yr warrantyl ......... 59 Titan Systels 128K RAM card . . .... . ..................... 349 BULK RA TE
WASHINGTON APPLE PI, LTD.
8227 Woodmont Avenue, Suite 201
Bethesda, MD 20814
U
S
POSTAGE
PAID
PERMIT I 5389
Silver Spring, MD
20910
ADDRESS CORRECTION REQUESTED
WOODBRIDGE VA
22193 A REFURBISHED DAISY WHEEL PRlNTER FOR PERSONAL COMPUTER USERS AND SMA LL BUSINESSES . Three-In-One Offer! Just $598 (Includes On-Site Warranty) • A 30 cps letter-quality printer
• A timesharing key board terminal (w hen mod em eq uipped)
• A Selectric*-style keyboa rd typewriter
AJ daisy whee l printer te rmina ls are re nown ed fo r
An d you ca n choose from a lis t of optio n s includin g
exce p tio nal pe rformance, hi g h re li ability, a nd a ppli cat ions
forms tractor, pin-feed p la te n , paper trays, s id e s h elves,
ex tra printwheels, APL keyboard a nd 2K buffer.
versa tility. Now yo u ca n have a ll this for onl y $598** in our
special limited o ffer.
For inform a tion tele phone
Sean Belanger
• Optional 45 characters per second
.I . . " " .. ......... ............. , ,
(301) 840-5700
• Changeable ty p e faces
• Full ASC II keyboard wit h
num e ric pad
• High resolution X-Y plotting
• Comp le te e lectron ic form s
contro l
" Suggested selli ng pri ct'. t;':\dudes opti ons
,lnd is subiect III change witlwul !lulict:' .
• 256-character buffer
MoJt.' j shown includl's ('l' rlain opt ion s .
• Asy nchro n o us RS-232 inte rfa ce
O ff,,'r ,w<lilablt.· 11llly in tilL' w ntigunus U.s.
• Pri ntwheel. ribbon cartridge,
' SL'lellric is a Ir,ldL'lllark III JUM .
a nd ca bl e included
• 3D-day pa rts/la bor wa rra nty
ANDERSON
I ·' '.
.•
.. II \. . . ,;~
; ; ...; ; ;,; ;- - - -)
1
JACOBSON·
8653 Grovemont Cir.
Gaithersburg , MD 20877
-4191